WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing cumulative organophosphate

  1. Assessing human exposure to phthalates, alternative plasticizers and organophosphate esters

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Tuong Thuy

    2017-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PEs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) are common indoor pollutants frequently detected in environmental (dust, air), personal (hand wipes, diet) and human matrices (urine, serum etc.). In this thesis, mathematical models were used to establish links between intake and body burden for a comprehensive dataset based on a Norwegian study population. Also, the relative importance of different PE uptake pathways was assessed and discussed. Furthermore, the suitability of human na...

  2. A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Denton

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can

  3. A screening method for assessing cumulative impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, George V; Faust, John B; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

    2012-02-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating "cumulative impacts." As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA: "Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available." The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community's cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening tool to help Cal

  4. Addressing cumulative effects in Strategic Environmental Assessment of spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Strategic environmental Assessment (SEA is a decision support instrument for predicting and evaluating the likely environmental effects of implementing a policy, plan or programme. SEA can consider the cumulative impacts of more than one project or activity on the same environmen- tal component. This paper discusses the analysis of cumulative effects in SEA, with reference to spatial planning by: providing a review of key concepts and methods related to cumulative effects literature; presenting a rationale for the inclusion of cumulative effects in SEA of spatial plans; advancing a proposal to address cumulative effects in different SEA stages. The paper concludes that SEA offers the opportunity to support a better management of cumulative effects arising from many local-level spatial planning decisions. Three aspects emerged as critical to ensure good practices: the selection of valued environmental components, the adoption of future-oriented approaches, and the use of spatially-explicit information.

  5. Cumulative risk assessment of chemical exposures in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragas, Ad M J; Oldenkamp, R; Preeker, N L; Wernicke, J; Schlink, U

    2011-07-01

    We performed a cumulative risk assessment for people living in a hypothetical urban environment, called Urbania. The main aims of the study were to demonstrate how a cumulative risk assessment for a middle-sized European city can be performed and to identify the bottlenecks in terms of data availability and knowledge gaps. The assessment focused on five air pollutants (i.e., PM₁₀, benzene, toluene, nonane and naphthalene) and six food pesticides (i.e., acetamiprid, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, imidacloprid and permethrin). Exposure predictions showed that PM₁₀, benzene and naphthalene exposure frequently exceeded the standards, and that the indoor environment contributed more than the outdoor environment. Effect predictions showed that mixture and interaction effects were generally limited. However, model calculations indicated potential synergistic effects between naphthalene and benzene and between chlorpyrifos, diazinon and toluene. PM₁₀ dominated the health impact expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We conclude that measures to reduce the health impact of environmental pollution should focus on the improvement of indoor air quality and the reduction of PM₁₀ emissions. Cumulative risk assessment can be improved by (1) the development of person-oriented exposure models that can simulate the cumulative exposure history of individuals, (2) a better mechanistic understanding of the effects of cumulative stressors, and (3) the development of instruments to prioritize stressors for inclusion in cumulative risk assessments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Capturing expert uncertainty in spatial cumulative impact assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice R; Doubleday, Zoë A; Prowse, Thomas A A; Wiltshire, Kathryn H; Deveney, Marty R; Ward, Tim; Scrivens, Sally L; Cassey, Phillip; O'Connell, Laura G; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2018-01-23

    Understanding the spatial distribution of human impacts on marine environments is necessary for maintaining healthy ecosystems and supporting 'blue economies'. Realistic assessments of impact must consider the cumulative impacts of multiple, coincident threats and the differing vulnerabilities of ecosystems to these threats. Expert knowledge is often used to assess impact in marine ecosystems because empirical data are lacking; however, this introduces uncertainty into the results. As part of a spatial cumulative impact assessment for Spencer Gulf, South Australia, we asked experts to estimate score ranges (best-case, most-likely and worst-case), which accounted for their uncertainty about the effect of 32 threats on eight ecosystems. Expert scores were combined with data on the spatial pattern and intensity of threats to generate cumulative impact maps based on each of the three scoring scenarios, as well as simulations and maps of uncertainty. We compared our method, which explicitly accounts for the experts' knowledge-based uncertainty, with other approaches and found that it provides smaller uncertainty bounds, leading to more constrained assessment results. Collecting these additional data on experts' knowledge-based uncertainty provides transparency and simplifies interpretation of the outputs from spatial cumulative impact assessments, facilitating their application for sustainable resource management and conservation.

  7. Mutagenicity Assessment of Organophosphates using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhinder, Preety; Chaudhry, Asha

    2013-01-01

    In this study we have evaluated the mutagenicity of organophosphate pesticides acephate, chlorpyrifos, and profenofos using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP...

  8. The challenges and opportunities in cumulative effects assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Mease, Lindley A; Martone, Rebecca G; Prahler, Erin E; Morrison, Tiffany H; Clarke Murray, Cathryn; Wojcik, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The cumulative effects of increasing human use of the ocean and coastal zone have contributed to a rapid decline in ocean and coastal resources. As a result, scientists are investigating how multiple, overlapping stressors accumulate in the environment and impact ecosystems. These investigations are the foundation for the development of new tools that account for and predict cumulative effects in order to more adequately prevent or mitigate negative effects. Despite scientific advances, legal requirements, and management guidance, those who conduct assessments—including resource managers, agency staff, and consultants—continue to struggle to thoroughly evaluate cumulative effects, particularly as part of the environmental assessment process. Even though 45 years have passed since the United States National Environmental Policy Act was enacted, which set a precedent for environmental assessment around the world, defining impacts, baseline, scale, and significance are still major challenges associated with assessing cumulative effects. In addition, we know little about how practitioners tackle these challenges or how assessment aligns with current scientific recommendations. To shed more light on these challenges and gaps, we undertook a comparative study on how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is conducted by practitioners operating under some of the most well-developed environmental laws around the globe: California, USA; British Columbia, Canada; Queensland, Australia; and New Zealand. We found that practitioners used a broad and varied definition of impact for CEA, which led to differences in how baseline, scale, and significance were determined. We also found that practice and science are not closely aligned and, as such, we highlight opportunities for managers, policy makers, practitioners, and scientists to improve environmental assessment.

  9. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  10. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  12. Framework for Multi-Pathway Cumulative Exposure for Comparative Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, Tom; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    to global) environment with information about larger scale populations rather than specific individuals or vulnerable subgroups. Although there can be large uncertainties in this approach, it provides insight on how chemical properties and use patterns map onto population-scale metrics of exposure......-cycle impacts and chemical alternatives. We present a regional case study for pesticide alternatives in an agricultural valley of California to assess the opportunities and future prospects for the multi-pathway cumulative framework in LCA and CAA. This case reveals that the relative contributions to cumulative...... pollutant intake via different exposure pathways depend on (a) persistence of chemicals at different levels of integration (regional, urban-scale, food-web, indoors), (b) basic chemical properties, (c) the retention of chemicals in food webs, and (d) the retention of chemicals by indoor surfaces....

  13. A Topical Overview of Cumulative Risk Assessment Concepts ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) address combined risks from exposures to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors and may focus on vulnerable communities or populations. Significant contributions have been made to the development of concepts, methods, and applications for CRA over the past decade. Work in both human health and ecological cumulative risk has advanced in two different contexts. First, in assessing the effects of chemical mixtures that share common modes of action, or that cause common adverse outcomes. In this context two primary models are used for predicting mixture effects, dose addition or response addition. The second context is evaluating the combined effects of chemical and nonchemical (e.g., radiation, biological, nutritional, economic, psychological, habitat alteration, land-use change, global climate change, and natural disasters) stressors. CRA can be adapted to address risk in many contexts, and this adaptability is reflected in the range in disciplinary perspectives in the published literature. This article presents the results of a literature search by presenting a range of selected work with the intention to give a broad overview of relevant topics and provide a starting point for researchers interested in CRA applications. This is a select literature review of topics in CRA. As a published article it will allow the citation of an analysis conducted on a rich and diverse set of CRA publications relevant to assessment methods

  14. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources

  15. Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Weber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.

  16. A pebble count procedure for assessing watershed cumulative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory S. Bevenger; Rudy M. King

    1995-01-01

    Land mangement activities can result in the delivery of fine sediment to streams. Over time, such delivery can lead to cumulative impacts to the aquactic ecosystem. Because numerous laws require Federal land managers to analyze watershed cumulative effects, field personnel need simple monitoring procedures that can be used directly and consistently. One approach to...

  17. 25. Cumulative effects assessment impact thresholds: myths and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1994-01-01

    A cumulative impact has been commonly defined as: ""...the impact on the environment which results from the incremental impact of the action when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions regardless of what agency or person undertakes such other actions. Cumulative impacts can result from individually minor but collectively...

  18. Performance assessment of the SOFA, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II in intensive care unit organophosphate poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hwan; Yeo, Jung Hoon; Kang, Mun Ju; Lee, Jun Ho; Cho, Kwang Won; Hwang, SeongYoun; Hong, Chong Kun; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Yang Weon

    2013-12-01

    This study assessed the ability of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology, Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with organophosphate. The medical records of 149 organophosphate poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from September 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively examined. The SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II were calculated based on initial laboratory data in the Emergency Department, and during the first 24 hr of ICU admission. The probability of death was calculated for each patient based on the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II equations. The ability to predict group mortality by the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II method was assessed using two by two decision matrices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 131 patients (mean age, 61 yr) were enrolled. The sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies were 86.2%, 82.4%, and 83.2% for the SOFA score, respectively; 65.5%, 68.6%, and 67.9% for the APACHE II scoring system, respectively; and 86.2%, 77.5%, and 79.4% for the SAPS II, respectively. The areas under the curve in the ROC curve analysis for the SOFA score, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II were 0.896, 0.716, and 0.852, respectively. In conclusion, the SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II have different capability to discriminate and estimate early in-hospital mortality of organophosphate poisoned patients. The SOFA score is more useful in predicting mortality, and easier and simpler than the APACHE II and SAPS II.

  19. Pesticide Cumulative Risk Assessment: Framework for Screening Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance on how to screen groups of pesticides for cumulative evaluation using a two-step approach: begin with evaluation of available toxicological information and, if necessary, follow up with a risk-based screening approach.

  20. Cumulative rainfall collectors – A tool for assessing groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-03

    Jul 3, 2005 ... This paper describes a simple, low-cost and low-maintenance tool, the cumulative rainfall ... tion of rain volume; however, analysis showed that this phase ..... timation – Suitability and reliability of three types of rain gauges.

  1. The Contribution of Project Environmental Assessment to Assessing and Managing Cumulative Effects: Individually and Collectively Insignificant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Bram; Liu, Jialang; Hackett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores the opportunities and constraints to project-based environmental assessment as a means to support the assessment and management of cumulative environmental effects. A case study of the hydroelectric sector is used to determine whether sufficient information is available over time through project-by-project assessments to support an adequate understanding of cumulative change. Results show inconsistency from one project to the next in terms of the components and indicators assessed, limited transfer of baseline information between project assessments over time, and the same issues and concerns being raised by review panels-even though the projects reviewed are operating in the same watershed and operated by the same proponent. Project environmental assessments must be managed, and coordinated, as part of a larger system of impact assessment, if project-by-project assessments are to provide a meaningful forum for learning and understanding cumulative change. The paper concludes with recommendations for improved project-based assessment practice in support of cumulative effects assessment and management.

  2. Generation of hazard indices for cumulative exposure to phthalates for use in cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista L Y; Makris, Susan L; Lorber, Matthew

    2014-08-01

    Exposures to multiple chemicals may contribute to increased risk of similar adverse effects. Cumulative risk may be estimated using a hazard index (HI), the sum of individual hazard quotients (HQ, ratio of exposure to the reference value). We demonstrate the HI approach for five phthalates: di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP). Phthalate exposure for the US general population is estimated using urine metabolite levels from NHANES, extrapolating to ingested 'dose' using the creatinine correction approach. We used two sets of reference values: European Union Tolerable Daily Intakes and Denmark Environmental Protection Agency Derived No Effect Levels. We also investigated the use of an alternate reference value for DEHP, derived from a recent study on male reproductive system development. HQs and HIs were calculated for the total population ages 6years and older, as well as for men and women of approximate reproductive age (18-39 years), and children (6-11 years). Median HQs ranged from 1.0), and were driven by DEHP and DBP exposures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Assessing joint toxicity of four organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using acetylcholinesterase activity as an endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

    2015-07-01

    Mixtures of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) pesticides are commonly detected in freshwater ecosystems. These pesticides inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and have potential to interfere with behaviors that may be essential for the survival of species. Although the effects of individual anticholinesterase insecticides on aquatic species have been studied for decades, the neurotoxicity of mixtures is still poorly understood. In the present study, brain AChE inhibition in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to a series of concentrations of the organophosphates (malathion and triazophos) as well as the carbamates (fenobucarb and carbosulfan) was measured. In equitoxic mixtures, the observed AChE activity inhibition of the malathion plus triazophos, and triazophos plus carbosulfan mixtures, was synergism. In equivalent concentration mixtures, the combination of malathion plus fenobucarb mixture conformed to synergism, while the observed AChE activity inhibition of the remaining pairings was less than additive. Single pesticide risk assessments are likely to underestimate the impacts of these insecticides on carps in aquatic environment where mixtures occur. Moreover, mixtures of pesticides that have been commonly reported in aquatic ecosystems may pose a more important challenge than previously anticipated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Review of Non-Chemical Stressors and Their Importance in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative exposure/risk assessments need to include non-chemical stressors as well as human activities and chemical data. Multiple stressor research can offer information on the interactions between chemical and non-chemical stressors needed for cumulative risk assessment resea...

  5. Cumulative versus end-of-course assessment: effects on self-study time and test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Mulder, B Florentine; Muntinghe, Friso L H; Tio, René A

    2015-07-01

    Students tend to postpone preparation for a test until the test is imminent, which raises various risks associated with 'cramming' behaviours, including that for suboptimal learning. Cumulative assessment utilises spaced testing to stimulate students to study more frequently and to prevent procrastination. This randomised controlled study investigated how cumulative assessment affects time spent on self-study and test performance compared with end-of-course assessment. A total of 78 undergraduate medical students in a Year 2 pre-clinical course were randomly assigned to either of two conditions. Students in the cumulative assessment condition were assessed in weeks 4, 8 and 10. Students in the end-of-course assessment condition were assessed in week 10 only. Each week, students reported the number of hours they spent on self-study. Students in the cumulative assessment condition (n = 25) spent significantly more time on self-study than students in the end-of-course assessment condition (n = 37) in all weeks of the course except weeks 5, 9 and 10. Overall, the cumulative assessment group spent 69 hours more on self-study during the course than did the control group, although the control group spent 7 hours more in studying during the final week of the course than did the cumulative assessment group. Students in the cumulative assessment condition scored slightly higher on questions concerning the content of the last part of the course. Cumulative assessment encourages students to distribute their learning activities over a course, which leaves them more opportunity to study the content of the last part of the course prior to the final examination. There was no evidence for a short-term effect of cumulative assessment on overall knowledge gain. We hypothesise that larger positive effects might be found if retention were to be measured in the long term. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  7. Capacity for watershed cumulative effects assessment and management: lessons from the Lower Fraser River Basin, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Stephanie; Noble, Bram F; Patrick, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    This study examines the capacity to support the cumulative effects assessment and management for watersheds. The research is set in the Lower Fraser River Basin, a densely populated sub-watershed in British Columbia's lower mainland. Eight requirements or requisites for the watershed cumulative effects assessment and management are applied to evaluate current capacity for implementation in the Lower Fraser, and to identify the areas in need of capacity development. Results show that advancing watershed cumulative effects assessment and management requires not only good science but also leadership in the coordination of monitoring programs, and in ensuring the appropriate incentives and penalties for engagement and nonengagement. The lack of leadership in this regard is the result of existing governance structures arranged around the political boundaries, which have produced over time multiple agencies and jurisdictional fragmentation. Notwithstanding this, we argue that the watershed is the most appropriate scale for assessing and managing the cumulative effects to complex ecosystems.

  8. Capacity for Watershed Cumulative Effects Assessment and Management: Lessons from the Lower Fraser River Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Stephanie; Noble, Bram F.; Patrick, Robert J.

    2013-08-01

    This study examines the capacity to support the cumulative effects assessment and management for watersheds. The research is set in the Lower Fraser River Basin, a densely populated sub-watershed in British Columbia's lower mainland. Eight requirements or requisites for the watershed cumulative effects assessment and management are applied to evaluate current capacity for implementation in the Lower Fraser, and to identify the areas in need of capacity development. Results show that advancing watershed cumulative effects assessment and management requires not only good science but also leadership in the coordination of monitoring programs, and in ensuring the appropriate incentives and penalties for engagement and nonengagement. The lack of leadership in this regard is the result of existing governance structures arranged around the political boundaries, which have produced over time multiple agencies and jurisdictional fragmentation. Notwithstanding this, we argue that the watershed is the most appropriate scale for assessing and managing the cumulative effects to complex ecosystems.

  9. Assessing the cumulative environmental effects of marine renewable energy developments: Establishing common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsteed, Edward; Gill, Andrew B; Birchenough, Silvana N R; Jude, Simon

    2017-01-15

    Assessing and managing the cumulative impacts of human activities on the environment remains a major challenge to sustainable development. This challenge is highlighted by the worldwide expansion of marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) in areas already subject to multiple activities and climate change. Cumulative effects assessments in theory provide decision makers with adequate information about how the environment will respond to the incremental effects of licensed activities and are a legal requirement in many nations. In practise, however, such assessments are beset by uncertainties resulting in substantial delays during the licensing process that reduce MRED investor confidence and limit progress towards meeting climate change targets. In light of these targets and ambitions to manage the marine environment sustainably, reducing the uncertainty surrounding MRED effects and cumulative effects assessment are timely and vital. This review investigates the origins and evolution of cumulative effects assessment to identify why the multitude of approaches and pertinent research have emerged, and discusses key considerations and challenges relevant to assessing the cumulative effects of MREDs and other activities on ecosystems. The review recommends a shift away from the current reliance on disparate environmental impact assessments and limited strategic environmental assessments, and a move towards establishing a common system of coordinated data and research relative to ecologically meaningful areas, focussed on the needs of decision makers tasked with protecting and conserving marine ecosystems and services. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Obligations and aspirations: A critical evaluation of offshore wind farm cumulative impact assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Willsteed, Edward; Jude, Simon; Gill, Andrew; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.

    2017-01-01

    Proponents of marine renewable energy worldwide highlight that regulatory and consenting procedures are a significant barrier to the upscaling of infrastructure required to transform the energy generation sector. Uncertainties about the cumulative effects of marine renewable energy developments cause substantial delays during the consenting process, which are exacerbated by the lack of clarity about how to assess cumulative effects. These obstacles have contributed to perceptions that this es...

  11. CUMULATIVE SYSTEM OF STUDENTS’ COMPETENCIES ASSESSMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir GUŢU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the problem of competencies assessment, which is a new reference framework of edu­cational outcomes. It proposes a systemic and contextual approach to this process focusing on the following issues: understanding the multifunctional phenomenon of competencies, gradual manifestation of competencies in different contexts, diversified range of assessment forms and techniques determined by the contexts and peculiarities of com­pe­tence’s manifestation, accumulation of points during learning-assessment process, determination of ranking concerning the level of competencies possession.SISTEMUL CUMULATIV DE EVALUARE A COMPETENŢELOR LA STUDENŢI ÎN CADRUL ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNTULUI SUPERIORArticolul este dedicat problemei privind evaluarea competenţelor – un nou cadru de referinţă al finalităţilor educaţionale. Se propune o abordare sistemică şi contextuală a acestui proces axată pe: înţelegerea fenomenului polifuncţional al competenţelor, manifestarea graduală a competeneţelor în diferite contexte, ansamblu diversificat de forme şi tehnici de evaluare determinate de contexte şi particularităţile de manifestare a competenţei, acumularea de punctaj pe parcursul procesului de învăţare-evaluare, stabilirea clasamentului privind nivelul de posedare a competenţelor.

  12. Vulnerability as a Function of Individual and Group Resources in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter L. Defur; Gary W. Evans; Elaine A. Cohen Hubal; Amy D. Kyle; Rachel A. Morello-Frosch; David R. Williams

    2007-01-01

    ... assessment literature. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to examine the issue of vulnerability in cumulative risk assessment and present a conceptual framework rather than a comprehensive review of the literature. In this article we consider similarities between ecologic and human communities and the factors that make communities vulnerable to environmenta...

  13. 76 FR 69726 - Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... documents which are available in the docket. The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) requires the EPA... assessment uses a number of very conservative assumptions, EPA is providing an opportunity, through this... used to further refine the very conservative nature of this cumulative risk assessment. DATES: Comments...

  14. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Bosgra, Sieto; Boon, Polly E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three...

  15. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Nielsen, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    A cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz in combination has been carried out using an Integrated Probabilistic Risk Assessment (IPRA) model. In the model, variability in both exposure and sensitivity between individuals were combined...

  16. U.S. EPA Authority to Use Cumulative Risk Assessments in Environmental Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Rosenbaum

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, in its decision-making, the U.S. EPA has evaluated the effects and risks associated with a single pollutant in a single exposure medium. In reality, people are exposed to mixtures of pollutants or to the same pollutant through a variety of media, including the air, water, and food. It is now more recognized than before that environmental exposure to pollutants occurs via multiple exposure routes and pathways, including inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption. Moreover, chemical, biologic, radiologic, physical, and psychologic stressors are all acknowledged as affecting human health. Although many EPA offices attempt to consider cumulative risk assessment and cumulative effects in various ways, there is no Agency-wide policy for considering these risks and the effects of exposure to these risks when making environmental decisions. This article examines how U.S. courts might assess EPA’s general authority and discretion to use cumulative risk assessment as the basis for developing data in support of environmental decision-making, and how courts might assess the validity of a cumulative risk assessment methodology itself.

  17. Vulnerability as a Function of Individual and Group Resources in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    deFur, Peter L.; Evans, Gary W.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen; Kyle, Amy D.; Rachel A Morello-Frosch; Williams, David

    2007-01-01

    Background: The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the "Framework for Cumulative Risk Assessment" [EPA/630/P02/001F. Washington DC: Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2003)]. Simultaneously, several reports concluded that some individuals and gro...

  18. Weak self-directed learning skills hamper performance in cumulative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tio, Rene A.; Stegmann, Mariken E.; Koerts, Janke; van Os, Titus W. D. P.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-regulated learning is an important determinant of academic performance. Previous research has shown that cumulative assessment encourages students to work harder and improve their results. However, not all students seem to respond as intended. We investigated the influence of

  19. New approaches to uncertainty analysis for use in aggregate and cumulative risk assessment of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, M.C.; Voet, van der H.; Roelofs, V.J.; Roelofs, W.; Glass, C.R.; Boer, de W.J.; Kruisselbrink, J.W.; Hart, A.D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessments for human exposures to plant protection products (PPPs) have traditionally focussed on single routes of exposure and single compounds. Extensions to estimate aggregate (multi-source) and cumulative (multi-compound) exposure from PPPs present many new challenges and additional

  20. Cumulative versus end-of-course assessment : effects on self-study time and test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Mulder, B. Florentine; Muntinghe, Friso L. H.; Tio, Rene A.

    ContextStudents tend to postpone preparation for a test until the test is imminent, which raises various risks associated with cramming' behaviours, including that for suboptimal learning. Cumulative assessment utilises spaced testing to stimulate students to study more frequently and to prevent

  1. The MCRA model for probabilistic single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voet, Hilko; de Boer, Waldo J; Kruisselbrink, Johannes W; Goedhart, Paul W; van der Heijden, Gerie W A M; Kennedy, Marc C; Boon, Polly E; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    Pesticide risk assessment is hampered by worst-case assumptions leading to overly pessimistic assessments. On the other hand, cumulative health effects of similar pesticides are often not taken into account. This paper describes models and a web-based software system developed in the European research project ACROPOLIS. The models are appropriate for both acute and chronic exposure assessments of single compounds and of multiple compounds in cumulative assessment groups. The software system MCRA (Monte Carlo Risk Assessment) is available for stakeholders in pesticide risk assessment at mcra.rivm.nl. We describe the MCRA implementation of the methods as advised in the 2012 EFSA Guidance on probabilistic modelling, as well as more refined methods developed in the ACROPOLIS project. The emphasis is on cumulative assessments. Two approaches, sample-based and compound-based, are contrasted. It is shown that additional data on agricultural use of pesticides may give more realistic risk assessments. Examples are given of model and software validation of acute and chronic assessments, using both simulated data and comparisons against the previous release of MCRA and against the standard software DEEM-FCID used by the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA. It is shown that the EFSA Guidance pessimistic model may not always give an appropriate modelling of exposure. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cumulative effects in strategic environmental assessment: The influence of plan boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidstrup, Morten, E-mail: bidstrup@plan.aau.dk [Aalborg University (Denmark); Kørnøv, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk [Aalborg University (Denmark); Partidário, Maria Rosário, E-mail: mariapartidario@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-02-15

    Cumulative effects (CE) assessment is lacking quality in impact assessment (IA) worldwide. It has been argued that the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) provides a suitable IA framework for addressing CE because it is applied to developments with broad boundaries, but few have tested this claim. Through a case study on the Danish mining sector, this article explores how plan boundaries influence the analytical boundaries applied for assessing CE in SEA. The case was studied through document analysis in combination with semi-structured group interviews of the responsible planners, who also serve as SEA practitioners. It was found that CE are to some extent assessed and managed implicitly throughout the planning process. However, this is through a focus on lowering the cumulative stress of mining rather than the cumulative stress on and capacity of the receiving environment. Plan boundaries do influence CE assessment, though all boundaries are not equally influential. The geographical and time boundaries of the Danish mining plans are broad or flexible enough to accommodate a meaningful assessment of CE, but the topical boundary is restrictive. The study indicates that collaboration among planning authorities and legally appointed CE leadership may facilitate better practice on CE assessment in sector-specific SEA contexts. However, most pressing is the need for relating assessment to the receiving environment as opposed to solely the stress of a proposed plan.

  3. Optimization of the cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and biocides using computational techniques: Pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette

    This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...... the models. Exposure scenarios were constructed based on findings of pesticide residues in food of ordinary consumers, and assessment of dermal exposure of professional workers. PBTK simulations were carried using these scenarios....

  4. Effects of acute organophosphate ingestion on cognitive function, assessed with the mini mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Jayasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Chronic damage to the central nervous system resulting in cognitive impairment has been shown with repeated, low doses of organophosphorus (OP exposure over month or years. Aim: The study aimed to find out whether there is any cognitive impairment following acute OP exposure that could be detected by a simple screening instrument, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, in clinical settings. Settings and Design: A cohort study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with matched controls. Consecutive patients admitted to the hospital with acute ingestion of OP were recruited. Cognitive function was assessed with the MMSE, digit span test, test of long-term memory function and concentration. Patients were assessed twice: at 1 and 6 weeks of exposure. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were analyzed with the paired and unpaired T-tests. Non-normally distributed data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Discrete variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Results: There were 60 patients and 61 controls. The mean age (SD of the patients and controls was 31.5 (11.6 and 31.3 (11.8 years, respectively. Forty-two patients turned up for the second assessment. Significant impairment of cognitive function was seen in the total score of MMSE (95% CI -2.5 to -0.3, orientation (95% CI -1 to -0.2 and language (95% CI -0.9 to -0.1 domains of MMSE, digit span test (95% CI 0.1-1.7 and test of long-term memory function (95% CI 0.3-2.3 in the first assessment compared with the controls. When the results of the second assessment were compared with the controls, no significant differences were seen. Conclusion: Although there was a slight transient cognitive impairment detected with the screening tests following acute OP ingestion, no long-term cognitive defects was detected.

  5. The Role of Cumulative Risk Assessment in Decisions about Environmental Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sexton

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is strong presumptive evidence that people living in poverty and certain racial and ethnic groups bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk. Many have argued that conducting formal assessments of the health risk experienced by affected communities is both unnecessary and counterproductive—that instead of analyzing the situation our efforts should be devoted to fixing obvious problems and rectifying observable wrongs. We contend that formal assessment of cumulative health risks from combined effects of chemical and nonchemical stressors is a valuable tool to aid decision makers in choosing risk management options that are effective, efficient, and equitable. If used properly, cumulative risk assessment need not impair decision makers’ discretion, nor should it be used as an excuse for doing nothing in the face of evident harm. Good policy decisions require more than good intentions; they necessitate analysis of risk-related information along with careful consideration of economic issues, ethical and moral principles, legal precedents, political realities, cultural beliefs, societal values, and bureaucratic impediments. Cumulative risk assessment can provide a systematic and impartial means for informing policy decisions about environmental justice.

  6. Cumulative risk assessment of the intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in the Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A. F.; Petersen, Annette; Granby, Kit

    2003-01-01

    in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction...... fruit, vegetables and cereals is for adults 0.8-2% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in chlorpyrifos equivalents, and 0.03-11% of the ADI in methamidophos equivalents; and for children 2-5% of the ADI in the chlorpyrifos equivalents, and 0.07-27% of the ADI in methamidophos equivalents. Neither Acute...... Reference Dose (ARfD) nor ADI was exceeded for any of the compounds studied. The results indicate that the Danish population is neither exposed to any cumulative chronic risk, nor at risk of acute exposure, from consumption of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from fruit, vegetables and cereals....

  7. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects....... In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency...... factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated....

  8. The cumulative effects assessment of a coastal ecological restoration project in China: An integrated perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deqiang; Zhang, Liyu; Fang, Qinhua; Jiang, Yuwu; Elliott, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Large scale coastal land-claim and sea-enclosing (CLASE) activities have caused habitat destruction, biodiversity losses and water deterioration, thus the local governments in China have recently undertaken seabed dredging and dyke opening (SDADO) as typical ecological restoration projects. However, some projects focus on a single impact on hydrodynamic conditions, water quality or marine organisms. In a case study in Xiamen, China, an integrated effects assessment framework centres on ecohydrology, using modeling of hydrodynamic conditions and statistical analysis of water quality, was developed to assess the effects of ecological restoration projects. The benefits of SDADO projects include improving hydrodynamic conditions and water quality, as a precursor to further marine biological improvements. This study highlights the need to comprehensively consider ecological effects of SDADO projects in the planning stage, and an integrative assessment method combining cumulative effects of hydrodynamic conditions, water quality and biological factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards a framework for assessment and management of cumulative human impacts on marine food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Halpern, Benjamin S; Michel, Loïc N; Gobert, Sylvie; Sini, Maria; Boudouresque, Charles-François; Gambi, Maria-Cristina; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Lejeune, Pierre; Montefalcone, Monica; Pergent, Gerard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Velimirov, Branko; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Abadie, Arnaud; Coll, Marta; Guidetti, Paolo; Micheli, Fiorenza; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-08-01

    Effective ecosystem-based management requires understanding ecosystem responses to multiple human threats, rather than focusing on single threats. To understand ecosystem responses to anthropogenic threats holistically, it is necessary to know how threats affect different components within ecosystems and ultimately alter ecosystem functioning. We used a case study of a Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) food web and expert knowledge elicitation in an application of the initial steps of a framework for assessment of cumulative human impacts on food webs. We produced a conceptual seagrass food web model, determined the main trophic relationships, identified the main threats to the food web components, and assessed the components' vulnerability to those threats. Some threats had high (e.g., coastal infrastructure) or low impacts (e.g., agricultural runoff) on all food web components, whereas others (e.g., introduced carnivores) had very different impacts on each component. Partitioning the ecosystem into its components enabled us to identify threats previously overlooked and to reevaluate the importance of threats commonly perceived as major. By incorporating this understanding of system vulnerability with data on changes in the state of each threat (e.g., decreasing domestic pollution and increasing fishing) into a food web model, managers may be better able to estimate and predict cumulative human impacts on ecosystems and to prioritize conservation actions. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Approaches for grouping of pesticides into cumulative assessment groups for risk assessment of pesticide residues in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnot, Thomas; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is developing approaches to cumulative risk assessment of pesticides by assigning individual pesticides to cumulative assessment groups (CAGs). For assignment to CAGs, EFSA recommended to rely on adverse effects on the specific target system. Contractors to EFSA have proposed to allocate individual pesticides into CAGs relying on NOAELs for effects on target organs. This manuscript evaluates the assignments by applying EFSAs criteria to the CAGs "Toxicity to the nervous system" and "Toxicity to the thyroid hormone system (gland or hormones)". Assignment to the CAG "Toxicity to the nervous system" based, for example, on neurochemical effects like choline esterase inhibition is well supported, whereas assignment to the CAG "Toxicity to the thyroid hormone system (gland or hormones)" has been based in the examined case studies on non-reproducible effects seen in single studies or on observations that are not adverse. Therefore, a more detailed effects evaluation is required to assign a pesticide to a CAG for a target organ where many confounders regarding effects are present. Relative potency factors in cumulative risk assessment should be based on benchmark doses from studies in one species with identical study design and human relevance of effects on specific target organs should be analyzed to define minimal margins of exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interactive Cumulative Burden Assessment: Engaging Stakeholders in an Adaptive, Participatory and Transdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rehana; Flacke, Johannes; Martinez, Javier; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2018-02-03

    Cumulative burden assessment (CuBA) has the potential to inform planning and decision-making on health disparities related to multiple environmental burdens. However, scholars have raised concerns about the social complexity to be dealt with while conducting CuBA, suggesting that it should be addressed in an adaptive, participatory and transdisciplinary (APT) approach. APT calls for deliberation among stakeholders by engaging them in a process of social learning and knowledge co-production. We propose an interactive stakeholder-based approach that facilitates a science-based stakeholder dialogue as an interface for combining different knowledge domains and engendering social learning in CuBA processes. Our approach allows participants to interact with each other using a flexible and auditable CuBA model implemented within a shared workspace. In two workshops we explored the usefulness and practicality of the approach. Results show that stakeholders were enabled to deliberate on cumulative burdens collaboratively, to learn about the technical uncertainties and social challenges associated with CuBA, and to co-produce knowledge in a realm of both technical and societal challenges. The paper identifies potential benefits relevant for responding to social complexity in the CuBA and further recommends exploration of how our approach can enable or constraint social learning and knowledge co-production in CuBA processes under various institutional, social and political contexts.

  12. Applications of measures of cumulative exposure to assessing air pollution health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbey, D.E.; Euler, G.L.; Magie, A.R.; Hodgkin, J.E. (Loma Linda Univ., CA (USA))

    A method for assessing the health effects of long-term cumulative exposures to air pollutants or other environmental exposures is proposed and illustrated using self-reported symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for a population of 7,343 non-smokers. Using zip code by month, residence histories, and interpolated exposure estimates from the network of California air monitoring stations, two alternative exposure indices were calculated to estimate cumulative exposure over an 11-yr period above different threshold levels for each of four pollutants. The indices were used with multiple logistic regression models to form dose-response curves for relative risks adjusting for covariates. Statistically significant effects were noted for total suspended particulates, total oxidants, sulfur dioxide, and passive smoking. A description is also given of how the indices are currently being used in a 10-yr follow-up of the study population. This follow-up study is utilizing data collected by the National Cancer Institute-funded Adventist Health Study and has mortality, cancer incidence, heart disease incidence, and change in self-reported COPD symptoms as outcomes.

  13. The influence of tomato processing on residues of organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides and their associated dietary risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiler, Emilie; Jørs, Erik; Bælum, Jesper; Huici, Omar; Alvarez Caero, Maria Mercedes; Cedergreen, Nina

    2015-09-15

    Due to the increasing food demand, the use of pesticides in agriculture is increasing. Particularly in low income countries poor training among farmers, combined with the use of obsolete pesticides may result in a high risk for the consumers. In this study six organochlorines and five organophosphates were analyzed in 54 samples of tomatoes from small scale farmers in Bolivia. The analyses were done on unprocessed, stored, washed and peeled tomatoes. The cumulated risk associated with consumption of the tomatoes after different storage times and processing treatments was evaluated using the Hazard Index (HI) for acute risk assessment. All 11 pesticides were detected in the analyses although several of them are obsolete and included in the Stockholm convention ratified by Bolivia. The organochlorines were found in the μg pesticide/kg tomato range and below the HI, while the organophosphates were present in the mg pesticide/kg tomato range and most often above the HI. The low organochlorine concentrations were not significantly affected by time or treatment, but storage significantly decreased the concentrations of organophosphates. Washing decreased the initial concentrations to between 53% (malathion) down to 2% (ethyl parathion), while peeling had a larger effect reducing the initial concentrations to between 33% (malathion) and 0.7% (chlorpyriphos). Both the acute and chronic cumulative risk assessment of organophosphates showed a dietary risk for unprocessed tomatoes three days after harvest. For children, also the consumption of washed tomatoes constituted a dietary risk. To reduce the dietary risk of pesticide residues in Bolivia, there is an urgent need of farmer education and introduction of less hazardous pesticides as well as resources for surveillance and enforcement of legislation in order to ensure public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. severe organophosphate poisoning with delayed cholinergic crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... CASE REPORT. SEVERE ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING WITH DELAYED. CHOLINERGIC CRISIS, INTERMEDIATE SYNDROME AND. ORGANOPHOSPHATE. INDUCED. DELAYED. POLYNEUROPATHY ON SUCCESSION. Aklilu Azazh. ABSTRACT. Organophosphate compounds are the organic ...

  15. Assessment of emerging contaminants including organophosphate esters and pyrethroids during DISCOVER-AQ in Houston, Texas, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, Sascha; Clark, Addie; Sheesley, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is a NASA-funded air quality research program that focused on Houston, Texas, United States in September 2013. In conjunction with DISCOVER-AQ, particulate matter was collected for the month of September from four ground-based sampling sites across the Houston metropolitan area. The Houston metropolitan area is one of the most populous cities in the United States. Sampling sites included an upwind and downwind site as well as an urban (i.e. downtown) and industrial/port areas (i.e. Houston Ship Channel). Particulate matter samples were collected to examine both spatial and temporal trends (including day versus night). Particulate matter was collected on quartz fiber filters, which were analyzed for emerging classes of concern including organophosphate esters (OPEs; including flame retardants) and pyrethroids. OPEs have in recent years increased in both use and production as they replaced polybrominated diphenyl ethers flame retardants. Permethrin is one of the most commonly used mosquito adulticides in the United States.

  16. Cumulative risk assessment lessons learned: a review of case studies and issue papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sarah S; Rice, Glenn E; Scarano, Louis J; Teuschler, Linda K; Bollweg, George; Martin, Lawrence

    2015-02-01

    Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) examine potential risks posed by exposure to multiple and sometimes disparate environmental stressors. CRAs are more resource intensive than single chemical assessments, and pose additional challenges and sources of uncertainty. CRAs may examine the impact of several factors on risk, including exposure magnitude and timing, chemical mixture composition, as well as physical, biological, or psychosocial stressors. CRAs are meant to increase the relevance of risk assessments, providing decision makers with information based on real world exposure scenarios that improve the characterization of actual risks and hazards. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has evaluated a number of CRAs, performed by or commissioned for the Agency, to seek insight into CRA concepts, methods, and lessons learned. In this article, ten case studies and five issue papers on key CRA topics are examined and a set of lessons learned are identified for CRA implementation. The lessons address the iterative nature of CRAs, importance of considering vulnerability, need for stakeholder engagement, value of a tiered approach, new methods to assess multiroute exposures to chemical mixtures, and the impact of geographical scale on approach and purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of Water Environmental Cumulative Risk Assessment Based on Control Unit and Management Platform Application in Plain River Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the gradual deterioration of the environment, the method of environmental risk assessment has been developed from basing only on a single source to basing on a cumulative risk source. In accordance with the water environment features of the plain river network area, a cumulative risk assessment system of water environment in the plain river network area was established in this paper, the design process for which could be divided into three step: (1 Control unit divided reasonably was chosen as the basic unit for water quality management. (2 On that basis, according to the characteristics of the plain river network area, the cumulative risk indexes were selected. The index weight is calculated using entropy method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP, which could determine the risk grade of each control unit. (3 The cumulative risk assessment method is coupled to the existing water environment management platform. The platform with a dynamic database can realize the dynamic calculation and visualization of the cumulative risk grade. In this paper, the Zhejiang area of Taihu Basin was selected to be the research target as the typical plain river network area. Thirty-five control units were divided with regional water environment and control section. Taking the data in the year 2011 as example, the proposed cumulative risk assessment method was used to identify the control units in different grades and the results demonstrated that the numbers of high-, medium-, low- and extremely low-risk control units are 13, 12, 5 and 5, respectively. It is necessary to give priority to the high-risk control unit. Therefore, the cumulative risk assessment method based on the control unit provides an essential theoretical basis for reducing the probability of water pollution and reducing the degree of water pollution damage.

  18. Community Engaged Cumulative Risk Assessment of Exposure to Inorganic Well Water Contaminants, Crow Reservation, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Margaret J; Doyle, John T; Lefthand, Myra J; Young, Sara L; Moore-Nall, Anita L; Kindness, Larry; Medicine, Roberta Other; Ford, Timothy E; Dietrich, Eric; Parker, Albert E; Hoover, Joseph H; Camper, Anne K

    2018-01-05

    An estimated 11 million people in the US have home wells with unsafe levels of hazardous metals and nitrate. The national scope of the health risk from consuming this water has not been assessed as home wells are largely unregulated and data on well water treatment and consumption are lacking. Here, we assessed health risks from consumption of contaminated well water on the Crow Reservation by conducting a community-engaged, cumulative risk assessment. Well water testing, surveys and interviews were used to collect data on contaminant concentrations, water treatment methods, well water consumption, and well and septic system protection and maintenance practices. Additive Hazard Index calculations show that the water in more than 39% of wells is unsafe due to uranium, manganese, nitrate, zinc and/or arsenic. Most families' financial resources are limited, and 95% of participants do not employ water treatment technologies. Despite widespread high total dissolved solids, poor taste and odor, 80% of families consume their well water. Lack of environmental health literacy about well water safety, pre-existing health conditions and limited environmental enforcement also contribute to vulnerability. Ensuring access to safe drinking water and providing accompanying education are urgent public health priorities for Crow and other rural US families with low environmental health literacy and limited financial resources.

  19. A framework for cumulative risk assessment in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Angelo; Bachman, Ammie; Boobis, Alan; Solomon, Keith R; Pastoor, Timothy P; Wilks, Martin F; Embry, Michelle R

    2017-02-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) has developed a framework to support a transition in the way in which information for chemical risk assessment is obtained and used (RISK21). The approach is based on detailed problem formulation, where exposure drives the data acquisition process in order to enable informed decision-making on human health safety as soon as sufficient evidence is available. Information is evaluated in a transparent and consistent way with the aim of optimizing available resources. In the context of risk assessment, cumulative risk assessment (CRA) poses additional problems and questions that can be addressed using the RISK21 approach. The focus in CRA to date has generally been on chemicals that have common mechanisms of action. Recently, concern has also been expressed about chemicals acting on multiple pathways that lead to a common health outcome, and non-chemical other conditions (non-chemical stressors) that can lead to or modify a common outcome. Acknowledging that CRAs, as described above, are more conceptually, methodologically and computationally complex than traditional single-stressor risk assessments, RISK21 further developed the framework for implementation of workable processes and procedures for conducting assessments of combined effects from exposure to multiple chemicals and non-chemical stressors. As part of the problem formulation process, this evidence-based framework allows the identification of the circumstances in which it is appropriate to conduct a CRA for a group of compounds. A tiered approach is then proposed, where additional chemical stressors and/or non-chemical modulating factors (ModFs) are considered sequentially. Criteria are provided to facilitate the decision on whether or not to include ModFs in the formal quantitative assessment, with the intention to help focus the use of available resources to have the greatest potential to protect public health.

  20. Addressing cumulative effects through strategic environmental assessment: a case study of small hydro development in Newfoundland, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnell, S. [Newfoundland (Canada); Storey, K. [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada). Department of Geography

    2000-12-01

    Environmental assessment (EA) is widely used as a means of incorporating environmental considerations into decision-making, primarily at the project level. The scope of EA has been expanded considerably in recent years to include earlier stages of the decision-making process, namely, policies, plans and programmes. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) facilitates a planning approach to addressing the overall, cumulative effects of the projects that occur as a result of these decisions. This paper demonstrates the potential benefits of SEA in the assessment and management of cumulative effects, using a case study of recent hydroelectric development planning in Newfoundland, Canada. It goes on to illustrate how SEA could be used to address potential cumulative effects at the various stages of such a decision-making process. Through the case study, the paper also explores a number of issues in the implementation of such a planning approach. (author)

  1. Cumulative risk assessment of the exposure to pyrethroids through fruits consumption in China - Based on a 3-year investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixia; Nie, Jiyun; Lu, Zeqi; Xie, Hanzhong; Kang, Lu; Chen, Qiusheng; Li, An; Zhao, Xubo; Xu, Guofeng; Yan, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the long-term and short-term cumulative risks of pyrethroids exposured for the Chinese general population and children through fruits consumption were evaluated. A total of 1450 fruit samples and seven pyrethroids were included based on the pesticide residues monitoring programme of China from 2013 to 2015. The exposure was estimated using both deterministic approach and semi-probabilistic model for comparison. The hazard index approach was used to assess cumulative risk. 26% of samples contained pyrethroid residues with concentrations ranged from 0.0050 mg/kg to 1.2 mg/kg, of which 30% simultaneously with 2-4 mixture residues. Results demonstrated that the cumulative health risks were extremely low for both general population and children (1-6 years old) of China in the long term. Acute risk estimations calculated by deterministic method were several or many times overestimated than the results based on semi-probabilistic method. Acute cumulative exposure of children to pyrethroid compounds in 0.76% samples were exceeded 1 in worst case scenario. More detailed assessments with adequate data in the future use probabilistic method is expected to reduce the uncertainties of cumulative dietary exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Breakdown and assessment of cumulative exergy losses for a turbojet over a flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, M. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented an exergy analysis conducted to evaluate the contribution of exhaust emissions from the engine of a turbojet to the craft's total exergy losses. The aim of the study was to understand the most significant exergy losses in aerospace engines in order to increase energy efficiency. The analysis was also conducted to further break down components of the exhaust's emissions as well as to assess the sensitivity of the results in relation to their reference environment. The exergy analysis formed part of a series of analyses conducted on a turbojet over a complete flight. Results of the study demonstrated that the use of a constant reference environment resulted in errors as high as 52 per cent when compared with results obtained using a reference environment that changed at the same time as the operating environment. The error was dependent on the distance flow. When the constant reference environment was set at the cruising altitude, the error was reduced as the flight distance increased. It was concluded that any constant reference environment produced false trends when cumulative exergy losses were examined over a flight cycle. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Health Impact Assessment: Linking Public Health to Community Decisions (Cumulative Impacts Community Vulnerability Symposium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this presentation is to explore how HIA can help inform hazardous waste permitting regulations and incorporate community vulnerability and cumulative impacts to their potential health risks into permitting decision making by the California Department of Toxic Substanc...

  4. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Cumulative Mass and NIOSH Variable Lifting Index Method for Risk Assessment: Possible Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucchi, Giulia; Battevi, Natale; Pandolfi, Monica; Galinotti, Luca; Iodice, Simona; Favero, Chiara

    2017-09-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore whether the Variable Lifting Index (VLI) can be corrected for cumulative mass and thus test its efficacy in predicting the risk of low-back pain (LBP). Background A validation study of the VLI method was published in this journal reporting promising results. Although several studies highlighted a positive correlation between cumulative load and LBP, cumulative mass has never been considered in any of the studies investigating the relationship between manual material handling and LBP. Method Both VLI and cumulative mass were calculated for 2,374 exposed subjects using a systematic approach. Due to high variability of cumulative mass values, a stratification within VLI categories was employed. Dummy variables (1-4) were assigned to each class and used as a multiplier factor for the VLI, resulting in a new index (VLI_CMM). Data on LBP were collected by occupational physicians at the study sites. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of acute LBP within levels of risk exposure when compared with a control group formed by 1,028 unexposed subjects. Results Data showed greatly variable values of cumulative mass across all VLI classes. The potential effect of cumulative mass on damage emerged as not significant ( p value = .6526). Conclusion When comparing VLI_CMM with raw VLI, the former failed to prove itself as a better predictor of LBP risk. Application To recognize cumulative mass as a modifier, especially for lumbar degenerative spine diseases, authors of future studies should investigate potential association between the VLI and other damage variables.

  6. Cumulative health risk assessment of 17 perfluoroalkylated and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in the Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Daniel; Lund, Bert-Ove; Lindquist, Nils-Gunnar; Håkansson, Helen

    2013-09-01

    Humans are simultaneously exposed to a multitude of chemicals. Human health risk assessment of chemicals is, however, normally performed on single substances, which may underestimate the total risk, thus bringing a need for reliable methods to assess the risk of combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Per- and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) is a large group of chemicals that has emerged as global environmental contaminants. In the Swedish population, 17 PFASs have been measured, of which the vast majority lacks human health risk assessment information. The objective of this study was to for the first time perform a cumulative health risk assessment of the 17 PFASs measured in the Swedish population, individually and in combination, using the Hazard Index (HI) approach. Swedish biomonitoring data (blood/serum concentrations of PFASs) were used and two study populations identified: 1) the general population exposed indirectly via the environment and 2) occupationally exposed professional ski waxers. Hazard data used were publicly available toxicity data for hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity as well as other more sensitive toxic effects. The results showed that PFASs concentrations were in the low ng/ml serum range in the general population, reaching high ng/ml and low μg/ml serum concentrations in the occupationally exposed. For those congeners lacking toxicity data with regard to hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity read-across extrapolations was performed. Other effects at lower dose levels were observed for some well-studied congeners. The risk characterization showed no concern for hepatotoxicity or reproductive toxicity in the general population except in a subpopulation eating PFOS-contaminated fish, illustrating that high local exposure may be of concern. For the occupationally exposed there was concern for hepatotoxicity by PFOA and all congeners in combination as well as for reproductive toxicity by all congeners in combination, thus a

  7. Non-Chemical Stressors and Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Current Initiatives and Potential Air Pollutant Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S.; Sax, Sonja N.; Wason, Susan C.; Campleman, Sharan L.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  8. Microbial biosensors for organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchandani, Ashok; Rajesh

    2011-09-01

    Organophosphates, amongst the most toxic substance known, are used widely in agriculture around the world. Their extensive use, however, has resulted in their occurrence in the water and food supply threatening humans and animals. Therefore, there is a need for determination of these neurotoxic compounds sensitively, selectively, and rapidly in the field. The present work is a brief review on the recent advancements in amperometric, potentiometric, and optical biosensors using genetically engineered microorganisms expressing organophosphate hydrolyzing enzyme intracellularly or anchored on the cell surface for the detection of organophosphate pesticides. The benefits and limitations associated with such microbial biosensors are delineated.

  9. Linking turbine collision risks with population models to assess cumulative impacts of multiple wind farms on threatened birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smales, Ian; Muir, Stuart; Meredith, Charles; Baird, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Assessment of the effects on birds of wind turbine collisions has generally been focussed on the number of individuals that might be killed at a particular facility. However, this measure, of itself, may have little relevance to evaluating the potential or real effects on conservation status of threatened species. Determination of the overall effect any such mortality may have on the functioning of these populations will provide a better basis for decisions that have a strong foundation in ecology. For species with sufficient demographic information, we have developed and applied an approach combining collision risk modelling for all wind farms within the range of a threatened species with population modelling. This permits population-level evaluation of potential cumulative impacts of multiple wind farms. In Australia, regulatory authorities are increasingly interested in the cumulative risk to threatened species that may be posed by multiple wind energy facilities within a species. range. The approach outlined here has been applied in the pre-construction approval stage using collision risk modelling, and can be applied to operational facilities using data on actual mortalities. Cumulative modelling of risk posed by multiple wind farms requires different approaches for sedentary and migratory species. For sedentary species the cumulative effect will be the sum of the impact experienced by those parts of the population whose range intersects with wind farms. Cumulative impact is derived for migratory species by assessing the probability of birds surviving encounters with one wind farm after another on the migratory route and is thus the product of their survivorship rates for the relevant wind farms. The collision risk modelling used will be outlined along with the method in which it is integrated with a population model. Case studies for a crane (Brolga Grus rubicundus) and a parrot (orange- bellied parrot Neophema chrysogaster) species will be

  10. Assessing environmental impacts on stream water quality: the use of cumulative flux and cumulative flux difference approaches to deforestation of the Hafren Forest, mid-Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for examining the impacts of disturbance on stream water quality based on paired catchment “controlâ€? and “responseâ€? water quality time series is described in relation to diagrams of cumulative flux and cumulative flux difference. The paper describes the equations used and illustrates the patterns expected for idealised flux changes followed by an application to stream water quality data for a spruce forested catchment, the Hore, subjected to clear fell. The water quality determinands examined are sodium, chloride, nitrate, calcium and acid neutralisation capacity. The anticipated effects of felling are shown in relation to reduction in mist capture and nitrate release with felling as well as to the influence of weathering and cation exchange mechanisms, but in a much clearer way than observed previously using other approaches. Keywords: Plynlimon, stream, Hore, acid neutralisation capacity, calcium, chloride, nitrate, sodium, cumulative flux, flux

  11. Assessment of some clinical and laboratory variables for early diagnosis of cumulative copper poisoning in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Enrico Lippi; Machado, Carlos Henrique; Sucupira, Maria Claudia Araripe

    2003-12-01

    Sixteen male Suffolk lambs fed a 8 ppm Cu basal diet were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 12 copper-loaded (CL) and 4 controls (C). The CL sheep were drenched initially with 3 mg Cu/kg bw daily for a week. Every week an additional dose of 3 mg Cu/kg bw was included in the drench until signs of copper poisoning appeared; the control sheep were drenched with saline solution. The onset of copper poisoning occurred between 42 and 55 d. Food intake and body weight were recorded daily. Blood samples were collected weekly to measure the activity of the liver enzymes gamma-glutamyltransferase (gammaGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sorbitoll dehydrogenase (SDH) and acid phosphatase (AF). The following changes were significantly recorded in the CL sheep in the weeks or days previous to the hemolytic crisis: higher levels of gammaGT were found on the -28th d increasing slowly but continuously until the hemolytic crisis; SDH fluctuated during the period presenting higher levels on the -28th, -14th and -7th d; AST and AF activities increased from the -14th and -7th d respectively; sharp decreases in the activities of SDH and AF at the hemolytic crisis; lower feed intake and body weight gain from the -7th d; and sheep ceased eating concentrates from the -9th d and became anoretic the day before the hemolytic crisis. Plasma copper concentration increased only the day before the hemolytic crisis. There were no changes in respiratory and heart rates, rectal temperature or rumen movements throughout the pre-hemolytic phase. The higher the amount of cumulative copper drenched, the higher was the gammaGT and AST activities. It was concluded that gammaGT followed by AST are the best enzymes to assess copper-load in sheep during the pre-hemolytic phase. Sheep fed copper-rich diets with high plasma activity of these enzymes, decreased feed consumption and subtle loss of body weight are most likely to present with a hemolytic crisis in a few days.

  12. Application of a Novel Method for Assessing Cumulative Risk Burden by County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sexton

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to apply the Human Security Index (HSI as a tool to detect social and economic cumulative risk burden at a county-level in the state of Texas. The HSI is an index comprising a network of three sub-components or “fabrics”; the Economic, Environmental, and Social Fabrics. We hypothesized that the HSI will be a useful instrument for identifying and analyzing socioeconomic conditions that contribute to cumulative risk burden in vulnerable counties. We expected to identify statistical associations between cumulative risk burden and (a ethnic concentration and (b geographic proximity to the Texas-Mexico border. Findings from this study indicate that the Texas-Mexico border region did not have consistently higher total or individual fabric scores as would be suggested by the high disease burden and low income in this region. While the Economic, Environmental, Social Fabrics (including the Health subfabric were highly associated with Hispanic ethnic concentration, the overall HSI and the Crime subfabric were not. In addition, the Education, Health and Crime subfabrics were associated with African American racial composition, while Environment, Economic and Social Fabrics were not. Application of the HSI to Texas counties provides a fuller and more nuanced understanding of socioeconomic and environmental conditions, and increases awareness of the role played by environmental, economic, and social factors in observed health disparities by race/ethnicity and geographic region.

  13. Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems: assessing current pressures and opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    Full Text Available Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60-99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification, demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems.

  14. Organophosphate pesticide in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China: concentration, distribution, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lili; Sun, Jianteng; Li, Zhiheng; Zhan, Yu; Xu, Shen; Zhu, Lizhong

    2018-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) are used worldwide and pose great risks to human health. However, information on their presence in agricultural soils at regional scale and the associated risks is limited. In this study, an extensive investigation on agricultural soils was conducted throughout the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China to reveal the status of OPP pollution. The total concentrations of the nine OPPs ranged from agricultural activities. The pollution of OPPs is also highly associated with the land use types. The lower concentrations of OPPs found in vegetable fields could be attributed to their easy photodegradation and hydrolysis in aerobic soils. There was no significant difference in microbial communities among the sample sites, indicating that OPPs in agricultural soils of the YRD region cause negligible effects on microbiota. The risks of OPPs in the soils to human health were further evaluated. The hazard indexes in all the soil samples were below 1, suggesting absence of non-cancer risks. This study provides valuable information for a better understanding of the pollution status of OPPs in agricultural soils and a scientific basis for soil quality assessments.

  15. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R. [New York Univ. Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  16. Modeling cumulative effects in life cycle assessment: the case of fertilizer in wheat production contributing to the global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laratte, Bertrand; Guillaume, Bertrand; Kim, Junbeum; Birregah, Babiga

    2014-05-15

    This paper aims at presenting a dynamic indicator for life cycle assessment (LCA) measuring cumulative impacts over time of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fertilizers used for wheat cultivation and production. Our approach offers a dynamic indicator of global warming potential (GWP), one of the most used indicator of environmental impacts (e.g. in the Kyoto Protocol). For a case study, the wheat production in France was selected and considered by using data from official sources about fertilizer consumption and production of wheat. We propose to assess GWP environmental impact based on LCA method. The system boundary is limited to the fertilizer production for 1 ton of wheat produced (functional unit) from 1910 to 2010. As applied to wheat production in France, traditional LCA shows a maximum GWP impact of 500 kg CO2-eq for 1 ton of wheat production, whereas the GWP impact of wheat production over time with our approach to dynamic LCA and its cumulative effects increases to 18,000 kg CO2-eq for 1 ton of wheat production. In this paper, only one substance and one impact assessment indicator are presented. However, the methodology can be generalized and improved by using different substances and indicators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 78 FR 25440 - Request for Information and Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... characteristics: multi-stressor, multi-media, multi-receptor, including assessment of a vulnerable population... study data from epidemiology, toxicology, ecology, health economics, chemical mixtures risk assessment...

  18. Organophosphate exposure with pseudocholinesterase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurati, Ann R

    2013-06-01

    A 36-year-old correctional officer was exposed to lice while at work and self-treated with chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate. The correctional officer applied chlorpyrifos to her entire body and did not wash it off for 8 to 12 hours. Eight hours after the initial application, the correctional officer developed abdominal cramps, diarrhea, sweating, excessive salivation, frequent urination, and increased bronchial secretions. After a phone consultation with the occupational health clinic, the correctional officer reported to the emergency department, was diagnosed with organophosphate toxicity, and was treated with atropine. Later testing revealed that the correctional officer had pseudocholinesterase deficiency. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  20. Consideration of the FQPA Safety Factor and Other Uncertainty Factors in Cumulative Risk Assessment of Chemicals Sharing a Common Mechanism of Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance document provides OPP's current thinking on application of the provision in FFDCA about an additional safety factor for the protection of infants and children in the context of cumulative risk assessments.

  1. A Geographic Model to Assess and Limit Cumulative Ecological Degradation from Marcellus Shale Exploitation in New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Davis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When natural resources are exploited, environmental costs and economic benefits are often asymmetric. An example is apparent in the environmental impacts from fossil fuel extraction by hydraulic fracturing. So far, most scrutiny has been focused on water quality in affected aquifers, with less attention paid to broader ecological impacts beyond individual drilling operations. Marcellus Shale methane exploitation in New York State, USA, has been delayed because of a regulatory moratorium, pending evaluation that has been directed primarily at localized impacts. We developed a GIS-based model, built on a hexagonal grid underlay nested within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's EMAP system, to examine potential cumulative ecological impacts. In a two-step process, we characterized > 19,000 hexagons, each sized to approximate the footprint of one drilling site (2.57 km², using ecological attributes; we then developed a method for apportioning resource access that includes assessments of cumulative ecological costs. Over one-quarter of the hexagons were excluded as off-limits on the basis of six criteria: slope suitability, regulated wetland cover, protected-land cover, length of high-quality streams, mapped road density, and open water cover. Three additional criteria were applied to assess the estimated conservation vulnerability of the remaining sites: density of grassland birds (North American Breeding Bird Survey, percent core forest (Coastal Change Analysis Program, and total density of all state-mapped streams; these were determined and used in combination to rank the 14,000 potentially accessible sites. In a second step, an iterative process was used to distribute potential site access among all towns (sub-county governments within the Marcellus Shale Formation. At each iteration, one site was selected per town, either randomly or in rank order of increasing vulnerability. Results were computed as percent cumulative impact versus the

  2. Experimental assessment of cumulative temperature and UV-B radiation effects on Mediterranean plankton metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2015-07-07

    The Mediterranean Sea is a vulnerable region for climate change, warming at higher rates compare to the global ocean. Warming leads to increased stratification of the water column and enhanced the oligotrophic nature of the Mediterranean Sea. The oligotrophic waters are already highly transparent, however, exposure of Mediterranean plankton to ultraviolet radiation (UV-B and UV-A) may increase further if the waters become more oligotrophic, thereby, allowing a deeper UV radiation penetration and likely enhancing impacts to biota. Here we experimentally elucidate the cumulative effects of warming and natural UV-B radiation on the net community production (NCP) of plankton communities. We conducted five experiments at monthly intervals, from June to October 2013, and evaluated the responses of NCP to ambient UV-B radiation and warming (+3°C), alone and in combination, in a coastal area of the northwest Mediterranean Sea. UV-B radiation and warming lead to reduced NCP and resulted in a heterotrophic (NCP < 0) metabolic balance. Both UV-B radiation and temperature, showed a significant individual effect in NCP across treatments and time. However, their joint effect showed to be synergistic as the interaction between them (UV × Temp) was statistically significant in most of the experiments performed. Our results showed that both drivers, would affect the gas exchange of CO2−O2 from and to the atmosphere and the role of plankton communities in the Mediterranean carbon cycle.

  3. Experimental assessment of cumulative temperature and UV-B radiation effects on Mediterranean plankton metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara S. eGarcia-Corral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is a vulnerable region for climate change, warming at higher rates compare to the global ocean. Warming leads to increased stratification of the water column and enhanced the oligotrophic nature of the Mediterranean Sea. The oligotrophic waters are already highly transparent, however, exposure of Mediterranean plankton to ultraviolet radiation (UV-B and UV-A may increase further if the waters become more oligotrophic, thereby, allowing a deeper UV radiation penetration and likely enhancing impacts to biota.Here we experimentally elucidate the cumulative effects of warming and natural UV-B radiation on the net community production (NCP of plankton communities. We conducted five experiments at monthly intervals, from June to October 2013, and evaluated the responses of NCP to ambient UV-B radiation and warming (+3ºC, alone and in combination, in a coastal area of the northwest Mediterranean Sea. UV-B radiation and warming lead to reduced net community production and resulted in a heterotrophic (NCP<0 metabolic balance. Both UV-B radiation and temperature, showed a significant individual effect in NCP across treatments and time. However, their joint effect showed to be synergistic as the interaction between them (UV x Temp was statistically significant in most of the experiments performed. Our results showed that both drivers, would affect the gas exchange of CO2-O2 from and to the atmosphere and the role of plankton communities in the Mediterranean carbon cycle

  4. Acute and chronic effects of organophosphate pesticides (Basudin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity of basudin (an organophosphate pesticide) on the larval stages of the dominant amphibian; Ptychadena bibroni of the Niger Delta ecological zone of Nigeria was assessed using acute and chronic toxicity in the laboratory. Mortality and body glycogen levels were used as ecological endpoints. The American society ...

  5. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... and cereals. The probabilistic approach was used in the assessments. Residue data obtained from the Danish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2004-2007, which included 6704 samples of fruit, vegetables and cereals, were used in the calculations. Food consumption data were obtained from...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  6. An Overview of Literature Topics Related to Current Concepts, Methods, Tools, and Applications for Cumulative Risk Assessment (2007–2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary A.; Brewer, L. Elizabeth; Martin, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) address combined risks from exposures to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors and may focus on vulnerable communities or populations. Significant contributions have been made to the development of concepts, methods, and applications for CRA over the past decade. Work in both human health and ecological cumulative risk has advanced in two different contexts. The first context is the effects of chemical mixtures that share common modes of action, or that cause common adverse outcomes. In this context two primary models are used for predicting mixture effects, dose addition or response addition. The second context is evaluating the combined effects of chemical and nonchemical (e.g., radiation, biological, nutritional, economic, psychological, habitat alteration, land-use change, global climate change, and natural disasters) stressors. CRA can be adapted to address risk in many contexts, and this adaptability is reflected in the range in disciplinary perspectives in the published literature. This article presents the results of a literature search and discusses a range of selected work with the intention to give a broad overview of relevant topics and provide a starting point for researchers interested in CRA applications. PMID:28387705

  7. Cumulative effects of antiandrogenic chemical mixtures and their relevance to human health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicological studies of defined chemical mixtures assist human health risk assessment by establishing the manner by which chemicals interact with one another to induce an effect. This paper reviews how antiandrogenic chemical mixtures can alter reproductive tract development in ...

  8. Metals in residential soils and cumulative risk assessment in Yaqui and Mayo agricultural valleys, northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Gandolfi, A Jay; Santana-Alcántar, María Ernestina; Klimecki, Walter T; Aguilar-Apodaca, María Guadalupe; Del Río-Salas, Rafael; De la O-Villanueva, Margarita; Gómez-Alvarez, Agustín; Mendivil-Quijada, Héctor; Valencia, Martín; Meza-Figueroa, Diana

    2012-09-01

    This investigation examines the extent of soil metal pollution associated with the Green Revolution, relative to agricultural activities and associated risks to health in the most important agricultural region of Mexico. Metal contents in bulk soil samples are commonly used to assess contamination, and metal accumulations in soils are usually assumed to increase with decreasing particle size. This study profiled the spatial distribution of metals (Ni, Cr, Pb, Cu, Fe, Cd, V, Hg, Co, P, Se, and Mn) in bulk soil and fine-grained fractions (soil-derived dust) from 22 towns and cities. The contamination of soil was assessed through the use of a geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and pollution index (PI). The results of this study indicated that a number of towns and cities are moderately to highly polluted by soil containing Be, Co, Hg, P, S, V, Zn, Se, Cr, and Pb in both size fractions (coarse and fine). Hazard index in fine fraction (HI(children)=2.1) shows that risk assessment based on Co, Mn, V, and Ni spatially related to power plants, have the potential to pose health risks to local residents, especially children. This study shows that risk assessment based on metal content in bulk soil could be overestimated when compared to fine-grained fraction. Our results provide important information that could be valuable in establishing risk assessment associated with residential soils within agricultural areas, where children can ingest and inhale dust. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Direct assessment of cumulative aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activity in sera from experimentally exposed mice and environmentally exposed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Bernard, Pamela L; Haas, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    (PCB)-exposed Faroe Islanders using an AhR-driven reporter cell line. To validate relationships between serum AhR agonist levels and biological outcomes, AhR agonist activity in mouse sera correlated with toxic end points. AhR agonist activity in unmanipulated ("neat") human sera was compared...... with these biologically relevant doses and with GC/MS-assayed PCB levels. RESULTS: Mouse serum AhR agonist activity correlated with injected dioxin dose, thymic atrophy, and heptomegaly, validating the use of neat serum to assess AhR agonist activity. AhR agonist activity in sera from Faroe Islanders varied widely......, was associated with the frequency of recent pilot whale dinners, but did not correlate with levels of PCBs quantified by GC/MS. Surprisingly, significant "baseline" AhR activity was found in commercial human sera. CONCLUSIONS: An AhR reporter assay revealed cumulative levels of AhR activation potential in neat...

  10. VULNERABILITY AS A FUNCTION OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP RESOURCES IN CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the ...

  11. Assessment of cumulative exposure to UVA through study of asymmetric facial skin damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Mac-Mary1

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Mac-Mary1, Jean-Marie Sainthillier1, Adeline Jeudy3, Christelle Sladen2, Cara Williams2, Mike Bell2, Philippe Humbert31Skinexigence SAS, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, Besançon, France; 2The Boots Company, Nottingham, United Kingdom; 3Research and Studies Center on the Integument, Department of Dermatology, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, FranceBackground: Published studies assessing whether asymmetric facial ultraviolet light exposure leads to underlying differences in skin physiology and morphology are only observational. The aim of this study was to assess the visual impact on the skin of repeated ultraviolet-A (UVA exposure through a window.Methods: Eight women and two men presenting with asymmetric signs of photoaging due to overexposure of one side of their face to the sun through a window over a long period of time were enrolled in the study. Split-face biometrologic assessments were performed (clinical scoring, hydration with Corneometer®, mechanical properties with a Cutometer®, transepidermal water loss with AquaFlux®, skin relief with fringe projection, photography, stripping, and then lipid peroxidation analyses.Results: Significant differences were observed in clinical scores for wrinkles, skin roughness assessed by fringe projection on the cheek, and skin heterogeneity assessed with spectrocolorimetry on the cheekbone. Other differences were observed for skin hydration, as well as skin laxity, which tended towards significance.Discussion: This study suggests the potential benefit of daily UVA protection during nondeliberate exposure indoors as well as outside.Keywords: UVA, asymmetry, photodamage, face

  12. Estimated Daily Intake and Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates in the General Taiwanese after the 2011 DEHP Food Scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung-Wei; Lee, Ching-Chang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chou, Wei-Chun; Huang, Han-Bin; Chiang, Hung-Che; Huang, Po-Chin

    2017-03-01

    A food scandal occurred in Taiwan in 2011 because the DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) had been intentionally used in food products. We assessed the daily intakes (DIs) and cumulative risk of phthalates in Taiwan’s general population after the scandal. The DIs of 6 phthalates, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and DEHP, were evaluated using urinary phthalate metabolites. Hazard quotients of phthalates classified as affecting the reproductive (HQrep) and hepatic (HQhep) systems were assessed using cumulative approach. The creatinine-based model showed that the highest DI values in children 7-to 12- years-old were for DEHP (males: median: 4.79 μg/kg bw/d; females: median: 2.62 μg/kg bw/d). The 95th percentile (P95) of HQrep values were all >1 in the 7- to 12-year-old and 18- to 40-year-old male groups. The P95 of HQhep values were all >1 in the 7- to 18- year-old male groups. Most of the HQrep was attributable to the HQs of DnBP and DiBP (53.9-84.7%), and DEHP contributed most to HQhep (83.1-98.6%), which reveals that DnBP, DiBP and DEHP were the main risk of phthalate exposure for Taiwanese. Taiwan’s general population is widely exposed to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP, especially for young children.

  13. Assessing the connection between organophosphate pesticide poisoning and mental health: A comparison of neuropsychological symptoms from clinical observations, animal models and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann; Beseler, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatry and psychology are beginning to recognize the importance of lead, mercury and heavy metals as causal partners in the development of mental disorders. Further, mental health researchers and clinicians are embracing the idea that the combined effects of genetics and environmental exposures can result in perturbations in brain neurochemistry leading to psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review is to examine the biological foundations for the epidemiological observations previously identified by reviewing the toxicology literature and relating it to epidemiological studies addressing the role of poisoning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in neurobehavioral and neuropsychological disorders. The goal of this review is to raise awareness in the mental health community about the possibility that affective disorders might be the result of contributions from environmental and occupational pesticide poisoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006–2009, while residue...... data for epoxiconazole were obtained from the Swedish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2007–2009. Food consumption data were obtained from the Danish nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000–2002. Relative potency factors for the four pesticides were obtained from rat studies...

  15. An overview of measurement method tools available to communities for conducting exposure and cumulative risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Vera, Myriam; Van Emon, Jeanette M; Melnyk, Lisa J; Bradham, Karen D; Harper, Sharon L; Morgan, Jeffrey N

    2010-06-01

    Community-based programs for assessing and mitigating environmental risks represent a challenge to participants because each brings a different level of understanding of the issues affecting the community. These programs often require the collaboration of several community sectors, such as community leaders, local governments and researchers. Once the primary concerns, community vulnerabilities and assets are identified, participants plan on how to address immediate actions, rank known risks, collect information to support decision making, set priorities and determine an evaluation process to assess the success of the actions taken. The evaluation process allows the community to develop new action plans based on the results obtained from earlier actions. Tracking the success of the community actions may be as simple as a visual/tangible result (e.g., cleaning a park) or as complex as the collection of specific measurements to track the reduction of toxic pollutants or to determine the presence of a specific contaminant. Recognizing that communities may need to perform measurements to meet their goals, this paper provides an overview of the available measurement methods for several chemicals and biologicals in relevant environmental samples to a community setting. The measurement methods are organized into several categories according to their level of complexity, estimated cost and sources. Community project technical advisors are encouraged to examine the objective(s) of the community to be addressed by a measurement collection effort and the level of confidence that needed for the data to make appropriate decisions. The tables provide a starting point for determining which measurement method may be appropriate for specific community needs.

  16. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cumulative exergy extraction from the natural environment (CEENE): a comprehensive life cycle impact assessment method for resource accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, J; Bösch, M E; De Meester, B; Van der Vorst, G; Van Langenhove, H; Hellweg, S; Huijbregts, M A J

    2007-12-15

    The objective of the paper is to establish a comprehensive resource-based life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method which is scientifically sound and that enables to assess all kinds of resources that are deprived from the natural ecosystem, all quantified on one single scale, free of weighting factors. The method is based on the exergy concept. Consistent exergy data on fossils, nuclear and metal ores, minerals, air, water, land occupation, and renewable energy sources were elaborated, with well defined system boundaries. Based on these data, the method quantifies the exergy "taken away" from natural ecosystems, and is thus called the cumulative exergy extraction from the natural environment (CEENE). The acquired data set was coupled with a state-of-the art life cycle inventory database, ecoinvent. In this way, the method is able to quantitatively distinguish eight categories of resources withdrawn from the natural environment: renewable resources, fossil fuels, nuclear energy, metal ores, minerals, water resources, land resources, and atmospheric resources. Third, the CEENE method is illustrated for a number of products that are available in ecoinvent, and results are compared with common resource oriented LCIA methods. The application to the materials in the ecoinvent database showed that fossil resources and land use are of particular importance with regard to the total CEENE score, although the other resource categories may also be significant.

  18. Ground-Truthing Validation to Assess the Effect of Facility Locational Error on Cumulative Impacts Screening Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sadd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and government regulators have developed numerous tools to screen areas and populations for cumulative impacts and vulnerability to environmental hazards and risk. These tools all rely on secondary data maintained by government agencies as part of the regulatory and permitting process. Stakeholders interested in cumulative impacts screening results have consistently questioned the accuracy and completeness of some of these datasets. In this study, three cumulative impacts screening tools used in California were compared, and ground-truth validation was used to determine the effect database inaccuracy. Ground-truthing showed substantial locational inaccuracy and error in hazardous facility databases and statewide air toxics emission inventories of up to 10 kilometers. These errors resulted in significant differences in cumulative impact screening scores generated by one screening tool, the Environmental Justice Screening Method.

  19. The Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP) and Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) frameworks facilitate the integration of human health and ecological endpoints for Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) methods promote the use of a conceptual site model (CSM) to apportion exposures and integrate risk from multiple stressors. While CSMs may encompass multiple species, evaluating end points across taxa can be challenging due to data availability an...

  20. Application of fully automatic hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction to assess the distribution of organophosphate esters in the Pearl River Estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; He, Yingqian; Lin, Li; Zeng, Feng; Luan, Tiangang

    2014-02-01

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widespread organic pollutants that could be detected in various environmental matrices. In this study, a sample pretreatment method was developed for the determination of 9 OPEs by automatic hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). High sensitivity of OPEs could be achieved after optimization of several important parameters with the limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 2.6 to 120 ng L(-1) for different individual OPEs, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 2.1% to 10.4%. Acceptable recoveries were observed and the proposed method was then successfully applied to determine OPEs in seawaters collected from 23 sampling sites of the Pearl River Estuaries in dry and wet seasons, respectively. All of the OPEs could be detected, except tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP). The total concentrations of 9 OPEs in seawaters were ranging from 2.04 (Hemen) to 3.12 (Humen) μg L(-1) in the dry season and from 1.08 (Hemen) to 2.50 (Jitimen) μgL(-1) in the wet season. By using spatial interpolation method of ordinary kriging, the most polluted area of ΣOPEs was found in Humen in the dry season, while it was Jitimen in the wet season. Moreover, the annual input of ΣOPEs discharged via eight estuaries ranged from 384 tons (Jitimen) to 1,225 tons (Modaomen), and the total annual input was 5,694 tons. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of the cumulative sum method (CUSUM) to assess the learning curves of ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann-Camaiora, A; Brogly, N; Alsina, E; Gilsanz, F

    2017-10-01

    Although ultrasound is a basic competence for anaesthesia residents (AR) there is few data available on the learning process. This prospective observational study aims to assess the learning process of ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block and to determine the number of procedures that a resident would need to perform in order to reach proficiency using the cumulative sum (CUSUM) method. We recruited 19 AR without previous experience. Learning curves were constructed using the CUSUM method for ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block considering 2 success criteria: a decrease of pain score>2 in a [0-10] scale after 15minutes, and time required to perform it. We analyse data from 17 AR for a total of 237 ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve blocks. 8/17 AR became proficient for pain relief, however all the AR who did more than 12 blocks (8/8) became proficient. As for time of performance 5/17 of AR achieved the objective of 12minutes, however all the AR who did more than 20 blocks (4/4) achieved it. The number of procedures needed to achieve proficiency seems to be 12, however it takes more procedures to reduce performance time. The CUSUM methodology could be useful in training programs to allow early interventions in case of repeated failures, and develop competence-based curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation of cumulative corticosteroid treatment with magnetic resonance imaging assessment of avascular femoral head necrosis in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Kale

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased risk of osteoporosis, fractures, and avascular necrosis (AVN has been suggested in multiple sclerosis (MS. Patients with MS are often exposed to corticosteroid treatment (CST during the disease course and conflicting reports exist regarding complications of CST. Our study aims to investigate the association between cumulative doses of CST and radiographic evaluation of AVN of the femoral head in MS. Twenty-six MS patients (mean age, 38.4±10 yr were enrolled and prospectively evaluated for AVN by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The mean disease duration was 11.5±8.5 years and mean expanded disability status scale (EDSS score was 3±2. The cumulative dosage of CST varied between 20 g and 60 g; patients were grouped into two categories: 1 CST between 20-40 g, 17 (65% patients; 2 CST ≥40 g; 9 (35% patients. The relationship between cumulative CST dosage and MRI diagnosis of AVN was stat­istically insignificant (P>0.9. Clarification of the cumulative effect of CST in the development of AVN is of great importance for future long-term steroid treatment strategies.

  3. Correlation of cumulative corticosteroid treatment with magnetic resonance imaging assessment of avascular femoral head necrosis in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Nilufer; Agaoglu, Jale; Tanik, Osman

    2010-01-01

    Increased risk of osteoporosis, fractures, and avascular necrosis (AVN) has been suggested in multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients with MS are often exposed to corticosteroid treatment (CST) during the disease course and conflicting reports exist regarding complications of CST. Our study aims to investigate the association between cumulative doses of CST and radiographic evaluation of AVN of the femoral head in MS. Twenty-six MS patients (mean age, 38.4±10 yr) were enrolled and prospectively evaluated for AVN by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mean disease duration was 11.5±8.5 years and mean expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score was 3±2. The cumulative dosage of CST varied between 20 g and 60 g; patients were grouped into two categories: 1) CST between 20–40 g, 17 (65%) patients; 2) CST ≥40 g; 9 (35%) patients. The relationship between cumulative CST dosage and MRI diagnosis of AVN was statistically insignificant (P>0.9). Clarification of the cumulative effect of CST in the development of AVN is of great importance for future long-term steroid treatment strategies. PMID:21577331

  4. Intermediate syndrome in organophosphate poisoning: case series ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nevertheless, because IMS generally concurs with severe organophosphate toxicity and persistent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, early aggressive decontamination, appropriate antidotal therapy, and prompt institution of ventilatory support should be helpful in ameliorating the magnitude and/or the incidence of IMS.

  5. Current issues in organophosphate toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G

    2006-04-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are one of the main classes of insecticides, in use since the mid 1940s. OPs can exert significant adverse effects in non-target species including humans. Because of the phosphorylation of acetylcholinesterase, they exert primarily a cholinergic toxicity, however, some can also cause a delayed polyneuropathy. Currently debated and investigated issues in the toxicology of OPs are presented in this review. These include: 1) possible long-term effects of chronic low-level exposures; 2) genetic susceptibility to OP toxicity; 3) developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity; 4) common mechanism of action; 5) mechanisms of delayed neurotoxicity; and 6) possible additional OP targets. Continuing and recent debates, and molecular advances in these areas, and their contributions to our understanding of the toxicology of OPs are discussed.

  6. Cumulants, free cumulants and half-shuffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch; Patras, Frédéric

    2015-04-08

    Free cumulants were introduced as the proper analogue of classical cumulants in the theory of free probability. There is a mix of similarities and differences, when one considers the two families of cumulants. Whereas the combinatorics of classical cumulants is well expressed in terms of set partitions, that of free cumulants is described and often introduced in terms of non-crossing set partitions. The formal series approach to classical and free cumulants also largely differs. The purpose of this study is to put forward a different approach to these phenomena. Namely, we show that cumulants, whether classical or free, can be understood in terms of the algebra and combinatorics underlying commutative as well as non-commutative (half-)shuffles and (half-) unshuffles. As a corollary, cumulants and free cumulants can be characterized through linear fixed point equations. We study the exponential solutions of these linear fixed point equations, which display well the commutative, respectively non-commutative, character of classical and free cumulants.

  7. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and probabilistic assessment of the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides of schoolchildren in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaznik, Urška; Yngve, Agneta; Eržen, Ivan; Hlastan Ribič, Cirila

    2016-02-01

    Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables is a part of recommendations for a healthy diet. The aim of the present study was to assess acute cumulative dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides via fruit and vegetable consumption by the population of schoolchildren aged 11-12 years and the level of risk for their health. Cumulative probabilistic risk assessment methodology with the index compound approach was applied. Slovenia, primary schools. Schoolchildren (n 1145) from thirty-one primary schools in Slovenia. Children were part of the PRO GREENS study 2009/10 which assessed 11-year-olds' consumption of fruit and vegetables in ten European countries. The cumulative acute exposure amounted to 8.3 (95% CI 7.7, 10.6) % of the acute reference dose (ARfD) for acephate as index compound (100 µg/kg body weight per d) at the 99.9th percentile for daily intake and to 4.5 (95% CI 3.5, 4.7) % of the ARfD at the 99.9th percentile for intakes during school time and at lunch. Apples, bananas, oranges and lettuce contributed most to the total acute pesticides intake. The estimations showed that acute dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides is not a health concern for schoolchildren with the assessed dietary patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption.

  8. Miotoxicidade por organofosforados Organophosphate myotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Cavaliere

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Os organofosforados são um grupo de compostos químicos amplamente utilizados em agropecuária como inseticidas, ocasionando intoxicações acidentais em animais e humanos, e mesmo sendo utilizados em tentativas de suicídio. A toxicidade desses produtos decorre sobretudo de insuficiência cárdio-respiratória por compromentimento do sistema nervoso autônomo. Sabe-se que alguns destes compostos induzem em animais de experimentação e em humanos, uma miopatia caracterizada por degeneração de células musculares, comprometendo sobretudo a musculatura respiratória. Baseado no fato de que este comprometimento contribui para a piora da função respiratória, propõe-se um protocolo de avaliação rotineira de miotoxicidade por compostos organofosforados, através de uma bateria mínima e suficiente de colorações e reações histoquímicas para quantificação da necrose muscular. Utilizaram-se como modelo experimental, grupos de ratos albinos (Wistar intoxicados com o organofosforado paraoxon, com e sem antídotos (atropina ou pralidoxima. Verificou-se nos grupos tratados com paraoxon e paraoxon mais atropina, necrose de fibras musculares no diafragma, que atingia em determinadas áreas até 15% das fibras. No grupo tratado com paraoxon mais pralidoxima, a necrose foi mínima, evidenciando o papel mioprotetor deste último antídoto.Organophosphates comprise a group of chemical compounds extensively used in farming as insecticides, which cause accidental poisoning in animals and men and are also used in suicide attempts. The toxicity of these compounds is due especially to the cardiac and respiratory impairment in consequence of autonomic nervous system disorders. However, it is known that some of these products induce a myopathy in experimental animals and humans. This myopathy is characterized by muscle cell degeneration, involving above all the respiratory muscles. Based on the fact that this involvement certainly enhances the

  9. Hyperspectral Imagery for Large Area Survey of Organophosphate Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY FOR LARGE AREA SURVEY OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES THESIS MARCH 2015...States. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-203 HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY FOR LARGE AREA SURVEY OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES THESIS Presented to the Faculty...HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY FOR LARGE AREA SURVEY OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES Daniel R. Baseley, BSE Captain, USAF Committee Membership

  10. Occupational exposure limits for 30 organophosphate pesticides based on inhibition of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, J E; Rozman, K K; Doull, J

    2000-09-07

    Toxicity and other relevant data for 30 organophosphate pesticides were evaluated to suggest inhalation occupational exposure limits (OELs), and to support development of a risk assessment strategy for organophosphates in general. Specifically, the value of relative potency analysis and the predictability of inhalation OELs by acute toxicity measures and by repeated oral exposure NOELs was assessed. Suggested OELs are based on the prevention of red blood cell (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and are derived using a weight-of-evidence risk assessment approach. Suggested OEL values range from 0.002 to 2 mg/m(3), and in most cases, are less than current permissible exposure levels (PELs) or threshold limit values(R) (TLVs(R)). The available data indicate that experimental data for most organophosphates evaluated are limited; most organophosphates are equally potent RBC AChE inhibitors in different mammalian species; NOELs from repeated exposure studies of variable duration are usually equivalent; and, no particular grouping based on organophosphate structure is consistently more potent than another. Further, relative potency analyses have limited usefulness in the risk assessment of organophosphates. The data also indicated that equivalent relative potency relationships do not exist across either exposure duration (acute vs. repeated) or exposure route (oral vs. inhalation). Consideration of all variable duration and exposure route studies are therefore usually desirable in the development of an OEL, especially when data are limited. Also, neither acute measures of toxicity nor repeated oral exposure NOELs are predictive of weight-of-evidence based inhalation OELs. These deviations from what is expected based on the common mechanism of action for organophosphates across exposure duration and route - AChE inhibition - is likely due to the lack of synchrony between the timing of target tissue effective dose and the experimental observation of equivalent

  11. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Thierry; Poder, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  12. Interactions of organophosphates with keratins in the cornified epithelium of human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, D.R.W.; Hulst, A.G.; Fidder, A.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.; Noort, D.

    2012-01-01

    Methods to unequivocally assess and quantify exposure to organophosphate anti-cholinesterase agents are highly valuable, either from a biomonitoring or a forensic perspective. Since for both OP pesticides and various nerve agents the skin is a predominant route of entry, we hypothesized that

  13. Intensive Care Management of Organophosphate Poisoned Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of organophosphate poisoning is challenging, more so in the setting of poor critical care facilities. The management requires the administration of atropine, an antidote (oxime) and supportive care often provided in the ICU. We report a 35year old male who presented with a history of ingestion of an ...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Paediatric organophosphate poisoning - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organophosphate poisoning (OPP) in children and to record the frequency of atropine ... additional support for respiratory muscle paralysis/weakness and convulsions, etc.' Atropine's biochemical structure allows it to pass through the blood-brain barrier, potentially reversing some of the CNS effects of the OPP; however it ...

  15. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  16. Cumulative proportion of responders analysis (CPRA) as a tool to assess treatment outcome in alcohol clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Daniel E; Litten, Raye Z; Anton, Raymond F; Kranzler, Henry R; Johnson, Bankole A

    2014-03-01

    Several definitions of treatment response have been proposed for alcohol clinical trials (e.g., abstinence and no heavy drinking). However, each of these outcomes allows only one definition of successful response. In contrast, the cumulative proportion of responders analysis (CPRA) includes all of the possible drinking response cutoff points, providing a more complete picture of the therapeutic effects of a treatment. CPRA has been used to examine the efficacy of analgesics but not alcohol pharmacotherapy. To demonstrate its potential utility, we conducted CPRA in two large alcohol treatment trials: the COMBINE (Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence) trial (naltrexone) and a multisite topiramate trial. CPRA was used to demonstrate the efficacy of naltrexone and topiramate on continuous measures of in-treatment drinking-heavy drinking days and drinks per day-and their reductions from pretreatment. All possible cutoff points were portrayed for each measure. We provide graphs to illustrate the effects of the active medications compared with placebo and examined them statistically over a number of salient drinking outcomes to evaluate their efficacy. Treatment group responder curves were not parallel across the entire range of cutoff points; rather, they separated only at lower levels of drinking. In general, effect sizes increased by 0.10-0.15 when going from the lowest drinking level cutoff (i.e., abstinence and no heavy drinking) to the cutoff associated with the maximal treatment effect. CPRA may be useful in designing subsequent trials and helping to illustrate for treatment providers the likelihood of treatment success given various definitions of a positive response.

  17. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Scheuer, Ernest M.; Nolty, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Overflow and underflow in sums prevented. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program, CUMPOIS, one of two computer programs that make calculations involving cumulative Poisson distributions. Both programs, CUMPOIS (NPO-17714) and NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715), used independently of one another. CUMPOIS determines cumulative Poisson distribution, used to evaluate cumulative distribution function (cdf) for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters and cdf for X (sup2) distributions with even degrees of freedom. Used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. Written in C.

  18. Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scoggins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB, have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1 hazard proximity and land use; (2 air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3 social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns.

  19. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGLUND,J.W.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,J.D.; SMITH,L.N.; ANDERSON,R.P.

    2000-05-22

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194).

  20. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied......Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...... in planning the use of marine resources....

  1. Cumulative risk, cumulative outcome: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Atkinson

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk (CR models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO. We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6 explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20. The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a "mediated net of adversity" model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes.

  2. An assessment of cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrology in part of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming; a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, P.R.; Bloyd, R.M.; Daddow, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality are involved in a cooperative effort to assess the probable cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrology of a part of the Powder River Structural Basin in Wyoming. It was assumed that the principal impacts on the ground-water system due to mining will occur in the relatively shallow aquifers which can be grouped into three homogeneous aquifers, namely, the Wyodak coal, the overburden, and the under burden. Emphasis of this report is on the results of analysis of surface-water resources in the Caballo Creek drainage. A surface-water model of the Caballo Creek drainage was developed using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran model to help assess the impacts of mining activities on streamflow. The Caballo Creek drainage was divided into 10 land segments and 6 stream reaches in the modeling process. Three simulation runs show little, if any, change in streamflow between pre- and post-mining conditions and very little change between pre-mining and during-mining conditions. The principal reason for the absence of change is the high infiltration rate used in the model for all three conditions. (USGS)

  3. Effects of pirimiphos-methyl (an organophosphate insecticide) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of pirimiphos-methyl (an organophosphate insecticide) on the fertility of adult male rats. ... African Health Sciences ... Background: Organophosphate insecticides represent one of the most widely used classes of pesticides with high potential for human exposure in both rural and residential environments. Objective: In ...

  4. Oil and gas program: cumulative effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Horn, W; Melancon, A; Sun, J

    1985-01-01

    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA) requires the Secretary of the Department of the Interior to submit an annual report to Congress assessing the cumulative environmental effects of mineral leasing and operations under the OCSLA...

  5. Assessing the safety of co-exposure to food packaging migrants in food and water using the maximum cumulative ratio and an established decision tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Paul; Zaleski, Rosemary; Hollnagel, Heli; Ketelslegers, Hans; Han, Xianglu

    2014-01-01

    Food contact materials can release low levels of multiple chemicals (migrants) into foods and beverages, to which individuals can be exposed through food consumption. This paper investigates the potential for non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to multiple migrants using the Cefic Mixtures Ad hoc Team (MIAT) decision tree. The purpose of the assessment is to demonstrate how the decision tree can be applied to concurrent exposures to multiple migrants using either hazard or structural data on the specific components, i.e. based on the acceptable daily intake (ADI) or the threshold of toxicological concern. The tree was used to assess risks from co-exposure to migrants reported in a study on non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) eluting from food contact-grade plastic and two studies of water bottles: one on organic compounds and the other on ionic forms of various elements. The MIAT decision tree assigns co-exposures to different risk management groups (I, II, IIIA and IIIB) based on the hazard index, and the maximum cumulative ratio (MCR). The predicted co-exposures for all examples fell into Group II (low toxicological concern) and had MCR values of 1.3 and 2.4 (indicating that one or two components drove the majority of the mixture's toxicity). MCR values from the study of inorganic ions (126 mixtures) ranged from 1.1 to 3.8 for glass and from 1.1 to 5.0 for plastic containers. The MCR values indicated that a single compound drove toxicity in 58% of the mixtures. MCR values also declined with increases in the hazard index for the screening assessments of exposure (suggesting fewer substances contributed as risk potential increased). Overall, it can be concluded that the data on co-exposure to migrants evaluated in these case studies are of low toxicological concern and the safety assessment approach described in this paper was shown to be a helpful screening tool.

  6. The Challenge of Planning Conservation Strategies in Threatened Seascapes: Understanding the Role of Fine Scale Assessments of Community Response to Cumulative Human Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; De Leo, Francesco; Farella, Giulio; Maffia, Anna; Terlizzi, Antonio; Fraschetti, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the distribution and intensity of human threats to biodiversity is a prerequisite for effective spatial planning, harmonizing conservation purposes with sustainable development. In the Mediterranean Sea, the management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is rarely based on explicit consideration of the distribution of multiple stressors, with direct assessment of their effects on ecosystems. This gap limits the effectiveness of protection and is conducive to conflicts among stakeholders. Here, a fine scale assessment of the potential effects of different combinations of stressors (both land- and marine-based) on vulnerable rocky habitats (i.e. lower midlittoral and shallow infralittoral) along 40 km of coast in the western Mediterranean (Ionian Sea) has been carried out. The study area is a paradigmatic example of socio-ecological interactions, where several human uses and conservation measures collide. Significant differences in the structure of assemblages according to different combinations of threats were observed, indicating distinct responses of marine habitats to different sets of human pressures. A more complex three-dimensional structure, higher taxon richness and β-diversity characterized assemblages subject to low versus high levels of human pressure, consistently across habitats. In addition, the main drivers of change were: closeness to the harbour, water quality, and the relative extension of beaches. Our findings suggest that, although efforts to assess cumulative impacts at large scale may help in individuating priority areas for conservation purposes, the fact that such evaluations are often based on expert opinions and not on actual studies limits their ability to represent real environmental conditions at local scale. Systematic evaluations of local scale effects of anthropogenic drivers of change on biological communities should complement broad scale management strategies to achieve effective sustainability of human exploitation of

  7. The Challenge of Planning Conservation Strategies in Threatened Seascapes: Understanding the Role of Fine Scale Assessments of Community Response to Cumulative Human Pressures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Guarnieri

    Full Text Available Assessing the distribution and intensity of human threats to biodiversity is a prerequisite for effective spatial planning, harmonizing conservation purposes with sustainable development. In the Mediterranean Sea, the management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs is rarely based on explicit consideration of the distribution of multiple stressors, with direct assessment of their effects on ecosystems. This gap limits the effectiveness of protection and is conducive to conflicts among stakeholders. Here, a fine scale assessment of the potential effects of different combinations of stressors (both land- and marine-based on vulnerable rocky habitats (i.e. lower midlittoral and shallow infralittoral along 40 km of coast in the western Mediterranean (Ionian Sea has been carried out. The study area is a paradigmatic example of socio-ecological interactions, where several human uses and conservation measures collide. Significant differences in the structure of assemblages according to different combinations of threats were observed, indicating distinct responses of marine habitats to different sets of human pressures. A more complex three-dimensional structure, higher taxon richness and β-diversity characterized assemblages subject to low versus high levels of human pressure, consistently across habitats. In addition, the main drivers of change were: closeness to the harbour, water quality, and the relative extension of beaches. Our findings suggest that, although efforts to assess cumulative impacts at large scale may help in individuating priority areas for conservation purposes, the fact that such evaluations are often based on expert opinions and not on actual studies limits their ability to represent real environmental conditions at local scale. Systematic evaluations of local scale effects of anthropogenic drivers of change on biological communities should complement broad scale management strategies to achieve effective sustainability of human

  8. Organophosphate poisoning in Ongole cattle in Sukamandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An integrated farming system between rice and beef cattle was initiated in 2000 in Sukamandi, West Java. However, since 2002 some cattle were suffering from neurological and ophthamological signs, and some of them were found dead after consuming rice straws. Field studies showed that 6 out of 12 cattle were suffered from eye disorders such as blindness, corneal opacity and sereous lacrimation. Two of 6 cattle were severely affected. But, neurological signs were not found during field observation. Pesticide analysis in rice straws shows that both groups of pesticide, organochlorines (OP and organophosphates (OP were detected. Residues of OC were higher than OP as shown as 14.41 vs 2.84 ppm (before processing for OC and 1.80 vs 0.0003 ppm (processed for OP consisting aldrin, lindane, dieldrin, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos methyl. There was only OC detected in sera consisting lindane (0.6–37.6 ppb; heptachlor (0.03–4.4 ppb; and aldrin (0.8–20.4 ppb with an average total of 21,4 ppb. The neurological and ophthalmological signs were suspected to be due to organophosphates (OPs contaminated-rice straws and any other factors such as insufficient vitamin A, magnesium and calcium. Feed replacement with fresh grasses for two cattle reduced corneal changes. Similar symptoms were also reproduced in Wistar rats dosed intraperitoneally with chlorpyriphos methyl. Clinical signs included incoordination, cachexia, eye disorder and corneal opacity. Necropsy showed hepatic injury (hepatic necrosis, mottling of hepatic surface and pale; pale kidneys; swollen of spleen and hyperaemic brain. Microscopic changes were found in brain, liver and eyes. Hepatic changes included haemorrhages, centrolobular hepatic necrosis and focal coagulative necrosis. Brains were showing focal necrosis, haemorrhages, vacuolisation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis and nucleolysis. Eyes appeared to have necrosis of tunica muscularis, haemorrhages and eosinophilic infiltration. The

  9. Microbial degradation of the organophosphate pesticide, Ethion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, L John R; Kwan, Bia H; Vancov, Tony

    2004-11-01

    The organophosphate pesticide, Ethion, remains a major environmental contaminant in rural Australia and poses a significant threat to environmental and public health. The aerobic degradation of Ethion by mesophilic bacteria isolated from contaminated soils surrounding disused cattle dip sites was investigated. Two isolates, identified as Pseudomonas and Azospirillum species, were capable of biodegrading Ethion when cultivated in minimal salts medium. The abiotic hydrolytic degradation products of Ethion such as Ethion Dioxon and O,O-diethylthiosphosphate were not detected. The data suggest the rapid degradation of Ethion to support microbial growth. The results have implications for the development of a bioremediation strategy.

  10. Organophosphate Nerve Agent Detection with Europium Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake R. Schwierking

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the detection of paraoxon, a model compound for nonvolatile organophosphate nerve agents such as VX. The detection utilizes europium complexes with 1,10 phenanthroline and thenoyltrifluoroacetone as sensitizing ligands. Both europium luminescence quenching and luminescence enhancement modalities are involved in the detection, which is simple, rapid, and sensitive. It is adaptable as well to the more volatile fluorophosphate nerve agents. It involves nothing more than visual luminescence observation under sample illumination by an ordinary hand-held ultraviolet lamp.

  11. Radionuclide transport in the vicinity of the repository and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,JAY DEAN; SHINTA,A.; SMITH,L.N.

    2000-05-22

    The following topics related to radionuclide transport in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented (1) mathematical description of models, (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that no releases to the accessible environment take place due to radionuclide movement through the anhydrite marker beds, through the Dewey Lake Red Beds or directly to the surface, and also that the releases to the Culebra Dolomite are small. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for release to the Culebra Dolomite fall to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194).

  12. Application of the perineal ostomy in severe organophosphate poisoned patients after catharsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D-M; Xiao, Q

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of the one-piece ostomy bags for severe organophosphate poisoned patients after catharsis. Sixty cases of severe organophosphate poisoned patients who were given rhubarb catharsis after thorough nasal lavage were divided into two groups. The observation group used the one-piece ostomy bags whilst the control group used the disposable changing mats. The perineal skin changes, average daily hours of care, and cost of care rates were compared between the two groups. The rates of perineal skin changes were lower in the observation group than the control group (p ostomy bag in poisoned patients after the catharsis can prevent the risk of nursing by protecting and promoting the care quality, reducing the nursing workload and improving their work efficiency. It can enhance the nurses' self-esteem, reduce patients' expenses and provide an objective basis for assessing the treatments.

  13. Myopia and Exposure to Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Pesticides in the General United States Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migneron-Foisy, Vincent; Bouchard, Maryse F; Freeman, Ellen E; Saint-Amour, Dave

    2017-09-01

    Previous research suggests that exposure to pesticides might be associated with human myopia, although data were obtained only from highly exposed individuals. The present study aimed to assess whether exposure to organophosphates and pyrethroids in the United States general population was associated with the prevalence of myopia. Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, years 1999-2008). One-spot urine samples were used to estimate the concentration of several pesticide metabolites. Exposure data and equivalent spherical refraction errors were available for 5147 and 2911 individuals for organophosphates and pyrethroids, respectively. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the relation between log10-transformed urinary levels of pesticide metabolites and the risk of moderate (≤-1 and >-5 diopters [D]) and high myopia (≤-5 D) in adolescents (12- to 19-years old) and young adults (20- to 40-years old). Models were adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, diabetes, creatinine, cadmium and lead concentrations, and income in both age groups, but also for education level and cigarette and alcohol consumption in the adult group. No association between organophosphates or pyrethroid metabolites and myopia was observed. However, after adjusting for education level and cigarette and alcohol consumption, a statistically significant decreased risk of high myopia in those with a 10-fold increase of dialkyl phosphate metabolites was found in adults but only in men (P myopia in the United States general population.

  14. Assessment of Mobility in Older People Hospitalized for Medical Illness Using de Morton Mobility Index and Cumulated Ambulation Score-Validity and Minimal Clinical Important Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trøstrup, Jeanette; Andersen, Helle; Kam, Charlotte Agger Meiner; Magnusson, S Peter; Beyer, Nina

    2017-12-15

    Older adults acutely hospitalized for medical illness typically have comorbidity and disability, and inhospital physical inactivity greatly increases the likelihood of developing new disability. Thus, assessment of the patients' mobility status is crucial for planning and carrying out targeted interventions that ensure mobilization during hospital admission. The aim of this study was to determine convergent validity, known group validity, floor and ceiling effects, and anchor-based minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the more time-consuming de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) and the less time-consuming Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) in older adults acutely hospitalized for medical illness. In this multicenter cohort study, 235 older hospitalized adults, with a mean (standard deviation) age of 84.8 (7.1) years, were consecutively included. Assessments of mobility using the DEMMI (score range 0-100), the CAS (score range 0-6), and the Barthel Index (BI, score range 0-100) were performed by physical or occupational therapists at hospital admission and discharge. In addition, at discharge patients and therapists were independently asked to assess the patients' current mobility status compared with their mobility status at hospital admission using the Global Rating of Change scale. Complete data sets were obtained for 155 patients. Baseline characteristics of those with complete data sets did not differ from those with incomplete data sets, except for the number of secondary diagnoses, which was lower in the latter. Significant and moderate relationships existed both at admission and at discharge between scores in the DEMMI and the BI (rs = 0.68, P mobility and can be considered to have the required properties for measuring mobility in older adults who are hospitalized in medical and geriatric wards. In contrast, the CAS appears to be appropriate to identify whether a patient is independently mobile or needs assistance, while the measure is less suitable

  15. Organophosphate Poisoning: 10 Years of Experience in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Rung Tsai

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning due to organophosphate pesticides is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although standard treatments involving the administration of atropine and oximes have been used, there remain many controversial areas concerning organophosphate poisoning (OPP. Herein, we present our 10 years of experience in assessing the severity of OPP in southern Taiwan. A retrospective study was performed on patients admitted with OPP. A total of 75 patients (50 males and 25 females were studied between January 1996 and December 2005. Diagnosis was based on a clinical assessment and serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE level at the time of hospital admission. The severity of OPP was assessed using the grading system of Bardin et al. The duration and dosage of atropine and palidroxime were recorded. All the biochemical data were analyzed. Sixty-one of the patients had attempted suicide and 14 patients had accidental exposure. The overall mortality rate was 8%. Muscarinic effects were observed in 66 (88% of the OPP patients and the most frequent symptom was bronchial hypersecretion (52%. Among these three different severity groups, prolonged length of stay, higher infection rates, and higher mortality were found in the life- threatened group. The initial serum C-reactive protein (CRP level was strongly correlated to the severity grading of the OPP. Nearly half of the patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU and, of this, 21 patients developed respiratory failure within 72 hours. Low serum AChE levels support the diagnosis of OPP, but no significant association was found between the severity of OPP and serum AChE levels. The grading system of Bardin et al is very helpful for physicians to facilitate the recognition of seriously poisoned subjects, and to permit their early admission to an ICU. Initial serum CRP, an acute phase reactant, had significant value in assessing the severity of the OPP. Although the management of acute OPP

  16. On the development of behavioral tolerance to the organophosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organophosphate pesticides exert their toxic effects by cholinesterase inhibition and the consequent proiongation of the undesirable effects of accumulation of acetylcholine. The signs of toxicity include tremors. convulsions. lachrymation. urination. defecation etc. However. prolonged cholinesterase inhibition through ...

  17. A complete degradation of organophosphates by microwave-assisted hydrolysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Čechová, Lucie; Janeba, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2016), s. 219-226 ISSN 2213-3356 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : organophosphates * microwave irradiation * hydrolysis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  18. Amitraz: a mimicker of organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-10-01

    Amitraz is used as an ectoparasiticide for dogs and cattle. Human poisoning due to amitraz may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate/carbamate (OPC) toxicity, since amitraz poisoning shares several clinical features (miosis, bradycardia and hypotension) encountered with OPC poisoning. A 19-year-old man with an alleged history of suicidal ingestion of a pesticide presented with drowsiness and was found to have constricted pupils, hypotension and bradycardia. He was diagnosed as a case of OPC poisoning and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime prior to presentation to our centre. Absence of a hypersecretory state, and the presence of hyperglycaemia and hypothermia along with a normal serum cholinesterase level suggested an alternate possibility. Retrieval of the poison container confirmed the diagnosis of amitraz poisoning. The patient made a rapid recovery with supportive management. Clinician awareness is key to successful management of this poisoning, which carries a good prognosis. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Development of Optimized Guidelines for Therapeutic Strategies for Organophosphate Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    atropine, oxime, and diazepam . Controversy exists over the use of oxime to treat organophosphate poisoning and various studies have concluded that...exposures to high doses (Cannard, 2006). The anticonvulsant typically used for the treatment of seizures is diazepam (Cannard, 2006). Most armed forces... synthesis of organophosphate insecticides began in the 1930s by German chemist Gerhard Schrader (Szinicz, 2005; Cannard, 2006). Schrader’s work led

  20. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  1. Reflections on the process of using systematic review techniques to evaluate the literature regarding the neurotoxicity of low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie Ross, Sarah; McManus, Chris; Harrison, Virginia; Mason, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We undertook a systematic review (incorporating meta-analysis) of the literature concerning the neurotoxicity of cumulative low level occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides, which was published online by the journal Critical Reviews in Toxicology in 2012. As far as we are aware, we were the first research team to attempt quantitative evaluation of study findings on this topic, using meta-analysis. We wish to encourage others to apply systematic review techniques in chemical risk assessment to reduce bias, increase transparency and better inform public policy. We thought it would be useful to share our experience of undertaking a systematic review in the hope of dispelling misconceptions about the complexity, time and resource issues involved along with the view that meta-analysis is meaningless when studies are not homogeneous. In this commentary paper we reflect on aspects of the process which were relatively straightforward; aspects which were more challenging; the advantages of using systematic review techniques; and the advantages and limitations of using statistical techniques such as meta-analysis in this context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gut microbial degradation of organophosphate insecticides-induces glucose intolerance via gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Ganesan; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Swaminathan, Krishnan; Mithieux, Gilles; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Dhivakar, Mani; Parthasarathy, Ayothi; Babu, D D Venkatesh; Thumburaj, Leishman John; Freddy, Allen J; Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Puhari, Shanavas Syed Mohamed; Rekha, Balakrishnan; Christy, Yacob Jenifer; Anusha, Sivakumar; Divya, Ganesan; Suganya, Kannan; Meganathan, Boominathan; Kalyanaraman, Narayanan; Vasudevan, Varadaraj; Kamaraj, Raju; Karthik, Maruthan; Jeyakumar, Balakrishnan; Abhishek, Albert; Paul, Eldho; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Rajmohan, Rajamani Koushick; Velayutham, Kumaravel; Lyon, Alexander R; Ramasamy, Subbiah

    2017-01-24

    Organophosphates are the most frequently and largely applied insecticide in the world due to their biodegradable nature. Gut microbes were shown to degrade organophosphates and cause intestinal dysfunction. The diabetogenic nature of organophosphates was recently reported but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. We aimed to understand the role of gut microbiota in organophosphate-induced hyperglycemia and to unravel the molecular mechanism behind this process. Here we demonstrate a high prevalence of diabetes among people directly exposed to organophosphates in rural India (n = 3080). Correlation and linear regression analysis reveal a strong association between plasma organophosphate residues and HbA1c but no association with acetylcholine esterase was noticed. Chronic treatment of mice with organophosphate for 180 days confirms the induction of glucose intolerance with no significant change in acetylcholine esterase. Further fecal transplantation and culture transplantation experiments confirm the involvement of gut microbiota in organophosphate-induced glucose intolerance. Intestinal metatranscriptomic and host metabolomic analyses reveal that gut microbial organophosphate degradation produces short chain fatty acids like acetic acid, which induces gluconeogenesis and thereby accounts for glucose intolerance. Plasma organophosphate residues are positively correlated with fecal esterase activity and acetate level of human diabetes. Collectively, our results implicate gluconeogenesis as the key mechanism behind organophosphate-induced hyperglycemia, mediated by the organophosphate-degrading potential of gut microbiota. This study reveals the gut microbiome-mediated diabetogenic nature of organophosphates and hence that the usage of these insecticides should be reconsidered.

  3. Assessment of the cumulative impacts within the Kromdraai catchment area with a specific focus on the point source discharges / Alta van Dyk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dyk, Anna Aletta

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to determine if the cumulative impacts from point source discharges in the Kromdraai Catchment area sigdicantly impacting on the fitness of use of the surface water resource. The Kromdraai catchment area is located within the Upper Vaal Water Management Area and includes the Upper and Lower Wonderfonteinspruit, the Mooi River and the Loopspruit. The catchment area stretches from Krugersdorp to the confluence with the Vaal River and includ...

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphates, Paraoxonase 1, and Cognitive Development in Childhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephanie M. Engel; James Wetmur; Jia Chen; Chenbo Zhu; Dana Boy Barr; Richard L. Canfield; Mary S. Wolff

    2011-01-01

    ...) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. Objective: We examined the relationship between biomarkers of organophosphate exposure, PON1, and cognitive development at ages 12 and 24 months and 6—9 years. Methods...

  5. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and rhabdomyolysis induced acute renal failure complicating organophosphate intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokel, Yüksel

    2002-11-01

    Organophosphate is extremely uncommon cause of rhabdomyolysis. This article describe two cases with rhabdomyolysis induced acute renal failure complicating by monocrotophos, an organophosphate compound. First patient had rhabdomyolysis induced acute renal failure and subarachnoid hemorrhage. This is the first reported case of subarachnoid hemorrhage, which may be related with organophosphate intoxication in literature. Second patient described here had rhabdomyolysis induced acute renal failure after organophosphate overdose.

  6. [Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuropathology of organophosphate poisoning in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate pathological changes in brain tissues of Frisien Holstein dairy cattle affected by organophosphate (OP. The study was directed to anticipate spongiform encephalopathy. Samples consisted of animal feeds, sera and brain tissues were collected from Lembang, West Java. Animal feeds (fodders and commercial feed were collected directly from the dairy farms around Lembang. Sera (31 samples were from dairy cattle owned by the local farmers and brain tissues were from the local animal slaughter house. Pesticide residues were analysed following a standard procedure using gas chromatography (GC. There was an interaction between pesticide residues in animal feeds, residue level of pesticides in sera and brain tissues to cause encephalopathy in dairy cattle. Pesticide contamination in animal feeds was regarded as the source of encephalopathy in dairy cattle. The total average of OP residues (16.8 ppb were lower than organochlorines/OC (18.7 ppb in fodder, showing that pesticides were originated from the contaminated soils. On the other hand, the total average of OP residues in commercial feeds (12.0 ppb, sera (85.6 ppb and brain tissues (22.7 ppb were higher than OC (1.8; 16.7; and 5.1 ppb. The OP appears more frequently used for dairy farm activity as insecticides. Histopathological examination for brain tissues of dairy cattle showed that most cattle were diagnosed as encephalopathy with microscopic changes of vacuolation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis of neurons and nucleolysis of neurons. The encephalopathy was confirmed in rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos methyl as severe brain damage with spongiform-like lesions.

  8. Sorption of organophosphate esters by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; Yan, Li [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Duan, Jinming [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Jing, Chuanyong, E-mail: cyjing@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The interfacial interactions between the OPE molecules and CNTs. - Highlights: • Oxygen-containing groups on CNTs change the sorption property for OPEs. • Molecular configuration of OPEs has insignificant impact on their sorption. • Hydrophobic, π–π EDA and Brønsted acid–base interaction occurred between the CNTs and OPEs. - Abstract: Insights from the molecular-level mechanism of sorption of organophosphate esters (OPEs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can further our understanding of the fate and transport of OPEs in the environment. The motivation for our study was to explore the sorption process of OPEs on multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and their oxidized counterparts (O-MWCNTs and O-SWCNTs), and its molecular mechanism over a wide concentration range. The sorption isotherm results revealed that the hydrophobicity of OPEs dominated their affinities on a given CNT and the π–π electron donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction also played an important role in the sorption of aromatic OPEs. This π–π EDA interaction, verified with Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, could restrict the radial vibration of SWCNTs and affect the deformation vibration γ(CH) bands of OPE molecules. The OPE surface coverage on CNTs, estimated using the nonlinear Dubinin–Ashtakhov model, indicated that the oxygen-containing functional groups on CNTs could interact with water molecules by H-bonding, resulting in a decrease in effective sorption sites. In addition, FTIR analysis also confirmed the occurrence of Brønsted acid–base interactions between OPEs and surface OH groups of SWCNTs. Our results should provide mechanistic insights into the sorption mechanism of OPE contaminants on CNTs.

  9. Assessing the factor structure of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and cumulative effect of abuse and neglect on mental health among adolescents in conflict-affected Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charak, Ruby; de Jong, J T V M; Berckmoes, Lidewyde H; Ndayisaba, Herman; Reis, Ria

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), highlight rates of abuse and neglect among Burundian adolescents, compare these rates with those found in high-income nations, and examine the cumulative effect of multiple types of abuse and neglect on depression and PTSD symptoms. Participants were 231 adolescents and youth (M=14.9, SD=1.99, 58.4% female) from five provinces of Burundi, a country in Central Africa affected by war and political violence. Translation and back-translation of the CTQ was carried out to obtain an adaptation of CTQ in Kirundi, the native language of Burundi. With the exception of one item on 'molestation' in the factor of sexual abuse, the five-factor structure of CTQ was obtained comprising latent factors, namely emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect. The rate of abuse and neglect ranged from 14.7-93.5% with more than 37% reporting 4 or more types of abuse and neglect experiences. Emotional abuse and neglect, and physical neglect were 2-3 times higher among Burundian adolescents when compared with studies from high-income countries using the CTQ. A cumulative effect of multiple types of abuse and neglect was found, such that, those with 4 or more types of maltreatment were higher on symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. Findings highlight the need for culturally sensitive, standardized, and validated measures and norms for gauging childhood maltreatment in Burundi and related need for preventative interventions on childhood maltreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A single method for detecting 11 organophosphate pesticides in human plasma and breastmilk using GC-FPD

    OpenAIRE

    Naksen, Warangkana; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Mangklabruks, Ampica; Chantara, Somporn; Thavornyutikarn, Prasak; Robson, Mark G.; Ryan, P Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Panuwet, Parinya

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are widely used for crop protection in many countries including Thailand. Aside from causing environmental contamination, they affect human health especially by over-stimulating of the neurotransmission system. OP pesticides, as with other non-persistent pesticides, degrade quickly in the environment as well as are metabolized quite rapidly in humans. Assessing human exposures to these compounds requires analytical methods that are sensitive, robust, and most i...

  11. Algorithm Calculates Cumulative Poisson Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Nolty, Robert C.; Scheuer, Ernest M.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithm calculates accurate values of cumulative Poisson distribution under conditions where other algorithms fail because numbers are so small (underflow) or so large (overflow) that computer cannot process them. Factors inserted temporarily to prevent underflow and overflow. Implemented in CUMPOIS computer program described in "Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program" (NPO-17714).

  12. Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment for a Selected Group of Pesticides from the Triazole Group to Test Possible Methodologies to Assess Cumulative Effects from Exposure through Food from these Pesticides on Human Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2009-01-01

    Regulation EC No. 396/2005 from the European Parliament and the Council has required since September 2008 that cumulative and synergistic effects of pesticides be considered when Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) are adopted...

  13. Organophosphate esters in East Greenland polar bears and ringed seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, Adelle; Willmore, William G; Sonne, Christian

    2018-01-01

    influenced by biotransformation. In the present study, the hepatic in vitro metabolism of six environmentally relevant organophosphate (OP) triesters and corresponding OP diester formation were investigated in East Greenland polar bears (PBs) and ringed seals (RSs). The in vitro metabolism assay results were...

  14. Antidotes to organophosphate poisoning. 2. Thiadiazole-5-carboxaldoximes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, H.P.; Berg, G.R. van den; Hooidonk, C. van; Jong, L.P.A. de; Kientz, C.E.; Berends, F.; Kepner, L.A.; Meeter, E.; Visser, R.P.L.S.

    1979-01-01

    Three new nonquaternary oximes have been evaluated with respect to their antidotal activities against organophosphate poisoning. The oximes 1,2,3-thiadiazole-5-carboxaldoxime (1, pKa = 7.6), 2-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-carboxaldoxime (2, pKa = 8.4), and 3-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazole-5-carboxaldoxime

  15. Binding of reactive organophosphate by oximes via hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Chem. Sci. Vol. 125, No. 4, July 2013, pp. 869–873. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Binding of reactive organophosphate by oximes via hydrogen bond. ANDREA PAPPALARDO, MARIA E AMATO, FRANCESCO P BALLISTRERI,. VALENTINA LA PAGLIA FRAGOLA, GAETANO A TOMASELLI, ROSA MARIA TOSCANO.

  16. Binding of reactive organophosphate by oximes via hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this contribution, the ability of simple oximes to bind a well-known nerve agent simulant (dimethylmethylphosphonate, DMMP) via hydrogen bond is reported. UV/Vis measurements indicate the formation of 1:1 complexes. 1H-, 31P-NMR titrations and T-ROESY experiments confirm that oximes bind the organophosphate ...

  17. Acetylcholinesterase activity in Corbicula fluminea Mull., as a biomarker of organophosphate pesticide pollution in Pinacanauan River, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Kimberly S; Pocsidio, Glorina N

    2010-06-01

    Organophosphates are known to inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. In this study, the AChE activity from the total soft tissues of Corbicula fluminea Mull. was used as a biomarker of organophosphate pollution in Pinacanauan River. Clams were collected from two different sites and at different seasons of the year. A colorimetric assay on the total soft tissues of the clams showed a directly proportional relationship between enzyme activity and condition of the riverine system. In vitro experiments on the total soft tissue, adductor muscles, digestive glands, and gills were conducted to assess the degree of localization of AChE as well as the sensitivity and tolerance of the enzymes in these tissues to varying concentrations of malathion. The degree of enzyme localization from highest to lowest is as follows: adductor muscle > gills > digestive gland whereas sensitivity to OP from greatest to least is: gills > adductor muscles > digestive gland.

  18. An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzaev, V.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2008-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been used for estimation of the accumulated doses in quartz inclusions obtained from two fired bricks, extracted in July 2004 from a building located in the forested surroundings of the recreational area Novie Bobovichi, the Bryansk Region, Russia....... The area was significantly contaminated by Chernobyl fallout with initial (CS)-C-137 ground deposition level of similar to 1.1 MBq m(-2). The accumulated OSL doses in sections of the bricks varied from 141 to 207 mGy, of which between 76 and 146 mGy are attributable to Chernobyl fallout. Using the OSL...... depth-dose profiles obtained from the exposed bricks and the results from a gamma-ray-survey of the area, the Chernobyl-related cumulative gamma-ray dose for a point detector located in free air at a height of 1 m above the ground in the study area was estimated to be ca. 240 mGy for the time period...

  19. Indoor organophosphate and polybrominated flame retardants in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, I; Onuki, A; Seto, H

    2007-02-01

    In Japan, organophosphate and polybrominated flame retardants are used in building materials and electric appliances to protect them from fire hazards. In this study, to identify the emission sources of these flame retardants to indoor air, the migration rates (flux) of organophosphate and polybrominated flame retardants from building materials and electrical appliances to solid extraction disks that were placed in contact with the interior surfaces were measured. In addition to the migration test, indoor air and outdoor air concentrations of these flame retardants were investigated. With regard to building materials in a newly built house, triethylphosphate (TEP) and tributylphosphate (TBP) were detected in the wall and ceiling coverings, and tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP) was detected in the wooden flooring cleaned with a floor polish agent. With regard to electrical appliances, triphenylphosphate (TPHP) was predominantly detected in computer monitors and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) in television (TV) sets, with the highest median levels. Among the polybrominated compounds, only 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) was detected from a few old TV sets manufactured before 1995. In an indoor and outdoor air survey, nine organophosphates and nine polybrominated flame retardants were detected from indoor air. In outdoor air, only four organophosphate flame retardants were detected. The maximum level of indoor organophosphate compounds was 1260 ng/m(3) with tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP), and that of polybrominated compounds was 29.5 ng/m(3) with hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) was not detected in this study, although it has the largest demand among flame retardants in Japan. The results of the migration test and the indoor air survey revealed that in indoor air, organophosphate compounds were more predominant than polybrominated compounds in Tokyo. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and polybrominated

  20. Acute effects of binary mixtures of Type II pyrethroids and organophosphate insecticides on Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Patricia Bi Asanga; Tsobgny Kinfack, Joel Stephane; Tala Towa, Yannick Jordan

    2017-06-07

    toxicity than would be expected. This has important implications for risk assessment of mixtures since the risk of pyrethroid-organophosphate mixtures may be underestimated if either the CA or IA model is employed.

  1. Fuzzy set theory for cumulative trauma prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Daniel J.; Merritt, Thomas W.; Moynihan, Gary P.

    2001-01-01

    A widely used fuzzy reasoning algorithm was modified and implemented via an expert system to assess the potential risk of employee repetitive strain injury in the workplace. This fuzzy relational model, known as the Priority First Cover Algorithm (PFC), was adapted to describe the relationship between 12 cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) of the upper extremity, and 29 identified risk factors. The algorithm, which finds a suboptimal subset from a group of variables based on the criterion of...

  2. Toxicological and biochemical analysis of the susceptibility of sylvatic Triatoma infestans from the Andean Valley of Bolivia to organophosphate insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Luis Santo-Orihuela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To increase our knowledge of the natural susceptibility of Triatoma infestans to an organophosphate insecticide, we performed toxicological and biochemical studies on three sylvatic populations from Bolivia and two populations from domestic dwellings from Bolivia and Argentina. Fifty-per-cent lethal doses (LD50 were determined based on the topical application of fenitrothion on first instar nymphs and mortality was assessed at 24 h. Both type of populations exhibited LD50ratios significantly higher than 1 with a range of the values (1.42-2.47; the maximum value were found in a sylvatic (-S population, Veinte de Octubre-S. Samples were biochemically analysed using a glutathione S-transferase activity assay. The highest significant activity was obtained for Veinte de Octubre-S and the lowest activity was obtained for the reference population (102.69 and 54.23 pmol per minute per mg of protein respectively. Two out of the three sylvatic populations (Veinte de Octubre-S and Kirus Mayu-S exhibited significantly higher glutathione S-transferase activity than that of the reference population. Based on this analysis of the natural susceptibility of this organism to organophosphate insecticides, continental and focal surveys of organophosphate susceptibility should be conducted to evaluate the evolution and distribution of this phenomenon.

  3. Risks of carbamate and organophosphate pesticide mixtures to salmon in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Teed, R Scott

    2013-01-01

    Salmon populations in the Pacific Northwest are being affected by a variety of environmental stressors including intense fishing pressure, parasites and disease, climatic variability and change, land development, hatchery production, hydropower operations, stormwater runoff, and exposure to toxic contaminants. In recent years, there has been much concern that mixtures of pesticides are causing toxic effects to Pacific salmon. In this study, we compared measured stream water concentrations from 2 monitoring studies conducted in the Pacific Northwest with concentration-response curves derived for inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) for mixtures of organophosphate (OPs) and carbamate (CBs) pesticides. In the first monitoring study, samples were collected from 2003 to 2007 in salmonid-bearing waters of 5 urban or agricultural watersheds in Washington State. This study was targeted to areas of high pesticide use and generally involved weekly sampling during the pesticide use season. The second monitoring study was the United States Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment that included samples taken from 2003 to 2010 in California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. OPs and CBs were frequently detected in both studies. The available monitoring data collected since 2003, however, demonstrates that mixtures of OPs and CBs in surface waters rarely occur at levels capable of producing significant physiological and behavioral effects in Pacific salmon. The observed mixtures never reached concentrations capable of causing mortality. We conclude that mixtures of organophosphates and carbamates do not pose a significant direct risk to Pacific salmon. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  4. The epidemiology of organophosphate poisoning in urban Zimbabwe from 1995 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Simon, M A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine current organophosphate usage in Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional descriptive study was done to determine the trends in admissions for organophosphate poisonings in an urban Zimbabwe hospital from 1995 to 2000. Variables such as sex, age, season, geographic area, and intent were examined. In 183,569 records, 599 cases of organophosphate poisoning were found. Organophosphate poisonings increased by 320% over the six years. The male and female admissions' rates were similar (48% vs 52%); 82% of the patients were less than 31 years old. Suicide was the predominant reason for poisoning (74%). Of admissions of children under the age of 10, 62% were due to accidental ingestion. Mortality from organophosphate poisonings was 8.3% over the six years. Organophosphate poisoning is increasing rapidly. In the background of this alarming trend is the physical, mental, and social state of a Zimbabwean society wrought with hardships.

  5. Assessment of Mobility in Older People Hospitalized for Medical Illness Using de Morton Mobility Index and Cumulated Ambulation Score-Validity and Minimal Clinical Important Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøstrup, Jeanette; Andersen, Helle; Kam, Charlotte Agger Meiner

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Older adults acutely hospitalized for medical illness typically have comorbidity and disability, and inhospital physical inactivity greatly increases the likelihood of developing new disability. Thus, assessment of the patients' mobility status is crucial for planning and ...

  6. Chronic organophosphate (OP)-induced neuropsychiatric disorder is a withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, De-Hong; Peng, Shuang-Qing; Wu, Ying-Liang; Wang, Yi-Mei; Lu, Chun-Feng; Yan, Chang-Hui

    2009-04-01

    Chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder is a less well-characterized syndrome, which is usually delay-occurred, persists long and is similar to the symptom of cholinergic deficit, its mechanism is unclear. The characteristics of chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder are somewhat opposite to the direct action of OP pesticide, since withdrawal effect is usually opposite to the original effect of a drug, hypothesis that chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder is a kind of withdrawal syndrome is suggested.

  7. Summarizing differences in cumulative incidence functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei-Jie; Fine, Jason

    2008-10-30

    The cumulative incidence function is widely reported in competing risks studies, with group differences assessed by an extension of the log-rank test. However, simple, interpretable summaries of group differences are not available. An adaptation of the proportional hazards model to the cumulative incidence function is often employed, but the interpretation of the hazard ratio may be somewhat awkward, unlike the usual survival set-up. We propose nonparametric inferences for general summary measures, which may be time-varying, and for time-averaged versions of the measures. Theoretical justification is provided using counting process techniques. A real data example illustrates the practical utility of the methods. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. CUMPOIS- CUMULATIVE POISSON DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The Cumulative Poisson distribution program, CUMPOIS, is one of two programs which make calculations involving cumulative poisson distributions. Both programs, CUMPOIS (NPO-17714) and NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715), can be used independently of one another. CUMPOIS determines the approximate cumulative binomial distribution, evaluates the cumulative distribution function (cdf) for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters, and evaluates the cdf for chi-square distributions with even degrees of freedom. It can be used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. CUMPOIS calculates the probability that n or less events (ie. cumulative) will occur within any unit when the expected number of events is given as lambda. Normally, this probability is calculated by a direct summation, from i=0 to n, of terms involving the exponential function, lambda, and inverse factorials. This approach, however, eventually fails due to underflow for sufficiently large values of n. Additionally, when the exponential term is moved outside of the summation for simplification purposes, there is a risk that the terms remaining within the summation, and the summation itself, will overflow for certain values of i and lambda. CUMPOIS eliminates these possibilities by multiplying an additional exponential factor into the summation terms and the partial sum whenever overflow/underflow situations threaten. The reciprocal of this term is then multiplied into the completed sum giving the cumulative probability. The CUMPOIS program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly on most C compilers. The program format is interactive, accepting lambda and n as inputs. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. CUMPOIS was

  9. A Comparison of Multiple Esterases as Biomarkers of Organophosphate Exposure and Effect in Two Earthworm Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ashley; Stoskopf, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Two different earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to 5 μg/cm2 of malathion to evaluate their usefulness as sentinels of organophosphate exposure and to assess three different esterases, as biomarkers of malathion exposure and effect. Tissue xenobiotic burdens and esterase activity were determined for each species and each esterase in order to assess variability. E. fetida exhibited 4-fold less variability in tissue burdens than did L. terrestris and had less variable basal esterase activities. An attempt was made to correlate malathion and malaoxon tissue burdens with esterase activity post-exposure. There was no malaoxon present in the earthworm tissues. No significant correlations were determined by comparing acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, nor carboxylesterase activities with malathion burdens. PMID:21404045

  10. Symptoms of psychological distress and suicidal ideation among banana workers with a history of poisoning by organophosphate or n-methyl carbamate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Catharina; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Keifer, Matthew; London, Leslie; Mergler, Donna; Stallones, Lorann

    2010-11-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders and increased suicide rates have been associated with exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting organophosphates. This study examined symptoms of psychological distress, including suicidal ideation, among banana workers in Costa Rica previously exposed to a cholinesterase inhibiting pesticide. 78 workers who had received medical attention 1-3 years previously for occupational pesticide poisoning were recruited: 54 had been exposed to organophosphate, 24 to carbamate, and 43 and 35, respectively, had single and multiple poisoning episodes with a cholinesterase inhibitor. Referents were 130 non-poisoned workers randomly selected from company payrolls. Psychological distress symptoms during the month prior to interview were obtained using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), which has a general severity index and nine subscale scores. Differences in abnormal BSI scores (T score≥63) were assessed through multivariate logistic regression for all poisoned and for subcategories of poisoned as compared to non-poisoned workers. Organophosphate poisoned workers reported significantly more symptoms than non-poisoned on all but one symptom dimension. Significant trends of increasing symptoms with increasing number of previous poisonings were seen for somatisation, obsessive-compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, depression and anxiety. Carbamate poisoned workers only had increased scores for somatisation. The ORs for suicidal thoughts were: all poisoned 3.58 (95% CI 1.45 to 8.84); organophosphate poisoned 3.72 (1.41 to 9.81); carbamate poisoned 2.57 (0.73 to 9.81); and 2.65 and 4.98, respectively for 1 and ≥2 poisonings (trend p=0.01). This cross-sectional study showed a relationship between acute occupational poisoning with organophosphates and psychological distress including suicidal ideation. Stronger designs are needed to address causality.

  11. Organophosphate Related Alterations in Myelin and Axonal Transport in the Living Mammalian Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    20, 2015. o “ Organophosphates and Cognitive Deficits: Elucidating the Mechanisms and Identifying Therapeutic Targets”. Presented to the Department... Organophosphate Exposure and Cognitive Deficits: Elucidating the Mechanisms and Identifying Therapeutic Targets” Presented at the Tulane University...Karanth S, Liu J. Pharmacology and toxicology of cholinesterase inhibitors: uses and misuses of a common mechanism of action . Environ Toxicol Pharmacol

  12. An In Vivo Zebrafish Screen Identifies Organophosphate Antidotes with Diverse Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shan; Sarkar, Kumar S.; Jin, Youngnam N.; Liu, Yan; Kokel, David; Van Ham, Tjakko J.; Roberts, Lee D.; Gerszten, Robert E.; MacRae, Calum A.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphates are a class of highly toxic chemicals that includes many pesticides and chemical weapons. Exposure to organophosphates, either through accidents or acts of terrorism, poses a significant risk to human health and safety. Existing antidotes, in use for over 50 years, have modest efficacy and undesirable toxicities. Therefore, discovering new organophosphate antidotes is a high priority. Early life stage zebrafish exposed to organophosphates exhibit several phenotypes that parallel the human response to organophosphates, including behavioral deficits, paralysis, and eventual death. Here, we have developed a high-throughput zebrafish screen in a 96-well plate format to find new antidotes that counteract organophosphate-induced lethality. In a pilot screen of 1200 known drugs, we identified 16 compounds that suppress organophosphate toxicity in zebrafish. Several in vitro assays coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry–based metabolite profiling enabled determination of mechanisms of action for several of the antidotes, including reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibition, cholinergic receptor antagonism, and inhibition of bioactivation. Therefore, the in vivo screen is capable of discovering organophosphate antidotes that intervene in distinct pathways. These findings suggest that zebrafish screens might be a broadly applicable approach for discovering compounds that counteract the toxic effects of accidental or malicious poisonous exposures. PMID:22960781

  13. Organophosphate-Related Alterations in Myelin and Axonal Transport in the Living Mammalian Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    presentations o Organophosphate Exposure and Cognitive Deficits: Elucidating the Mechanisms and Identifying Therapeutic Targets”, Presented at the 2014...Davis, CA, September 15, 2014. o Organophosphates and Cognitive Deficits: Elucidating the Mechanisms and Identifying Therapeutic Targets. Presented...Karanth S, Liu J. 2005. Pharmacology and toxicology of cholinesterase inhibitors: uses and misuses of a common mechanism of action . Environmental

  14. The Barthel Index and the Cumulated Ambulation Score are superior to the de Morton Mobility Index for the early assessment of outcome in patients with a hip fracture admitted to an acute geriatric ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsbæk, Signe; Larsen, Rikke Faebo; Rosthøj, Susanne; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2018-01-15

    To examine clinimetric properties of the de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) in patients with hip fracture in comparison with the modified Barthel Index (BI), Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS), and 30-s Chair Stand Test (30-s CST). Two hundred and twenty two patients with a hip fracture admitted to a geriatric ward following surgery were assessed on day 1 and at discharge (mean of 9 [SD 5.1] post-surgery days). Ninety eight percent and 89% of patients were not able to perform the 30-s CST at baseline and at discharge (large floor effect), respectively. Corresponding floor effects were 39% and 31% for DEMMI, 12% and 5% for BI, and 22% and 6%, respectively, for CAS. Convergent validity was strong between DEMMI and CAS (r = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69-0.81), and moderate between DEMMI and BI (r = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.48-0.66) and CAS and BI (r = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.39-0.59). Responsiveness, as indicated by the effect size was 0.76 for DEMMI, 1.78 for BI and 1.04 for CAS. Baseline scores of DEMMI, BI, and CAS showed similar properties in predicting discharge destination of patients from own home. The value of using DEMMI and 30-s CST in patients with hip fracture during the acute hospitalization seems limited in comparison with BI and CAS. DEMMI and CAS seem to assess similar constructs. Implications for Rehabilitation Outcome measures used for the evaluation of patients with hip fracture should be validated in the specific time-line and rehabilitation setting following surgery, before being implemented in daily clinical practice. We suggest the Cumulated Ambulation Score for monitoring basic mobility during the acute hospitalization for the entire group of patients recovering from a hip fracture, while DEMMI seems more feasible for the subgroup of patients with higher functional levels. The modified Barthel Index seems useful for the assessment of activities of daily living in the acute care setting of patients with hip fracture. We cannot recommend the original 30-s Chair

  15. Electro-cumulation CNF project

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2000-01-01

    bound or free ion current within solid substances; non-plain symmetry; cumulation of the ion interaction. Experimental result: an Ice SuperPolarization. Cold nuclear fusion ? At http://www.shortway.to/to2084 . Keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, cold nuclear fusion, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor, superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ordering, force, correlation, collective, shift, distortion, coalescence, crowdions, electrolysis.

  16. Evolutionary neuroscience of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Dietrich; Hecht, Erin E

    2017-07-24

    Culture suffuses all aspects of human life. It shapes our minds and bodies and has provided a cumulative inheritance of knowledge, skills, institutions, and artifacts that allows us to truly stand on the shoulders of giants. No other species approaches the extent, diversity, and complexity of human culture, but we remain unsure how this came to be. The very uniqueness of human culture is both a puzzle and a problem. It is puzzling as to why more species have not adopted this manifestly beneficial strategy and problematic because the comparative methods of evolutionary biology are ill suited to explain unique events. Here, we develop a more particularistic and mechanistic evolutionary neuroscience approach to cumulative culture, taking into account experimental, developmental, comparative, and archaeological evidence. This approach reconciles currently competing accounts of the origins of human culture and develops the concept of a uniquely human technological niche rooted in a shared primate heritage of visuomotor coordination and dexterous manipulation.

  17. Organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning from a home-made shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaka, Yair; Broides, Arnon; Tzion, Raffi Lev; Lifshitz, Matitiahu

    2011-07-01

    Organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning is a major health problem in children. We report an unusual cause of organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning. Two children were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit due to organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning after exposure from a home-made shampoo that was used for the treatment of head lice. Owing to no obvious source of poisoning, the diagnosis of organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning in one of these patients was delayed. Both patients had an uneventful recovery. Organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning from home-made shampoo is possible. In cases where the mode of poisoning is unclear, direct questioning about the use of home-made shampoo is warranted, in these cases the skin and particularly the scalp should be rinsed thoroughly as soon as possible.

  18. Piezoelectric Biosensors for Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Marrazza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great amount of pesticides currently being used, there is an increased interest for developing biosensors for their detection. Among all the physical transducers, piezoelectric systems have emerged as the most attractive due to their simplicity, low instrumentation costs, possibility for real-time and label-free detection and generally high sensitivity. This paper presents an overview of biosensors based on the quartz crystal microbalance, which have been reported in the literature for organophosphate and carbamate pesticide analysis.

  19. Identification of Cumulative Assessment Groups of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Nørhede, Pia; Boberg, Julie

    The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). In accordance with Article 36 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, this task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a grant agreement between the European Food Safety Authority ...

  20. The spectrum of intermediate syndrome following acute organophosphate poisoning: a prospective cohort study from Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepa Jayawardane

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate syndrome (IMS is a major cause of death from respiratory failure following acute organophosphate poisoning. The objective of this study was to determine repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS predictors of IMS that would assist in patient management and clinical research.Seventy-eight consenting symptomatic patients with organophosphate poisoning were assessed prospectively with daily physical examination and RNS. RNS was done on the right and left median and ulnar nerves at 1, 3, 10, 15, 20, and 30 Hz. The study was conducted as a prospective observational cohort study in the Central Province, Sri Lanka. IMS was diagnosed in ten out of 78 patients using a priori clinical diagnostic criteria, and five of them developed respiratory failure. All ten patients showed progressive RNS changes correlating with the severity of IMS. A decrement-increment was observed at intermediate and high frequencies preceding the onset of clinical signs of IMS. As the patient developed clinical signs of IMS, decrement-increment was progressively noted at low and intermediate frequencies and a combination of decrement-increment and repetitive fade or severe decrement was noted at high frequencies. Severe decrement preceded respiratory failure in four patients. Thirty patients developed forme fruste IMS with less severe weakness not progressing to respiratory failure whose RNS was characterized by decrement-increment or a combination of decrement-increment and repetitive fade but never severe decrements.Characteristic changes in RNS, preceding the development of IMS, help to identify a subgroup of patients at high risk of developing respiratory failure. The forme fruste IMS with the characteristic early changes on RNS indicates that IMS is a spectrum disorder. RNS changes are objective and precede the diagnosis and complications of IMS. Thus they may be useful in clinical management and research.

  1. Assessment of Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) Risk for 3 Different Tasks Constructing and Repairing Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) Blankets, Preparing the Dough for a Pizza, and Operating the Becton-Dickinson FACSAria Flow Cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentzler, Marc; Kline, Martin; Palmer, Andrew; Terrone, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) risks for three different tasks using McCauley-Bell and Badiru's (1993) formula based on task, personal, and organizational factors were examined. For the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blanket task, the results showed that the task, personal, and organizational risks were at about the same level. The personal risk factors for this task were evaluated using a hypothetical female employee age 52. For the pizza dough task, it was shown that the organizational risk was particularly high, with task related factors also at quite dangerous levels. On the other hand, there was a very low level of personal risk factors, based on a female age 17. The flow cytometer task was assessed with three different participants, a11 of whom had quite disparate levels of personal risk, which slightly affected the overall CTD risk. This reveals how individual difference variables certainly need to be considered. The task and organizational risks for this task were rated at about the same moderate level. The overall CTD risk averaged across the three participants was .335, indicating some risk. Compruing across the tasks revealed that the pizza dough task created the greatest overall CTD risk by far (.568), with the MLI (.325) and flow cytometer task (.335) having some risk associated with them. Future research should look into different tasks for more of a comparison

  2. Pesticide residues in cashew apple, guava, kaki and peach: GC-μECD, GC-FPD and LC-MS/MS multiresidue method validation, analysis and cumulative acute risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Andréia Nunes Oliveira; Mello, Denise Carvalho; Goes, Fernanda Caroline Silva; Frota Junior, Elcio Ferreira; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2014-12-01

    A multiresidue method for the determination of 46 pesticides in fruits was validated. Samples were extracted with acidified ethyl acetate, MgSO4 and CH3COONa and cleaned up by dispersive SPE with PSA. The compounds were analysed by GC-FPD, GC-μECD or LC-MS/MS, with LOQs from 1 to 8 μg/kg. The method was used to analyse 238 kaki, cashew apple, guava, and peach fruit and pulp samples, which were also analysed for dithiocarbamates (DTCs) using a spectrophotometric method. Over 70% of the samples were positive, with DTC present in 46.5%, λ-cyhalothrin in 37.1%, and omethoate in 21.8% of the positive samples. GC-MS/MS confirmed the identities of the compounds detected by GC. None of the pesticides found in kaki, cashew apple and guava was authorised for these crops in Brazil. The risk assessment has shown that the cumulative acute intake of organophosphorus or pyrethroid compounds from the consumption of these fruits is unlikely to pose a health risk to consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolutionary neuroscience of cumulative culture

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, Dietrich; Hecht, Erin E.

    2017-01-01

    Culture suffuses all aspects of human life. It shapes our minds and bodies and has provided a cumulative inheritance of knowledge, skills, institutions, and artifacts that allows us to truly stand on the shoulders of giants. No other species approaches the extent, diversity, and complexity of human culture, but we remain unsure how this came to be. The very uniqueness of human culture is both a puzzle and a problem. It is puzzling as to why more species have not adopted this manifestly benefi...

  5. The Study of Electrocardiographic Findings in Patients with Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Rahbar Taromsari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac manifestations that occur in a majority of patients with organophosphate (OP poisoning may range from innocuous electrocardiographic manifestations, such as sinus tachycardia, to life-threatening complications, including cardiogenic pulmonary edema and myocardial necrosis. In this study, we evaluated the various electrocardiographic manifestations in patients with OP poisoning. Methods: This retrospective-descriptive study was performed by reviewing the medical records from all patients poisoned with organophosphate admitted to Razi Educational Hospital, Rasht, Iran, from April 2008 to March 2011. Patients with incomplete records were excluded from the study. Histories of all patients were collected and ECG analysis was conducted including the rate, rhythm, ST-T abnormalities, conduction defects, and measurement of PR and QT intervals by a cardiologist. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS software version18. Results: Of the total 100 patients (75 were male with OP poisoning that referred to the Emergency Ward of Razi Hospital, 63 patients presented ECG abnormalities. The mean age of the patients was 35.78 ± 12.91 years. The causes of poisoning were occupational in 71 patients, suicidal in 26 patients, and accidental in 3 patients. Sinus tachycardia (31% was the most common ECG abnormality, followed by non-specific ST-T changes (24%. Overall, mortality rate was 5% and all of the deceased patients presented changes in ECG. Conclusion: OP poisoning is associated with significant ECG abnormalities, especially tachycardia and non-specific ST-T changes.

  6. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  7. Genotoxicity following Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure among Orang Asli Children Living in an Agricultural Island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutris, J M; How, V; Sumeri, S A; Muhammad, M; Sardi, D; Mohd Mokhtar, M T; Muhammad, H; Ghazi, H F; Isa, Z M

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is an important sector for the Malaysian economy. The use of pesticides in agriculture is crucial due to its function in keeping the crops from harmful insects. Children living near agricultural fields are at risk of pesticide poisoning. To evaluate the genotoxic risk among children who exposed to pesticides and measure DNA damage due to pesticides exposure. In a cross-sectional study 180 Orang Asli Mah Meri children aged between 7 and 12 years were studied. They were all living in an agricultural island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. The data for this study were collected via modified validated questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire, which consisted of 131 food items. 6 urinary organophosphate metabolites were used as biomarkers for pesticides exposure. For genotoxic risk or genetic damage assessment, the level of DNA damage from exfoliated buccal mucosa cells was measured using the comet assay electrophoresis method. Out of 180 respondents, 84 (46.7%) showed positive traces of organophosphate metabolites in their urine. Children with detectable urinary pesticide had a longer tail length (median 43.5; IQR 30.9 to 68.1 μm) than those with undetectable urinary pesticides (median 24.7; IQR 9.5 to 48.1 μm). There was a significant association between the extent of DNA damage and the children's age, length of residence in the area, pesticides detection, and frequency of apple consumption. The organophosphate genotoxicity among children is associated with the amount of exposure (detectability of urinary pesticide) and length of residence in (exposure) the study area.

  8. Genotoxicity following Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure among Orang Asli Children Living in an Agricultural Island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Sutris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agriculture is an important sector for the Malaysian economy. The use of pesticides in agriculture is crucial due to its function in keeping the crops from harmful insects. Children living near agricultural fields are at risk of pesticide poisoning. Objective: To evaluate the genotoxic risk among children who exposed to pesticides and measure DNA damage due to pesticides exposure. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 180 Orang Asli Mah Meri children aged between 7 and 12 years were studied. They were all living in an agricultural island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. The data for this study were collected via modified validated questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire, which consisted of 131 food items. 6 urinary organophosphate metabolites were used as biomarkers for pesticides exposure. For genotoxic risk or genetic damage assessment, the level of DNA damage from exfoliated buccal mucosa cells was measured using the comet assay electrophoresis method. Results: Out of 180 respondents, 84 (46.7% showed positive traces of organophosphate metabolites in their urine. Children with detectable urinary pesticide had a longer tail length (median 43.5; IQR 30.9 to 68.1 μm than those with undetectable urinary pesticides (median 24.7; IQR 9.5 to 48.1 μm. There was a significant association between the extent of DNA damage and the children's age, length of residence in the area, pesticides detection, and frequency of apple consumption. Conclusion: The organophosphate genotoxicity among children is associated with the amount of exposure (detectability of urinary pesticide and length of residence in (exposure the study area.

  9. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prognostic Factors of Organophosphate Poisoning Between the Death and Survival Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng-Jih Lin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective case series study, we consider the different factors between death and survival groups of organophosphate poisoning. Patients in tertiary-care medical center who had been exposed to organophosphate were included in the study. Pralidoxime (PAM was discontinued after atropine had controlled the clinical situation. We recorded the demographic data, amount of organophosphate consumption, duration of coma, duration of ventilator use, duration of hospitalization, findings of chest X-ray, white blood cell count, acetylcholinesterase concentration, plasma cholinesterase concentration, total atropine amount, duration of atropine use, total PAM amount, duration of PAM use, urine organophosphate peak concentration, duration of urine organophosphate and mortality rate. Urine was collected every 8 hours and was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame photometric detector and gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector for organophosphate determination. The urine organophosphate peak concentration was recorded. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare the factors between death and survival groups. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the different findings of chest X-ray between the death and survival groups. Evidently, the death group had a higher amount of organophosphate consumption, duration of coma, and higher white blood cell count than those in the survival group. Also, the death group had lower duration of hospitalization, and decreased concentrations of acetylcholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase. Total PAM amount use and duration of PAM use were lower. However, the duration of ventilator use, findings of chest X-ray, total atropine amount, duration of atropine, urine organophosphate peak concentration and duration of urine organophosphate were similar in both groups. The mortality rate of our 50 cases was 20%. As stated earlier, the cases of the death group had insufficient PAM therapy. The maximum

  11. Identification and Quantification of Cumulative Factors that ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the combined adverse effects of multiple stressors upon human health is an imperative component of cumulative risk assessment (CRA)1. In addition to chemical stressors, other non-chemical factors are also considered. For examples, smoking will elevate the risks of having lung cancer associated with radon exposure2; toluene and noise together will induce higher levels of hearing loss3; children exposed to violence will have higher risks of developing asthma in the presence of air pollution4. Environmental Justice (EJ) indicators, used as a tool to assess and quantify some of these non-chemical factors, include health, economic, and social indicators such as vulnerability and susceptibility5. Vulnerability factors encompass race, ethnicity, behavior, geographic location, etc., while susceptibility factors include life stage, genetic predisposition, pre-existing health condition and others6, although these two categories are not always mutually exclusive. Numerous findings regarding combined effects of EJ indicators and chemical stressors have been identified7-11. However, fewer studies have analyzed the interrelation between multiple stressors that exert combined harmful effects upon individual or population health in the context of exposure assessment within the risk assessment framework12. In this study, we connected EJ indicators to variables in the exposure assessment model, especially the Average Daily Dose (ADD) model13, in order to better underst

  12. Biphasic cuirass ventilation is better than bag-valve mask ventilation for resuscitation following organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Gur

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The noninvasive, easy-to-operate Biphasic Cuirass Ventilation device was effective in reducing OP-induced mortality and might be advantageous in an organophosphate mass casualty event. This finding should be validated in further investigations.

  13. Zero valent iron reduces toxicity and concentrations of organophosphate pesticides in contaminated groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Baun, Anders; Vastrup, Troels

    2013-01-01

    The potential of zero valent iron (ZVI) for remediation of contaminated groundwater from an abandoned chemical disposal site was examined through batch and column experiments. The key contaminants were organophosphate pesticides but the chemical analysis also comprised additional 22 compounds...

  14. Serum Albumin Binding and Esterase Activity: Mechanistic Interactions with Organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Goncharov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The albumin molecule, in contrast to many other plasma proteins, is not covered with a carbohydrate moiety and can bind and transport various molecules of endogenous and exogenous origin. The enzymatic activity of albumin, the existence of which many scientists perceive skeptically, is much less studied. In toxicology, understanding the mechanistic interactions of organophosphates with albumin is a special problem, and its solution could help in the development of new types of antidotes. In the present work, the history of the issue is briefly examined, then our in silico data on the interaction of human serum albumin with soman, as well as comparative in silico data of human and bovine serum albumin activities in relation to paraoxon, are presented. Information is given on the substrate specificity of albumin and we consider the possibility of its affiliation to certain classes in the nomenclature of enzymes.

  15. Computational redesign of a mononuclear zinc metalloenzyme for organophosphate hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, Sagar D.; Kipnis, Yakov; Greisen, Per Junior

    2012-01-01

    . The designed enzyme efficiently catalyzes the hydrolysis of the R(P) isomer of a coumarinyl analog of the nerve agent cyclosarin, and it shows marked substrate selectivity for coumarinyl leaving groups. Computational redesign of native enzyme active sites complements directed evolution methods and offers......The ability to redesign enzymes to catalyze noncognate chemical transformations would have wide-ranging applications. We developed a computational method for repurposing the reactivity of metalloenzyme active site functional groups to catalyze new reactions. Using this method, we engineered a zinc......-containing mouse adenosine deaminase to catalyze the hydrolysis of a model organophosphate with a catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of ~10(4) M(-1) s(-1) after directed evolution. In the high-resolution crystal structure of the enzyme, all but one of the designed residues adopt the designed conformation...

  16. Temperature changes among organophosphate poisoned patients, Tehran- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaie Haleh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OPs is a major global clinical problem in the developing countries. There have been many animal studies and few human surveys on the effects of organophosphorus pesticide (OP poisoning on thermoregulation. The aim of this prospective study was to document the pattern of tympanic temperature changes among OP poisoned patients throughout the length of their hospital stay. Methods 60 patients with diagnose of organophosphate poisoning were included in this study. Questioner was filled out by trained nurses including demographic, clinical and paraclinical data. Tympanic temperature and Pulse rate data of the cases were collected on five- occasions after admission. Results There were 41 (68.3% male and 19 (31.7% female, with a mean age of 34.4 ±19.4 years (range 13–89 years. Forty five patients had intentional poisoning for suicidal attempt. At the time of entry, the mean tympanic temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic of the OP poisoned patients were respectively 37.1+/−0.6°C (36.0- 39.5, 91+/−18 (55–145, 18+/−5.6 (8–44, 116+/−20 mm Hg (70–170 and 75+/−11.6 mm Hg (40–110. 41.7% of the cases had serum butyryl cholinesterase activities (BChE ≥ 50% normal (≥1600 mU/ml. Our patients had normal temperature at the time entry (mean = 37.1. Tympanic temperature decreasing below 36°C was not detected among the patients during the study period. A rise in mean tympanic temperature was found after atropine administration. Conclusion Our study showed hypothermia was not considerable factor among organophosphate poisoned patients, although more studies with similar situations in tropical countries are needed.

  17. Partial protection from organophosphate-induced cholinesterase inhibition by metyrapone treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Radosław Świercz; Piotr Lutz; Sławomir Gralewicz; Zofia Grzelińska; Joanna Piasecka-Zelga; Wojciech Wąsowicz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Organophosphates are cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors with worldwide use as insecticides. Stress response, evidenced by a dramatic and relatively long-lasting (several hours) rise in the plasma glucocorticoid concentration is an integral element of the organophosphate (OP) poisoning symptomatology. In rodents, corticosterone (CORT) is the main glucocorticoid. There are several reports suggesting a relationship between the stressor-induced rise in CORT concentraion (the CORT respons...

  18. Oxygen-organophosphate linkage in hemoglobin A. The double hump effect.

    OpenAIRE

    Kister, J.; Poyart, C.; Edelstein, S J

    1987-01-01

    At low concentrations of chloride ions, and in the presence of nonsaturating concentrations of organophosphates, the oxygen equilibrium curves (OEC) for solutions of human adult hemoglobin exhibit a biphasic shape conveniently revealed by graphical analysis of the first derivative of the Hill equation with a characteristic form that we call "the double hump effect." This shape, observed for sub-saturating concentrations of organophosphates, stands in marked contrast to the simple lateral shif...

  19. Dynamic modeling of organophosphate pesticide load in surface water in the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yuzhou [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, 325000 (China); Zhang Xuyang [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Liu Xingmei [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Ficklin, Darren [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang Minghua [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, 325000 (China)], E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.edu

    2008-12-15

    The hydrology, sediment, and pesticide transport components of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were evaluated on the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for monthly stream flow and sediment load ranged from 0.49 to 0.99 over the watershed during the study period of 1992-2005. The calibrated SWAT model was applied to simulate fate and transport processes of two organophosphate pesticides of diazinon and chlorpyrifos at watershed scale. The model generated satisfactory predictions of dissolved pesticide loads relative to the monitoring data. The model also showed great success in capturing spatial patterns of dissolved diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads according to the soil properties and landscape morphology over the large agricultural watershed. This study indicated that curve number was the major factor influencing the hydrology while pesticide fate and transport were mainly affected by surface runoff and pesticide application and in the study area. - Major factors governing the instream loads of organophosphate pesticides are magnitude and timing of surface runoff and pesticide application.

  20. Organophosphate Triesters and Diester Degradation Products in Municipal Sludge from Wastewater Treatment Plants in China: Spatial Patterns and Ecological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lingfang; Du, Bibai; Wang, Fei; Lam, James C W; Zeng, Lixi; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-12-05

    Little is known about the occurrences, distributions, sources, and potential risks of organophosphate (OP) triesters and diester degradation products in municipal sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, we conducted the first nationwide survey to simultaneously determine a suite of 11 OP triesters and six diester degradation products in sludge from WWTPs across China. All OP triesters were detected and three diesters were identified for the first time in sludge samples. Total concentrations of OP triesters and diester degradation products were in the ranges of 43.9-2160 and 17.0-1300 ng (g of dry weight) -1 , respectively, indicating relatively low pollution levels in China compared with those of several developed countries. A distinct geographical variation of higher concentrations of OP triesters and diesters in East China than in Central and West China was observed, suggesting that regional levels of organophosphate esters are associated with the magnitudes of regional economic development. Source analysis revealed nonchlorinated OP diesters are mainly derived from degradation in WWTPs, while chlorinated OP diesters were largely sourced from outside WWTPs. The estimated total emission fluxes of OP triesters and diesters via land-application sludge in China were approximately 330 and 134 kg/year, respectively. Further risk assessment based on risk quotient values in sludge-applied soils indicated low to medium risks for most OP triesters and diesters except tris(methylphenyl) phosphate. The significant accumulation of OP triesters and widespread occurrence of diester degradation products in sludge raise environmental concerns about these contaminants.

  1. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme...... that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative...

  2. Cumulative trauma disorders: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zaheen A; Alghadir, Ahmad H

    2017-08-03

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) is a term for various injuries of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that are caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression or sustained postures. Although there are many studies citing incidence of CTDs, there are fewer articles about its etiology, pathology and management. The aim of our study was to discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, prevention and management of CTDs. A literature search was performed using various electronic databases. The search was limited to articles in English language pertaining to randomized clinical trials, cohort studies and systematic reviews of CTDs. A total of 180 papers were identified to be relevant published since 1959. Out of these, 125 papers reported about its incidence and 50 about its conservative treatment. Workplace environment, same task repeatability and little variability, decreased time for rest, increase in expectations are major factors for developing CTDs. Prevention of its etiology and early diagnosis can be the best to decrease its incidence and severity. For effective management of CTDs, its treatment should be divided into Primordial, Primary, Secondary and Tertiary prevention.

  3. Trace determination of organophosphate esters in environmental water samples with an ionogel-based nanoconfined ionic liquid fiber coating for solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography and flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Long; Pang, Rong; Ge, Liming; Zheng, Liqing; Zhao, Jihong; Zhang, Hongzhong

    2016-11-01

    Organophosphate esters, widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers, are regarded as a class of emerging pollutants. In this work, a novel approach was developed for the fabrication of a solid-phase microextraction fiber by using hybrid silica-based materials with immobilized ionic liquids with sol-gel technology, and the prepared solid-phase microextraction fiber was then coupled with gas chromatography and flame photometric detection for the analysis of six organophosphate esters. The high loading of 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide was confined within the hybrid network. The developed solid-phase microextraction fiber possesses a coating thickness of ∼35 μm with good thermal stability and long lifetime. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as extraction time, temperature, pH, and ionic strength of the sample solution were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection were in the range of 0.04-0.95 μg L(-1) , and the precision of the method assessed with repeatability and reproducibility of (RSD%) ˂13 and ˂29%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the six organophosphate esters in three real water samples, with recoveries in the range of 64.8-125.4% at two different spiking concentration levels. As a result, the proposed method demonstrated its potential for application in trace determination of organophosphate esters in actual water samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Cumulative Exams in the Introductory Psychology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalie K.

    2013-01-01

    Many teachers require their students to take cumulative exams, but there are surprisingly few studies that examine the benefits of such exams. The purpose of this study was to determine whether introductory psychology students who take cumulative exams throughout the semester would have better long-term retention than students who take a…

  5. Cumulative Student Loan Debt in Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wyche, Shaun

    2016-01-01

    To better understand student debt in Minnesota, the Minnesota Office of Higher Education (the Office) gathers information on cumulative student loan debt from Minnesota degree-granting institutions. These data detail the number of students with loans by institution, the cumulative student loan debt incurred at that institution, and the percentage…

  6. The difference in C-reactive protein value between initial and 24 hours follow-up (D-CRP) data as a predictor of mortality in organophosphate poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Young Hwan; Park, Yong Hwan; Kim, Yong Hwan; Hong, Chong Kun; Cho, Kwang Won; Hwang, Seong Youn

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is a worldwide concern and there have been many reports about factors involved in the severity and prognosis of toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the serum C-reactive protein activity and clinical outcome in acute organophosphate-poisoned patients. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted from January 2007 to February 2012. Using a multivariate logistic analysis, data on the total population was retrospectively analyzed for association with mortality. The difference in C-reactive protein value between initial and follow-up after 24 hours (D-CRP) was compared in survivors and non-survivors. The D-CRP, APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II scoring system and SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) score were compared by analyzing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Among the 96 subjects, 74 survived and 22 died. In the total population, age, BUN, creatinine, APACHE II and SOFA score, MAP, GCS, hematocrit, respiratory rate, albumin, cholinesterase, and the difference in C-reactive protein value between initial and follow-up after 24 hours (D-CRP) were found to be associated with mortality. The fatality rate of organophosphate poisoning was 22.9% and the D-CRP was found to be associated with a significantly higher risk of death in a multiple logistic regression (Odds ratio = 1.178, 95% CI = 1.049-1.322, p = 0.006). The initial serum C-reactive protein and acetylcholinesterase were not found to be associated with the severity of acute organophosphate poisoning. However, the difference in C-reactive protein value between initial and follow-up after 24 hours (D-CRP) was associated with mortality in the total population of patients with acute organophosphate poisoning.

  7. Oxidative injury caused by individual and combined exposure of neonicotinoid, organophosphate and herbicide in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Saurabh; Jhamtani, Reena C; Dahiya, M S; Agarwal, Rakhi

    2017-01-01

    The greatest challenge in environmental toxicology is to understand the effects of mixture toxicity as environmental pollutants co-exist and exhibit combined effects. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the mixture toxicity associated with two or more co-existing compounds. Pesticides are widely used to control pest, they are ubiquitous in nature and present in all environmental components. Pesticide residue can be detected in almost all components of environment and food samples. Imidacloprid (IMD) (neonicotinoid), dichlorvos (DIC) (organophosphate) and atrazine (ATZ) are three widely used pesticides for commercial uses. Present work includes the assessment of effects of individual exposure of IMD (27.5 mg/L), DIC (15 mg/L), and ATZ (03 mg/L) and in combination of three (CMD) (13.75 + 7.5 + 1.5 mg/L IMD, DIC & ATZ, respectively) in terms of LPO, GSH content and antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) in zebrafish (Danio rerio), exposed for 24 h. CMD group exhibits highest lipid peroxidation than other individually exposed groups. Similarly, the activities of antioxidant enzymes were highest in CMD group with reduced GSH content. Results indicate that exposure to mixture of pesticides develops synergistic effects which were more toxic in compare to individual exposure and also produce toxicity in all examined tissues rather than selective organ toxicity.

  8. Oxidative injury caused by individual and combined exposure of neonicotinoid, organophosphate and herbicide in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Shukla

    Full Text Available The greatest challenge in environmental toxicology is to understand the effects of mixture toxicity as environmental pollutants co-exist and exhibit combined effects. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the mixture toxicity associated with two or more co-existing compounds. Pesticides are widely used to control pest, they are ubiquitous in nature and present in all environmental components. Pesticide residue can be detected in almost all components of environment and food samples. Imidacloprid (IMD (neonicotinoid, dichlorvos (DIC (organophosphate and atrazine (ATZ are three widely used pesticides for commercial uses. Present work includes the assessment of effects of individual exposure of IMD (27.5 mg/L, DIC (15 mg/L, and ATZ (03 mg/L and in combination of three (CMD (13.75 + 7.5 + 1.5 mg/L IMD, DIC & ATZ, respectively in terms of LPO, GSH content and antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in zebrafish (Danio rerio, exposed for 24 h. CMD group exhibits highest lipid peroxidation than other individually exposed groups. Similarly, the activities of antioxidant enzymes were highest in CMD group with reduced GSH content. Results indicate that exposure to mixture of pesticides develops synergistic effects which were more toxic in compare to individual exposure and also produce toxicity in all examined tissues rather than selective organ toxicity. Keywords: Imidacloprid, Dichlorvos, Atrazine, Oxidative stress, Environmental toxicology

  9. Exposure to organophosphate and cognitive performance in chilean rural school children: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Muñoz Q

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the presence of organophosphate metabolites (OP in the urine of rural schoolchildren and estimate its association with their cognitive performance. Methodology: a cross-sectional exploratory study in which a total of 25 children were assessed. Cognitive functioning was measured using the WISC-III intelligence test. Additionally, the concentration of OP metabolites in their urine was tested. Results: 56% of the children had concentration levels above the detection limit for dimethylphosphate (DMP and dimethyltiophosphate (DMTP. Moreover, 92% of them had the metabolite diethylphosphate (DEP values on this limit. Regarding the WISC-III, the intelligence quotient (IQ values below the average (IQ ˃ 90 correspond to: Total IQ = 60% performance IQ = 64%, verbal IQ = 52%, perceptual organization IQ = 60%, processing speed IQ = 95%, and freedom from distractibility IQ = 64%. An inverse association was found between the processing speed factor and DMTP (rs = -0.44, p = 0.014. Conclusions: results indicate that the rural schoolchildren whose urine was measured with OP metabolite biomarkers had been exposed to OP pesticides. A relationship was observed between the presence of OP metabolites and the cognitive performance factor of the WISC-III test. We believe it is appropriate to evaluate the effects of the presence of OP metabolites on cognitive functioning in a larger sample, while considering other exposure variables.

  10. Sensitivity of Costa Rica's native cladoceran Daphnia ambigua and Simocephalus serrulatus to the organophosphate pesticide ethoprophos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Andrés, María; Torres, Freylan Mena; Vargas, Seiling; Solano, Karla

    2014-01-01

    The study of pesticide toxicity in aquatic environments is assessed with ecotoxicological tests and most research has been performed using species from temperate regions. In the present study, series of acute (48 hrs) toxicity tests to compare the sensibility of two indigenous cladocera of Costa Rica and two reference species were used in temperate regions to the organophosphate pesticide, Ethoprophos. Additionally, reproduction tests using S. serrulatus with sub lethal concentrations of ethoprophos and a control were assayed to check its sensitivity over a longer period exposure. The sensitivity of Costa Rica's native species Daphnia ambigua (EC50 48 hr: 12.9 +/- 3.0 microg(l(-1)) and Simocephalus serrulatus (10.6 +/- 2.1 microg l(-1)) to ethoprophos were higher (p < 0.05) when compared to the exotic species Daphnia magna (289.8 +/- 77.4 microg l(-1)), and were comparable to that of the more widely distributed species, Ceriodaphnia dubia (18.2 +/- 5.2 microg l(-1)). No effect on S. serrulatus reproduction was observed at concentrations between 1 and 4 microg l(-1). This study provides information that can be considered in the selection of species for ecosystem studies of pesticide toxicity in neotropical regions.

  11. Pharmacokinetic Studies on Oximes in Organophosphate Poisoning: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Thunga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common causes of poisoning in developing countries especially in Southeastern Asia. Poisoning with phosphorus-containing organic chemicals or OP compounds can be managed with antidotes like oximes which are potential reactivators of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. The efficacy of oxime therapy in OP poisoned patients mainly depends upon various factors such as different dose plans, infusion rate of oximes, genetic differences of patients, type of oxime used and chemical nature of the OP compound ingested. Studies on pralidoxime kinetics in OP poisoned patients have shown that reactivation of AChE depends on the plasma concentration of oximes as well as OP compounds. The plasma concentration of oximes mainly depends on the dose plan from intermittent injection to continuous infusion after a loading dose. The incontrovertible fact is that the intermittent dosing of oximes results in deep troughs in blood pralidoxime/oxime levels (BPL whereas continuous infusion of oximes maintains steady state plasma concentrations. Many published literature also highlighted pralidoxime via continuous infusion results in better outcomes with minimum fluctuation in BPL compared to intermittent dosing. At therapeutic doses, adverse effects of oximes are reported to be minimal. But high BPL is associated with some common adverse effects including dizziness, blurred vision and diastolic hypertension. Considering all the facts, it is important to note that kinetic studies of oximes are useful not only in deciding the dose regimen, but also in predicting the possible side-effects.

  12. Neurotoxic impact of organophosphate pesticide phosphomedon on the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ranjit

    2014-03-01

    Organophosphate pesticide phosphomedon was exposed to albino rat at a concentration of 35 ppm in the time interval of 30, 45 and 60 days. During the exposure period neurobehavioral symptoms such as reduce food intake, weight loss, increase water intake, low defecation frequency, increase locomotion frequency at high dose were observed. Locomotion frequency were less initially but higher in increasing dose concentration. The result was also different in both the sexes. A decrease social interaction and increase force swimming with increasing dose concentration, which was not significant as comparison to control. A significant histopathological changes observed in three dose concentrations. In 30 days phosphomedon exposure the nuclear shape changes to oval, pear shaped along with fibrosis, lipidosis, 45 days exposure showed the increase number of nucleus, Chromatolysis, inflammatory nucleus, pyknosis. In 60 days test group histopathological picture showed the swelling of cell body, lipidosis, demylination, necrosis in brain cells. Over all result indicated that due to impact of O. P pesticide phosphomedon a severe histopathological changes occurs which was distinctly observed in neurobehavioural changes.

  13. Sex-related differences in the tolerance of Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta) to organophosphate insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lame, F M; Hong, J J; Shearer, P W; Brattsten, L B

    2001-09-01

    In vivo toxicity assays have shown that organophosphate insecticides are less toxic to male than to female Oriental fruit moths Grapholita molesta. While male moths have higher levels of acetylcholinesterase and general esterase activities, female moth acetylcholinesterase enzymes are less sensitive to aromatic and aliphatic organophosphates than male enzymes. Elevated esterase and acetylcholinesterase activities in male moths explain their greater tolerance to aromatic and aliphatic organophosphates. Male and female acetylcholinesterase enzymes are equally tolerant to heteroaromatic organophosphates, the most widely used of this class of insecticides in G molesta control. This observation, in contrast to the greater sensitivity of male acetylcholinesterases to aromatic and aliphatic organophosphates, shows the potential for the evolution of insensitive target sites in male moths, which would increase male G molesta tolerance to these insecticides. Significant sex-linked differences in insecticide tolerance have not been reported previously in lepidopterans. The practical implications of the observed differences in tolerance in male and female G molesta question the practice of using pheromone traps to monitor populations of these moths in orchards.

  14. Organophosphate insecticides and acaricides antagonise bifenazate toxicity through esterase inhibition in Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Van Pottelberge, Steven; Nauen, Ralf; Tirry, Luc

    2007-12-01

    Bifenazate is a carbazate acaricide known for its potency, particularly against tetranychid mite species such as the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). It was recently shown that the compound needs to be activated by an S,S,S-tributyl-phosphorotrithioate (DEF)-sensitive mechanism in spider mites to display full acaricidal efficacy. The ability of well-known organophosphates and carbamates to inhibit the activation of bifenazate and thus compromise its acaricidal potential was tested. Esterase activity determined in vivo after pre-exposure of mites with organophosphates and carbamates revealed--depending on the compound--varying esterase inhibition nicely correlated with the ability of the individual compound to antagonise bifenazate action on mites. The findings illustrate that organophosphates and carbamates interfere with bifenazate efficacy, most probably by inhibiting carboxylesterases responsible for the activation of the pro-drug. As a result of the strong antagonism, mixtures of bifenazate with carbamates or organophosphates should not be used under field conditions. Moreover, there exists a real threat in repeatedly applying organophosphates and bifenazate. The present study again illustrates how important mode of action information is for the proper planning of resistance management strategies. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Ovicidal Activity of Organophosphate, Oxadiazine, Neonicotinoid and Insect Growth Regulator Chemistries on Northern Strain Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Eric J.; Middleton, Samantha M.; Wise, John C.

    2008-01-01

    An in vitro method was developed for assessing ovicidal effects of the organophosphate azinphos-methyl, the neonicotioids thiacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin, the oxadiazine indoxacarb and the insect growth regulators novaluron and pyriproxifen on the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The baseline survivorship of this method was 88 percent. Plum curculio eggs were most sensitive to azinphos-methyl. Thiacloprid, clothianidin and the chitin synthesis inhibitor, novaluron, had LC50 values below 100 ppm. Thiamethoxam, indoxacarb and pyriproxifen were not ovicidal at 100 ppm. Octanol-water partitioning coefficients, log Kow, appeared to be an important indicator of ovicidal activity within the neonicotinoids. This new bioassay method eliminates the confounding of the insect-chemical and plant-chemical interactions and the results highlight the utility of a post-infestation curative approach to plum curculio management.

  16. Neurodevelopmental effects in children associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticides: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris A.; Barr, Dana B.; Steenland, Kyle; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P. Barry; Iglesias, Veronica; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos; Rojas, Evelyn; Vega, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose–response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose–response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows

  17. LRO DLRE 5 GLOBAL CUMULATIVE PRODUCTS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment Global Cumulative Products also known as GCPs. The DLRE is a surface pushbroom mapper that measures...

  18. Early childhood adversity potentiates the adverse association between prenatal organophosphate pesticide exposure and child IQ: The CHAMACOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Lauren J; Gunier, Robert B; Harley, Kim; Kogut, Katherine; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have observed an adverse association between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticide (OPs) and child cognition, but few studies consider the potential role of social stressors in modifying this relationship. We seek to explore the potential role of early social adversities in modifying the relationship between OPs and child IQ in an agricultural Mexican American population. Participants from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a prospective longitudinal pre-birth cohort study, include 329 singleton infants and their mothers followed from pregnancy through age 7. Dialkyl phosphate metabolite concentrations (DAPs), a biomarker of organophosphate pesticide exposure, were measured in maternal urine collected twice during pregnancy and averaged. Child cognitive ability was assessed at 7 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition. Demographic characteristics and adversity information were collected during interviews and home visits at numerous time points from pregnancy until age 7. Among low-income Latina mothers and their children in the Salinas Valley, total adversity and specific domains of adversity including poor learning environment and adverse parent-child relationships were negatively associated with child cognition. Adverse associations between DAP concentrations and IQ were stronger in children experiencing greater adversity; these associations varied by child sex. For example, the association between prenatal OP exposure and Full-Scale IQ is potentiated among boys who experienced high adversity in the learning environment (β=-13.3; p-value IQ differently among male and female children. These findings emphasize the need to consider plausible interactive pathways between social adversities and environmental exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Levels of select organophosphates in human colostrum and mature milk samples in rural region of Faizabad district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S; Narvi, S S; Prasad, S C

    2011-10-01

    Human colostrum and mature milk samples from rural mothers were separately screened for organophosphate pesticides (OPPs). The samples were assessed for the pollution load they are transmitting to the nursing infant to determine potential toxicity. The role of colostrum for toxicity monitoring was assessed in comparison to mature milk as it is the very first infant food. The pesticides were quantified using a Gas Chromatograph equipped with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) and the results were further validated on GC linked with Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). A total of 33 samples were analyzed out of 40 samples collected. These samples were from 33 mothers. Out of these, 25 were colostrum samples and 8 were mature milk samples. Frequency percentage (N%) of organophosphates analyzed was highest for ethion (23.1% or 6/26) in colostrum and chlorpyrifos (50% or 4/8) in mature milk samples. Frequency percentage in colostrum was 19.2% (5/26) for chlorpyrifos and 3.8% (1/26) for dimethoate; 25.0% (2/8) mature milk samples carried dimethoate and 12.5% (1/8) carried ethion. Mean OPPs in colostrum: dimethoate (85.888 ng/g fat) > ethion (48.000 ng/g fat) > chlorpyrifos (4.003 ng/g fat); and mature milk: ethion (744.925 ng/g fat) > chlorpyrifos (37.274 ng/g fat) > dimethoate (26.752 ng/g fat). MS data revealed the presence of methyl parathion, which was not quantitated. None of the samples exceeded acceptable daily intake standards set by Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR). The study will pave way for further analysis on pesticide toxicology.

  20. Human cumulative culture : a comparative perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, L.; Vale, G.L.; Laland, K. N.; Flynn, E.G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Many animals exhibit social learning and behavioural traditions, but human culture exhibits unparalleled complexity and diversity, and is unambiguously cumulative in character. These similarities and differences have spawned a debate over whether animal traditions and human culture are reliant on homologous or analogous psychological processes. Human cumulative culture combines high-fidelity transmission of cultural knowledge with beneficial modifications to generate a ‘ratcheting’ in technol...

  1. The Effect of Cumulative Tests on the Final Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagley, Jonathan E.; Capaldi, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics teachers often give cumulative final exams, but little research has been done on the effects that cumulative exams given throughout the semester have on student grades and content knowledge. This study went beyond a cumulative final exam, and investigated the benefits of cumulative versus non-cumulative semester exams on students'…

  2. Cumulative cultural evolution: the role of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laureano; Toro, Miguel A

    2014-04-21

    In humans, cultural transmission occurs usually by cumulative inheritance, generating complex adaptive behavioral features. Cumulative culture requires key psychological processes (fundamentally imitation and teaching) that are absent or impoverished in non-human primates. In this paper we analyze the role that teaching has played in human cumulative cultural evolution. We assume that a system of cumulative culture generates increasingly adaptive behaviors, that are also more complex and difficult to imitate. Our thesis is that, as cultural traits become more complex, cumulative cultural transmission requires teaching to ensure accurate transmission from one generation to the next. In an increasingly complex cultural environment, we consider that individuals commit errors in imitation. We develop a model of cumulative cultural evolution in a changing environment and show that these errors hamper the process of cultural accumulation. We also show that a system of teaching between parents and offspring that increases the fidelity of imitation unblocks the accumulation and becomes adaptive whenever the gain in fitness compensates the cost of teaching. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lewis G; Vale, Gill L; Laland, Kevin N; Flynn, Emma; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-05-01

    Many animals exhibit social learning and behavioural traditions, but human culture exhibits unparalleled complexity and diversity, and is unambiguously cumulative in character. These similarities and differences have spawned a debate over whether animal traditions and human culture are reliant on homologous or analogous psychological processes. Human cumulative culture combines high-fidelity transmission of cultural knowledge with beneficial modifications to generate a 'ratcheting' in technological complexity, leading to the development of traits far more complex than one individual could invent alone. Claims have been made for cumulative culture in several species of animals, including chimpanzees, orangutans and New Caledonian crows, but these remain contentious. Whilst initial work on the topic of cumulative culture was largely theoretical, employing mathematical methods developed by population biologists, in recent years researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, biology, economics, biological anthropology, linguistics and archaeology, have turned their attention to the experimental investigation of cumulative culture. We review this literature, highlighting advances made in understanding the underlying processes of cumulative culture and emphasising areas of agreement and disagreement amongst investigators in separate fields. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  4. Detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents by immobilized Escherichia coli with surface-expressed organophosphorus hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchandani, A; Kaneva, I; Chen, W

    1999-04-20

    An improved whole-cell technology for detoxifying organophosphate nerve agents was recently developed based on genetically engineered Escherichia coli with organophosphorus hydrolase anchored on the surface. This article reports the immobilization of these novel biocatalysts on nonwoven polypropylene fabric and their applications in detoxifying contaminated wastewaters. The best cell loading (256 mg cell dry weight/g of support or 50 mg cell dry weight/cm2 of support) and subsequent hydrolysis of organophosphate nerve agents were achieved by immobilizing nongrowing cells in a pH 8, 150 mM citrate-phosphate buffer supplemented with 1 mM Co2+ for 48 h via simple adsorption, followed by organophosphate hydrolysis in a pH 8, 50 mM citrate-phosphate buffer supplemented with 0.05 mM Co2+ and 20% methanol at 37 degrees C. In batch operations, the immobilized cells degraded 100% of 0.8 mM paraoxon, a model organophosphate nerve agent, in approximately 100 min, at a specific rate of 0.160 mM min-1 (g cell dry wt)-1. The immobilized cells retained almost 100% activity during the initial six repeated cycles and close to 90% activity even after 12 repeated cycles, extending over a period of 19 days without any nutrient supplementation. In addition to paraoxon, other commonly used organophosphates, such as diazinon, coumaphos, and methylparathion were hydrolyzed efficiently. The cell immobilization technology developed here paves the way for an efficient, simple, and cost-effective method for detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Medical Devices; Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices; Classification of the Organophosphate Test System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-18

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the organophosphate test system into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the organophosphate test system's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  6. Multiple centrally acting antidotes protect against severe organophosphate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivilotti, Marco L A; Bird, Steven B; Lo, Jean C Y; Dickson, Eric W

    2006-04-01

    Accumulation of acetylcholine in the central nervous system is believed to account for the rapid lethality of organophosphate pesticides and chemical nerve agents. Diazepam is known to supplement atropine therapy, but its specific mechanism of action is uncertain. To test four centrally acting agents for early antidotal efficacy in severe dichlorvos poisoning in the murine model. The up-and-down method was used to dose four candidate antidotes: diazepam, xylazine, morphine, and ketamine. Antidotes were administered subcutaneously to unsedated adult Sprague-Dawley rats who were pretreated with 3 mg/kg intraperitoneal glycopyrrolate. All animals received 20 mg/kg of dichlorvos subcutaneously 5 minutes later. A blinded observer adjudicated the outcomes of 10-minute mortality and survival time. All animals pretreated with either no antidote (8/8 deaths) or glycopyrrolate alone (8/8) died within 10 minutes of dichlorvos injection. Pretreatment with diazepam (3/9 deaths), or xylazine (3/9), decreased lethality substantially (Fisher p = 0.007; median effective doses, 0.12 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg, respectively). Intermediate doses of morphine (3.1 to 5.5 mg/kg) resulted in survival, but higher doses did not, presumably because of excessive respiratory depression (7/11 deaths; p = 0.09). Ketamine (7/8 deaths) was ineffective as an antidote. Survival times also were prolonged in the diazepam and xylazine groups (log-rank p mechanisms are each sufficient to avert lethality. These findings suggest new possibilities for prophylaxis or therapy.

  7. Cumulative risk: toxicity and interactions of physical and chemical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Cynthia V; Boekelheide, Kim; Catlin, Natasha; Gordon, Christopher J; Morata, Thais; Selgrade, Maryjane K; Sexton, Kenneth; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial reflect increased interest in consideration of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop community-based risk assessment methods. A key roadblock is the uncertainty as to how nonchemical stressors behave in relationship to chemical stressors. Physical stressors offer a reasonable starting place for measuring the effects of nonchemical stressors and their modulation of chemical effects (and vice versa), as they clearly differ from chemical stressors; and "doses" of many physical stressors are more easily quantifiable than those of psychosocial stressors. There is a commonly held belief that virtually nothing is known about the impact of nonchemical stressors on chemically mediated toxicity or the joint impact of coexposure to chemical and nonchemical stressors. Although this is generally true, there are several instances where a substantial body of evidence exists. A workshop titled "Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors" held at the 2013 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting provided a forum for discussion of research addressing the toxicity of physical stressors and what is known about their interactions with chemical stressors, both in terms of exposure and effects. Physical stressors including sunlight, heat, radiation, infectious disease, and noise were discussed in reference to identifying pathways of interaction with chemical stressors, data gaps, and suggestions for future incorporation into cumulative risk assessments.

  8. Psoriasis: is the impairment to a patient's life cumulative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, A B; Gieler, U; Linder, D; Sampogna, F; Warren, R B; Augustin, M

    2010-09-01

    Psoriasis is associated with significant physical and psychological burden affecting all facets of a patient's life--relationships, social activities, work and emotional wellbeing. The cumulative effect of this disability may be self-perpetuating social disconnection and failure to achieve a 'full life potential' in some patients. Health-related quality of life studies have quantified the burden of psoriasis providing predominantly cross-sectional data and point-in-time images of patients' lives rather than assessing the possible cumulative disability over a patient's lifetime. However, social and economic outcomes indicate there are likely negative impacts that accumulate over time. To capture the cumulative effect of psoriasis and its associated co-morbidities and stigma over a patient's life course, we propose the concept of 'Cumulative Life Course Impairment' (CLCI). CLCI results from an interaction between (A) the burden of stigmatization, and physical and psychological co-morbidities and (B) coping strategies and external factors. Several key aspects of the CLCI concept are supported by data similar to that used in health-related quality of life assessments. Future research should focus on (i) establishing key components of CLCI and determining the mechanisms of impairment through longitudinal or retrospective case-control studies, and (ii) assessing factors that put patients at increased risk of developing CLCI. In the future, this concept may lead to a better understanding of the overall impact of psoriasis, help identify more vulnerable patients, and facilitate more appropriate treatment decisions or earlier referrals. To our knowledge, this is a first attempt to apply and develop concepts from 'Life Course Epidemiology' to psoriasis research.

  9. Two new constraints for the cumulant matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Matito, Eduard [Institut de Química Computacional i Catàlisi (IQCC) and Department de Química, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Piris, Mario [Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea UPV/EHU, and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC). P.K. 1072, 20080 Donostia, Euskadi (Spain)

    2014-12-21

    We suggest new strict constraints that the two-particle cumulant matrix should fulfill. The constraints are obtained from the decomposition of 〈S-^{sup 2}〉, previously developed in our laboratory, and the vanishing number of electrons shared by two non-interacting fragments. The conditions impose stringent constraints into the cumulant structure without any need to perform an orbital optimization procedure thus carrying very small or no computational effort. These constraints are tested on the series of Piris natural orbital functionals (PNOF), which are among the most accurate ones available in the literature. Interestingly, even though all PNOF cumulants ensure correct overall 〈S{sup ^2}〉 values, none of them is consistent with the local spin structure of systems that dissociate more than one pair of electrons. A careful analysis of the local spin components reveals the most important missing contributions in the cumulant expression thus suggesting a means to improve PNOF5. The constraints provide an inexpensive tool for the construction and testing of cumulant structures that complement previously known conditions such as the N-representability or the square of the total spin angular momentum, 〈S{sup ^2}〉.

  10. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  11. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability: Marginal and Cause-Specific Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2005-01-01

    cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling......cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling...

  12. Childhood poverty and health: cumulative risk exposure and stress dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2007-11-01

    A massive literature documents the inverse association between poverty or low socioeconomic status and health, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this robust relation. We examined longitudinal relations between duration of poverty exposure since birth, cumulative risk exposure, and physiological stress in two hundred seven 13-year-olds. Chronic stress was assessed by basal blood pressure and overnight cortisol levels; stress regulation was assessed by cardiovascular reactivity to a standard acute stressor and recovery after exposure to this stressor. Cumulative risk exposure was measured by multiple physical (e.g., substandard housing) and social (e.g., family turmoil) risk factors. The greater the number of years spent living in poverty, the more elevated was overnight cortisol and the more dysregulated was the cardiovascular response (i.e., muted reactivity). Cardiovascular recovery was not affected by duration of poverty exposure. Unlike the duration of poverty exposure, concurrent poverty (i.e., during adolescence) did not affect these physiological stress outcomes. The effects of childhood poverty on stress dysregulation are largely explained by cumulative risk exposure accompanying childhood poverty.

  13. Cumulative effects of planned industrial development and climate change on marine ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing human population, large scale climate changes, and the interaction of multiple stressors, understanding cumulative effects on marine ecosystems is increasingly important. Two major drivers of change in coastal and marine ecosystems are industrial developments with acute impacts on local ecosystems, and global climate change stressors with widespread impacts. We conducted a cumulative effects mapping analysis of the marine waters of British Columbia, Canada, under different scenarios: climate change and planned developments. At the coast-wide scale, climate change drove the largest change in cumulative effects with both widespread impacts and high vulnerability scores. Where the impacts of planned developments occur, planned industrial and pipeline activities had high cumulative effects, but the footprint of these effects was comparatively localized. Nearshore habitats were at greatest risk from planned industrial and pipeline activities; in particular, the impacts of planned pipelines on rocky intertidal habitats were predicted to cause the highest change in cumulative effects. This method of incorporating planned industrial development in cumulative effects mapping allows explicit comparison of different scenarios with the potential to be used in environmental impact assessments at various scales. Its use allows resource managers to consider cumulative effect hotspots when making decisions regarding industrial developments and avoid unacceptable cumulative effects. Management needs to consider both global and local stressors in managing marine ecosystems for the protection of biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  14. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  15. Therapeutic efficacy of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) against organophosphate intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueters, T.J.H.; Groen, B.; Danhof, M.; IJzerman, A.P.; Helden, H.P.M. van

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether reduction of central acetylcholine (ACh) accumulation by adenosine receptor agonists could serve as a generic treatment against organophosphate (OP) poisoning. The OPs studied were tabun (O-ethyl-N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), sarin

  16. Retrospective detection of exposure to organophosphates: analysis in blood of human beings and rhesus monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polhuijs, M.; Langenberg, J.P.; Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Benschop, H.P.; Jong, L.P.A. de

    1999-01-01

    The terrorist attacks with nerve agents in Japan as well as the ongoing debate on a possible relationship between the so-called Gulf War Syndrome and accidental exposure to traces of nerve agents have made clear that improved methods for detection of exposure to organophosphates are needed. Low

  17. Role of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in organophosphate metabolism: Implications in neurodegenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P. [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Kanavouras, Konstantinos [Laboratory of Neurological Sciences, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tsatsakis, Aristidis M., E-mail: aris@med.uoc.gr [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides are a class of compounds that are widely used in agricultural and rural areas. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a phase-I enzyme that is involved in the hydrolysis of organophosphate esters. Environmental poisoning by organophosphate compounds has been the main driving force of previous research on PON1 enzymes. Recent discoveries in animal models have revealed the important role of the enzyme in lipid metabolism. However although PON1 function is well established in experimental models, the contribution of PON1 in neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. In this minireview we summarize the involvement of PON1 genotypes in the occurrence of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A brief overview of latest epidemiological studies, regarding the two most important PON1 coding region polymorphisms PON1-L55M and PON1-Q192R is presented. Positive and negative associations of PON1 with disease occurrence are reported. Notably the MM and RR alleles contribute a risk enhancing effect for the development of some neurodegenerative diseases, which may be explained by the reduced lipoprotein free radical scavenging activity that may give rise to neuronal damage, through distinct mechanism. Conflicting findings that fail to support this postulate may represent the human population ethnic heterogeneity, different sample size and environmental parameters affecting PON1 status. We conclude that further epidemiological studies are required in order to address the exact contribution of PON1 genome in combination with organophosphate exposure in populations with neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition as an indicator of organophosphate and carbamate poisoning in Kenyan agricultural workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayo-Mitoko, G.J.A.; Heederik, D.; Kromhout, H.; Omondi, B.E.O.; Boleij, J.S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was determined for 666 Kenyan agricultural workers; 390 (58.6%) mainly pesticide applicators exposed to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides and 276 (41.4%) unexposed controls from four rural agricultural areas during 1993 and 1994. Baseline levels were depressed

  19. Cases of poisoning with organophosphates treated at the University Clinical Centre of Kosova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Musli; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Merita; Mekaj, Agon; Gashi, Goneta

    2010-01-01

    Everywhere today, poisonings present a significant and continuous increase of incidence in illness. Poisonings with organophosphates are more and more often. We do not have accurate statistics for this problem. The aim of this work was to present the clinical characteristics of poisoning with organophosphates, treated in University Clinical Centre in Prishtina. With the retrospective method, 23 patients were analyzed, 18 female and 5 male. Out of these, to (43.5%) have had tentative suicide, while 13 (56%) were accidentally exposed to poison. Poisoning with organophosphates was present in 3.8% of the overall number of poisonings. Organophosphate that was found in the analyzed poisoned patients was malathion (known here as Etiol). Average hospitalization time was 8.8 days (1 - 50 days range), average age of the patients was 27.1 years. Mortality scale was 52.1%. All these patients were treated with atropine. Atropine was given in intravenous way during 4.2 +/- 3.5 days and the average total dose was 82 +/- 61.5 mg. Pralidoxime antidote was not given to any of the patients. In adults, the poisoning was done mainly with the aim of suicide. Poisoned children with Etiol are in larger numbers from rural areas.

  20. Verification of exposure to organophosphates: Generic mass spectrometric method for detection of human butyrylcholinesterase adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Schans, M.J. van der; Hulst, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    We present a generic mass spectrometric method to verify exposure to organophosphates, based on the chemical conversion of the phosphylated peptides obtained after pepsin digestion of human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE) to a common precursor peptide. After exposure of plasma to various

  1. CAN FLU-LIKE ILLNESS BE AN INDICATION OF RECENT ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can flu-like illness be an indication of recent organophosphate pesticide exposure in preschool children? P Mendola*, D Barr, D Walsh, S Hern, S Rhoney, L Needham, E Hilborn, M Gonzales, C Carty, G Robertson, J Creason (US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)<...

  2. Bioremediation of pesticide contaminated water using an organophosphate degrading enzyme immobilized on nonwoven polyester textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Truong, Yen Bach; Cacioli, Paul; Butler, Phil; Kyratzis, Ilias Louis

    2014-01-10

    Bioremediation using enzymes has become an attractive approach for removing hazardous chemicals such as organophosphate pesticides from the environment. Enzymes immobilized on solid carriers are particularly suited for such applications. In this study, the organophosphate degrading enzyme A (OpdA) was covalently immobilized on highly porous nonwoven polyester fabrics for organophosphate pesticide degradation. The fabrics were first activated with ethylenediamine to introduce free amine groups, and the enzyme was then attached using the bifunctional crosslinker glutaraldehyde. The immobilization only slightly increased the Km (for methyl parathion, MP), broadened the pH profile such that the enzyme had significant activity at acidic pH, and enhanced the stability of the enzyme. The OpdA-functionalized fabrics could be stored in a phosphate buffer or in the dry state at 4°C for at least 4 weeks without a large loss of activity. When used in batch mode, the functionalized textiles could degrade 20 μM MP in un-buffered water at liquor to fabric ratios as high as 5000:1 within 2h, and could be used repeatedly. The fabrics could also be made into columns for continuous pesticide degradation. The columns were able to degrade 50 μM MP at high flow rates, and could be used repeatedly over 2 months. These results demonstrate that OpdA immobilized on nonwoven polyester fabrics is useful in environmental remediation of organophosphate compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Organophosphate-based pesticides and genetic damage implicated in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Lucy R; McKenzie, Geoff H; Moriarty, Helen T

    2002-03-01

    Organophosphate-based pesticides have been associated with pathology and chromosomal damage in humans. There are also epidemiologic links with cancer. The few screening tests for low-level occupational exposure are of doubtful sensitivity; this investigation evaluated four methods. Blood samples were studied from 10 farmers before and after occupational exposure to organophosphate-based pesticides and five unexposed controls. The standard cholinesterase test was insensitive to the exposure (P=0.815). However, a significant increase in Howell-Jolly bodies within erythrocytes was observed (P=0.001). Cytogenetic studies on routine and aphidicolin-induced blood cultures revealed that following organophosphate exposure the total number of gaps and breaks on human chromosomes was significantly increased (P=0.004 and P=0.0006, respectively). We concluded that Howell-Jolly body and fragile site analysis were sensitive indicators of nuclear damage resulting from low-level occupational exposure to organophosphate. Such nuclear damage could be implicated in carcinogenesis. The development of bladder cancer is one such example.

  4. Immunomodulation by poly-YE reduces organophosphate-induced brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Arseny; Kunis, Gilad; Berkutzki, Tamara; Ronen, Ayal; Krivoy, Amir; Yoles, Eti; Last, David; Mardor, Yael; Van Shura, Kerry; McFarland, Emylee; Capacio, Benedict A; Eisner, Claire; Gonzales, Mary; Gregorowicz, Danise; Eisenkraft, Arik; McDonough, John H; Schwartz, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Accidental organophosphate poisoning resulting from environmental or occupational exposure, as well as the deliberate use of nerve agents on the battlefield or by terrorists, remain major threats for multi-casualty events, with no effective therapies yet available. Even transient exposure to organophosphorous compounds may lead to brain damage associated with microglial activation and to long-lasting neurological and psychological deficits. Regulation of the microglial response by adaptive immunity was previously shown to reduce the consequences of acute insult to the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we tested whether an immunization-based treatment that affects the properties of T regulatory cells (Tregs) can reduce brain damage following organophosphate intoxication, as a supplement to the standard antidotal protocol. Rats were intoxicated by acute exposure to the nerve agent soman, or the organophosphate pesticide, paraoxon, and after 24 h were treated with the immunomodulator, poly-YE. A single injection of poly-YE resulted in a significant increase in neuronal survival and tissue preservation. The beneficial effect of poly-YE treatment was associated with specific recruitment of CD4(+) T cells into the brain, reduced microglial activation, and an increase in the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the piriform cortex. These results suggest therapeutic intervention with poly-YE as an immunomodulatory supplementary approach against consequences of organophosphate-induced brain damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Paul Everett Meehl: the cumulative record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Niels G; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2005-10-01

    In this brief biographical sketch of Paul Meehl, the authors examine the "cumulative record" of his scholarship and mentorship. This record sheds light on why Meehl is widely regarded as one of the most influential clinical psychologists of the 20th century, as well as on Meehl's remarkable intellectual life. Time has proven that Meehl's writings are exceptional in their quality, influence, breadth, and depth. In addition, Meehl's cumulative record raises important questions regarding the reinforcement contingencies in major research-oriented psychology departments. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Oral contraceptive use and impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M T; Jensen, A; Frederiksen, K

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk.......Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk....

  7. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus Reduces Organophosphate Pesticide Absorption and Toxicity to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinder, Mark; McDowell, Tim W; Daisley, Brendan A; Ali, Sohrab N; Leong, Hon S; Sumarah, Mark W; Reid, Gregor

    2016-10-15

    Organophosphate pesticides used in agriculture can pose health risks to humans and wildlife. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus, a genus of commensal bacteria, would reduce absorption and toxicity of consumed organophosphate pesticides (parathion and chlorpyrifos [CP]). Several Lactobacillus species were screened for toleration of 100 ppm of CP or parathion in MRS broth based on 24-h growth curves. Certain Lactobacillus strains were unable to reach stationary-phase culture maxima and displayed an abnormal culture morphology in response to pesticide. Further characterization of commonly used, pesticide-tolerant and pesticide-susceptible, probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and L. rhamnosus strain GR-1 (LGR-1), respectively, revealed that both strains could significantly sequester organophosphate pesticides from solution after 24-h coincubations. This effect was independent of metabolic activity, as L. rhamnosus GG did not hydrolyze CP and no difference in organophosphate sequestration was observed between live and heat-killed strains. Furthermore, LGR-1 and LGG reduced the absorption of 100 μM parathion or CP in a Caco-2 Transwell model of the small intestine epithelium. To determine the effect of sequestration on acute toxicity, newly eclosed Drosophila melanogaster flies were exposed to food containing 10 μM CP with or without supplementation with live LGG. Supplementation with LGG simultaneously, but not with administration of CP 3 days prior (prophylactically), mitigated CP-induced mortality. In summary, the results suggest that L. rhamnosus may be useful for reducing toxic organophosphate pesticide exposure via passive binding. These findings could be transferable to clinical and livestock applications due to affordability and practical ability to supplement products with food-grade bacteria. The consequences of environmental pesticide pollution due to widespread usage in agriculture and soil leaching are becoming a

  8. In Vitro Cysteine Reactivates Organophosphate Insecticide Dichlorvos-Inhibited Human Cholinesterases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Mohammadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Organophosphate (OP pesticides inhibit both red blood cell (RBC and plasma cholinesterases (ChEs. Oximes, especially pralidoxime (2-PAM, are widely used as antidotes to treat OP poisoning. In addition, N-acetylcysteine (NAC is sometimes used as an adjuvant antidote. The current study aimed to assess the feasibility of using NAC as a single therapeutic agent for OP poisoning in comparison to in vitro 2-PAM. Methods:This study was carried out at the Razi Drug Research Center of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between April and September 2014. A total of 22 healthy human subjects were recruited and 8 mL citrated blood samples were drawn from each subject. Dichlorvos-inhibited blood samples were separately exposed to low and high doses (final concentrations of 300 and 600 μmol.L-1, respectively of 2-PAM, NAC and cysteine. Plasma and RBCs were then separated by centrifugation and their ChE activity was measured using spectrophotometry. Results: Although cysteine—and not NAC—increased the ChE activity of both plasma and RBCs over those of dichlorvos, it did not increase them over those of a high dose of 2-PAM. Conclusion:These results suggest that the direct reactions of 2-PAM and cysteine with dichlorvos and the reactivation of phosphorylated ChEs occurr via an associative stepwise addition-elimination process. High therapeutic blood concentrations of cysteine are needed for the elevation of ChE activity in plasma and RBCs; however, both this agent and NAC may still be effective in the reactivation of plasma and RBC ChEs.

  9. Presence and select determinants of organophosphate flame retardants in public swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teo, Tiffany L.L., E-mail: tiffany.teo@unsw.edu.au [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Kensington NSW 2052 (Australia); Coleman, Heather M., E-mail: h.coleman@ulster.ac.uk [Nanotechnology and Integrated BioEngineering Centre, School of Engineering, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, County Antrim BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Khan, Stuart J., E-mail: s.khan@unsw.edu.au [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Kensington NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of five organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) consisting of tributyl phosphate (TNBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1.3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) in swimming pools were investigated. Fifteen chlorinated public swimming pools were sampled, including indoor pools, outdoor pools and spa pools. The analyses were carried out using isotope dilution gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All five PFRs were detected in swimming pool waters with concentrations ranging from 5–27 ng/L (TNBP), 7–293 ng/L (TCEP), 62–1180 ng/L (TCIPP), 10–670 ng/L (TDCIPP) and 8–132 ng/L (TPHP). The concentrations of PFRs were generally higher in indoor swimming pools compared to outdoor swimming pools. In municipal water supplies, used to fill the swimming pools in three of the sampling locations, the five PFRs were all below the limit of quantifications, eliminating this as the source. Potential leaching of PFRs from commonly used swimming equipment, including newly purchased kickboards and swimsuits was investigated. These experiments revealed that PFRs leached from swimsuits, and may be a source of PFRs in swimming pools. A quantitative risk assessment revealed that the health risk to PFRs via swimming pools was generally low and below commonly applied health risk benchmarks. - Highlights: • TNBP, TCEP, TCIPP, TDCIPP and TPHP were detected in chlorinated swimming pools. • PFRs were below the LOQ in fill water samples collected from 3 locations. • TCIPP was observed to have the highest concentrations in swimming pools. • PFRs are leaching from swimsuits and may be a source in swimming pools. • Health risks through oral and dermal exposure to PFRs in swimming pools were low.

  10. Seasonal milk contamination by aflatoxin m1, organophosphates and carbamates in Paraná – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Crispim de Oliveira Ramos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the milk contamination in the dairy production systems (DPS for mycotoxins and chemical residues of organophosphates and carbamates it was made a study encompassing 96 DPS in three regions of Parana state. There were collected samples of milk, water and food and they were evaluated for chemical residues in all samples and aflatoxin only for food and milk. Mycotoxins in food (aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2, zearalenone and ochratoxin were detected by the method of thin layer chromatography – TLC and for the determination of aflatoxin M1 was used an immunoassay kit competitive ELISA Ridascreen®. The residues of organophosphates and carbamates were performed by colorimetric method qualitatively. There were evaluated the differences between regions, periods and the sources of mycotoxin contamination. Carbamates and organophosphates were screened for their presence in milk and the sources of food and water. Then it was estimated the contributions of each mycotoxin for milk contamination, as well as their respective contaminated food. Differences were found between periods (p < 0,05 for milk contamination with aflatoxin M1 – AFM1. For carbamates and organophosphates were found different contamination sources (p < 0,01. For the carbamates the source were pesticides used to parasitic herd control and for the organophosphates pesticides used in agriculture. For food sources contamination resulting in the AFM1 contamination it was detected that aflatoxin B1 – AFB1 was the main source. The aflatoxin G1 – AFG1 showed a strong correlation (p < 0,01 with AFB1 levels suggesting causal relationship is a function of fungal strains producing both at the same time. It was also found the prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in 70% of contaminated samples and its predominant presence in relation to other mycotoxins in all kinds of foods analyzed. By identifying the checkpoints of contamination can be proposed the inclusion of practical

  11. Investigation of hydrological drought using Cumulative Standardized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cumulative droughtconcept is proposed to characterize long-term hydrologic drought, which affects the shallow groundwaterproductivity in terms of quantity and quality. Gamma probability distribution was fitted to the long-termannual precipitation in Damascus from 1918–1919 to 2007–2008 (n = 90 years). Generally ...

  12. An axiomatization of cumulative prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter); A. Tversky (Amos)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a method for axiomatizing a variety of models for decision making under uncertainty, including Expected Utility and Cumulative Prospect Theory. This method identifies, for each model, the situations that permit consistent inferences about the ordering of value

  13. Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Patterson, Angela E; Gharaei, Saba

    2015-04-01

    In 5 experiments using delay conditioning of magazine approach with rats, reinforcement rate was varied either by manipulating the mean interval between onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) or by manipulating the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US (trial-based reinforcement rate). Both manipulations influenced the acquisition of responding. In each experiment, a specific comparison was made between 2 CSs that differed in their mean CS-US interval and in their trial-based reinforcement rate, such that the cumulative reinforcement rate-the cumulative duration of the CS between reinforcements-was the same for the 2 CSs. For example, a CS reinforced on 100% of trials with a mean CS-US interval of 60 s was compared with a CS reinforced on 33% of trials and a mean duration of 20 s. Across the 5 experiments, conditioning was virtually identical for the 2 CSs with matched cumulative reinforcement rate. This was true as long as the timing of the US was unpredictable and, thus, response rates were uniform across the length of the CS. We conclude that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. We discuss the implications of this for rate-based, trial-based, and real-time associative models of conditioning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Calculation of the Poisson cumulative distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Nolty, Robert G.; Scheuer, Ernest M.

    1990-01-01

    A method for calculating the Poisson cdf (cumulative distribution function) is presented. The method avoids computer underflow and overflow during the process. The computer program uses this technique to calculate the Poisson cdf for arbitrary inputs. An algorithm that determines the Poisson parameter required to yield a specified value of the cdf is presented.

  15. Cumulative watershed effects: a research perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1989-01-01

    A cumulative watershed effect (CWE) is any response to multiple land-use activities that is caused by, or results in, altered watershed function. The CWE issue is politically defined, as is the significance of particular impacts. But the processes generating CWEs are the traditional focus of geomorphology and ecology, and have thus been studied for decades. The CWE...

  16. Semiparametric models for cumulative incidence functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, John; Dignam, James J

    2004-03-01

    In analyses of time-to-failure data with competing risks, cumulative incidence functions may be used to estimate the time-dependent cumulative probability of failure due to specific causes. These functions are commonly estimated using nonparametric methods, but in cases where events due to the cause of primary interest are infrequent relative to other modes of failure, nonparametric methods may result in rather imprecise estimates for the corresponding subdistribution. In such cases, it may be possible to model the cause-specific hazard of primary interest parametrically, while accounting for the other modes of failure using nonparametric estimators. The cumulative incidence estimators so obtained are simple to compute and are considerably more efficient than the usual nonparametric estimator, particularly with regard to interpolation of cumulative incidence at early or intermediate time points within the range of data used to fit the function. More surprisingly, they are often nearly as efficient as fully parametric estimators. We illustrate the utility of this approach in the analysis of patients treated for early stage breast cancer.

  17. Empirical likelihood for cumulative hazard ratio estimation with covariate adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Matthews, David E

    2012-06-01

    In medical studies, it is often of scientific interest to evaluate the treatment effect via the ratio of cumulative hazards, especially when those hazards may be nonproportional. To deal with nonproportionality in the Cox regression model, investigators usually assume that the treatment effect has some functional form. However, to do so may create a model misspecification problem because it is generally difficult to justify the specific parametric form chosen for the treatment effect. In this article, we employ empirical likelihood (EL) to develop a nonparametric estimator of the cumulative hazard ratio with covariate adjustment under two nonproportional hazard models, one that is stratified, as well as a less restrictive framework involving group-specific treatment adjustment. The asymptotic properties of the EL ratio statistic are derived in each situation and the finite-sample properties of EL-based estimators are assessed via simulation studies. Simultaneous confidence bands for all values of the adjusted cumulative hazard ratio in a fixed interval of interest are also developed. The proposed methods are illustrated using two different datasets concerning the survival experience of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or ovarian cancer. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  18. New generic approach to the treatment of organophosphate poisoning : Adenosine receptor mediated inhibition of ACh-release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, HPM; Moor, E; Westerink, BHC; Bruijnzeel, PLB

    1998-01-01

    Current treatment of acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning includes a combined administration of a cholinesterase reactivator (oxime), a muscarinic receptor antagonist (atropine) and an anticonvulsant (diazepam). This treatment is not adequate since it does not prevent neuronal brain damage and

  19. Cumulative human threats on fish biodiversity components in Tunisian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BEN RAIS LASRAM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are increasingly impacting biodiversity. To improve conservation planning measures in an ecosystem-based management context, we need to explore how the effects of these activities interact with different biodiversity components. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method to assess the cumulative impacts of human activities on three biodiversity components (species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity in Tunisia’s exclusive economic zone. For each of the nine activities considered, we developed an understanding of their effects from local studies and the expert opinion of stakeholders with country-specific experience. We mapped the cumulative effects and the three biodiversity components and then assessed the degree to which these elements overlapped using an overlap index. This is the first time such an assessment has been made for Tunisia’s marine ecosystems and our assessment highlight the inappropriateness of current conservation measures. The results of this study have specific application for the prioritization of future management actions.

  20. Serotonin and benzylamine oxidation by type A and type B MAO of rat brain in presence of organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, M; Nandy, N

    2001-08-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides, monocrotophos (MCP), dichlorvos (DDVP) and phosphamidon significantly inhibit both MAO-A and MAO-B activities in rat brain mitochondria. The inhibition of MAO-A by MCP is reversible whereas the inhibition by DDVP and phosphamidon is irreversible. MAO-B is inhibited irreversibly by all these organophosphates suggesting that the mechanism of action of OP pesticides is through phosphorylation of serine residue present in active centre of MAO.

  1. Lanthanide Organophosphate Spiro Polymers: Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetocaloric Effect in the Gadolinium Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandeep K; Bhat, Gulzar A; Murugavel, Ramaswamy

    2017-08-07

    Spirocyclic lanthanide organophosphate polymers, {[Ln(dipp)(dippH)(CH3OH)(H2O)2](CH3OH)2}n [Ln = La (1), Ce (2), Pr (3), Nd (4), Sm (5), Eu (6), Gd (7), Tb (8), Dy (9), Ho (10), Er (11)], have been prepared from the reaction of Ln(NO3)3·xH2O with sterically hindered 2,6-diisopropylphenyl phosphate (dippH2) using aqueous NaOH as the base. The one-dimensional chainlike lanthanide (III) organophosphate coordination polymers have been characterized with the aid of analytical and spectroscopic methods. The single crystal structure determination of polymers (2-5 and 7-11) reveals that in these compounds the hydrophobic organic groups of the phosphate provide a protective coating for the inorganic lanthanide phosphate polymeric chain. The encapsulation of inorganic lanthanide phosphate core, which has very low solubility product, within the organic groups assists in the facile crystallization of the polymers. The di- and monoanionic organophosphate ligands dipp(2-) and dippH(-) display [2.111] and [2.110] binding modes, respectively, in 2-5 and 7. However, they exhibit only [2.110] binding mode in the case of 8-11. This results in the formation of two different types of polymers. While the lighter rare-earth metal ions in 2-5 and 7 display eight coordinate biaugmented trigonal prismatic geometry, the heavier rare-earth metal ions in 9-11 exhibit a seven coordinate capped trigonal prismatic environment. The Tb(III) ion in 8 displays distorted pentagonal bipyramidal geometry. Magnetic studies reveal the presence of weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the Ln(III) ions through the organophosphate ligand. The isotropic Gd(III) polymer 7 exhibits a maximum entropy change of 17.83 J kg(-1) K(-1) for a field change of 7.0 T at 2.5 K, which is significant considering the high molecular weight of the organophosphate ligand. These polymers represent the first family of any structurally characterized rare-earth organophosphate polymers derived from monoesters of phosphoric

  2. Structural Vibration Monitoring Using Cumulative Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a resonance decay estimation for structural health monitoring in the presence of nonstationary vibrations. In structural health monitoring, the structure's frequency response and resonant decay characteristics are very important for understanding how the structure changes. Cumulative spectral analysis (CSA estimates the frequency decay by using the impulse response. However, measuring the impulse response of buildings is impractical due to the need to shake the building itself. In a previous study, we reported on system damping monitoring using cumulative harmonic analysis (CHA, which is based on CSA. The current study describes scale model experiments on estimating the hidden resonance decay under non-stationary noise conditions by using CSA for structural condition monitoring.

  3. Inertial fusion by magnetically transmitted axial cumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliezer, S.; Martinez-Val, J.; Piera, M. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Vorobeichik, I.; Henis, Z. [Soreq Nuclear Research Centre, (Israel); Piera, M. [ETSII, UNED, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    An analytical and numerical study is presented on the physics of Z-pinch implosions including magnetic fields to transmit the kinetic energy from the imploding shell to an axially placed filament. The shell kinetic energy can be built-up along a long pinch phase and a fraction of this energy could be transmitted to the filament in a much shorter interaction phase. Although initial estimates are very positive for energy cumulation in the filament, a deeper analysis shows that compressibility effects dominate the space-time evolution of the filament, and the energy cumulation level remains moderate. The scheme could be used to trigger fusion ignition in a direct-drive scenario (without radiation hohlraums) but driver specifications to get it are very demanding. (authors)

  4. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroids are a class of insecticides used widely for vector control programs. Acute pyrethroid poisoning is rare, but well documented, whereas effects of cumulative exposure are insufficiently described, including possible negative effect on glucose regulation. The objective of this study...... was to investigate an association between exposure to pyrethroids and abnormal glucose regulation (prediabetes or diabetes). A cross-sectional study was performed among 116 pesticide sprayers from public vector control programs in Bolivia and 92 nonexposed controls. Pesticide exposure (duration, intensity...... pyrethroids, a significant positive trend was observed between cumulative pesticide exposure (total number of hours sprayed) and adjusted OR of abnormal glucose regulation, with OR 14.7 [0.9-235] in the third exposure quintile. The study found a severely increased prevalence of prediabetes among Bolivian...

  5. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    pyrethroids, a significant positive trend was observed between cumulative pesticide exposure (total number of hours sprayed) and adjusted OR of abnormal glucose regulation, with OR 14.7 [0.9-235] in the third exposure quintile. The study found a severely increased prevalence of prediabetes among Bolivian......Pyrethroids are a class of insecticides used widely for vector control programs. Acute pyrethroid poisoning is rare, but well documented, whereas effects of cumulative exposure are insufficiently described, including possible negative effect on glucose regulation. The objective of this study...... was to investigate an association between exposure to pyrethroids and abnormal glucose regulation (prediabetes or diabetes). A cross-sectional study was performed among 116 pesticide sprayers from public vector control programs in Bolivia and 92 nonexposed controls. Pesticide exposure (duration, intensity...

  6. Avoiding Program-Induced Cumulative Overload (PICO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concept of program-induced cumulative overload (PICO), provides examples, and advises ways to mitigate the adverse effects. PICO is the excessive cumulative physical workload that can be imparted to military personnel by a military training program with an embedded physical training component. PICO can be acute (accumulating within a single day) or chronic (accumulating across the entirety of the program) and results in adverse outcomes for affected personnel, including detrimental fatigue, performance degradation, injuries, or illness. Strategies to mitigate PICO include focusing administration and logistic practices during the development and ongoing management of a trainee program and implementing known musculoskeletal injury prevention strategies. More training is not always better, and trainers need to consider the total amount of physical activity that military personnel experience across both operational training and physical training if PICO is to be mitigated. 2016.

  7. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querbes, Adrien; Vaesen, Krist; Houkes, Wybo

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  8. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  9. Sikap Kerja Duduk Terhadap Cumulative Trauma Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiharto, -; Rahmawati, Yulita

    2011-01-01

    Permasalahan yang diteliti adalah adakah hubungan antara sikap kerja duduk dengan kejadian Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) pada pekerja bagian pengamplasan di PT. Geromar Jepara. Tujuan yang ingin dicapai adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara sikap kerja duduk dengan kejadian CTD pada pekerja bagian pengamplasan. Metode penelitian ini bersifat explanatory dengan menggunakan pendekatan belah lintang. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah pekerja bagian pengamplasan sebanyak 30 orang. Teknik ...

  10. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Olazarán, J.; Trincado, R.; Bermejo-Pareja, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with control of vascular factors (VFs). Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (n...

  11. Complexity and Demographic Explanations of Cumulative Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien Querbes; Krist Vaesen; Wybo Houkes

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limit...

  12. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-xiao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.

  13. Higher order cumulants in colorless partonic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherif, S. [Sciences and Technologies Department, University of Ghardaia, Ghardaia, Algiers (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M. A. A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Taibah University Al-Madinah Al-Mounawwarah KSA (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Taiz University in Turba, Taiz (Yemen); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria); Ladrem, M., E-mail: mladrem@yahoo.fr [Department of Physics, College of Science, Taibah University Al-Madinah Al-Mounawwarah KSA (Saudi Arabia); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria)

    2016-06-10

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume T{sub 0}(V), a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the ℒ{sub m,n}-Method is used. We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase transition point. In the context of our model, we have shown that the finite volume transition point is always associated to the appearance of a particular point in whole higher order cumulants under consideration.

  14. Picogram per liter detections of pyrethroids and organophosphates in surface waters using passive sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschet, Christoph; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Seiz, Remo; Pfefferli, Hildegard; Hollender, Juliane

    2014-12-01

    Pyrethroids and organophosphates are among the most toxic insecticides for aquatic organisms, leading to annual-average environmental quality standards (AA-EQS) in the picogram per liter range in surface waters. For monitoring purposes, it is therefore crucial to develop very sensitive analytical methods. Until now, it is very difficult to reach detection limits at or below given AA-EQSs. Here, we present a passive sampling method using silicone rubber (SR) sheets for the sampling of ten pyrethroids and two organophosphates in surface waters. An analytical method was developed, optimized and validated for the extraction of the insecticides from the SR sheets by accelerated solvent extraction followed by clean-up on C18 and silica gel and detection with GC-MS/MS in positive ionization mode. Good precision (50%) was observed for all substances, accuracy was between 66% and 139%. Limits of detection between 6 and 200 pg/L were achieved for all substances in surface waters using average sampling rates for PCBs and PAHs. The lack of substance-specific sampling rates and missing performance reference compounds led to an uncertainty in the concentration estimation of factor three in both directions. In a large field study, comprising 40 environmental samples from nine Swiss rivers, eight out of 12 substances were detected (most frequently: chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin). Most of the estimated organophosphate concentrations were between 0.1 and 1 ng/L, most pyrethroid detections below 0.1 ng/L. Four substances (chlorpyrifos-methyl, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) showed exceedances of their respective AA-EQS in multiple samples, also when the uncertainties in the concentration estimation were considered. As pyrethroid and organophosphate detection by SR passive sampling is very practicable and allows sensitive analysis, it has the potential to become a new tool in the monitoring of non-polar pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of Peptide Nanotube-Modified Biosensors for Gas-Phase Organophosphate Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    air, water , and soil. I would like to thank Dr. Dong-Shik Kim for sharing his vast knowledge and experience with biosensor research with me and...on a wide variety of nanotechnologies . I would also like to thank Dr. Daniel Felker for his assistance, expertise, ingenuity, and patience in the...Hazardous Air Pollutants on Site HRP Horseradish Peroxidase OP Organophosphate PNT Peptide Nanotube ppbv Parts Per Billion by Volume

  16. Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy: case report Neuropatia tardia por organofosforado: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe R Vasconcellos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN is an uncommon clinical condition. It occurs in association with the ingestion of great amounts of organophosphate after the stimulation of cholinergic receptor. The clinical picture is characterized by a distal paresis in lower limbs associated with sensitive symptoms. Electrodiagnostic studies show a motor axonal neuropathy. Involvement of the central nervous system may occur. We describe a 39 years-old female patient who developed hyperesthesia associated with lower limbs paresis, fourteen days after she had ingested a Dichlorvos-based insecticide. Electrophysiological study was characterized by an axonal polyneuropathy pattern. Pyramidal tract dysfunction was observed later in upper limbs. Considering that both peripheral and central nervous systems are involved we believe that the more appropriated term would be organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN instead of organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP.A neuropatia tardia dos organofosforados (NTOF é condição clinica incomum. Geralmente ocorre após a intoxicação aguda por organofosforados, seguindo-se a fase de hiperestimulação colinérgica. O quadro clínico é caracterizado por déficit motor distal nos membros inferiores associado a sintomas sensitivos. O estudo eletroneuromiográfico tem demonstrado padrão axonal motor na maioria dos casos. Podem ocorrer sinais de comprometimento do sistema nervoso central. Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 39 anos que ingeriu inseticida a base de Dichlorvos e quatorze dias após apresentou quadro de hiperestesia associado a paresia distal nos membros inferiores. Realizou eletroneuromiografia que se caracterizou por padrão compatível com polineuropatia axonal. Sinais piramidais, de aparecimento mais tardio, foram observados nos membros superiores. Diante do comprometimento do sistema nervoso periférico e central, também consideramos o termo neuropatia tardia por

  17. Flame Retardancy of Polysiloxane Solid Powder Combined with Organophosphate in Polycarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effects of methylphenyl-polsiloxane solid powder and organophosphate flame retardant for polycarbonate (PC were investigated by limiting oxygen index(LOI, and cone calorimeter. It was found that the LOI of the flame-retarded PC (FR-PC with polysiloxane and organophosphate binary flame retardants didn’t increase in comparison with that of FR-PC containing a single species flame retardant. The cone calorimeter results show that the heat release rate (HRR of the PC/polysiloxane/organophosphate(PX230 composition is approximately 50% lower than that of the PC/polysiloxane or the PC/PX230. Total heat release (THR of PC/polysiloxane/PX230 also significantly reduce in comparison with that of PC/polysiloxane and PC/PX230 binary composites, which indicates a clear synergistic effect of the polysiloxane and PX230 in the PC flame retardant composites. The CO production rate of the PC/polysiloxane/PX230 during combustion is slightly lower than that of the virgin PC. So the combination of the polysiloxane with PX230 used in PC could synergic inhibit the combustion heat release, and achieve environmental friendly fire-retardant effect.

  18. Optimal sensor placement for detecting organophosphate intrusions into water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohar, Ziv; Lahav, Ori; Ostfeld, Avi

    2015-04-15

    Placement of water quality sensors in a water distribution system is a common approach for minimizing contamination intrusion risks. This study incorporates detailed chemistry of organophosphate contaminations into the problem of sensor placement and links quantitative measures of the affected population as a result of such intrusions. The suggested methodology utilizes the stoichiometry and kinetics of the reactions between organophosphate contaminants and free chlorine for predicting the number of affected consumers. This is accomplished through linking a multi-species water quality model and a statistical dose-response model. Three organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, malathion, and parathion) are tested as possible contaminants. Their corresponding by-products were modeled and accounted for in the affected consumers impact calculations. The methodology incorporates a series of randomly generated intrusion events linked to a genetic algorithm for minimizing the contaminants impact through a sensors system. Three example applications are explored for demonstrating the model capabilities through base runs and sensitivity analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum glucose concentration in subacute intoxication with chlorpyrifos – Organophosphate insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łukaszewicz-Hussain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides enhances the risk of various diseases, including neurological disorders, e.g. Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. For this reason the aim of the presented study was to estimate serum concentration of glucose in subchronic intoxication with low doses of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate insecticide. Materials and Methods: The rats received chlorpyrifos at a daily dose of 0.2, 2 or 5 mg/kg b.w./day for 14 or 28 days. For biochemical determinations of serum glucose in the rats ready-to-use kit was applied. Results: In subacute intoxication with chlorpyrifos the increased serum concentration of glucose was observed after 14 days of intoxication with the highest dose (5 mg/kg b.w. and after 28 days of intoxication with all dose levels used. Conclusions: The results of this study showing the increased concentration of serum glucose in subacute intoxication with low doses of chlorpyrifos, as well as the literature data suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides can increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. It may thus be concluded that people occupationally exposed to these compounds should be subjected to diagnostic tests for early detection of diabetes. Med Pr 2013;64(4:527–531

  20. Peer tutors as learning and teaching partners: a cumulative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peer tutors as learning and teaching partners: a cumulative approach to building peer tutoring capacity in higher education. ... when training and development is theoretically informed, coherent, and oriented towards improving practice. Keywords: academic development, academic literacies, cumulative learning, higher

  1. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  2. Is there any cumulative dose for trastuzumab?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Hasan; Coşkun, Hasan Şenol

    2015-12-01

    Trastuzumab is one of the most important agents that target human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, but its cardiotoxic effect limits to use it. The mechanism of cardiac dysfunction-related trastuzumab is still unclear. In literature, there is no definite information about the cumulative dose of trastuzumab for cardiotoxicity. In presented case, we reported a breast cancer patient who has been receiving long-term trastuzumab. We have not found any cardiac problems for duration of over four years. According to our case and literature review, we may say that trastuzumab is safely used with periodically echocardiographic control in patients with breast cancer. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Association of cumulative lead exposure with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Weuve, Jennifer; Nie, Huiling; Saint-Hilaire, Marie-Helene; Sudarsky, Lewis; Simon, David K; Hersh, Bonnie; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Hu, Howard

    2010-11-01

    Research using reconstructed exposure histories has suggested an association between heavy metal exposures, including lead, and Parkinson's disease (PD), but the only study that used bone lead, a biomarker of cumulative lead exposure, found a nonsignificant increase in risk of PD with increasing bone lead. We sought to assess the association between bone lead and PD. Bone lead concentrations were measured using 109Cd excited K-shell X-ray fluorescence from 330 PD patients (216 men, 114 women) and 308 controls (172 men, 136 women) recruited from four clinics for movement disorders and general-community cohorts. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for PD were calculated using logistic regression. The average age of cases and controls at bone lead measurement was 67 (SD = 10) and 69 (SD = 9) years of age, respectively. In primary analyses of cases and controls recruited from the same groups, compared with the lowest quartile of tibia lead, the OR for PD in the highest quartile was 3.21 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17-8.83]. Results were similar but slightly weaker in analyses restricted to cases and controls recruited from the movement disorders clinics only (fourth-quartile OR = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.11-5.93) or when we included controls recruited from sites that did not also contribute cases (fourth-quartile OR = 1.91; 95% CI, 1.01-3.60). We found no association with patella bone lead. These findings, using an objective biological marker of cumulative lead exposure among typical PD patients seen in our movement disorders clinics, strengthen the evidence that cumulative exposure to lead increases the risk of PD.

  4. Science and societal partnerships to address cumulative impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn J Lundquist

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Funding and priorities for ocean research are not separate from the underlying sociological, economic, and political landscapes that determine values attributed to ecological systems. Here we present a variation on science prioritisation exercises, focussing on inter-disciplinary research questions with the objective of shifting broad scale management practices to better address cumulative impacts and multiple users. Marine scientists in New Zealand from a broad range of scientific and social-scientific backgrounds ranked 48 statements of research priorities. At a follow up workshop, participants discussed five over-arching themes based on survey results. These themes were used to develop mechanisms to increase the relevance and efficiency of scientific research while acknowledging socio-economic and political drivers of research agendas in New Zealand’s ocean ecosystems. Overarching messages included the need to: 1 determine the conditions under which ‘surprises’ (sudden and substantive undesirable changes are likely to occur and the socio-ecological implications of such changes; 2 develop methodologies to reveal the complex and cumulative effects of change in marine systems, and their implications for resource use, stewardship, and restoration; 3 assess potential solutions to management issues that balance long-term and short-term benefits and encompass societal engagement in decision-making; 4 establish effective and appropriately resourced institutional networks to foster collaborative, solution-focused marine science; and 5 establish cross-disciplinary dialogues to translate diverse scientific and social-scientific knowledge into innovative regulatory, social and economic practice. In the face of multiple uses and cumulative stressors, ocean management frameworks must be adapted to build a collaborative framework across science, governance and society that can help stakeholders navigate uncertainties and socio-ecological surprises.

  5. Cumulative effects of job characteristics on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Sindelar, Jody L; Yamaguchi, Shintaro

    2011-05-01

    We examine whether the job characteristics of physical demands and environmental conditions affect individual's health. Five-year cumulative measures of these job characteristics are used to reflect findings in the biological and physiological literature that indicate that cumulative exposure to hazards and stresses harms health. To create our analytic sample, we merge job characteristics from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles with the PSID data set. We control for early and also lagged health measures and a set of pre-determined characteristics to try to address concerns that individuals self-select into jobs. Our results indicate that individuals who work in jobs with the 'worst' conditions experience declines in their health, though this effect varies by demographic group. We also find some evidence that job characteristics are more detrimental to the health of females and older workers. Finally, we report suggestive evidence that earned income, a job characteristic, partially cushions the health impact of physical demands and harsh environmental conditions for workers. These results are robust to inclusion of occupation fixed effects. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Organophosphate-pyrethroid combination pesticides may be associated with increased toxicity in human poisoning compared to either pesticide alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyadurai, R; Peter, J V; Immanuel, S; Begum, A; Zachariah, A; Jasmine, S; Abhilash, K P P

    2014-06-01

    Organophosphate (OP) poisoning results in significant toxicity while pyrethroid poisoning is associated with extremely low fatality. OPs can inhibit the detoxification of pyrethroid and increase the toxicity of the combination. We assessed whether mixed OP-pyrethroid poisoning impacted outcome in human poisoning. Patients were identified from a prospectively collected institutional poisoning database that incorporates demographic and outcome data of patients presenting with poisoning. Of the 1177 poisoned patients admitted over 2 years, 32 presented with OP-pyrethroid (50% chlorpyrifos-5% cypermethrin mixture) poisoning (Group 1), 26 consumed 20% chlorpyrifos (Group 2), and 32 took 15% cypermethrin (Group 3). Seizures occurred in 15.6% (n = 5) with chlorpyrifos-cypermethrin poisoning, 18.8% (n = 6) with cypermethrin poisoning, and 3.9% (n = 1) with chlorpyrifos poisoning. Ventilatory requirements were 53.5% (17/32), 42.3% (11/26), and 15.7% (5/32) in Groups 1-3, respectively. Ventilator-free days (Mean ± SD) was significantly lower (p poisoning appear to have shorter ventilator-free days than patients poisoned by either of the pesticides alone. Further studies are required comparing patients poisoned by formulations with similar quantities of OP and pyrethroid or with analysis of blood pesticide concentration on admission.

  7. Does cumulating endurance training at the weekends impair training effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tim; Auracher, Markus; Heeg, Katrin; Urhausen, Axel; Kindermann, Wilfried

    2006-08-01

    Due to occupational restrictions many people's recreational endurance activities are confined to the weekends. We intended to clarify if cumulating the training load in such a way diminishes endurance gains. We conducted a longitudinal study comparing training-induced changes within three independent samples. Thirty-eight healthy untrained participants (45+/-8 years, 80+/-18 kg; 172+/-9 cm) were stratified for endurance capacity and sex and randomly assigned to three groups: 'weekend warrior' (n=13, two sessions per week on consecutive days, 75 min each, intensity 90% of the anaerobic threshold; baseline lactate+1.5 mmol/l), regular training (n=12, five sessions per week, 30 min each, same intensity as weekend warrior), and control (n=13, no training). Training was conducted over 12 weeks and monitored by means of heart rate. Identical graded treadmill protocols before and after the training program served for exercise prescription and assessment of endurance effects. VO2max improved similarly in weekend warrior (+3.4 ml/min per kg) and register training (+1.5 ml/min per kg; P=0.20 between groups). Compared with controls (-1.0 ml/min per kg) this effect was significant for weekend warriors (Pexercise decreased significantly by 11 beats/min (weekend warriors, Ppopulation of healthy untrained subjects, cumulating the training load at the weekends does not lead to an impairment of endurance gains in comparison with a smoother training distribution.

  8. The use of self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning after exposure to chlorpyrifos 50% plus cypermethrin 5% among Nepali farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Dea Haagensen; Jørs, Erik; Varma, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    in response to occupational acute organophosphate exposure. Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial among 42 Nepali commercial vegetable farmers. The farmers were randomly assigned (ratio 1:1) to a 2-h organophosphate (chlorpyrifos 50% plus cypermethrin 5...

  9. Ion cumulation by conical cathode electrolysis.

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2002-01-01

    Results of solid-state sodium stearate electrolysis with conical and cylindrical cathodes is presented here. Both electric measurement and conical samples destruction can be explained if a stress developing inside the conical sample is much bigger than in the cylindrical case and there is its unlimited amplification along cone slopes. OTHER KEYWORDS: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ...

  10. Kinetics of cumulative jet penetration into glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, B. V.

    2008-12-01

    Assumption concerning violation of the regime of continuous hydrodynamic penetration is justified using experimental data on the cumulative jet (CJ) penetration into a glass obstacle. It is established that the CJ penetration into glass has a jumplike character and consists of a primary hydrodynamic penetration stage, cavity collapse, and secondary penetration into the collapsed material. In the case of continuous CJ supply, this process is repeated over the penetration depth. Necessary conditions for the secondary penetration are (i) a high strength of the glass target and (ii) a high rate of fracture, which ensure spalling of the material and collapse of the cavity walls. The jumplike penetration ceases when a pressure release wave arrives at the primary penetration zone.

  11. Kindling fires: examining the potential for cumulative learning in a Journalism curriculum

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpert, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated context-dependency of learning as an indicator for students\\' potential to continue learning after graduation. We used Maton\\'s theoretical concepts of \\'cumulative\\' and \\'segmented\\' learning, and \\'semantic gravity\\', to look for context-independent learning in students\\' assessments in a Journalism curriculum. We postulated whether the curriculum constrained or enabled cumulative learning. Students\\' responses to assessments were coded by their degree of context-dependency, or semantic gravity. We found that, firstly, students are overly successful in producing context-dependent answers but struggle to deliver context-independent responses. Secondly, students were not effective when they used higher level knowledge principles without the foundation of lower level ones. Lastly, the marking criteria were encouraging markers to reward context-dependent answers over context-independent ones. This study has implications for educators interested in curriculum design that enables cumulative learning in discipline specific contexts. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  12. Analysis of metabolites of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in human urine from urban and agricultural populations (Catalonia and Galicia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garí, Mercè; González-Quinteiro, Yolanda; Bravo, Natalia; Grimalt, Joan O

    2018-05-01

    Isotope dilution solid phase extraction UPLC-MS/MS has been used to develop a robust and rapid methodology for the determination of eight specific metabolites of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in human urine. The use of methanol:acetone (25:75v/v) affords an improvement in extraction efficiency in comparison to these individual solvents. The use of synthetic urine improves selectivity and limits of detection for the calibration straight lines. The method provides detection limits of 14-69pg/ml and 18-19pg/ml for the organophosphate and pyrethroid metabolites, respectively. Urine analyses of these metabolites in urban non-occupationally exposed individuals and farm workers shows that ingestion of these pesticides occurred in both populations. The concentrations of organophosphate pesticide metabolites in the latter were twofold than those from non-exposed populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A single method for detecting 11 organophosphate pesticides in human plasma and breastmilk using GC-FPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naksen, Warangkana; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Mangklabruks, Ampica; Chantara, Somporn; Thavornyutikarn, Prasak; Robson, Mark G; Ryan, P Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Panuwet, Parinya

    2016-07-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are widely used for crop protection in many countries including Thailand. Aside from causing environmental contamination, they affect human health especially by over-stimulating of the neurotransmission system. OP pesticides, as with other non-persistent pesticides, degrade quickly in the environment as well as are metabolized quite rapidly in humans. Assessing human exposures to these compounds requires analytical methods that are sensitive, robust, and most importantly, suitable for specific laboratory settings. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical method for measuring 11 OP pesticide residues in human plasma and breast milk. Analytes in both plasma and breast milk samples were extracted with acetone and methylene chloride, cleaned-up using aminopropyl solid phase extraction cartridges, and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. The optimized method exhibited good linearity, with the coefficients of determination of 0.996-0.999 and ethion) to 94.0% (chlorpyrifos). Intra-batch and inter-batch precisions ranged from 2.3-18.9% and 5.8-19.5%, respectively. Method detection limits of plasma and breast milk ranged from 0.18-1.36 and 0.09-2.66ngmL(-1), respectively. We analyzed 63 plasma and 30 breastmilk samples collected from farmworkers in Chiang Mai Province to determine the suitability of this method for occupational exposure assessment. Of the 11 pesticides measured, seven were detected in plasma samples and five were detected in breast milk samples. Mass spectrometry was used to confirm results. Overall, this method is rapid and reliable. It offers the laboratories with limited access to mass spectrometry a capacity to investigate levels OP pesticides in plasma and breastmilk in those occupationally exposed for health risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Urinary concentrations of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in residents of a vegetarian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, T; Göen, T; Novack, L; Beacher, L; Grinshpan, L; Segev, D; Tordjman, K

    2016-11-01

    Few population studies have measured urinary levels of pesticides in individuals with vegan, vegetarian, or organic diets. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether a vegan/vegetarian diet was associated with increased exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, and to evaluate the impact of organic consumption on pesticide exposure in vegans and vegetarians. In the current pilot study conducted in 2013-2014, we collected spot urine samples and detailed 24h recall dietary data in 42 adult residents of Amirim, a vegetarian community in Northern Israel. We measured urinary levels of non-specific organophosphate pesticide metabolites (dialkylphosphates, (DAPs)) and specific metabolites of the current-use pesticides chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy)), propoxur (-isopropoxyphenol (IPPX)), and carbaryl (1-naphthol). Six DAP metabolites were detected in between 67 and 100% of urine samples, with highest geometric mean concentrations for dimethylphosphate (19.2μg/g). Creatinine-adjusted median concentrations of total DAPs and of TCPy were significantly higher in Amirim residents compared to the general Jewish population in Israel (0.29μmol/g compared to 0.16, p25% of the produce they consume is organic (0.065μmol/L compared to 0.22, pvegetarian community, a positive association between vegetable intake and urinary levels of a chlorpyrifos specific metabolite, and lower levels of total dimethyl phosphate in individuals reporting higher intake of organic produce. Results suggest that consumption of organic produce may offer some protection from increased exposure to organophosphate pesticide residues in vegetarians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison and evaluation of two methods for the pesticide residue analysis of organophosphates in yerba mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Pareja

    Full Text Available Abstract Microwave Assisted Extraction and a modified CEN-QuEChERS methodology were evaluated as extraction and clean up procedures for the simultaneous analysis of 42 organophosphate pesticides in yerba mate (Ilex paraguaiensis. The obtained extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame photometric detector. Linearity, recovery percentages, relative standard deviations, detection and quantification limits and matrix effects were determined according to DG-SANCO guidelines for both methods. At 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg the evaluated methods showed percentages recoveries between 70 and 120% for most of the analytes. Using Microwave Assisted Extraction methodology, 33 pesticide residues could be properly analyzed whereas only 27 could be determined with the proposed modified QuEChERS. All relative standard deviation were below 18% except for omethoate and disulfoton sulfone when evaluated by the modified QuEChERS. The limits of detection in both methodologies were 0.2 mg/kg for most of the analyzed compounds. The average detection limit for QuEChERS was 0.04 mg/kg. For 19 of the analytes determined through Microwave Assisted Extraction the lowest validated level were 0.004 mg/kg. Signal suppression/enhancement was observed for most of the pesticides, thus matrix-matched calibration curves were used for quantification. The Microwave Assisted Extraction and QuEChERS procedures studied could detect the organophosphate pesticides above the MRL fixed for "mate" by the European Union. They have been successfully applied for the determination of organophosphate pesticide residues in commercial samples and the positives were confirmed through GC–(ITD-MS.

  16. Partial protection from organophosphate-induced cholinesterase inhibition by metyrapone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Świercz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphates are cholinesterase (ChE inhibitors with worldwide use as insecticides. Stress response, evidenced by a dramatic and relatively long-lasting (several hours rise in the plasma glucocorticoid concentration is an integral element of the organophosphate (OP poisoning symptomatology. In rodents, corticosterone (CORT is the main glucocorticoid. There are several reports suggesting a relationship between the stressor-induced rise in CORT concentraion (the CORT response and the activity of the cerebral and peripheral ChE. Thus, it seems reasonable to presume that, in OP intoxication, the rise in plasma CORT concentration may somehow affect the magnitude of the OP-induced ChE inhibition. Metyrapone (MET [2-methyl-1,2-di(pyridin-3-ylpropan-1-one] blocks CORT synthesis by inhibiting steoid 11β-hydroxylase, thereby preventing the CORT response. Chlorfenvinphos (CVP [2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl ethenyl diethyl phosphate] is an organophosphate insecticide still in use in some countries. Material and Methods: The purose of the present work was to compare the CVP-induced effects - the rise of the plasma CORT concentration and the reduction in ChE activity - in MET-treated and MET-untreated rats. Chlorfenvinphos was administered once at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg i.p. Metyrapone, at 100 mg/kg i.p., was administered five times, at 24-h intervals. The first MET dose was given two hours before CVP. Conclusion: The following was observed in the MET-treated rats: i no rise in plasma CORT concentration after the CVP administration, ii a reduced inhibition and a faster restitution of blood and brain ChE activities. The results suggest that MET treatment may confer significant protection against at least some effects of OP poisoning. The likely mechanism of the protective MET action has been discussed.

  17. Partial protection from organophosphate-induced cholinesterase inhibition by metyrapone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiercz, Radosław; Lutz, Piotr; Gralewicz, Sławomir; Grzelińska, Zofia; Piasecka-Zelga, Joanna; Wąsowicz, Wojciech

    2013-08-01

    Organophosphates are cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors with worldwide use as insecticides. Stress response, evidenced by a dramatic and relatively long-lasting (several hours) rise in the plasma glucocorticoid concentration is an integral element of the organophosphate (OP) poisoning symptomatology. In rodents, corticosterone (CORT) is the main glucocorticoid. There are several reports suggesting a relationship between the stressor-induced rise in CORT concentration (the CORT response) and the activity of the cerebral and peripheral ChE. Thus, it seems reasonable to presume that, in OP intoxication, the rise in plasma CORT concentration may somehow affect the magnitude of the OP-induced ChE inhibition. Metyrapone (MET) [2-methyl-1,2-di(pyridin-3-yl)propan-1-one] blocks CORT synthesis by inhibiting steroid 11β-hydroxylase, thereby preventing the CORT response. Chlorfenvinphos (CVP) [2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) ethenyl diethyl phosphate] is an organophosphate insecticide still in use in some countries. The purpose of the present work was to compare the CVP-induced effects - the rise of the plasma CORT concentration and the reduction in ChE activity - in MET-treated and MET-untreated rats. Chlorfenvinphos was administered once at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg i.p. Metyrapone, at 100 mg/kg i.p., was administered five times, at 24-h intervals. The first MET dose was given two hours before CVP. The following was observed in the MET-treated rats: i) no rise in plasma CORT concentration after the CVP administration, ii) a reduced inhibition and a faster restitution of blood and brain ChE activities. The results suggest that MET treatment may confer significant protection against at least some effects of OP poisoning. The likely mechanism of the protective MET action has been discussed.

  18. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Wright, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine...... species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap...... on impact can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated impact assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making...

  19. Impacts of organophosphate pesticide, sumithion on water quality and benthic invertebrates in aquaculture ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Md. Hanif; Shahjahan, Md.; Ruhul Amin, A.K.M.; Haque, Md. Mahfuzul; Islam, Md. Ashraful; Azim, M. Ekram

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of an organophosphate pesticide, sumithion on water and sediment quality and benthic invertebrates in aquaculture ponds for 120 days. Three treatments were tried in duplicate: no sumithion (control), weekly application of 1.0 mg/L sumithion (Low dose treatment) and 2.0 mg/L sumithion (High dose treatment). Among the different water quality parameters, transparency, NO3–N and PO4–P concentrations were significantly (p 

  20. Microbial community responses to organophosphate substrate additions in contaminated subsurface sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radionuclide- and heavy metal-contaminated subsurface sediments remain a legacy of Cold War nuclear weapons research and recent nuclear power plant failures. Within such contaminated sediments, remediation activities are necessary to mitigate groundwater contamination. A promising approach makes use of extant microbial communities capable of hydrolyzing organophosphate substrates to promote mineralization of soluble contaminants within deep subsurface environments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Uranium-contaminated sediments from the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC Area 2 site were used in slurry experiments to identify microbial communities involved in hydrolysis of 10 mM organophosphate amendments [i.e., glycerol-2-phosphate (G2P or glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P] in synthetic groundwater at pH 5.5 and pH 6.8. Following 36 day (G2P and 20 day (G3P amended treatments, maximum phosphate (PO4(3- concentrations of 4.8 mM and 8.9 mM were measured, respectively. Use of the PhyloChip 16S rRNA microarray identified 2,120 archaeal and bacterial taxa representing 46 phyla, 66 classes, 110 orders, and 186 families among all treatments. Measures of archaeal and bacterial richness were lowest under G2P (pH 5.5 treatments and greatest with G3P (pH 6.8 treatments. Members of the phyla Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria demonstrated the greatest enrichment in response to organophosphate amendments and the OTUs that increased in relative abundance by 2-fold or greater accounted for 9%-50% and 3%-17% of total detected Archaea and Bacteria, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work provided a characterization of the distinct ORFRC subsurface microbial communities that contributed to increased concentrations of extracellular phosphate via hydrolysis of organophosphate substrate amendments. Within subsurface environments that are not ideal for reductive precipitation of uranium

  1. Bioremediation of organophosphates by fungi and bacteria in agricultural soils. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina María Hernández-Ruiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates are a type of pesticides widely used in agriculture for pest control. Since these are highly toxic compounds, their excessive use has caused great deterioration of arable soils, as well as serious damage to ecosystems and human health. Bioremediation is used as an alternative way to transform pesticides into simple, less polluting compounds, using the metabolic potential of microorganisms. Therefore, the objective of this study was to summarize the fungi and bacteria involved in bioremediation of the main organophos-phorus pesticides used in agricultural soils through a systematic review of the scientific literature, in order to provide useful information for conducting further studies. Scientific information was obtained ResumoOs organofosforados são um tipo de praguicidas amplamente utilizados no setor agrícola para o controle de pragas. Dado que estes são compostos químicos altamente tóxicos, o uso excessivo destes há causado grande deterioro nos solos cultiváveis, assim como graves danos contra os ecossistemas e na saúde humana. A biorremediação surge como uma alternativa para transformar os praguicidas em compostos mais simples e pouco contaminantes mediante o uso do potencial metabólico dos micro-rganismos. Pelo anterior, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi descrever os fungos e bactérias envolvidos na biorremediação dos principais praguicidas organo-fosforados empregados em solos agrícolas por meio de uma revisão sistemática da literatura científica, com o fim de aportar informação útil para a through the use of databases such as ScienceDirect and Springer Link and unindexed information was also gathered from Google Scholar, as a result of this study, it was found that the most studied organophosphate pesticide is chlorpyrifos (Toxicity category III and microorganisms most commonly used in the bioremediation of organophosphate pesticides belongs to the genera Serratia, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. It is

  2. Protection against the lethal effects of organophosphates by pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOBBIGER, F

    1957-12-01

    The mechanism responsible for the protection against lethal organophosphate poisoning by pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide (P-2-AM) was studied in the mouse. Two types of organophosphates were used: ethyl pyrophosphate (TEPP), E 600, Ro 3-0340, and Ro 3-0422 which form with true cholinesterase a diethylphosphoryl enzyme (1) and DFP, D 600, and Ro 3-0351 which form with true cholinesterase a diisopropylphosphoryl enzyme (2).In vitro and under the experimental conditions used more than 50% reactivation of (1) was obtained within 1 hr. by concentrations of P-2-AM ranging from 0.5 to 1x10(-5) M; 30 times higher concentrations of the oxime were required to achieve the same effect with (2). In vivo reactivation of phosphorylated true cholinesterases in blood amounted to 10 to 24% within the first 30 min. if 25 mg./kg. P-2-AM was injected (i.p.) 5 min. before a sublethal dose of TEPP, E 600, Ro 3-0340, or Ro 3-0422 and reactivation reached a maximum within 1 to 2 hr. after the injection of the oxime. P-2-AM was more effective when given 30 min. after the organophosphate. The effect of 25 mg./kg. P-2-AM on the phosphorylated true cholinesterase in brain (experiments with TEPP and E 600) was negligible. A dose of 25 mg./kg. P-2-AM had no consistent effect on the phosphorylated true cholinesterases in blood and brain of mice injected with sublethal doses of DFP, D 600, or Ro 3-0351.The protection by 25 mg./kg. P-2-AM against lethal doses of TEPP, E 600, Ro 3-0422, and Ro 3-0340 was greater than that obtained with 50 mg./kg. atropine sulphate, but the degree of protection was determined by the organophosphate itself and not its dialkylphosphoryl group. Protection by 25 mg./kg. P-2-AM against lethal doses of DFP, D 600, and Ro 3-0351 was negligible. The antidotal effect of P-2-AM was potentiated by atropine. Mice which were injected with atropine and P-2-AM were protected to a greater extent against DFP than against Ro 3-0422, and protection against DFP was only slightly less

  3. Study on organophosphate poisoning analysis and pharmacotherapeutic outcome in tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Shreenivas P. Revankar; H. Vedavathi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is the most common cause of poisoning and suicides in rural India as it is easily available and more often used in agriculture as a pesticide. In the present days, death due to OP is mainly due to draught, scarcity of rains and debt. Methods: The main objective of the study was to know the sociodemographic patterns, mode of presentation and outcome of treatment in the OP poisoning case that were admitted and treated in the tertiary care hospital a...

  4. Behavior of organophosphates and hydrophilic ethers during bank filtration and their potential application as organic tracers. A field study from the Oderbruch, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, D K; Regnery, J; Merz, C; Püttmann, W

    2013-08-01

    The behavior of organophosphates and ethers during riverbank filtration and groundwater flow was assessed to determine their suitability as organic tracers. Four sampling campaigns were conducted at the Oderbruch polder, Germany to establish the presence of chlorinated flame retardants (TCEP, TCPP, TDCP), non-chlorinated plasticizers (TBEP, TiBP, TnBP), and hydrophilic ethers (1,4-dioxane, monoglyme, diglyme, triglyme, tetraglyme) in the Oder River, main drainage ditch, and anoxic aquifer. Selected parameters were measured in order to determine the hydro-chemical composition of both, river water and groundwater. The results of the study confirm that organophosphates (OPs) are more readily attenuated during bank filtration compared to ethers. Both in the river and the groundwater, TCPP was the most abundant OP with concentrations in the main drainage ditch ranging between 105 and 958 ng L(-1). 1,4-dioxane, triglyme, and tetraglyme demonstrated persistent behavior during bank filtration and in the anoxic groundwater. In the drainage ditch concentrations of 1,4-dioxane, triglyme, and tetraglyme ranged between 1090 and 1467 ng L(-1), 37 and 149 ng L(-1), and 496 and 1403 ng L(-1), respectively. A positive correlation was found for the inorganic tracer chloride with 1,4-dioxane and tetraglyme. These results confirm the possible application of these ethers as environmental organic tracers. Both inorganic and organic compounds showed temporal variability in the surface- and groundwater. Discharge of the river water, concentrations of analytes at the time of infiltration and attenuation were identified as factors influencing the variable amounts of the analytes in the surface and groundwater. These findings are also of great importance for the production of drinking water via bank filtration and natural and artificial groundwater recharge as the physicochemical properties of ethers create challenges in their removal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Usefulness of intermuscular coherence and cumulant analysis in the diagnosis of postural tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Conway, B. A.; Elting, J. W.; Tijssen, M. A. J.; Maurits, N. M.

    Objective: To investigate the potential value of two advanced EMG measures as additional diagnostic measures in the polymyographic assessment of postural upper-limb tremor. Methods: We investigated coherence as a measure of dependency between two EMG signals, and cumulant analysis to reveal patterns

  6. Identification and Quantification of Cumulative Factors that Increase Environmental Exposures and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the combined adverse effects of multiple stressors upon human health is an imperative component of cumulative risk assessment (CRA)1. In addition to chemical stressors, other non-chemical factors are also considered. For examples, smoking will elevate the risks of havi...

  7. Assessment of Cumulative Sound Exposure Levels for Marine Piling Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepper, P.A.; Robinson, S.P.; Ainslie, M.A.; Theobald, P.D.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2012-01-01

    The installation of offshore wind farms in European waters and the scale of the planned activity have led to concern over the generation of noise and its potential impact on marine life. Much of this concern is centered around the noise generated by pile driving, which is used for the installation

  8. Cumulative rainfall collectors – A tool for assessing groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The great majority of Southern African aquifers depend on rainfall for their recharge. The accurate estimation of recharge remains one of the biggest challenges for groundwater investigators. Accurate recharge estimations are needed for proper groundwater management as this governs the estimation of sustainable ...

  9. 7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining cumulative sum values. 42.132 Section 42... Determining cumulative sum values. (a) The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum sampling plans for AQL's... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to...

  10. Prenatal exposure to a common organophosphate insecticide delays motor development in a mouse model of idiopathic autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia De Felice

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by impaired social and communicative skills and repetitive behaviors. Emerging evidence supported the hypothesis that these neurodevelopmental disorders may result from a combination of genetic susceptibility and exposure to environmental toxins in early developmental phases. This study assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF, a widely diffused organophosphate insecticide endowed with developmental neurotoxicity at sub-toxic doses, in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse strain, a validated model of idiopathic autism that displays several behavioral traits relevant to the autism spectrum. To this aim, pregnant BTBR mice were administered from gestational day 14 to 17 with either vehicle or CPF at a dose of 6 mg/kg/bw by oral gavages. Offspring of both sexes underwent assessment of early developmental milestones, including somatic growth, motor behavior and ultrasound vocalization. To evaluate the potential long-term effects of CPF, two different social behavior patterns typically altered in the BTBR strain (free social interaction with a same-sex companion in females, or interaction with a sexually receptive female in males were also examined in the two sexes at adulthood. Our findings indicate significant effects of CPF on somatic growth and neonatal motor patterns. CPF treated pups showed reduced weight gain, delayed motor maturation (i.e., persistency of immature patterns such as pivoting at the expenses of coordinated locomotion and a trend to enhanced ultrasound vocalization. At adulthood, CPF associated alterations were found in males only: the altered pattern of investigation of a sexual partner, previously described in BTBR mice, was enhanced in CPF males, and associated to increased ultrasonic vocalization rate. These findings strengthen the need of future studies to evaluate the role of environmental chemicals in the etiology of neurodevelopment disorders.

  11. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  12. Cumulative trauma, gender discrimination and mental health in women: mediating role of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2017-12-20

    Evidence suggests that women show symptoms of trauma-related symptoms more often than men. Gender discrimination is also associated with the severity of symptoms in women. This study explored the relations among cumulative trauma, gender discrimination and mental health in women with a mediating role of self-esteem and emotion regulation. Two types of gender discrimination were taken into account: discrimination by parents and in the social context. Cumulative trauma over the lifetime was assessed, as well as three types of symptoms: internalising, externalising, psychoticism. A total of 277 females from Poland participated in the study. It was hypothesised that gender discrimination and cumulative trauma would be positively related to symptoms and that lowered self-esteem mediates these relations. Hypotheses received partial confirmation, as both gender discrimination and cumulative trauma have been shown to be related to three types of symptoms. Self-esteem was a partial mediator between gender discrimination in the social context and symptoms. It was also demonstrated that emotion suppression is a partial mediator between cumulative trauma and symptoms. It has been demonstrated that socio-cultural factors, such as gender discrimination, play an important role in psychiatric symptoms development.

  13. Focus on cumulative emissions, global carbon budgets and the implications for climate mitigation targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon Matthews, H.; Zickfeld, Kirsten; Knutti, Reto; Allen, Myles R.

    2018-01-01

    The Environmental Research Letters focus issue on ‘Cumulative Emissions, Global Carbon Budgets and the Implications for Climate Mitigation Targets’ was launched in 2015 to highlight the emerging science of the climate response to cumulative emissions, and how this can inform efforts to decrease emissions fast enough to avoid dangerous climate impacts. The 22 research articles published represent a fantastic snapshot of the state-or-the-art in this field, covering both the science and policy aspects of cumulative emissions and carbon budget research. In this Review and Synthesis, we summarize the findings published in this focus issue, outline some suggestions for ongoing research needs, and present our assessment of the implications of this research for ongoing efforts to meet the goals of the Paris climate agreement.

  14. Study of the mechanism of Flavobacterium sp. for hydrolyzing organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, M L; Quintero-Ramírez, R; Nava-Ocampo, A A; Bello-Ramírez, A M

    2003-12-01

    The biotransformation by Flavobacterium sp. of the following organophosphate pesticides was experimentally and theoretically studied: phorate, tetrachlorvinphos, methyl-parathion, terbufos, trichloronate, ethoprophos, phosphamidon, fenitrothion, dimethoate and DEF. The Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 strain bearing the organophosphate-degradation gene was used. Bacteria were incubated in the presence of each pesticide for a duration of 7 days. Parent pesticides were identified and quantified by means of a gas-chromatography mass spectrum system. Activity was considered as the amount (micromol) of each pesticide degraded by Flavobacterium sp. Also, structural parameters obtained by means of the CAChe program package for biomolecules, the reactivity index of phosphorus, of oxygen at the P = O function and of sulfur at the P = S function, and lipophilicity (log Poct) (ALOGPS v. 2.0) were obtained for each pesticide. Pesticides were hydrolyzed at the bond between phosphorous and the heteroatom, producing phosphoric acid and three metabolites. Enzymatic activity was significantly explained by the following multiple linear relationship: Enzymatic activity = 162.2 - 9.5(dihedral angle energy) - 25.0(Total energy) - 0.51(Molecular weight). Finally, a mechanism of Flavobacterium sp. to hydrolyze pesticides was proposed.

  15. Application of graphene for preconcentration and highly sensitive stripping voltammetric analysis of organophosphate pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Shuo, E-mail: wushuo@dlut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Lan Xiaoqin; Cui Lijun; Zhang Lihui; Tao Shengyang; Wang Hainan; Han Mei; Liu Zhiguang; Meng Changgong [School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} An electrochemical sensor is fabricated based on {beta}-CD dispersed graphene. {yields} The sensor could selectively detect organophosphate pesticide with high sensitivity. {yields} The {beta}-CD dispersed graphene owns large adsorption capacity for MP and superconductivity. {yields} The {beta}-CD dispersed graphene is superior to most of the porous sorbents ever known. - Abstract: Electrochemical reduced {beta}-cyclodextrin dispersed graphene ({beta}-CD-graphene) was developed as a sorbent for the preconcentration and electrochemical sensing of methyl parathion (MP), a representative nitroaromatic organophosphate pesticide with good redox activity. Benefited from the ultra-large surface area, large delocalized {pi}-electron system and the superconductivity of {beta}-CD-graphene, large amount of MP could be extracted on {beta}-CD-graphene modified electrode via strong {pi}-{pi} interaction and exhibited fast accumulation and electron transfer rate. Combined with differential pulse voltammetric analysis, the sensor shows ultra-high sensitivity, good selectivity and fast response. The limit of detection of 0.05 ppb is more than 10 times lower than those obtained from other sorbent based sensors. The method may open up a new possibility for the widespread use of electrochemical sensors for monitoring of ultra-trace OPs.

  16. [Organophosphate pesticides and neuropsychological and motor effects in the Maule Region, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Muñoz, María Pía; Achú, Eduardo; Cornejo, Claudia; Concha, Carlos; Grillo, Angela; Brito, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate organophosphate pesticide exposure and neuropsychological and motor performance in agricultural and non-agricultural workers in the Maule Region in Chile. Analytic cross-sectional study in 93 exposed farm workers and 84 unexposed non-agricultural workers. A battery of four neuropsychological tests was administered together with a neuro-motor physical examination. On the Weschler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-IV), exposed agricultural workers exhibited poorer performance than non-agricultural workers in verbal comprehension (β=-3.2; p=0.034) and processing speed (β=-4.4; p=0.036) and in the full scale (β=-4; p=0.016), as well as in discrimination sensitivity (β=1, p=0,009), adjusted by years of schooling and/or age. We suggest the development of policies and regulations for the control, sale and use of organophosphate pesticides and intervention strategies on safety measures aimed at the exposed population. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioactive Paper Sensor Based on the Acetylcholinesterase for the Rapid Detection of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. I. Badawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, people are becoming more concerned about pesticide residues which are present in or on food and feed products. For this reason, several methods have been developed to monitor the pesticide residue levels in food samples. In this study, a bioactive paper-based sensor was developed for detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors including organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Based on the Ellman colorimetric assay, the assay strip is composed of a paper support (1×10 cm, onto which a biopolymer chitosan gel immobilized in crosslinking by glutaraldehyde with AChE and 5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB and uses acetylthiocholine iodide (ATChI as an outside reagent. The assay protocol involves introducing the sample to sensing zone via dipping of a pesticide-containing solution. Following an incubation period, the paper is placed into ATChI solution to initiate enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis of the substrate, causing a yellow color change. The absence or decrease of the yellow color indicates the levels of the AChE inhibitors. The biosensor is able to detect organophosphate and carbamate pesticides with good detection limits (methomyl=6.16×10-4 mM and profenofos=0.27 mM and rapid response times (~5 min. The results show that the paper-based biosensor is rapid, sensitive, inexpensive, portable, disposable, and easy-to-use.

  18. County-level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2017-08-01

    Individual environmental exposures are associated with cancer development; however, environmental exposures occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) is a county-level measure of cumulative environmental exposures that occur in 5 domains. The EQI was linked to county-level annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state cancer profiles. All-site cancer and the top 3 site-specific cancers for male and female subjects were considered. Incident rate differences (IRDs; annual rate difference per 100,000 persons) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed-slope, random intercept multilevel linear regression models. Associations were assessed with domain-specific indices and analyses were stratified by rural/urban status. Comparing the highest quintile/poorest environmental quality with the lowest quintile/best environmental quality for overall EQI, all-site county-level cancer incidence rate was positively associated with poor environmental quality overall (IRD, 38.55; 95% CI, 29.57-47.53) and for male (IRD, 32.60; 95% CI, 16.28-48.91) and female (IRD, 30.34; 95% CI, 20.47-40.21) subjects, indicating a potential increase in cancer incidence with decreasing environmental quality. Rural/urban stratified models demonstrated positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles for all strata, except the thinly populated/rural stratum and in the metropolitan/urbanized stratum. Prostate and breast cancer demonstrated the strongest positive associations with poor environmental quality. We observed strong positive associations between the EQI and all-site cancer incidence rates, and associations differed by rural/urban status and environmental domain. Research focusing on single environmental exposures in cancer development may not address the broader environmental context in which cancers develop, and future research should address cumulative environmental

  19. Is There a Cumulative Association Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Intimate Partner Violence in Emerging Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, Valentina; Gelin, Melissa; Zwilling, Amanda

    2017-12-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been shown to cumulatively predict a range of poor physical and mental health outcomes across adulthood. The cumulative effect of ACEs on intimate partner violence (IPV) in emerging adulthood has not been previously explored. The current study examined the individual and cumulative associations between nine ACEs (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, witnessing domestic violence, living with a mentally ill, substance abusing, or incarcerated household member) and IPV in a diverse sample of college students ( N = 284; M age = 20.05 years old [ SD = 2.5], 32% male, 37% Caucasian, 30% Asian, 33% other, and 27% Hispanic) from an urban, public college in the Northeast of the United States. Participants reported ACEs (measured by the Adverse Childhood Experiences Survey) and IPV perpetration and victimization (measured with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale-2) of physical and psychological aggression in an online study that took place from 2015 to 2016. Bivariate and multivariate associations between ACEs, cumulative ACEs (assessed by the sum of adverse experiences), and IPV outcomes were assessed, while controlling for demographics and socioeconomic status. No cumulative associations were observed between ACEs and any of the IPV subscales in multivariate regressions, while witnessing domestic violence was significantly associated with perpetration and victimization of physical aggression and injury, and household member incarceration and physical abuse were associated with physical aggression perpetration. Adverse childhood events do not seem to associate cumulatively with IPV in emerging adulthood and the contributions of individual childhood experiences appear to be more relevant for IPV outcomes. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  20. Cumulative environmental impacts and integrated coastal management: the case of Xiamen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiongzhi; Hong, Huasheng; Charles, Anthony T

    2004-07-01

    This paper examines the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts and the implementation of integrated coastal management within the harbour of Xiamen, China, an urban region in which the coastal zone is under increasing pressure as a result of very rapid economic growth. The first stage of analysis incorporates components of a cumulative effects assessment, including (a) identification of sources of environmental impacts, notably industrial expansion, port development, shipping, waste disposal, aquaculture and coastal construction, (b) selection of a set of valued ecosystem components, focusing on circulation and siltation, water quality, sediment, the benthic community, and mangrove forests, and (c) use of a set of key indicators to examine cumulative impacts arising from the aggregate of human activities. In the second stage of analysis, the paper describes and assesses the development of an institutional framework for integrated coastal management in Xiamen, one that combines policy and planning (including legislative and enforcement mechanisms) with scientific and monitoring mechanisms (including an innovative 'marine functional zoning' system). The paper concludes that the integrated coastal management framework in Xiamen has met all relevant requirements for 'integration' as laid out in the literature, and has explicitly incorporated consideration of cumulative impacts within its management and monitoring processes.

  1. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  2. Density-independent population projection trajectories of chromosome-substituted lines resistant and susceptible to organophosphate insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyo Takahiro

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seasonal fluctuations in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides were observed in the Katsunuma population of Drosophila melanogaster for two consecutive years; susceptibility to three organophosphates tended to increase in the fall. To examine the hypothesis that variation in fitness among resistant and susceptible genotypes could trigger the change of genetic constitution within the fall population, we investigated density-independent population projection trajectories starting from single adult females with characteristics of chromosome-substituted lines resistant and susceptible to the three organophosphates. Results Density-independent population projection trajectories, expressed as the ratios of the number of each chromosome-substituted line to that of line SSS, for which all chromosomes were derived from the susceptible line, showed significant declines in numbers with time for all the resistant chromosome-substituted lines. Conclusion The declining tendency in the density-independent population projection trajectories of the resistant chromosome-substituted lines could explain the simultaneous decline in the levels of resistance to the three organophosphates, observed in the Katsunuma population in the fall.

  3. Persistent symptoms in agricultural workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Palacios N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the prevalence of these symptoms and their relationship with pesticide exposure and the cholinesterase levels in agricultural workers. Methodology: an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in Mexico. Cholinesterase concentration and symptom frequency were assessed for 106 agricultural workers. Exposure was defined with a composed index of 15 variables. Results: symptom prevalence was 52 out of 100 workers. 31% of workers had 1 to 3 of the symptoms, 16% had 4 to 9 of them and 5% had 10 or more of the symptoms. There was an association, p = 0.03, between days of exposure and persistent symptoms. Likewise, there was an association between exposure level and the presence of probable and specific symptoms. Patients with the highest exposure level had 20% more chances of exhibiting symptoms. Cholinesterase concentration ranges were normal. Anemia was detected in 28% of the population. It was three times as frequent in females as in males (p < 0.001. Conclusions: it was possible to identify the increase of persistent symptoms in workers with cholinesterase levels that are usually considered to be normal.

  4. The use of self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning after exposure to chlorpyrifos 50 % plus cypermethrin 5 % among Nepali farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Dea Haagensen; Jørs, Erik; Varma, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    in response to occupational acute organophosphate exposure. Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial among 42 Nepali commercial vegetable farmers. The farmers were randomly assigned (ratio 1:1) to a 2-h organophosphate (chlorpyrifos 50% plus cypermethrin 5...... conducted with a Two Sample T-test and Mann Whitney U-test. Results: We found no difference in the symptom sum or PchE activity from baseline to follow up among farmers spraying with organophosphate (symptom sum difference −1, p = 0.737; PchE mean difference 0.02 U/mL, p = 0.220), placebo (symptom sum...

  5. Organophosphate pesticide exposure in school-aged children living in rice and aquacultural farming regions of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohitrattana, Juthasiri; Siriwong, Wattasit; Tunsaringkarn, Tanasorn; Panuwet, Parinya; Ryan, P Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Robson, Mark G; Fiedler, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are widely used in agricultural sectors in Thailand. Previous studies have documented that children residing in agricultural areas have higher exposure to OPs than children living in other residential areas. The objective of this study was to quantify urinary biomarkers of OP exposure and determine the environmental conditions and activities that predict their levels among children living in Central Thailand farming regions. In October 2011, 53 6-8-year-old participants were recruited from Pathum Thani Province, Thailand. Twenty-four lived in rice farming communities at Khlong Luang District where OPs are the pesticides used frequently. Twenty-nine participants, living in aquacultural farming communities at Lum Luk Ka District where OPs are not used, were recruited to serve as controls for pathways of exposure (e.g., residential, dietary) other than occupational/paraoccupational exposures encountered in rice farming. Household environments and participants' activities were assessed using a parental structured interview. Urine samples (first morning voids) were collected from participants for OP urinary metabolite (i.e., dialkylphosphates [DAPs] and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol [TCPy]) measurements. The levels of most urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in participants who lived in a rice farming community than those who lived in an aquacultural farming community (P farms (∑DAP: P = .001; TCPy: P = .001) and living in a rice farming community (∑DAP: P = .009; TCPy: P farm (P = .03), being with parent while working on a farm (P = .02), playing on a farm (P = .03), and the presence of observable dirt accumulated on the child's body (P = .02). In conclusion, OP metabolite levels among children who live in rice farming communities were strongly influenced by farming activity, household environments, and child behaviors, suggesting that these are the primary pathways in which children living in these agricultural

  6. Chlorinated organophosphate and “legacy” brominated flame retardants in UK waste soft furnishings: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Stubbings

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Furniture and Furnishings (Fire Safety Regulations 1988 is the major driver for the use of chemical flame retardants (FRs in soft furnishings marketed in the UK. While these regulations specify the level of flame retardancy required, they do not specify how such levels should be achieved. Consequently, it remains unclear which FRs are present in UK soft furnishings. This is important not only to help assess what FRs we may be exposed to currently, but which FRs are currently entering the waste stream with concomitant potential for release into the environment. To address this data gap, concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD and a range of chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs were measured in samples of domestic and office waste soft furnishings products entering the UK waste stream in 2011 and 2012. This preliminary study measured the FR content of: carpets (n = 4, curtains (n = 7, mattress fabrics (n = 2, furniture foam (n = 9, and furniture upholstery textiles (n = 10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD were not found at significant concentrations (below detection limits in most samples in any of the twenty two analysed products. In contrast, 7 of the 9 furniture foam samples were treated with tris(2-chloroisopropylphosphate (TCIPP at a mean concentration of 1.9% w/w, with another single foam sample containing tris(1,3-dichloroisopropylphosphate (TDCIPP and tris(2-chloroethylphosphate (TCEP at 1.1 and 0.5% respectively. By comparison, PBDE concentrations are within the range reported previously for UK indoor dust [18], rather than the percent by weight levels required to impart flame retardancy.

  7. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  8. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    related fields that are exploring approaches to dealing with cumulative effects ; for example, terrestrial ecology and human health . IMPACT/APPLICATIONS...direct application on laws regulating anthropogenic noise , pollutants , etc. RELATED PROJECTS None. ...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal

  9. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  10. An inferential and descriptive statistical examination of the relationship between cumulative work metrics and injury in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam; Crotin, Ryan L

    2013-08-01

    In Major League Baseball (MLB), games pitched, total innings pitched, total pitches thrown, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game are used to measure cumulative work. Often, pitchers are allocated limits, based on pitches thrown per game and total innings pitched in a season, in an attempt to prevent future injuries. To date, the efficacy in predicting injuries from these cumulative work metrics remains in question. It was hypothesized that the cumulative work metrics would be a significant predictor for future injury in MLB pitchers. Correlations between cumulative work for pitchers during 2002-07 and injury days in the following seasons were examined using regression analyses to test this hypothesis. Each metric was then "binned" into smaller cohorts to examine trends in the associated risk of injury for each cohort. During the study time period, 27% of pitchers were injured after a season in which they pitched. Although some interesting trends were noticed during the binning process, based on the regression analyses, it was found that no cumulative work metric was a significant predictor for future injury. It was concluded that management of a pitcher's playing schedule based on these cumulative work metrics alone could not be an effective means of preventing injury. These findings indicate that an integrated approach to injury prevention is required. This approach will likely involve advanced cumulative work metrics and biomechanical assessment.

  11. High cumulants of conserved charges and their statistical uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Zhu, Chen; Ye-Yin, Zhao; Xue, Pan; Zhi-Ming, Li; Yuan-Fang, Wu

    2017-10-01

    We study the influence of measured high cumulants of conserved charges on their associated statistical uncertainties in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. With a given number of events, the measured cumulants randomly fluctuate with an approximately normal distribution, while the estimated statistical uncertainties are found to be correlated with corresponding values of the obtained cumulants. Generally, with a given number of events, the larger the cumulants we measure, the larger the statistical uncertainties that are estimated. The error-weighted averaged cumulants are dependent on statistics. Despite this effect, however, it is found that the three sigma rule of thumb is still applicable when the statistics are above one million. Supported by NSFC (11405088, 11521064, 11647093), Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (2014CB845402) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) (2016YFE0104800)

  12. Cumulative frequency distribution of past species extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of Sepkoski's compendium of the time ranges of 30,000+ taxa yields a mean duration of 28.4 ma for genera of fossil invertebrates. This converts to an average extinction rate of 3.5 percent per million years or about one percent every 286,000 years. Using survivorship techniques, these estimates can be converted to the species level, yielding a Phanerozoic average of one percent species extinction every 40,000 years. Variation in extinction rates through time is far greater than the null expectation of a homogeneous birth-death model and this reflects the well-known episodicity of extinction ranging from a few large mass extinctions to so-called background extinction. The observed variation in rates can be used to construct a cumulative frequency distribution of extinction intensity, and this distribution, in the form of a kill curve for species, shows the expected waiting times between extinction events of a given intensity. The kill curve is an average description of the extinction events of a given intensity. The kill curve is an average description of the extinction record and does not imply any cause or causes of extinction. The kill curve shows, among other things, that only about five percent of total species extinctions in the Phanerozoic were involved in the five largest mass extinctions. The other 95 percent were distributed among large and small events not normally called mass extinctions. As an exploration of the possibly absurd proposition that most past extinctions were produced by the effects of large-body impact, the kill curve for species was mapped on the comparable distribution for comet and asteroid impacts. The result is a curve predicting the species kill for a given size of impacting object (expressed as crater size). The results are reasonable in that impacts producing craters less than 30 km (diameter) cause negligible extinction but those producing craters 100-150 km (diameter) cause extinction of species in the range of 45

  13. Quantitative methods for analysing cumulative effects on fish migration success: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J E; Patterson, D A; Martins, E G; Cooke, S J; Hinch, S G

    2012-07-01

    It is often recognized, but seldom addressed, that a quantitative assessment of the cumulative effects, both additive and non-additive, of multiple stressors on fish survival would provide a more realistic representation of the factors that influence fish migration. This review presents a compilation of analytical methods applied to a well-studied fish migration, a more general review of quantitative multivariable methods, and a synthesis on how to apply new analytical techniques in fish migration studies. A compilation of adult migration papers from Fraser River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka revealed a limited number of multivariable methods being applied and the sub-optimal reliance on univariable methods for multivariable problems. The literature review of fisheries science, general biology and medicine identified a large number of alternative methods for dealing with cumulative effects, with a limited number of techniques being used in fish migration studies. An evaluation of the different methods revealed that certain classes of multivariable analyses will probably prove useful in future assessments of cumulative effects on fish migration. This overview and evaluation of quantitative methods gathered from the disparate fields should serve as a primer for anyone seeking to quantify cumulative effects on fish migration survival. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. An analysis of cumulative risks based on biomonitoring data for six phthalates using the Maximum Cumulative Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Maximum Cumulative Ratio (MCR) quantifies the degree to which a single chemical drives the cumulative risk of an individual exposed to multiple chemicals. Phthalates are a class of chemicals with ubiquitous exposures in the general population that have the potential to cause ...

  15. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato A Carvalho

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is an economically important pest of small grain crops that occurs in all maize growing regions of the Americas. The intensive use of chemical pesticides for its control has led to the selection of resistant populations, however, to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance have not been characterised. In this study the mechanisms involved in the resistance of two S. frugiperda strains collected in Brazil to chlorpyrifos (OP strain or lambda-cyhalothrin (PYR strain were investigated using molecular and genomic approaches. To examine the possible role of target-site insensitivity the genes encoding the organophosphate (acetylcholinesterase, AChE and pyrethroid (voltage-gated sodium channel, VGSC target-site proteins were PCR amplified. Sequencing of the S. frugiperda ace-1 gene identified several nucleotide changes in the OP strain when compared to a susceptible reference strain (SUS. These result in three amino acid substitutions, A201S, G227A and F290V, that have all been shown previously to confer organophosphate resistance in several other insect species. Sequencing of the gene encoding the VGSC in the PYR strain, identified mutations that result in three amino acid substitutions, T929I, L932F and L1014F, all of which have been shown previously to confer knockdown/super knockdown-type resistance in several arthropod species. To investigate the possible role of metabolic detoxification in the resistant phenotype of the OP and PYR stains all EST sequences available for S. frugiperda were used to design a gene-expression microarray. This was then used to compare gene expression in the resistant strains with the susceptible reference strain. Members of several gene families, previously implicated in metabolic resistance in other insects were found to be overexpressed in the resistant strains including glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome P450s and carboxylesterases. Taken together these results

  16. Cumulative Psychosocial and Medical Risk as Predictors of Early Infant Development and Parenting Stress in an African-American Preterm Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…

  17. Cumulative dietary exposure to a selected group of pesticides of the triazole group in different European countries according to the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Christodoulou, Despo

    2015-01-01

    The practicality was examined of performing a cumulative dietary exposure assessment according to the requirements of the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling. For this the acute and chronic cumulative exposure to triazole pesticides was estimated using national food consumption and monitorin...

  18. Family cumulative risk and at-risk kindergarteners' social competence: the mediating role of parent representations of the attachment relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Lauren A; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Owusu, Erika; McLear, Caitlin; Smith-Darden, Joanne

    2017-12-29

    Secure attachment relationships have been linked to social competence in at-risk children. In the current study, we examined the role of parent secure base scripts in predicting at-risk kindergarteners' social competence. Parent representations of secure attachment were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between lower family cumulative risk and children's social competence. Participants included 106 kindergarteners and their primary caregivers recruited from three urban charter schools serving low-income families as a part of a longitudinal study. Lower levels of cumulative risk predicted greater secure attachment representations in parents, and scores on the secure base script assessment predicted children's social competence. An indirect relationship between lower cumulative risk and kindergarteners' social competence via parent secure base script scores was also supported. Parent script-based representations of the attachment relationship appear to be an important link between lower levels of cumulative risk and low-income kindergarteners' social competence. Implications of these findings for future interventions are discussed.

  19. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of 9 organophosphate flame retardants in water samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo, M.; Campo, J.; Picó, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Few methods are available for comprehensive organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) detection in water and wastewater. Gas chromatography has been employed previously, but this approach is less selective, not amenable for use with deuterated standards and can suffer unfavorable fragmentation.

  20. Sperm viability and gene expression in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) following exposure to the neonicotinoid insecticide Imidacloprid and the organophosphate Acaricide Coumaphos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee population declines are a global concern. Numerous factors appear to cause the decline including parasites, pathogens, malnutrition and pesticides. Residues of the organophosphate acaricide coumaphos and the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, widely used to combat Varroa mites and for...

  1. Organophosphate esters in dust samples collected from Danish homes and daycare centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Sarka; Fredricsson, Malin; Weschler, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    bedrooms and 151 daycare centers of children living in Odense, Denmark. The identified compounds include: tris(isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), tris(2...... from daycare centers than for samples from homes. Organophosphates with median mass fractions above the limit of detection were: TCEP from homes (6.9 μg g-1), and TCEP (16 μg g-1), TCIPP (5.6 μg g-1), TDCIPP (7.1 μg g-1), TBOEP (26 μg g-1), TPHP (2.0 μg g-1) and EHDPP (2.1 μg g-1) from daycare centers...

  2. Organophosphate intermediate syndrome with neurological complications of extrapyramidal symptoms in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B. Detweiler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates (OPs are ubiquitous in the world as domestic and industrial agricultural insecticides. Intentional poisoning as suicides attempts are clinical phenomena seen in emergency departments and clinics in agricultural areas. Intermediate syndrome with the neurological complication of extra pyramidal symptoms following acute OP ingestion may occur in pediatric and adult cases. While death is the most serious consequence of toxic OP doses, low levels of exposure and nonfatal doses may disrupt the neurobehavioral development of fetuses and children in addition to bring linked to testicular cancer and male and female infertility. These are disturbing. Chronic and acute toxicity from OPs are barriers to the health of our present and future generations. Symptoms and treatment of acute and chronic OP exposure are briefly referenced with inclusion of the intermediate syndrome. Suggestions for local and systemic reduction of the acute and long term consequences of OP ingestion are opined.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of a novel mesoporous Mn - organophosphate molecular sieve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatathri Narayanan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel mesoporous Mn - organophosphate was synthesized for the first time. It is characterized by several physicochemical techniques. Small angle X-ray diffraction analysis shows the first peak in 2.5ºwith 39 Aº pore width. Elemental analysis shows that the composition is [(C12H23N3PO]40Mn. Scanning electron microscopic picture shows the flag morphology with 1-15 µm particle size. Thermogravimetry/Differentaial thermal analysis shows almost 80% exothermic weight loss. Nitrogen adsorption isotherm shows type III with 300 m²/g BET surface area. Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopic analysis shows that the framework vibrations are comparable to other well known silica mesoporous materials. Electron spin resonance spectroscopic analysis shows the absence of hyperfine splitting indicates the presence of Mn3+ species. Ultraviolet - visible spectroscopic analysis shows that most of the Mn is in tetrahedral co-ordination beside small square pyramidal species. A plausible synthesis mechanism also proposed.

  4. Case histories of organophosphate pesticides killing birds of prey in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Kolbe, E.J.; Hill, E.F.; Blus, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1982 when secondary. poisoning of Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur on cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested for organophosphate (OP) poisoning in selected birds of prey found dead. This report documents the circumstances for a number of. cases where birds of prey were killed by OP pesticides in the United States. Many of the cases were brought to our attention by the U S. Fish and Wildlife Service Division of Law Enforcement The cases may be divided into three categories: misuse, approved use, and unknown. Now that we are looking for OP poisoning of birds of prey, we are finding it more frequently than previously suspected.

  5. Evaluation of genotoxicity of a technical grade organophosphate insecticide, Tafethion (ethion), in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunya, S P; Jena, G B

    1994-01-01

    The genotoxicity of a technical grade organophosphate insecticide, Tafethion (ethion), was evaluated in a chick in vivo test system employing the chromosome aberration assay (CA). Chicks in their neonatal life period are particularly susceptible to environmental contaminants due to the high rate of cell proliferation and ongoing process of development. This provides a new methodology to screen the genotoxic effect of environmental pollutants. The chemical was tested for three different doses (20, 15 and 10 mg/kg b.w.), in two routes of administration (i.p. and p.o.), after three different durations of acute exposure (6, 24 and 48 h) as well as chronic exposure (4 mg/kg day for 5 days), for the induction of chromosomal aberrations. Mitomycin C was used as the positive control. In general, the chemical induced higher frequencies of chromosomal aberrations than the controls, indicating the genotoxic property of the chemical in the tested system.

  6. Oxime and atropine failure to prevent intermediate syndrome development in acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intermediate syndrome (IMS was described a few decades ago, however, there is still a controversy regarding its exact etiology, risk factors, diagnostic parameters and required therapy. Considering that acute poisonings are treated in different types of medical institutions this serious complication of organophosphate insecticide (OPI poisoning is frequently overlooked. The aim of this paper was to present a case of IMS in organophosphate poisoning, which, we believe, provides additional data on the use of oxime or atropine. Case report. After a well-resolved cholinergic crisis, the patient developed clinical presentation of IMS within the first 72 h from deliberate malathion ingestion. The signs of IMS were weakness of proximal limb muscles and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves, followed by the weakness of respiratory muscles and serious respiratory insufficiency. Malathion and its active metabolite were confirmed by analytical procedure (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pralidoxime methylsulphate, adiministered as a continuous infusion until day 8 (total dose 38.4 g, and atropine until the day 10 (total dose 922 mg did not prevent the development of IMS, hence the mechanical ventilation that was stopped after 27 h had to be continued until the day 10. Conclusion. Continuous pralidoxime methylsulphate infusion with atropine did not prevent the development of IMS, most likely due to the delayed treatment and insufficient oxime dose but also because of chemical structure and lipophilicity of ingested OPI. A prolonged intensive care monitoring and respiratory care are the key management for the intermediate syndrome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 176018, No. 46009

  7. Evidence of field-evolved resistance to organophosphates and pyrethroids in Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Attaullah Khan; Sayyed, Ali H; Aslam, Muhammad; Razaq, Muhammad; Jilani, Ghulam; Saleem, Mushtaq Ahmad

    2008-10-01

    The toxicity of some of the most commonly used insecticides in the organophosphate and pyrethroid classes were investigated against different Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) populations collected over three consecutive years (2005-2007). The populations were tested using leaf dip bioassays for residual effects and topical applications to measure the response of larvae that would come into direct contact with field application of insecticides. In leaf dip assays, the LC50 (micrograms per milliliter; 120 h) values for chlorpyrifos and profenofos were in the range of 59.3-1,023 and 180.02-1,118 respectively. The LC50 values for lambda-cyhalthrin, alphamethrin, and deltamethrin were 359.08-2,677, 112.9-923.5, and 47.81-407.03, respectively. The toxicity for the above insecticides in topical application was similar to toxicity in leaf dip assays. The susceptibility of a laboratory population, which was locally developed and designated as (Lab-PK), to deltamethrin was comparable with another susceptible laboratory population. Resistance ratios for five field populations were generally low to medium for deltamethrin, but high to very high for chlorpyrifos, profenofos, lambda-cyhalthrin and alphamethrin compared with the Lab-PK population. Our data also suggested that the five field populations had multiple resistance to two classes of insecticides. The populations showed resistance to two organophosphates tested and to lambda-cyhalthrin and alphamethrin; however, resistance to deltamethrin was only found at two locations. This pattern indicates occurrence of two divergent patterns of resistance within pyrethroids. The resistance to the insecticides was stable across 3 yr, suggesting field selection for general fitness had also taken place in various populations of C. carnea. The broad spectrum of resistance and stability of resistance to insecticides in C. carnea in the current study suggested that it could be a prime candidate for mass releases

  8. Brominated and organophosphate flame retardants in selected consumer products on the Japanese market in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko, E-mail: kajiwara.natsuko@nies.go.jp [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Noma, Yukio; Takigami, Hidetaka [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We examined the flame retardants in electronics, curtains, wallpaper and insulator. {yields} Use of alternative brominated and organophosphate flame retardants was suggested. {yields} All the products investigated also contained PBDEs, TBBPA and polybromophenols. {yields} Incorporation of recycled materials containing hazardous substance was suggested. - Abstract: The concentrations of traditional brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in new consumer products, including electronic equipment, curtains, wallpaper, and building materials, on the Japanese market in 2008 were investigated. Although some components of the electronic equipment contained bromine at concentrations on the order of percent by weight, as indicated by X-ray fluorescence analysis, the bromine content could not be fully accounted for by the BFRs analyzed in this study, which included polybrominated diphenylethers, decabromodiphenyl ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, polybromophenols, and hexabromocyclododecanes. These results suggest the use of alternative BFRs such as newly developed formulations derived from tribromophenol, tetrabromobisphenol A, or both. Among the 11 OPFRs analyzed, triphenylphosphate was present at the highest concentrations in all the products investigated, which suggests the use of condensed-type OPFRs as alternative flame retardants, because they contain triphenylphosphate as an impurity. Tripropylphosphate was not detected in any samples; and trimethylphosphate, tributyl tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate were detected in only some components and at low concentrations. Note that all the consumer products evaluated in this study also contained traditional BFRs in amounts that were inadequate to impart flame retardancy, which implies the incorporation of recycled plastic materials containing BFRs that are of global concern.

  9. Reduction in urinary organophosphate pesticide metabolites in adults after a week-long organic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Liza; Cohen, Marc; Braun, Lesley; Schembri, Adrian; Taskova, Rilka

    2014-07-01

    Conventional food production commonly uses organophosphate (OP) pesticides, which can have negative health effects, while organic food is deemed healthier because it is produced without these pesticides. Studies suggest that organic food consumption may significantly reduce OP pesticide exposure in children who have relatively higher pesticide exposure than adults due to their different diets, body weight, behaviour and less efficient metabolism. A prospective, randomised, crossover study was conducted to determine if an organic food diet reduces organophosphate exposure in adults. Thirteen participants were randomly allocated to consume a diet of at least 80% organic or conventional food for 7 days and then crossed over to the alternate diet. Urinary levels of six dialkylphosphate metabolites were analysed in first-morning voids collected on day 8 of each phase using GC-MS/MS with detection limits of 0.11-0.51 μg/L. The mean total DAP results in the organic phase were 89% lower than in the conventional phase (M=0.032 [SD=0.038] and 0.294 [SD=0.435] respectively, p=0.013). For total dimethyl DAPs there was a 96% reduction (M=0.011 [SD=0.023] and 0.252 [SD=0.403] respectively, p=0.005). Mean total diethyl DAP levels in the organic phase were half those of the conventional phase (M=0.021 [SD=0.020] and 0.042 [SD=0.038] respectively), yet the wide variability and small sample size meant the difference was not statistically significant. The consumption of an organic diet for one week significantly reduced OP pesticide exposure in adults. Larger scale studies in different populations are required to confirm these findings and investigate their clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of trace levels of organophosphate pesticides using an electronic tongue based on graphene hybrid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facure, Murilo H M; Mercante, Luiza A; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Correa, Daniel S

    2017-05-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds impose significant strains on public health, environmental/food safety and homeland security, once they have been widely used as pesticides and insecticides and also display potential to be employed as chemical warfare agents by terrorists. In this context, the development of sensitive and reliable chemical sensors that would allow in-situ measurements of such contaminants is highly pursued. Here we report on a free-enzyme impedimetric electronic tongue (e-tongue) used in the analysis of organophosphate pesticides comprising four sensing units based on graphene hybrid nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were prepared by reduction of graphene oxide in the presence of conducting polymers (PEDOT:PSS and polypyrrole) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which were deposited by drop casting onto gold interdigitated electrodes. Impedance spectroscopy measurements were collected in triplicate for each sample analyzed, and the electrical resistance data were treated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), revealing that the system was able to discriminate OPs at nanomolar concentrations. In addition, the electronic tongue system could detect OPs in real samples, where relations between the principal components and the variation of pesticides in a mixture were established, proving to be useful to analyze and monitor mixtures of OP pesticides. The materials employed provided sensing units with high specific surface area and high conductivity, yielding the development of a sensor with suitable stability, good reproducibility, and high sensitivity towards pesticide samples, being able to discriminate concentrations as low as 0.1nmolL-1. Our results indicate that the e-tongue system can be used as a rapid, simple and low cost alternative in the analyses of OPs pesticide solutions below the concentration range permitted by legislation of some countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms and risk of cumulative impacts to coastal ecosystem services: An expert elicitation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gerald G.

    2017-05-23

    Coastal environments are some of the most populated on Earth, with greater pressures projected in the future. Managing coastal systems requires the consideration of multiple uses, which both benefit from and threaten multiple ecosystem services. Thus understanding the cumulative impacts of human activities on coastal ecosystem services would seem fundamental to management, yet there is no widely accepted approach for assessing these. This study trials an approach for understanding the cumulative impacts of anthropogenic change, focusing on Tasman and Golden Bays, New Zealand. Using an expert elicitation procedure, we collected information on three aspects of cumulative impacts: the importance and magnitude of impacts by various activities and stressors on ecosystem services, and the causal processes of impact on ecosystem services. We assessed impacts to four ecosystem service benefits — fisheries, shellfish aquaculture, marine recreation and existence value of biodiversity—addressing three main research questions: (1) how severe are cumulative impacts on ecosystem services (correspondingly, what potential is there for restoration)?; (2) are threats evenly distributed across activities and stressors, or do a few threats dominate?; (3) do prominent activities mainly operate through direct stressors, or do they often exacerbate other impacts? We found (1) that despite high uncertainty in the threat posed by individual stressors and impacts, total cumulative impact is consistently severe for all four ecosystem services. (2) A subset of drivers and stressors pose important threats across the ecosystem services explored, including climate change, commercial fishing, sedimentation and pollution. (3) Climate change and commercial fishing contribute to prominent indirect impacts across ecosystem services by exacerbating regional impacts, namely sedimentation and pollution. The prevalence and magnitude of these indirect, networked impacts highlights the need for

  12. Mechanisms and risk of cumulative impacts to coastal ecosystem services: An expert elicitation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gerald G; Sinner, Jim; Ellis, Joanne; Kandlikar, Milind; Halpern, Benjamin S; Satterfield, Terre; Chan, Kai M A

    2017-09-01

    Coastal environments are some of the most populated on Earth, with greater pressures projected in the future. Managing coastal systems requires the consideration of multiple uses, which both benefit from and threaten multiple ecosystem services. Thus understanding the cumulative impacts of human activities on coastal ecosystem services would seem fundamental to management, yet there is no widely accepted approach for assessing these. This study trials an approach for understanding the cumulative impacts of anthropogenic change, focusing on Tasman and Golden Bays, New Zealand. Using an expert elicitation procedure, we collected information on three aspects of cumulative impacts: the importance and magnitude of impacts by various activities and stressors on ecosystem services, and the causal processes of impact on ecosystem services. We assessed impacts to four ecosystem service benefits - fisheries, shellfish aquaculture, marine recreation and existence value of biodiversity-addressing three main research questions: (1) how severe are cumulative impacts on ecosystem services (correspondingly, what potential is there for restoration)?; (2) are threats evenly distributed across activities and stressors, or do a few threats dominate?; (3) do prominent activities mainly operate through direct stressors, or do they often exacerbate other impacts? We found (1) that despite high uncertainty in the threat posed by individual stressors and impacts, total cumulative impact is consistently severe for all four ecosystem services. (2) A subset of drivers and stressors pose important threats across the ecosystem services explored, including climate change, commercial fishing, sedimentation and pollution. (3) Climate change and commercial fishing contribute to prominent indirect impacts across ecosystem services by exacerbating regional impacts, namely sedimentation and pollution. The prevalence and magnitude of these indirect, networked impacts highlights the need for approaches

  13. INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION OF PROBABILITY AND CUMULATIVE DENSITY FUNCTIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Potter, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF), and its corresponding cumulative density function (CDF), provide direct statistical insight into the characterization of a random process or field. Typically displayed as a histogram, one can infer probabilities of the occurrence of particular events. When examining a field over some two-dimensional domain in which at each point a PDF of the function values is available, it is challenging to assess the global (stochastic) features present within the field. In this paper, we present a visualization system that allows the user to examine two-dimensional data sets in which PDF (or CDF) information is available at any position within the domain. The tool provides a contour display showing the normed difference between the PDFs and an ansatz PDF selected by the user and, furthermore, allows the user to interactively examine the PDF at any particular position. Canonical examples of the tool are provided to help guide the reader into the mapping of stochastic information to visual cues along with a description of the use of the tool for examining data generated from an uncertainty quantification exercise accomplished within the field of electrophysiology.

  14. The Role of Cumulative Trauma, Betrayal, and Appraisals in Understanding Trauma Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Cromer, Lisa Demarni; Deprince, Anne P; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2013-03-01

    Poor psychological outcomes are common among trauma survivors, yet not all survivors experience adverse sequelae. The current study examined links between cumulative trauma exposure as a function of the level of betrayal (measured by the relational closeness of the survivor and the perpetrator), trauma appraisals, gender, and trauma symptoms. Participants were 273 college students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event on a trauma checklist. Three cumulative indices were constructed to assess the number of different types of traumas experienced that were low (LBTs), moderate (MBTs), or high in betrayal (HBTs). Greater trauma exposure was related to more symptoms of depression, dissociation, and PTSD, with exposure to HBTs contributing the most. Women were more likely to experience HBTs than men, but there were no gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Appraisals of trauma were predictive of trauma-related symptoms over and above the effects explained by cumulative trauma at each level of betrayal. The survivor's relationship with the perpetrator, the effect of cumulative trauma, and their combined impact on trauma symptomatology are discussed.

  15. Negative Affectivity Moderates Associations between Cumulative Risk and At-Risk Toddlers' Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northerner, Laura M; Trentacosta, Christopher J; McLear, Caitlin M

    2016-02-01

    This study examined cumulative risk, temperament traits, and their interplay as predictors of internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems in at-risk toddlers. Participants were 104 low-income mother-toddler dyads recruited from Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) sites in a large city. The sample was primarily African American, and mothers were 21 years of age or younger at the child's birth. The dyads were assessed when the toddlers were approximately 18 months old and again at 24 months of age. Though all toddlers were from low-income families with young mothers, the families varied in the degree to which other contextual risk factors were present. A cumulative risk index was calculated based on five contextual factors: maternal education, neighborhood dangerousness, social support, household overcrowding and single parenting. In multiple regressions, cumulative risk predicted sleep and externalizing problems. In addition, negative affectivity predicted all three domains of problem behaviors, effortful control predicted fewer externalizing problems, and surgency predicted fewer internalizing problems. Moreover, low negative affectivity buffered the association between cumulative risk and both internalizing and sleep problems. These findings suggest that it is important to consider children's temperament traits in conjunction with the constellation of family risks when designing prevention programs to reduce the prevalence of behavior problems early in life.

  16. Negative Affectivity Moderates Associations between Cumulative Risk and At-Risk Toddlers’ Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northerner, Laura M.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; McLear, Caitlin M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cumulative risk, temperament traits, and their interplay as predictors of internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems in at-risk toddlers. Participants were 104 low-income mother-toddler dyads recruited from Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) sites in a large city. The sample was primarily African American, and mothers were 21 years of age or younger at the child’s birth. The dyads were assessed when the toddlers were approximately 18 months old and again at 24 months of age. Though all toddlers were from low-income families with young mothers, the families varied in the degree to which other contextual risk factors were present. A cumulative risk index was calculated based on five contextual factors: maternal education, neighborhood dangerousness, social support, household overcrowding and single parenting. In multiple regressions, cumulative risk predicted sleep and externalizing problems. In addition, negative affectivity predicted all three domains of problem behaviors, effortful control predicted fewer externalizing problems, and surgency predicted fewer internalizing problems. Moreover, low negative affectivity buffered the association between cumulative risk and both internalizing and sleep problems. These findings suggest that it is important to consider children’s temperament traits in conjunction with the constellation of family risks when designing prevention programs to reduce the prevalence of behavior problems early in life. PMID:26924917

  17. A probabilistic analysis of cumulative carbon emissions and long-term planetary warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyke, Jeremy; Damon Matthews, H.

    2015-11-01

    Efforts to mitigate and adapt to long-term climate change could benefit greatly from probabilistic estimates of cumulative carbon emissions due to fossil fuel burning and resulting CO2-induced planetary warming. Here we demonstrate the use of a reduced-form model to project these variables. We performed simulations using a large-ensemble framework with parametric uncertainty sampled to produce distributions of future cumulative emissions and consequent planetary warming. A hind-cast ensemble of simulations captured 1980-2012 historical CO2 emissions trends and an ensemble of future projection simulations generated a distribution of emission scenarios that qualitatively resembled the suite of Representative and Extended Concentration Pathways. The resulting cumulative carbon emission and temperature change distributions are characterized by 5-95th percentile ranges of 0.96-4.9 teratonnes C (Tt C) and 1.4 °C-8.5 °C, respectively, with 50th percentiles at 3.1 Tt C and 4.7 °C. Within the wide range of policy-related parameter combinations that produced these distributions, we found that low-emission simulations were characterized by both high carbon prices and low costs of non-fossil fuel energy sources, suggesting the importance of these two policy levers in particular for avoiding dangerous levels of climate warming. With this analysis we demonstrate a probabilistic approach to the challenge of identifying strategies for limiting cumulative carbon emissions and assessing likelihoods of surpassing dangerous temperature thresholds.

  18. CTD Information Guide. Preventing Cumulative Trauma Disorders in the Workplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide Army occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals with a primer that explains the basic principles of ergonomic-hazard recognition for common cumulative trauma disorders...

  19. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zeise, Lauren; Faust, John B

    2016-01-01

    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.

  20. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  1. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  2. POTENTIAL UTILITY OF SALIVA BIOMONITORING FOR ASSESSING ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDE DOSIMETRY AND ESTERASE INHIBITION. (R828608)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Method development for assessing the human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants in hair and nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, a new extraction method based on acid digestion and SPE clean-up (Oasis Wax) was developed for measuring four PFR metabolites (i.e. dibutyl phosphate (DBP), diphenyl phosphate (DPhP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (BDCPP) and bis(2-butoxy ethyl) phosphate (BBEP)) in hair and nails. The method optimization was done according to a combinatorial design (Taguchi) where several parameters were efficiently optimized. Precision was lower for hair than for nails (RSD % 18 and 28%). Recoveries were >74%. High DBP levels in procedural blanks were traced back to the use of SPE cartridges. Therefore a new SPE pre-treatment was tested, reducing significantly DBP levels (hair, finger, and toe nails collected over two months in two volunteers (female and male). DPhP levels were extremely high (in μg/g range) in both finger and toe nails in the female. BDCPP and BBEP were the minor metabolites detected in nails (average levels of 28-64 ng/g and hair (0.23-0.25 ng/g). Results showed that there is a possible contribution from both an external (via deposition) and an internal exposure, however it was not possible to fully understand their extent. Since there were no records of lifestyle and due to the small sample size, the major exposure source could not be addressed here. Nevertheless, there is evidence that hair and nails (finger and toe) might be good indicators of human exposure to PFRs, especially to TPhP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cumulative query method for influenza surveillance using search engine data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Woo; Jo, Min-Woo; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, JaeHo; Yu, Maengsoo; Kim, Won Young; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2014-12-16

    Internet search queries have become an important data source in syndromic surveillance system. However, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using Internet search query data in South Korea. The objective of this study was to examine correlations between our cumulative query method and national influenza surveillance data. Our study was based on the local search engine, Daum (approximately 25% market share), and influenza-like illness (ILI) data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A quota sampling survey was conducted with 200 participants to obtain popular queries. We divided the study period into two sets: Set 1 (the 2009/10 epidemiological year for development set 1 and 2010/11 for validation set 1) and Set 2 (2010/11 for development Set 2 and 2011/12 for validation Set 2). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between the Daum data and the ILI data for the development set. We selected the combined queries for which the correlation coefficients were .7 or higher and listed them in descending order. Then, we created a cumulative query method n representing the number of cumulative combined queries in descending order of the correlation coefficient. In validation set 1, 13 cumulative query methods were applied, and 8 had higher correlation coefficients (min=.916, max=.943) than that of the highest single combined query. Further, 11 of 13 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 4 of 13 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. In validation set 2, 8 of 15 cumulative query methods showed higher correlation coefficients (min=.975, max=.987) than that of the highest single combined query. All 15 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 6 of 15 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. Cumulative query method showed relatively higher correlation with national influenza surveillance data than combined queries in the development and validation set.

  5. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Flexible, Low-Cost Sensor Based on Electrolyte Gated Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor for Organo-Phosphate Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Vijay Deep; Joshi, Saumya; Becherer, Markus; Lugli, Paolo

    2017-05-18

    A flexible enzymatic acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on an electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field effect transistor is demonstrated. The enzyme immobilization is done on a planar gold gate electrode using 3-mercapto propionic acid as the linker molecule. The sensor showed good sensing capability as a sensor for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, with a sensitivity of 5.7 μA/decade, and demonstrated excellent specificity when tested against interfering analytes present in the body. As the flexible sensor is supposed to suffer mechanical deformations, the endurance of the sensor was measured by putting it under extensive mechanical stress. The enzymatic activity was inhibited by more than 70% when the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer was spiked with 5 mg/mL malathion (an organophosphate) solution. The biosensor was successfully challenged with tap water and strawberry juice, demonstrating its usefulness as an analytical tool for organophosphate detection.

  7. Young child socioemotional/behavioral problems and cumulative psychosocial risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Carol; Edmonds, Diana; Davagnino, Judith; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the rates and risk correlates of socioemotional/behavioral problems in young children in pediatric primary care settings serving low-income families. Our objective was to determine rates of clinically significant socioemotional/behavior problems in 12- to 48-month-olds from low-income families and identify associations between problems and individual and cumulative demographic and psychosocial risks. In this study, 378 Spanish- and English-speaking mothers attending a pediatric primary care practice serving low-income families were surveyed before well-child visits to assess socioemotional/behavioral problems (Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment; M.J. Briggs-Gowan & A.S. Carter, ) and psychosocial and demographic risks (e.g., unemployment, low social support) (Parent Risk Questionnaire; D.I. Lowell, A.S. Carter, L. Godoy, B. Paulicin, & M.J. Briggs-Gowan, ). We found that 19.8% of children had clinically significant problems, and 53.2% experienced one or more psychosocial risks. Clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems were modestly to strongly associated with individual psychosocial risks, with the strongest associations with parental medical problems, parent depression/anxiety, and extreme parental distress, Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR) = 4.8-6.6, p psychosocial risk were uniquely associated with clinically significant problems, particularly among children experiencing three to four psychosocial risks, ARR = 3.0-11.6, p Psychosocial risks affect the majority of low-income families with young children, with a steep increase in likelihood of clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems as risks accumulate, underscoring the need to address both socioemotional/behavioral issues and psychosocial risk in young children. © 2013 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predict post-traumatic stress disorder in postpartum African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Nancy J; Fry-McComish, Judith; Chiodo, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    To describe relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and post-traumatic stress in African-American postpartum women. Cumulative trauma exposure estimates for women in the USA range from 51-69%. During pregnancy, most trauma research has focused on physical injury to the mother. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with trauma and more prevalent in African-American women than women of other groups. Knowledge about both the rate and impact of cumulative trauma on pregnancy may contribute to our understanding of women seeking prenatal care, and disparities in infant morbidity and mortality. This retrospective, correlational, cross-sectional study took place on postpartum units of two Detroit hospitals. Participants were 150 African-American women aged between 18-45 who had given birth. Mothers completed the Cumulative Trauma Scale, Conflict Tactics Scale, Clinician Administered Post-traumatic Stress Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a Demographic Data form. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. All participants reported at least one traumatic event in their lifetime. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predicted PTSD, with the trauma of a life-threatening event for a loved one reported by 60% of the sample. Nearly, one-fourth of the women screened were at risk for PTSD. Increased cumulative trauma, increased partner conflict and lower level of education were related to higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Both cumulative trauma and partner conflict in the past year predict PTSD. Reasoning was used most often for partner conflict resolution. The results of this study offer additional knowledge regarding relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and PTSD in African-American women. Healthcare providers need to be sensitive to patient life-threatening events, personal failures, abuse and other types of trauma. Current evidence supports the need to assess for

  9. Exposures of 129 Preschool Children to Organochlorines, Organophosphates, Pyrethroids, and Acid Herbicides at Their Homes and Daycares in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Marsha K. Morgan; Wilson, Nancy K.; Chuang, Jane C.

    2014-01-01

    Few data exist on the concurrent exposures of young children to past-use and current-use pesticides in their everyday environments. In this further analysis of study data, we quantified the potential exposures and intake doses of 129 preschool children, ages 20 to 66 months, to 16 pesticides (eight organochlorines, two organophosphates, three pyrethroids, and three acid herbicides). Environmental samples (soil, dust, outdoor air, and indoor air) and personal samples (hand wipes, solid food,...

  10. TARGETING OF NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS, THEIR RECEPTORS, AND SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY OF ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Theodore A.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors control neural cell differentiation and assembly of neural circuits. We previously showed that organophosphate pesticides differentially regulate members of the fibroblast growth factor (fgf) gene family. We administered chlorpyrifos and diazinon to neonatal rats on postnatal days 1–4 at doses devoid of systemic toxicity or growth impairment, and spanning the threshold for barely-detectable cholinesterase inhibition. We evaluated the impact on gene families for different classes of neurotrophic factors. Using microarrays, we examined the regional expression of mRNAs encoding the neurotrophins (ntfs), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), nerve growth factor (ngf), the wnt and fzd gene families and the corresponding receptors. Chlorpyrifos and diazinon both had widespread effects on the fgf, ntf, wnt and fzd families but much less on the bdnf and ngf groups. However, the two organophosphates showed disparate effects on a number of key neurotrophic factors. To determine if the actions were mediated directly on differentiating neurons, we tested chlorpyrifos in PC12 cells, an in vitro model of neural cell development. Effects in PC12 cells mirrored many of those for members of the fgf, ntf and wnt families, as well as the receptors for the ntfs, especially during early differentiation, the stage known to be most susceptible to disruption by organophosphates. Our results suggest that actions on neurotrophic factors provide a mechanism for the developmental neurotoxicity of low doses of organophosphates, and, since effects on expression of the affected genes differed with test agent, may help explain regional disparities in effects and critical periods of vulnerability. PMID:18502319

  11. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Whiting, Allan H.

    2007-12-06

    This report is the third annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration action in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). The project is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce. Measurement of the cumulative effects of ecological restoration projects in the Columbia River estuary is a formidable task because of the size and complexity of the estuarine landscape and the meta-populations of salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Despite the challenges presented by this system, developing and implementing appropriate indicators and methods to measure cumulative effects is the best way to enable estuary managers to track the overall effectiveness of investments in estuarine restoration projects. This project is developing methods to quantify the cumulative effects of multiple restoration activities in the CRE. The overall objectives of the 2006 study were to continue to develop techniques to assess cumulative effects, refine the standard monitoring protocols, and initiate development of an adaptive management system for Corps of Engineers’ habitat restoration monitoring efforts in the CRE. (The adaptive management effort will be reported at a later date.) Field studies during 2006 were conducted in tidal freshwater at Kandoll Farm on the lower Grays River and tidal brackish water at Vera Slough on Youngs Bay. Within each of area, we sampled one natural reference site and one restoration site. We addressed the overall objectives with field work in 2006 that, coupled with previous field data, had specific objectives and resulted in some important findings that are summarized here by chapter in this report. Each chapter of the report contains data on particular monitored variables for pre- and post

  12. Cumulative childhood trauma, emotion regulation, dissociation, and behavior problems in school-aged sexual abuse victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Martine; Langevin, Rachel; Oussaïd, Essaïd

    2018-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with a plethora of devastating repercussions. A significant number of sexually abused children are likely to experience other forms of maltreatment that can seriously affect their emotion regulation abilities and impede on their development. The aim of the study was to test emotion regulation and dissociation as mediators in the association between cumulative childhood trauma and internalized and externalized behavior problems in child victims of sexual abuse. Participants were 309 sexually abused children (203 girls and 106 boys; Mean age = 9.07) and their non-offending parent. Medical and clinical files were coded for cumulative childhood trauma. At initial evaluation (T1), parents completed measures assessing children's emotion regulation abilities and dissociation. At Time 2 (T2), parents completed a measure assessing children's behavior problems. Mediation analyses were conducted with emotion regulation and dissociation as sequential mediators using Mplus software. Findings revealed that cumulative childhood trauma affects both internalized and externalized behavior problems through three mediation paths: emotion regulation alone, dissociation alone, and through a path combining emotion regulation and dissociation. Both emotion regulation and dissociation were assessed at T1 and thus the temporal sequencing of mediators remains to be ascertained through a longitudinal design. All measures were completed by the parents. Clinicians should routinely screen for other childhood trauma in vulnerable clienteles. In order to tackle behavior problems, clinical interventions for sexually abused youth need to address emotion regulation competencies and dissociation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Noncholinesterase effects induced by organophosphate pesticides and their relationship to cognitive processes: implication for the action of acylpeptide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancetti, Floria; Olmos, Cristina; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Rozas, Carlos; Morales, Bernardo

    2007-12-01

    Organophosphate pesticides have been classically described as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in insects and invertebrates. However, there is now more evidence supporting the hypothesis that these compounds also act through noncholinergic pathways, especially those related to cognitive processes. The enzyme acylpeptide hydrolase was identified as a new target for organophosphate pesticides. This enzyme is more sensitive than AChE to some organophosphates (OP), including dichlorvos, which is the parent compound for metrifonate, a therapeutic agent used in the treatment of cognitive impairment associated to Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, there is some doubt as to whether the mechanism of action of this drug is mediated by a potentiation of cholinergic transmission. However, the direct action of acylpeptide hydrolase in cognitive processes and the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying subacute exposure to OP have yet to be demonstrated. This review deals with evidence demonstrating the existence of mechanisms of actions of OP, which are independent of cholinergic pathway potentiation and which have an effect on cognitive processes. In addition, the possible participation of the enzyme acylpeptide hydrolase in these processes is also discussed. Finally, the possibility of using this enzyme activity as a new biomarker for exposure to OP is considered.

  14. Brain drain: the cost of neglected responsibilities in evaluating cumulative effects of environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffini, Maricel V; Neltner, Thomas G

    2015-05-01

    Developmental disabilities affect millions of people and have a great impact on their lives, their families and the societies where they live. The prevalence of disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as well as subclinical decrements in brain function cannot be explained solely as genetic diseases. Exposures to environmental chemicals, especially during prenatal and early postnatal life, are one likely explanation for some of the decrements. The current chemical risk assessment approach is typically based on the toxicity caused by a single chemical on a variety of organs without acknowledging additional exposures to other chemicals also affecting the same organ or system. We identified more than 300 chemicals allowed in food that may have potential harmful effects on the developing brain. Each individual chemical may or may not have a harmful effect if it were the only one present, but we know next to nothing about their cumulative biological effects on the brain. An expanded cumulative risk assessment approach is needed, and it should focus on health outcomes, like developmental disabilities, arising from the accumulation of effects of multiple chemicals on the brain. The laws regulating the safety of additives already require that regulators in Europe and the USA consider cumulative effects; so far, they seem to have neglected the mandate. We must move beyond treating chemical exposures as isolated incidents and look at their cumulative biological effects on organs and their role in the onset of chronic diseases. The time has come to overhaul chemical risk assessment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Organophosphate Pesticide Exposures, Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Variants, and Gene-Pesticide Interactions in a Case-Control Study of Parkinson's Disease, California (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kimberly C; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Rhodes, Shannon L; Cockburn, Myles; Bronstein, Jeff; Ritz, Beate

    2016-05-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes are candidates for Parkinson's disease (PD) because NOS enzymes produce nitric oxide (NO), a pro-oxidant that can damage neurons. Widely used organophosphate (OP) pesticides can induce oxidative stress and are reported to increase PD risk. Additionally, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the PON1 (paraoxonase 1) gene influence the ability to metabolize OPs. Here, we investigated contributions of NOS genes and OP pesticides to PD risk, controlling for PON1 status. In 357 incident PD cases and 495 population controls, we investigated eight NOS SNPs and interactions with both household and ambient agricultural OP exposures assessed with geographic information system (GIS). In comparing PD in homozygous variant carriers of NOS2A rs1060826 versus homozygous wild-type or heterozygotes, we estimate an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.51 (95% CI: 0.95, 2.41). When considering interactions between NOS1 rs2682826 and OP exposure from household use, the OR for frequent OP use alone was 1.30 (95% CI: 0.72, 2.34) and for the CT+TT genotype alone was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.58, 1.39), and for frequent OP use combined with the CT+TT genotype the OR was 2.84 (95% CI: 1.49, 5.40) (interaction p-value 0.04). Similar results were seen for ambient OP exposure. Interactions between OP exposure and three other NOS1 SNPs and a genetic risk score combining all NOS1 SNPs reached statistical significance. We found that OP pesticides were more strongly associated with PD among participants with variant genotypes in NOS1, consistent with the importance of oxidative stress-inducing mechanisms. Our data provide evidence for NOS1 modifying PD risk in OP exposed populations. Paul KC, Sinsheimer JS, Rhodes SL, Cockburn M, Bronstein J, Ritz B. 2016. Organophosphate pesticide exposures, nitric oxide synthase gene variants, and gene-pesticide interactions in a case-control study of Parkinson's disease, California (USA). Environ Health Perspect 124:570-577;

  16. Prenatal exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos enhances brain oxidative stress and prostaglandin E2 synthesis in a mouse model of idiopathic autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Alessia; Greco, Anita; Calamandrei, Gemma; Minghetti, Luisa

    2016-06-14

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are emerging as polygenic and multifactorial disorders in which complex interactions between defective genes and early exposure to environmental stressors impact on the correct neurodevelopment and brain processes. Organophosphate insecticides, among which chlorpyrifos (CPF), are widely diffused environmental toxicants associated with neurobehavioral deficits and increased risk of ASD occurrence in children. Oxidative stress and dysregulated immune responses are implicated in both organophosphate neurodevelopmental effects and ASD etiopathogenesis. BTBR T+tf/J mice, a well-studied model of idiopathic autism, show several behavioral and immunological alterations found in ASD children, and we recently showed that CPF gestational exposure strengthened some of these autistic-like traits. In the present study, we aimed at investigating whether the behavioral effects of gestational CPF administration are associated with brain increased oxidative stress and altered lipid mediator profile. Brain levels of F2-isoprostanes (15-F2t-IsoP), as index of in vivo oxidative stress, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major arachidonic acid metabolite released by immune cells and by specific glutamatergic neuron populations mainly in cortex and hippocampus, were assessed by specific enzyme-immuno assays in brain homogenates from BTBR T+tf/J and C57Bl6/J mice, exposed during gestation to either vehicle or CPF. Measures were performed in mice of both sexes, at different postnatal stages (PNDs 1, 21, and 70). At birth, BTBR T+tf/J mice exhibited higher baseline 15-F2t-IsoP levels as compared to C57Bl6/J mice, suggestive of greater oxidative stress processes. Gestational treatment with CPF-enhanced 15-F2t-IsoP and PGE2 levels in strain- and age-dependent manner, with 15-F2t-IsoP increased in BTBR T+tf/J mice at PNDs 1 and 21, and PGE2 elevated in BTBR T+tf/J mice at PNDs 21 and 70. At PND 21, CPF effects were sex-dependent being the increase of the two

  17. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fallesen

    Full Text Available Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998 the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010, the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period, the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  18. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  19. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  20. Detection of Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Furniture Foam and US House Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Heather M.; Klosterhaus, Susan; Eagle, Sarah; Fuh, Jennifer; Meeker, John D.; Blum, Arlene; Webster, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Restrictions on the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have resulted in the increased use of alternate flame retardant chemicals to meet flammability standards. However, it has been difficult to determine which chemical formulations are currently being used in high volumes to meet flammability standards since the use of flame retardant formulations in consumer products is not transparent (i.e. not provided to customers). To investigate chemicals being used as replacements for PentaBDE in polyurethane foam, we analyzed foam samples from 26 different pieces of furniture purchased in the United States primarily between 2003 and 2009 using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Samples included foam from couches, chairs, mattress pads, pillows, and, in one case, foam from a sound proofing system of a laboratory grade dust sieve. Fifteen of the foam samples contained the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP; 1–5% by weight), four samples contained tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP; 0.5 –2.2 % by weight), one sample contained brominated chemicals found in a new flame retardant mixture called Firemaster 550 (4.2% by weight), and one foam sample collected from a futon likely purchased prior to 2004 contained PentaBDE (0.5% by weight). Due to the high frequency of detection of the chlorinated phosphate compounds in furniture foam, we analyzed extracts from 50 house dust samples collected between 2002 and 2007 in the Boston, MA area for TDCPP, TCPP, and another high volume use organophosphate-based flame retardant used in foam, triphenylphosphate (TPP). Detection frequencies for TDCPP and TPP in the dust samples were >96% and were log normally distributed, similar to observations for PBDEs. TCPP was positively detected in dust in only 24% of the samples, but detection was significantly limited by a co-elution problem. The geometric mean concentrations for TCPP, TDCPP and TPP in house dust were 570, 1890, and 7360 ng/g, respectively

  1. Cumulative stress in research animals: Telomere attrition as a biomarker in a welfare context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa

    2016-02-01

    Progress in improving animal welfare is currently limited by the lack of objective methods for assessing lifetime experience. I propose that telomere attrition, a cellular biomarker of biological age, provides a molecular measure of cumulative experience that could be used to assess the welfare impact of husbandry regimes and/or experimental procedures on non-human animals. I review evidence from humans that telomere attrition is accelerated by negative experiences in a cumulative and dose-dependent manner, but that this attrition can be mitigated or even reversed by positive life-style interventions. Evidence from non-human animals suggests that despite some specific differences in telomere biology, stress-induced telomere attrition is a robust phenomenon, occurring in a range of species including mice and chickens. I conclude that telomere attrition apparently integrates positive and negative experience in an accessible common currency that translates readily to novel species--the Holy Grail of a cumulative welfare indicator. © 2015 The Author. BioEssays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Tests for comparing mark-specific hazards and cumulative incidence functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Peter B; McKeague, Ian W; Sun, Yanqing

    2004-03-01

    It is of interest in some applications to determine whether there is a relationship between a hazard rate function (or a cumulative incidence function) and a mark variable which is only observed at uncensored failure times. We develop nonparametric tests for this problem when the mark variable is continuous. Tests are developed for the null hypothesis that the mark-specific hazard rate is independent of the mark versus ordered and two-sided alternatives expressed in terms of mark-specific hazard functions and mark-specific cumulative incidence functions. The test statistics are based on functionals of a bivariate test process equal to a weighted average of differences between a Nelson-Aalen-type estimator of the mark-specific cumulative hazard function and a nonparametric estimator of this function under the null hypothesis. The weight function in the test process can be chosen so that the test statistics are asymptotically distribution-free. Asymptotically correct critical values are obtained through a simple simulation procedure. The testing procedures are shown to perform well in numerical studies, and are illustrated with an AIDS clinical trial example. Specifically, the tests are used to assess if the instantaneous or absolute risk of treatment failure depends on the amount of accumulation of drug resistance mutations in a subject's HIV virus. This assessment helps guide development of anti-HIV therapies that surmount the problem of drug resistance.

  3. Cumulative Trauma Among Mayas Living in Southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millender, Eugenia I; Lowe, John

    2017-06-01

    Mayas, having experienced genocide, exile, and severe poverty, are at high risk for the consequences of cumulative trauma that continually resurfaces through current fear of an uncertain future. Little is known about the mental health and alcohol use status of this population. This correlational study explored t/he relationship of cumulative trauma as it relates to social determinants of health (years in the United States, education, health insurance status, marital status, and employment), psychological health (depression symptoms), and health behaviors (alcohol use) of 102 Guatemalan Mayas living in Southeast Florida. The results of this study indicated that, as specific social determinants of health and cumulative trauma increased, depression symptoms (particularly among women) and the risk for harmful alcohol use (particularly among men) increased. Identifying risk factors at an early stage before serious disease or problems are manifest provides room for early screening leading to early identification, early treatment, and better outcomes.

  4. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  5. A cumulative genetic risk score predicts progression in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlstrøm, Lasse; Morset, Kristina Rebekka; Grimstad, Espen; Vitelli, Valeria; Toft, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of genetic variability to clinical heterogeneity in Parkinson's disease is insufficiently understood. We aimed to investigate the effect of cumulative genetic risk on clinical outcomes. In a single-center study of 336 patients we genotyped 19 independent susceptibility variants identified in genome-wide association studies of Parkinson's disease. We tested for association between a cumulative genetic risk score and 3 outcome measures: survival, time until progression to Hoehn and Yahr stage 3, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score severity. Genetic risk score was significantly associated with time from diagnosis to Hoehn and Yahr stage 3 in a Cox regression model (P = 0.010). We observed no clear association for the other outcomes. We present results linking cumulative genetic risk to a motor outcome in Parkinson's disease. Our findings provide a valuable starting point for future large-scale efforts to map the genetic determinants of phenotypic variability. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Solid-state electro-cumulation effect numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2001-01-01

    It is an attempt to simulate as really as possible a crystal's interatomic interaction under conditions of "Solid-state electro-cumulation (super-polarization) effect". Some theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that within solid substances an interparticles interaction could concentrate from the surface to a centre were given formerly. Now, numerical results show the conditions that could make the cumulation more effective. Another keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epi...

  7. Residues of organophosphate pesticides used in vegetable cultivation in ambient air, surface water and soil in Bueng Niam Subdistrict, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnpicharnchai, Kallaya; Chaiear, Naesinee; Charerntanyarak, Lertchai

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural pesticide utilization is one of the important problems in rural and urban crop-cultivated areas, with the majority of pollutants dispersing via ambient air, water and other natural pathways. This study was therefore conducted in a specially selected village which is known to be a leading vegetable growing area in Khon Kaen Province. The aim of the study was to assess pesticide residues, and measure the seasonal fluctuations in organophosphate concentrations during 2010 in the environment of a risk area. Samples from selected sites were collected in two phases: Phase I was in summer (during March to May) and Phase II was in winter (during October to December). A total of 150 samples were analyzed using gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. The results showed that dicrotophos, chlorpyrifos, profenofos and ethion were found at the highest concentrations in soil and at the lowest concentrations in ambient air (pethion in winter. The highest mean concentration of a pesticide in soil samples was 42.2893 +/- 39.0711 mg/kg ethion in summer and 90.0000 +/- 24.1644 mg/kg of ethion in winter.

  8. Analysis of dialkyl phosphate metabolites in hair using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: a biomarker of chronic exposure to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, Maria G; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2009-05-01

    The aim of our study was to develop and validate an analytical approach for the quantitative determination of three dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, dimethyl phosphate (DMP), dimethyl thiophosphate (DMTP) and diethyl phosphate (DEP), of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in hair samples. The proposed methodology comprises a decontamination step, solid-liquid extraction, followed by liquid-liquid extraction, pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization, clean-up on Florisil/PSA column and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Extraction recovery, obtained from 50 mg hair samples spiked at two concentration levels, ranged from 56.1 to 107.9% and the within-day precision ranged from 13.5 to 17.5%. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 to 0.10 ng mg(-1). The results obtained from the analysis of hair samples of 30 agricultural workers show the suitability of the proposed method for monitoring people occupationally exposed to OPs. The most frequently detected compound was DEP followed by DMP. This is the first report on the detection of dialkyl phosphates in human hair which reflects the ability of hair testing to assess chronic exposure to OPs.

  9. Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome: a nationwide Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2014-11-01

    The primary aim was to examine exposure-response relationships between cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS), and to compare sex-specific exposure-response relationships. The secondary aim was to examine the time window of relevant exposures. We conducted a nationwide register study of all persons born in Denmark (1933-1977), who had at least 5 years of full-time employment. In the follow-up period (2003-2008), we identified first-time events of surgery for SIS. Cumulative exposure estimates for a 10-year exposure time window with a 1-year lag time were obtained by linking occupational codes with a job exposure matrix. The exposure estimates were expressed as, for example, arm-elevation-years in accordance with the pack-year concept of tobacco consumption. We used a multivariable logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis. The adjusted OR (ORadj) increased to a maximum of 2.1 for arm-elevation-years, repetition-years and force-years, and to 1.5 for hand-arm-vibration-years. Sex-specific exposure-response relationships were similar for men and women, when assessed using a relative risk scale. The ORadj increased gradually with the number of years contributing to the cumulative exposure estimates. The excess fraction was 24%. Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures carried an increase in risk of surgery for SIS with similar exposure-response curves for men and women. The risk of surgery for SIS increased gradually, when the period of exposure assessment was extended. In the general working population, a substantial fraction of all first-time operations for SIS could be related to occupational exposures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. On the origin of the "cumulative semantic inhibition" effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F-Xavier; Martín, Fermín Moscoso Del Prado

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the cumulative semantic inhibition effect found by Howard, Nickels, Coltheart, and Cole-Virtue (2006) provides information about semantic representations. By applying more sensitive statistical analyses to the original data set, we found a significant variation in the magnitude of the effect across categories. This variation cannot be explained by the naming speed of each category. In addition, using a subsample of the data, a second cumulative effect arouse for newly defined supracategories, over and above the effect of the original ones. We discuss these findings in terms of the representations that drive lexical access and show that they favor featural or distributed hypotheses.

  11. Cumulative incidence of cancer after solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erin C; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Segev, Dorry L; Engels, Eric A

    2013-06-15

    Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987-1999 and 2000-2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs. 4.2%; P = .006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs. 31.9%; P incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma was highest at extremes of age, especially in thoracic organ recipients (ages 0-34 years: range, 1.74%-3.28%; aged >50 years; range, 0.36%-2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%-1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%-0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%-3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%-0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages

  12. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  13. QT Prolongation as an Isolated Long-Term Cardiac Manifestation of Dichlorvos Organophosphate Poisoning in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyovich, Arthur; Matot, Ran; Elyagon, Sigal; Liel-Cohen, Noah; Rosman, Yossi; Shrot, Shai; Kassirer, Michael; Katz, Amos; Etzion, Yoram

    2017-05-16

    Organophosphates (OP) are used extensively as pesticides and as chemical weapons. Cardiotoxicity is a major concern in survivors of the acute poisoning. To characterize the delayed cardiac effects of OP, rats were poisoned by intraperitoneal administration of dichlorvos. In group I, poisoning (0.25-, 0.75-, 1.4-LD50) was followed by application of atropine and obidoxime. In group II, poisoning (0.35-, 0.5-LD50) was done without antidotes. Cardiac evaluation included electrocardiography and echocardiography 2- and 6-week post-exposure, arrhythmia susceptibility following administration of Isoproterenol (150 mcg/kg), and histological evaluation. All poisoned animals displayed cholinergic symptoms. In group I, all animals exposed to 1.4-LD50 (n = 3) had profound convulsions and died despite antidote treatment. However, in the lower doses, all animals survived and no cardiac abnormalities were noted during follow-up. In group II, six animals had convulsions and died. Surviving animals had mild but significant prolongation of corrected QT at both 2 and 6 weeks, compared to shams. There were no notable echocardiographic, gravimetric, or histological differences between poisoned and sham animals. Our data indicate that dichlorvos poisoning is associated with QT prolongation without anatomical or histopathological abnormalities. This new model can be used to elaborate the molecular mechanism\\s of QT prolongation following OP poisoning.

  14. The Organophosphate Paraoxon and Its Antidote Obidoxime Inhibit Thrombin Activity and Affect Coagulation In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Golderman

    Full Text Available Organophosphates (OPs are potentially able to affect serine proteases by reacting with their active site. The potential effects of OPs on coagulation factors such as thrombin and on coagulation tests have been only partially characterized and potential interactions with OPs antidotes such as oximes and muscarinic blockers have not been addressed. In the current study, we investigated the in vitro interactions between coagulation, thrombin, the OP paraoxon, and its antidotes obidoxime and atropine. The effects of these substances on thrombin activity were measured in a fluorescent substrate and on coagulation by standard tests. Both paraoxon and obidoxime but not atropine significantly inhibited thrombin activity, and prolonged prothrombin time, thrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. When paraoxon and obidoxime were combined, a significant synergistic effect was found on both thrombin activity and coagulation tests. In conclusion, paraoxon and obidoxime affect thrombin activity and consequently alter the function of the coagulation system. Similar interactions may be clinically relevant for coagulation pathways in the blood and possibly in the brain.

  15. Selective, solid-matrix dispersion extraction of organophosphate pesticide residues from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muccio, A; Pelosi, P; Camoni, I; Attard Barbini, D; Dommarco, R; Generali, T; Ausili, A

    1996-11-22

    A rapid procedure has been developed that allows a single-step, selective extraction and cleanup of organophosphate (OP) pesticide residues from milk dispersed on solid-matrix diatomaceous material filled into disposable cartridges by means of light petroleum saturated with acetonitrile and ethanol. Recovery experiments were carried out on homogenized commercial milk (3.6% fat content) spiked with ethanolic solutions of 24 OP pesticides, viz., ethoprophos, diazinon, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos-methyl, parathion-methyl, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, malathion, isofenphos, quinalphos, ethion, pyrazophos, azinphosethyl, heptenophos, omethoate, fonofos, pirimiphos-methyl, fenitrothion, parathion, chlorfenvinphos, phenthoate, methidathion, triazophos, phosalone, azinphos-methyl, at levels ranging for the different OP pesticides from 0.02 mg/kg to 1.11 mg/kg. Average recoveries of four replicates were in the range 72-109% for the different OP pesticides, with relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) from ca. 1 to 19%, while dimethoate and omethoate were not recovered. Coextracted fatty material amounted to an average of about 4.0 mg/ml of milk. The extraction procedure requires about 30 min. The main advantages are that extraction and cleanup are carried out in a single step, emulsions do not occur, several samples can be run in parallel by a single operator, reusable glassware is not needed and simple operations are required.

  16. Impacts of organophosphate pesticide, sumithion on water quality and benthic invertebrates in aquaculture ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hanif Uddin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of an organophosphate pesticide, sumithion on water and sediment quality and benthic invertebrates in aquaculture ponds for 120 days. Three treatments were tried in duplicate: no sumithion (control, weekly application of 1.0 mg/L sumithion (Low dose treatment and 2.0 mg/L sumithion (High dose treatment. Among the different water quality parameters, transparency, NO3–N and PO4–P concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05 decreased in sumithion high dose and low dose, compared to control. The pH, organic matter (%, available phosphorus (mg/L and total nitrogen (% of bottom-sediment also did not vary significantly (p < 0.05 among the treatments. Seven genera of benthic invertebrates belonging to Chironomidae, Oligochaeta and Mollusca were identified over the experimental period. The abundances of benthic invertebrates (number per m2 were significantly (p < 0.05 decreased in both groups treated with summation, compared to control without pesticide. The findings suggest that sumithion had adverse effect on abundance of benthic invertebrates that might have also negative impact on culture animals in aquaculture ponds.

  17. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco de Salles, João; Matos Lopes, Renato; de Salles, Cristiane M. C.; Cassano, Vicente P. F.; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Cunha Bastos, Vera L. F.; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  18. New CeO2 nanoparticles-based topical formulations for the skin protection against organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Zenerino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To reinforce skin protection against organophosphates (OPs, the development of new topical skin protectants (TSP has received a great interest. Nanoparticles like cerium dioxide (CeO2 known to adsorb and neutralize OPs are interesting candidates for TSP. However, NPs are difficult to disperse into formulations and they are suspected of toxicological issues. Thus, we want to study: (1 the effect of the addition of CeO2 NPs in formulations for the skin protection (2 the impact of the doping of CeO2 NPs by calcium; (3 the effect of two methods of dispersion of CeO2 NPs: an O/W emulsion or a suspension of a fluorinated thickening polymer (HASE-F grafted with these NPs. As a screening approach we used silicone membranes as a skin equivalent and Franz diffusion cells for permeation tests. The addition of pure CeO2 NPs in both formulations permits the penetration to decrease by a 3–4-fold factor. The O/W emulsion allows is the best approach to obtain a film-forming coating with a good reproducibility of the penetration results; whereas the grafting of NPs to a thickener is the best way to obtain an efficient homogenous suspension of CeO2 NPs with a decreased of toxicological impact but the coating is less film-forming which slightly impacts the reproducibility of the penetration results.

  19. Novel nucleophiles enhance the human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1)-mediated detoxication of organophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Janice E; Chambers, Howard W; Meek, Edward C; Funck, Kristen E; Bhavaraju, Manikanthan H; Gwaltney, Steven R; Pringle, Ronald B

    2015-01-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a calcium-dependent hydrolase associated with serum high-density lipoprotein particles. PON1 hydrolyzes some organophosphates (OPs), including some nerve agents, through nucleophilic attack of hydroxide ion (from water) in the active site. Most OPs are hydrolyzed inefficiently. This project seeks to identify nucleophiles that can enhance PON1-mediated OP degradation. A series of novel nucleophiles, substituted phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes, has been synthesized which enhance the degradation of surrogates of sarin (nitrophenyl isopropyl methylphosphonate; NIMP) and VX (nitrophenyl ethyl methylphosphonate; NEMP). Two types of in vitro assays have been conducted, a direct assay using millimolar concentrations of substrate with direct spectrophotometric quantitation of a hydrolysis product (4-nitrophenol) and an indirect assay using submicromolar concentrations of substrate with quantitation by the level of inhibition of an exogenous source of acetylcholinesterase from non-hydrolyzed substrate. Neither NIMP nor NEMP is hydrolyzed effectively by PON1 if one of these novel oximes is absent. However, in the presence of eight novel oximes, PON1-mediated degradation of both surrogates occurs. Computational modeling has created a model of PON1 embedded in phospholipid and has indicated general agreement of the binding enthalpies with the relative efficacy as PON1 enhancers. PON1 enhancement of degradation of OPs could be a unique and unprecedented mechanism of antidotal action. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Influence of storage vial material on measurement of organophosphate flame retardant metabolites in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Courtney C; Butt, Craig M; Stapleton, Heather M; Meeker, John D; Minguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Williams, Paige L; Hauser, Russ

    2017-08-01

    Use of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) has increased over the past decade with the phase out of polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Urinary metabolites of PFRs are used as biomarkers of exposure in epidemiologic research, which typically uses samples collected and stored in polypropylene plastic cryovials. However, a small study suggested that the storage vial material may influence reported concentrations. Therefore, we aimed to examine the influence of the storage vial material on analytical measurement of PFR urinary metabolites. Using urine samples collected from participants in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study, we analyzed the PFR metabolites in duplicate aliquots that were stored in glass and plastic vials (n = 31 pairs). Bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) and isopropyl-phenyl phenyl phosphate (ip-PPP) were detected in 98%, 97% and 87% of duplicates. We observed high correlations between glass-plastic duplicates for BDCIPP (rs = 0.95), DPHP (rs = 0.79) and ip-PPP (rs = 0.82) (p polypropylene plastic cryovials may result in slightly reduced concentrations of urinary ip-PPP relative to storage in glass vials and future research should seek to increase the sample size, reduce background variability and consider the material of the urine collection cup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Organophosphate Paraoxon and Its Antidote Obidoxime Inhibit Thrombin Activity and Affect Coagulation In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golderman, Valery; Shavit-Stein, Efrat; Tamarin, Ilia; Rosman, Yossi; Shrot, Shai; Rosenberg, Nurit

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are potentially able to affect serine proteases by reacting with their active site. The potential effects of OPs on coagulation factors such as thrombin and on coagulation tests have been only partially characterized and potential interactions with OPs antidotes such as oximes and muscarinic blockers have not been addressed. In the current study, we investigated the in vitro interactions between coagulation, thrombin, the OP paraoxon, and its antidotes obidoxime and atropine. The effects of these substances on thrombin activity were measured in a fluorescent substrate and on coagulation by standard tests. Both paraoxon and obidoxime but not atropine significantly inhibited thrombin activity, and prolonged prothrombin time, thrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. When paraoxon and obidoxime were combined, a significant synergistic effect was found on both thrombin activity and coagulation tests. In conclusion, paraoxon and obidoxime affect thrombin activity and consequently alter the function of the coagulation system. Similar interactions may be clinically relevant for coagulation pathways in the blood and possibly in the brain. PMID:27689805

  2. Study of biochemical biomarkers in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium borellii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) exposed to organophosphate fenitrothion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavarías, S; García, C; Crespo, R; Pedrini, N; Heras, H

    2013-10-01

    Several agrochemicals like organophosphates are extensively used to control pests in agricultural practices but they also adversely affect non-target fauna. The effect of organophosphorous fenitrothion on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii was evaluated. The 96-h LC50 was determined. Activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid oxidation levels, were evaluated in the hepatopancreas from adults exposed to sublethal fenitrothion concentrations for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. In addition, superoxide dismutase mRNA expression, acetylcholinesterase inhibition and haemocyte DNA damage were determined. The 96-h LC50 was 4.24μg/l of fenitrothion. Prawn exposed to sublethal FS concentrations showed an increase of both catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, mainly after 2 and 4 days exposure and an increase of glutathione-S-transferase activity from day 2 to day 7 while lipid oxidation levels increased mainly on day 1. Superoxide dismutase transcripts were significantly higher in fenitrothion -treated prawns, indicating an induction mechanism. Hemolymph analysis showed that while acetylcholinesterase activity decreased after 2 days, haemocytes displayed most DNA damage after 7-day exposure to fenitrothion. These results indicate that prawn enzymes are highly sensitive to fenitrothion exposure, and these biological responses in M. borellii could be valuable biomarkers to monitor organophosphorous contamination in estuarine environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High resolution crystal structure of a fluoride-inhibited organophosphate-degrading metallohydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleck, Christopher; Guddat, Luke W; Ollis, David L; Schenk, Gerhard; Pedroso, Marcelo Monteiro

    2017-12-01

    Metal ion-dependent, organophosphate-degrading enzymes (OP hydrolases) have received increasing attention due to their ability to degrade and thus detoxify commonly used pesticides and nerve agents such as sarin and VX. These enzymes thus garner strong potential as bioremediators. The OP hydrolase from Agrobacterium radiobacter (OpdA) is one of the most efficient members of this group of enzymes. Previous studies have indicated that the choice of the hydrolysis-initiating nucleophile may depend on the pH of the reaction, with a metal ion-bridging hydroxide being preferred at lower pH (i.e. pH≤8.5), and a terminally coordinated hydroxide at higher pH (i.e. pH>9.0). Furthermore, fluoride was shown to be a potent inhibitor of the reaction, but only at low pH. Here, the crystal structure (1.3Å, pH6) of OpdA in presence of fluoride is described. While the first coordination sphere in the active site displays minimal changes in the presence of fluoride, the hydrogen bonding network that connects the dimetallic metal center to the substrate binding pocket is disrupted. Thus, the structure of fluoride-inhibited OpdA demonstrates the significance of this hydrogen bond network in controlling the mechanism and function of this enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco de Salles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon.

  5. Organophosphate and pyrethroid hydrolase activities of mutant Esterases from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Farnsworth, Claire A; Coppin, Chris W; Teese, Mark G; Liu, Jian-Wei; Scott, Colin; Zhang, Xing; Russell, Robyn J; Oakeshott, John G

    2013-01-01

    Two mutations have been found in five closely related insect esterases (from four higher Diptera and a hymenopteran) which each confer organophosphate (OP) hydrolase activity on the enzyme and OP resistance on the insect. One mutation converts a Glycine to an Aspartate, and the other converts a Tryptophan to a Leucine in the enzymes' active site. One of the dipteran enzymes with the Leucine mutation also shows enhanced activity against pyrethroids. Introduction of the two mutations in vitro into eight esterases from six other widely separated insect groups has also been reported to increase substantially the OP hydrolase activity of most of them. These data suggest that the two mutations could contribute to OP, and possibly pyrethroid, resistance in a variety of insects. We therefore introduced them in vitro into eight Helicoverpa armigera esterases from a clade that has already been implicated in OP and pyrethroid resistance. We found that they do not generally enhance either OP or pyrethroid hydrolysis in these esterases but the Aspartate mutation did increase OP hydrolysis in one enzyme by about 14 fold and the Leucine mutation caused a 4-6 fold increase in activity (more in one case) of another three against some of the most insecticidal isomers of fenvalerate and cypermethrin. The Aspartate enzyme and one of the Leucine enzymes occur in regions of the H. armigera esterase isozyme profile that have been previously implicated in OP and pyrethroid resistance, respectively.

  6. Organophosphate and pyrethroid hydrolase activities of mutant Esterases from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Li

    Full Text Available Two mutations have been found in five closely related insect esterases (from four higher Diptera and a hymenopteran which each confer organophosphate (OP hydrolase activity on the enzyme and OP resistance on the insect. One mutation converts a Glycine to an Aspartate, and the other converts a Tryptophan to a Leucine in the enzymes' active site. One of the dipteran enzymes with the Leucine mutation also shows enhanced activity against pyrethroids. Introduction of the two mutations in vitro into eight esterases from six other widely separated insect groups has also been reported to increase substantially the OP hydrolase activity of most of them. These data suggest that the two mutations could contribute to OP, and possibly pyrethroid, resistance in a variety of insects. We therefore introduced them in vitro into eight Helicoverpa armigera esterases from a clade that has already been implicated in OP and pyrethroid resistance. We found that they do not generally enhance either OP or pyrethroid hydrolysis in these esterases but the Aspartate mutation did increase OP hydrolysis in one enzyme by about 14 fold and the Leucine mutation caused a 4-6 fold increase in activity (more in one case of another three against some of the most insecticidal isomers of fenvalerate and cypermethrin. The Aspartate enzyme and one of the Leucine enzymes occur in regions of the H. armigera esterase isozyme profile that have been previously implicated in OP and pyrethroid resistance, respectively.

  7. Occurrence and dry deposition of organophosphate esters in atmospheric particles over the northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Senchao; Xie, Zhiyong; Song, Tianli; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Yingyi; Mi, Wenying; Peng, Jinhu; Zhao, Yan; Zou, Shichun; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Nine organophosphate esters (OPEs) in airborne particles were measured during a cruise campaign over the northern South China Sea (SCS) from September to October 2013. The concentration of the total OPEs (∑OPEs) was 47.1-160.9 pg m(-3), which are lower than previous measurements in marine atmosphere environments. Higher OPE concentrations were observed in terrestrially influenced samples, suggesting that OPE concentrations were significantly influenced by air mass transport. Chlorinated OPEs were the dominant OPEs, accounting for 65.8-83.7% of the ∑OPEs. Tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) was the predominant OPE compound in the samples (45.0±12.1%), followed by tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphates (TCPPs) (28.8±8.9%). Dry particle-bound deposition fluxes ranged from 8.2 to 27.8 ng m(-2) d(-1) for the ∑OPEs. Moreover, the dry deposition input of the ∑OPEs was estimated to be 4.98 ton y(-1) in 2013 in a vast area of northern SCS. About half of the input was found to relate to air masses originating from China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parenteral ophthalmic tropicamide or cyclopentolate protects rats from lethal organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Sean M; Rhee, James W; Thompson, Trevonne M; Lu, Jenny J; Aks, Steven E

    2009-01-01

    We determine the efficacy of parenteral ophthalmic antimuscarinic agents (tropicamide ophthalmic 1% and cyclopentolate hydrochloride ophthalmic 1%) on survivability in a rat model of acute, lethal organophosphate pesticide (OP) poisoning. After obtaining an appropriate dose-response for study comparison, rodents were randomized to receive 1 of 4 intraperitoneal antidotes; (1) 0.3 mL normal saline, (2) atropine 10 mg/kg, (3) ophthalmic tropicamide 20 mg/kg, or (4) ophthalmic cyclopentolate 20 mg/kg. Five minutes after pretreatment, 15 mg/kg of dichlorvos was administered subcutaneously. Mortality rates and time to death were compared using Fisher exact test and the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test, respectively. If alive at 120 minutes, survival was assumed and the study was terminated. Survival in rats pretreated with atropine (10 mg/kg) was 90%. Survival in rats pretreated with tropicamide (20 mg/kg) and cyclopentolate (20 mg/kg) were 90% [P tropicamide or cyclopentolate) was equivalent to standard atropine in preventing lethality in this rat model of acute, lethal OP poisoning.

  9. The Impact of Prenatal Organophosphate Pesticide Exposures on Thai Infant Neurodevelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpimol Kongtip

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A birth cohort was begun to investigate the levels and sources of pesticide exposure in pregnant women living in Thailand, and to examine the effects of pesticide exposure on infant neurodevelopment at five months of age. Subjects were interviewed using questionnaires regarding their demographic characteristics, educational background, and work and home activities related to pesticide exposures. Spot urine samples were collected at 28 weeks gestation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine maternal metabolite levels of organophosphate pesticides including dimethyl phosphate (DMP; total DEP (diethyl phosphate (DEP, diethyl thiophosphate (DETP, and diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP, and total DAP (the sum of all metabolite levels. At five months of age, infant development was evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (Bayley-III. Higher total DEP and total DAP metabolite levels from the mother at 28 weeks’ gestation were significantly associated with reduced motor composite scores on the Bayley-III at five months of age. The total DEP levels were also significantly associated with reduced cognitive composite scores. Prenatal concentrations of maternal urinary metabolites were associated with infant cognitive and motor development. The results of several studies now suggest the need for public health intervention to reduce prenatal pesticide exposures from both agricultural and domestic use.

  10. Toxicological Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide on Ceolomocytes Viability of Earthworm E. Foetida Using NRRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameena Farrukh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development of sub-lethal earthworm biomarkers as they are relevant indicators of environmental change and they are among the five key indicators for ecotoxicological testing of industrial chemicals determined by the OECD. In the present study, the effects of an organophosphate pesticide dichlorovos on lysosomes of coelomocytes of earthworm E. foetida are studied using Neutral Red Retention Assay (NRRA. Methods: Earthworms were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations of the pesticide for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days and neutral red retention assay was done following the method employed by Weeks and Sevendsen and Booth et al. Results: It was observed that the pesticide significantly affected the coelomocyte viability within 28 days of exposure. The neutral red retention time of lysosomal membrane significantly decreased at all concentrations when compared with well-matched controls. Conclusion: After the analysis of results, it was concluded that the neutral red retention time assay in earthworms can be used to link changes in the permeability of lysosomal membranes to ecologically relevant life cycle effects caused by such toxic substances.

  11. A cumulative analogue joint involvement scale (CAJIS) for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Frederick S; Al Mukaddam, Mona; Pignolo, Robert J

    2017-08-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a catastrophic genetic disorder of progressive heterotopic ossification (HO). Assessment of functional mobility in FOP will be essential to support clinical trials of investigational agents. Of necessity, we developed a simple, rapidly-administered, cumulative analogue joint involvement scale (CAJIS) for FOP based on assessments in 144 individuals worldwide with classic FOP. CAJIS scores correlated with patient age, activities of daily living, and ambulatory function with excellent inter-rater variability. We show here that the CAJIS score provides an accurate and reproducible snapshot of total body and regional mobility burden in FOP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determining prenatal, early childhood and cumulative long-term lead exposure using micro-spatial deciduous dentine levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arora, Manish; Austin, Christine; Sarrafpour, Babak; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of micro-spatial dentine lead (Pb) levels as a biomarker for accurately estimating exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods and long-term cumulative exposure to Pb...

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Reading Comprehension Achievement from Grades 3 to 10: Investigating Models of Stability, Cumulative Growth, and Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska-White, Bozena; Kirby, John R.; Lee, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 78 Canadian English-speaking students examined the applicability of the stability, cumulative, and compensatory models in reading comprehension development. Archival government-mandated assessments of reading comprehension at Grades 3, 6, and 10, and the Canadian Test of Basic Skills measure of reading comprehension…

  14. Cumulative Experiences of Violence among High-Risk Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…

  15. How to manage the cumulative flood safety of catchment dams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dam safety is a significant issue being taken seriously worldwide. However, in Australia, although much attention is being devoted to the medium- to large-scale dams, minimal attention is being paid to the serious potential problems associated with smaller dams, particularly the potential cumulative safety threats they pose ...

  16. Repeated mild injury causes cumulative damage to hippocampal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Matser (Amy); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); J.T. Weber (John)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAn interesting hypothesis in the study of neurotrauma is that repeated traumatic brain injury may result in cumulative damage to cells of the brain. However, post-injury sequelae are difficult to address at the cellular level in vivo. Therefore, it is necessary to

  17. Cumulative analysis of measurement processes and a correcting filtration

    OpenAIRE

    MEHDIYEVA A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The offered systematic approach to creation of information-measuring systems of considered parameters consists of cumulative analysis of measurement processes and a correcting filtration for the purpose of achievement of the balanced metrological, structurally-algorithmic and functional efficiency indicators of developed means.

  18. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min-Tsai Lai

    or markers of health status and quality of life data in medical settings. Cumulative damage models are often used to describe the above situations. These models, which play an important role in reliability theory, are considered to be a sequence of shocks that occur randomly in time and cause some amount of damage to the ...

  19. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  20. Tests of Cumulative Prospect Theory with graphical displays of probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Birnbaum

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research reported evidence that contradicts cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic. The same body of research also violates two editing principles of original prospect theory: cancellation (the principle that people delete any attribute that is the same in both alternatives before deciding between them and combination (the principle that people combine branches leading to the same consequence by adding their probabilities. This study was designed to replicate previous results and to test whether the violations of cumulative prospect theory might be eliminated or reduced by using formats for presentation of risky gambles in which cancellation and combination could be facilitated visually. Contrary to the idea that decision behavior contradicting cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic would be altered by use of these formats, however, data with two new graphical formats as well as fresh replication data continued to show the patterns of evidence that violate cumulative prospect theory, the priority heuristic, and the editing principles of combination and cancellation. Systematic violations of restricted branch independence also contradicted predictions of ``stripped'' prospect theory (subjectively weighted additive utility without the editing rules.

  1. Editorial The importance of cumulative meta-analyses and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the significant delay from the time that clinical trials show unequivocal benefit of a treatment, to subsequent awareness of this benefit by practising clinicians. The turning point was a cumulative meta-analysis of the use of oral beta blockers for the secondary prevention of mortality following myocardial infarction (MI).

  2. Cumulative Risk, Maternal Responsiveness, and Allostatic Load among Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Kim, Pilyoung; Ting, Albert H.; Tesher, Harris B.; Shannis, Dana

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of cumulative risk exposure in concert with maternal responsiveness on physiological indicators of chronic stress in children and youth. Middle-school children exposed to greater accumulated psychosocial (e.g., family turmoil, poverty) and physical (e.g., crowding, substandard housing) risk…

  3. Modeling the cumulative watershed effects of forest management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. R. Ziemer; J. Lewis; R. M. Rice; T. E. Lisle

    1991-01-01

    Abstract - There is increasing concern over the possibility of adverse cumulative watershed effects from intensive forest management. It is impractical to address many aspects of the problem experimentally because to do so would require studying large watersheds for 100 yr or more. One such aspect is the long-term effect of forest management strategies on erosion and...

  4. Cumulative creep damage for unidirectional composites under step loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Rui Miranda

    2012-11-01

    The creep lifetime prediction of unidirectional composite materials under step loading, based on constant loading durability diagram, is analyzed for the two-step creep loading condition. For this purpose different nonlinear cumulative-damage laws are revisited and applied to predict creep lifetime. One possible approach to accounting for damage accumulation is provided by the continuum-damage mechanics (CDM). However, the CDM lifetime expression obtained for constant loading condition presents some drawbacks. Specifically, the upper stress range is not accommodated by CDM form. A modification of CDM is proposed, forcing the CDM to capture the short-term creep failure. It is proven that this modified CDM (MCDM) does not yield the same predictions as the Linear Cumulative-damage law (Miner's law). Predictions obtained from the nonlinear cumulative-damage laws are compared against synthetic lifetime generated by a micromechanical model that simulates unidirectional composites under two-step creep loading condition. Comparable deviations from Miner's law are obtained by the nonlinear cumulative-damage laws.

  5. Physical intelligence does matter to cumulative technological culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiurak, François; De Oliveira, Emmanuel; Navarro, Jordan; Lesourd, Mathieu; Claidière, Nicolas; Reynaud, Emanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Tool-based culture is not unique to humans, but cumulative technological culture is. The social intelligence hypothesis suggests that this phenomenon is fundamentally based on uniquely human sociocognitive skills (e.g., shared intentionality). An alternative hypothesis is that cumulative technological culture also crucially depends on physical intelligence, which may reflect fluid and crystallized aspects of intelligence and enables people to understand and improve the tools made by predecessors. By using a tool-making-based microsociety paradigm, we demonstrate that physical intelligence is a stronger predictor of cumulative technological performance than social intelligence. Moreover, learners' physical intelligence is critical not only in observational learning but also when learners interact verbally with teachers. Finally, we show that cumulative performance is only slightly influenced by teachers' physical and social intelligence. In sum, human technological culture needs "great engineers" to evolve regardless of the proportion of "great pedagogues." Social intelligence might play a more limited role than commonly assumed, perhaps in tool-use/making situations in which teachers and learners have to share symbolic representations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Functional Peculiarities of Cumulative Negation in Literary Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serebryakova Svetlana Vasilievna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article «Functional Peculiarities of Cumulative Negation in Literary Language» deals with the pragmatic potential of the cumulative negation as the stylistically specified concentration of statements of negative semantics. The latter provides statements expressiveness and realizes implicitly and explicitly the pragmatic meaning of the negative judgment. The material for the article has been the short stories by modern German writer Judith Hermann with the emphasis on the narrative «Nichts als Gespenster» which style is mainly characterized by psycologism. The language means and techniques give the insight into character’s inner world. The cumulative negation is understood as the pragmatically relevant concentration of statements with negative semantics having varied structure and conceptual significance. The negative-evaluative modus of the main character’s worldview is realized through different language and contextual negation forms: linguistic and paralinguistic, explicit and implicit, neutral and expressive, recurrent and parallel, single and multiple. Despite the weak reference, little informativeness and static character, the negative structures serve to developing the main topic of the narrative, i.e. the inner discomfort, being unsure in her feelings reciprocality and the vagueness of the main character’s future. The retrospective vector of the cumulative negation marks fragmentary, evaluationally controversial reminiscences of the main character about her three-months visit to America, and it also provides the text coherence and text-forming function

  7. Hyperscaling breakdown and Ising spin glasses: The Binder cumulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    Among the Renormalization Group Theory scaling rules relating critical exponents, there are hyperscaling rules involving the dimension of the system. It is well known that in Ising models hyperscaling breaks down above the upper critical dimension. It was shown by Schwartz (1991) that the standard Josephson hyperscaling rule can also break down in Ising systems with quenched random interactions. A related Renormalization Group Theory hyperscaling rule links the critical exponents for the normalized Binder cumulant and the correlation length in the thermodynamic limit. An appropriate scaling approach for analyzing measurements from criticality to infinite temperature is first outlined. Numerical data on the scaling of the normalized correlation length and the normalized Binder cumulant are shown for the canonical Ising ferromagnet model in dimension three where hyperscaling holds, for the Ising ferromagnet in dimension five (so above the upper critical dimension) where hyperscaling breaks down, and then for Ising spin glass models in dimension three where the quenched interactions are random. For the Ising spin glasses there is a breakdown of the normalized Binder cumulant hyperscaling relation in the thermodynamic limit regime, with a return to size independent Binder cumulant values in the finite-size scaling regime around the critical region.

  8. Variable Cultural Acquisition Costs Constrain Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2011-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission), population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs. PMID:21479170

  9. Development of cumulative distribution functions for dry bulb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) for eighteen locations in Nigeria were computed from long term hourly dry bulb temperature obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Services Agency, Oshodi, Nigeria for 1994-2008 or 1995-2009. Mathematical models were developed from the ...

  10. Tests of linear and nonlinear relations between cumulative contextual risk at birth and psychosocial problems during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Gilbert R; Smith, Gail L; Mason, W Alex; Savolainen, Jukka; Chmelka, Mary B; Miettunen, Jouko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2017-10-01

    This study tested whether there are linear or nonlinear relations between prenatal/birth cumulative risk and psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. Participants (n = 6963) were taken from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study 1986. The majority of participants did not experience any contextual risk factors around the time of the target child's birth (58.1%). Even in this low-risk sample, cumulative contextual risk assessed around the time of birth was related to seven different psychosocial outcomes 16 years later. There was some evidence for nonlinear effects, but only for substance-related outcomes; however, the form of the association depended on how the cumulative risk index was calculated. Gender did not moderate the relation between cumulative risk and any of the adolescent psychosocial outcomes. Results highlight the potential value of using the cumulative risk framework for identifying children at birth who are at risk for a range of poor psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cumulative stress in childhood is associated with blunted reward-related brain activity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jamie L; Albert, Dustin; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Carré, Justin M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-03-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including reduced motivation and increased negative mood. The mechanisms mediating these relations, however, are poorly understood. We examined the relation between exposure to ELS and reward-related brain activity, which is known to predict motivation and mood, at age 26, in a sample followed since kindergarten with annual assessments. Using functional neuroimaging, we assayed individual differences in the activity of the ventral striatum (VS) during the processing of monetary rewards associated with a simple card-guessing task, in a sample of 72 male participants. We examined associations between a cumulative measure of ELS exposure and VS activity in adulthood. We found that greater levels of cumulative stress during childhood and adolescence predicted lower reward-related VS activity in adulthood. Extending this general developmental pattern, we found that exposure to stress early in development (between kindergarten and grade 3) was significantly associated with variability in adult VS activity. Our results provide an important demonstration that cumulative life stress, especially during this childhood period, is associated with blunted reward-related VS activity in adulthood. These differences suggest neurobiological pathways through which a history of ELS may contribute to reduced motivation and increased negative mood. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cumulative Time Series Representation for Code Blue prediction in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Hu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Patient monitors in hospitals generate a high number of false alarms that compromise patients care and burden clinicians. In our previous work, an attempt to alleviate this problem by finding combinations of monitor alarms and laboratory test that were predictive of code blue events, called SuperAlarms. Our current work consists of developing a novel time series representation that accounts for both cumulative effects and temporality was developed, and it is applied to code blue prediction in the intensive care unit (ICU). The health status of patients is represented both by a term frequency approach, TF, often used in natural language processing; and by our novel cumulative approach. We call this representation "weighted accumulated occurrence representation", or WAOR. These two representations are fed into a L1 regularized logistic regression classifier, and are used to predict code blue events. Our performance was assessed online in an independent set. We report the sensitivity of our algorithm at different time windows prior to the code blue event, as well as the work-up to detect ratio and the proportion of false code blue detections divided by the number of false monitor alarms. We obtained a better performance with our cumulative representation, retaining a sensitivity close to our previous work while improving the other metrics.

  13. Cumulative exposure to short sleep and body mass outcomes: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Patrick M; Reither, Eric N; Peppard, Paul E; Burger, Andrew E; Hale, Lauren

    2015-12-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with excess body mass among adolescents and young adults. The mechanisms theorized to drive that association suggest that persistent exposure to short sleep should be associated with greater accumulations of body mass. We use prospective cohort data from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1994-2009; n = 14 800) to examine associations between cumulative exposure to short sleep throughout adolescence and early adulthood and obesity and elevated waist circumference outcomes. We compare several clinical and distribution-based standards of short sleep to assess which measures are associated most strongly with body mass. Cumulative exposure to short sleep exhibits dose-response associations with obesity and elevated waist circumference. Relative to respondents with no instances of short sleep, those who slept -0.50 standard deviations or less than the age and sex-specific average sleep hours in all four waves had 1.45 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 2.04] times the odds of being obese and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.06) times the odds of having an elevated waist circumference. Our findings suggest that cumulative exposure to short sleep during adolescence and young adulthood may play an important role in the etiology of obesity and elevated waist circumference during this important developmental period. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. The cumulative MeHg and PCBs exposure and risk of tribal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have shown that the U.S. population continues to be exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to the long half-life of those environmental contaminants. Fish intake of Tribal populations is much higher than the U.S. general population due to dietary habits and unique cultural practices. Large fish tissue concentration data sets from the Environmental Protections Agency’s (EPA’s) Office of Water, USGS’s EMMMA program, and other data sources, were integrated, analyzed, and combined with recent tribal fish intake data for exposure analyses using the dietary module within EPA’s SHEDS-Multimedia model. SHEDS-Multimedia is a physically-based, probabilistic model, which can simulate cumulative (multiple chemicals) or aggregate (single chemical) exposures over time for a population via various pathways of exposure for a variety of multimedia, multipathway environmental chemicals. Our results show that MeHg and total PCBs exposure of tribal populations from fish are about 3 to 10 and 5 to 15 times higher than the US general population, respectively, and that the estimated exposures pose potential health risks. The cumulative exposures of MeHg and total PCBs will be assessed to generate the joint exposure profiles for Tribal and US general populations. Model sensitivity analyses will identify the important contributions of the cumulative exposures of MeHg and total PCBs such as fish types, locations, and size, and key expos

  15. Cumulative trauma and current posttraumatic stress disorder status in general population and inmate samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; Agee, Elisha; Dietrich, Anne

    2016-07-01

    This research was undertaken to examine the role between cumulative exposure to different types of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) status in general population and prison samples. Two archival datasets were examined: the standardization sample for the Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic States (DAPS; Briere, 2001), and data from a study on trauma and posttraumatic sequelae among inmates and others. PTSD was found in 4% of the general population sample and 48% of the prison sample. Trauma exposure was very common among prisoners, including a 70% rate of childhood sexual abuse for women and a 50% rate for men. Lifetime number of different types of trauma was associated with PTSD in both the general population and prison samples, even when controlling for the effects of sexual trauma. Cumulative interpersonal trauma predicted PTSD, whereas cumulative noninterpersonal trauma did not. In the general population sample, participants who had only 1 type of trauma exposure had a 0% likelihood of current PTSD, whereas those with 6 or more other trauma types had a 12% likelihood. In the prison sample, those with only 1 type of trauma exposure had a 17% percent likelihood of current PTSD, whereas those exposed to 6 or more other trauma types had a 64% chance of PTSD. Cumulative trauma predicts current PTSD in both general population and prison samples, even after controlling for sexual trauma. PTSD appears to develop generally as a function of exposure to multiple types of interpersonal trauma, as opposed to a single traumatic event. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-03-01

    Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18-50 years; women: n = 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, which divides life events into three subsets: major life events (MLE), recent life events (RLE) and traumatic experiences (TLE). These individuals also completed the Cornell Medical Index and a short assessment for moderate or greater intensity exercise behavior, modified from the Nurses' Health Study. Results indicated that higher CALE was associated with greater total health problems (r = 0.431, p stress and exercise were not apparent for RLE and TLE. However, at low levels of MLE, greater exercise was related to fewer total, physical, cardiovascular and psychological health problems (p value stress. Increased levels of exercise were related to better physical health in men, at all levels of CALE. Only women who reported both low levels of CALE and high levels of exercise had more favorable physical health outcomes. A similar pattern of results emerged for RLE. Together, these data suggest that increased exercise is related to better health, but these effects may vary by cumulative stress exposure and sex.

  17. Cumulative effects of noise and odour annoyances on environmental and health related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiamo, Tor H; Luginaah, Isaac N; Baxter, Jamie

    2015-12-01

    Noise and odour annoyances are important considerations in research on health effects of air pollution and traffic noise. Cumulative exposures can occur via several chemical hazards or a combination of chemical and stressor-based hazards, and related health outcomes can be generalized as manifestations of physiological and/or psychological stress responses. A major research challenge in this field is to understand the combined health effects of physiological and psychological responses to exposure. The SF-12 Health Survey is a health related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument designed for the assessment of functional mental and physical health in clinical practice and therefore well suited to research on physiological health outcomes of exposure. However, previous research has not assessed its sensitivity to psychological stress as measured by noise annoyance and odour annoyance. The current study validated and tested this application of the SF-12 Health Survey in a cross-sectional study (n = 603) that included exposure assessment for traffic noise and air pollution in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. The results indicated that SF-12 scores in Windsor were lower than Canadian normative data. A structural equation model demonstrated that this was partially due to noise and odour annoyances, which were associated with covarying exposures to ambient nitrogen dioxide and traffic noise. More specifically, noise annoyance had a significant and negative effect on both mental and physical health factors of the SF-12 and there was a significant covariance between noise annoyance and odour annoyance. The study confirmed a significant effect of psychological responses to cumulative exposures on HRQoL. The SF-12 Health Survey shows promise with respect to assessing the cumulative health effects of outdoor air pollution and traffic noise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-01-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected organophosphate pesticide intoxication. The patient's plasma acetylcholinesterase level was checked, revealing 1498.6 microU/L (normal range: 2,000-5, 000) on the first day and 1,379 microU/L on the second day. Upon questioning, the patient recalled that one of his shoe soles had been damaged and that his foot had been wet from walking all day in rain collected on the factory floor on the day that his symptoms first occurred. We conducted a study in the change of preshift and postshift acetylcholinesterase levels among six of his co-workers on a rainy day. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the preshift and postshift plasma acetylcholinesterase levels; no significant difference was revealed (p = 0.600), leaving contamination via the damaged shoe sole suspect. We reviewed the literature on organophosphate intoxication; pesticide bottle-recycling factories were reported to be at a low risk of organophosphate toxicity in the working environment. However, because the potential risk of intoxication is still present, protective equipment such as clothing, gloves, and water-proof shoes should be worn, and employees should be educated on the potential risks. PMID:11102304

  19. Simulation of the plant uptake of organophosphates and other emerging pollutants for greenhouse experiments and field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Eggen, Trine

    2013-01-01

    The uptake of the organophosphates tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tributyl phosphate (TBP), the insect repellant N,N-diethyl toluamide (DEET), and the plasticizer n-butyl benzenesulfonamide (NBBS) into plants was studied in greenhouse experiments...... concentrations in straw (leaves and stem). Uptake into carrot roots was high for TCPP and TBP. NBBS showed no high uptake but was rapidly degraded. Uptake into barley seeds was small. The pattern and levels of uptake could be reproduced by the model simulations, which indicates mainly passive uptake...

  20. Chemical Mechanism of the Phosphotriesterase from Sphingobium sp. Strain TCM1, an Enzyme Capable of Hydrolyzing Organophosphate Flame Retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigley, Andrew N; Xiang, Dao Feng; Ren, Zhongjie; Xue, Haoran; Hull, Kenneth G; Romo, Daniel; Raushel, Frank M

    2016-03-09

    The mechanism of action of the manganese-dependent phosphotriesterase from Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 that is capable of hydrolyzing organophosphate flame retardants was determined. The enzyme was shown to hydrolyze the RP-enantiomer of O-methyl O-cyclohexyl p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate with net inversion of configuration and without the formation of a covalent reaction intermediate. These results demonstrate that the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of substrates by activation of a nucleophilic water molecule for direct attack at the phosphorus center.

  1. CATALYTIC DETOXIFICATION OF NERVE AGENT AND PESTICIDE ORGANOPHOSPHATES BY BUTYRYLCHOLINESTERASE ASSISTED WITH NON-PYRIDINIUM OXIMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Zoran; Dale, Trevor; Kovarik, Zrinka; Berend, Suzana; Garcia, Edzna; Zhang, Limin; Amitai, Gabriel; Green, Carol; Radić, Božica; Duggan, Brendan M.; Ajami, Dariush; Rebek, Julius; Taylor, Palmer

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS We present here a comprehensive in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo study on hydrolytic detoxification of nerve agent and pesticide organophosphates (OPs) catalyzed by purified human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) in combination with novel non-pyridinium oxime reactivators. We identified 2-trimethylammonio-6-hydroxybenzaldehyde oxime (TAB2OH) as an efficient reactivator of OP-hBChE conjugates formed by the nerve agents, VX and cyclosarin, and the pesticide, paraoxon. It was also functional in reactivation of sarin and tabun inhibited hBChE. A three to five-fold enhancement of in vitro reactivation of VX, cyclosarin and paraoxon inhibited hBChE was observed, when compared to the commonly used N-methylpyridinium aldoxime reactivator, 2PAM. Kinetic analysis showed the enhancement resulted from improved molecular recognition of corresponding OP-hBChE conjugates by TAB2OH. The unique features of TAB2OH stem from an exocyclic quaternary nitrogen and a hydroxyl, both ortho to an oxime group on a benzene ring. pH dependences reveal participation of the hydroxyl (pKa=7.6) forming an additional ionizing nucleophile to potentiate the oxime (pKa=10) at physiological pH. The TAB2OH protective indices in therapy of sarin and paraoxon exposed mice were enhanced by 30% – 60% when they were treated with a combination of TAB2OH and sub-stoichiometric hBChE. These results establish that oxime-assisted catalysis is feasible for OP bioscavenging. PMID:23216060

  2. Oxime-assisted Acetylcholinesterase Catalytic Scavengers of Organophosphates That Resist Aging*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Rory; Kalisiak, Jarosław; Küçükkılınç, Tuba; Radić, Zoran; Garcia, Edzna; Zhang, Limin; Ho, Kwok-Yiu; Amitai, Gabriel; Kovarik, Zrinka; Fokin, Valery V.; Sharpless, K. Barry; Taylor, Palmer

    2011-01-01

    The cholinesterases, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase, are primary targets of organophosphates (OPs). Exposure to OPs can lead to serious cardiovascular complications, respiratory compromise, and death. Current therapy to combat OP poisoning involves an oxime reactivator (2-PAM, obidoxime, TMB4, or HI-6) combined with atropine and on occasion an anticonvulsant. Butyrylcholinesterase, administered in the plasma compartment as a bio-scavenger, has also shown efficacy but is limited by its strict stoichiometric scavenging, slow reactivation, and a propensity for aging. Here, we characterize 10 human (h) AChE mutants that, when coupled with an oxime, give rise to catalytic reactivation and aging resistance of the soman conjugate. With the most efficient human AChE mutant Y337A/F338A, we show enhanced reactivation rates for several OP-hAChE conjugates compared with wild-type hAChE when reactivated with HI-6 (1-(2′-hydroxyiminomethyl-1′-pyridinium)-3-(4′-carbamoyl-1-pyridinium)). In addition, we interrogated an 840-member novel oxime library for reactivation of Y337A/F338A hAChE-OP conjugates to delineate the most efficient oxime-mutant enzyme pairs for catalytic bio-scavenging. Combining the increased accessibility of the Y337A mutation to oximes within the space-impacted active center gorge with the aging resistance of the F338A mutation provides increased substrate diversity in scavenging potential for aging-prone alkyl phosphate inhibitors. PMID:21730071

  3. A comprehensive review on experimental and clinical findings in intermediate syndrome caused by organophosphate poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammad.abdollahi@utoronto.ca; Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh

    2012-02-01

    Acute organophosphate (OP) intoxication is important because of its high morbidity and mortality and occurrence of muscular paralysis associated by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at the neuromuscular junction. Cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome (IMS), and OP-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) are the evidences that can be observed in OP intoxication. The main cause of morbidity due to OP poisoning is IMS that occurs 24–96 h after poisoning. Mechanisms underlying the IMS are not fully known. Although the electrophysiological aspects of delayed neuropathy are best characterized, the IMS remain very little studied. The aim of this study was to revisit current knowledge related to OP and the IMS. For this purpose, a systematic review without date limitation was performed. A total of 599 relevant articles were found and reviewed. Data were categorized according to experimental and clinical studies. Occurrences of persistent AChE inhibition, electromyography changes, muscle cell injury, and oxidative stress are the most important pieces of evidence for involvement of IMS in OP toxicity. Delayed AChE inhibition, muscle necrosis, down regulation or desensitization of postsynaptic ACh receptors, failure of postsynaptic ACh release, and oxidative stress-related myopathy are involved in IMS. Toxicokinetic factors, such as a high lipid-solubility, duration of AChE inhibition and metabolite excretion, evolution of alterations on repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS), type and frequency of muscle lesions can estimate the probability of the IMS. Plasma AChE of less than 200 units is a predictor and the 30 Hz RNS decremental response could be a useful marker for the IMS.

  4. Simultaneous determination of eight metabolites of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin Y; Sun, Li S; Huang, Meng Y; Xu, Wei L; Wang, Ying; Wang, Na

    2017-01-02

    A simultaneous method for quantifying eight metabolites of organophosphate pesticides and pyrethroid pesticides in urine samples has been established. The analytes were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction coupled with WCX solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Eight metabolites were chemically derivatized before analysis using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). The separation was performed on a HP-5MS capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 µm) with temperature programming. The detection was performed under electro-spray ionization (ESI) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. An internal standard method was used. The extraction solvent, types of SPE cartridges and eluents were optimized by comparing the sample recoveries under different conditions. The results showed that the calibration curves of the five organophosphorus pesticides metabolites were linear in the range of 0.2-200 μg/L (r(2) ≥ 0.992) and that of the three pyrethroid pesticides metabolites were linear in the range of 0.025-250 μg/L (r(2) ≥ 0.991). The limits of detection (LODs, S/N ≥ 3) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N ≥ 10) of the eight metabolites were 0.008-0.833 μg/L and 0.25-2.5 μg/L, respectively. The recoveries of the eight metabolites ranged from 54.08% to 82.49%. This efficient, stable, and cost-effective method is adequate to handle the large number of samples required for surveying the exposure level of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in the general population.

  5. Editor's Highlight: Comparative Toxicity of Organophosphate Flame Retardants and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers to Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Mamta; Rice, Julie R; Smith, Marjo V; Co, Caroll A; Bridge, Matthew F; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Freedman, Jonathan H; Boyd, Windy A

    2016-12-01

    With the phasing-out of the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants due to concerns regarding their potential developmental toxicity, the use of replacement compounds such as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) has increased. Limited toxicity data are currently available to estimate the potential adverse health effects of the OPFRs. The toxicological effects of 4 brominated flame retardants, including 3 PBDEs and 3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A, were compared with 6 aromatic OPFRs and 2 aliphatic OPFRs. The effects of these chemicals were determined using 3 biological endpoints in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (feeding, larval development, and reproduction). Because C. elegans development was previously reported to be sensitive to mitochondrial function, results were compared with those from an in vitro mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) assay. Overall 11 of the 12 flame retardants were active in 1 or more C. elegans biological endpoints, with only tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate inactive across all endpoints including the in vitro MMP assay. For 2 of the C. elegans endpoints, at least 1 OPFR had similar toxicity to the PBDEs: triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) inhibited larval development at levels comparable to the 3 PBDEs; whereas TPHP and isopropylated phenol phosphate (IPP) affected C. elegans reproduction at levels similar to the PBDE commercial mixture, DE-71. The PBDEs reduced C. elegans feeding at lower concentrations than any OPFR. In addition, 9 of the 11 chemicals that inhibited C. elegans larval development also caused significant mitochondrial toxicity. These results suggest that some of the replacement aromatic OPFRs may have levels of toxicity comparable to PBDEs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Organophosphate triesters and selected metabolites enhance binding of thyroxine to human transthyretin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Katie L; Hamers, Timo; Kamstra, Jorke H; Willmore, William G; Letcher, Robert J

    2018-03-15

    The toxicological properties of organophosphate (OP) triesters that are used as flame retardants and plasticizers are currently not well understood, though increasing evidence suggests they can affect the thyroid system. Perturbation of thyroid hormone (TH) transport is one mechanism of action that may affect thyroid function. The present study applied an in vitro competitive protein binding assay with thyroxine (T4) and human transthyretin (hTTR) transport protein to determine the potential for the OP triesters, TDCIPP (tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate), TBOEP (tris(butoxyethyl) phosphate), TEP (triethyl phosphate), TPHP (triphenyl phosphate), p-OH-TPHP (para-hydroxy triphenyl phosphate), and the OP diester DPHP (diphenyl phosphate), to competitively displace T4 from hTTR. Enhancement of T4 binding to hTTR, rather than the hypothesized competition, was observed for the six OP esters and in a concentration-dependent manner. For example, T4-hTTR binding was significantly increased at concentrations of TBOEP as low as 64 nM, and up to 184% of controls at 5000 nM. A plausible explanation of these results, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported, may be allosteric interactions of the OP esters with hTTR allowing T4 to access the second site of the TH binding pocket. These in vitro results suggest a novel mechanism of OP ester toxicity via T4 binding enhancement, and possible dysregulation of T4-hTTR interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cholinesterase reactivators: the fate and effects in the organism poisoned with organophosphates/nerve agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgar, J; Kuca, K; Jun, D; Bartosova, L; Fusek, J

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of action of organophosphates (OP)/nerve agents -- irreversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) inhibition at the cholinergic synapses followed by metabolic dysbalance of the organism -- two therapeutic principles for antidotal treatment are derived. The main drugs are anticholinergics that antagonize the effects of accumulated acetylcholine at the cholinergic synapses and cholinesterase reactivators (oximes) reactivating inhibited AChE. Anticonvulsants such as diazepam are also used to treat convulsions. Though there are experimental data on a good therapeutic effects of reactivators, some attempts to underestimate the role of reactivators as effective antidotes against OP poisoning have been made. Some arguments on the necessity of their administration following OP poisoning are discussed. Their distribution patterns and some metabolic and pharmacological effects are described with the aim to resolve the question on their effective use, possible repeated administration in the treatment of OP poisoning, their peripheral and central effects including questions on their penetration through the blood brain barrier as well as a possibility to achieve their effective concentration for AChE reactivation in the brain. Reactivation of cholinesterases in the peripheral and central nervous system is described and it is underlined its importance for the survival or death of the organism poisoned with OP. Metabolization and some other effects of oximes (not connected with AChE reactivation) are discussed (e.g. forming of the phosphonylated oxime, parasympatholytic action, hepatotoxicity, behavioral changes etc.). An universality of oximes able to reactivate AChE inhibited by all OP is questioned and therefore, needs of development of new oximes is underlined.

  8. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for organophosphates binding to trypsin and chymotrypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Christopher D; Hack, C Eric; Robinson, Peter J; Gearhart, Jeffery M

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) nerve agents such as sarin, soman, tabun, and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino) ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) do not react solely with acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Evidence suggests that cholinergic-independent pathways over a wide range are also targeted, including serine proteases. These proteases comprise nearly one-third of all known proteases and play major roles in synaptic plasticity, learning, memory, neuroprotection, wound healing, cell signaling, inflammation, blood coagulation, and protein processing. Inhibition of these proteases by OP was found to exert a wide range of noncholinergic effects depending on the type of OP, the dose, and the duration of exposure. Consequently, in order to understand these differences, in silico biologically based dose-response and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methodologies need to be integrated. Here, QSAR were used to predict OP bimolecular rate constants for trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. A heuristic regression of over 500 topological/constitutional, geometric, thermodynamic, electrostatic, and quantum mechanical descriptors, using the software Ampac 8.0 and Codessa 2.51 (SemiChem, Inc., Shawnee, KS), was developed to obtain statistically verified equations for the models. General models, using all data subsets, resulted in R(2) values of .94 and .92 and leave-one-out Q(2) values of 0.9 and 0.87 for trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. To validate the general model, training sets were split into independent subsets for test set evaluation. A y-randomization procedure, used to estimate chance correlation, was performed 10,000 times, resulting in mean R(2) values of .24 and .3 for trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. The results show that these models are highly predictive and capable of delineating the complex mechanism of action between OP and serine proteases, and ultimately, by applying this approach to other OP enzyme reactions such as AChE, facilitate the development of biologically based

  9. Urinary Concentrations of Organophosphate Flame Retardant Metabolites and Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Undergoingin VitroFertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Courtney C; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Butt, Craig M; Williams, Paige L; Meeker, John D; Stapleton, Heather M; Toth, Thomas L; Ford, Jennifer B; Hauser, Russ

    2017-08-25

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) can disrupt endocrine function and impair embryo development. However, no epidemiologic studies have been conducted to evaluate effects on fertility and pregnancy outcomes. We evaluated associations between urinary concentrations of PFR metabolites and outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment among couples recruited from an academic fertility clinic. This analysis included 211 women enrolled in the Environment And Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2005-2015) who provided one or two urine samples per IVF cycle. We measured five urinary PFR metabolites [bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), isopropylphenyl phenyl phosphate (ip-PPP), tert-butylphenyl phenyl phosphate (tb-PPP), and bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPP)] using negative electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Molar concentrations of the urinary PFR metabolites were summed. We used multivariable generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the association of the PFR metabolites with IVF outcomes, accounting for multiple IVF cycles per woman. Detection frequencies were high for BDCIPP (87%), DPHP (94%), and ip-PPP (80%), but low for tb-PPP (14%) and BCIPP (0%). We observed decreased success for several IVF outcomes across increasing quartiles of both summed and individual PFR metabolites (DPHP and ip-PPP) in our adjusted multivariable models. Significant declines in adjusted means from the lowest to highest quartile of ΣPFR were observed for the proportion of cycles resulting in successful fertilization (10% decrease), implantation (31%), clinical pregnancy (41%), and live birth (38%). Using IVF to investigate human reproduction and pregnancy outcomes, we found that concentrations of some urinary PFR metabolites were negatively associated with proportions of successful fertilization, implantation

  10. Mechanism behind Resistance against the Organophosphate Azamethiphos in Salmon Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is the primary target for organophosphates (OP. Several mutations have been reported in AChE to be associated with the reduced sensitivity against OP in various arthropods. However, to the best of our knowledge, no such reports are available for Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to determine the association of AChE(s gene(s with resistance against OP. We screened the AChE genes (L. salmonis ace1a and ace1b in two salmon lice populations: one sensitive (n=5 and the other resistant (n=5 for azamethiphos, a commonly used OP in salmon farming. The screening led to the identification of a missense mutation Phe362Tyr in L. salmonis ace1a, (corresponding to Phe331 in Torpedo californica AChE in all the samples of the resistant population. We confirmed the potential role of the mutation, with reduced sensitivity against azamethiphos in L. salmonis, by screening for Phe362Tyr in 2 sensitive and 5 resistant strains. The significantly higher frequency of the mutant allele (362Tyr in the resistant strains clearly indicated the possible association of Phe362Tyr mutation in L. salmonis ace1a with resistance towards azamethiphos. The 3D modelling, short term survival experiments and enzymatic assays further supported the imperative role of Phe362Tyr in reduced sensitivity of L. salmonis for azamethiphos. Based on all these observations, the present study, for the first time, presents the mechanism of resistance in L. salmonis against azamethiphos. In addition, we developed a rapid diagnostic tool for the high throughput screening of Phe362Tyr mutation using High Resolution Melt analysis.

  11. Concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants in dust from cars, homes, and offices: An international comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Harrad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of a number of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs were measured in floor dust collected from living rooms in Australia (n = 42, Canada (n = 14, Germany (n = 22, and Kazakhstan (n = 9; cars from Australia (n = 39 and Germany (n = 19; and offices from Germany (n = 25 and Kazahkstan (n = 8. PFR concentrations in these samples were compared with each other and with previously reported data for PFRs in dust from similar microenvironments in the UK. Our data reveal significant between-country differences in both absolute concentrations and the relative abundance of specific PFRs in each of the microenvironments studied. Most notably, concentrations of TCIPP in UK living room dust (median = 21 μg g−1 exceeded significantly (p < 0.05 those in all other countries studied here; a substantial number of car dust samples contained elevated concentrations of TDCIPP, and German samples generally contained lower levels of PFRs in all microenvironments studied. In addition, PFRs were determined in dust samples collected from living room couches in both Australia (n = 41 and the UK (n = 10. The elevated concentrations of TCIPP in UK living room dust are likely attributable to the favoured use of this PFR in UK couch foam. This is indicated by concentrations of TCIPP in UK couch dust (median = 610 μg g−1 exceeding significantly those in Australian couch dust (median = 2.9 μg g−1. Moreover, concentrations of TCIPP in UK couch dust originating from couches 15 years old or less, display a marked relationship with the age of the couch, with concentrations in such samples increasing significantly (p < 0.01 with couch age.

  12. A rodent model of human organophosphate exposure producing status epilepticus and neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, W; Bealer, S L; Roach, B; Dudek, F E

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to organophosphates (OPs) often results in seizures and/or status epilepticus (SE) that produce neural damage within the central nervous system (CNS). Early control of SE is imperative for minimizing seizure-related CNS neuropathology. Although standard therapies exist, more effective agents are needed to reduce OP-induced SE and neuronal loss, particularly therapies with efficacy when administered 10's of minutes after the onset of SE. To evaluate novel antiseizure compounds, animal models should simulate the CNS effects of OP exposure observed in humans. We characterized in rats the effects of the OP, diisopropyl flourophosphate (DFP) as a function of dose and route of administration of supporting agents (pyridostigmine, 2-PAM, atropine); outcome measures were mortality, electrographic seizure activity during SE, and subsequent CNS neuropathology. Doses of DFP between 3 and 7mg/kg consistently caused SE, and the latency to behavioral tremors and to subsequent initiation of SE were dose related. In distinction, all doses of DFP that resulted in electrographic SE (3-7mg/kg) produced seizures of similar intensity and duration, and similar CNS neuropathology (i.e., the effects were all-or-none). Although SE was similar across doses, mortality progressively increased with higher doses of DFP. Mortality was significantly lower when the route of administration of therapeutic agents was intramuscular compared to intraperitoneal. This rodent model of OP poisoning demonstrates pathological characteristics similar to those observed in humans, and thus begins to validate this model for investigating potential new therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of organophosphate compounds on a soil protist, Colpoda inflata (Ciliophora, Colpodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trielli, Francesca; Chessa, Maria Giovanna; Amaroli, Andrea; Ognibene, Marzia; Delmonte Corrado, Maria Umberta

    2006-12-01

    Many investigations on protists indicate that they play an important role in agricultural soils. We have tested the effects of three organophosphate (OP) pesticides, basudin, cidial, and fenix, on the soil ciliate Colpoda inflata, and examined its viability, fission rate, ability to excyst and extrude macronuclear chromatin into cytoplasm. Exposure to these OPs caused a dose-dependent effect on cell viability, and significantly reduced the mean fission rate at a concentration of 1/10(5) v/v. After exposure of resting cysts to 1/10(5) v/v or 1/10(6) v/v concentrations of basudin or cidial, the number of excysted cells was significantly lower than that of the controls. Conversely, exposure to a 1/10(5) v/v fenix concentration did not affect excystment and exposure to 1/10(6) v/v was found to promote excystment. Moreover, exposure to these OPs (1/10(4) v/v or 1/10(5) v/v) interferred with the ability to extrude macronuclear chromatin. The median lethal concentration in 60 min for each OPs tested was at least a hundred times lower than the doses recommended by the manufacturer. Finally, as the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity is the first target of OPs, the presence of ChE activity was checked in C. inflata. Three ChE activities were found, hydrolyzing the substrates acetyl-beta-methyl thiocholine iodide, propionyl thiocholine iodide and butyryl thiocholine iodide, that appeared to be very low and not inhibited by OP-exposure.

  14. Prediction of postoperative morbidity, mortality and rehabilitation in hip fracture patients: the cumulated ambulation score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Kehlet, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the cumulated ambulation score as an early postoperative predictor of short-term outcome in hip fracture patients. DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive study. SETTING: An orthopaedic hip fracture unit in a university hospital. PATIENTS: Four hundred and twenty-six consecutive hip...... of short-term postoperative outcome after hip fracture surgery....... fracture patients with an independent walking function admitted from their own home. Rehabilitation followed a well-defined multimodal rehabilitation regimen and discharge criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Admission tests with a new mobility score to assess prefracture functional mobility and a short mental...

  15. Unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault on patterns of adolescent substance use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charak, R.; Koot, H. M.; Dvorak, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more......-smoking, chewing tobacco, non-prescribed use of medicines, and drug-use, latent class analysis indicated a three class solution for substance-use, namely, Experimental use, Light polysubstance-use, and Polysubstance-use. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that as compared to adolescents exposed...

  16. Lack of Cumulative Toxicity Associated With Cabazitaxel Use in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Bracarda, Sergio; Gasparro, Donatello; Gernone, Angela; Messina, Caterina; Zagonel, Vittorina; Puglia, Livio; Bosso, Davide; Dondi, Davide; Sonpavde, Guru; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; De Placido, Sabino; Buonerba, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Cabazitaxel provided a survival advantage compared with mitoxantrone in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer refractory to docetaxel. Grade 3 to 4 (G3-4) neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were relatively frequent in the registrative XRP6258 Plus Prednisone Compared to Mitoxantrone Plus Prednisone in Hormone Refractory Metastatic Prostate Cancer (TROPIC) trial, but their incidence was lower in the Expanded Access Program (EAP). Although cumulative doses of docetaxel are associated with neuropathy, the effect of cumulative doses of cabazitaxel is unknown. In this retrospective review of prospectively collected data, the authors assessed "per cycle" incidence and predictors of toxicity in the Italian cohort of the EAP, with a focus on the effect of cumulative doses of cabazitaxel.The study population consisted of 218 Italian patients enrolled in the cabazitaxel EAP. The influence of selected variables on the most relevant adverse events identified was assessed using a Generalized Estimating Equations model at univariate and multivariate analysis."Per cycle" incidence of G 3 to 4 neutropenia was 8.7%, whereas febrile neutropenia was reported in 0.9% of cycles. All events of febrile neutropenia occurred during the first 3 cycles. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher prior dose of cabazitaxel was associated with decreased odds of having G3 to 4 neutropenia (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86-0.93; P 2 m2 presented increased odds of having G 3 to 4 neutropenia (OR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.86-1; P = 0.07), but decreased odds of having G3 to 4 anemia.Among the toxicities assessed, the authors did not identify any that appeared to be associated with a higher number of cabazitaxel cycles delivered. Prior cumulative dose was associated with reduced G3 to 4 neutropenia and anemia. The apparent protective effect associated with higher doses of cabazitaxel is likely to be affected by early dose reduction and early toxicity-related treatment

  17. Cumulative Chemical Exposures During Pregnancy and Early Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitro, Susanna D.; Johnson, Tyiesha; Zota, Ami R.

    2015-01-01

    Industrial and consumer product chemicals are widely used, leading to ubiquitous human exposure to the most common classes. Because these chemicals may affect developmental milestones, exposures in pregnant women and developing fetuses are of particular interest. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of chemical exposures in pregnant women, the chemical class-specific relationships between maternal and fetal exposures, and the major sources of exposures for six chemical classes of concern: phthalates, phenols, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCs). Additionally, we describe the current efforts to characterize cumulative exposures to synthetic chemicals during pregnancy. We conclude by highlighting gaps in the literature and discussing possible applications of the findings to reduce the prevalence of cumulative exposures during pregnancy. PMID:26341623

  18. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  19. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children...... (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children....

  20. Ising Spin Glasses and Renormalization Group Theory: the Binder cumulant

    OpenAIRE

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical data on scaling of the normalized Binder cumulant and the normalized correlation length are shown for the Thermodynamic limit regime, first for canonical Ising ferromagnet models and then for a range of Ising spin glass models. A fundamental Renormalization Group Theory rule linking the critical exponents for the two observables is well obeyed in the Ising models, but not for the Ising spin glasses in dimensions three and four. We conclude that there is a violation of a standard Jos...

  1. Cumulative culture can emerge from collective intelligence in animal groups

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Takao; Biro, Dora

    2017-01-01

    Studies of collective intelligence in animal groups typically overlook potential improvement through learning. Although knowledge accumulation is recognised as a major advantage of group living within the framework of Cumulative Cultural Evolution (CCE), the interplay between CCE and collective intelligence has remained unexplored. Here, we use homing pigeons to investigate whether the repeated removal and replacement of individuals in experimental groups (a key method in testing for CCE) alt...

  2. Simulation Method of Cumulative Flow without of Axial Stagnation Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Minin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a developed analytical model of non-stationary formation of a cumulative jet without axial stagnation point. It shows that it is possible to control the weight, size, speed, and momentum of the jet with the parameters, which are not achievable in the classical mode of jet formation. Considered jet formation principle can be used to conduct laboratory simulation of astro-like plasma jets.

  3. Firm heterogeneity, Rules of Origin and Rules of Cumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bombarda, Pamela; Gamberoni, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the impact of relaxing rules of origin (ROOs) in a simple setting with heterogeneous firms that buy intermediate inputs from domestic and foreign sources. In particular, we consider the impact of switching from bilateral to diagonal cumulation when using preferences (instead of paying the MFN tariff) involving the respect of rules of origin. We find that relaxing the restrictiveness of the ROOs leads the least productive exporters to stop exporting. The empirical part confirms thes...

  4. The impact of physical activity on cumulative cardiovascular disease risk factors among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiah, Rajah; Thangiah, Govindamal; Yusoff, Khalid; Manikam, Rishya; Chandrasekaran, Sankara Kumar; Mustafa, Rujhan; Bakar, Najmin Binti Abu

    2015-12-16

    Numerous studies have shown the importance of physical activity in reducing the morbidity and mortality rates caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, most of these studies emphasise little on the cumulative effect of CVD risk factors. Hence, this study investigates the association between physical exercise and cumulative CVD risk factors among adults in three different age groups. Using a sample of 7276 respondents drawn from community centers, the REDISCOVER team gathered information on physical activity, CVD risk factors (obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, tobacco use) and socioeconomic and demographic variables in Malaysia. Because the study required medical examination, a convenience sampling frame was preferred in which all volunteers were included in the study. Fasting blood samples and anthropometric (height, weight and more) measurements were collected by trained staffs. Socio-demographic and physical activity variables were recorded through questionnaires. A Chi-square test was performed to identify the bivariate association between the covariates (socioeconomic variables, demographic variables and physical activity) and outcome variable. The association between the main exposure, physical activity, and the outcome variable, cumulative CVD risk factors, was assessed using an ordinal logistic regression model, controlling for socioeconomic status and demographic influences in three different age groups, 35-49, 50-64 and 65 and above. The mean age of participants is 51.8 (SD = 9.4). Respondents in the age groups of 35-49 (aORmoderate = 0.12; 95 % CI: 0.02 - 0.53 ) and 65 and above (aORhigh = 0.58; 95 % CI: 0.24, 0.78) showed a statistically significant inverse relationship between physical activity and cumulative CVD risk factors. However, this relationship was not significant among respondents in the 50-64 age group suggesting the possible influence of other variables, such as stress and environment. The

  5. Preference, resistance to change, and the cumulative decision model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Randolph C

    2018-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory (Nevin & Grace, 2000a), preference in concurrent chains and resistance to change in multiple schedules are independent measures of a common construct representing reinforcement history. Here I review the original studies on preference and resistance to change in which reinforcement variables were manipulated parametrically, conducted by Nevin, Grace and colleagues between 1997 and 2002, as well as more recent research. The cumulative decision model proposed by Grace and colleagues for concurrent chains is shown to provide a good account of both preference and resistance to change, and is able to predict the increased sensitivity to reinforcer rate and magnitude observed with constant-duration components. Residuals from fits of the cumulative decision model to preference and resistance to change data were positively correlated, supporting the prediction of behavioral momentum theory. Although some questions remain, the learning process assumed by the cumulative decision model, in which outcomes are compared against a criterion that represents the average outcome value in the current context, may provide a plausible model for the acquisition of differential resistance to change. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. On weighted cumulative residual Tsallis entropy and its dynamic version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammar, A. H.; Jahanshahi, S. M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, Sati and Gupta (2015) have introduced a generalized cumulative residual entropy based on the non-additive Tsallis entropy. The cumulative residual entropy, introduced by Rao et al. (2004) is a generalized measure of uncertainty which is applied in reliability and image alignment and non-additive measures of entropy. This entropy finds justifications in many physical, biological and chemical phenomena. In this paper, we derive the weighted form of this measure and call it Weighted Cumulative Residual Tsallis Entropy (WCRTE). Being a ;length-biased; shift-dependent information measure, WCRTE is related to the differential information in which higher weight is assigned to large values of observed random variables. Based on the dynamic version of this new information measure, we propose ageing classes and it is shown that it can uniquely determine the survival function and Rayleigh distribution. Several properties, including linear transformations, bounds and related results to stochastic orders are obtained for these measures. Also, we identify classes of distributions in which some well-known distributions are maximum dynamic version of WCRTE. The empirical WCRTE is finally proposed to estimate the new information measure.

  7. A novel fluorine-18 β-fluoroethoxy organophosphate positron emission tomography imaging tracer targeted to central nervous system acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Shelly L; Ahmed, S Kaleem; Murphy, Stephanie; Braden, Michael R; Belabassi, Yamina; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Thompson, Charles M; Gerdes, John M

    2014-07-16

    Radiosynthesis of a fluorine-18 labeled organophosphate (OP) inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and subsequent positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the tracer in the rat central nervous system are reported. The tracer structure, which contains a novel β-fluoroethoxy phosphoester moiety, was designed as an insecticide-chemical nerve agent hybrid to optimize handling and the desired target reactivity. Radiosynthesis of the β-fluoroethoxy tracer is described that utilizes a [(18)F]prosthetic group coupling approach. The imaging utility of the [(18)F]tracer is demonstrated in vivo within rats by the evaluation of its brain penetration and cerebral distribution qualities in the absence and presence of a challenge agent. The tracer effectively penetrates brain and localizes to cerebral regions known to correlate with the expression of the AChE target. Brain pharmacokinetic properties of the tracer are consistent with the formation of an OP-adducted acetylcholinesterase containing the fluoroethoxy tracer group. Based on the initial favorable in vivo qualities found in rat, additional [(18)F]tracer studies are ongoing to exploit the technology to dynamically probe organophosphate mechanisms of action in mammalian live tissues.

  8. A Novel Fluorine-18 β-Fluoroethoxy Organophosphate Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Tracer Targeted to Central Nervous System Acetylcholinesterase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Radiosynthesis of a fluorine-18 labeled organophosphate (OP) inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and subsequent positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the tracer in the rat central nervous system are reported. The tracer structure, which contains a novel β-fluoroethoxy phosphoester moiety, was designed as an insecticide-chemical nerve agent hybrid to optimize handling and the desired target reactivity. Radiosynthesis of the β-fluoroethoxy tracer is described that utilizes a [18F]prosthetic group coupling approach. The imaging utility of the [18F]tracer is demonstrated in vivo within rats by the evaluation of its brain penetration and cerebral distribution qualities in the absence and presence of a challenge agent. The tracer effectively penetrates brain and localizes to cerebral regions known to correlate with the expression of the AChE target. Brain pharmacokinetic properties of the tracer are consistent with the formation of an OP-adducted acetylcholinesterase containing the fluoroethoxy tracer group. Based on the initial favorable in vivo qualities found in rat, additional [18F]tracer studies are ongoing to exploit the technology to dynamically probe organophosphate mechanisms of action in mammalian live tissues. PMID:24716794

  9. Application of pristine and doped SnO2 nanoparticles as a matrix for agro-hazardous material (organophosphate) detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naushad; Athar, Taimur; Fouad, H.; Umar, Ahmad; Ansari, Z. A.; Ansari, S. G.

    2017-02-01

    With an increasing focus on applied research, series of single/composite materials are being investigated for device development to detect several hazardous, dangerous, and toxic molecules. Here, we report a preliminary attempt of an electrochemical sensor fabricated using pristine Ni and Cr-doped nano tin oxide material (SnO2) as a tool to detect agro-hazardous material, i.e. Organophosphate (OP, chlorpyrifos). The nanomaterial was synthesized using the solution method. Nickel and chromium were used as dopant during synthesis. The synthesized material was calcined at 1000 °C and characterized for morphological, structural, and elemental analysis that showed the formation of agglomerated nanosized particles of crystalline nature. Screen-printed films of powder obtained were used as a matrix for working electrodes in a cyclic voltammogram (CV) at various concentrations of organophosphates (0.01 to 100 ppm). The CV curves were obtained before and after the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on the nanomaterial matrix. An interference study was also conducted with hydroquinone to ascertain the selectivity. The preliminary study indicated that such material can be used as suitable matrix for a device that can easily detect OP to a level of 10 ppb and thus contributes to progress in terms of desired device technology for the food and agricultural-industries.

  10. Cumulative radiation exposure in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mark A; Noga, Michelle; Rutledge, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    Certain pediatric patients undergoing surgery for the most severe forms of congenital heart disease are exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. The amount of cumulative radiation exposure from all modalities has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the cumulative radiation exposure in a contemporary cohort of patients with congenital heart disease undergoing single-ventricle palliation. This is a single-center, retrospective study of pediatric patients undergoing Fontan completion between May 2005 and May 2010. Radiation exposure from all procedures including cardiac catheterizations, computed tomography (CT) scans, plain film radiography, and nuclear medicine scans was evaluated. Radiation dose was calculated as the dose area product (μGy m(2)) and was measured in all cardiac catheterizations, CT scans, and other imaging modalities. Seventy patients who underwent Fontan completion at a mean age of 3.6 ± 1.5 years (range 1.4-8 years) were included in the study. Mean number of chest X-rays was 32 ± 8 (range 10-285) with a mean cumulative total exposure of 1,320 μGy m(2) (range 480-12,960) per patient. Mean number of cardiac catheterizations was 2.45 ± 1.3 (range 1-8), and mean fluoroscopy and cine angiography exposures per case were 1,103 ± 245 and 1,412 ± 273 μGy m(2) giving a mean cumulative exposure of 9,054 μGy m(2) (range 2,515-201,200) per patient for all catheterizations. Mean number of CT scans performed was 0.44 ± 0.4 (0-11), and the mean exposure was 352 μGy m(2), giving a mean cumulative total of 154 μGy m(2) (range 0-3,872) per person. A total of five lung perfusion scans were carried out. Radiation exposure in patients with congenital heart disease undergoing single-ventricle palliation is quite variable. Most of the exposure to ionizing radiation occurs during cardiac catheterization. Strategies to utilize other imaging modalities such as MRI would decrease exposure in this particular group of patients who

  11. Evolution of costly explicit memory and cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2016-06-21

    Humans can acquire new information and modify it (cumulative culture) based on their learning and memory abilities, especially explicit memory, through the processes of encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval. Explicit memory is categorized into semantic and episodic memories. Animals have semantic memory, while episodic memory is unique to humans and essential for innovation and the evolution of culture. As both episodic and semantic memory are needed for innovation, the evolution of explicit memory influences the evolution of culture. However, previous theoretical studies have shown that environmental fluctuations influence the evolution of imitation (social learning) and innovation (individual learning) and assume that memory is not an evolutionary trait. If individuals can store and retrieve acquired information properly, they can modify it and innovate new information. Therefore, being able to store and retrieve information is essential from the perspective of cultural evolution. However, if both storage and retrieval were too costly, forgetting and relearning would have an advantage over storing and retrieving acquired information. In this study, using mathematical analysis and individual-based simulations, we investigate whether cumulative culture can promote the coevolution of costly memory and social and individual learning, assuming that cumulative culture improves the fitness of each individual. The conclusions are: (1) without cumulative culture, a social learning cost is essential for the evolution of storage-retrieval. Costly storage-retrieval can evolve with individual learning but costly social learning does not evolve. When low-cost social learning evolves, the repetition of forgetting and learning is favored more than the evolution of costly storage-retrieval, even though a cultural trait improves the fitness. (2) When cumulative culture exists and improves fitness, storage-retrieval can evolve with social and/or individual learning, which

  12. Evaluation of the HF-Radar network system around Taiwan using normalized cumulative Lagrangian separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredj, Erick; Kohut, Josh; Roarty, Hugh; Lai, Jian-Wu

    2017-04-01

    The Lagrangian separation distance between the endpoints of simulated and observed drifter trajectories is often used to assess the performance of numerical particle trajectory models. However, the separation distance fails to indicate relative model performance in weak and strong current regions, such as over continental shelves and the adjacent deep ocean. A skill score described in detail by (Lui et.al. 2011) was applied to estimate the cumulative Lagrangian separation distances normalized by the associated cumulative trajectory lengths. In contrast, the Lagrangian separation distance alone gives a misleading result. The proposed dimensionless skill score is particularly useful when the number of drifter trajectories is limited and neither a conventional Eulerian-based velocity nor a Lagrangian based probability density function may be estimated. The skill score assesses The Taiwan Ocean Radar Observing System (TOROS) performance. TOROS consists of 17 SeaSonde type radars around the Taiwan Island. The currents off Taiwan are significantly influenced by the nearby Kuroshio current. The main stream of the Kuroshio flows along the east coast of Taiwan to the north throughout the year. Sometimes its branch current also bypasses the south end of Taiwan and goes north along the west coast of Taiwan. The Kuroshio is also prone to seasonal change in its speed of flow, current capacity, distribution width, and depth. The evaluations of HF-Radar National Taiwanese network performance using Lagrangian drifter records demonstrated the high quality and robustness of TOROS HF-Radar data using a purely trajectory-based non-dimensional index. Yonggang Liu and Robert H. Weisberg, "Evaluation of trajectory modeling in different dynamic regions using normalized cumulative Lagrangian separation", Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, C09013, doi:10.1029/2010JC006837, 2011

  13. El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin duda alguna al A. Dugandii StandI. Por otra parte, Santiago Cortés (FI. Colomb. 206. 1898; ed, 2: 239. 1912 cita el Cumulá "de Anapoima y otros lugares del (rio Magdalena" diciendo que pertenece a las Leguminosas, pero la brevísima descripción que este autor hace de la madera "naranjada y notable por densidad, dureza y resistencia a la humedad", me induce a creer que se trata del mismo Cumula coleccionado recientemente en Tocaima, ya que esta población esta situada a pocos kilómetros de Anapoima. Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin

  14. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  15. Residual, direct and cumulative effect of zinc application on wheat and rice yield under rice-wheat syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is prevalent particularly on calcareous soils of arid and semiarid region. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the direct, residual and cumulative effect of zinc on the yield of wheat and rice in permanent layout for two consecutive years, 2004-05 and 2005-06 at Arid Zone Research Institute D.I. Khan. Soil under study was deficient in Zn (0.8 mg kg-1. Effect of Zn on yield, Zn concentrations in leaf and soils were assessed using wheat variety Naseer-2000 and rice variety IRRI-6. Three rates of Zn, ranging from 0 to 10 kg ha-1 in soil, were applied as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4. 7H2O along with basal dose fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Mature leaf and soil samples were collected at panicle initiation stage. The results showed that grain yield of wheat and rice was significantly increased by the direct application of 5 and 10 kg Zn ha-1. Highest grain yield of wheat (5467 kg ha-1 was recorded with the direct application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 while 4994 kg ha-1 was recorded with the cumulative application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 but the yield increase due to residual effect of Zn was statistically lower than the cumulative effect of Zn. Maximum paddy yield was recorded with the cumulative application ofZn followed by residual and direct applied 10 and 5 kg Zn kg ha-1, respectively. Zn concentration in soils ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 mg kg-1 in wheat and 0.24 to 2.40 mg kg-1 in rice, while in leaves it ranged from 18-48 mg kg-1 in wheat and 15-52 mg kg-1 in rice. The concentration of Zn in soil and leaves increased due to the treatments in the order; cumulative > residual > direct effect > control (without Zn. The yield attributes like 1000- grain weight, number of spikes, spike length and plant height were increased by the residual, direct and cumulative effect of Zn levels; however, the magnitude of increase was higher in cumulative effect than residual and direct effect of Zn, respectively. Under Zn-deficient soil

  16. Acute disturbance of calcium homeostasis in PC12 cells as a novel mechanism of action for low concentration of organophosphate insecticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, M.; Hamers, T.; Westerink, R.H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates are widely used insecticides that exert their neurotoxicity via inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and subsequent overexcitation. OPs can induce additional neurotoxic effects at concentrations below those for inhibition of AChE, indicating other

  17. Acute disturbance of calcium homeostasis in PC12 cells as a novel mechanism of action for (sub)micromolar concentrations of organophosphate insecticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Marieke; Hamers, Timo; Westerink, Remco H S

    Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates are widely used insecticides that exert their neurotoxicity via inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and subsequent overexcitation. OPs can induce additional neurotoxic effects at concentrations below those for inhibition of AChE, indicating other

  18. A new approach to characterization of the resistance of populations of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) to organophosphate and pyrethroid in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faza, Aline Pasqualini; Pinto, Isabella Silvestre Barreto; Fonseca, Isabela; Antunes, Gustavo Resende; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Daemon, Erik; Muniz, Michelle de Souza; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Furlong, John; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo

    2013-08-01

    The monitoring of resistance of cattle tick populations in Brazil to the chemical bases in use is largely limited to investigation of the phenotypic profile. There are few studies investigating the role played by the genotypic profile in acaricide resistance in the country. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to carry out molecular characterization and trace out the genetic profile of populations of Rhipicephalus microplus with respect to resistance to the organophosphate and pyrethroid chemical groups. For that purpose, larvae were genotyped belonging to 587 populations for pyrethroids and 306 for organophosphates, using the polymerase chain reaction technique. It was found that 75.49% and 97.44% of the larvae studied showed resistance to the organophosphates and pyrethroids, respectively. Among the populations resistant to pyrethroids, 91.9% were heterozygotes, showing that most of the resistant populations have only one allele responsible for resistance. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the genotyped populations have high resistance to organophosphates, and even more so to pyrethroids. This information is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms of resistance of R. microplus to acaricides, to enable improvement of control techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quaternary and tertiary aldoxime antidotes for organophosphate exposure in a zebrafish model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Hayden R. [Department of Biology, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90608 (United States); Radić, Zoran; Taylor, Palmer [Department of Pharmacology, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0650 (United States); Fradinger, Erica A., E-mail: efrading@whittier.edu [Department of Biology, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90608 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The zebrafish is rapidly becoming an important model system for screening of new therapeutics. Here we evaluated the zebrafish as a potential pharmacological model for screening novel oxime antidotes to organophosphate (OP)-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The k{sub i} values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) and dichlorvos (DDVP) showed that CPO was a more potent inhibitor of both human and zebrafish AChE, but overall zebrafish AChE was less sensitive to OP inhibition. In contrast, aldoxime antidotes, the quaternary ammonium 2-PAM and tertiary amine RS-194B, showed generally similar overall reactivation kinetics, k{sub r}, in both zebrafish and human AChE. However, differences between the K{sub ox} and k{sub 2} constants suggest that zebrafish AChE associates more tightly with oximes, but has a slower maximal reactivation rate than human AChE. Homology modeling suggests that these kinetic differences result from divergences in the amino acids lining the entrance to the active site gorge. Although 2-PAM had the more favorable in vitro reactivation kinetics, RS-194B was more effective antidote in vivo. In intact zebrafish embryos, antidotal treatment with RS-194B rescued embryos from OP toxicity, whereas 2-PAM had no effect. Dechorionation of the embryos prior to antidotal treatment allowed both 2-PAM and RS-194B to rescue zebrafish embryos from OP toxicity. Interestingly, RS-194B and 2-PAM alone increased cholinergic motor activity in dechorionated embryos possibly due to the reversible inhibition kinetics, K{sub i} and αK{sub i}, of the oximes. Together these results demonstrate that the zebrafish at various developmental stages provides an excellent model for investigating membrane penetrant antidotes to OP exposure. - Highlights: • Zebrafish AChE shares significant structural similarities with human AChE. • OP-inhibited zebrafish and human AChE exhibit similar reactivation kinetics. • The zebrafish chorion is permeable to BBB penetrant and not

  20. Effects of multiple doses of organophosphates on evoked potentials in mouse diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S S; de Blaquière, G E; Williams, F M; Blain, P G

    1997-02-01

    1. Male albino mice were injected s.c. with an organophosphate (mipafox, ecothiopate or paraoxon). Treatments were either a single injection or multiple daily injections with lower doses for 5 or 8 days. At 3 h after injection the activity of brain and diaphragm acetylcholinesterase and of brain neuropathy target esterase (NTE) was measured. Also measured in the diaphragm at 3 h post dose was the duration of spontaneous miniature endplate potentials (eMEPPs), recorded extracellularly. 2. At 7 and 28 days after dosing action potentials and evoked endplate potentials, produced by stimulating the phrenic nerve at 30 Hz, were recorded in diaphragm muscle. The amplitudes, time-course and latencies of these potentials were measured and the variability of latencies (jitter) was calculated. 3. Single doses of mipafox (20 mg/kg), ecothiopate (0.192 mg/kg) or paraoxon (0.415 mg/kg) in the mouse produced ca. 70% inhibition of diaphragm acetylcholinesterase at 3 h after dosing. All three OPs produced a prolongation of the half-decay times of eMEPPs. 4. All three OPs in the above single doses produced increased muscle action potential (postjunctional) jitter but only mipafox produced an increase in endplate potential (prejunctional) jitter. Mipafox in a slightly reduced single dose (17.5 mg/kg) had no effect on prejunctional or postjunctional jitter. 5. Multiple dosing with mipafox (8 mg/kg daily for 5 days) increased both postjunctional and prejunctional jitter at both 7 and 28 days after the end of dosing. After multiple dosing with mipafox (5 mg/kg daily for 5 days) postjunctional (but not prejunctional) jitter was increased. Multiple doses of paraoxon (0.166 mg/kg daily for 5 days) or ecothiopate (0.76 mg/kg daily for 5 days) increased prejunctional and postjunctional jitter. 6. Depending on the dosing regime, all three OPs tested were capable of increasing both prejunctional and postjunctional jitter. Neither ecothiopate nor paraoxon inhibited NTE, so this prejunctional

  1. Effects of organophosphates on cholinesterase activity and neurite regeneration in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsan, M

    1999-05-14

    In Aplysia, a marine mollusc, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is present in cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons and in hemolymph. Aplysia hemolymph has a very high level of AChE which promotes neurite growth in primary cultures of dopaminergic neurons via a non-catalytic mechanism. In contrast, AChE is known to facilitate neurite growth in cholinoceptive neurons by hydrolyzing ACh which inhibits neurite growth. In order to test whether AChE's site-specific neurotrophic action varies with the neuronal phenotype, we investigated the effects of active-site inhibited hemolymph AChE on neurite growth of cholinergic neurons of Aplysia in primary culture. Organophosphates being long-acting active site inhibitors of AChE were chosen for this study. The effects of active site inhibited hemolymph AChE was tested on large cholinergic neurons, R2 (abdominal ganglion) and LPL1 (left pleural ganglion) as well as small cholinergic neurons (buccal ganglion) of Aplysia, maintained in culture. Partially purified hemolymph AChE was inhibited by either 10 microM of echothiophate or 5 microM of paraoxon. Neurons were maintained in (1) L15 (defined medium) alone; (2) L15 + echothiophate; (3) L-15 + paraoxon; (4) L-15 + hemolymph AChE; (5) L15 + hemolymph AChE + echothiophate; and (6) L-15 + hemolymph AChE + paraoxon. Addition of uninhibited hemolymph AChE significantly increased neurite growth of cultured neurons compared to L15 alone. In the presence of echothiophate-inhibited or praoxon-inhibited AChE, neurite growth was significantly reduced when compared to L15 + uninhibited AChE. While the presence of echothiophate by itself did not reduce survival or neurite growth when compared to L-15 alone, the presence of paraoxon by itself markedly reduced survival and neurite growth of cultured neurons. The results show that AChE's catalytic action contributes to enhance neurite growth in cholinergic neurons and the effects of paraoxon appears to differ from that of echothiophate on

  2. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children: e109207

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Fallesen; Natalia Emanuel; Christopher Wildeman

    2014-01-01

      Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster...

  3. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Individual Impact Magnitude vs. Cumulative Magnitude for Estimating Concussion Odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathryn L; Peeters, Thomas; Szymanski, Stefan; Broglio, Steven P

    2017-08-01

    Helmeted impact devices have allowed researchers to investigate the biomechanics of head impacts in vivo. While increased impact magnitude has been associated with greater concussion risk, a definitive concussive threshold has not been established. It is likely that concussion risk is not determined by a single impact itself, but a host of predisposing factors. These factors may include genetics, fatigue, and/or prior head impact exposure. The objective of the current paper is to investigate the association between cumulative head impact magnitude and concussion risk. It is hypothesized that increased cumulative magnitudes will be associated with greater concussion risk. This retrospective analysis included participants that were recruited from regional high-schools in Illinois and Michigan from 2007 to 2014 as part of an ongoing study on concussion biomechanics. Across seven seasons, 185 high school football athletes were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry system. Out of 185 athletes, 31 (17%) sustained a concussion, with two athletes sustaining two concussions over the study period, yielding 33 concussive events. The system recorded 78,204 impacts for all concussed players. Linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and head impact telemetry severity profile (HITsp) magnitudes were summed within five timeframes: the day of injury, three days prior to injury, seven days prior to injury, 30 days prior to injury, and prior in-season exposure. Logistic regressions were modeled to explain concussive events based on the singular linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and HITsp event along with the calculated summations over time. Linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and HITsp all produced significant models estimating concussion (p concussive impact were the linear acceleration (OR = 1.040, p concussion likelihood. Cumulative magnitude is a simplistic measure of the total exposure sustained by a player over a given period. However, this

  5. The cumulative load of depressive illness is associated with cognitive function in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbalch, B J; Knorr, U; Hasselbalch, S G; Gade, A; Kessing, L V

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether the cumulative number, duration and subtypes (severity and presence of psychotic features) of previous episodes of depression in patients with unipolar depressive disorder in a remitted state are associated with decreased global cognitive function. Via the Danish registers individuals between 40 and 80 years of age were identified: (1) patients with a diagnosis of unipolar disorder at their first discharge from a psychiatric hospital in the period 1994 to 2002, and (2) gender and age matched control individuals. The participants were assessed with the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), which provides a composite measure of global cognitive function. A total of 88 patients and 50 controls accepted our invitation to participate, fulfilled the selection criteria and were included in the study. The cumulative duration of depressive episodes was associated with a decreased CAMCOG score adjusted for age, gender, education, premorbid IQ and residual depressive symptoms (B=-0.14, 95% C.I. (-0.26, -0.02), R(2)adj=0.31, P=.02). Significant associations were also found between CAMCOG score and the cumulative duration and total number of depressive episodes with psychotic features, respectively. Our findings suggest that cognitive dysfunction is associated with the cumulative duration of depressive episodes, and that, in particular, depressive episodes with psychotic features in the course of illness may be a significant predictor of future impairment of cognitive function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. ALGORITHM FOR CUMULATIVE CALCULATION OF GENE SET ENRICHMENT STATISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sergushichev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods for gene set enrichment analysis, widely-used for analysis of gene expression data, were studied. A problem of cumulative calculation of enrichment statistic was considered. For this problem an algorithm based on square root decomposition heuristic was developed. An asymptotic run-time complexity of the algorithm was found. Practical implementation showed an order of magnitude increase in performance compared to a naïve algorithm when run on typical input sizes. The developed algorithm can be used to improve significantly the performance of gene set enrichment analysis.

  7. NONPARAMETRIC ESTIMATION OF CONDITIONAL CUMULATIVE HAZARDS FOR MISSING POPULATION MARKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Pumar, Amalia Jácome

    2010-01-01

    A new function for the competing risks model, the conditional cumulative hazard function, is introduced, from which the conditional distribution of failure times of individuals failing due to cause j can be studied. The standard Nelson-Aalen estimator is not appropriate in this setting, as population membership (mark) information may be missing for some individuals owing to random right-censoring. We propose the use of imputed population marks for the censored individuals through fractional risk sets. Some asymptotic properties, including uniform strong consistency, are established. We study the practical performance of this estimator through simulation studies and apply it to a real data set for illustration.

  8. Cumulative cancer risk from air pollution in Houston: disparities in risk burden and social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Stephen H; Marko, Dritana; Sexton, Ken

    2008-06-15

    Air toxics are of particular concern in Greater Houston, home to one of the world's largest petrochemical complexes and a quarter ofthe nation's refining capacity. Much of this complex lies along a navigable ship channel that flows 50 miles from east of the central business district through Galveston Bay and into the Gulf of Mexico. Numerous communities, including both poor and affluent neighborhoods, are located in close proximity to the 200 facilities along this channel. Our aim is to examine the spatial distribution of cumulative, air-pollution-related cancer risks in Houston and Harris County, with particular emphasis on identifying ethnic, economic, and social disparities. We employ exposure estimates from NATA-1999 and census data to assess whether the cumulative cancer risks from air toxics in Houston (and Harris County) fall disproportionately on certain ethnicities and on the socially and economically disadvantaged. The cancer risk burden across Harris County census tracts increases with the proportion of residents who are Hispanic and with key indicators of relative social disadvantage. Aggregate disadvantage grows at each higher level of cancer risk. The highest cancer risk in Harris County is concentrated along a corridor flanking the ship channel. These high-risk neighborhoods, however, vary markedly in relative disadvantage, as well as in emission source mix. Much of the risk they face appears to be driven by only a few hazardous air pollutants. Results provide evidence of risk disparities from hazardous air pollution based on ethnicity and social disadvantage. At the highest levels of risk the pattern is more complex, arguing for a neighborhood level of analysis, especially when proximity to high-emissions industries is a substantial contributor to cumulative cancer risk.

  9. Determining source cumulants in femtoscopy with Gram-Charlier and Edgeworth series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegel, Jürgen; Eggers, Hans C.; de Kock, Michiel B

    Lowest-order cumulants provide important information on the shape of the emission source in femtoscopy. For the simple case of noninteracting identical particles, we show how the fourth-order source cumulant can be determined from measured cumulants in momentum space. The textbook Gram-Charlier s...

  10. High-resolution harmonic retrieval using the full fourth-order cumulant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Naus, H.W.L.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The harmonic retrieval (HR) problem concerns the estimation of the frequencies in a sum of real or complex harmonics. Both correlation and cumulant-based approaches are used for this purpose. Cumulant-based HR algorithms use a single 1-D slice of the fourth-order cumulant that is estimated directly

  11. Cumulant expansions for measuring water exchange using diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Lipeng; Nilsson, Markus; Lasič, Samo; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Rathi, Yogesh

    2018-02-01

    The rate of water exchange across cell membranes is a parameter of biological interest and can be measured by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). In this work, we investigate a stochastic model for the diffusion-and-exchange of water molecules. This model provides a general solution for the temporal evolution of dMRI signal using any type of gradient waveform, thereby generalizing the signal expressions for the Kärger model. Moreover, we also derive a general nth order cumulant expansion of the dMRI signal accounting for water exchange, which has not been explored in earlier studies. Based on this analytical expression, we compute the cumulant expansion for dMRI signals for the special case of single diffusion encoding (SDE) and double diffusion encoding (DDE) sequences. Our results provide a theoretical guideline on optimizing experimental parameters for SDE and DDE sequences, respectively. Moreover, we show that DDE signals are more sensitive to water exchange at short-time scale but provide less attenuation at long-time scale than SDE signals. Our theoretical analysis is also validated using Monte Carlo simulations on synthetic structures.

  12. Cumulative phase delay imaging for contrast-enhanced ultrasound tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Standard dynamic-contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) imaging detects and estimates ultrasound-contrast-agent (UCA) concentration based on the amplitude of the nonlinear (harmonic) components generated during ultrasound (US) propagation through UCAs. However, harmonic components generation is not specific to UCAs, as it also occurs for US propagating through tissue. Moreover, nonlinear artifacts affect standard DCE-US imaging, causing contrast to tissue ratio reduction, and resulting in possible misclassification of tissue and misinterpretation of UCA concentration. Furthermore, no contrast-specific modality exists for DCE-US tomography; in particular speed-of-sound changes due to UCAs are well within those caused by different tissue types. Recently, a new marker for UCAs has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental component is in fact observable for US propagating through UCAs, and is absent in tissue. In this paper, tomographic US images based on CPD are for the first time presented and compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Results show the applicability of this marker for contrast specific US imaging, with cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI) showing superior capabilities in detecting and localizing UCA, as compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Cavities (filled with UCA) which were down to 1 mm in diameter were clearly detectable. Moreover, CPDI is free of the above mentioned nonlinear artifacts. These results open important possibilities to DCE-US tomography, with potential applications to breast imaging for cancer localization.

  13. Cumulative hierarchies and computability over universes of sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Cantone

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Various metamathematical investigations, beginning with Fraenkel’s historical proof of the independence of the axiom of choice, called for suitable definitions of hierarchical universes of sets. This led to the discovery of such important cumulative structures as the one singled out by von Neumann (generally taken as the universe of all sets and Godel’s universe of the so-called constructibles. Variants of those are exploited occasionally in studies concerning the foundations of analysis (according to Abraham Robinson’s approach, or concerning non-well-founded sets. We hence offer a systematic presentation of these many structures, partly motivated by their relevance and pervasiveness in mathematics. As we report, numerous properties of hierarchy-related notions such as rank, have been verified with the assistance of the ÆtnaNova proof-checker.Through SETL and Maple implementations of procedures which effectively handle the Ackermann’s hereditarily finite sets, we illustrate a particularly significant case among those in which the entities which form a universe of sets can be algorithmically constructed and manipulated; hereby, the fruitful bearing on pure mathematics of cumulative set hierarchies ramifies into the realms of theoretical computer science and algorithmics.

  14. A Cumulant-based Analysis of Nonlinear Magnetospheric Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay R. Johnson; Simon Wing

    2004-01-28

    Understanding magnetospheric dynamics and predicting future behavior of the magnetosphere is of great practical interest because it could potentially help to avert catastrophic loss of power and communications. In order to build good predictive models it is necessary to understand the most critical nonlinear dependencies among observed plasma and electromagnetic field variables in the coupled solar wind/magnetosphere system. In this work, we apply a cumulant-based information dynamical measure to characterize the nonlinear dynamics underlying the time evolution of the Dst and Kp geomagnetic indices, given solar wind magnetic field and plasma input. We examine the underlying dynamics of the system, the temporal statistical dependencies, the degree of nonlinearity, and the rate of information loss. We find a significant solar cycle dependence in the underlying dynamics of the system with greater nonlinearity for solar minimum. The cumulant-based approach also has the advantage that it is reliable even in the case of small data sets and therefore it is possible to avoid the assumption of stationarity, which allows for a measure of predictability even when the underlying system dynamics may change character. Evaluations of several leading Kp prediction models indicate that their performances are sub-optimal during active times. We discuss possible improvements of these models based on this nonparametric approach.

  15. Cumulative impacts of mountaintop mining on an Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, T. Ty; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Bier, Raven; Helton, A. M.; Merola, R. Brittany; Vengosh, Avner; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    Mountaintop mining is the dominant form of coal mining and the largest driver of land cover change in the central Appalachians. The waste rock from these surface mines is disposed of in the adjacent river valleys, leading to a burial of headwater streams and dramatic increases in salinity and trace metal concentrations immediately downstream. In this synoptic study we document the cumulative impact of more than 100 mining discharge outlets and approximately 28 km2 of active and reclaimed surface coal mines on the Upper Mud River of West Virginia. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements within the tributaries and the mainstem and found that upstream of the mines water quality was equivalent to state reference sites. However, as eight separate mining-impacted tributaries contributed their flow, conductivity and the concentrations of selenium, sulfate, magnesium, and other inorganic solutes increased at a rate directly proportional to the upstream areal extent of mining. We found strong linear correlations between the concentrations of these contaminants in the river and the proportion of the contributing watershed in surface mines. All tributaries draining mountaintop-mining-impacted catchments were characterized by high conductivity and increased sulfate concentration, while concentrations of some solutes such as Se, Sr, and N were lower in the two tributaries draining reclaimed mines. Our results demonstrate the cumulative impact of multiple mines within a single catchment and provide evidence that mines reclaimed nearly two decades ago continue to contribute significantly to water quality degradation within this watershed. PMID:22160676

  16. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2016-01-01

    Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity and having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Participants were 2265 men and women (age range, 24-39 years in 2001) from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMTs were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b = 0.004, standard error [SE] = 0.001, p risk factors in childhood and adulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status, and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b = 0.007, SE = 0.003, p = .016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b = 0.004, SE = 0.002, p = .031) after adjustment for age, sex, and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life, and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood.

  17. Development of a model to predict the 10-year cumulative risk of second primary cancer among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitry, Marie; Velten, Michel; Trétarre, Brigitte; Bara, Simona; Daubisse-Marliac, Laetitia; Lapôtre-Ledoux, Bénédicte; Troussard, Xavier; Molinié, Florence; Ligier, Karine; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Bouvier, Véronique; Colonna, Marc; Klein, Delphine; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Jégu, Jérémie

    2017-04-01

    To develop a prediction model to quantify the cumulative risk of Second Primary Cancer (SPC) among cancer patients given that they survive their disease. A cohort of 293,435 patients based on data from twelve French cancer registries was analyzed. For five first cancer sites, SPC incidence rates were estimated using Poisson regression models. The cumulative risks of SPC were computed for different follow-up times. For comparison purpose, the same method was used to estimate the probability of cancer in the general population. In this population-based cohort, 27,320 patients presented with a SPC. The cumulative risk of SPC varied depending on first cancer site, with a 10-year cumulative probability of SPC ranging from 6.2% for women with breast cancer to 44.0% for men with head and neck cancer. Compared with the general population, the 10-year cumulative risk of SPC was dramatically elevated for tobacco-related first cancers, with an increase of +7.3% for men aged 55 to 64 with a first lung cancer and +35.6% for men aged 45 to 54 with a first head and neck cancer. Lower differences were observed among patients diagnosed with a first prostate cancer (+5.5% among men aged 55 to 64), colorectal (+4.1% for women aged 55 to 64 and +6.3% for men aged 55 to 64), and breast (+2.0% among females aged 75 and older) cancers. This study provides physicians with a practical estimate to assess the risk of SPC of their patients more accurately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Methodological Considerations in Screening for Cumulative Environmental Health Impacts: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Zeise

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Polluting facilities and hazardous sites are often concentrated in low-income communities of color already facing additional stressors to their health. The influence of socioeconomic status is not considered in traditional models of risk assessment. We describe a pilot study of a screening method that considers both pollution burden and population characteristics in assessing the potential for cumulative impacts. The goal is to identify communities that warrant further attention and to thereby provide actionable guidance to decision- and policy-makers in achieving environmental justice. The method uses indicators related to five components to develop a relative cumulative impact score for use in comparing communities: exposures, public health effects, environmental effects, sensitive populations and socioeconomic factors. Here, we describe several methodological considerations in combining disparate data sources and report on the results of sensitivity analyses meant to guide future improvements in cumulative impact assessments. We discuss criteria for the selection of appropriate indicators, correlations between them, and consider data quality and the influence of choices regarding model structure. We conclude that the results of this model are largely robust to changes in model structure.

  19. Engaging Communities in Research on Cumulative Risk and Social Stress-Environment Interactions: Lessons Learned from EPA's STAR Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne-Sturges, Devon C; Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Jimenez, Maria; Symanski, Elaine; Carr Shmool, Jessie L; Dotson-Newman, Ogonnaya; Clougherty, Jane E; French, Robert; Levy, Jonathan I; Laumbach, Robert; Rodgers, Kathryn; Bongiovanni, Roseann; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2015-12-01

    Studies have documented cumulative health effects of chemical and nonchemical exposures, particularly chronic environmental and social stressors. Environmental justice groups have advocated for community participation in research that assesses how these interactions contribute to health disparities experienced by low-income and communities of color. In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a request for research applications (RFA), "Understanding the Role of Nonchemical Stressors and Developing Analytic Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessments." Seven research projects were funded to help address this knowledge gap. Each engaged with communities in different ways. We describe the community engagement approaches of the seven research projects, which ranged from outreach through shared leadership/participatory. We then assess the experiences of these programs with respect to the community engagement goals of the RFA. We present insights from these community engagement efforts, including how the grants helped to build or enhance the capacity of community organizations in addition to contributing to the research projects. Our analysis of project proposals, annual grantee reports, and participant observation of these seven projects suggests guidelines for the development of future funding mechanisms and for conducting community-engaged research on cumulative risk involving environmental and social stressors including: 1) providing for flexibility in the mode of community engagement; 2) addressing conflict between research timing and engagement needs, 3) developing approaches for communicating about the uniquely sensitive issues of nonchemical stressors and social risks; and 4) encouraging the evaluation of community engagement efforts.

  20. Poverty, production, and health: inhibition of erythrocyte cholinesterase via occupational exposure to organophosphate insecticides in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco-Ojanguren, R; Halperin, D C

    1998-01-01

    Occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides and its effects on the concentration of erythrocyte cholinesterase in the rural population of Chiapas, Mexico, are described. The authors surveyed agricultural production and pesticide use was surveyed among 199 campesinos (peasants) in three communities that used various agricultural production systems. The authors measured the concentration of the cholinesterase enzyme in blood samples obtained from 65 campesinos before and after exposure to the insecticide. The authors established a comparison value for the population that was not exposed occupationally. The exposure values of the enzyme concentration were significantly lower than preexposure values (p = .00001) and reference group values (p = .0008). Individuals in the community characterized by subsistence production had significantly lower levels of the enzyme than individuals in the other two communities (p = .01). This result suggested that a greater risk of adverse health effects existed among the poorest communities.