WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing cumulative organophosphate

  1. Cumulative Exposure Assessment of Triazole Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Klaveren, van, M.; Donkersgoed, van, G.; Voet, van der, E.; C. Stephenson; Boon, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    In the EFSA opinion on identification of new approaches to assess cumulative and synergistic risks from pesticides to human health a tiered approach for cumulative risk assessment has been proposed. The first tier is a deterministic approach using average and large portion consumption statistics. The higher tiers include probabilistic exposure assessment and Benchmark Dose (BMD) modeling. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of a higher tier assessment of ...

  2. Conceptual models for cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Stephen H; Sexton, Ken

    2011-12-01

    In the absence of scientific consensus on an appropriate theoretical framework, cumulative risk assessment and related research have relied on speculative conceptual models. We argue for the importance of theoretical backing for such models and discuss 3 relevant theoretical frameworks, each supporting a distinctive "family" of models. Social determinant models postulate that unequal health outcomes are caused by structural inequalities; health disparity models envision social and contextual factors acting through individual behaviors and biological mechanisms; and multiple stressor models incorporate environmental agents, emphasizing the intermediary role of these and other stressors. The conclusion is that more careful reliance on established frameworks will lead directly to improvements in characterizing cumulative risk burdens and accounting for disproportionate adverse health effects. PMID:22021317

  3. Uncertainty in Mixtures and Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans and environmental species are rarely exposed to single chemicals. These chemicals typically affect multiple tissues through multiple modes of action, which may depend on the dose. Mixtures risk assessment may employ dose response information from the mixture of interest,...

  4. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at hel

  5. Ecosystem assessment methods for cumulative effects at the regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental issues such as nonpoint-source pollution, acid rain, reduced biodiversity, land use change, and climate change have widespread ecological impacts and require an integrated assessment approach. Since 1978, the implementing regulations for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have required assessment of potential cumulative environmental impacts. Current environmental issues have encouraged ecologists to improve their understanding of ecosystem process and function at several spatial scales. However, management activities usually occur at the local scale, and there is little consideration of the potential impacts to the environmental quality of a region. This paper proposes that regional ecological risk assessment provides a useful approach for assisting scientists in accomplishing the task of assessing cumulative impacts. Critical issues such as spatial heterogeneity, boundary definition, and data aggregation are discussed. Examples from an assessment of acidic deposition effects on fish in Adirondack lakes illustrate the importance of integrated data bases, associated modeling efforts, and boundary definition at the regional scale

  6. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  7. Feasibility of hair sampling to assess levels of organophosphate metabolites in rural areas of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipe, D.W.; Jayasumana, C.; Siribaddana, S.; Priyadarshana, C.; Pearson, M.; Gunnell, D.; Metcalfe, C.; Tzatzarakis, M.N.; Tsatsakis, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring chronic pesticide exposure is important in order to investigate the associated health effects. Traditional biological samples (blood/urine) are difficult to collect, store and transport in large epidemiological studies in settings such as rural Asia. We assessed the acceptability of collecting hair samples from a rural Sri Lankan population and found that this method of data collection was feasible. We also assessed the level of non-specific metabolites (DAPS) of organophosphate pesticides in the hair samples. The median concentration (pg/mg) of each DAP was: diethyl phosphate: 83.3 (IQI 56.0, 209.4); diethyl thiophosphate: 34.7 (IQI 13.8, 147.9); diethyl dithiophosphate: 34.5 (IQI 23.4, 55.2); and dimethyl phosphate: 3 (IQI 3, 109.7). Total diethylphosphates were recovered in >80% of samples and were positively correlated with self-reported pesticide exposure. PMID:26894816

  8. Feasibility of hair sampling to assess levels of organophosphate metabolites in rural areas of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipe, D W; Jayasumana, C; Siribaddana, S; Priyadarshana, C; Pearson, M; Gunnell, D; Metcalfe, C; Tzatzarakis, M N; Tsatsakis, A M

    2016-05-01

    Measuring chronic pesticide exposure is important in order to investigate the associated health effects. Traditional biological samples (blood/urine) are difficult to collect, store and transport in large epidemiological studies in settings such as rural Asia. We assessed the acceptability of collecting hair samples from a rural Sri Lankan population and found that this method of data collection was feasible. We also assessed the level of non-specific metabolites (DAPS) of organophosphate pesticides in the hair samples. The median concentration (pg/mg) of each DAP was: diethyl phosphate: 83.3 (IQI 56.0, 209.4); diethyl thiophosphate: 34.7 (IQI 13.8, 147.9); diethyl dithiophosphate: 34.5 (IQI 23.4, 55.2); and dimethyl phosphate: 3 (IQI 3, 109.7). Total diethylphosphates were recovered in >80% of samples and were positively correlated with self-reported pesticide exposure. PMID:26894816

  9. Assessment of cumulative evidence on genetic associations: Interim guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannidis, John; Boffetta, Paolo; Little, Julian; O'Brien, Thomas; Uitterlinden, André; Vineis, Paolo; Balding, David; Chokkalingam, Anand; Dolan, Siobhan; Flanders, Dana; Higgins, Julian; McCarthy, Mark; McDermott, David; Page, Grier; Rebbeck, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    textabstractEstablished guidelines for causal inference in epidemiological studies may be inappropriate for genetic associations. A consensus process was used to develop guidance criteria for assessing cumulative epidemiologic evidence in genetic associations. A proposed semi-quantitative index assigns three levels for the amount of evidence, extent of replication, and protection from bias, and also generates a composite assessment of 'strong', 'moderate' or 'weak' epidemiological credibility...

  10. Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

  11. Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Krogman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.

  12. 78 FR 25440 - Request for Information and Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... approaches and methods that can be used to plan and conduct cumulative risk assessments (CRA). Published... interest to persons involved with the design, formulation, and conduct of risk assessments more generally... cumulative risk issues in scoping and planning major risk assessments and to consider a broader scope...

  13. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  14. Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models to Incorporate Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Pesticide Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk assessment has been proposed as an approach to evaluate the health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD models can allow for the inclusion and evaluation of multiple stressors, including non-chemical stressors, but studies have not leveraged PBPK/PD models to jointly consider these disparate exposures in a cumulative risk context. In this study, we focused on exposures to organophosphate (OP pesticides for children in urban low-income environments, where these children would be simultaneously exposed to other pesticides (including pyrethroids and non-chemical stressors that may modify the effects of these exposures (including diet. We developed a methodological framework to evaluate chemical and non-chemical stressor impacts on OPs, utilizing an existing PBPK/PD model for chlorpyrifos. We evaluated population-specific stressors that would influence OP doses or acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, the relevant PD outcome. We incorporated the impact of simultaneous exposure to pyrethroids and dietary factors on OP dose through the compartments of metabolism and PD outcome within the PBPK model, and simulated combinations of stressors across multiple exposure ranges and potential body weights. Our analyses demonstrated that both chemical and non-chemical stressors can influence the health implications of OP exposures, with up to 5-fold variability in AChE inhibition across combinations of stressor values for a given OP dose. We demonstrate an approach for modeling OP risks in the presence of other population-specific environmental stressors, providing insight about co-exposures and variability factors that most impact OP health risks and contribute to children’s cumulative health risk from pesticides. More generally, this framework can be used to inform cumulative risk assessment for any compound impacted by

  15. In vitro assessment of thyroid hormone receptor activity of four organophosphate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaomin; Cao, Linying; Yang, Yu; Wan, Bin; Wang, Sufang; Guo, Lianghong

    2016-07-01

    Previous animal experiments have implied that organophosphate esters (OPEs) have a disruption effect on the thyroid endocrine system. However, knowledge of the toxicological mechanism remains limited. In this study, the activities of four OPEs have been characterized against the thyroid hormone (TH) nuclear receptor (TR) using two in vitro models, with the aim of evaluating their toxicity mechanisms towards the TR. The results of a TH-dependent cell proliferation assay showed that tris(2-chloro-1-(chloromethyl)ethyl)phosphate (TDCPP) could induce cell growth, while the other three OPEs had no effect. The results of a luciferase reporter gene assay revealed that all four of the OPEs tested in the current study showed agonistic activity towards TRβ, with TDCPP being the most potent one. Moreover, molecular docking revealed that all the tested OPEs could fit into the ligand binding pocket of TRβ, with TDCPP binding more effectively than the other three OPEs. Taken together, these data suggest that OPEs might disrupt the thyroid endocrine system via a mechanism involving the activation of TR. PMID:27372132

  16. Inter-compartmental transport of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in South China: Implications for a regional risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic flux of an organophosphate and four pyrethroid pesticides was determined in an air-(soil)-water-sediment system based on monitoring data from Guangzhou, China. The total air–water flux, including air–water gaseous exchange and atmospheric deposition, showed deposition from air to water for chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin and cypermethrin, but volatilization for lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin. The transport of the pesticides from overlying water to sediment suggested that sediment acted as a sink for the pesticides. Additionally, distinct annual atmospheric depositional fluxes between legacy and current-use pesticides suggested the role of consumer usage in their transport throughout the system. Finally, pesticide toxicity was estimated from annual air–water-sediment flux within an urban stream in Guangzhou. A dynamic flux-based risk assessment indicated that inter-compartmental transport of chlorpyrifos decreased its atmospheric exposure, but had little influence on its aquatic toxicity. Instead, water-to-sediment transport of pyrethroids increased their sediment toxicity, which was supported by previously reported toxicity data. - Highlights: • Transport fluxes of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroids were assessed in Guangzhou, China. • Sediment acted as a sink for chlorpyrifos and pyrethroids. • Air-to-water transport decreased the exposure risk of atmospheric chlorpyrifos. • Dynamic transport might increase the risk of pyrethroids in air and sediment. • Flux-based pesticide concentrations provide a way to estimate sediment toxicity. - Regional risk assessment could be improved by integrating dynamic flux information derived from inter-compartmental models

  17. Assessment of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticide Residues in Cigarette Tobacco with a Novel Cell Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridon Kintzios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional analysis of pesticide residues in analytical commodities, such as tobacco and tobacco products is a labor intensive procedure, since it is necessary to cover a wide range of different chemicals, using a single procedure. Standard analysis methods include extensive sample pretreatment (with solvent extraction and partitioning phases and determination by GC and HPLC to achieve the necessary selectivity and sensitivity for the different classes of compounds under detection. As a consequence, current methods of analysis provide a limited sample capacity. In the present study, we report on the development of a novel cell biosensor for detecting organophosphate and carbamate pesticide residues in tobacco. The sensor is based on neuroblastoma N2a cells and the measurement of changes of the cell membrane potential, according to the working principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA. The presence of pesticide residues is detected by the degree of inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE. The sensor instantly responded to both the organophoshate pesticide chlorpyriphos and the carbamate carbaryl in a concentration-dependent pattern, being able to detect one part per billion (1 ppb. Additionally, tobacco leaf samples (in blended dry form were analyzed with both the novel biosensor and conventional methods, according to a double-blind protocol. Pesticide residues in tobacco samples caused a considerable cell membrane hyperpolarization to neuroblastoma cells immobilized in the sensor, as indicated by the increase of the negative sensor potential, which was clearly distinguishable from the sensor’s response against pesticide-free control samples. The observed response was quite reproducible, with an average variation of +5,6%. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that treatment of the cells with either chlorpyrifos or carbaryl was associated with increased [Ca2+]cyt . The novel biosensor offers fresh

  18. Occurrence and risk assessment of organophosphate esters in drinking water from Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinjian; Shen, Xiaoli; Liu, Weiping; Covaci, Adrian; Yang, Fangxing

    2015-12-15

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are ubiquitous in the environment and may pose potential health risks to humans. Drinking water is suspected as one possible exposure pathway of OPEs to humans. In this study, we investigated the residues of 9 OPEs in five types of drinking water in Eastern China. The median concentrations of Σ9OPEs were determined to be 3.99, 4.50, 27.6, 59.2 and 192ng/L in the bottled, well, barreled, direct drinking and tap waters, respectively. Triethyl phosphate (TEP) was the most abundant OPE in the tap water and filtered drinking water with median concentrations of 50.2 and 30.2ng/L, respectively. The mixture of tri(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tri(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), named here as TCPP, dominated in the barreled and well water with median concentrations of 8.04 and 2.49ng/L, respectively. The calculated average daily doses of OPEs ranged from 0.14 to 7.07ng/kgbw/day for people consuming the five different types of drinking water. Among the drinking water, the tap water exhibited the highest exposure doses of OPEs. The calculated non-cancer hazard quotients (10(-4)-10(-7)) from OPEs were much lower than the theoretical threshold of risk. The carcinogenic risks posed by TCEP were very low (<10(-7)) for all types of drinking water. The results revealed that there was currently low risk to human health from exposure to OPEs through drinking water in Eastern China. PMID:26363608

  19. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Nielsen, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    A cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz in combination has been carried out using an Integrated Probabilistic Risk Assessment (IPRA) model. In the model, variability in both exposure and sensitivity between individuals were combined...... into a distribution of Individual Margins of Exposure (IMoE). Additionally, uncertainties related to input parameters were evaluated. The cumulative risk assessment was performed using the Relative Potency Factor (RPF) approach. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three reproductive endpoints in...

  20. Project 6: Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA) Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project 6: CRA Methods and Applications addresses the need to move beyond traditional risk assessment practices by developing CRA methods to integrate and evaluate impacts of chemical and nonchemical stressors on the environment and human health. Project 6 has three specific obje...

  1. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Bosgra, Sieto; Boon, Polly E.;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three...

  2. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process

  3. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika, E-mail: vyskupova@fns.uniba.sk

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  4. Cumulative assessment of persistent organic pollutant toxicity in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Westerholm, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to a multitude of compounds present in the environment and in food. A major challenge in risk assessment is to determine the degree of exposure to multiple chemicals and the hazards associated with such combined exposure. The simultaneous exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), is one example of a complex group of chemicals whic...

  5. A geo-referenced modeling environment for ecosystem risk assessment: organophosphate pesticides in an agriculturally dominated watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuzhou; Zhang, Minghua

    2009-01-01

    A geo-referenced modeling system was developed in this study to investigate the spatiotemporal variability of pesticide distributions and associated ecosystem risks. In the modeling system, pesticide fate and transport processes in soil-canopy system were simulated at field scale by the pesticide root zone model (PRZM). Edge-of-field mass fluxes were up-scaled with a spatially distributed flow-routing model to predict pesticide contaminations in surface water. The developed model was applied to the field conditions of the Orestimba Creek watershed, an agriculturally-dominated area in California's Central Valley during 1990 through 2006, with the organophosphate insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos as test agents. High concentrations of dissolved pesticides were predicted at the watershed outlet during the irrigation season of April through November, due to the intensive pesticide use and low stream flow. Concentration violations, according to the California aquatic life criteria, were observed for diazinon before 2001, and for chlorpyrifos during the entire simulation period. Predicted pesticide exposure levels showed potential adverse effects on certain genera of sensitive aquatic invertebrates in the ecosystem of the Orestimba Creek. Modeling assessments were conducted to identify the factors governing spatial patterns and seasonal trends on pesticide distribution and contamination potentials to the studied aquatic ecosystem. Areas with high pesticide yields to surface water were indicated for future research and additional studies focused on monitoring and mitigation efforts within the watershed. Improved irrigation techniques and management practices were also suggested to reduce the violations of pesticide concentrations during irrigation seasons. PMID:19244487

  6. Inter-compartmental transport of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in South China: implications for a regional risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huizhen; Wei, Yanli; Lydy, Michael J; You, Jing

    2014-07-01

    The dynamic flux of an organophosphate and four pyrethroid pesticides was determined in an air-(soil)-water-sediment system based on monitoring data from Guangzhou, China. The total air-water flux, including air-water gaseous exchange and atmospheric deposition, showed deposition from air to water for chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin and cypermethrin, but volatilization for lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin. The transport of the pesticides from overlying water to sediment suggested that sediment acted as a sink for the pesticides. Additionally, distinct annual atmospheric depositional fluxes between legacy and current-use pesticides suggested the role of consumer usage in their transport throughout the system. Finally, pesticide toxicity was estimated from annual air-water-sediment flux within an urban stream in Guangzhou. A dynamic flux-based risk assessment indicated that inter-compartmental transport of chlorpyrifos decreased its atmospheric exposure, but had little influence on its aquatic toxicity. Instead, water-to-sediment transport of pyrethroids increased their sediment toxicity, which was supported by previously reported toxicity data. PMID:24704807

  7. Cumulative risk assessment of the intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in the Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A. F.; Petersen, Annette; Granby, Kit

    2003-01-01

    in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction......The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides that act through a common mechanism of toxicity, and to assess the long- and short-term risks for the Danish population. The intake estimates are based on dietary intake data collected...... of pesticide levels by rinsing and peeling, were applied in the exposure assessment. The "Toxicity Equivalence Factor" (TEF) approach was used to normalise the toxicity of the different organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Cumulative chronic exposure of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides via...

  8. Incorporating cumulative effects into environmental assessments of mariculture: Limitations and failures of current siting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing and evaluating the cumulative impacts of multiple marine aquaculture facilities has proved difficult in environmental assessment. A retrospective review of 23 existing mariculture farms in southwestern New Brunswick was conducted to determine whether cumulative interactions would have justified site approvals. Based on current scientific evidence of cumulative effects, six new criteria were added to a set of far-field impacts and other existing criteria were expanded to include regional and cumulative environmental impacts in Hargrave's [Hargrave BT. A traffic light decision system for marine finfish aquaculture siting. Ocean Coast Manag 2002; 45:215-35.] Traffic Light Decision Support System (DSS) presently used in Canadian aquaculture environmental assessments. Before mitigation, 19 of the 23 sites failed the amended set of criteria and after considering mitigation, 8 sites failed. Site and ecosystem indices yielded varying site acceptability scores; however, many sites would not have been approved if siting decisions had been made within a regional management framework and cumulative impact criteria were considered in the site evaluation process

  9. Cumulative impact assessments and bird/wind farm interactions: Developing a conceptual framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wind power industry has grown rapidly in the UK to meet EU targets of sourcing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although wind power is a renewable energy source, there are environmental concerns over increasing numbers of wind farm proposals and associated cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. EU and UK legislation requires a cumulative impact assessment (CIA) as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). However, in the absence of detailed guidance and definitions, such assessments within EIA are rarely adequate, restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Here we propose a conceptual framework to promote transparency in CIA through the explicit definition of impacts, actions and scales within an assessment. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development EIAs. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating CIA to a strategic level, as a component of spatially explicit planning.

  10. Weak self-directed learning skills hamper performance in cumulative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tio, Rene A.; Stegmann, Mariken E.; Koerts, Janke; van Os, Titus W. D. P.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-regulated learning is an important determinant of academic performance. Previous research has shown that cumulative assessment encourages students to work harder and improve their results. However, not all students seem to respond as intended. We investigated the influence of studen

  11. Cumulative versus end-of-course assessment : effects on self-study time and test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Mulder, B. Florentine; Muntinghe, Friso L. H.; Tio, Rene A.

    2015-01-01

    ContextStudents tend to postpone preparation for a test until the test is imminent, which raises various risks associated with cramming' behaviours, including that for suboptimal learning. Cumulative assessment utilises spaced testing to stimulate students to study more frequently and to prevent pro

  12. Exploring the practice of assessing cumulative impacts related to offshore oil activities in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Trine Skovgaard; Olsen, Pernille; Mortensen, Lucia;

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Region is characterised by vulnerable ecosystems and residing indigenous people, dependent on nature for fishing and hunting. The Arctic also contains a wealth of non-living natural resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons. Synergies between increased access and growing global demand...... of methodology for assessment of cumulative impacts, knowledge gap of Arctic ecosystems and other....

  13. Assessing biomarkers and neuropsychological outcomes in rural populations exposed to organophosphate pesticides in Chile – study design and protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Santana, M.; Zuniga, L.; S Corral; R. Sandoval; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Velden, K. van der; Roeleveld, N.; Pancetti, F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health effects of pesticides are easily diagnosed when acute poisonings occurs, nevertheless, consequences from chronic exposure can only be observed when neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative or oncologic pathologies appear. Therefore, early monitoring of this type of exposure is especially relevant to avoid the consequences of pathologies previously described; especially concerning workers exposed to pesticides on the job. For acute organophosphate pesticides (OPP) exposure, two b...

  14. Optimization of the cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and biocides using computational techniques: Pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette;

    This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...... models. Exposure scenarios were constructed based on findings of pesticide residues in food of ordinary consumers, and assessment of dermal exposure of professional workers. PBTK simulations were carried using these scenarios....

  15. The Role of Cumulative Risk Assessment in Decisions about Environmental Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Sexton; Linder, Stephen H.

    2010-01-01

    There is strong presumptive evidence that people living in poverty and certain racial and ethnic groups bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk. Many have argued that conducting formal assessments of the health risk experienced by affected communities is both unnecessary and counterproductive—that instead of analyzing the situation our efforts should be devoted to fixing obvious problems and rectifying observable wrongs. We contend that formal assessment of cumulative heal...

  16. Vulnerability as a Function of Individual and Group Resources in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    deFur, Peter L.; Evans, Gary W.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen; Kyle, Amy D.; Morello-Frosch, Rachel A.; Williams, David

    2007-01-01

    Background: The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the “Framework for Cumulative Risk Assessment” [EPA/630/P02/001F. Washington DC:Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2003)]. Simultaneously, several reports concluded that some individuals and grou...

  17. Looking Ahead: The Inclusion of Long-Term Futures in Cumulative Environmental Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceeding of a workshop on the Inclusion of Long-Term Futures in Cumulative Environmental Assessments (CEA's) were presented.. Also included were three working group reports and papers presented at the conference. The issue of the concept of Cumulative Environmental Assessments was summarized, along with the current transformation to a more global outlook. The concepts and methodological questions associated with ecology and economics were tackled. CEA methods were discussed and a contrast was made with land-use planning. The importance of long-term monitoring programs was introduced and examples of early warning systems were given. Social science issues behind CEAs were also discussed. Recommendation e for preparing CEA's, the design of early warning monitoring systems, and public involvement, were made.. Contributed papers covered topics related to environmental assessment, pollution, and climate change

  18. Conceptual and methodological challenges to integrating SEA and cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constraints to assessing and managing cumulative environmental effects in the context of project-based environmental assessment are well documented, and the potential benefits of a more strategic approach to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) are well argued; however, such benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated in practice. While it is widely assumed that cumulative effects are best addressed in a strategic context, there has been little investigation as to whether CEA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are a 'good fit' - conceptually or methodologically. This paper identifies a number of conceptual and methodological challenges to the integration of CEA and SEA. Based on results of interviews with international experts and practitioners, this paper demonstrates that: definitions and conceptualizations of CEA are typically weak in practice; approaches to effects aggregation vary widely; a systems perspective lacks in both SEA and CEA; the multifarious nature of SEA complicates CEA; tiering arrangements between SEA and project-based assessment are limited to non-existing; and the relationship of SEA to regional planning remains unclear.

  19. Effects of acute organophosphate ingestion on cognitive function, assessed with the mini mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Jayasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Chronic damage to the central nervous system resulting in cognitive impairment has been shown with repeated, low doses of organophosphorus (OP exposure over month or years. Aim: The study aimed to find out whether there is any cognitive impairment following acute OP exposure that could be detected by a simple screening instrument, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, in clinical settings. Settings and Design: A cohort study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with matched controls. Consecutive patients admitted to the hospital with acute ingestion of OP were recruited. Cognitive function was assessed with the MMSE, digit span test, test of long-term memory function and concentration. Patients were assessed twice: at 1 and 6 weeks of exposure. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were analyzed with the paired and unpaired T-tests. Non-normally distributed data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Discrete variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Results: There were 60 patients and 61 controls. The mean age (SD of the patients and controls was 31.5 (11.6 and 31.3 (11.8 years, respectively. Forty-two patients turned up for the second assessment. Significant impairment of cognitive function was seen in the total score of MMSE (95% CI -2.5 to -0.3, orientation (95% CI -1 to -0.2 and language (95% CI -0.9 to -0.1 domains of MMSE, digit span test (95% CI 0.1-1.7 and test of long-term memory function (95% CI 0.3-2.3 in the first assessment compared with the controls. When the results of the second assessment were compared with the controls, no significant differences were seen. Conclusion: Although there was a slight transient cognitive impairment detected with the screening tests following acute OP ingestion, no long-term cognitive defects was detected.

  20. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Herrmann, Susan Strange; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark...... studies. Prochloraz was used as the index compound. All four pesticides increased nipple retention in male offspring, and epoxiconazole, prochloraz, and tebuconazole also increased the gestation period in pregnant rat dams. For women of childbearing age, the high-end cumulative exposure (99.9th percentile...... to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006...

  1. Cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure of Danish children and adolescents using the hazard index approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Human risk assessment of chemicals is traditionally presented as the ratio between the actual level of exposure and an acceptable level of exposure, with the acceptable level of exposure most often being estimated by appropriate authorities. This approach is generally sound when assessing the risk...... endpoint for the phthalates included in this article. Using the EFSA TDI values, 12 children exceeded the hazard quotient for the sum of di-n-butyl phthalate and di-iso-butyl phthalate (∑DBP((i+n)) ) and one child exceeded the hazard quotient for di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Nineteen children...... exceeded the cumulated hazard index for three phthalates. Using the RfD AA values, one child exceeded the hazard quotient for DEHP and the same child exceeded the cumulated hazard index for four phthalates. The EFSA TDI approach thus is more restrictive and identifies ∑DBP((i+n)) as the compound...

  2. DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPAs N-Methyl Carbamate Cumulative Risk Assessment (NMCRA) assesses the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 N-methyl carbamate (NMC) pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures.

  3. Application of the ELDO approach to assess cumulative eye lens doses for interventional cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, J; Struelens, L; Auvinen, A; Jacob, S; Koukorava, C; Schnelzer, M; Vanhavere, F; Clairand, I

    2015-04-01

    In preparation of a large European epidemiological study on the relation between eye lens dose and the occurrence of lens opacities, the European ELDO project focused on the development of practical methods to estimate retrospectively cumulative eye lens dose for interventional medical professionals exposed to radiation. The present paper applies one of the ELDO approaches, correlating eye lens dose to whole-body doses, to assess cumulative eye lens dose for 14 different Finnish interventional cardiologists for whom annual whole-body dose records were available for their entire working period. The estimated cumulative left and right eye lens dose ranged from 8 to 264 mSv and 6 to 225 mSv, respectively. In addition, calculations showed annual eye lens doses sometimes exceeding the new ICRP annual limit of 20 mSv. The work also highlights the large uncertainties associated with the application of such an approach proving the need for dedicated dosimetry systems in the routine monitoring of the eye lens dose. PMID:25316910

  4. Application of the ELDO approach to assess cumulative eye lens doses for interventional cardiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In preparation of a large European epidemiological study on the relation between eye lens dose and the occurrence of lens opacities, the European ELDO project focused on the development of practical methods to estimate retrospectively cumulative eye lens dose for interventional medical professionals exposed to radiation. The present paper applies one of the ELDO approaches, correlating eye lens dose to whole-body doses, to assess cumulative eye lens dose for 14 different Finnish interventional cardiologists for whom annual whole-body dose records were available for their entire working period. The estimated cumulative left and right eye lens dose ranged from 8 to 264 mSv and 6 to 225 mSv, respectively. In addition, calculations showed annual eye lens doses sometimes exceeding the new ICRP annual limit of 20 mSv. The work also highlights the large uncertainties associated with the application of such an approach proving the need for dedicated dosimetry systems in the routine monitoring of the eye lens dose. (authors)

  5. Framework tool for a rapid cumulative effects assessment: case of a prominent wetland in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, N; Habib, H; Venkatappa, M; Ebbers, T; Duboz, R; Shipin, O

    2015-06-01

    The wetland of focus, Inle Lake, located in central Myanmar, is well known for its unique biodiversity and culture, as well as for ingenious floating garden agriculture. During the last decades, the lake area has seen extensive degradation in terms of water quality, erosion, deforestation, and biodiversity concomitant with a major shift to unsustainable land use. The study was conducted, with an emphasis on water quality, to analyze environmental impacts (effects) changing the ecosystem and to comprehensively evaluate the environmental state of the ecosystem through an innovative Rapid Cumulative Effects Assessment framework tool. The assessment started with a framework-forming Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), which quantified and prioritized impacts over space and time. Critically important impacts were assessed for "intra-inter interactions" using the loop analysis simulation. Water samples were analyzed while geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing were used to identify water pollution hotspots. It was concluded that out of a plethora of impacts, pollution from municipal sources, sedimentation, and effects exerted by floating gardens had the most detrimental impacts, which cumulatively affected the entire ecosystem. The framework tool was designed in a broad sense with a reference to highly needed assessments of poorly studied wetlands where degradation is evident, but scarcely quantified, and where long-term field studies are fraught with security issues and resource unavailability (post-conflict, poor and remote regions, e.g., Afghanistan, Laos, Sudan, etc.). PMID:25963760

  6. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects. In...... this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative...... potency factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated....

  7. Current Status of Development of Methods to Assess Effects of Cumulative or Aggregated Underwater Sounds on Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Streever, Bill; Angliss, Robyn; Clark, Christopher W; Ellison, William T; Frankel, Adam; Gedamke, Jason; Leu, Matthias; McKenna, Megan; Racca, Roberto; Simmons, Samantha; Suydam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There are no standards for assessment of the cumulative effects of underwater sound. Quantitative assessments typically consider a single source, whereas qualitative assessments may include multiple sources but rarely identify response variables. As a step toward understanding the cumulative effects of underwater sound, we assessed the aggregated sounds of multiple sources received by migrating bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). The quantitative method models the sound field from multiple sources and simulates movement of a population through it. The qualitative method uses experts to assess the responses of individuals and populations to sound sources and identify the potential mechanisms. These methods increase the transparency of assessments. PMID:26610973

  8. Modeling Joint Exposures and Health Outcomes for Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Case of Radon and Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Community-based cumulative risk assessment requires characterization of exposures to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors, with consideration of how the non-chemical stressors may influence risks from chemical stressors. Residential radon provides an interesting case example, given its large attributable risk, effect modification due to smoking, and significant variability in radon concentrations and smoking patterns. In spite of this fact, no study to date has estimated geographic and sociodemographic patterns of both radon and smoking in a manner that would allow for inclusion of radon in community-based cumulative risk assessment. In this study, we apply multi-level regression models to explain variability in radon based on housing characteristics and geological variables, and construct a regression model predicting housing characteristics using U.S. Census data. Multi-level regression models of smoking based on predictors common to the housing model allow us to link the exposures. We estimate county-average lifetime lung cancer risks from radon ranging from 0.15 to 1.8 in 100, with high-risk clusters in areas and for subpopulations with high predicted radon and smoking rates. Our findings demonstrate the viability of screening-level assessment to characterize patterns of lung cancer risk from radon, with an approach that can be generalized to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors.

  9. Not so Black and White: environmental justice and cumulative impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    not typically identified as meeting EJ criteria (in demographic terms) also face more significant ecological hazards. Thus, the strict bifurcation of communities into categories of Environmental Justice and Non-Environmental Justice is problematic, and poses a serious dilemma for policy makers, public health officials, and community activists. To overcome this challenge requires the adoption of a cumulative environmental justice impact assessment (CEJIA), which in addition to the demographic characteristics of a community, also takes into account the total environmental burden and related health impacts upon residents. Furthermore, through the adoption of the precautionary principle, source reduction, and alternative forms of ''cleaner'' production, environmental justice advocates must work for policies which reduce the environmental threat for the full range of communities, as well as their own

  10. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie; Axelstad, Marta; Herrmann, Susan S; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hass, Ulla

    2013-05-01

    The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006-2009, while residue data for epoxiconazole were obtained from the Swedish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2007-2009. Food consumption data were obtained from the Danish nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Relative potency factors for the four pesticides were obtained from rat studies. Prochloraz was used as the index compound. All four pesticides increased nipple retention in male offspring, and epoxiconazole, prochloraz, and tebuconazole also increased the gestation period in pregnant rat dams. For women of childbearing age, the high-end cumulative exposure (99.9th percentile) was calculated to 9% of the Adjusted Reference Value (ARV) for the effect on nipple retention and to 1% of the ARV for the effect on increased gestation period. PMID:23333574

  11. Appraising the sustainability of project alternatives: An increasing role for cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating and comparing development alternatives with regard to sustainability is an important goal for comprehensive project appraisal. In the United States, this component has been largely missing from standard environmental impact assessment practice. Cumulative effects assessment provides a way to appraise the sustainability of project alternatives in terms of their probable contributions to long-term trends affecting the condition of valued environmental components. Sustainability metrics and predictors are being developed as criteria for rating systems and evaluation processes that are applied to community planning, building design, and transportation infrastructure. Increasing interest in adaptive management is also providing cost-effective solutions to optimizing safety and function throughout the long-term operation of a facility or infrastructure. Recent federal legislation is making it easier to integrate sustainability features into development alternatives through early, community-based planning.

  12. Eye lens radiation exposure to interventional cardiologists: A retrospective assessment of cumulative doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose to the eye lens is a crucial issue for interventional cardiologists (ICs) who are exposed during the procedures they perform. This paper presents a retrospective assessment of the cumulative eye lens doses of ICs enrolled in the O'CLOC study for Occupational Cataracts and Lens Opacities in interventional Cardiology. Information on the workload in the catheterisation laboratory, radiation protection equipment, eye lens dose per procedure and dose reduction factors associated with eye-protective equipment were considered. For the 129 ICs at an average age of 51 who had worked for an average period of 22 years, the estimated cumulative eye lens dose ranged from 25 mSv to more than 1600 mSv; the mean + SD was 423+359 mSv. After several years of practice, without eye protection, ICs may exceed the new ICRP lifetime eye dose threshold of 500 mSv and be at high risk of developing early radiation-induced cataracts. Radiation protection equipment can reduce these doses and should be used routinely. (authors)

  13. Assessing Cumulative Thermal Stress in Fish During Chronic Exposure to High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevelhimer, M.S.; Bennett, W.R.

    1999-11-14

    As environmental laws become increasingly protective, and with possible future changes in global climate, thermal effects on aquatic resources are likely to receive increasing attention. Lethal temperatures for a variety of species have been determined for situations where temperatures rise rapidly resulting in lethal effects. However, less is known about the effects of chronic exposure to high (but not immediately lethal) temperatures and even less about stress accumulation during periods of fluctuating temperatures. In this paper we present a modeling framework for assessing cumulative thermal stress in fish. The model assumes that stress accumulation occurs above a threshold temperature at a rate depending on the degree to which the threshold is exceeded. The model also includes stress recovery (or alleviation) when temperatures drop below the threshold temperature as in systems with large daily variation. In addition to non-specific physiological stress, the model also simulates thermal effects on growth.

  14. Long term cumulative radiological impact assessment to liquid effluent of american inland NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual radioactivity monitoring reports (2005-2011) for 38 typical inland nuclear power plants in US were investigated, and the artificial radioactivity levels in the sediments of receiving water of liquid effluent were analyzed. It was indicated that the long term operation of these NPPs had no obvious cumulative impacts on sediment, only at a few of which were found radioactivity originated from liquid effluents around discharge points, and much lower than the natural radioactivity concentrations. Only a very few NPPs had an effect with relatively higher concentration levels of radioactivity in sediment, which was due to the poor hydrological conditions of the receiving water for the dilution of radioactive liquid effluents. According to the dose assessments of artificial radioactivity in sediment to public individuals, all American typical inland NPPs had negligible impacts on public health compared to the natural public background and the personal dose constraint of liquid effluent regulated by NRC. (authors)

  15. Alchemy to reason: Effective use of Cumulative Effects Assessment in resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is a tool that can be useful in making decisions about natural resource management and allocation. The decisions to be made include those (i) necessary to construct planning and regulatory frameworks to control development activity so that societal goals will be achieved and (ii) whether or not to approve individual development projects, with or without conditions. The evolution of CEA into a more successful tool cannot occur independently of the evolution of decision making processes. Currently progress is painfully slow on both fronts. This paper explores some opportunities to accelerate improvements in decision making in natural resource management and in the utility of CEA as a tool to assist in making such decisions. The focus of the paper is on how to define the public interest by determining what is acceptable.

  16. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (Sst, Sst, pst) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (Ssu, Ssu, psu) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (Sst, Sst, pst) and (Ssu, Ssu, psu). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems

  17. (BOSC) DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PRESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE US EPA'S N-METHYL CARBAMATE CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT (NMCRA) ASSESSES THE EFFECT ON ACETYLCHOLINE ESTERASE (AChE) ACTIVITY OF EXPOSURE TO 10 N-METHLY CARBAMATE (NMC)PESTICIDES THROUGH DIETARY, DRINKING WATER, AND RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURES. THESE DATA THUS INFORM, BUT DO NOT COM...

  18. Assessment of emerging contaminants including organophosphate esters and pyrethroids during DISCOVER-AQ in Houston, Texas, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, Sascha; Clark, Addie; Sheesley, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is a NASA-funded air quality research program that focused on Houston, Texas, United States in September 2013. In conjunction with DISCOVER-AQ, particulate matter was collected for the month of September from four ground-based sampling sites across the Houston metropolitan area. The Houston metropolitan area is one of the most populous cities in the United States. Sampling sites included an upwind and downwind site as well as an urban (i.e. downtown) and industrial/port areas (i.e. Houston Ship Channel). Particulate matter samples were collected to examine both spatial and temporal trends (including day versus night). Particulate matter was collected on quartz fiber filters, which were analyzed for emerging classes of concern including organophosphate esters (OPEs; including flame retardants) and pyrethroids. OPEs have in recent years increased in both use and production as they replaced polybrominated diphenyl ethers flame retardants. Permethrin is one of the most commonly used mosquito adulticides in the United States.

  19. Addressing cumulative effects through strategic environmental assessment: a case study of small hydro development in Newfoundland, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental assessment (EA) is widely used as a means of incorporating environmental considerations into decision-making, primarily at the project level. The scope of EA has been expanded considerably in recent years to include earlier stages of the decision-making process, namely, policies, plans and programmes. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) facilitates a planning approach to addressing the overall, cumulative effects of the projects that occur as a result of these decisions. This paper demonstrates the potential benefits of SEA in the assessment and management of cumulative effects, using a case study of recent hydroelectric development planning in Newfoundland, Canada. It goes on to illustrate how SEA could be used to address potential cumulative effects at the various stages of such a decision-making process. Through the case study, the paper also explores a number of issues in the implementation of such a planning approach. (author)

  20. Community, State, and Federal Approaches to Cumulative Risk Assessment: Challenges and Opportunities for Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Barzyk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Community, state, and federal approaches to conventional and cumulative risk assessment (CRA were described and compared to assess similarities and differences, and develop recommendations for a consistent CRA approach, acceptable across each level as a rigorous scientific methodology, including partnership formation and solution development as necessary practices. Community, state, and federal examples were described and then summarized based on their adherence to CRA principles of: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 risk analysis and ranking, and (3 risk characterization, interpretation, and management. While each application shared the common goal of protecting human health and the environment, they adopted different approaches to achieve this. For a specific project-level analysis of a particular place or instance, this may be acceptable, but to ensure long-term applicability and transferability to other projects, recommendations for developing a consistent approach to CRA are provided. This approach would draw from best practices, risk assessment and decision analysis sciences, and historical lessons learned to provide results in an understandable and accepted manner by all entities. This approach is intended to provide a common ground around which to develop CRA methods and approaches that can be followed at all levels.

  1. Analysis of human hair to assess exposure to organophosphate flame retardants: Influence of hair segments and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Zheng, Jing; Lei, Wei-Xiang; Li, Hong-Fang; Wang, Mei-Huan; He, Chun-Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-07-01

    Hair is a promising, non-invasive, human biomonitoring matrix that can provide insight into retrospective and integral exposure to organic pollutants. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in hair and serum samples from university students in Guangzhou, China, and compared the PFR concentrations in the female hair segments using paired distal (5~10cm from the root) and proximal (0~5cm from the root) samples. PFRs were not detected in the serum samples. All PFRs except tricresyl phosphate (TMPP) and tri-n-propyl phosphate (TPP) were detected in more than half of all hair samples. The concentrations of total PFRs varied from 10.1 to 604ng/g, with a median of 148ng/g. Tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tri(2-ethylexyl) phosphate (TEHP) were the predominant PFRs in hair. The concentrations of most PFRs in the distal segments were 1.5~8.6 times higher than those in the proximal segments of the hair (t-test, p<0.05), which may be due to the longer exposure time of the distal segments to external sources. The values of log (PFR concentrations-distal/PFR concentrations-proximal) were positively and significantly correlated with log KOA of PFRs (p<0.05, r=0.68), indicating that PFRs with a higher log KOA tend to accumulate in hair at a higher rate than PFRs with a lower log KOA. Using combined segments of female hair, significantly higher PFR concentrations were observed in female hair than in male hair. In contrast, female hair exhibited significantly lower PFR concentrations than male hair when using the same hair position for both genders (0-5cm from the scalp). The controversial results regarding gender differences in PFRs in hair highlight the importance of segmental analysis when using hair as an indicator of human exposure to PFRs. PMID:27078091

  2. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) in 0–6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79–107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0–3-yr-old children and 4–6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods. - Graphical abstract: In seven phthalates, the 95th percentile of the average daily dose (ADD) for ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) in 0–3-yr-old male (0–3 M) and female (0–3 F) children accounted for 97% and 84% of TDIs, respectively. For 4–6-yr-old and 7–12-yr-old males and 7–12-yr-old females, ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) accounted for 79%, 72%, and 65% of TDIs, respectively. - Highlights: • A cumulative risk assessment of PAEs was used in a severe plasticizer-contaminated food episode. • ΣDBP(i + n) posed the highest risk potential of all the dietary phthalates. • Females 4–6 yr old had the highest risk for anti-androgenic effects. • Beverages, milk and dairy products were the major contributors to average daily dose of phthalate esters. - The health of young Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of plasticizer-contaminated food

  4. Benchmark Dose Analysis from Multiple Datasets: The Cumulative Risk Assessment for the N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA’s N-Methyl Carbamate (NMC) Cumulative Risk assessment was based on the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 NMC pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures, assuming the effects of joint exposure to NMCs is dose-...

  5. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) and (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems.

  6. Towards a cumulative collision risk assessment of local and migrating birds in North Sea offshore wind farms

    OpenAIRE

    Brabant, Robin; Vanermen, Nicolas; Stienen,Eric; Degraer, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Bird collision assessments are generally made at the scale of a single wind farm. While especially in offshore situations such assessments already hold several assumptions, even bigger challenges exist on estimating the cumulative impact ofmultiple wind farms and the impacts at population level. In this paper, the number of collision victims at Belgian offshore wind farms was estimated with a(theoretical) collision risk model based on technical turbine specifications, bird-related parameters ...

  7. Quantitative assessment of cumulative damage from repetitive exposures to suberythemogenic doses of UVA in human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily exposures to relatively small suberythemogenic fluences of UVA (50-200 kJ/m2) for 8 days resulted in cumulative morphological skin alterations indicative of early tissue injury. Histologically, irradiated skin revealed epidermal hyperplasia, inflammation and deposition of lysozyme along the dermal elastic fiber network. Sunburn cells were also present within the epidermis. These changes were quantified by image analysis and were found to be related to the cumulative UVA fluence. A long UVA waveband (UVAI, 340-400 nm) was as effective as a broad UVA band (320-400 nm), suggesting that these changes are induced by longer UVA wavelengths. (author)

  8. An Assessment of Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue in a Cobalt-Base Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative fatigue under axial and torsional loading conditions can include both load-order (higMow and low/high) as well as load-type sequence (axial/torsional and torsional/axial) effects. Previously reported experimental studies on a cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188 at 538 C, addressed these effects. These studies characterized the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue behavior under high amplitude followed by low amplitude (Kalluri, S. and Bonacuse, P. J., "Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue: An Investigation of Load-Type Sequance Effects," in Multiaxial Fatigue and Deformation: Testing and Prediction, ASTM STP 1387, S. Kalluri, and P. J. Bonacuse, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000, pp. 281-301) and low amplitude followed by high amplitude (Bonacuse, P. and Kalluri, S. "Sequenced Axial and Torsional Cumulative Fatigue: Low Amplitude Followed by High Amplitude Loading," Biaxial/Multiaxial Fatigue and Fracture, ESIS Publication 31, A. Carpinteri, M. De Freitas, and A. Spagnoli, Eds., Elsevier, New York, 2003, pp. 165-182) conditions. In both studies, experiments with the following four load-type sequences were performed: (a) axial/axial, (b) torsional/torsional, (c) axial/torsional, and (d) torsional/axial. In this paper, the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue data generated in the two previous studies are combined to generate a comprehensive cumulative fatigue database on both the load-order and load-type sequence effects. This comprehensive database is used to examine applicability of the Palmgren-langer-Miner linear damage rule and a nonlinear damage curve approach for Haynes 188 subjected to the load-order and load-type sequencing described above. Summations of life fractions from the experiments are compared to the predictions from both the linear and nonlinear cumulative fatigue damage approaches. The significance of load-order versus load-type sequence effects for axial and torsional loading conditions

  9. Assessing the implications of human land-use change for the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, C. T.; Matthews, H. D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has shown evidence of a linear climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions, which implies that the source, timing, and amount of emissions does not significantly influence the climate response per unit emission. Furthermore, these analyses have generally assumed that the climate response to land-use CO2 emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuels under the assumption that, once in the atmosphere, the radiative forcing induced by CO2 is not sensitive to the emissions source. However, land-cover change also affects surface albedo and the strength of terrestrial carbon sinks, both of which have an additional climate effect. In this study, we use a coupled climate-carbon cycle model to assess the climate response to historical and future cumulative land-use CO2 emissions, in order to compare it to the response to fossil fuel CO2. We find that when we isolate the CO2-induced (biogeochemical) temperature changes associated with land-use change, then the climate response to cumulative land-use emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuel CO2. We show further that the globally-averaged albedo-induced biophysical cooling from land-use change is non-negligible and may be of comparable magnitude to the biogeochemical warming, with the result that the net climate response to land-use change is substantially different from a linear response to cumulative emissions. However, our new simulations suggest that the biophysical cooling from land-use change follows its own independent (negative) linear response to cumulative net land-use CO2 emissions, which may provide a useful scaling factor for certain applications when evaluating the full transient climate response to emissions.

  10. Assessing the implications of human land-use change for the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research has shown evidence of a linear climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions, which implies that the source, timing, and amount of emissions does not significantly influence the climate response per unit emission. Furthermore, these analyses have generally assumed that the climate response to land-use CO2 emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuels under the assumption that, once in the atmosphere, the radiative forcing induced by CO2 is not sensitive to the emissions source. However, land-cover change also affects surface albedo and the strength of terrestrial carbon sinks, both of which have an additional climate effect. In this study, we use a coupled climate-carbon cycle model to assess the climate response to historical and future cumulative land-use CO2 emissions, in order to compare it to the response to fossil fuel CO2. We find that when we isolate the CO2-induced (biogeochemical) temperature changes associated with land-use change, then the climate response to cumulative land-use emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuel CO2. We show further that the globally-averaged albedo-induced biophysical cooling from land-use change is non-negligible and may be of comparable magnitude to the biogeochemical warming, with the result that the net climate response to land-use change is substantially different from a linear response to cumulative emissions. However, our new simulations suggest that the biophysical cooling from land-use change follows its own independent (negative) linear response to cumulative net land-use CO2 emissions, which may provide a useful scaling factor for certain applications when evaluating the full transient climate response to emissions. (letter)

  11. Cumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine Ecosystems: Assessing Current Pressures and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    de Micheli, Fiorenza; Halpern, Benjamin; Walbridge, Shaun; Ciriaco, Saul; Ferretti, Francesco; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lewison, Rebecca; Nykjaer, Leo; ROSENBERG Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quan...

  12. Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems: assessing current pressures and opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    Full Text Available Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60-99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification, demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems.

  13. Application of a Novel Method for Assessing Cumulative Risk Burden by County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sexton

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to apply the Human Security Index (HSI as a tool to detect social and economic cumulative risk burden at a county-level in the state of Texas. The HSI is an index comprising a network of three sub-components or “fabrics”; the Economic, Environmental, and Social Fabrics. We hypothesized that the HSI will be a useful instrument for identifying and analyzing socioeconomic conditions that contribute to cumulative risk burden in vulnerable counties. We expected to identify statistical associations between cumulative risk burden and (a ethnic concentration and (b geographic proximity to the Texas-Mexico border. Findings from this study indicate that the Texas-Mexico border region did not have consistently higher total or individual fabric scores as would be suggested by the high disease burden and low income in this region. While the Economic, Environmental, Social Fabrics (including the Health subfabric were highly associated with Hispanic ethnic concentration, the overall HSI and the Crime subfabric were not. In addition, the Education, Health and Crime subfabrics were associated with African American racial composition, while Environment, Economic and Social Fabrics were not. Application of the HSI to Texas counties provides a fuller and more nuanced understanding of socioeconomic and environmental conditions, and increases awareness of the role played by environmental, economic, and social factors in observed health disparities by race/ethnicity and geographic region.

  14. EPA Peer Consultation Workshop on Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates: Potential Options and Methods for Evaluating the Cumulative Hazard Associated with Six Selected Phthalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA held a 2-day workshop on December 8 and 9, 2010 at the Doubletree Hotel Washington DC-Crystal City in Arlington, Viriginia. The goal of this workshop was to evaulate methods of determining cumulative risk associated with exposure to mulitple phthalates for inclusion in the EP...

  15. [Assessment on the ecological suitability in Zhuhai City, Guangdong, China, based on minimum cumulative resistance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-fei; Li, Lin; Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-hong

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscape has the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. Because the expansion process of urban constructive or ecological land has different resistance values, the land unit stimulates and promotes the expansion of ecological land with different intensity. To compare the effect of promoting and hindering functions in the same land unit, we firstly compared the minimum cumulative resistance value of promoting and hindering functions, and then looked for the balance of two landscape processes under the same standard. According to the ecology principle of minimum limit factor, taking the minimum cumulative resistance analysis method under two expansion processes as the evaluation method of urban land ecological suitability, this research took Zhuhai City as the study area to estimate urban ecological suitability by relative evaluation method with remote sensing image, field survey, and statistics data. With the support of ArcGIS, five types of indicators on landscape types, ecological value, soil erosion sensitivity, sensitivity of geological disasters, and ecological function were selected as input parameters in the minimum cumulative resistance model to compute urban ecological suitability. The results showed that the ecological suitability of the whole Zhuhai City was divided into five levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (10.1%), constructive expansion restricted zone (32.9%), key construction zone (36.3%), priority development zone (2.3%), and basic cropland (18.4%). Ecological suitability of the central area of Zhuhai City was divided into four levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (11.6%), constructive expansion restricted zone (25.6%), key construction zone (52.4%), priority development zone (10.4%). Finally, we put forward the sustainable development framework of Zhuhai City according to the research conclusion. On one hand, the government should strictly control the development of the urban center area. On the other hand, the

  16. Scientific Opinion on the identification of pesticides to be included in cumulative assessment groups on the basis of their toxicological profile

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues

    2013-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority asked the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues to develop an Opinion on the identification of pesticides to be included in cumulative assessment groups (CAGs) on the basis of their toxicological profile. In 2008, the PPR Panel adopted an Opinion on the suitability of existing methodologies for cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and a tiered approach was proposed, which was applied to a selected group of triazole pesticides in 2009. The...

  17. A Levels-of-Evidence Approach for Assessing Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Estuary and River Restoration Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Vogt, Kristiina A.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Dawley, Earl

    2011-03-01

    Even though large-scale ecological restoration programs are beginning to supplement isolated projects implemented on rivers and tidal waterways, the effects of restoration success often continue to be evaluated at project scales or by integration in an additive manner. Today our scientific understanding is sufficient that we can begin to apply lessons learnt from assessing cumulative impacts of anthropogenic stressors on ecosystems to the assessment of ecological restoration. Integration of this knowledge has the potential to increase the efficacy of restoration projects conducted at several locations but co-managed within the confines of a larger integrative program. We introduce here a framework based on a levels-of-evidence approach that facilitates assessment of the cumulative landscape effects of individual restoration actions taken at many different locations. It incorporates data collection at restoration and reference sites, hydrodynamic modeling, geographic information systems, and meta-analyses in a five-stage process: design, data, analysis, synthesis and evaluation, and application. This framework evolved from the need to evaluate the efficacy of restoration projects designed to increase rearing habitat for outmigrating juvenile salmonids, which are being implemented in numerous wetlands on the 235-km tidal portion of the Columbia River, U.S.A.

  18. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne 222Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee's work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of 210Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of 210Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring 210Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished

  19. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R. [New York Univ. Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  20. Multiple uses of indicators and indices in cumulative effects assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both environmental indicators and multi-metric indices are useful for describing baseline conditions and qualitatively predicting the cumulative consequences of multiple actions. Several examples and case studies associated with indicators and/or indices are presented herein. They can be easily modified for usage in CEAM. Habitat suitability models reflect special indices related to habitat needs and quality for specific species or broad habitat types. Such models have been used to address direct and indirect effects, and with some modification, they can be also used to address cumulative effects of multiple actions. This review has indicated that there are numerous examples of such tools which have been or could be used in both EIA and CEAM. Some key lessons are: (1) in conducting CEAM studies, it is useful to think from the mindset that 'I am the VEC or indicator, and what is my historical and current condition and how have I, or will I, be affected by multiple past, present, and future actions?'; (2) due to the likely absence of detailed information on future actions, the described tools can still be used to 'predict' future conditions by focusing on qualitative up-or-down changes in individual indicators or indices with their aggregated displays; and (3) numerous regional and site-specific tools are currently available, with one example being indices of biological integrity for specific watersheds and water bodies. Such tools, even though they may not have been developed for CEAM usage, can certainly benefit CEAM studies and practice. Finally, usage of selected and appropriate tools as described herein can aid in conducting science-based, systematic, and documentable CEAM studies.

  1. A geographic model to assess and limit cumulative ecological degradation from Marcellus Shale exploitation in New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John B.; Robinson, George R.

    2012-01-01

    When natural resources are exploited, environmental costs and economic benefits are often asymmetric. An example is apparent in the environmental impacts from fossil fuel extraction by hydraulic fracturing. So far, most scrutiny has been focused on water quality in affected aquifers, with less attention paid to broader ecological impacts beyond individual drilling operations. Marcellus Shale methane exploitation in New York State, USA, has been delayed because of a regulatory moratorium, pending evaluation that has been directed primarily at localized impacts. We developed a GIS-based model, built on a hexagonal grid underlay nested within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s EMAP system, to examine potential cumulative ecological impacts. In a two-step process, we characterized > 19,000 hexagons, each sized to approximate the footprint of one drilling site (2.57 km²), using ecological attributes; we then developed a method for apportioning resource access that includes assessments of cumulative ecological costs. Over one-quarter of the hexagons were excluded as off-limits on the basis of six criteria: slope suitability, regulated wetland cover, protected-land cover, length of high-quality streams, mapped road density, and open water cover. Three additional criteria were applied to assess the estimated conservation vulnerability of the remaining sites: density of grassland birds (North American Breeding Bird Survey), percent core forest (Coastal Change Analysis Program), and total density of all state-mapped streams; these were determined and used in combination to rank the 14,000 potentially accessible sites. In a second step, an iterative process was used to distribute potential site access among all towns (sub-county governments) within the Marcellus Shale Formation. At each iteration, one site was selected per town, either randomly or in rank order of increasing vulnerability. Results were computed as percent cumulative impact versus the number of

  2. A Geographic Model to Assess and Limit Cumulative Ecological Degradation from Marcellus Shale Exploitation in New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. Robinson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When natural resources are exploited, environmental costs and economic benefits are often asymmetric. An example is apparent in the environmental impacts from fossil fuel extraction by hydraulic fracturing. So far, most scrutiny has been focused on water quality in affected aquifers, with less attention paid to broader ecological impacts beyond individual drilling operations. Marcellus Shale methane exploitation in New York State, USA, has been delayed because of a regulatory moratorium, pending evaluation that has been directed primarily at localized impacts. We developed a GIS-based model, built on a hexagonal grid underlay nested within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s EMAP system, to examine potential cumulative ecological impacts. In a two-step process, we characterized > 19,000 hexagons, each sized to approximate the footprint of one drilling site (2.57 km², using ecological attributes; we then developed a method for apportioning resource access that includes assessments of cumulative ecological costs. Over one-quarter of the hexagons were excluded as off-limits on the basis of six criteria: slope suitability, regulated wetland cover, protected-land cover, length of high-quality streams, mapped road density, and open water cover. Three additional criteria were applied to assess the estimated conservation vulnerability of the remaining sites: density of grassland birds (North American Breeding Bird Survey, percent core forest (Coastal Change Analysis Program, and total density of all state-mapped streams; these were determined and used in combination to rank the 14,000 potentially accessible sites. In a second step, an iterative process was used to distribute potential site access among all towns (sub-county governments within the Marcellus Shale Formation. At each iteration, one site was selected per town, either randomly or in rank order of increasing vulnerability. Results were computed as percent cumulative impact versus

  3. Reprint of "Acquisition of choice in concurrent chains: Assessing the cumulative decision model".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Randolph C

    2016-06-01

    Concurrent chains is widely used to study pigeons' choice between terminal links that can vary in delay, magnitude, or probability of reinforcement. We review research on the acquisition of choice in this procedure. Acquisition has been studied with a variety of research designs, and some studies have incorporated no-food trials to allow for timing and choice to be observed concurrently. Results show that: Choice can be acquired rapidly within sessions when terminal links change unpredictably; under steady-state conditions, acquisition depends on both initial- and terminal-link schedules; and initial-link responding is mediated by learning about the terminal-link stimulus-reinforcer relations. The cumulative decision model (CDM) proposed by Christensen and Grace (2010) and Grace and McLean (2006, 2015) provides a good description of within-session acquisition, and correctly predicts the effects of initial and terminal-link schedules in steady-state designs (Grace, 2002a). Questions for future research include how abrupt shifts in preference within individual sessions and temporal control of terminal-link responding can be modeled. PMID:27150444

  4. Experimental assessment of cumulative temperature and UV-B radiation effects on Mediterranean plankton metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2015-07-07

    The Mediterranean Sea is a vulnerable region for climate change, warming at higher rates compare to the global ocean. Warming leads to increased stratification of the water column and enhanced the oligotrophic nature of the Mediterranean Sea. The oligotrophic waters are already highly transparent, however, exposure of Mediterranean plankton to ultraviolet radiation (UV-B and UV-A) may increase further if the waters become more oligotrophic, thereby, allowing a deeper UV radiation penetration and likely enhancing impacts to biota. Here we experimentally elucidate the cumulative effects of warming and natural UV-B radiation on the net community production (NCP) of plankton communities. We conducted five experiments at monthly intervals, from June to October 2013, and evaluated the responses of NCP to ambient UV-B radiation and warming (+3°C), alone and in combination, in a coastal area of the northwest Mediterranean Sea. UV-B radiation and warming lead to reduced NCP and resulted in a heterotrophic (NCP < 0) metabolic balance. Both UV-B radiation and temperature, showed a significant individual effect in NCP across treatments and time. However, their joint effect showed to be synergistic as the interaction between them (UV × Temp) was statistically significant in most of the experiments performed. Our results showed that both drivers, would affect the gas exchange of CO2−O2 from and to the atmosphere and the role of plankton communities in the Mediterranean carbon cycle.

  5. Acquisition of choice in concurrent chains: Assessing the cumulative decision model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Randolph C

    2016-05-01

    Concurrent chains is widely used to study pigeons' choice between terminal links that can vary in delay, magnitude, or probability of reinforcement. We review research on the acquisition of choice in this procedure. Acquisition has been studied with a variety of research designs, and some studies have incorporated no-food trials to allow for timing and choice to be observed concurrently. Results show that: Choice can be acquired rapidly within sessions when terminal links change unpredictably; under steady-state conditions, acquisition depends on both initial- and terminal-link schedules; and initial-link responding is mediated by learning about the terminal-link stimulus-reinforcer relations. The cumulative decision model (CDM) proposed by Christensen and Grace (2010) and Grace and McLean (2006, 2015) provides a good description of within-session acquisition, and correctly predicts the effects of initial and terminal-link schedules in steady-state designs (Grace, 2002a). Questions for future research include how abrupt shifts in preference within individual sessions and temporal control of terminal-link responding can be modeled. PMID:27005579

  6. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  7. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... and cereals. The probabilistic approach was used in the assessments. Residue data obtained from the Danish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2004-2007, which included 6704 samples of fruit, vegetables and cereals, were used in the calculations. Food consumption data were obtained from...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  8. Assessing cumulative dose distributions in combined radiotherapy for cervical cancer using deformable image registration with pre-imaging preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of deformable image registration (DIR) in assessing cumulative dose distributions of the combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and fractionated intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) for cervical cancer. Three-dimensional image data sets of five consecutive patients were used. The treatment plan consisted of whole pelvic EBRT (total dose: 45 Gy in 25 fractions) combined with computed tomography (CT)-based high-dose rate ICBT (≥24 Gy in 4 fractions to the high risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV)). Organs at risk and HR-CTV were contoured on each CT images and dose-volume parameters were acquired. Pre-imaging preparations were performed prior to each ICBT to minimize the uncertainty of the organ position. Physical doses of each treatment were converted to biologically equivalent doses in 2 Gy daily fractions by the linear quadratic model. Three-dimensional dose distributions of each treatment were accumulated on CT images of the first ICBT using DIR with commercially available image registration software (MIM Maestro®). To compare with DIR, 3D dose distributions were fused by rigid registration based on bony structure matching. To evaluate the accuracy of DIR, the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was measured between deformed contours and initial contours. The cumulative dose distributions were successfully illustrated on the CT images using DIR. Mean DSCs of the HR-CTV, rectum, and bladder were 0.46, 0.62 and 0.69, respectively, with rigid registration; and 0.78, 0.76, and 0.87, respectively, with DIR (p <0.05). The mean DSCs derived from our DIR procedure were comparable to those of previous reports describing the quality of DIR algorithms in the pelvic region. DVH parameters derived from the 2 methods showed no significant difference. Our results suggest that DIR-based dose accumulation may be acceptable for assessing cumulative dose distributions to assess doses to the tumor and organs at risk

  9. Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) (The Use of Life Cycle Assessment for Aquaculture)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research is aimed at the demonstration of the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in aquaculture for the development of process improvement. This work is being...

  10. IDENTIFYING CHEMICALS FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT USING COMMON MECHANISMS OF ACTION AND TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, potential health risk assessments from exposure to contaminated food, drinking water, or environmental media have been conducted on individual pesticides or chemicals in each medium of concern. However, humans are generally exposed to multiple chemicals and stress...

  11. An Analysis of the Cumulative Uncertainty Associated with a Quantitative Consequence Assessment of a Major Accident

    OpenAIRE

    JIRSA PAVEL

    2005-01-01

    The task of the article is to quantify the uncertainty of the possible results of the accident consequence assessment of the chemical production plant and to provide some description of potentional problems with literature references and examples to help to avoid the erroneous use of available formulas. Based on numbers presented in the article we may conclude, that the main source of uncertainty in the consequence analysis of chemical accident assessment is surprisingly not only the dispers...

  12. Assessment of cumulative exposure to UVA through study of asymmetric facial skin damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Mac-Mary1

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Mac-Mary1, Jean-Marie Sainthillier1, Adeline Jeudy3, Christelle Sladen2, Cara Williams2, Mike Bell2, Philippe Humbert31Skinexigence SAS, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, Besançon, France; 2The Boots Company, Nottingham, United Kingdom; 3Research and Studies Center on the Integument, Department of Dermatology, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, FranceBackground: Published studies assessing whether asymmetric facial ultraviolet light exposure leads to underlying differences in skin physiology and morphology are only observational. The aim of this study was to assess the visual impact on the skin of repeated ultraviolet-A (UVA exposure through a window.Methods: Eight women and two men presenting with asymmetric signs of photoaging due to overexposure of one side of their face to the sun through a window over a long period of time were enrolled in the study. Split-face biometrologic assessments were performed (clinical scoring, hydration with Corneometer®, mechanical properties with a Cutometer®, transepidermal water loss with AquaFlux®, skin relief with fringe projection, photography, stripping, and then lipid peroxidation analyses.Results: Significant differences were observed in clinical scores for wrinkles, skin roughness assessed by fringe projection on the cheek, and skin heterogeneity assessed with spectrocolorimetry on the cheekbone. Other differences were observed for skin hydration, as well as skin laxity, which tended towards significance.Discussion: This study suggests the potential benefit of daily UVA protection during nondeliberate exposure indoors as well as outside.Keywords: UVA, asymmetry, photodamage, face

  13. Assessing the connection between organophosphate pesticide poisoning and mental health: A comparison of neuropsychological symptoms from clinical observations, animal models and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann; Beseler, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatry and psychology are beginning to recognize the importance of lead, mercury and heavy metals as causal partners in the development of mental disorders. Further, mental health researchers and clinicians are embracing the idea that the combined effects of genetics and environmental exposures can result in perturbations in brain neurochemistry leading to psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review is to examine the biological foundations for the epidemiological observations previously identified by reviewing the toxicology literature and relating it to epidemiological studies addressing the role of poisoning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in neurobehavioral and neuropsychological disorders. The goal of this review is to raise awareness in the mental health community about the possibility that affective disorders might be the result of contributions from environmental and occupational pesticide poisoning. PMID:26654853

  14. Procedure and assessment of cumulative environmental effects Sameiginlegt mat á umhverfisáhrifum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrét Vala Kristjánsdóttir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a provision in Article 5.2 of the Icelandic Act on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, No. 106/2000 that allows for a special procedure of joint EIA of two or more associated projects. Its main aim is to ensure that the overall assessment of environmental effects is taken into account before decisions are made. This provision has raised questions in relation to its scope and applicability. The provision´s origin, substance and application are analysed as well as its conformity to Directive 85/337/EEC as it has been introduced into the EEA Agreement. The paper concludes that administrative implementation has clarified certain aspects, including the legal conditions for its application. However, the application of the provision raises questions as to whether its aim may be achieved by a less onerous procedure; in line with Directive 85/337/EEC as interpreted by the European Commission.Í greininni er fjallað um ákvæði um sameiginlegt mat á umhverfisáhrifum í 2. mgr. 5. gr. laga nr. 106/2000 um mat á umhverfisáhrifum. Meginmarkmið ákvæðisins er að upplýsa um heildaráhrif framkvæmda á umhverfið áður en ákvarðanir um þær eru teknar. Vegna álitaefna sem upp hafa komið í tengslum við framkvæmd ákvæðisins er í greininni leitast við að skýra tilurð þess og efni með hliðsjón af lögskýringargögnum, framkvæmd þess og reglum tilskipunar 85/337/EBE eins og hún hefur verið tekin upp í EES-samninginn. Í greininni er komist að þeirri niðurstöðu að skilyrði fyrir beitingu ákvæðisins hafi skýrst í framkvæmd. Framkvæmdin veki jafnframt spurningar um hvort ná megi markmiðum ákvæðisins jafn vel, með einfaldari leiðum sem samræmast tilskipun 85/337/EBE eins og hún hefur verið skýrð af framkvæmdastjórn Evrópusambandsins.

  15. Organophosphates and monocyte esterase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To examine the possibility that monocyte esterase deficiency (MED) could be caused by exposure to organophosphates. METHODS--Pseudocholinesterase, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured in the serum and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in the red cells of a group of monocyte esterase deficient subjects and compared with the enzyme activities of a control group of monocyte esterase positive subjects. RESULTS--No significant difference was found between the enzyme...

  16. Assessment of cumulative external beam and intracavitary brachytherapy organ doses in gynecologic cancers using deformable dose summation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Due to inter-fraction variation in applicator position, organ displacement and deformation, doses to targets and normal tissues may not be accurately represented by adding the doses from external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) using rigid image registration. Deformable image registration permits organ and applicators to be spatially matched in 3D, enabling more accurate tracking of the accumulated volumetric dose to the target as well as organs at risk (OAR). This study assesses the dosimetric impact of using deformable image registration to determine the cumulative EBRT and ICBT doses to the rectum and bladder. Methods and materials: Data from 20 patients with stage IB1-IVA cervical cancer were analyzed. Nine of the patients were treated with ICBT and EBRT which included a nodal or parametrium boost while eleven were treated with ICBT and EBRT with no boost. Dose summation was performed in two stages. For the first stage, only the ICBT fractional doses were added using both “parameter adding” and deformable registration techniques. In the second stage, the ICBT and EBRT doses were combined using “parameter adding” in two ways. Partial “parameter adding” considers the cumulative ICBT dose from deformable registration as one parameter while full “parameter adding” uses fractional ICBT parameters. The cumulative minimum doses to 2cc (D2cc) of the rectum and bladder were compared between deformable registration and “parameter adding” techniques. Results: Dose summation of ICBT fractions only using deformable registration yielded D2cc values that were (10.1 ± 9.5)% lower for the rectum and (7.2 ± 6.3)% lower for the bladder compared to “parameter adding”. When ICBT and EBRT doses were summed deformably, the group without EBRT boost had D2cc that were (0.0 ± 4.6)% and (−1.2 ± 2.9)% lower for the rectum and bladder respectively compared to partial “parameter adding”. With EBRT boost, the

  17. Organophosphate esters in dust samples collected from Danish homes and daycare centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Sarka; Fredricsson, Malin; Weschler, Charles J; Bekö, Gabriel; Strandberg, Bo; Remberger, Mikael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2016-07-01

    Organophosphates are used in a wide range of materials and consumer products and are ubiquitous in indoor environments. Certain organophosphates have been associated with various adverse health effects. The present paper reports mass fractions of organophosphates in dust samples collected from 500 bedrooms and 151 daycare centers of children living in Odense, Denmark. The identified compounds include: tris(isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), triphenylphosphate (TPHP), 2-ethylhexyl-diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP). Both the number of organophosphates with median values above the limit of detection and the median values were higher for samples from daycare centers than for samples from homes. Organophosphates with median mass fractions above the limit of detection were: TCEP from homes (6.9 μg g(-1)), and TCEP (16 μg g(-1)), TCIPP (5.6 μg g(-1)), TDCIPP (7.1 μg g(-1)), TBOEP (26 μg g(-1)), TPHP (2.0 μg g(-1)) and EHDPP (2.1 μg g(-1)) from daycare centers. When present, TBOEP was typically the most abundant of the identified OPs. The sum of the organophosphate dust mass fractions measured in this study was roughly in the mid-range of summed mass fractions reported for dust samples collected in other countries. On a global scale, the geographical distribution of organophosphates in indoor dust is quite variable, with higher concentrations in industrialized countries. This trend differs from that for phthalate esters, whose geographic distribution is more homogeneous. Exposure to organophosphates via dust ingestion is relatively low, although there is considerable uncertainly in this assessment. PMID:27085316

  18. Scientific Opinion on the identification of pesticides to be included in cumulative assessment groups on the basis of their toxicological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority asked the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues to develop an Opinion on the identification of pesticides to be included in cumulative assessment groups (CAGs on the basis of their toxicological profile. In 2008, the PPR Panel adopted an Opinion on the suitability of existing methodologies for cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and a tiered approach was proposed, which was applied to a selected group of triazole pesticides in 2009. The present Opinion suggests a methodology for grouping of pesticides based on phenomenological effects and provides CAGs for the thyroid and nervous system. This approach can be applied even when the underlying biochemical events mediating the effects are not understood, and is based on a standardised and thorough review of Draft Assessment Reports (DARs supporting the approval of all pesticides in Europe, and on recommendations from the European Commission. Pesticidal active substances exhibiting neurotoxic properties were allocated to CAGs for acute effects on motor, sensory and autonomic divisions of the nervous system and neurochemical endpoints. Chronic effects across the same divisions/endpoints and neuropathological effects were collated. Active substances having adverse effects on the thyroid system were allocated to CAGs for effects either on C-cells/the calcitonin system or on follicular cells/the T3/T4 system. The PPR Panel notes that the resulting groups encompass many pesticides and also that individual pesticides could appear in several groups and therefore the data entries for performing cumulative risk assessment (CRA are of considerable magnitude. Although some CAGs contain a large number of pesticides, little indication of cumulative risk may be inferred from the size of CAGs per se. The PPR Panel recommends that the methodology is implemented for all major organ/systems but the approach used should be considered specific for pesticides.

  19. Miotoxicidade por organofosforados Organophosphate myotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Cavaliere

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Os organofosforados são um grupo de compostos químicos amplamente utilizados em agropecuária como inseticidas, ocasionando intoxicações acidentais em animais e humanos, e mesmo sendo utilizados em tentativas de suicídio. A toxicidade desses produtos decorre sobretudo de insuficiência cárdio-respiratória por compromentimento do sistema nervoso autônomo. Sabe-se que alguns destes compostos induzem em animais de experimentação e em humanos, uma miopatia caracterizada por degeneração de células musculares, comprometendo sobretudo a musculatura respiratória. Baseado no fato de que este comprometimento contribui para a piora da função respiratória, propõe-se um protocolo de avaliação rotineira de miotoxicidade por compostos organofosforados, através de uma bateria mínima e suficiente de colorações e reações histoquímicas para quantificação da necrose muscular. Utilizaram-se como modelo experimental, grupos de ratos albinos (Wistar intoxicados com o organofosforado paraoxon, com e sem antídotos (atropina ou pralidoxima. Verificou-se nos grupos tratados com paraoxon e paraoxon mais atropina, necrose de fibras musculares no diafragma, que atingia em determinadas áreas até 15% das fibras. No grupo tratado com paraoxon mais pralidoxima, a necrose foi mínima, evidenciando o papel mioprotetor deste último antídoto.Organophosphates comprise a group of chemical compounds extensively used in farming as insecticides, which cause accidental poisoning in animals and men and are also used in suicide attempts. The toxicity of these compounds is due especially to the cardiac and respiratory impairment in consequence of autonomic nervous system disorders. However, it is known that some of these products induce a myopathy in experimental animals and humans. This myopathy is characterized by muscle cell degeneration, involving above all the respiratory muscles. Based on the fact that this involvement certainly enhances the

  20. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  1. Developmental exposure of zebrafish larvae to organophosphate flame retardants causes neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liwei; Xu, Wenbin; Peng, Tao; Chen, Haigang; Ren, Lin; Tan, Hana; Xiao, Dan; Qian, Haifeng; Fu, Zhengwei

    2016-01-01

    With the gradual ban on brominated flame retardants (FRs), the application of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) has increased remarkably. Considering the structural similarity between OPFRs and organophosphate pesticides, hypotheses that OPFRs may interfere with neurodevelopment as organophosphate pesticides are reasonable. In this study, the neurotoxicity of three OPFRs, including tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), was evaluated in zebrafish larvae and then compared with the neurotoxicity of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). The results showed that similar to CPF, exposure to OPFRs for 5days resulted in significant changes in locomotor behavior, either in free swimming or in photomotor response. However, given the transcriptional changes that occur in nervous system genes in response to OPFRs and CPF, as well as the altered enzyme activity of AChE and its mRNA level, the underlying mechanisms for neurotoxicity among these organophosphate chemicals might be varied. In summary, the results confirm the potential neurodevelopmental toxicity of OPFRs and underscore the importance of identifying the mechanistic targets of the OPFRs with specific moieties. Furthermore, as the neurobehavioral responses are well conserved among vertebrates and the exposure of children to OPFRs is significant, a thorough assessment of the risk of OPFRs exposure during early development should be highly emphasized in future studies. PMID:27018022

  2. Estimates of Tiber River organophosphate pesticide loads to the Tyrrhenian Sea and ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuori, Paolo; Aurino, Sara; Garzonio, Fatima; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale; Polichetti, Salvatore; Nardone, Antonio; Triassi, Maria

    2016-07-15

    The organophosphate pesticides pollution in the Tiber River and its environmental impact on the Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean Sea) were estimated. Eight selected organophosphate pesticides (diazinon, dimethoate, malathion, chlorpyrifos, pirimiphos-methyl, fenitrothion, methidathion, tolclofos-methyl) were determined in the water dissolved phase, suspended particulate matter and sediment samples collected from 21 sites in different seasons. Total organophosphate pesticides concentrations ranged from 0.40 to 224.48ngL(-1) in water (as the sum of the water dissolved phase and suspended particulate matter) and from 1.42 to 68.46ngg(-1) in sediment samples. Contaminant discharges of organophosphate pesticides into the sea were calculated in about 545.36kgyear(-1) showing that this river should be consider as one of the main contribution sources of organophosphate pesticides to the Tyrrhenian Sea. In relation to the eco-toxicological assessment, the concentrations of most OPPs in the water and sediments from the Tiber River and its estuary were lower than guideline values. PMID:27065443

  3. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  4. Cumulants as iterated integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Franz

    2009-01-01

    A formula expressing cumulants in terms of iterated integrals of the distribution function is derived. It generalizes results of Jones and Balakrishnan who computed expressions for cumulants up to order 4.

  5. Cumulative risk assessment of chemicals in food%食品中化学物累积风险评估方法及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 李凤琴; 刘兆平

    2011-01-01

    Food chemicals, such as contaminants, pesticides and food additives, may cause cumulative exposure of human beings through four types of combined effect or interaction, but traditional risk assessment methodologies were mainly based on single-chemical scenarios.In the past decades, more attention has been paid to health risks caused by cumulative exposure to chemicals, and some cumulative risk assessment methods including group tolerable daily intake (TDI) , hazard index (HI) , relative potency factor (RPF) and physiologically based toxicokinetics (PBTK) models have been developed.The characteristics and application of these methods are discussed in this paper.%食品中存在的各种污染物、农药和添加剂等化学物可能会通过多种机制的联合作用对人体形成累积暴露,但传统的风险评估方法多以单一化学物暴露为基础.近年来,化学物累积暴露形成的健康风险受到越来越多的重视,一些累积风险评估方法,如类别每日可耐受摄入量(TDI)、危害指数(HI)、相对效能因子(RPF)、生理毒代动力学(PBTK)模型等也逐渐发展起来.本文对这些方法的特点及其应用进行了讨论.

  6. Mishandling and exposure of farm workers in Qatar to organophosphate pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Shomar, Basem; Al-Saad, Khalid; Nriagu, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    We used a combination of subjective (questionnaire) and objective (urinary metabolites) measurements to evaluate factors that can predict the exposure of farm workers in Qatar to organophosphate pesticides and to assess whether the levels of exposure are associated with any self-reported health outcomes. The results show that pesticides were being extensively mishandled in the farms. Very few (

  7. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J;

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...... planning the use of marine resources.......Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...... Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied in...

  8. Insecticide resistance to organophosphates in Culex pipiens complex from Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osta Mike A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of Culex pipiens mosquitoes collected from a single site in Lebanon in 2005, revealed an alarming frequency of ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphate insecticides. Following this, in 2006 the majority of municipalities switched to pyrethroids after a long history of organophosphate usage in the country; however, since then no studies have assessed the impact of changing insecticide class on the frequency of resistant ace-1 alleles in C. pipiens. Methods C. pipiens mosquitoes were captured indoors from 25 villages across the country and subjected to established methods for the analysis of gene amplification at the Ester locus and target site mutations in ace-1 gene that confer resistance to organophosphates. Results We conducted the first large-scale screen for resistance to organosphosphates in C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from Lebanon. The frequency of carboxylesterase (Ester and ace-1 alleles conferring resistance to organophosphates were assessed among C. pipiens mosquitoes collected from 25 different villages across the country between December 2008 and December 2009. Established enzymatic assay and PCR-based molecular tests, both diagnostic of the major target site mutations in ace-1 revealed the absence of the F290V mutation among sampled mosquitoes and significant reduction in the frequency of G119S mutation compared to that previously reported for mosquitoes collected from Beirut in 2005. We also identified a new duplicated ace-1 allele, named ace-1D13, exhibiting a resistant phenotype by associating a susceptible and a resistant copy of ace-1 in a mosquito line sampled from Beirut in 2005. Fisher’s exact test on ace-1 frequencies in the new sample sites, showed that some populations exhibited a significant excess of heterozygotes, suggesting that the duplicated allele is still present. Starch gel electrophoresis indicated that resistance at the Ester locus was mainly attributed to the

  9. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  10. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  11. Organophosphate Hydrolase in Conductometric Biosensor for the Detection of Organophosphate Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Ani Mulyasuryani; Sasangka Prasetyawan

    2015-01-01

    The research has developed an enzyme biosensor for the detection organophosphate pesticide residues. The biosensor consists of a pair of screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCEs). One of electrodes contains immobilized organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) on a chitosan membrane by cross-linking it with glutaraldehyde. The area of the electrodes was optimized to 3, 5, and 7 mm2. The OPH was isolated from Pseudomonas putida, and was purified by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method, with 6444 ppm ...

  12. Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scoggins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB, have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1 hazard proximity and land use; (2 air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3 social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns.

  13. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1e3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fum...

  14. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGLUND,J.W.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,J.D.; SMITH,L.N.; ANDERSON,R.P.

    2000-05-22

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194).

  15. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194)

  16. Introducing a novel method to assess cumulative steroid concentrations: increased hair cortisol concentrations over 6 months in medicated patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettenborn, Lucia; Muhtz, Christoph; Skoluda, Nadine; Stalder, Tobias; Steudte, Susann; Hinkelmann, Kim; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Otte, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Depression has been linked to increased cortisol concentrations using point measures taken from urine, blood, or saliva samples. However, with regard to hypercortisolism-induced consequences, long-term cumulative cortisol burden is of relevance. Our objective was to use hair analysis as a new method to assess cortisol exposure over 6 months in depressed patients and healthy controls. We examined 23 depressed patients (8 men and 15 women, mean age: 41.6 years ( ± standard deviation (SD), 13.1 years); mean duration of current depressive episode 9 months ( ± SD, 13 months)) and 64 healthy controls, matched for age and gender. Cortisol concentrations in two 3-cm hair segments from near to the scalp were analyzed, representing cortisol secretion during the 6 months prior to sampling. Compared with healthy individuals, depressed patients had higher hair cortisol concentrations in the first (mean ± SD: 26.7 ± 20.8 vs. 18.7 ± 11.5 pg/mg, p < 0.05) and second hair segment (mean ±  SD: 21.9 ± 23.7 vs. 13.4 ± 9.6 pg/mg, p < 0.05). In conclusion, hair cortisol analysis confirmed enhanced cortisol secretion in depressed patients over a prolonged time period. Because of the retrospective and cumulative nature of cortisol in hair, the assessment of hair cortisol concentration may help in addressing unanswered questions regarding hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and associated health consequences in psychiatric disorders. PMID:22043813

  17. Quantifying Chronic Stress Exposure for Cumulative Risk Assessment: Lessons Learned from a Case Study of Allostatic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although multiple methods of quantifying environmental chemical exposures have been validated for use in human health risk assessment, quantifying chronic stress exposure is more challenging. Stress is a consequence of perceiving an “exposure” (e.g., violence, poverty) as more th...

  18. Direct assessment of cumulative aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activity in sera from experimentally exposed mice and environmentally exposed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Bernard, Pamela L; Haas, Amelia;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands adversely affect many biological processes. However, assessment of the significance of human exposures is hampered by an incomplete understanding of how complex mixtures affect AhR activation/inactivation. OBJECTIVES: These studies used biologic...

  19. The Relationship between Cumulative Credits and Student Learning Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Information Literacy and Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonney, Teresa; Montgomery, Joe C.

    2015-01-01

    This article relates the efforts of faculty at one community college to define standards for achievement of two SLOs (critical thinking and effective communication) and to gather and analyze evidence of how well students meet those standards. Faculty from 13 disciplines assessed writing samples from 265 students. We found that, in general,…

  20. Organophosphate Induced Neuropathy - An Epidemic Case Report at Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Prabhakar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organophosphates are the important biochemical substance, generally used as insecticides, nematocides, fungicides, solvents, plasticizers, drugs, herbicides and chemical warfare nerve agents. The most common route of entry of OPs in to body, is through insecticides, whether suicidal or accidental. Acute poisoning of OP is frequently observed in developing countries. Organophosphates cause inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in the body which leads to accumulation of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is very important for nerve function. The Prevalence of OP poisoning is around 1 million per year. Aim: Aim of this study was to do an epidemic case study the effect of Organophosphet on peripheral nerves. Material and method: 17 (9 male and 8 female Patients with organophosphate consumptions were clinically assessed and were tested by NCV study at Physiotherapy Department of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad. Results and Conclusions: The Study of 17 organophosphate poison consumption revealed that there was Electrophysiological evidence of demyelinating and axonal type of pure motor polyneuropathy affecting LL >Ul with normal sensory nerve conduction.

  1. Unexpected Diagnosis in the Metropolis: Organophosphate Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Işıl Bavunoğlu; Musa Balta; Eda Tanrıkulu; Zeynep Türkmen; İbrahim İkizceli

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to point out that organophosphate poisoning is rarely seen in the metropolis and therefore diagnosis and treatment of these poisonings can be delayed. A 62 year old woman with a history of diabetes type II and ischemic cerebrovascular disease was admitted to the Emergency Department of Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine with diarrhea. During a 24-h follow-up, dysphagia, bronchorrhea and myosis were established. The patient was investigated for cholinergic symptoms due to intoxication. To...

  2. Model-based tolerance intervals derived from cumulative historical composition data: application for substantial equivalence assessment of a genetically modified crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bonnie; Fisher, Tracey L; Sult, Theresa S; Maxwell, Carl A; Mickelson, James A; Kishino, Hirohisa; Locke, Mary E H

    2014-10-01

    Compositional analysis is a requisite component of the substantial equivalence framework utilized to assess genetically modified (GM) crop safety. Statistical differences in composition data between GM and non-GM crops require a context in which to determine biological relevance. This context is provided by surveying the natural variation of key nutrient and antinutrient levels within the crop population with a history of safe use. Data accumulated from various genotypes with a history of safe use cultivated in relevant commercial crop-growing environments over multiple seasons are discussed as the appropriate data representative of this natural variation. A model-based parametric tolerance interval approach, which accounts for the correlated and unbalanced data structure of cumulative historical data collected from multisite field studies conducted over multiple seasons, is presented. This paper promotes the application of this tolerance interval approach to generate reference ranges for evaluation of the biological relevance of statistical differences identified during substantial equivalence assessment of a GM crop. PMID:25208038

  3. Binary Cumulant Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic statistics for binary random variables is concerned with highly structured algebraic varieties in the space of 2x2x...x2-tensors. We demonstrate the advantages of representing such varieties in the coordinate system of binary cumulants. Our primary focus lies on hidden subset models. Parametrizations and implicit equations in cumulants are derived for hyperdeterminants, for secant and tangential varieties of Segre varieties, and for certain context-specific independence models. Extending work of Rota and collaborators, we explore the polynomial inequalities satisfied by cumulants.

  4. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In five previous papers, the concept of Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) has been presented as a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Simple nomographic and tabular methods for the solution of practical problems in radiotherapy are now described. An essential feature of solving a CRE problem is firstly to present it in a concise and readily appreciated form, and, to do this, nomenclature has been introduced to describe schedules and regimes as compactly as possible. Simple algebraic equations have been derived to describe the CRE achieved by multi-schedule regimes. In these equations, the equivalence conditions existing at the junctions between schedules are not explicit and the equations are based on the CREs of the constituent schedules assessed individually without reference to their context in the regime as a whole. This independent evaluation of CREs for each schedule has resulted in a considerable simplification in the calculation of complex problems. The calculations are further simplified by the use of suitable tables and nomograms, so that the mathematics involved is reduced to simple arithmetical operations which require at the most the use of a slide rule but can be done by hand. The order of procedure in the presentation and calculation of CRE problems can be summarised in an evaluation procedure sheet. The resulting simple methods for solving practical problems of any complexity on the CRE-system are demonstrated by a number of examples. (author)

  5. The Challenge of Planning Conservation Strategies in Threatened Seascapes: Understanding the Role of Fine Scale Assessments of Community Response to Cumulative Human Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; De Leo, Francesco; Farella, Giulio; Maffia, Anna; Terlizzi, Antonio; Fraschetti, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the distribution and intensity of human threats to biodiversity is a prerequisite for effective spatial planning, harmonizing conservation purposes with sustainable development. In the Mediterranean Sea, the management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is rarely based on explicit consideration of the distribution of multiple stressors, with direct assessment of their effects on ecosystems. This gap limits the effectiveness of protection and is conducive to conflicts among stakeholders. Here, a fine scale assessment of the potential effects of different combinations of stressors (both land- and marine-based) on vulnerable rocky habitats (i.e. lower midlittoral and shallow infralittoral) along 40 km of coast in the western Mediterranean (Ionian Sea) has been carried out. The study area is a paradigmatic example of socio-ecological interactions, where several human uses and conservation measures collide. Significant differences in the structure of assemblages according to different combinations of threats were observed, indicating distinct responses of marine habitats to different sets of human pressures. A more complex three-dimensional structure, higher taxon richness and β-diversity characterized assemblages subject to low versus high levels of human pressure, consistently across habitats. In addition, the main drivers of change were: closeness to the harbour, water quality, and the relative extension of beaches. Our findings suggest that, although efforts to assess cumulative impacts at large scale may help in individuating priority areas for conservation purposes, the fact that such evaluations are often based on expert opinions and not on actual studies limits their ability to represent real environmental conditions at local scale. Systematic evaluations of local scale effects of anthropogenic drivers of change on biological communities should complement broad scale management strategies to achieve effective sustainability of human exploitation of

  6. Dose monitoring using the DICOM structured report: assessment of the relationship between cumulative radiation exposure and BMI in abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To perform a systematic, large-scale analysis using the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine structured report (DICOM-SR) to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and radiation exposure in abdominal CT. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of DICOM-SR of 3121 abdominal CT examinations between April 2013 and March 2014 was performed. All examinations were conducted using a 128 row CT system. Patients (mean age 61 ± 15 years) were divided into five groups according to their BMI: group A <20 kg/m2 (underweight), group B 20–25 kg/m2 (normal weight), group C 25–30 kg/m2 (overweight), group D 30–35 kg/m2 (obese), and group E > 35 kg/m2 (extremely obese). CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose–length product (DLP) were compared between all groups and matched to national diagnostic reference values. Results: The mean CTDIvol and DLP were 5.4 ± 2.9 mGy and 243 ± 153 mGy·cm in group A, 6 ± 3.6 mGy and 264 ± 179 mGy• cm in group B, 7 ± 3.6 mGy and 320 ± 180 mGy• cm in group C, 8.1 ± 5.2 mGy and 375 ± 306 mGy• cm in group D, and 10 ± 8 mGy and 476 ± 403 mGy• cm in group E, respectively. Except for group A versus group B, CTDIvol and DLP differed significantly between all groups (p<0.05). Significantly more CTDIvol values exceeded national diagnostic reference values in groups D and E (2.1% and 6.3%) compared to group B (0.5%, p<0.05). Conclusion: DICOM-SR is a comprehensive, fast, and reproducible way to analyse dose-related data at CT. It allows for automated evaluation of radiation dose in a large study population. Dose exposition is related to the patient's BMI and is increased by up to 96% for extremely obese patients undergoing abdominal CT. - Highlights: • DICOM-SR was used to implement automatic CT-dose monitoring. • DICOM-SR allowed for a fast and comprehensive analysis of CT dose data. • Radiation exposure for abdominal CT was increased by up to 96% for extremely

  7. Residue levels and cumulative acute risk assessment of pesticides in apples of main fruits area in Shandong province%山东省主产区苹果农药残留水平及累积急性膳食摄入风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰丰; 刘传德; 周先学; 王志新; 鹿泽启; 姚杰; 柳璇; 姜蔚

    2015-01-01

    目的:评估目前山东主要苹果产区的农药残留水平,为农药残留监管提供科学依据。方法对采自山东苹果主产区的110个苹果样品运用现有的标准方法进行102种农药残留分析检测,利用急性参考剂量(acute reference dose, ARfD)和国家估计短期摄入量(international estimated short-term intake, IESTI)公式评估苹果农药累积急性风险。结果山东省苹果共检出26种农药残留,多残留(2种农残及以上)样品占样品总数的78%,所有样品检出农药残留量均未超过规定的最大残留限量值;检出苹果上禁用农药灭多威和未登记农药噻嗪酮、螺螨酯、杀铃脲;有机磷类、菊酯类、三唑类和烟碱类农药在山东苹果中累积急性膳食摄入风险(%ARfD 值)分别为37.7%、7.37%、0.28%和1.53%。结论山东省苹果农药残留种类较多,残留水平不高,有机磷类、菊酯类、三唑类和烟碱类农药累计急性摄入风险较小,但需重点关注苹果上禁用农药和未登记农药。%Objective To assess the levels of pesticide residues and provide scientific basis for regulation of pesticide residues in major apple producing areas in Shandong province.MethodsResidues of 102 pesticides in 110 apples from main fruits areas were detected by standard methods The method of cumulative acute risk assessment of pesticide in apple was established by acute reference dose (ARfD) and international estimated short-term intake (IESTI).Results Many types of pesticide residues (26 kinds) were detected in apples. Multiple residues (2 kinds of pesticides and above) accounted for a higher sample proportion of the total number of samples (78%). All pesticide residues detected in the samples did not exceed the maximum residue limit (MRL). Banned methomyl and unregistered buprofezin, spirodiclofen, and triflumuron pesticides were detected. The values of accumulation acute risk of organophosphate, pyrethroid, triazoles and neonicotinoid

  8. Residue levels and cumulative acute risk assessment of pesticides in apples of main fruits area in Shandong province%山东省主产区苹果农药残留水平及累积急性膳食摄入风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰丰; 刘传德; 周先学; 王志新; 鹿泽启; 姚杰; 柳璇; 姜蔚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the levels of pesticide residues and provide scientific basis for regulation of pesticide residues in major apple producing areas in Shandong province.MethodsResidues of 102 pesticides in 110 apples from main fruits areas were detected by standard methods The method of cumulative acute risk assessment of pesticide in apple was established by acute reference dose (ARfD) and international estimated short-term intake (IESTI).Results Many types of pesticide residues (26 kinds) were detected in apples. Multiple residues (2 kinds of pesticides and above) accounted for a higher sample proportion of the total number of samples (78%). All pesticide residues detected in the samples did not exceed the maximum residue limit (MRL). Banned methomyl and unregistered buprofezin, spirodiclofen, and triflumuron pesticides were detected. The values of accumulation acute risk of organophosphate, pyrethroid, triazoles and neonicotinoid pesticides were 37.7%, 7.37%, 0.28% and 1.53%. ConclusionMany types of pesticides residue were detected, but the levels were not high. Organophosphate and pyrethroid, triazoles and neonicotinoid pesticides accumulate less risk of acute dietary intake of apples in Shandong, and the likelihood of harm is unlikely. The banned pesticides and unregistered pesticides are needed to focus on.%目的:评估目前山东主要苹果产区的农药残留水平,为农药残留监管提供科学依据。方法对采自山东苹果主产区的110个苹果样品运用现有的标准方法进行102种农药残留分析检测,利用急性参考剂量(acute reference dose, ARfD)和国家估计短期摄入量(international estimated short-term intake, IESTI)公式评估苹果农药累积急性风险。结果山东省苹果共检出26种农药残留,多残留(2种农残及以上)样品占样品总数的78%,所有样品检出农药残留量均未超过规定的最大残留限量值;检出苹果上禁用农药灭多威和未登记农药噻嗪酮、螺

  9. Divergent Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Chris; Chebib, Jobran

    2016-01-01

    Divergent cumulative cultural evolution occurs when the cultural evolutionary trajectory diverges from the biological evolutionary trajectory. We consider the conditions under which divergent cumulative cultural evolution can occur. We hypothesize that two conditions are necessary. First that genetic and cultural information are stored separately in the agent. Second cultural information must be transferred horizontally between agents of different generations. We implement a model with these ...

  10. Cumulative Conditional Expectation Index

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, M; González-López, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the cumulative conditional expectation function (CCEF) in the copula context. It is shown how to compute CCEF in terms of the cumulative copula function, this natural representation allows to deduce some useful properties, for instance with applications to convex combination of copulas. We introduce approximations of CCEF based on Bernstein polynomial copulas. We introduce estimators for CCEF, which were constructed through Bernstein polynomial estimators for copulas. T...

  11. Association between organophosphate pesticides exposure and thyroid hormones in floriculture workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of organophosphate pesticides to disturb thyroid gland function has been demonstrated by experimental studies on animal, but evidence of such effects on human remains scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure to organophosphate compounds and serum levels of thyroid hormones in floriculture workers. A longitudinal study was conducted on 136 male subjects from the State of Mexico and Morelos, Mexico, occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides, during agricultural periods of high (rainy season) and low (dry season) levels of pesticide application. Using a structured questionnaire, a survey was carried out on sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical history, alcohol and tobacco consumption, residential chemical exposure, and occupational history. Urine and blood samples were taken the day after pesticide application to determine urine dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels, serum levels of TSH, total T3, total T4, serum PON1 activity, and serum p,p'-DEE levels. The analysis of the association between DAP levels and thyroid hormonal profile was carried out using multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Our results showed an increase in both TSH and T4 hormones in serum associated with a increase in total dimethylphosphate levels (ΣDMP) in urine (p-trend 3 serum levels with an increase of ΣDMP levels in the urine (p-trend = 0.053). These results suggest that exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be responsible of increasing TSH and T4 serum hormone levels and decreasing T3 serum hormone levels, therefore supporting the hypothesis that organophosphate pesticides act as endocrine disruptors in humans.

  12. Radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics related to radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (i) mathematical description of models; (ii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e. epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases; and (iii) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e. aleatory) uncertainty. The presented results indicate that radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite does not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, no radionuclide transport to the boundary with the accessible environment was observed; thus, the associated CCDFs for comparison with the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194) are degenerate in the sense of having a probability of zero of exceeding a release of zero

  13. Radionuclide transport in the vicinity of the repository and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics related to radionuclide transport in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented: (i) mathematical description of models; (ii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e. epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases; (iii) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e. aleatory) uncertainty; and (iv) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that no releases to the accessible environment take place due to radionuclide movement through the anhydrite marker beds, through the Dewey Lake Red Beds or directly to the surface, and also that the releases to the Culebra Dolomite are small. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for release to the Culebra Dolomite fall to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194)

  14. ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM BY THE ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDE FENITROTHION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androgen receptor antagonism by the organophosphate insecticide fenitrothion. Tamura, H., Maness, S.C., Reischmann, K. Dorman, D.C., Gray, L.E., and Gaido, K.W. (2000). Toxicol. Sci. Organophosphate insecticides represent one of the most widely used classes of pesticide...

  15. Detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents by bacterial phosphotriesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphates have been widely used as insecticides and chemical warfare agents. The health risks associated with these agents have necessitated the need for better detoxification and bioremediation tools. Bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing the lethal organophosphate nerve agents are of special interest. Phosphotriesterase (PTE) isolated from the soil bacteria Pseudomonas diminuta displays a significant rate enhancement and substrate promiscuity for the hydrolysis of organophosphate triesters. Directed evolution and rational redesign of the active site of PTE have led to the identification of new variants with enhanced catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity toward the hydrolysis of organophosphate neurotoxins. PTE has been utilized to protect against organophosphate poisoning in vivo. Biotechnological applications of PTE for detection and decontamination of insecticides and chemical warfare agents are developing into useful tools. In this review, the catalytic properties and potential applications of this remarkable enzyme are discussed

  16. Exposure to organophosphate and cognitive performance in chilean rural school children: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    María T. Muñoz Q; Verónica P. Iglesias Á; Boris A. Lucero M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the presence of organophosphate metabolites (OP) in the urine of rural schoolchildren and estimate its association with their cognitive performance. Methodology: a cross-sectional exploratory study in which a total of 25 children were assessed. Cognitive functioning was measured using the WISC-III intelligence test. Additionally, the concentration of OP metabolites in their urine was tested. Results: 56% of the children had concentration levels above the detection limit...

  17. Unexpected Diagnosis in the Metropolis: Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Bavunoğlu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to point out that organophosphate poisoning is rarely seen in the metropolis and therefore diagnosis and treatment of these poisonings can be delayed. A 62 year old woman with a history of diabetes type II and ischemic cerebrovascular disease was admitted to the Emergency Department of Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine with diarrhea. During a 24-h follow-up, dysphagia, bronchorrhea and myosis were established. The patient was investigated for cholinergic symptoms due to intoxication. Toxicologic analysis was made and atropine treatment begun in the emergency room, and the patient was followed up for 10 days at the intensive care unit (ICU without intubation. After the muscarinic symptoms improved, atropine treatment was terminated. The patient was discharged from the ICU and followed up in the service because of continual hypoxia. At the service follow-up, intermediated syndrome manifested as paralysis and respiratory distress. Hence the patient was intubated and mechanical ventilation was begun at the ICU. After the treatment, she was discharged without any sequel. In unintentional organophosphate poisoning cases, diagnosis and the treatment can be delayed because it is rare in large cities, so that the patient and their relatives are not aware of the poisoning.

  18. Managing cumulative impacts: A key to sustainability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    This paper addresses how science can be more effectively used in creating policy to manage cumulative effects on ecosystems. The paper focuses on the scientific techniques that we have to identify and to assess cumulative impacts on ecosystems. The term ``sustainable development`` was brought into common use by the World Commission on Environment and Development (The Brundtland Commission) in 1987. The Brundtland Commission report highlighted the need to simultaneously address developmental and environmental imperatives simultaneously by calling for development that ``meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations.`` We cannot claim to be working toward sustainable development until we can quantitatively assess cumulative impacts on the environment: The two concepts are inextricibally linked in that the elusiveness of cumulative effects likely has the greatest potential of keeping us from achieving sustainability. In this paper, assessment and management frameworks relevant to cumulative impacts are discussed along with recent literature on how to improve such assessments. When possible, examples are given for marine ecosystems.

  19. Total decomposition of organophosphate pesticides by microwave-assisted hydrolysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čechová, Lucie; Jansa, Petr; Dračínský, Martin; Janeba, Zlatko

    Lanzarote: -, 2012. s. 69-69. [Zing Conferences: Microwave and Flow Conference. 28.02.2012-02.03.2012, Lanzarote] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : microwave * hydrolysis * organophosphates * pesticides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  20. Reflections on the process of using systematic review techniques to evaluate the literature regarding the neurotoxicity of low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie Ross, Sarah; McManus, Chris; Harrison, Virginia; Mason, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We undertook a systematic review (incorporating meta-analysis) of the literature concerning the neurotoxicity of cumulative low level occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides, which was published online by the journal Critical Reviews in Toxicology in 2012. As far as we are aware, we were the first research team to attempt quantitative evaluation of study findings on this topic, using meta-analysis. We wish to encourage others to apply systematic review techniques in chemical risk assessment to reduce bias, increase transparency and better inform public policy. We thought it would be useful to share our experience of undertaking a systematic review in the hope of dispelling misconceptions about the complexity, time and resource issues involved along with the view that meta-analysis is meaningless when studies are not homogeneous. In this commentary paper we reflect on aspects of the process which were relatively straightforward; aspects which were more challenging; the advantages of using systematic review techniques; and the advantages and limitations of using statistical techniques such as meta-analysis in this context. PMID:26526517

  1. Joint cumulants for natural independence

    OpenAIRE

    Hasebe, Takahiro; Saigo, Hayato

    2011-01-01

    Many kinds of independence have been defined in non-commutative probability theory. Natural independence is an important class of independence; this class consists of five independences (tensor, free, Boolean, monotone and anti-monotone ones). In the present paper, a unified treatment of joint cumulants is introduced for natural independence. The way we define joint cumulants enables us not only to find the monotone joint cumulants but also to give a new characterization of joint cumulants fo...

  2. Hydrogen peroxide potentiates organophosphate toxicosis in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banan K. Al-Baggou

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of hydrogen peroxide(H2O2 on the acute toxicity of organophosphate insecticides dichlorvos and diazinon and their inhibitoryactions on plasma, brain and liver cholinesterase activities. Material and Methods: H2O2 was given indrinking water (0.5% v/v for 2 weeks in unsexed day old chicks, a regimen known to induce oxidativestress in this species. A control group received drinking tap water. All experiments were conducted onthe chicks at the age of 15 days after exposure to H2O2. The acute (24 h oral LD50 values of dichlorvosand diazinon in the insecticidal preparations as determined by the up-and-down method in the controlchicks were 9.4 and 15.6 mg/kg, respectively. Results: The poisoned chicks manifested signs ofcholinergic toxicosis within one hour after the dosing including salivation, lacrimation, gasping, frequentdefecation, drooping of wings, tremors, convulsions and recumbency. The acute (24 h oral LD50 valuesof dichlorvos and diazinon in chicks provided with H2O2 were reduced to 3.5 and 6.5 mg/kg, by 63 and58%, respectively when compared to respective control LD50 values. The intoxicated chicks also showedcholinergic signs of toxicosis as described above. Plasma, brain and liver cholinesterase activities of thechicks exposed to H2O2 were significantly lower than their respective control (H2O values by 25, 28 and27%, respectively. Oral dosing of chicks with dichlorvos at 3 mg/kg significantly inhibited cholinesteraseactivities in the plasma, brain and liver of both control (42-67% and H2O2-treated (15-59% chicks.Diazinon at 5 mg/kg, orally also inhibited cholinesterase activities in the plasma, brain and liver of bothcontrol (36-66% and H2O2-treated (15-30% chicks. In the H2O2 groups, dichlorvos inhibition of livercholinesterase activity and diazinon inhibition of liver and brain cholinesterase activities weresignificantly lesser than those of the respective values of

  3. An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzaev, V.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov;

    2008-01-01

    area was significantly contaminated by Chernobyl fallout with initial (CS)-C-137 ground deposition level of similar to 1.1 MBq m(-2). The accumulated OSL doses in sections of the bricks varied from 141 to 207 mGy, of which between 76 and 146 mGy are attributable to Chernobyl fallout. Using the OSL...... depth-dose profiles obtained from the exposed bricks and the results from a gamma-ray-survey of the area, the Chernobyl-related cumulative gamma-ray dose for a point detector located in free air at a height of 1 m above the ground in the study area was estimated to be ca. 240 mGy for the time period...... starting on 27 April 1986 and ending on 31 July 2004. This result is in good agreement with the result of deterministic modelling of the cumulative gamma-ray dose in free air above undisturbed ground from the Chernobyl source in the Bryansk Region. Over the same time period, the external Chernobyl...

  4. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    State, followed for 8 years (between the ages 9 and 17). Poverty- related stress was computed using the cumulative risk approach, assessing stressors across 9 domains, including environmental, psychosocial, and demographic factors. Allostatic load captured a range of physiological responses, including...... cardiovascular, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and metabolic activity. Smoking and alcohol/drug use were tested as mediators of the hypothesized childhood risk-adolescent allostatic load relationship. Results: Cumulative risk exposure at age 9 predicted increases in...... allostatic load 8 years later. Smoking, but not alcohol and drug use, was a significant mediator of the prospective, longitudinal relationship between childhood cumulative risk and adolescent allostatic load. Conclusions: The present paper contributes to the understanding of the role of early life stress in...

  5. Scenario of organophosphate pollution and toxicity in India: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shardendu; Kaushik, Garima; Villarreal-Chiu, Juan Francisco

    2016-05-01

    The present study on organophosphate deals with the reports on pollution and toxicity cases throughout India. The use of pesticides was introduced in India during the 1960s which are now being used on a large scale and represents the common feature of Indian agriculture. Use of organophosphates as a pesticide came as an alternative to chlorinated hydrocarbons due to their easy degradability. Although these xenobiotics degrade under natural condition, their residues have been detected in soil, sediments, and water due to their non-regulated usage practice. The over-reliance on pesticides has not only threatened our environment but contaminations of organophosphate residues have been also detected in certain agricultural products like tea, sugars, vegetables, and fruits throughout India. This paper highlights many of the cases where different organophosphates have been detected exceeding their respective MRL values. Some organophosphates detected are so hazardous that even WHO has listed them in class 1a and class 1b hazardous group. Presence of their residues in blood, milk, honey, and tissues of human and animals revealed their excessive use and bioaccumulating capabilities. Their intentional or unintentional uptake is causing thousands of deaths and severity each year. Most of the toxicity cases presented here are due to their uptake during a suicidal attempt. This shows how easily these harmful substances are available in the market. PMID:26916265

  6. Organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning from a home-made shampoo

    OpenAIRE

    Sadaka, Yair; Broides, Arnon; Tzion, Raffi Lev; Lifshitz, Matitiahu

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning is a major health problem in children. We report an unusual cause of organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning. Two children were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit due to organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning after exposure from a home-made shampoo that was used for the treatment of head lice. Owing to no obvious source of poisoning, the diagnosis of organophosphate acetylcholine ester...

  7. Does Early-Life Exposure to Organophosphate Insecticides Lead to Prediabetes and Obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2010-01-01

    Human exposures to organophosphate insecticides are ubiquitous. Although regarded as neurotoxicants, increasing evidence points toward lasting metabolic disruption from early-life organophosphate exposures. We gave neonatal rats chlorpyrifos, diazinon or parathion in doses devoid of any acute signs of toxicity, straddling the threshold for barely-detectable cholinesterase inhibition. Organophosphate exposure during a critical developmental window altered the trajectory of hepatic adenylyl cyc...

  8. An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been used for estimation of the accumulated doses in quartz inclusions obtained from two fired bricks, extracted in July 2004 from a building located in the forested surroundings of the recreational area Novie Bobovichi, the Bryansk Region, Russia. The area was significantly contaminated by Chernobyl fallout with initial 137Cs ground deposition level of ∼1.1 MBq m-2. The accumulated OSL doses in sections of the bricks varied from 141 to 207 mGy, of which between 76 and 146 mGy are attributable to Chernobyl fallout. Using the OSL depth-dose profiles obtained from the exposed bricks and the results from a γ-ray-survey of the area, the Chernobyl-related cumulative γ-ray dose for a point detector located in free air at a height of 1 m above the ground in the study area was estimated to be ca. 240 mGy for the time period starting on 27 April 1986 and ending on 31 July 2004. This result is in good agreement with the result of deterministic modelling of the cumulative γ-ray dose in free air above undisturbed ground from the Chernobyl source in the Bryansk Region. Over the same time period, the external Chernobyl-related dose via forest pathway for the most exposed individuals (e.g., forest workers) is estimated to be ∼39 mSv. Prognosis for the external exposure from 1986 to 2056 is presented and compared with the predictions given by other investigators of the region

  9. Sorption of organophosphate esters by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; Yan, Li [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Duan, Jinming [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Jing, Chuanyong, E-mail: cyjing@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The interfacial interactions between the OPE molecules and CNTs. - Highlights: • Oxygen-containing groups on CNTs change the sorption property for OPEs. • Molecular configuration of OPEs has insignificant impact on their sorption. • Hydrophobic, π–π EDA and Brønsted acid–base interaction occurred between the CNTs and OPEs. - Abstract: Insights from the molecular-level mechanism of sorption of organophosphate esters (OPEs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can further our understanding of the fate and transport of OPEs in the environment. The motivation for our study was to explore the sorption process of OPEs on multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and their oxidized counterparts (O-MWCNTs and O-SWCNTs), and its molecular mechanism over a wide concentration range. The sorption isotherm results revealed that the hydrophobicity of OPEs dominated their affinities on a given CNT and the π–π electron donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction also played an important role in the sorption of aromatic OPEs. This π–π EDA interaction, verified with Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, could restrict the radial vibration of SWCNTs and affect the deformation vibration γ(CH) bands of OPE molecules. The OPE surface coverage on CNTs, estimated using the nonlinear Dubinin–Ashtakhov model, indicated that the oxygen-containing functional groups on CNTs could interact with water molecules by H-bonding, resulting in a decrease in effective sorption sites. In addition, FTIR analysis also confirmed the occurrence of Brønsted acid–base interactions between OPEs and surface OH groups of SWCNTs. Our results should provide mechanistic insights into the sorption mechanism of OPE contaminants on CNTs.

  10. Amperometric Biosensors for Real Time Assays of Organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kuca

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE immobilized in gelatin was used to develop an assay for the organophosphate paraoxon. The more traditional manner employing preincubation was used for comparison between measurement procedures, although the aim of the study was to examine the performance of the biosensor for real time monitoring of organophosphates. The biosensor was immersed in a reaction chamber and paraoxon was injected inside. We were able to detect 200 pg of paraoxon within one minute or 2.5 ppb when the biosensor was preincubed in the sample solution for 15 minutes. The practical impact and expectations are discussed.

  11. An evaluation paradigm for cumulative impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhiv, Eugene Z.

    1988-09-01

    Cumulative impact analysis is examined from a conceptual decision-making perspective, focusing on its implicit and explicit purposes as suggested within the policy and procedures for environmental impact analysis of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and its implementing regulations. In this article it is also linked to different evaluation and decision-making conventions, contrasting a regulatory context with a comprehensive planning framework. The specific problems that make the application of cumulative impact analysis a virtually intractable evaluation requirement are discussed in connection with the federal regulation of wetlands uses. The relatively familiar US Army Corps of Engineers' (the Corps) permit program, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) responsibilities in managing its share of the Section 404 regulatory program requirements, is used throughout as the realistic context for highlighting certain pragmatic evaluation aspects of cumulative impact assessment. To understand the purposes of cumulative impact analysis (CIA), a key distinction must be made between the implied comprehensive and multiobjective evaluation purposes of CIA, promoted through the principles and policies contained in NEPA, and the more commonly conducted and limited assessment of cumulative effects (ACE), which focuses largely on the ecological effects of human actions. Based on current evaluation practices within the Corps' and EPA's permit programs, it is shown that the commonly used screening approach to regulating wetlands uses is not compatible with the purposes of CIA, nor is the environmental impact statement (EIS) an appropriate vehicle for evaluating the variety of objectives and trade-offs needed as part of CIA. A heuristic model that incorporates the basic elements of CIA is developed, including the idea of trade-offs among social, economic, and environmental protection goals carried out within the context of environmental

  12. Semen quality in Peruvian pesticide applicators: association between urinary organophosphate metabolites and semen parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasco Manuel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphates are broad class of chemicals widely used as pesticides throughout the world. We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphates and semen quality among pesticide applicators in Majes (Arequipa, Peru. Methods Thirty-one men exposed to organophosphate (OP pesticides and 31 non-exposed were recruited (age, 20–60 years. In exposed subjects, semen and a blood sample were obtained one day after the last pesticide application. Subjects were grouped according to levels of OP metabolites in urine. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, percentage of normal morphology, semen leucocytes and concentrations of fructose and zinc. Exposure to OP was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates and thiophosphates by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. Results Diethyldithiophosphate (p = 0.04 and diethylthiophosphate (p = 0.02 better reflected occupational pesticide exposure than other OP metabolites. Semen analysis revealed a significant reduction of semen volume and an increase in semen pH in men with OP metabolites. Multiple regression analysis showed that both occupational exposure to pesticides and the time of exposure to pesticides were more closely related to alterations in semen quality parameters than the single measurement of OP metabolites in urine. Conclusion The study demonstrated that occupational exposure to OP pesticides was more closely related to alterations in semen quality than a single measurement of urine OP metabolites. Current measurement of OP metabolites in urine may not reflect the full risk.

  13. Organophosphate poisoning: Diagnosis of intermediate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojara L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning with suicidal intent is common in Indian ICUs. The effect of OPCs is to produce a persistent depolarization of the neuromuscular junction leading to muscle weakness. After initial recovery from cholinergic crisis, some patients have resurgence of respiratory muscle paralysis requiring continued ventilatory support. This is termed intermediate syndrome (IMS. This could be due to a change in the type of neuromuscular block to a non depolarisation block characterized by a fade on tetanic stimulation. However peripheral nerve stimulation using train-of-four ratio (TOF and/tetanus have failed to consistently show such a change. We elected to study whether electro physiological monitoring using repetitive nerve stimulation might show a decremental response during IMS. Material & Methods: This was a prospective blinded study done from April 2002 to March 2003 in our ICU. 45 consecutive patients of OPC poisoning admitted during this period were included in this study. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS using a train of ten at 3Hz 10Hz and 30Hz (slow , intermediate and fast speeds respectively at the median nerve was done on all patients on day 1, 4, 7 and every 4th day thereafter until discharge. Patients were ventilated until ready to wean as per our usual protocol. The results of the RNS study were not revealed to the intensivist. Results: 9 out of 45 patients required ventilation for more than 6 days and showed overt signs of intermediate syndrome - proximal muscle weakness, twitching and respiratory weakness. Only 2 patients out of the 9 had a decremental response on RNS at 3Hz indicating a post-junctional dysfunction at the motor end-plate, Both patients had consumed a very large quantity of OPC and were deeply comatose for >4 days and required ventilation for >12 days. All other patients with IMS showed no changes on RNS. The exact type of poison consumed varied with each individual patient. Conclusion: RNS

  14. Binding of reactive organophosphate by oximes via hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrea Pappalardo; Maria E Amato; Francesco P Ballistreri; Valentina La Paglia Fragola; Gaetano A Tomaselli; Rosa Maria Toscano; Giuseppe Trusso Sfrazzetto

    2013-07-01

    In this contribution, the ability of simple oximes to bind a well-known nerve agent simulant (dimethylmethylphosphonate, DMMP) via hydrogen bond is reported. UV/Vis measurements indicate the formation of 1:1 complexes. 1H-, 31P-NMR titrations and T-ROESY experiments confirm that oximes bind the organophosphate via hydrogen bond.

  15. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorpyrifos (CP) was used as a model compound to develop experimental methods and prototype modeling tools to forecast the fate of organophosphate (OP) pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions. CP was found to rapidly oxidize to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in the presen...

  16. Cumulative Production Per Township - SaMiRa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains a selected township grid within the Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment project (SaMiRa) study area attributed with cumulative oil and gas...

  17. Exposure to organophosphate and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants via indoor dust and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbaz, D; van Velzen, M J M; Hallner, E; Zwinderman, A H; Wickman, M; Leonards, P E G; van Ree, R; van Rijt, L S

    2016-06-01

    Although the ubiquitous detection of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in indoor dust has raised health concerns, only very few epidemiological studies have assessed their impact on human health. Inhalation of dust is one of the exposure routes of FRs, especially in children and can be hazardous for the respiratory health. Moreover, PFRs are structurally similar to organophosphate pesticides, which have been associated with allergic asthma. Thus, we investigated whether the concentrations of PFRs and PBDEs in indoor dust are associated with the development of childhood asthma. We selected 110 children who developed asthma at 4 or at 8 years old and 110 matched controls from a large prospective birth cohort (BAMSE - Barn, Allergy, Milieu Stockholm Epidemiology). We analyzed the concentrations of 7 PFRs and 21 PBDEs in dust collected around 2 months after birth from the mother's mattress. The abundance rank in dust was as follows: TBOEP⪢TPHP>mmp-TMPP>EHDPHP~TDCIPP>TCEP~TCIPP~BDE-209⪢BDE-99>BDE-47>BDE-153>BDE-183>BDE-100. There was no positive association between the FRs in mattress dust and the development of childhood asthma. In contrast, dust collected from mattresses of the mothers of children who would develop asthma contained significant lower levels of TPHP and mmp-TMPP. This study provides data on a wide range of PFRs and PBDEs in dust samples and development of asthma in children. PMID:25952720

  18. The effect evaluation of the cumulative assessment model in nursing safety control%累计考核管理模式在护理安全管理中应用的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢惠兰; 罗敏; 欧阳庆; 刘玉娥; 成放群; 周利华; 胡碧波; 周扬飞; 张晓玲

    2014-01-01

    目的 探索累计考核管理模式在护理安全管理中的应用及效果评价.方法 在原有“累计扣分制”被动处罚式的管理模式的基础上逐步建立主动预防式的安全管理模式.以5个试点病房为研究对象,比较实施前后护士安全意识及患者安全文化的认知、不良事件主动报告、护理质量及患者满意度的变化情况.结果 5个试点病房的护理人员安全意识及患者安全文化的认知度提高,不良事件主动呈报率较前增多,护理质量及患者满意度提高.结论 通过建立累计考核管理模式改变了以前“扣分、批评、通报、处罚”的管理模式,强化了护士的安全认知和安全行为,构建了积极的患者安全文化氛围,采用“不惩罚”及“保密”的原则,系统地收集、分析、梳理、总结、共享不良事件信息,并着重分析系统层面、管理因素、环境因素的综合成因,逐步实现从系统的角度处理安全隐患的风险管理策略,达到前馈控制安全事件的发生,形成一个利用差错信息来提高护理质量和患者安全的主动预防式管理模式.%Objective To explore the application and the effect evaluation of cumulative assessment management model in nursing safety control.Methods The original passive punishment management such as "cumulative deduction model" was gradually transformed into active precaution safety management model.The objects of research were 5 wards that the cumulative assessment model was applied to.The results were used to compare the changes of the nurses' safety consciousness,patients' safety culture cognition,spontaneous reporting of the adverse events,nursing quality and patients satisfaction before and after the implementation of active precaution safety management.Results In the 5 wards,nurses' safety consciousness and patients' safety culture cognition were improved; the spontaneous reporting of the adverse events increased and the nursing

  19. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphates, Paraoxonase 1, and Cognitive Development in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Stephanie M.; Wetmur, James; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Chenbo; Barr, Dana Boyd; Canfield, Richard L.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides has been shown to negatively affect child neurobehavioral development. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. Objective: We examined the relationship between biomarkers of organophosphate exposure, PON1, and cognitive development at ages 12 and 24 months and 6–9 years. Methods: The Mount Sinai Children’s Environmental Health Study enrolled a multiethnic prenatal population in New York City between...

  20. Redesign of a mononuclear zinc metalloenzyme for organophosphate hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khare, Sagar D.; Kipnis, Yakov; Greisen, Per; Takeuchi, Ryo; Ashani, Yacov; Goldsmith, Moshe; SONG, YIFAN; Gallaher, Jasmine L.; Silman, Israel; Leader, Haim; Sussman, Joel L.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Tawfik, Dan S.; Baker, David

    2012-01-01

    The ability to redesign enzymes to catalyze non-cognate chemical transformations would have wide-ranging applications. We developed a computational method for repurposing the reactivity of active site functional groups of metalloenzymes to catalyze new reactions. Using this method, we engineered a zinc-containing murine adenosine deaminase to catalyze the hydrolysis of a model organophosphate with a catalytic efficiency kcat/Km ~104 M−1s−1 after directed evolution. In the high-resolution crys...

  1. Fe2O3 nanoparticles for airborne organophosphate detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Joshua; Soliz, Jennifer; Hauser, Adam

    Dire need for early detection of organophosphates (OP) exists in both civilian (pesticide/herbicide buildup) and military (G/V nerve agents) spheres. Nanoparticle materials are excellent candidates for the detection and/or decontamination of hazardous materials, owing to their large surface to volume ratios and tailored surface functionality. Within this category, metal oxides include structures that are stable with the range of normal environmental conditions (temperature, humidity), but have strong, specific reaction mechanisms (hydrolysis, oxidation, catalysis, stoichiometric reaction) with toxic compounds. In this talk, we will present on the suitability of Fe2O3 nanoparticles as airborne organophosphate detectors. 23 nm particles were exposed to a series of organophosphate compounds (dimethyl methylphosphonate, dimethyl chlorophosphonate, diisopropyl methylphosphonate), and studied by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and x-ray absorption spectroscopy to confirm the stoichiometric Fe2O3 to FeO mechanism and determine magnetic sensor feasibility. AC Impedance Spectroscopy shows both high sensitivity and selectivity via frequency dependence in both impedance and resistivity, suggesting some feasibility for impedimetric devices. We acknowledge funding under Army Research Office STIR Award #W911F-15-1-0104. J.R.S. acknowledges funding from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency under Projects BA13PHM210 and BA07PRO104. J.R.S. also acknowledges funding under a NRC fellowship.

  2. An in vivo zebrafish screen identifies organophosphate antidotes with diverse mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shan; Sarkar, Kumar S; Jin, Youngnam N; Liu, Yan; Kokel, David; Van Ham, Tjakko J; Roberts, Lee D; Gerszten, Robert E; Macrae, Calum A; Peterson, Randall T

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphates are a class of highly toxic chemicals that includes many pesticides and chemical weapons. Exposure to organophosphates, either through accidents or acts of terrorism, poses a significant risk to human health and safety. Existing antidotes, in use for over 50 years, have modest efficacy and undesirable toxicities. Therefore, discovering new organophosphate antidotes is a high priority. Early life stage zebrafish exposed to organophosphates exhibit several phenotypes that parallel the human response to organophosphates, including behavioral deficits, paralysis, and eventual death. Here, we have developed a high-throughput zebrafish screen in a 96-well plate format to find new antidotes that counteract organophosphate-induced lethality. In a pilot screen of 1200 known drugs, we identified 16 compounds that suppress organophosphate toxicity in zebrafish. Several in vitro assays coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling enabled determination of mechanisms of action for several of the antidotes, including reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibition, cholinergic receptor antagonism, and inhibition of bioactivation. Therefore, the in vivo screen is capable of discovering organophosphate antidotes that intervene in distinct pathways. These findings suggest that zebrafish screens might be a broadly applicable approach for discovering compounds that counteract the toxic effects of accidental or malicious poisonous exposures. PMID:22960781

  3. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  4. Assessment of Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) Risk for 3 Different Tasks Constructing and Repairing Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) Blankets, Preparing the Dough for a Pizza, and Operating the Becton-Dickinson FACSAria Flow Cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentzler, Marc; Kline, Martin; Palmer, Andrew; Terrone, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) risks for three different tasks using McCauley-Bell and Badiru's (1993) formula based on task, personal, and organizational factors were examined. For the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blanket task, the results showed that the task, personal, and organizational risks were at about the same level. The personal risk factors for this task were evaluated using a hypothetical female employee age 52. For the pizza dough task, it was shown that the organizational risk was particularly high, with task related factors also at quite dangerous levels. On the other hand, there was a very low level of personal risk factors, based on a female age 17. The flow cytometer task was assessed with three different participants, a11 of whom had quite disparate levels of personal risk, which slightly affected the overall CTD risk. This reveals how individual difference variables certainly need to be considered. The task and organizational risks for this task were rated at about the same moderate level. The overall CTD risk averaged across the three participants was .335, indicating some risk. Compruing across the tasks revealed that the pizza dough task created the greatest overall CTD risk by far (.568), with the MLI (.325) and flow cytometer task (.335) having some risk associated with them. Future research should look into different tasks for more of a comparison

  5. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  6. Identification of Cumulative Assessment Groups of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Nørhede, Pia; Boberg, Julie;

    The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). In accordance with Article 36 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, this task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a grant agreement between the European Food Safety Authority ...

  7. Piezoelectric Biosensors for Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Marrazza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great amount of pesticides currently being used, there is an increased interest for developing biosensors for their detection. Among all the physical transducers, piezoelectric systems have emerged as the most attractive due to their simplicity, low instrumentation costs, possibility for real-time and label-free detection and generally high sensitivity. This paper presents an overview of biosensors based on the quartz crystal microbalance, which have been reported in the literature for organophosphate and carbamate pesticide analysis.

  8. Comparative Developmental Neurotoxicity of Organophosphates In Vivo: Transcriptional Responses of Pathways for Brain Cell Development, Cell Signaling, Cytotoxicity and Neurotransmitter Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Slotkin, Theodore A.; Seidler, Frederic J

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphates affect mammalian brain development through a variety of mechanisms beyond their shared property of cholinesterase inhibition. We used microarrays to characterize similarities and differences in transcriptional responses to chlorpyrifos and diazinon, assessing defined gene groupings for the pathways known to be associated with the mechanisms and/or outcomes of chlorpyrifos-induced developmental neurotoxicity. We exposed neonatal rats to daily doses of chlorpyrifos (1 mg/kg) or...

  9. Organophosphate pesticides exposure bring out neurological symptoms in the children of agriculture workers in rural India: A community based cross-sectional study from Maharashtra.

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhsohale ND; Sawant PR; Thakre SS; Khamgaonkar MB; Agrawal SB

    2013-01-01

    Background: In rural areas of developing countries, children of agricultural workers have a high potential for exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. This puts them at an increased risk of damage to neurobehavioural performance, cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. The main objective of this study was to assess the neurological risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers in rural India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study wa...

  10. Cumulative inertia or cumulative stress? Migration behaviour of Finnish graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Haapanen, Mika; Tervo, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    An interesting yet largely unstudied question regarding labour mi-gration behaviour and residence duration is whether migration be-comes more or less likely over time. This paper analyses the deter-minants of residence duration for Finnish graduates. Our results af-firm the importance of cumulative inertia as a determinant of mi-gration. The longer a person stays in a region, the smaller are the hazard rates of migration. However, for those graduates who moved to a new region during their yea...

  11. The spectrum of intermediate syndrome following acute organophosphate poisoning: a prospective cohort study from Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepa Jayawardane

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermediate syndrome (IMS is a major cause of death from respiratory failure following acute organophosphate poisoning. The objective of this study was to determine repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS predictors of IMS that would assist in patient management and clinical research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Seventy-eight consenting symptomatic patients with organophosphate poisoning were assessed prospectively with daily physical examination and RNS. RNS was done on the right and left median and ulnar nerves at 1, 3, 10, 15, 20, and 30 Hz. The study was conducted as a prospective observational cohort study in the Central Province, Sri Lanka. IMS was diagnosed in ten out of 78 patients using a priori clinical diagnostic criteria, and five of them developed respiratory failure. All ten patients showed progressive RNS changes correlating with the severity of IMS. A decrement-increment was observed at intermediate and high frequencies preceding the onset of clinical signs of IMS. As the patient developed clinical signs of IMS, decrement-increment was progressively noted at low and intermediate frequencies and a combination of decrement-increment and repetitive fade or severe decrement was noted at high frequencies. Severe decrement preceded respiratory failure in four patients. Thirty patients developed forme fruste IMS with less severe weakness not progressing to respiratory failure whose RNS was characterized by decrement-increment or a combination of decrement-increment and repetitive fade but never severe decrements. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristic changes in RNS, preceding the development of IMS, help to identify a subgroup of patients at high risk of developing respiratory failure. The forme fruste IMS with the characteristic early changes on RNS indicates that IMS is a spectrum disorder. RNS changes are objective and precede the diagnosis and complications of IMS. Thus they may be useful in clinical management and research.

  12. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Schneider, Tapio; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J. B.

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric flows are governed by the equations of fluid dynamics. These equations are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifest itself only weakly through interactions of nontrivial mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. Here we show how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. However, it does not capture important turbulent transport terms in the turbulence kinetic energy budget. Second, we study the evolution of two-dimensional large-scale waves, which are representative of waves seen in Earth's upper atmosphere. We demonstrate that a cumulant expansion truncated at second order (CE2) can capture the evolution of such waves and their nonlinear interaction with the mean flow in some circumstances, for example, when the wave amplitude is small enough or the planetary rotation rate is large enough. However, CE2 fails to capture the flow evolution when strongly nonlinear eddy-eddy interactions that generate small-scale filaments in surf zones around critical layers become important. Higher-order closures can capture these missing interactions. The results point to new ways in which the dynamics of turbulent boundary layers may be represented in climate models, and they illustrate different classes

  13. "Buddha's Light" of Cumulative Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir B; Potashnikova, Irina K

    2014-01-01

    We show analytically that in the cumulative particles production off nuclei multiple interactions lead to a glory-like backward focusing effect. Employing the small phase space method we arrived at a characteristic angular dependence of the production cross section $d\\sigma \\sim 1/ \\sqrt {\\pi - \\theta}$ near the strictly backward direction. This effect takes place for any number $n\\geq 3 $ of interactions of rescattered particle, either elastic or inelastic (with resonance excitations in intermediate states), when the final particle is produced near corresponding kinematical boundary. Such a behaviour of the cross section near the backward direction is in qualitative agreement with some of available data.

  14. Cumulative glycaemia as measured by lens fluorometry: association with retinopathy in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, I C; Larsen, M; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Glümer, C; Lund-Andersen, H; Kessel, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between lifelong cumulative glycaemia estimated by lens fluorometry and the presence of retinopathy in individuals with type 2 diabetes.......The aim of this study was to assess the association between lifelong cumulative glycaemia estimated by lens fluorometry and the presence of retinopathy in individuals with type 2 diabetes....

  15. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. PMID:25979371

  16. A cumulative scale of severe sexual sadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Joachim; Osterheider, Michael; Mokros, Andreas

    2009-09-01

    The article assesses the scale properties of the criterion set for severe sexual sadism in a sample of male forensic patients (N = 100). Half of the sample consists of sexual sadists; the remainder is sampled at random from the general group of nonsadistic sex offenders. Eleven of 17 criteria (plus the additional item of inserting objects into the victim's bodily orifices) of Marshall, Kennedy, Yates, and Serran's list form a cumulative scale. More specifically, this scale comprises all the 5 core criteria that Marshall and his colleagues considered particularly relevant. The resulting 11-item scale of severe sexual sadism is highly reliable (r(tt) = .93) and represents a strong scale (H = .83) of the Guttman type (coefficient of reproducibility = .97). The 11-item scale distinguishes perfectly between sexual sadists and nonsadistic sex offenders in the sample. PMID:19605691

  17. Chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghimire SR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shree Ram Ghimire,1 Sarita Parajuli2 1Department of Psychiatry, National Medical College, Birgunj, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Kathmandu National Medical College, Anamnagar, Kathmandu, Nepal Abstract: Chronic organophosphate (OP-induced neuropsychiatric disorder is a rare condition following prolonged exposure to OP compounds. Due to the lack of valid diagnostic tools and criteria, very few cases are seen in clinical practice and are often misdiagnosed. Misdiagnosis can lead to inappropriate treatment that may increase the risk of morbidity or suicidality. In this paper, we present the case of a 35-year-old male who needed support in breathing from a mechanical ventilator and developed neuropsychiatric behavioral problems following ingestion of OP compounds, which lead to suicidality. The patient was treated by the psychiatric team with antipsychotic and antidepressants and improved following the regular use of medication. Keywords: COPIND, mood liability, suicidal thoughts

  18. Temperature changes among organophosphate poisoned patients, Tehran- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaie Haleh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OPs is a major global clinical problem in the developing countries. There have been many animal studies and few human surveys on the effects of organophosphorus pesticide (OP poisoning on thermoregulation. The aim of this prospective study was to document the pattern of tympanic temperature changes among OP poisoned patients throughout the length of their hospital stay. Methods 60 patients with diagnose of organophosphate poisoning were included in this study. Questioner was filled out by trained nurses including demographic, clinical and paraclinical data. Tympanic temperature and Pulse rate data of the cases were collected on five- occasions after admission. Results There were 41 (68.3% male and 19 (31.7% female, with a mean age of 34.4 ±19.4 years (range 13–89 years. Forty five patients had intentional poisoning for suicidal attempt. At the time of entry, the mean tympanic temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic of the OP poisoned patients were respectively 37.1+/−0.6°C (36.0- 39.5, 91+/−18 (55–145, 18+/−5.6 (8–44, 116+/−20 mm Hg (70–170 and 75+/−11.6 mm Hg (40–110. 41.7% of the cases had serum butyryl cholinesterase activities (BChE ≥ 50% normal (≥1600 mU/ml. Our patients had normal temperature at the time entry (mean = 37.1. Tympanic temperature decreasing below 36°C was not detected among the patients during the study period. A rise in mean tympanic temperature was found after atropine administration. Conclusion Our study showed hypothermia was not considerable factor among organophosphate poisoned patients, although more studies with similar situations in tropical countries are needed.

  19. REMOTE BIOSENSOR FOR IN SITU MONITORING OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS. (R823663)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A remote electrochemical biosensor for field monitoring of organophosphate nerve agents is described. The new sensor relies on the coupling of the effective biocatalytic action of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) with a submersible amperometric probe design. This combination resu...

  20. FIBER-OPTIC BIOSENSOR FOR DIRECT DETERMINATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS. (R823663)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fiber-optic enzyme biosensor for the direct measurement of organophosphate nerveagents was developed. The basic element of this biosensor is organophosphorus hydrolaseimmobilized on a nylon membrane and attached to the common end of a bifurcated optical fiberbundle....

  1. INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RAT TO CHLORPYRIFOS, AN ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertension and hypothermia are common symptoms in rats exposed to chlorpyrifos (CHP), an organophosphate (OP)-based pesticide. CHP inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity resulting in central and peripheral stimulation of cholinergic pathways involved in blood pressure ...

  2. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 μmol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 μmol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE-inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  3. Dynamic modeling of organophosphate pesticide load in surface water in the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yuzhou [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, 325000 (China); Zhang Xuyang [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Liu Xingmei [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Ficklin, Darren [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang Minghua [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, 325000 (China)], E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.edu

    2008-12-15

    The hydrology, sediment, and pesticide transport components of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were evaluated on the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for monthly stream flow and sediment load ranged from 0.49 to 0.99 over the watershed during the study period of 1992-2005. The calibrated SWAT model was applied to simulate fate and transport processes of two organophosphate pesticides of diazinon and chlorpyrifos at watershed scale. The model generated satisfactory predictions of dissolved pesticide loads relative to the monitoring data. The model also showed great success in capturing spatial patterns of dissolved diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads according to the soil properties and landscape morphology over the large agricultural watershed. This study indicated that curve number was the major factor influencing the hydrology while pesticide fate and transport were mainly affected by surface runoff and pesticide application and in the study area. - Major factors governing the instream loads of organophosphate pesticides are magnitude and timing of surface runoff and pesticide application.

  4. Comparative Developmental Neurotoxicity of Organophosphate Insecticides: Effects on Brain Development Are Separable from Systemic Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Slotkin, Theodore A.; Levin, Edward D.; Seidler, Frederic J

    2006-01-01

    A comparative approach to the differences between systemic toxicity and developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphates is critical to determine the degree to which multiple mechanisms of toxicity carry across different members of this class of insecticides. We contrasted neuritic outgrowth and cholinergic synaptic development in neonatal rats given different organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, parathion) at doses spanning the threshold for impaired growth and viability. Animals were tr...

  5. Inhalation Exposure of Organophosphate Pesticides by Vegetable Growers in the Bang-Rieng Subdistrict in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Somsiri Jaipieam; Parichart Visuthismajarn; Wattasit Siriwong; Marija Borjan; Mark G. Robson

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated inhalation exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) and evaluated the associated health risks to vegetable growers living in the Bang-Rieng agricultural community. Air samples were collected by using personal sampling pumps with sorbent tubes placed in the vegetable growers' breathing zone. Samples were collected during both wet and dry seasons. Residues of organophosphate pesticides, that is, chlorpyrifos, dicrotofos, and profenofos, were analyzed from 33 veg...

  6. Cumulative Carbon and Anthropocene Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, D.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Solomon, S.

    2010-12-01

    In this presentation we will highlight a few of the key findings of the recently completed National Research Council Study Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations and Impacts over Decades to Millennia (NRC, 2010), and discuss their implications for planetary stewardship. A synthesis of published results shows that the single number which most characterizes the magnitude of the human imprint on the climate of the coming millennia is the net amount of carbon released as CO2 by fossil fuel burning and land use changes during the time over which humanity continues such activities. Details of emissions scenarios are not important; rather it is the net carbon released by the time the emissions have been brought to essentially zero that controls long-term climate changes. In this report, we estimate that global temperatures increase by about 1 degree for approximately every 570 Pg of carbon emitted. Each degree of global temperature change is associated with quantifiable impacts on human and natural systems, including loss of arctic sea ice, decreased productivity of several major food crops, decreased precipitation in dry regions, and increases in area burnt by wildfire. Furthermore, the long timescale of temperature changes due to cumulative carbon emissions entails a lock-in to many centuries of continued sea-level rise, as well as the possibility of substantial contributions to sea-level rise from both Greenland and the West-Antarctic ice sheet. Reductions in methane or other short-lived greenhouse gas emissions can be of benefit in mitigating the near term climate changes, but CO2 is unique among major greenhouse gases in its ability to disrupt climate on multi-millennial time scales. This implies a need for correspondingly special treatment of this gas in emissions control protocols, for example by setting targets for allowable cumulative carbon emissions over time. The authoring committee was composed of Susan Solomon, Chair, David Battisti, Scott

  7. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. PMID:25869185

  8. Cumulants, lattice paths, and orthogonal polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Franz

    2001-01-01

    A formula expressing free cumulants in terms of the Jacobi parameters of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials is derived. It combines Flajolet's theory of continued fractions and Lagrange inversion. For the converse we discuss Gessel-Viennot theory to express Hankel determinants in terms of various cumulants.

  9. Free cumulants and enumeration of connected partitions

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Franz

    2001-01-01

    A combinatorial formula is derived which expresses free cumulants in terms of classical comulants. As a corollary, we give a combinatorial interpretation of free cumulants of classical distributions, notably Gaussian and Poisson distributions. The latter count connected pairings and connected set partitions respectively. The proof relies on Moebius inversion on the partition lattice.

  10. Cumulative Exams in the Introductory Psychology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalie K.

    2013-01-01

    Many teachers require their students to take cumulative exams, but there are surprisingly few studies that examine the benefits of such exams. The purpose of this study was to determine whether introductory psychology students who take cumulative exams throughout the semester would have better long-term retention than students who take a…

  11. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  12. Exposure to organophosphate and cognitive performance in chilean rural school children: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Muñoz Q

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the presence of organophosphate metabolites (OP in the urine of rural schoolchildren and estimate its association with their cognitive performance. Methodology: a cross-sectional exploratory study in which a total of 25 children were assessed. Cognitive functioning was measured using the WISC-III intelligence test. Additionally, the concentration of OP metabolites in their urine was tested. Results: 56% of the children had concentration levels above the detection limit for dimethylphosphate (DMP and dimethyltiophosphate (DMTP. Moreover, 92% of them had the metabolite diethylphosphate (DEP values on this limit. Regarding the WISC-III, the intelligence quotient (IQ values below the average (IQ ˃ 90 correspond to: Total IQ = 60% performance IQ = 64%, verbal IQ = 52%, perceptual organization IQ = 60%, processing speed IQ = 95%, and freedom from distractibility IQ = 64%. An inverse association was found between the processing speed factor and DMTP (rs = -0.44, p = 0.014. Conclusions: results indicate that the rural schoolchildren whose urine was measured with OP metabolite biomarkers had been exposed to OP pesticides. A relationship was observed between the presence of OP metabolites and the cognitive performance factor of the WISC-III test. We believe it is appropriate to evaluate the effects of the presence of OP metabolites on cognitive functioning in a larger sample, while considering other exposure variables.

  13. Effect of stress at dosing on organophosphate and heavy metal toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews recent studies assessing the effect of well-defined, severe, transient stress at dosing on two classical models of toxicity. These are the acute (anticholinesterase) toxicity seen following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos, and the nephrotoxicity elicited by the heavy metal depleted uranium, in rats. Stress was induced by periods of restraint and forced swimming in days to weeks preceding toxicant exposure. Forced swimming was far more stressful, as measured by marked, if transient, elevation of plasma corticosterone. This form of stress was administered immediately prior to administration of chlorpyrifos or depleted uranium. Chlorpyrifos (single 60 mg/kg subcutaneously) elicited marked inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase 4-day post-dosing. Depleted uranium (single intramuscular doses of 0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg uranium) elicited dose-dependent increase in kidney concentration of the metal, with associated injury to proximal tubular epithelium and increases in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during the 30-day post-dosing period. Stress at dosing had no effect on these toxicologic endpoints

  14. Creation of a protective pulmonary bioshield against inhaled organophosphates using an aerosolized bioscavenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Yvonne J; Fink, James B

    2016-06-01

    In addition to the global use of organophosphate (OP) pesticides for agriculture, OP nerve agents and pesticides have been employed on battlefields and by terrorists (e.g., a recent sarin attack in Syria). These occurrences highlight the need for an effective countermeasure against OP exposure. Human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE) is a leading candidate, but injection of the high doses required for protection present pharmacokinetic challenges. An aerosolized recombinant form (aer-rHuBChE) that can neutralize inhaled OPs at the portal of entry has been assessed for its efficacy in protecting macaques against respiratory toxicity following inhalation exposure to the pesticide paraoxon (aer-Px). While protection in macaques has been demonstrated using the MicroSprayer® delivery device, administration to humans will likely employ a vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN). Compared to the 50-70% lung deposition achieved in adult humans with a VMN, deposition in macaques is <5%, an initial major obstacle to demonstrating protection. Such problems have been partly overcome by using a more efficient modified VMN and proportionally higher doses, which together generate an effective rHuBChE pulmonary bioshield and protect against high levels of inhaled Px. PMID:27371808

  15. Inhibition of monocyte esterase activity by organophosphate insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M J; Waters, H C

    1977-11-01

    Organophosphate insecticides, such as Vapona, Naled, and Rabon, are highly potent inhibitors of an enzyme found in human monocytes. The enzyme, a specific monocyte esterase, could be inhibited by Vapona in blood samples via airborne contamination at levels easily achieved from commercial slow-release insecticide strips. Fifty percent inhibition (I50)--as measured on the Hemalog D (Technicon Corp.)--occurred at solution concentrations of 0.22, 1.5, and 2.6 X 10(-6) g/liter for Vapona, Rabon, and Naled, respectively. Parathion (a thiophosphate) and Baygon (a carbamate) were less potent, with I50 values of 3.7 X 10(-5) and 1.5 X 10(-4) g/liter, respectively. Dursban (another thiophosphate) and Carbaryl (a carbamate) showed only marginal inhibition. Eserine, malathion, nicotine and pyrethrum had no inhibitory effect up to 0.5 g/liter. The occurrence of this effect in vivo has not yet been shown, nor is it clear what the implications of such an effect would be. The inhibition of this enzyme by airborne contaminants, however, may interfere with the proper functioning of the Hemalog D. PMID:907842

  16. Symmetric cumulants and event-plane correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Giacalone, Giuliano; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration has recently measured the correlations between amplitudes of anisotropic flow in different Fourier harmonics, referred to as symmetric cumulants. We derive approximate relations between symmetric cumulants involving $v_4$ and $v_5$ and the event-plane correlations measured by ATLAS. The validity of these relations is tested using event-by-event hydrodynamic calculations. The corresponding results are in better agreement with ALICE data than existing hydrodynamic predictions. We make quantitative predictions for three symmetric cumulants which are not yet measured.

  17. Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.

  18. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in...... asymptotic variance. The method is illustrated by an application in a bone marrow transplant study and the finite-sample properties are assessed by simulations....

  19. Studying cumulative cultural evolution in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Christine A; Millen, Ailsa E

    2008-01-01

    Cumulative cultural evolution is the term given to a particular kind of social learning, which allows for the accumulation of modifications over time, involving a ratchet-like effect where successful modifications are maintained until they can be improved upon. There has been great interest in the topic of cumulative cultural evolution from researchers from a wide variety of disciplines, but until recently there were no experimental studies of this phenomenon. Here, we describe our motivation...

  20. Cumulative creep damage for polycarbonate and polysulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Brinson, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The literature for creep to failure cumulative damage laws are reviewed. Creep to failure tests performed on polycarbonate and polysulfone under single and two step loadings are discussed. A cumulative damage law or modified time fraction rule is developed using a power law for transient creep response as the starting point. Experimental results are approximated well by the new rule. Damage and failure mechanisms associated with the two materials are suggested.

  1. Pion interferometry with higher-order cumulants

    OpenAIRE

    Eggers, H. C.; Buschbeck, B.; Lipa, P.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured second- and third-order cumulants in UA1 data ($\\bar pp$ collisions at 630 GeV/c). Rather than quoting numerical values for source parameters, we have used these in three checks to test the ``quantum statistics'' theory for consistency over these cumulants. In the process, we have found a method for folding theoretical correlation functions with experimental one-particle distributions. Our preliminary results appear to indicate that, for the specific tests performed, the data...

  2. Cumulative reproductive effects of in utero administration of mixtures of antiandrogens in male SD rats: synergy or additivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1996 the USEPA was charged under the FQPA to consider the cumulative effects of chemicals in their risk assessments. Our studies were conducted to provide a framework for assessing the cumulative effects of antiandrogens. Toxicants were administered individually or as mixtures...

  3. Oral contraceptive use and impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M T; Jensen, A; Frederiksen, K;

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk.......Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk....

  4. Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lewis G; Vale, Gill L; Laland, Kevin N; Flynn, Emma; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-05-01

    Many animals exhibit social learning and behavioural traditions, but human culture exhibits unparalleled complexity and diversity, and is unambiguously cumulative in character. These similarities and differences have spawned a debate over whether animal traditions and human culture are reliant on homologous or analogous psychological processes. Human cumulative culture combines high-fidelity transmission of cultural knowledge with beneficial modifications to generate a 'ratcheting' in technological complexity, leading to the development of traits far more complex than one individual could invent alone. Claims have been made for cumulative culture in several species of animals, including chimpanzees, orangutans and New Caledonian crows, but these remain contentious. Whilst initial work on the topic of cumulative culture was largely theoretical, employing mathematical methods developed by population biologists, in recent years researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, biology, economics, biological anthropology, linguistics and archaeology, have turned their attention to the experimental investigation of cumulative culture. We review this literature, highlighting advances made in understanding the underlying processes of cumulative culture and emphasising areas of agreement and disagreement amongst investigators in separate fields. PMID:24033987

  5. Cumulative effects of planned industrial development and climate change on marine ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing human population, large scale climate changes, and the interaction of multiple stressors, understanding cumulative effects on marine ecosystems is increasingly important. Two major drivers of change in coastal and marine ecosystems are industrial developments with acute impacts on local ecosystems, and global climate change stressors with widespread impacts. We conducted a cumulative effects mapping analysis of the marine waters of British Columbia, Canada, under different scenarios: climate change and planned developments. At the coast-wide scale, climate change drove the largest change in cumulative effects with both widespread impacts and high vulnerability scores. Where the impacts of planned developments occur, planned industrial and pipeline activities had high cumulative effects, but the footprint of these effects was comparatively localized. Nearshore habitats were at greatest risk from planned industrial and pipeline activities; in particular, the impacts of planned pipelines on rocky intertidal habitats were predicted to cause the highest change in cumulative effects. This method of incorporating planned industrial development in cumulative effects mapping allows explicit comparison of different scenarios with the potential to be used in environmental impact assessments at various scales. Its use allows resource managers to consider cumulative effect hotspots when making decisions regarding industrial developments and avoid unacceptable cumulative effects. Management needs to consider both global and local stressors in managing marine ecosystems for the protection of biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  6. Cumulants in noncommutative probability I. Noncommutative Exchangeability Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Franz

    2002-01-01

    Cumulants linearize convolution of measures. We use a formula of Good to define noncommutative cumulants in a very general setting.It turns out that the essential property needed is exchangeability of random variables. Roughly speaking the formula says that cumulants are moments of a certain ``discrete Fourier transform'' of a random variable. This provides a simple unified method to understand the known examples of cumulants, like classical, free cumulants and various q-cumulants.

  7. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa;

    2015-01-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme...... that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic...... cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  8. Cumulative processes and quark distribution in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming existence of multiquark (mainly 12q) bags in nuclei the spectra of cumulative nucleons and mesons produced in high-energy particle-nucleus collisions are discussed. The exponential form of quark momentum distribution in 12q-bag (agreeing well with the experimental data on lepton-nucleus interactions at large q2) is shown to result in quasi-exponential distribution of cumulative particles over the light-cone variable αsub(B). The dependence of f(αsub(B); psub(perpendicular)) (where psub(perpendicular) is the transverse momentum of the bag) upon psub(perpendicular) is considered. The yields of cumulative resonances as well as effects related to the u- and d-quark distributions in N > Z nuclei being different are dicscussed

  9. Exact cumulant Kramers-Moyal-like expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, W. A. M.

    2015-11-01

    We derive an exact equation, a Cumulant Kramers-Moyal Equation (CKME), quite similar to the Kramers-Moyal Equation (KME), for the probability distribution of a Markovian dynamical system. It can be applied to any well behaved (converging cumulants) continuous time systems, such as Langevin equations or other models. An interesting but significant difference with respect to the KME is that their jump-moments are proportional to cumulants of the dynamical variables, but not proportional to central moments, as is the case for the KME. In fact, they still obey a weaker version of Pawula's theorem, namely Marcinkiewicz's theorem. We compare the results derived from the equations herein with the ones obtained by computing via Gaussian and biased, and unbiased, Poisson Langevin dynamics and a Poisson non-Langevin model. We obtain the exact CKME time-evolution equation for the systems, and in several cases, those are distinct from the Fokker-Planck equation or the KME.

  10. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  11. Evaluation of two passive samplers for the analysis of organophosphate esters in the ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruirui; Lin, Yongfeng; Liu, Runzeng; Hu, Fanbao; Ruan, Ting; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-01-15

    Both polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent-impregnated PUF (SIP) passive air sampling (PAS) methods were deployed and compared separately for the analysis of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in outdoor atmospheric environment. During an continuous period of 84 days, parallel samples were also collected by a high-volume active air sampler (HV-AAS) to assess the contamination levels and to calibrate uptake parameters of PAS. The total concentration of OPEs in both particulate and gaseous phases ranged from 1.50 to 5.64ng m(-3) in ambient air. Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) was the dominating analog, representing 78±9% of total OPE concentration. SIP-PAS showed longer linear-phase sampling period for TCPP, and accumulated more amount of the most volatile triethyl phosphate (TEP) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) homologues, while similar sorption performances of both PAS methods were found for most of the semi-volatile OPEs. Linear sampling rates in PUF-PAS and SIP-PAS disks were calculated for individual OPEs except for TEP and TBP, and the average uptake rates (3.3±1.1 and 3.5±1.7m(3)d(-1), respectively) were close to the acknowledged value (4m(-3)d(-1)) for persistent organic pollutants. Besides, isotopic labeled D15-Triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) could be used as a viable depuration compound to calculate site-specific sampling rates of OPEs, with a linear loss of up to ∼60% at the end of deployment time. PMID:26592578

  12. Efficient formulas for efficiency correction of cumulants

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo

    2016-01-01

    We derive formulas which connect cumulants of particle numbers observed with efficiency losses with the original ones based on the binomial model. These formulas can describe the case with multiple efficiencies in a compact form. Compared with the presently suggested ones based on factorial moments, these formulas would drastically reduce the numerical cost for efficiency corrections when the order of the cumulant and the number of different efficiencies are large. The efficiency correction with realistic $p_T$-dependent efficiency would be carried out with the aid of these formulas.

  13. RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE USE AND URINARY ORGANOPHOSPHATE METABOLITES IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential Pesticide Use and Urinary Organophosphate Metabolites in Pre-School ChildrenCL Carty1, P Mendola1, D Barr2, L Needham2, D Walsh11Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S....

  14. BIOSENSOR FOR DIRECT DETERMINATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS. 1. POTENTIOMETRIC ENZYME ELECTRODE. (R823663)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A potentiometric enzyme electrode for the direct measurement of organophosphate (OP)nerve agents was developed. The basic element of this enzyme electrode was a pH electrodemodified with an immobilized organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) layer formed by cross-linkingOPH ...

  15. DETERMINING ACTIVE OXIDANT SPECIES REACTING WITH ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES IN CHLORINATED DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorpyrifos (CP) is an organophosphate (OP) pesticide that was used as a model compound to investigate the transformation of OP pesticides at low pH and in the presence of bromide and natural organic matter (NOM) under drinking water treatment conditions. Raman spectroscopy was...

  16. Role of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in organophosphate metabolism: Implications in neurodegenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphate pesticides are a class of compounds that are widely used in agricultural and rural areas. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a phase-I enzyme that is involved in the hydrolysis of organophosphate esters. Environmental poisoning by organophosphate compounds has been the main driving force of previous research on PON1 enzymes. Recent discoveries in animal models have revealed the important role of the enzyme in lipid metabolism. However although PON1 function is well established in experimental models, the contribution of PON1 in neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. In this minireview we summarize the involvement of PON1 genotypes in the occurrence of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A brief overview of latest epidemiological studies, regarding the two most important PON1 coding region polymorphisms PON1-L55M and PON1-Q192R is presented. Positive and negative associations of PON1 with disease occurrence are reported. Notably the MM and RR alleles contribute a risk enhancing effect for the development of some neurodegenerative diseases, which may be explained by the reduced lipoprotein free radical scavenging activity that may give rise to neuronal damage, through distinct mechanism. Conflicting findings that fail to support this postulate may represent the human population ethnic heterogeneity, different sample size and environmental parameters affecting PON1 status. We conclude that further epidemiological studies are required in order to address the exact contribution of PON1 genome in combination with organophosphate exposure in populations with neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. CAN FLU-LIKE ILLNESS BE AN INDICATION OF RECENT ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can flu-like illness be an indication of recent organophosphate pesticide exposure in preschool children? P Mendola*, D Barr, D Walsh, S Hern, S Rhoney, L Needham, E Hilborn, M Gonzales, C Carty, G Robertson, J Creason (US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)<...

  18. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition as an indicator of organophosphate and carbamate poisoning in Kenyan agricultural workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayo-Mitoko, G.J.A.; Heederik, D.; Kromhout, H.; Omondi, B.E.O.; Boleij, J.S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was determined for 666 Kenyan agricultural workers; 390 (58.6%) mainly pesticide applicators exposed to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides and 276 (41.4%) unexposed controls from four rural agricultural areas during 1993 and 1994. Baseline levels were depressed

  19. Distribution of ace-1R and resistance to carbamates and organophosphates in Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations from Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahoua Alou Ludovic P

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s. is a critical issue for malaria vector control based on the use of insecticide-treated nets. Carbamates and organophosphates insecticides are regarded as alternatives or supplements to pyrethroids used in nets treatment. It is, therefore, essential to investigate on the susceptibility of pyrethroid resistant populations of An. gambiae s.s. to these alternative products. Methods In September 2004, a cross sectional survey was conducted in six localities in Côte d'Ivoire: Toumbokro, Yamoussoukro, Toumodi in the Southern Guinea savannah, Tiassalé in semi-deciduous forest, then Nieky and Abidjan in evergreen forest area. An. gambiae populations from these localities were previously reported to be highly resistant to pyrethroids insecticides. Anopheline larvae were collected from the field and reared to adults. Resistance/susceptibility to carbamates (0.4% carbosulfan, 0.1% propoxur and organophosphates (0.4% chlorpyrifos-methyl, 1% fenitrothion was assessed using WHO bioassay test kits for adult mosquitoes. Then, PCR assays were run to determine the molecular forms (M and (S, as well as phenotypes for insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE1 due to G119S mutation. Results Bioassays showed carbamates (carbosulfan and propoxur resistance in all tested populations of An. gambiae s.s. In addition, two out of the six tested populations (Toumodi and Tiassalé were also resistant to organophosphates (mortality rates ranged from 29.5% to 93.3%. The M-form was predominant in tested samples (91.8%. M and S molecular forms were sympatric at two localities but no M/S hybrids were detected. The highest proportion of S-form (7.9% of An. gambiae identified was in sample from Toumbokro, in the southern Guinea savannah. The G119S mutation was found in both M and S molecular forms with frequency from 30.9 to 35.2%. Conclusion This study revealed a wide distribution of insensitive

  20. Cumulative Intertrial Inhibition in Repeated Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    In the present study the author examined visual search when the items remain visible across trials but the location of the target varies. Reaction times for inefficient search cumulatively increased with increasing numbers of repeated search trials, suggesting that inhibition for distractors carried over successive trials. This intertrial…

  1. Bounds for the cumulative conditional expectation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce the concept of cumulative conditional expectation function. This is a quantity that provides statistical support for making decisions in applied problems. The goal of this paper is to find an analytical expression for upper and lower bounds of this function, assuming stochastic dependence types as being the underlying random structure

  2. Bounds for the cumulative conditional expectation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, M.; González-López, V. A. [University of Campinas (Brazil)

    2015-03-10

    We introduce the concept of cumulative conditional expectation function. This is a quantity that provides statistical support for making decisions in applied problems. The goal of this paper is to find an analytical expression for upper and lower bounds of this function, assuming stochastic dependence types as being the underlying random structure.

  3. Confidence bounds on an empirical cumulative distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods are developed for using data from an empirical cumulative distribution function (CDF) to generate, at each point in the range of the data an upper confidence bound on the estimated value of the underlying CDF. Applications are demonstrated where a confidence bound is applied to the empirical distribution of maximum effective annual dose equivalent obtained from a set of Monte Carlo simulations in an environmental assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal. This bound can then be used to compare the empirical dose CDF with possible regulatory guidelines for dose from a disposal facility. Methods presented in the report can be used to select the number of simulations needed to meet such guidelines

  4. A single method for detecting 11 organophosphate pesticides in human plasma and breastmilk using GC-FPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naksen, Warangkana; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Mangklabruks, Ampica; Chantara, Somporn; Thavornyutikarn, Prasak; Robson, Mark G; Ryan, P Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Panuwet, Parinya

    2016-07-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are widely used for crop protection in many countries including Thailand. Aside from causing environmental contamination, they affect human health especially by over-stimulating of the neurotransmission system. OP pesticides, as with other non-persistent pesticides, degrade quickly in the environment as well as are metabolized quite rapidly in humans. Assessing human exposures to these compounds requires analytical methods that are sensitive, robust, and most importantly, suitable for specific laboratory settings. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical method for measuring 11 OP pesticide residues in human plasma and breast milk. Analytes in both plasma and breast milk samples were extracted with acetone and methylene chloride, cleaned-up using aminopropyl solid phase extraction cartridges, and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. The optimized method exhibited good linearity, with the coefficients of determination of 0.996-0.999 and Mai Province to determine the suitability of this method for occupational exposure assessment. Of the 11 pesticides measured, seven were detected in plasma samples and five were detected in breast milk samples. Mass spectrometry was used to confirm results. Overall, this method is rapid and reliable. It offers the laboratories with limited access to mass spectrometry a capacity to investigate levels OP pesticides in plasma and breastmilk in those occupationally exposed for health risk assessment. PMID:27232054

  5. Developmental Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants Elicits Overt Toxicity and Alters Behavior in Early Life Stage Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Dishaw, Laura V.; Hunter, Deborah L.; Padnos, Beth; Padilla, Stephanie; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are common replacements for the phased-out polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and have been detected at high concentrations in environmental samples. OPFRs are structurally similar to organophosphate pesticides and may adversely affect the developing nervous system. This study evaluated the overt toxicity, uptake, and neurobehavioral effects of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-p...

  6. Extending the relationship between global warming and cumulative carbon emissions to multi-millennial timescales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE) is a highly policy-relevant quantity in climate science. The TCRE suggests that peak warming is linearly proportional to cumulative carbon emissions and nearly independent of the emissions scenario. Here, we use simulations of the Earth System Model (ESM) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) to show that global mean surface temperature may increase by 0.5 °C after carbon emissions are stopped at 2 °C global warming, implying an increase in the coefficient relating global warming to cumulative carbon emissions on multi-centennial timescales. The simulations also suggest a 20% lower quota on cumulative carbon emissions allowed to achieve a policy-driven limit on global warming. ESM estimates from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5–ESMs) qualitatively agree on this result, whereas Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) simulations, used in the IPCC 5th assessment report to assess the robustness of TCRE on multi-centennial timescales, suggest a post-emissions decrease in temperature. The reason for this discrepancy lies in the smaller simulated realized warming fraction in CMIP5–ESMs, including GFDL ESM2M, than in EMICs when carbon emissions increase. The temperature response to cumulative carbon emissions can be characterized by three different phases and the linear TCRE framework is only valid during the first phase when carbon emissions increase. For longer timescales, when emissions tape off, two new metrics are introduced that better characterize the time-dependent temperature response to cumulative carbon emissions: the equilibrium climate response to cumulative carbon emissions and the multi-millennial climate response to cumulative carbon emissions. (letter)

  7. Cumulative keyboard strokes: a possible risk factor for carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheriou Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contradictory reports have been published regarding the association of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS and the use of computer keyboard. Previous studies did not take into account the cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes among computer workers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cumulative keyboard use (keyboard strokes and CTS. Methods Employees (461 from a Governmental data entry & processing unit agreed to participate (response rate: 84.1 % in a cross-sectional study. Α questionnaire was distributed to the participants to obtain information on socio-demographics and risk factors for CTS. The participants were examined for signs and symptoms related to CTS and were asked if they had previous history or surgery for CTS. The cumulative amount of the keyboard strokes per worker per year was calculated by the use of payroll’s registry. Two case definitions for CTS were used. The first included subjects with personal history/surgery for CTS while the second included subjects that belonged to the first case definition plus those participants were identified through clinical examination. Results Multivariate analysis used for both case definitions, indicated that those employees with high cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes were at increased risk of CTS (case definition A: OR = 2.23;95 % CI = 1.09-4.52 and case definition B: OR = 2.41; 95%CI = 1.36-4.25. A dose response pattern between cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes and CTS has been revealed (p  Conclusions The present study indicated a possible association between cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes and development of CTS. Cumulative exposure to key-board strokes would be taken into account as an exposure indicator regarding exposure assessment of computer workers. Further research is needed in order to test the results of the current study and assess causality between cumulative keyboard strokes and

  8. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming; Condarco, Guido; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2014-01-01

    investigate an association between exposure to pyrethroids and abnormal glucose regulation (prediabetes or diabetes). A cross-sectional study was performed among 116 pesticide sprayers from public vector control programs in Bolivia and 92 nonexposed controls. Pesticide exposure (duration, intensity...... pyrethroids, a significant positive trend was observed between cumulative pesticide exposure (total number of hours sprayed) and adjusted OR of abnormal glucose regulation, with OR 14.7 [0.9-235] in the third exposure quintile. The study found a severely increased prevalence of prediabetes among Bolivian...... pesticide sprayers compared with a control group, but the relevance of the control group is critical. Within the spraying group, an association between cumulative exposure to pyrethroids and abnormal glucose regulation was seen. Further studies are needed to confirm this association....

  9. Localized and cumulative nonlinearity in wind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joel

    2003-10-01

    Nonlinearities are very common in wind instruments. A crucial one localized at the input of the wind instrument is responsible for the sound production mechanism. As an illustration, some recent measurements done at clarinet mouthpieces will be shown. Some other localized nonlinear effects take place at the open tube ends. They imply extra losses whose amount depends on the internal geometry of the termination. They control the sound extinction phenomena. It will be shown how the playing range of a clarinet-like instrument is determined by these extra losses. Besides localized nonlinearity, cumulative nonlinearity effects are present as well. The cumulative nonlinear propagation phenomena along the tube of brass instruments can lead to shock waves obtained when the player is playing very loudly with a ``brassy sound.''

  10. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  11. Fluorescence Spectroscopy Approaches for the Development of a Real-Time Organophosphate Detection System Using an Enzymatic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Carullo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates are organic substances that contain a phosphoryl or a thiophosphoryl bond. They are mainly used around the world as pesticides, but can also be used as chemical warfare agents. Their detection is normally entrusted to techniques like GC- and LC-MS that, although sensitive, do not allow their identification on site and in real time. We have approached their identification by exploiting the high-affinity binding of these compounds with the esterase 2 from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius. Using an in silico analysis to evaluate the binding affinities of the enzyme with organophosphate inhibitors, like paraoxon, and other organophosphate compounds, like parathion, chlorpyriphos, and other organophosphate thio-derivatives, we have designed fluorescence spectroscopy experiments to study the quenching of the tryptophan residues after esterase 2 binding with the organophosphate pesticides. The changes in the fluorescence signals permitted an immediate and quantitative identification of these compounds from nano- to picomolar concentrations. A fluorescence based polarity-sensitive probe (ANS was also employed as a means to understand the extent of the interactions involved, as well as to explore other ways to detect organophosphate pesticides. Finally, we designed a framework for the development of a biosensor that exploits fluorescence technology in combination with a sensitive and very stable bio-receptor.

  12. Fluorescence spectroscopy approaches for the development of a real-time organophosphate detection system using an enzymatic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carullo, Paola; Cetrangolo, Giovanni Paolo; Mandrich, Luigi; Manco, Giuseppe; Febbraio, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphates are organic substances that contain a phosphoryl or a thiophosphoryl bond. They are mainly used around the world as pesticides, but can also be used as chemical warfare agents. Their detection is normally entrusted to techniques like GC- and LC-MS that, although sensitive, do not allow their identification on site and in real time. We have approached their identification by exploiting the high-affinity binding of these compounds with the esterase 2 from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius. Using an in silico analysis to evaluate the binding affinities of the enzyme with organophosphate inhibitors, like paraoxon, and other organophosphate compounds, like parathion, chlorpyriphos, and other organophosphate thio-derivatives, we have designed fluorescence spectroscopy experiments to study the quenching of the tryptophan residues after esterase 2 binding with the organophosphate pesticides. The changes in the fluorescence signals permitted an immediate and quantitative identification of these compounds from nano- to picomolar concentrations. A fluorescence based polarity-sensitive probe (ANS) was also employed as a means to understand the extent of the interactions involved, as well as to explore other ways to detect organophosphate pesticides. Finally, we designed a framework for the development of a biosensor that exploits fluorescence technology in combination with a sensitive and very stable bio-receptor. PMID:25671511

  13. An Observational Study to Evaluate Associations Between Low-Level Gestational Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Cognition During Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donauer, Stephanie; Altaye, Mekibib; Xu, Yingying; Sucharew, Heidi; Succop, Paul; Calafat, Antonia M; Khoury, Jane C; Lanphear, Bruce; Yolton, Kimberly

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides, which is ubiquitous, may be detrimental to neurological development. We examined 327 mother/infant pairs in Cincinnati, Ohio, between 2003 and 2006 to determine associations between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and neurodevelopment. Twice during pregnancy urinary concentrations of 6 common dialkylphosphates, nonspecific metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, were measured. Aggregate concentrations of diethylphosphates, dimethylphosphates, and total dialkylphosphates were calculated. Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition-Mental and Psychomotor Developmental indices were administered at ages 1, 2, and 3 years, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition, at age 4, and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition, at age 5. Mothers with higher urinary total dialkylphosphate concentrations reported higher levels of socioeconomic status and increased fresh fruit and vegetable intake. We found no associations between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and cognition at 1-5 years of age. In our cohort, exposure to organophosphate pesticides during pregnancy was not associated with cognition during early childhood. It is possible that a higher socioeconomic status and healthier diet may protect the fetus from potential adverse associations with gestational organophosphate pesticide exposure, or that dietary exposure to the metabolites is innocuous and not an ideal measure of exposure to the parent compound. PMID:27539379

  14. Improved estimation in cumulative link models

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmidis, I.

    2014-01-01

    For the estimation of cumulative link models for ordinal data, the bias-reducing adjusted score equations in \\citet{firth:93} are obtained, whose solution ensures an estimator with smaller asymptotic bias than the maximum likelihood estimator. Their form suggests a parameter-dependent adjustment of the multinomial counts, which, in turn suggests the solution of the adjusted score equations through iterated maximum likelihood fits on adjusted counts, greatly facilitating implementation. Like t...

  15. Complexity and Demographic Explanations of Cumulative Culture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing— while favoured by increasing—population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limite...

  16. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Olazarán, J.; Trincado, R.; Bermejo-Pareja, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), with control of vascular factors (VFs). Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (n...

  17. Evolutionary Optimization with Cumulative Step Length Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Dirk V.; Beyer, Hans-Georg

    2003-01-01

    Iterative algorithms for numerical optimization in continuous spaces typically need to adapt their step lengths in the course of the search. While some strategies employ fixed schedules for reducing the step lengths over time, others attempt to adapt interactively in response to either the outcome of trial steps or to the history of the search process. Evolutionary algorithms are of the latter kind. One of the control strategies that is commonly used in evolution strategies is the cumulative ...

  18. Cumulative effects in Swedish EIA practice - difficulties and obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of considering cumulative effects (CE) in the context of environmental assessment is manifested in the EU regulations. The demands on the contents of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) documents explicitly ask for CE to be described. In Swedish environmental assessment documents CE are rarely described or included. The aim of this paper is to look into the reasons behind this fact in the Swedish context. The paper describes and analyse how actors implementing the EIA and SEA legislation in Sweden perceive the current situation in relation to the legislative demands and the inclusion of cumulative effects. Through semi-structured interviews the following questions have been explored: Is the phenomenon of CE discussed and included in the EIA/SEA process? What do the actors include in and what is their knowledge of the term and concept of CE? Which difficulties and obstacles do these actors experience and what possibilities for inclusion of CE do they see in the EIA/SEA process? A large number of obstacles and hindrances emerged from the interviews conducted. It can be concluded from the analysis that the will to act does seem to exist. A lack of knowledge in respect of how to include cumulative effects and a lack of clear regulations concerning how this should be done seem to be perceived as the main obstacles. The knowledge of the term and the phenomenon is furthermore quite narrow and not all encompassing. They experience that there is a lack of procedures in place. They also seem to lack knowledge of methods in relation to how to actually work, in practice, with CE and how to include CE in the EIA/SEA process. It can be stated that the existence of this poor picture in relation to practice concerning CE in the context of impact assessment mirrors the existing and so far rather vague demands in respect of the inclusion and assessment of CE in Swedish EIA and SEA legislation, regulations, guidelines and

  19. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-xiao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.

  20. Prenatal organophosphates exposure alternates the cleavage plane orientation of apical neural progenitor in developing neocortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Chen

    Full Text Available Prenatal organophosphate exposure elicits long-term brain cytoarchitecture and cognitive function impairments, but the mechanism underlying the onset and development of neural progenitors remain largely unclear. Using precise positioned brain slices, we observed an alternated cleavage plane bias that emerged in the mitotic neural progenitors of embryonal neocortex with diazinion (DZN and chlorpyrifos (CPF pretreatment. In comparison with the control, DZN and CPF treatment induced decrease of vertical orientation, increase of oblique orientation, and increase of horizontal orientation. That is, the cleavage plane orientation bias had been rotated from vertical to horizontal after DZN and CPF treatment. Meanwhile, general morphology and mitotic index of the progenitors were unchanged. Acephate (ACP, another common organophosphate, had no significant effects on the cleavage plane orientation, cell morphology and mitotic index. These results represent direct evidence for the toxicity mechanism in onset multiplication of neural progenitors.

  1. Early-life Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Pediatric Respiratory Symptoms in the CHAMACOS Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Raanan, Rachel; Harley, Kim G.; Balmes, John R.; Bradman, Asa; Lipsett, Michael; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although pesticide use is widespread, the possible effect of early-life exposure to organophosphate (OP) on pediatric respiratory health is not well described. Objectives: We investigated the relationship between early-life exposure to OPs and respiratory outcomes. Methods: Participants included 359 mothers and children from the CHAMACOS birth cohort. Dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, specifically diethyl (DE) and dimethyl (DM) phosphate metabolites, were measu...

  2. Neuropsychological and psychiatric functioning in sheep farmers exposed to low levels of organophosphate pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie Ross, Sarah Jane; Brewin, Chris Ray; Curran, Helen Valerie; Furlong, Clement Eugene; Abraham-Smith, Kelly Michelle; Harrison, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The study aim was to determine whether low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) causes neuropsychological or psychiatric impairment. Methodological weaknesses of earlier studies were addressed by: recruiting participants who had retired on ill health grounds; excluding participants with a history of acute poisoning, medical or psychiatric conditions that might account for ill health; and exploring factors which may render some individuals more vulnerable to the effects of OPs th...

  3. Picogram per liter detections of pyrethroids and organophosphates in surface waters using passive sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschet, Christoph; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Seiz, Remo; Pfefferli, Hildegard; Hollender, Juliane

    2014-12-01

    Pyrethroids and organophosphates are among the most toxic insecticides for aquatic organisms, leading to annual-average environmental quality standards (AA-EQS) in the picogram per liter range in surface waters. For monitoring purposes, it is therefore crucial to develop very sensitive analytical methods. Until now, it is very difficult to reach detection limits at or below given AA-EQSs. Here, we present a passive sampling method using silicone rubber (SR) sheets for the sampling of ten pyrethroids and two organophosphates in surface waters. An analytical method was developed, optimized and validated for the extraction of the insecticides from the SR sheets by accelerated solvent extraction followed by clean-up on C18 and silica gel and detection with GC-MS/MS in positive ionization mode. Good precision (50%) was observed for all substances, accuracy was between 66% and 139%. Limits of detection between 6 and 200 pg/L were achieved for all substances in surface waters using average sampling rates for PCBs and PAHs. The lack of substance-specific sampling rates and missing performance reference compounds led to an uncertainty in the concentration estimation of factor three in both directions. In a large field study, comprising 40 environmental samples from nine Swiss rivers, eight out of 12 substances were detected (most frequently: chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin). Most of the estimated organophosphate concentrations were between 0.1 and 1 ng/L, most pyrethroid detections below 0.1 ng/L. Four substances (chlorpyrifos-methyl, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) showed exceedances of their respective AA-EQS in multiple samples, also when the uncertainties in the concentration estimation were considered. As pyrethroid and organophosphate detection by SR passive sampling is very practicable and allows sensitive analysis, it has the potential to become a new tool in the monitoring of non-polar pesticides. PMID:25240608

  4. Bioactive Paper Sensor Based on the Acetylcholinesterase for the Rapid Detection of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, people are becoming more concerned about pesticide residues which are present in or on food and feed products. For this reason, several methods have been developed to monitor the pesticide residue levels in food samples. In this study, a bioactive paper-based sensor was developed for detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors including organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Based on the Ellman colorimetric assay, the assay strip is composed of a paper support (1...

  5. Organophosphate Poisoning-Induced Intermediate Syndrome: Can Electrophysiological Changes Help Predict Outcome?

    OpenAIRE

    Jayawardane, Pradeepa; Dawson, Andrew H; Weerasinghe, Vajira; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nicholas A.; Senanayake, Nimal

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Each year, many thousands of deaths around the world are caused by pesticide poisoning. Often, the pesticide involved is an organophosphate. These highly toxic compounds, which are widely used in agriculture, particularly in developing countries, disrupt the transmission of messages from the brain to the body in insect pests and in people. The brain controls body movements by sending electrical impulses along nerve cells (neurons). At the end of the neurons, these...

  6. Management of exogenous intoxication by carbamates and organophosphates at an emergency unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney Correia Leão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objectives: to evaluate and indicate the procedure to be followed in the health unit, both for diagnosis and the treatment of acute exogenous intoxications by carbamates or organophosphates. Methods: a descriptive study based on retrospective analysis of the clinical history of patients diagnosed with intoxication by carbamates or organophosphates admitted at the emergency unit of the Hospital de Urgências de Sergipe Governador João Alves (HUSE between January and December of 2012. Some criteria were evaluated, such as: intoxicating agent; patient's age and gender; place of event, cause, circumstances and severity of the intoxication; as well as signs and symptoms of the muscarinic, nicotinic and neurological effects. Results: seventy patients (average age: 25±19.97 formed the study's population. It was observed that 77.14% of them suffered carbamate intoxication. However, organophosphate intoxications were more severe, with 68.75% of patients presenting moderate to severe forms. Suicide attempt was the leading cause of poisoning, with 62 cases (88.57% of total. Atropine administration was an effective therapeutic approach for treating signs and symptoms, which included sialorrhea (p=0.0006, nausea (p=0. 0029 and emesis (p lt0.0001. The use of activated charcoal was shown effective, both in combating the signs and symptoms presented by both patient groups (p <0.0001. Conclusion: it is concluded that the use of atropine and activated charcoal is highly effective to treat the signs and symptoms developed by patients presenting acute exogenous intoxication by carbamates or organophosphates.

  7. Correlating Agricultural Use of Organophosphates with Outdoor Air Concentrations: A Particular Concern for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Harnly, Martha; McLaughlin, Robert; Bradman, Asa; Anderson, Meredith; Gunier, Robert

    2005-01-01

    For the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos, median inhalation noncancer, acute children’s exposures in agricultural communities are elevated above reference doses; for diazinon, similar exposures are nearly elevated. We used multivariate linear regression analysis to examine the temporal and spatial associations between agricultural use and measured air concentrations of chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos oxon, diazinon, and malathion. Agricultural use within a 3-mile radius on the monitoring day...

  8. Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy: case report Neuropatia tardia por organofosforado: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe R Vasconcellos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN is an uncommon clinical condition. It occurs in association with the ingestion of great amounts of organophosphate after the stimulation of cholinergic receptor. The clinical picture is characterized by a distal paresis in lower limbs associated with sensitive symptoms. Electrodiagnostic studies show a motor axonal neuropathy. Involvement of the central nervous system may occur. We describe a 39 years-old female patient who developed hyperesthesia associated with lower limbs paresis, fourteen days after she had ingested a Dichlorvos-based insecticide. Electrophysiological study was characterized by an axonal polyneuropathy pattern. Pyramidal tract dysfunction was observed later in upper limbs. Considering that both peripheral and central nervous systems are involved we believe that the more appropriated term would be organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN instead of organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP.A neuropatia tardia dos organofosforados (NTOF é condição clinica incomum. Geralmente ocorre após a intoxicação aguda por organofosforados, seguindo-se a fase de hiperestimulação colinérgica. O quadro clínico é caracterizado por déficit motor distal nos membros inferiores associado a sintomas sensitivos. O estudo eletroneuromiográfico tem demonstrado padrão axonal motor na maioria dos casos. Podem ocorrer sinais de comprometimento do sistema nervoso central. Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 39 anos que ingeriu inseticida a base de Dichlorvos e quatorze dias após apresentou quadro de hiperestesia associado a paresia distal nos membros inferiores. Realizou eletroneuromiografia que se caracterizou por padrão compatível com polineuropatia axonal. Sinais piramidais, de aparecimento mais tardio, foram observados nos membros superiores. Diante do comprometimento do sistema nervoso periférico e central, também consideramos o termo neuropatia tardia por

  9. Interaction between organophosphate pesticide exposure and PON1 activity on thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphate pesticides are widely used in agricultural purposes. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated the ability of these chemicals to alter the function of the thyroid gland in human. Moreover, the paraoxonase-1 enzyme (PON1) plays an important role in the toxicity of some organophosphate pesticides, with low PON1 activity being associated with higher pesticide sensitivity. This study evaluates the interaction between exposure to organophosphate compounds and PON1 enzyme activity on serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones in a population of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides. A longitudinal study was conducted on a population of floriculture workers from Mexico, during two periods of high and low-intensity levels of pesticide application. A structured questionnaire was completed by workers containing questions on sociodemographic characteristics and other variables of interest. Urine and blood samples were taken, and biomarkers of exposure (dialkylphosphates), susceptibility (PON1 polymorphisms and activity) and effect (thyroid hormone levels) were determined. Interaction between dialkylphosphates and PON1 polymorphisms or PON1 activity on hormone levels was evaluated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. A significant interaction was found between serum diazoxonase activity and total dialkylphosphates (ΣDAP) on TSH levels. Thus, when PON1 activity was increased we observed a decrease in the percentage of variation of TSH level for each increment in one logarithmic unit of the ΣDAP levels. This interaction was also observed with the PON1192RR genotype. These results suggest a stronger association between organophosphate pesticides and thyroid function in individuals with lower PON1 activity.

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Reciprocal Social Behavior in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Furlong, Melissa A.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Wolff, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood, including low IQ, Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), attention problems and ADHD. Many of these disorders involve impairments in social functioning. Thus, we investigated the relationship between biomarkers of prenatal OP exposure and impaired reciprocal social behavior in childhood, as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Using a multi-ethnic urb...

  11. Detection of resistance to the organophosphate insecticide in wild populations of medfly Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the wild medfly resistance of the organophosphate insecticide is evaluated by the physiologic mechanism of resistance including the Acethylcholinesterase enzyme. Different representative populations of Ceratitis were collected from different regions of Tunisia. The analysis statistics (ACP) for DL50 and the treatment frequency showed a negative correlation between them. The gene ace was amplified at the level of the exons 4, 5, 6 et 7 by PCR. No mutation of the gene ace was identified with the collected individuals.

  12. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF DENGUE HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER VECTOR (Aedes aegypti AGAINST ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDES (MALATHION AND TEMEPHOS IN SOME DISTRICTS OF YOGYAKARTA AND CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Tri Boewono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available SUSCEPTIBILITY OF DENGUE HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER VECTOR (Aedes aegypti AGAINST ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDES (MALATHION AND TEMEPHOS IN SOME DISTRICTS OF YOGYAKARTA AND CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCES

  13. Spectroscopic Methods for the Detection of Organophosphate Pesticides – A Preview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are the ester forms of phosphoric acid usually considered as secure for agriculture uses due to their relatively fast degradation rates. Organophosphorus pesticides have been extensively used in the area of agriculture to manage insect or pests of a number of economically important crops. Organophosphate pesticides are well-known as the inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase activity, not in insects only, but can also affect the nervous system of other organisms as well as humans. Organophosphorus pesticides are not restricted to anticholinesterase action, but comprise genotoxicity and teratogenicity including other environmental and ecological adverse impact. Such severe health and ecological consequences signify a requirement for a better understanding of the fate of organophosphates in the environment. By kept all these things in mind we have written a review on organophosphorus pesticides. In this review we have previewed the different methods of spectroscopic methods of detection including UV-visible, X-ray, Mass analysis, NMR, electrochemical analysis (sensor based and FTIR. Among all these mass and electrochemical studies were flourished till date and considered as advanced techniques for the analysis of other pesticides also.

  14. Recursive Numerical Evaluation of the Cumulative Bivariate Normal Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Meyer

    2013-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for evaluation of the cumulative bivariate normal distribution, building upon Marsaglia's ideas for evaluation of the cumulative univariate normal distribution. The algorithm is mathematically transparent, delivers competitive performance and can easily be extended to arbitrary precision.

  15. Earth system responses to cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.

    2015-07-01

    Information on the relationship between cumulative fossil carbon emissions and multiple climate targets are essential to design emission mitigation and climate adaptation strategies. In this study, the transient responses in different climate variables are quantified for a large set of multi-forcing scenarios extended to year 2300 towards stabilization and in idealized experiments using the Bern3D-LPJ carbon-climate model. The model outcomes are constrained by 26 physical and biogeochemical observational data sets in a Bayesian, Monte-Carlo type framework. Cumulative fossil emissions of 1000 Gt C result in a global mean surface air temperature change of 1.88 °C (68 % confidence interval (c.i.): 1.28 to 2.69 °C), a decrease in surface ocean pH of 0.19 (0.18 to 0.22), and in steric sea level rise of 20 cm (13 to 27 cm until 2300). Linearity between cumulative emissions and transient response is high for pH and reasonably high for surface air and sea surface temperatures, but less pronounced for changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning, Southern Ocean and tropical surface water saturation with respect to biogenic structures of calcium carbonate, and carbon stocks in soils. The slopes of the relationships change when CO2 is stabilized. The Transient Climate Response is constrained, primarily by long-term ocean heat observations, to 1.7 °C (68 % c.i.: 1.3 to 2.2 °C) and the Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity to 2.9 °C (2.0 to 4.2 °C). This is consistent with results by CMIP5 models, but inconsistent with recent studies that relied on short-term air temperature data affected by natural climate variability.

  16. Earth system responses to cumulative carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steinacher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the relationship between cumulative fossil carbon emissions and multiple climate targets are essential to design emission mitigation and climate adaptation strategies. In this study, the transient responses in different climate variables are quantified for a large set of multi-forcing scenarios extended to year 2300 towards stabilization and in idealized experiments using the Bern3D-LPJ carbon-climate model. The model outcomes are constrained by 26 physical and biogeochemical observational data sets in a Bayesian, Monte-Carlo type framework. Cumulative fossil emissions of 1000 Gt C result in a global mean surface air temperature change of 1.88 °C (68 % confidence interval (c.i.: 1.28 to 2.69 °C, a decrease in surface ocean pH of 0.19 (0.18 to 0.22, and in steric sea level rise of 20 cm (13 to 27 cm until 2300. Linearity between cumulative emissions and transient response is high for pH and reasonably high for surface air and sea surface temperatures, but less pronounced for changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning, Southern Ocean and tropical surface water saturation with respect to biogenic structures of calcium carbonate, and carbon stocks in soils. The slopes of the relationships change when CO2 is stabilized. The Transient Climate Response is constrained, primarily by long-term ocean heat observations, to 1.7 °C (68 % c.i.: 1.3 to 2.2 °C and the Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity to 2.9 °C (2.0 to 4.2 °C. This is consistent with results by CMIP5 models, but inconsistent with recent studies that relied on short-term air temperature data affected by natural climate variability.

  17. Towards Greenland Glaciation: cumulative or abrupt transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ning; Dumas, Christophe; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Ramstein, Gilles; Contoux, Camille

    2016-04-01

    During the mid-Pliocene warming period (3-3.3 Ma BP), global annual mean temperature is warmer by 2-3 degree than pre-industrial. Greenland ice sheet volume is supposed to be a 50% reduction compared to nowadays [Haywood et al. 2010]. Around 2.7-2.6 Ma BP, just ~ 500 kyr after the warming peak of mid-Pliocene, there is already full Greenland Glaciation [Lunt et al. 2008]. How does Greenland ice sheet evolve from a half size to a glaciation level during 3 Ma - 2.5 Ma? Data show that there is a decreasing trend of atmospheric CO2 concentration from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma [Seki et al.2010; Bartoli et al. 2011; Martinez et al. 2015]. However, a recent study [Contoux et al. 2015] suggests that a lowering of CO2 is not sufficient to initiate a perennial glaciation on Greenland and must be combined to low summer insolation, to preserve the ice sheet during insolation maximum, suggesting a cumulative process. In order to diagnose whether the ice sheet build-up is an abrupt event or a cumulative process, we carry on, for the first time, a transient simulation of climate and ice sheet evolutions from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma. This strategy enables to investigate waxing and waning of the ice sheet during several orbital cycles. To reach this goal, we use a tri-dimensional interpolation method designed by Ladant et al. (2014) which combines the evolution of CO2 concentration, orbital parameters and Greenland ice sheet sizes in an off-line way by interpolating snapshots simulations. Thanks to this new method, we can build a transient like simulation through asynchronous coupling between GCM and ice sheet model. With this method, we may consistently answer the question of the build-up of Greenland: abrupt or cumulative process.

  18. Significance of log-periodic signatures in cumulative noise

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Christian Graf v. Bothmer

    2003-01-01

    Using methods introduced by Scargle in 1978 we derive a cumulative version of the Lomb periodogram that exhibits frequency independent statistics when applied to cumulative noise. We show how this cumulative Lomb periodogram allows us to estimate the significance of log-periodic signatures in the S&P 500 anti-bubble that started in August 2000.

  19. CUMULATIVE OXYGEN ABUNDANCES OF SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studying the global evolution of spiral galaxies requires determining their overall chemical compositions. However, since spirals tend to possess gradients in their chemical compositions, determining their overall chemical abundances poses a challenge. In this study, the framework for a newly proposed method for determining the overall oxygen abundance of a disk is established. By separately integrating the absolute amounts of hydrogen and oxygen out to large radii, the cumulative oxygen abundance is shown to approach an asymptotic value. In this manner, a reliable account of the overall chemical state of a disk is revealed.

  20. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  1. CUMULATIVE REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF IN UTERO ADMINISTRATION OF A MIXTURE OF TEN “ANTIANDROGENS” IN MALE SD RATS: SYNERGY OR ADDITIVITY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1996, the USEPA was charged under FQPA to consider the cumulative effects of chemicals in their risk assessments. We are conducting studies to provide a framework for assessing the cumulative effects of antiandrogens. In the current study, ten “antiandrogenic” chemicals were a...

  2. Kindling fires: examining the potential for cumulative learning in a Journalism curriculum

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpert, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated context-dependency of learning as an indicator for students\\' potential to continue learning after graduation. We used Maton\\'s theoretical concepts of \\'cumulative\\' and \\'segmented\\' learning, and \\'semantic gravity\\', to look for context-independent learning in students\\' assessments in a Journalism curriculum. We postulated whether the curriculum constrained or enabled cumulative learning. Students\\' responses to assessments were coded by their degree of context-dependency, or semantic gravity. We found that, firstly, students are overly successful in producing context-dependent answers but struggle to deliver context-independent responses. Secondly, students were not effective when they used higher level knowledge principles without the foundation of lower level ones. Lastly, the marking criteria were encouraging markers to reward context-dependent answers over context-independent ones. This study has implications for educators interested in curriculum design that enables cumulative learning in discipline specific contexts. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  3. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draft annual report for the Cumulative Effects Study for the US Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District. This is the fifth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long Columbia River estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (CENWP), by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST). The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2008, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tide gate versus culvert versus dike breach). During 2008, the specific objectives for the Cumulative Effects Study were to do the following: (1) Summarize the adaptive management framework for LCRE habitat restoration activities; (2) Finalize the levels-of-evidence approach and ecological theory underpinning the analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects in the LCRE; (3) Summarize new results from analyses from 2005-2008 project research for the purpose of cumulative effects evaluation in the LCRE; (4) Initiate a synthesis and evaluation of cumulative effects in the LCRE; (5) Assess management implications, lessons learned, decision-making, 2009-2010 research

  4. Is uveitis associated with topiramate use? A cumulative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Lau, Amy G; Fan, Bo; Ford, Lisa; Greenberg, Howard E

    2016-01-01

    Occasional reports of uveitis following topiramate use necessitated an investigation of relevant cases from safety databases and published biomedical literature. Data mining of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and cumulative review of cases from the global safety database (sponsor database) and published literature were conducted to assess association between topiramate use and uveitis. The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System search identified disproportional reporting of uveitis (n=23) and related terms (choroidal detachment, n=25; iridocyclitis, n=17). The postmarketing reporting frequency of uveitis and related events from the global safety database and based on an estimated topiramate exposure of 11,185,740 person-years from launch to April 2015 was 0.38 per 100,000 person-years and assigned as very rare. A total of 14 potential uveitis cases were identified from the cumulative review. Seven of these 14 cases were complicated by inadequate documentation, appearance of uveitic signs following drug withdrawal, or concurrent use of other sulfonamides. In acute angle-closure glaucoma and uveal effusions cases, insufficient evidence for underlying inflammation suggested that uveitis was not a component. Only seven of 14 cases were well documented, potentially topiramate-associated uveitis cases. Uveitis may occur in the setting of topiramate use only in very rare instances. Current evidence did not reveal a dose- or duration-dependent relationship between uveitis and topiramate use. PMID:27536060

  5. Occurrence, distribution and seasonal variation of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in urban surface water in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Li, Wenhui; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence, spatial distribution and seasonal variation of 14 organophosphate esters (OPEs) were investigated in urban surface water (river and lake water) from July 2013 to June 2014 in Beijing, China. Sewage influent and effluent samples, as well as rainwater and road runoff samples were also analyzed as the potential sources of OPEs in surface water. Tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were the most abundant OPEs with the average concentrations of 291 ng L(-1) and 219 ng L(-1), respectively. Relatively high concentrations of OPEs were detected in rivers located at southern and eastern urban of Beijing, which was probably attributed to the treated and untreated sewage discharge. Besides, higher levels of OPEs were observed in urban surface water in the summer, and the wet deposition (rainfall) was confirmed to be an important factor for this observation. Risk assessment showed low or medium risk of OPEs for the organisms (algae, crustacean and fish). PMID:26618261

  6. Exposure characterization of three major insecticide lines in urine of young children in Japan-neonicotinoids, organophosphates, and pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Aya; Ueyama, Jun; Kondo, Takaaki; Nomura, Hiroshi; Sugiura, Yuka; Saito, Isao; Nakane, Kunihiko; Takaishi, Ayuko; Ogi, Hiroko; Wakusawa, Shinya; Ito, Yuki; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2016-05-01

    The use of neonicotinoid (NEO) insecticides has increased over the past decade not only in Japan but also worldwide, while organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PYR) insecticides are still conventionally used in agriculture and domestic pest control. However, limited data are currently available on the NEO exposure levels, especially in children, who are particularly vulnerable to environmental toxicants. Thus, the purpose of this study was to characterize the exposure to NEOs, as well as OPs and PYRs, in three-year-old Japanese children by assessing the range, distribution, and seasonal differences of the urinary concentrations of seven NEOs (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, and nitenpyram); four OP metabolites (dialkylphosphates [DAPs]), including dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, diethylphosphate, and diethylthiophosphate; and three PYR metabolites (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, trans-chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid, and 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2- dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid). Urine samples were collected from 223 children (108 males and 115 females) in the summer and winter months. The detection rates of NEOs were 58% for dinotefuran, 25% for thiamethoxam, 21% for nitenpyram, and children in Japan are environmentally exposed to the three major insecticide lines, and that the daily exposure sources of NEOs are common to those of OPs. PMID:26855126

  7. Occurrence and distribution of organophosphate triesters and diesters in sludge from sewage treatment plants of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lihong; Shi, Yali; Li, Wenhui; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2016-02-15

    The occurrence and distribution of 14 organophosphate (OP) triesters and 5 diesters were investigated in sludge from eight sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Beijing, China, during 2008-2014. Tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) and tri-m-cresyl phosphate (TCrP) were the predominant triesters with the average concentration of 233-137 μg/kg, respectively. Also, the polar and hydrophilic trimethyl phosphate (TMP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) were detected in 19% and 74% of sludge samples, respectively. Three of five diesters were detected in sludge samples, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (DEHP) revealed the highest average concentration of 96.0 μg/kg, followed by diphenyl phosphate (DPhP, 18.0 μg/kg). The levels of OP triesters in sludge varied with the compositions of the sewage and treatment capacity of STPs, as well as the adjacent sources. In comparison with that in the former years, relatively higher concentration of total OP triesters in sludge was observed in 2014, which is consistent with the rapid growth in consumption of these chemicals in China. Finally, environmental risk assessment indicated potential harmful effects of OP triesters on soil microorganisms after sludge landfill or fertilization. PMID:26657359

  8. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs

  9. ‘Buddha's light’ of cumulative particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show analytically that in the cumulative particles production off nuclei multiple interactions leads to a glory-like backward-focusing effect. Employing the small phase space method, we arrived at a characteristic angular dependence of the production cross section dσ∼1/√(π−θ) near the strictly backward direction. This effect takes place for any number n⩾3 of interactions of rescattered particles, either elastic or inelastic (with resonance excitations in intermediate states), when the final particle is produced near the corresponding kinematical boundary. In the final angles interval, including the value θ=π, the angular dependence of the cumulative production cross section can have a crater-like (or funnel-like) form. Such a behaviour of the cross section near the backward direction is in qualitative agreement with some of the available data. Explanation of this effect and the angular dependence of the cross section near θ∼π are presented for the first time (paper)

  10. Higher Order Cumulants in Colorless Partonic Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Cherif, S; Ladrem, M

    2016-01-01

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume $T_{0}(V)$, a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $\\mathscr{L}_{m,n}$-Method is used.We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase...

  11. Meaning and magnitude of the reduced density matrix cumulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The theory of reduced density matrix cumulants is rephrased into a form consistent with standard statistical concepts, thereby baring the meaning of these cumulants as measures of correlation. The size of cumulants up to highest rank is studied for various MCSCF wave functions. Highlights: ► Cumulants of high ranks stay large in cases with strong left–right correlation. ► In single reference cases, cumulant norms decline roughly exponentially with the rank. ► When the wave function has electron–hole symmetry, odd-rank cumulants vanish. ► A cumulant of rank n describes correlation between occupation numbers of n orbitals. ► We congratulate Debashis Mukherjee and wish him all the best to his 65th birthday! - Abstract: Within the framework of a generalized normal ordering (GNO), invented by Mukherjee , the reduced density matrix cumulants of the (multiconfigurational) reference wave function play a central role, as they arise directly from the contraction rules. The extended Wick theorem allows contractions of an arbitrary number of active annihilators and creators through a cumulant of corresponding rank. Because the cumulant rank truncates naturally only at the number of active spin orbitals, practical applications of the GNO concept seem to rely on a fast convergence of the cumulant series, allowing one to neglect cumulants with high rank. By computing cumulant norms for selected systems (and up to rank 16), we demonstrate that the cumulants decay approximately exponentially with increasing rank for single reference cases, while the convergence is generally slower for multireference cases. When strong left–right correlation is present as in the singlet state of a dissociated N2 molecule, even the cumulant with maximum rank, λ12 ≈ −1.5 for a CAS(6, 6), is not negligible per se. Besides reporting numerical results, the authors reformulate the theory of reduced density matrices and their cumulants using a notation that is

  12. Unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault on patterns of adolescent substance use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charak, R.; Koot, H. M.; Dvorak, R. D.;

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more st...

  13. Cumulative life course impairment in other chronic or recurrent dermatologic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, Kristina S; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2013-01-01

    patients. The list of skin diseases where an assessment of cumulative life course impairment is relevant can be enlarged considerably. Diseases with functional impairment such as, e.g. scleroderma, diseases with prominent subjective symptoms such as acne or hidradenitis, and diseases with limited physical...

  14. Site specific estimation of cumulative absolute velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented paper shows some recent results for correlation between cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) and the macro-seismic intensity, magnitude and distance (attenuation functions). The analyses are based mainly on European strong motion data. The processing is performed separately for intermediate depth earthquakes (Vrancea seismic region), regional shallow earthquakes and moderate local earthquakes. The results show that CAV correlates with the intensity, magnitude and distance in a similar way as the peak values of strong motion. There is significant difference of expected CAV from local earthquakes and from strong regional seismic excitations. The local earthquakes, although producing high accelerations, are developing small CAV and respectively small damage potential. The analyses show that intermediate depth earthquakes may produce significant CAV on very large distances, i.e. they may affect large territories and produce damage. The attenuation functions developed are used for prediction of CAV on the site of Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria. (author)

  15. Implant failure: regional versus cumulative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauc, T; Krnić, D; Katanec, D

    2000-07-01

    In this paper the success rate of implant therapy in various bone regions is discussed. The objective is to determine whether differences existed in success rates of cylinder implants placed in different areas in the both maxilla and mandible. Forty four patients have been treated and reviewed five years after the placement of the fixed prosthetic restoration. The patients were provided with a total of 92 implants. Results from this study show very low survival rate for implants placed in anterior region of maxilla (55.6%) after five years. It is concluded that simple cumulative follow up studies do not entirely correspond to actual situations, positioning the implants has an important role in the planning of the implant therapy and that important factor for force compensation is not only the surrounding bone density, but also the region of the jaw where the implants are placed. PMID:10946471

  16. Cumulative life course impairment in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Christian; Schallreuter, Karin Uta

    2013-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired, idiopathic skin disease characterized by the mostly progressive loss of the inherited skin color leading to white patches and in some cases to total depigmentation. The course of this ancient disease is still unknown. The worldwide prevalence range is 0.5-1%. The disease burden includes stigmatization, depression, impaired quality of life, lack of self-confidence, embarrassment and self-consciousness. To the best of our knowledge, the extent to which this chronic disease may exert an influence upon the life course of affected individuals has, to date, not been investigated. The material presented herein is the result of an accurate analysis of published literature. Moreover, we included our own data collected in two studies. To apply the concept of cumulative life course impairment in vitiligo, we looked at possible trigger factors, role of patient's age and the age at disease onset, disease duration and stigmatization. Stigmatization had the strongest impact. It is common in patients with an early disease onset, often leading to other disturbances. Our data revealed that older patients or those with a disease onset later in life adjust better to this chronic skin disorder and that they are less socially avoidant. However, long disease duration can also lead to impaired quality of life and obsession, while this group seems to be less depressed or embarrassed. Results from our own work with peer groups of these patients strongly support a positive long-lasting effect of treatment on quality of life of children, adolescents and adults. To which extent vitiligo may contribute to a cumulative life course impairment remains to be shown. PMID:23796814

  17. Brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning Magnetic resonance imaging manifestation and pathological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute organophosphate poisoning can cause injuries of multiple visceras; especially,central nervous system injury can increase risk factors of patients with severe acute organophosphate poisoning. An application of modem image may increase diagnostic rate of brain injury in an earlier period and provide evidences for clinical treatment.OBJECTIVE: To reveal imaging manifestations, pathological characteristics and multi-ways injured mechanism of brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning.DESIGN: Contrast observational study.SETTING: Department of Medical Image, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Nerve Molecule Imaging Medicine and Laboratory of Neurology, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from August 2003 to February 2004. A total of 30 healthy cats weighing 2.8 - 3.5 g and of both genders were selected from Animal Experimental Center of Hebei Medical University.METHODS: Thirty healthy cats were randomly divided into control group (n =5) and intoxication group (n=25). Cats in the control group were subcutaneously injected with 0.3 mL/kg saline at four points; while, cats in the intoxication group were subcutaneously injected with 400 g/L 0.3 mL/kg O,O-dimethyl-S-(methoxycarbonylmethyl) thiophosphate at four points. Two minutes after intoxication, cats received muscular injection with 0.5 mg/kg atropine sulfate, and then, brain tissues were collected from parietal lobe, basal ganglia, hippocampus, cerebellum and brain stem were observed at 3, 6, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after intoxication respectively under optic microscope and electron microscope and expressions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP),glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-amino butyric acid after immunohistochemical staining.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of MRI examinations; histological changes under optic microscope and electron

  18. Cumulative glycemia and microangiopathy in subjects with impaired glucose regulation in the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Larsen, Michael; Kessel, Line;

    2011-01-01

    subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism, most prominently in subjects with IFG+IGT and in subjects with screen-detected diabetes. These results provide the first objective evidence that cumulative glycemic load is increased at the earliest stage of impaired glucose regulation.......AIMS: To assess cumulative glycemia, microvascular characteristics, and associated risk factors for diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose regulation. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study comprising systemic characteristics in 6487 participants and ocular characteristics in 970...... participants. RESULTS: Lens fluorescence, a quantitative index of life-long cumulative glycemia, was increased by 7.5% (CI(95) 0.37-15.1%) in subjects with impaired fasting glucose, by 13.0% (CI(95) 5.5-21%) in subjects with combined impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance (IFG+IGT), and by 11...

  19. Presentation and management of organophosphate poisoning in an intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the various demographic factors, clinical features, management and outcome of organophosphate poisoning in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Study Design: Descriptive quantitative study. Place and Duration of study: ICU of PNS Shifa hospital, Karachi. From February 2008-February 2010. Patients and Methods: Total of 40 patients were admitted in the ICU of PNS Shifa hospital, Karachi from Feb 2008- Feb 2010 with the history of organophosphate (OP) ingestion. A complete history was taken from the patients and relatives. Baseline laboratory investigations were done. All the data was tabulated on a structured performed after tasking consent from the relatives. Variables of the study were demographic factors as gender, age, cause and mode of poisoning, clinical course, ICU management and its outcome. Results: Out of 40 patients 32 (80%) were females and 8 (20%) were males. The age varied from 12-56 years. Twenty eight (70%) were in the 14-28 years age group. Twenty nine (72%) had poison for suicidal purpose and rest had the insecticide accidently. Twenty six (62%) of them were unmarried. In 38 (95%) patients the clinical features of parasympathetic overactivity was observed. All these patients were given atropine and pralidoxime. Fifteen (37%) patients required mechanical ventilation. Five (12%) out of these patients developed ventilator associated pneumonia. The time duration of mechanical ventilation was 1-3 weeks. All the patients were successfully recovered. Total duration of hospital stay on our patients was 2-4 weeks. Conclusion: Early and aggressive management of organophosphate poisoning in an ICU setting reduces not only the mortality but also decreases the duration of hospital stay. (author)

  20. Partial protection from organophosphate-induced cholinesterase inhibition by metyrapone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Świercz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphates are cholinesterase (ChE inhibitors with worldwide use as insecticides. Stress response, evidenced by a dramatic and relatively long-lasting (several hours rise in the plasma glucocorticoid concentration is an integral element of the organophosphate (OP poisoning symptomatology. In rodents, corticosterone (CORT is the main glucocorticoid. There are several reports suggesting a relationship between the stressor-induced rise in CORT concentraion (the CORT response and the activity of the cerebral and peripheral ChE. Thus, it seems reasonable to presume that, in OP intoxication, the rise in plasma CORT concentration may somehow affect the magnitude of the OP-induced ChE inhibition. Metyrapone (MET [2-methyl-1,2-di(pyridin-3-ylpropan-1-one] blocks CORT synthesis by inhibiting steoid 11β-hydroxylase, thereby preventing the CORT response. Chlorfenvinphos (CVP [2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl ethenyl diethyl phosphate] is an organophosphate insecticide still in use in some countries. Material and Methods: The purose of the present work was to compare the CVP-induced effects - the rise of the plasma CORT concentration and the reduction in ChE activity - in MET-treated and MET-untreated rats. Chlorfenvinphos was administered once at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg i.p. Metyrapone, at 100 mg/kg i.p., was administered five times, at 24-h intervals. The first MET dose was given two hours before CVP. Conclusion: The following was observed in the MET-treated rats: i no rise in plasma CORT concentration after the CVP administration, ii a reduced inhibition and a faster restitution of blood and brain ChE activities. The results suggest that MET treatment may confer significant protection against at least some effects of OP poisoning. The likely mechanism of the protective MET action has been discussed.

  1. Visualizing Organophosphate Precipitation at the Calcite-Water Interface by in Situ Atomic-Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Qin, Lihong; Putnis, Christine V; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; King, Helen E; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Esters of phosphoric acid constitute a large fraction of the total organic phosphorus (OP) in the soil environment and, thus, play an important role in the global phosphorus cycle. These esters, such as glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), exhibit unusual reactivity toward various mineral particles in soils, especially those containing calcite. Many important processes of OP transformation, including adsorption, hydrolysis, and precipitation, occur primarily at mineral-fluid interfaces, which ultimately governs the fate of organophosphates in the environment. However, little is known about the kinetics of specific mineral-surface-induced adsorption and precipitation of organophosphates. Here, by using in situ atomic-force microscopy (AFM) to visualize the dissolution of calcite (1014) faces, we show that the presence of G6P results in morphology changes of etch pits from the typical rhombohedral to a fan-shaped form. This can be explained by a site-selective mechanism of G6P-calcite surface interactions that stabilize the energetically unfavorable (0001) or (0112) faces through step-specific adsorption of G6P. Continuous dissolution at calcite (1014)-water interfaces caused a boundary layer at the calcite-water interface to become supersaturated with respect to a G6P-Ca phase that then drives the nucleation and growth of a G6P-Ca precipitate. Furthermore, after the introduction of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP), the precipitates were observed to contain a mixture of components associated with G6P-Ca, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD). These direct dynamic observations of the transformation of adsorption- and complexation-surface precipitation and enzyme-mediated pathways may improve the mechanistic understanding of the mineral-interface-induced organophosphate sequestration in the soil environment. PMID:26636475

  2. Comparison and evaluation of two methods for the pesticide residue analysis of organophosphates in yerba mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Pareja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microwave Assisted Extraction and a modified CEN-QuEChERS methodology were evaluated as extraction and clean up procedures for the simultaneous analysis of 42 organophosphate pesticides in yerba mate (Ilex paraguaiensis. The obtained extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame photometric detector. Linearity, recovery percentages, relative standard deviations, detection and quantification limits and matrix effects were determined according to DG-SANCO guidelines for both methods. At 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg the evaluated methods showed percentages recoveries between 70 and 120% for most of the analytes. Using Microwave Assisted Extraction methodology, 33 pesticide residues could be properly analyzed whereas only 27 could be determined with the proposed modified QuEChERS. All relative standard deviation were below 18% except for omethoate and disulfoton sulfone when evaluated by the modified QuEChERS. The limits of detection in both methodologies were 0.2 mg/kg for most of the analyzed compounds. The average detection limit for QuEChERS was 0.04 mg/kg. For 19 of the analytes determined through Microwave Assisted Extraction the lowest validated level were 0.004 mg/kg. Signal suppression/enhancement was observed for most of the pesticides, thus matrix-matched calibration curves were used for quantification. The Microwave Assisted Extraction and QuEChERS procedures studied could detect the organophosphate pesticides above the MRL fixed for "mate" by the European Union. They have been successfully applied for the determination of organophosphate pesticide residues in commercial samples and the positives were confirmed through GC–(ITD-MS.

  3. Polystyrene microsphere-based lanthanide luminescent chemosensor for detection of organophosphate pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongxing; HUA Xiufu; TUO Xinlin; CHEN Chuanzhi; WANG Xiaogong

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent microspheres of polystyrene-based Eu(Ⅲ) complexes were prepared from TentaGel resin,2,6-bisbenzimidazolylpyridine and europium nitrate.The microspheres were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy,elemental analysis,XPS measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy.Characteristic red emission under irradiation of 365 nm light from a hand-held UV lamp was observed for the microspheres either in a solution or solid-state.Fluorescent quenching was observed when the microspheres were exposed to a trace amount of diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) in the dispersion.The material and property can be potentially used to fabricate chemosensor in the detection of organophosphates.

  4. Microbial community responses to organophosphate substrate additions in contaminated subsurface sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radionuclide- and heavy metal-contaminated subsurface sediments remain a legacy of Cold War nuclear weapons research and recent nuclear power plant failures. Within such contaminated sediments, remediation activities are necessary to mitigate groundwater contamination. A promising approach makes use of extant microbial communities capable of hydrolyzing organophosphate substrates to promote mineralization of soluble contaminants within deep subsurface environments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Uranium-contaminated sediments from the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC Area 2 site were used in slurry experiments to identify microbial communities involved in hydrolysis of 10 mM organophosphate amendments [i.e., glycerol-2-phosphate (G2P or glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P] in synthetic groundwater at pH 5.5 and pH 6.8. Following 36 day (G2P and 20 day (G3P amended treatments, maximum phosphate (PO4(3- concentrations of 4.8 mM and 8.9 mM were measured, respectively. Use of the PhyloChip 16S rRNA microarray identified 2,120 archaeal and bacterial taxa representing 46 phyla, 66 classes, 110 orders, and 186 families among all treatments. Measures of archaeal and bacterial richness were lowest under G2P (pH 5.5 treatments and greatest with G3P (pH 6.8 treatments. Members of the phyla Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria demonstrated the greatest enrichment in response to organophosphate amendments and the OTUs that increased in relative abundance by 2-fold or greater accounted for 9%-50% and 3%-17% of total detected Archaea and Bacteria, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work provided a characterization of the distinct ORFRC subsurface microbial communities that contributed to increased concentrations of extracellular phosphate via hydrolysis of organophosphate substrate amendments. Within subsurface environments that are not ideal for reductive precipitation of uranium

  5. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk

  6. Cumulative radiation dose of multiple trauma patients during their hospitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the cumulative radiation dose of multiple trauma patients during their hospitalization and to analyze the dose influence factors. Methods: The DLP for CT and DR were retrospectively collected from the patients during June, 2009 and April, 2011 at a university affiliated hospital. The cumulative radiation doses were calculated by summing typical effective doses of the anatomic regions scanned. Results: The cumulative radiation doses of 113 patients were collected. The maximum,minimum and the mean values of cumulative effective doses were 153.3, 16.48 mSv and (52.3 ± 26.6) mSv. Conclusions: Multiple trauma patients have high cumulative radiation exposure. Therefore, the management of cumulative radiation doses should be enhanced. To establish the individualized radiation exposure archives will be helpful for the clinicians and technicians to make decision whether to image again and how to select the imaging parameters. (authors)

  7. Asymptotic normality through factorial cumulants and partitions identities

    CERN Document Server

    Bobecka, Konstancja; Lopez-Blazquez, Fernando; Rempala, Grzegorz; Wesolowski, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we develop an approach to asymptotic normality through factorial cumulants. Factorial cumulants arise in the same manner from factorial moments, as (ordinary) cumulants from (ordinary) moments. Another tool we exploit is a new identity for "moments" of partitions of numbers. The general limiting result is then used to (re)derive asymptotic normality for several models including classical discrete distributions, occupancy problems in some generalized allocation schemes and two models related to negative multinomial distribution.

  8. 7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining cumulative sum values. 42.132 Section 42... Determining cumulative sum values. (a) The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum sampling plans for AQL's... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal...

  9. Role of sulfite additives in wine induced asthma: single dose and cumulative dose studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vally, H; Thompson, Van P.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Wine appears to be a significant trigger for asthma. Although sulfite additives have been implicated as a major cause of wine induced asthma, direct evidence is limited. Two studies were undertaken to assess sulfite reactivity in wine sensitive asthmatics. The first study assessed sensitivity to sulfites in wine using a single dose sulfited wine challenge protocol followed by a double blind, placebo controlled challenge. In the second study a cumulative dose su...

  10. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  11. Mission Availability for Bounded-Cumulative-Downtime System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Kou, Gang; Ergu, Daji; Peng, Yi

    2013-01-01

    In this research, a mathematics model is proposed to describe the mission availability for bounded-cumulative-downtime system. In the proposed model, the cumulative downtime and cumulative uptime are considered as constraints simultaneously. The mission availability can be defined as the probability that all repairs do not exceed the bounded cumulative downtime constraint of such system before the cumulative uptime has accrued. There are two mutually exclusive cases associated with the probability. One case is the system has not failed, where the probability can be described by system reliability. The other case is the system has failed and the cumulative downtime does not exceed the constraint before the cumulative uptime has accrued. The mathematic description of the probability under the second case is very complex. And the cumulative downtime in a mission can be set as a random variable, whose cumulative distribution means the probability that the failure system can be restored to the operating state. Giving the dependence in the scheduled mission, a mission availability model with closed form expression under this assumption is proposed. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results indicate that the relative errors are acceptable and the proposed model is effective. Furthermore, three important applications of the proposed mission availability model are discussed. PMID:23843940

  12. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew J; Kyhn, Line A

    2015-04-01

    Human pressure on the environment is expanding and intensifying, especially in coastal and offshore areas. Major contributors to this are the current push for offshore renewable energy sources, which are thought of as environmentally friendly sources of power, as well as the continued demand for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap on impact can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated impact assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative impacts of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts. PMID:25439093

  13. Patient cumulative radiation exposure in interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional cardiology procedures can involve potentially high doses of radiation to the patients. Stochastic effects of ionising radiation - radiation-induced cancers in the long term - may occur. We analysed clinical characteristics and dosimetric data in a population of patients undergoing interventional cardiology. In all, 1 591 patients who had undergone coronarography and/or angioplasty in the course of a year at the Saint-Gatien Clinic in Tours (France) were included. Information on patients' individual clinical characteristics and Dose-Area Product values were collected. Organ doses to the lung, oesophagus, bone marrow and breast were mathematically evaluated. The median age of patients was 70 years. Their median cumulative dose-area product value was 48.4 Gy.cm2 for the whole year and the median effective dose was 9.7 mSv. The median organ doses were 41 mGy for the lung, 31 mGy for the oesophagus, 10 mGy for the bone marrow and 4 mGy for the breast. Levels of doses close to the heart appear to be rather high in the case of repeated interventional cardiology procedures. Clinical characteristics should be taken into account when planning epidemiological studies on potential radiation-induced cancers. (authors)

  14. The cumulative reaction probability as eigenvalue problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthe, Uwe; Miller, William H.

    1993-09-01

    It is shown that the cumulative reaction probability for a chemical reaction can be expressed (absolutely rigorously) as N(E)=∑kpk(E), where {pk} are the eigenvalues of a certain Hermitian matrix (or operator). The eigenvalues {pk} all lie between 0 and 1 and thus have the interpretation as probabilities, eigenreaction probabilities which may be thought of as the rigorous generalization of the transmission coefficients for the various states of the activated complex in transition state theory. The eigenreaction probabilities {pk} can be determined by diagonalizing a matrix that is directly available from the Hamiltonian matrix itself. It is also shown how a very efficient iterative method can be used to determine the eigenreaction probabilities for problems that are too large for a direct diagonalization to be possible. The number of iterations required is much smaller than that of previous methods, approximately the number of eigenreaction probabilities that are significantly different from zero. All of these new ideas are illustrated by application to three model problems—transmission through a one-dimensional (Eckart potential) barrier, the collinear H+H2→H2+H reaction, and the three-dimensional version of this reaction for total angular momentum J=0.

  15. The cumulative reaction probability as eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the cumulative reaction probability for a chemical reaction can be expressed (absolutely rigorously) as N(E)=summation kpk(E), where {pk} are the eigenvalues of a certain Hermitian matrix (or operator). The eigenvalues {pk} all lie between 0 and 1 and thus have the interpretation as probabilities, eigenreaction probabilities which may be thought of as the rigorous generalization of the transmission coefficients for the various states of the activated complex in transition state theory. The eigenreaction probabilities {pk} can be determined by diagonalizing a matrix that is directly available from the Hamiltonian matrix itself. It is also shown how a very efficient iterative method can be used to determine the eigenreaction probabilities for problems that are too large for a direct diagonalization to be possible. The number of iterations required is much smaller than that of previous methods, approximately the number of eigenreaction probabilities that are significantly different from zero. All of these new ideas are illustrated by application to three model problems---transmission through a one-dimensional (Eckart potential) barrier, the collinear H+H2→H2+H reaction, and the three-dimensional version of this reaction for total angular momentum J=0

  16. Cumulant approach to weakly doped antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an approach to static and dynamical properties of holes and spins in weakly doped antiferromagnets in two dimensions. The calculations are based on a recently introduced cumulant approach to ground endash state properties of correlated electronic systems. The present method allows us to evaluate hole and spin-wave dispersion relations by considering hole or spin excitations of the ground state. Usually, these dispersions are found from time-dependent correlation functions. To demonstrate the ability of the approach we first derive the dispersion relation for the lowest single hole excitation at half-filling. However, the main purpose of this paper is to focus on the mutual influence of mobile holes and spin waves in the weakly doped system. It is shown that low-energy spin excitations strongly admix to the ground state. The coupling of spin waves and holes leads to a strong suppression of the staggered magnetization which cannot be explained by a simple rigid-band picture for the hole quasiparticles. Also the experimentally observed doping dependence of the spin-wave excitation energies can be understood within our formalism. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. Cumulative Psychosocial and Medical Risk as Predictors of Early Infant Development and Parenting Stress in an African-American Preterm Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…

  18. Persistent symptoms in agricultural workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Palacios N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the prevalence of these symptoms and their relationship with pesticide exposure and the cholinesterase levels in agricultural workers. Methodology: an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in Mexico. Cholinesterase concentration and symptom frequency were assessed for 106 agricultural workers. Exposure was defined with a composed index of 15 variables. Results: symptom prevalence was 52 out of 100 workers. 31% of workers had 1 to 3 of the symptoms, 16% had 4 to 9 of them and 5% had 10 or more of the symptoms. There was an association, p = 0.03, between days of exposure and persistent symptoms. Likewise, there was an association between exposure level and the presence of probable and specific symptoms. Patients with the highest exposure level had 20% more chances of exhibiting symptoms. Cholinesterase concentration ranges were normal. Anemia was detected in 28% of the population. It was three times as frequent in females as in males (p < 0.001. Conclusions: it was possible to identify the increase of persistent symptoms in workers with cholinesterase levels that are usually considered to be normal.

  19. Bioactive Paper Sensor Based on the Acetylcholinesterase for the Rapid Detection of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. I. Badawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, people are becoming more concerned about pesticide residues which are present in or on food and feed products. For this reason, several methods have been developed to monitor the pesticide residue levels in food samples. In this study, a bioactive paper-based sensor was developed for detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors including organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Based on the Ellman colorimetric assay, the assay strip is composed of a paper support (1×10 cm, onto which a biopolymer chitosan gel immobilized in crosslinking by glutaraldehyde with AChE and 5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB and uses acetylthiocholine iodide (ATChI as an outside reagent. The assay protocol involves introducing the sample to sensing zone via dipping of a pesticide-containing solution. Following an incubation period, the paper is placed into ATChI solution to initiate enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis of the substrate, causing a yellow color change. The absence or decrease of the yellow color indicates the levels of the AChE inhibitors. The biosensor is able to detect organophosphate and carbamate pesticides with good detection limits (methomyl=6.16×10-4 mM and profenofos=0.27 mM and rapid response times (~5 min. The results show that the paper-based biosensor is rapid, sensitive, inexpensive, portable, disposable, and easy-to-use.

  20. A sensitive acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on gold nanorods modified electrode for detection of organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Qiaolin; Han, Lei; Hou, Chuantao; Wang, Fei; Liu, Aihua

    2016-08-15

    A sensitive amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor, based on gold nanorods (AuNRs), was developed for the detection of organophosphate pesticide. Compared with Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs, AuNRs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic properties, which can electrocatalytically oxidize thiocholine, the hydrolysate of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) by AChE at +0.55V (vs. SCE). The AChE/AuNRs/GCE biosensor was fabricated on basis of the inhibition of AChE activity by organophosphate pesticide. The biosensor could detect paraoxon in the linear range from 1nM to 5μM and dimethoate in the linear range from 5nM to 1μM, respectively. The detection limits of paraoxon and dimethoate were 0.7nM and 3.9nM, which were lower than the reported AChE biosensor. The proposed biosensor could restore to over 95% of its original current, which demonstrated the good reactivation. Moreover, the biosensor can be applicable to real water sample measurement. Thus, the biosensor exhibited low applied potential, high sensitivity and good stability, providing a promising tool for analysis of pesticides. PMID:27260432

  1. Calcium-activated butyrylcholinesterase in human skin protects acetylcholinesterase against suicide inhibition by neurotoxic organophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human epidermis holds an autocrine acetylcholine production and degradation including functioning membrane integrated and cytosolic butyrylcholinesterase (BuchE). Here we show that BuchE activities increase 9-fold in the presence of calcium (0.5 x 10-3M) via a specific EF-hand calcium binding site, whereas acetylcholinesterase (AchE) is not affected. 45Calcium labelling and computer simulation confirmed the presence of one EF-hand binding site per subunit which is disrupted by H2O2-mediated oxidation. Moreover, we confirmed the faster hydrolysis by calcium-activated BuchE using the neurotoxic organophosphate O-ethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl)-phenylphosphonothioate (EPN). Considering the large size of the human skin with 1.8 m2 surface area with its calcium gradient in the 10-3M range, our results implicate calcium-activated BuchE as a major protective mechanism against suicide inhibition of AchE by organophosphates in this non-neuronal tissue

  2. Application of graphene for preconcentration and highly sensitive stripping voltammetric analysis of organophosphate pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Shuo, E-mail: wushuo@dlut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Lan Xiaoqin; Cui Lijun; Zhang Lihui; Tao Shengyang; Wang Hainan; Han Mei; Liu Zhiguang; Meng Changgong [School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} An electrochemical sensor is fabricated based on {beta}-CD dispersed graphene. {yields} The sensor could selectively detect organophosphate pesticide with high sensitivity. {yields} The {beta}-CD dispersed graphene owns large adsorption capacity for MP and superconductivity. {yields} The {beta}-CD dispersed graphene is superior to most of the porous sorbents ever known. - Abstract: Electrochemical reduced {beta}-cyclodextrin dispersed graphene ({beta}-CD-graphene) was developed as a sorbent for the preconcentration and electrochemical sensing of methyl parathion (MP), a representative nitroaromatic organophosphate pesticide with good redox activity. Benefited from the ultra-large surface area, large delocalized {pi}-electron system and the superconductivity of {beta}-CD-graphene, large amount of MP could be extracted on {beta}-CD-graphene modified electrode via strong {pi}-{pi} interaction and exhibited fast accumulation and electron transfer rate. Combined with differential pulse voltammetric analysis, the sensor shows ultra-high sensitivity, good selectivity and fast response. The limit of detection of 0.05 ppb is more than 10 times lower than those obtained from other sorbent based sensors. The method may open up a new possibility for the widespread use of electrochemical sensors for monitoring of ultra-trace OPs.

  3. Development of Immunochromatographic Assay for Identification of Organophosphate Pesticides in Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shruti; Ghorpade, Ramrao; Sathe, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Microtiter plate enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) experiments in competitive format were performed utilizing polyclonal antibody for establishing a detection system for organophosphate pesticides. IC50 value of and limit of detection (LOD) value was determined by standard inhibition curve and value obtained were 0.05 μgmL(-1) and 0.001 μgmL(-1), respectively. Specificity of antibody was investigated with different organophosphate pesticides. Immunochromatographic assay (ICA) experiments were also designed in competitive format by making use of immunochromatographic strip which was assembly of three main components: conjugate pad, membrane and adsorbent pad. Membrane was coated with hapten-OVA conjugate (test line) and antirabbit IgG (control line). ICA experiments were performed by employing gold-labeled antibody as a detector reagent which was applied over conjugate pad. Visual detection limit obtained from ICA was 0.5 μgmL(-1). Major advantage of strip assay was rapid result, i.e., less than 10 min. which makes it suitable for onsite applications. PMID:26516678

  4. Epigenome: A Biomarker or Screening Tool to Evaluate Health Impact of Cumulative Exposure to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kenneth; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Bussard, David

    2016-06-01

    Current risk assessment practices and toxicity information are hard to utilize for assessing the health impact of combined or cumulative exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors encountered in the "real world" environment. Non-chemical stressors such as heat, radiation, noise, humidity, bacterial and viral agents, and social factors, like stress related to violence and socioeconomic position generally cannot be currently incorporated into the risk assessment paradigm. The Science and Decisions report released by the National Research Council (NRC) in 2009 emphasized the need to characterize the effects of multiple stressors, both chemical and non-chemical exposures. One impediment to developing information relating such non-chemical stressors to health effects and incorporating them into cumulative assessment has been the lack of analytical tools to easily and quantitatively monitor the cumulative exposure to combined effects of stressors over the life course. PMID:27534725

  5. Increased levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine are attributable to organophosphate pesticide exposure among young children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative damage has been proposed as an important mechanism linking pesticide exposure to health effects. A study of 268 young Shanghai children was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure and a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for five nonspecific dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites [dimethyl phosphates (DMs) and diethyl phosphates (DEs)] and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). The creatinine-adjusted median of 8-OHdG in urine samples was 3.99 ng/mg. Increased exposure to OPs was associated with greater levels of urinary 8-OHdG [total DAPs: ß (adjusted) = 0.46 per log10 unit increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40–0.53, p = 0.000; DMs: ß (adjusted) = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.28–0.41, p = 0.000; DEs: ß (adjusted) = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.42–0.54, p = 0.000]. Thus, the 8-OHdG biomarker is useful for increasing our understanding of the link between childhood exposure to OPs and health outcomes. - Highlights: ► OP exposures are thought to affect health by mechanisms related to oxidative stress. ► We assessed the correlation between OP exposure and a biomarker of oxidative stress. ► Increased exposure to OPs was associated with greater levels of urinary 8-OHdG. - Environmental exposure to OPs may play an important role in oxidative DNA damage in children.

  6. The role of multifunctional drug therapy as an antidote to combat experimental subacute neurotoxicity induced by organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinderpal; Prakash, Atish; Kaur, Shamsherjit; Ming, Long Chiau; Mani, Vasudevan; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul

    2016-08-01

    Organophosphate pesticides are used in agriculture where they are associated with numerous cases of intentional and accidental misuse. These toxicants are potent inhibitors of cholinesterases leading to a massive build-up of acetylcholine which induces an array of deleterious effects, including convulsions, oxidative damage and neurobehavioral deficits. Antidotal therapies with atropine and oxime yield a remarkable survival rate, but fail to prevent neuronal damage and behavioral problems. It has been indicated that multifunction drug therapy with potassium channel openers, calcium channel antagonists and antioxidants (either single-agent therapy or combination therapy) may have the potential to prevent cell death and/or slow down the processes of secondary neuronal damage. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to make a relative assessment of the potential effects of nicorandil (2 mg/kg), clinidipine (10 mg/kg), and grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPE) extract (200 mg/kg) individually against subacute chlorpyrifos induced toxicity. The test drugs were administered to Wistar rats 2 h after exposure to Chlorpyrifos (CPF). Different behavioral studies and biochemical estimation has been carried in the study. The results showed that chronic administration of CPF significantly impaired learning and memory, along with motor coordination, and produced a marked increase in oxidative stress along with significantly reduced acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity. Treatment with nicorandil, clinidipine and GSPE was shown to significantly improve memory performance, attenuate oxidative damage and enhance AChE activity in rats. The present study also suggests that a combination of nicorandil, clinidipine, and GSPE has a better neuroprotective effect against subacute CPF induced neurotoxicity than if applied individually. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1017-1026, 2016. PMID:25864908

  7. Different sensitivities of biomarker responses in two epigeic earthworm species after exposure to pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Branimir K

    2013-10-01

    In many studies that investigate the toxic effects of pollutants on earthworms, experiments are performed using only one species of earthworms, most commonly the Eisenia species. However, the differences in sensitivities of different earthworm species could potentially lead to an underestimation of environmental aspects of pollutants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of biomarker responses of Eisenia andrei, an epigeic compost species commonly used in laboratory experiments, with those of Lumbricus rubellus, an epigeic species widely distributed in temperate regions. The earthworms were exposed to the three commonly used insecticides: organophosphates dimethoate (0.03, 0.3, and 3 mg kg(-1)) and pirimiphos-methyl (0.02, 0.2, and 2 mg kg(-1)), as well as pyrethroid deltamethrin (0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 mg kg(-1)), for 1 and 15 days using an artificial soil test. The effects of the pesticides were assessed by measuring the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CES), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the concentration of glutathione (GSH). The pesticides caused a significant inhibition of AChE and CES activities and significant changes in activities of CAT, GST, and GSH concentration in both earthworm species. A comparison of biomarker responses between E. andrei and L. rubellus showed significant differences; E. andrei proved to be less susceptible to pesticide exposure than L. rubellus. In addition, the results from the filter-paper contact test mortality experiments showed that lethal concentrations were lower for L. rubellus compared with the E. andrei, further showing a greater sensitivity of L. rubellus. The difference in sensitivities of these epigeic species should be taken into account when conducting toxicity studies. PMID:23811990

  8. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  9. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  10. Density-independent population projection trajectories of chromosome-substituted lines resistant and susceptible to organophosphate insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyo Takahiro

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seasonal fluctuations in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides were observed in the Katsunuma population of Drosophila melanogaster for two consecutive years; susceptibility to three organophosphates tended to increase in the fall. To examine the hypothesis that variation in fitness among resistant and susceptible genotypes could trigger the change of genetic constitution within the fall population, we investigated density-independent population projection trajectories starting from single adult females with characteristics of chromosome-substituted lines resistant and susceptible to the three organophosphates. Results Density-independent population projection trajectories, expressed as the ratios of the number of each chromosome-substituted line to that of line SSS, for which all chromosomes were derived from the susceptible line, showed significant declines in numbers with time for all the resistant chromosome-substituted lines. Conclusion The declining tendency in the density-independent population projection trajectories of the resistant chromosome-substituted lines could explain the simultaneous decline in the levels of resistance to the three organophosphates, observed in the Katsunuma population in the fall.

  11. INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATIONS OF ORGANOCHLORINE, ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDES IN THE US: FOUR STUDIES, SIX STATES AND TWENTY YEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides used to control indoor pests have transitioned across the chemicals classes of organochlorine, organophosphate, and pyrethroid compounds from the 1980's to the present. This work summarizes the pesticide concentrations measured from the indoor air of homes from four st...

  12. Simulation of the plant uptake of organophosphates and other emerging pollutants for greenhouse experiments and field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Eggen, Trine

    2013-01-01

    The uptake of the organophosphates tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tributyl phosphate (TBP), the insect repellant N,N-diethyl toluamide (DEET), and the plasticizer n-butyl benzenesulfonamide (NBBS) into plants was studied in greenhouse experiments...

  13. Cerium dioxide as a new reactive sorbent for fast degradation of parathion methyl and some other organophosphates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janos, P.; Kuráň, P.; Kormunda, M.; Štengl, Václav; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Došek, M.; Šťastný, M.; Ederer, J.; Pilařová, V.; Vrtoch, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2014), s. 360-370. ISSN 1002-0721 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : cerium dioxide * carbonate precursor * lanthanides * organophosphate pesticide * parathion methyl * chemical warfare agents Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.261, year: 2014

  14. Airliner cabin air quality: emissions of organophosphates originating from aircraft engine oil. Experimental lab simulation and measurements on flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtzager, M.M.G.; Havermans, J.B.G.A.; Bos, J.G.H.; Makarem Akhlaghi, H.; Hijman, W.C.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D.; Jedynska, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    In our simulation experiments, using e.g., a dedicated emission chamber, the emission of organophosphates as tricresyl phosphate (TCP) was studied using turbine oil. Experiments were carried out at 250°C and 370°C. Subsequently field studies were carried out to detect the presence of TCPs in the coc

  15. Conditional Cumulants in Weakly Non-linear Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, J; Pan, Jun; Szapudi, Istvan

    2004-01-01

    Conditional cumulants form a set of unique statistics which represent a sensible compromise between N-point correlation functions and cumulants measured from moments of counts in cells. They share accurate edge corrected estimators with $N$-point correlation functions, yet, they are as straightforward to measure and interpret as counts in cells. The conditional cumulants have three equivalent views as i) degenerate N-point correlation functions ii) or integrated monopole moments of the bispectrum iii) they are closely related to neighbour counts. We compute the predictions of weakly non-linear perturbation theory for conditional cumulants and compare them with measurements in simulations, both in real and redshift space. We find excellent agreement between theory and simulations, especially on scales >~20Mpc. Due to their advantageous statistical properties and well understood dynamics, we propose conditional cumulants as tools for high precision cosmology. Potential applications include constraining bias and...

  16. High intertester reliability of the cumulated ambulation score for the evaluation of basic mobility in patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Andersen, Lene; Bech-Jensen, Rie;

    2009-01-01

    ) walking ability - was assessed by two independent physiotherapists at postoperative median day 3. Each activity was assessed on a three-point ordinal scale from 0 (not able to) to 2 (independent of human assistance). The cumulated score for each activity provides a total CAS from 0 to 6, with 6 indicating...

  17. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost limit under cumulative damage model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIN-T SAI LAI; SHIH-CHIH CHEN

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a bivariate replacement policy (n, T) for a cumulative shock damage process is presented that included the concept of cumulative repair cost limit. The arrival shocks can be divided into two kinds of shocks. Each type-I shock causes a random amount of damage and these damages are additive. When the total damage exceeds a failure level, the system goes into serious failure. Type-II shock causes the system into minor failure and such a failure can be corrected by minimal repair. When a minor failure occurs, the repaircost will be evaluated and minimal repair is executed if the accumulated repair cost is less than a predetermined limit L. The system is replaced at scheduled time T, at n-th minor failure, or at serious failure. The long-term expected cost per unit time is derived using the expected costs as the optimality criterion. The minimum-cost policy is derived, and existence and uniqueness of the optimal n* and T* are proved. This bivariate optimal replacement policy (n, T) is showed to be better than the optimal T* and the optimal n* policy.

  18. A probabilistic analysis of cumulative carbon emissions and long-term planetary warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to mitigate and adapt to long-term climate change could benefit greatly from probabilistic estimates of cumulative carbon emissions due to fossil fuel burning and resulting CO2-induced planetary warming. Here we demonstrate the use of a reduced-form model to project these variables. We performed simulations using a large-ensemble framework with parametric uncertainty sampled to produce distributions of future cumulative emissions and consequent planetary warming. A hind-cast ensemble of simulations captured 1980–2012 historical CO2 emissions trends and an ensemble of future projection simulations generated a distribution of emission scenarios that qualitatively resembled the suite of Representative and Extended Concentration Pathways. The resulting cumulative carbon emission and temperature change distributions are characterized by 5–95th percentile ranges of 0.96–4.9 teratonnes C (Tt C) and 1.4 °C–8.5 °C, respectively, with 50th percentiles at 3.1 Tt C and 4.7 °C. Within the wide range of policy-related parameter combinations that produced these distributions, we found that low-emission simulations were characterized by both high carbon prices and low costs of non-fossil fuel energy sources, suggesting the importance of these two policy levers in particular for avoiding dangerous levels of climate warming. With this analysis we demonstrate a probabilistic approach to the challenge of identifying strategies for limiting cumulative carbon emissions and assessing likelihoods of surpassing dangerous temperature thresholds. (letter)

  19. A probabilistic analysis of cumulative carbon emissions and long-term planetary warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyke, Jeremy; Damon Matthews, H.

    2015-11-01

    Efforts to mitigate and adapt to long-term climate change could benefit greatly from probabilistic estimates of cumulative carbon emissions due to fossil fuel burning and resulting CO2-induced planetary warming. Here we demonstrate the use of a reduced-form model to project these variables. We performed simulations using a large-ensemble framework with parametric uncertainty sampled to produce distributions of future cumulative emissions and consequent planetary warming. A hind-cast ensemble of simulations captured 1980-2012 historical CO2 emissions trends and an ensemble of future projection simulations generated a distribution of emission scenarios that qualitatively resembled the suite of Representative and Extended Concentration Pathways. The resulting cumulative carbon emission and temperature change distributions are characterized by 5-95th percentile ranges of 0.96-4.9 teratonnes C (Tt C) and 1.4 °C-8.5 °C, respectively, with 50th percentiles at 3.1 Tt C and 4.7 °C. Within the wide range of policy-related parameter combinations that produced these distributions, we found that low-emission simulations were characterized by both high carbon prices and low costs of non-fossil fuel energy sources, suggesting the importance of these two policy levers in particular for avoiding dangerous levels of climate warming. With this analysis we demonstrate a probabilistic approach to the challenge of identifying strategies for limiting cumulative carbon emissions and assessing likelihoods of surpassing dangerous temperature thresholds.

  20. The Role of Cumulative Trauma, Betrayal, and Appraisals in Understanding Trauma Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Cromer, Lisa Demarni; Deprince, Anne P; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2013-03-01

    Poor psychological outcomes are common among trauma survivors, yet not all survivors experience adverse sequelae. The current study examined links between cumulative trauma exposure as a function of the level of betrayal (measured by the relational closeness of the survivor and the perpetrator), trauma appraisals, gender, and trauma symptoms. Participants were 273 college students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event on a trauma checklist. Three cumulative indices were constructed to assess the number of different types of traumas experienced that were low (LBTs), moderate (MBTs), or high in betrayal (HBTs). Greater trauma exposure was related to more symptoms of depression, dissociation, and PTSD, with exposure to HBTs contributing the most. Women were more likely to experience HBTs than men, but there were no gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Appraisals of trauma were predictive of trauma-related symptoms over and above the effects explained by cumulative trauma at each level of betrayal. The survivor's relationship with the perpetrator, the effect of cumulative trauma, and their combined impact on trauma symptomatology are discussed. PMID:23542882

  1. First steps towards cumulative inductive types in CIC: Extended version

    OpenAIRE

    Timany, Amin; Jacobs, Bart

    2015-01-01

    We discuss our on-going research on making inductive types cumulative in the predicative calculus of inductive constructions (pCIC) - the logic of the Coq proof assistant. Having inductive types be cumulative alleviates some problems that occur while working with large inductive types, e.g. the category of small categories, in pCIC. We present the pCuIC system which adds cumulativity for inductive types to pCIC and briefly discuss some of its properties and possible extensions. We, in ad...

  2. Current and emerging strategies for organophosphate decontamination: special focus on hyperstable enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Pauline; Daudé, David; Bzdrenga, Janek; Masson, Patrick; Elias, Mikael; Chabrière, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphorus chemicals are highly toxic molecules mainly used as pesticides. Some of them are banned warfare nerve agents. These compounds are covalent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in central and peripheral nervous systems. Numerous approaches, including chemical, physical, and biological decontamination, have been considered for developing decontamination methods against organophosphates (OPs). This work is an overview of both validated and emerging strategies for the protection against OP pollution with special attention to the use of decontaminating enzymes. Considerable efforts have been dedicated during the past decades to the development of efficient OP degrading biocatalysts. Among these, the promising biocatalyst SsoPox isolated from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is emphasized in the light of recently published results. This hyperthermostable enzyme appears to be particularly attractive for external decontamination purposes with regard to both its catalytic and stability properties. PMID:26832878

  3. Development of a versatile organophosphorous-hydrolase-based assay for organophosphate pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kim R.; Wang, Yi; Mulchandani, Ashok; Mulchandani, P.; Chen, Wilfred

    1999-02-01

    We report a rapid and versatile organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH)-based method for measurement of organophosphate pesticides. This assay is based on a substrate-dependant change in pH near the active site of the enzyme. The pH change is monitored using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) which is covalently immobilized to the enzyme. This method employs FITC-labeled enzyme adsorbed to polymethylmethacrylate beads. Analytes were measured using a microbead fluorescence analyzer. The dynamic concentration range for the assay extends from 25 (mu) M to 400 (mu) M for paraoxon with a detection limit of 8 (mu) M. This assay compared favorably to an HPLC method for monitoring the concentration of coumaphos in bioremediation filtrate samples.

  4. Resistance of Aedes aegypti from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, to organophosphates insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macoris Maria de Lourdes G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the reintroduction of Aedes aegypti in the state of São Paulo, in the middle of the 1980-decade, organophosphate insecticides are being used to control the dengue vector. In 1996, an annual program for monitoring the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to the insecticides was implemented. Some of the results of this monitoring program are presented. Ae. aegypti populations from ten localities have been submitted to bioassays with the diagnostic dose of temephos and fenitrothion. Only two (Marília and Presidente Prudente remain susceptible to both insecticides and one (Santos exhibits true resistance. Ae. aegypti from the remaining localities showed an incipient altered susceptibility. Resistance ratios varied from 1.2 to 2.9 for temephos and from 1.5 to 3.2 to fenitrothion, indicating moderate levels of resistance. Biochemical assays did not detect alterations in the enzyme acetilcholinesterase, but indicated that resistance is associated with esterases.

  5. Urinary organophosphate metabolite levels in Palestinian pregnant women: results of the Middle East Regional Cooperation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Ziad; Berman, Tamar; Azmi, Kifaya; Abu Seir, Rania; Agha, Hazem; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Göen, Thomas; Stein, Yael; Richter, Elihu; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure urinary organophosphate (OP) metabolites in Palestinian pregnant women, and to compare levels with those in pregnant women in Jerusalem and women from the general population in Israel. We measured six dialkyl phosphates in urine samples collected from 148 pregnant women from the West Bank area. Median total dimethyl phosphate (DMtotal) levels were significantly lower in Palestinian women compared to Jerusalem pregnant women and women in Israel (p = 0.041). In Palestinian women reporting that their place of residence was near an agricultural field, DMtotal levels were significantly higher (p = 0.037). Lower urinary excretion of dimethyl phosphate pesticide metabolites in Palestinian women compared to Israeli women may result from lower consumption of fruits and vegetables in the Palestinian population. Our findings highlight differences in OP pesticide exposure in populations with close geographical proximity but with differences in culture, diet, lifestyle, and regulatory oversight of pesticides. PMID:26578062

  6. Model-checking techniques based on cumulative residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D Y; Wei, L J; Ying, Z

    2002-03-01

    Residuals have long been used for graphical and numerical examinations of the adequacy of regression models. Conventional residual analysis based on the plots of raw residuals or their smoothed curves is highly subjective, whereas most numerical goodness-of-fit tests provide little information about the nature of model misspecification. In this paper, we develop objective and informative model-checking techniques by taking the cumulative sums of residuals over certain coordinates (e.g., covariates or fitted values) or by considering some related aggregates of residuals, such as moving sums and moving averages. For a variety of statistical models and data structures, including generalized linear models with independent or dependent observations, the distributions of these stochastic processes tinder the assumed model can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be easily generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be compared, both graphically and numerically, with a number of realizations from the Gaussian process. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether a trend seen in a residual plot reflects model misspecification or natural variation. The proposed techniques are particularly useful in checking the functional form of a covariate and the link function. Illustrations with several medical studies are provided. PMID:11890304

  7. INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION OF PROBABILITY AND CUMULATIVE DENSITY FUNCTIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Potter, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF), and its corresponding cumulative density function (CDF), provide direct statistical insight into the characterization of a random process or field. Typically displayed as a histogram, one can infer probabilities of the occurrence of particular events. When examining a field over some two-dimensional domain in which at each point a PDF of the function values is available, it is challenging to assess the global (stochastic) features present within the field. In this paper, we present a visualization system that allows the user to examine two-dimensional data sets in which PDF (or CDF) information is available at any position within the domain. The tool provides a contour display showing the normed difference between the PDFs and an ansatz PDF selected by the user and, furthermore, allows the user to interactively examine the PDF at any particular position. Canonical examples of the tool are provided to help guide the reader into the mapping of stochastic information to visual cues along with a description of the use of the tool for examining data generated from an uncertainty quantification exercise accomplished within the field of electrophysiology.

  8. Parafunctional habits are associated cumulatively to painful temporomandibular disorders in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana FERNANDES; Ana Lúcia FRANCO-MICHELONI; de Siqueira, José Tadeu Tesseroli; Daniela Aparecida Godói GONÇALVES; CAMPARIS, Cinara Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the effect of sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and parafunctional habits, both separately and cumulatively, on the likelihood of adolescents to present painful TMD. The study was conducted on a sample of 1,094 adolescents (aged 12-14). The presence of painful TMD was assessed using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, Axis I. Data on sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and parafunctional habits (nail/pen/pencil/lip...

  9. Brominated and organophosphate flame retardants in selected consumer products on the Japanese market in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We examined the flame retardants in electronics, curtains, wallpaper and insulator. → Use of alternative brominated and organophosphate flame retardants was suggested. → All the products investigated also contained PBDEs, TBBPA and polybromophenols. → Incorporation of recycled materials containing hazardous substance was suggested. - Abstract: The concentrations of traditional brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in new consumer products, including electronic equipment, curtains, wallpaper, and building materials, on the Japanese market in 2008 were investigated. Although some components of the electronic equipment contained bromine at concentrations on the order of percent by weight, as indicated by X-ray fluorescence analysis, the bromine content could not be fully accounted for by the BFRs analyzed in this study, which included polybrominated diphenylethers, decabromodiphenyl ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, polybromophenols, and hexabromocyclododecanes. These results suggest the use of alternative BFRs such as newly developed formulations derived from tribromophenol, tetrabromobisphenol A, or both. Among the 11 OPFRs analyzed, triphenylphosphate was present at the highest concentrations in all the products investigated, which suggests the use of condensed-type OPFRs as alternative flame retardants, because they contain triphenylphosphate as an impurity. Tripropylphosphate was not detected in any samples; and trimethylphosphate, tributyl tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate were detected in only some components and at low concentrations. Note that all the consumer products evaluated in this study also contained traditional BFRs in amounts that were inadequate to impart flame retardancy, which implies the incorporation of recycled plastic materials containing BFRs that are of global concern.

  10. Nanoparticle-based optical biosensors for the direct detection of organophosphate chemical warfare agents and pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurotoxic organophosphates (OP) have found widespread use in the environment for insect control. In addition, there is the increasing threat of use of OP based chemical warfare agents in both ground based warfare and terrorist attacks. Together, these trends necessitate the development of simple and specific methods for discriminative detection of ultra low quantities of OP neurotoxins. In our previous investigations a new biosensor for the direct detection of organophosphorus neurotoxins was pioneered. In this system, the enzymatic hydrolysis of OP neurotoxins by organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) generated two protons in each hydrolytic turnover through reactions in which P-X bonds are cleaved. The sensitivity of this biosensor was limited due to the potentiometric method of detection. Recently, it was reported that a change in fluorescence properties of a fluorophore in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles might be used for detection of nanomolar concentrations of DNA oligonucleotides. The detection strategy was based on the fact that an enhancement or quenching of fluorescence intensity is a function of the distances between the gold nanoparticle and fluorophore. While these reports have demonstrated the use of nanoparticle-based sensors for the detection of target DNA, we observed that the specificity of enzyme-substrate interactions could be exploited in similar systems. To test the feasibility of this approach, OPH-gold nanoparticle conjugates were prepared, then incubated with a fluorescent enzyme inhibitor or decoy. The fluorescence intensity of the decoy was sensitive to the proximity of the gold nanoparticle, and thus could be used to indicate that the decoy was bound to the OPH. Then different paraoxon concentrations were introduced to the OPH-nanoparticle-conjugate-decoy mixtures, and normalized ratio of fluorescence intensities were measured. The greatest sensitivity to paraoxon was obtained when decoys and OPH-gold nanoparticle conjugates were present at

  11. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor...... foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for...... Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American...

  12. Translation-Invariant Representation for Cumulative Foot Pressure Images

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Shuai; Tan, Tieniu

    2010-01-01

    Human can be distinguished by different limb movements and unique ground reaction force. Cumulative foot pressure image is a 2-D cumulative ground reaction force during one gait cycle. Although it contains pressure spatial distribution information and pressure temporal distribution information, it suffers from several problems including different shoes and noise, when putting it into practice as a new biometric for pedestrian identification. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical translation-invariant representation for cumulative foot pressure images, inspired by the success of Convolutional deep belief network for digital classification. Key contribution in our approach is discriminative hierarchical sparse coding scheme which helps to learn useful discriminative high-level visual features. Based on the feature representation of cumulative foot pressure images, we develop a pedestrian recognition system which is invariant to three different shoes and slight local shape change. Experiments are conducted on...

  13. Effect of Cumulative Damage on Rocket Motor Service Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorijević, Nikola; Živković, Saša; Subotić, Sredoje; Rodić, Vesna; Gligorijević, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    Two series of antihail rocket propellant grains failed only 3 months after production, due to the appearance of cracks in the grain channel. Structural integrity analysis demonstrated sufficient reliability at the beginning of service life. Further analysis showed that under temperature loads, cumulative damage during the short period in field stocks caused the grain failure, despite the established opinion that such failure can become significant only after lengthy storage. A linear cumulative damage law is evaluated by exposing a number of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) composite propellant specimens to different but constant stress levels. The analysis showed that cumulative damage must not be overlooked at the design stage. Further, a positive correlation between the propellant cumulative damage law and tensile strength is strongly indicated.

  14. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  15. Macroscopic cumulative fatigue damage of material under nonsymmetrical cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖秉政

    2002-01-01

    Hashin's macroscopic theory of fatigue damage is further discussed and a new method has been proposed for prediction of cumulative fatigue damage of material and its lifetime under nonsymmetrical cyclic loading.

  16. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  17. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Whiting, Allan H.

    2007-12-06

    This report is the third annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration action in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). The project is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce. Measurement of the cumulative effects of ecological restoration projects in the Columbia River estuary is a formidable task because of the size and complexity of the estuarine landscape and the meta-populations of salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Despite the challenges presented by this system, developing and implementing appropriate indicators and methods to measure cumulative effects is the best way to enable estuary managers to track the overall effectiveness of investments in estuarine restoration projects. This project is developing methods to quantify the cumulative effects of multiple restoration activities in the CRE. The overall objectives of the 2006 study were to continue to develop techniques to assess cumulative effects, refine the standard monitoring protocols, and initiate development of an adaptive management system for Corps of Engineers’ habitat restoration monitoring efforts in the CRE. (The adaptive management effort will be reported at a later date.) Field studies during 2006 were conducted in tidal freshwater at Kandoll Farm on the lower Grays River and tidal brackish water at Vera Slough on Youngs Bay. Within each of area, we sampled one natural reference site and one restoration site. We addressed the overall objectives with field work in 2006 that, coupled with previous field data, had specific objectives and resulted in some important findings that are summarized here by chapter in this report. Each chapter of the report contains data on particular monitored variables for pre- and post

  18. Some Characterization Results on Dynamic Cumulative Residual Tsallis Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Sati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalized cumulative residual information measure based on Tsallis entropy and its dynamic version. We study the characterizations of the proposed information measure and define new classes of life distributions based on this measure. Some applications are provided in relation to weighted and equilibrium probability models. Finally the empirical cumulative Tsallis entropy is proposed to estimate the new information measure.

  19. Variable cultural acquisition costs constrain cumulative cultural evolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Mesoudi, A

    2011-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated...

  20. GENDER, CUMULATIVE STRAIN AND DEVIANT BEHAVIOR IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Özbay, Özden

    2013-01-01

     ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study is to explore whether General Strain Theory played a similar role for male and female deviant acts among the youths in Turkey. Data was derived from 974 students at a Turkish public university. The findings indicated that cumulative strain, anger, and criminal and non-criminal copings played similar roles for both males and females. The results questioned General Strain Theory’s gender difference thesis.Keywords: General strain theory, cumulative strain, gen...

  1. Cumulant moments in hadron-nucleus collisions and stochastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, N.; Biyajima, M.; Wilk, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.

    1998-09-01

    Cumulant moments of negatively charged particles observed in hadron-nulceus collisions are analyzed by a leading particle cascade model. A modified negative binomial distribution (MNBD) or a negative binomial distribution (NBD) is used for multiplicity distribution from each participant hadron. If multiplicity distributions are truncated, both calculated results with the MNBD and the NBD can explain the oscillation of cumulant moments obtained from the data.

  2. Nanoparticle-Based Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Detection of Phosphorylated Acetylcholinesterase: An Exposure Biomarker of Organophosphate Pesticides and Nerve AgentsOrganophosphate Pesticides and Nerve Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Barry, Richard C.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Timchalk, Charles; Gassman, Paul L.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-11-01

    A nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the detection of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) adducts, which is a potential exposure biomarker for organophosphate pesticides (OP) and chemical warfare nerve agent exposures. Zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were used as selective sorbents to capture the phosphorylated AChE adduct, and quantum dots (ZnS@CdS, QDs) were used as tags to label monoclonal anti-AChE antibody to track the immunorecognition events. The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among the ZrO2 NPs, which were pre-coated on a screen printed electrode (SPE) by electrodeposition, phosphorylated AChE and QD-anti-AChE. The captured QD tags were determined on the SPE by electrochemical stripping analysis of its metallic component (cadmium) after an acid-dissolution step. Paraoxon was used as a model OP insecticide to prepare the phosphorylated AChE adduct to demonstrate the proof of principle for this sensor technology. The paraoxon-AChE adduct was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum, and the binding affinity of anti-AChE to the paraoxon-AChE was validated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The parameters (e.g., amount of ZrO2 NP, QD-anti-AChE concentration,) that govern the electrochemical response of immunosensors were optimized. The voltammetric response of the immunosensor is highly linear over the range of 10 pM to 4 nM paraoxon-AChE, and the limit of detection is estimated to be 8 pM. This new nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunosensor thus provides a sensitive and quantitative tool for biomonitoring exposure to OP pesticides and nerve agents.

  3. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26469872

  4. Epigenome: A Biomarker or Screening Tool to Evaluate Health Impact of Cumulative Exposure to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Olden; Yu-Sheng Lin; David Bussard

    2016-01-01

    Current risk assessment practices and toxicity information are hard to utilize for assessing the health impact of combined or cumulative exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors encountered in the “real world” environment. Non-chemical stressors such as heat, radiation, noise, humidity, bacterial and viral agents, and social factors, like stress related to violence and socioeconomic position generally cannot be currently incorporated into the risk assessment paradigm. The Scie...

  5. Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure in School-Aged Children Living in Rice and Aquacultural Farming Regions of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rohitrattana, Juthasiri; Siriwong, Wattasit; Tunsaringkarn, Tanasorn; Panuwet, Parinya; Ryan, P. Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Robson, Mark G.; Fiedler, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are widely used in agricultural sectors in Thailand. Previous studies have documented that children residing in agricultural areas have higher exposure to OPs than children living in other residential areas. The objective of this study was to quantify urinary biomarkers of OP exposure and determine the environmental conditions and activities that predict their levels among children living in Central Thailand farming regions. In October 2011, 53 6–8-year-old pa...

  6. In Vitro Ability of Currently Available Oximes to Reactivate Organophosphate Pesticide-Inhibited Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil Musilek; Kamil Kuca; Daniel Jun; Lucie Musilova

    2011-01-01

    We have in vitro tested the ability of common, commercially available, cholinesterase reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, trimedoxime and HI-6) to reactivate human acetylcholinesterase (AChE), inhibited by five structurally different organophosphate pesticides and inhibitors (paraoxon, dichlorvos, DFP, leptophos-oxon and methamidophos). We also tested reactivation of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with the aim of finding a potent oxime, suitable to serve as a “pseudocatalytic...

  7. Electrophysiological correlates of respiratory failure in acute organophosphate poisoning: Evidence for differential roles of muscarinic and nicotinic stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jayawardane, Pradeepa; Senanayake, Nimal; Buckley, Nick A.; Dawson, Andrew H

    2012-01-01

    Background. Respiratory failure in acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning can occur early and also relatively late in the clinical course, and the pathophysiology of respiratory failure at these different phases may have important clinical implications. Objective. To compare the electrophysiological findings in patients with early and late respiratory failure following acute OP poisoning. Methods. A prospective observational case series of consenting symptomatic patients with acute OP poisoning...

  8. TARGETING OF NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS, THEIR RECEPTORS, AND SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY OF ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    Slotkin, Theodore A.; Seidler, Frederic J; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors control neural cell differentiation and assembly of neural circuits. We previously showed that organophosphate pesticides differentially regulate members of the fibroblast growth factor (fgf) gene family. We administered chlorpyrifos and diazinon to neonatal rats on postnatal days 1–4 at doses devoid of systemic toxicity or growth impairment, and spanning the threshold for barely-detectable cholinesterase inhibition. We evaluated the impact on gene families for different ...

  9. Fitness evaluation of two Brazilian Aedes aegypti field populations with distinct levels of resistance to the organophosphate temephos

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Affonso Belinato; Ademir Jesus Martins; Denise Valle

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, decades of dengue vector control using organophosphates and pyrethroids have led to dissemination of resistance. Although these insecticides have been employed for decades against Aedes aegypti in the country, knowledge of the impact of temephos resistance on vector viability is limited. We evaluated several fitness parameters in two Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, both classified as deltamethrin resistant but with distinct resistant ratios (RR) for temephos. The insecticide-sus...

  10. The efficacy of a chitin synthesis inhibitor against field populations of organophosphate-resistant Aedes aegypti in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalia Giglio Fontoura; Diogo Fernandes Bellinato; Denise Valle; José Bento Pereira Lima

    2012-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main focus of dengue control campaigns. Because of widespread resistance against conventional chemical insecticides, chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) are considered control alternatives. We evaluated the resistance status of four Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations to both the organophosphate temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin, which are used in Brazil to control larvae and adults, respectively. All vector populations exhibited high levels of temephos r...

  11. Enhancing the Promiscuous Phosphotriesterase Activity of a Thermostable Lactonase (GkaP) for the Efficient Degradation of Organophosphate Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; An, Jiao; Ye, Wei; Yang, Guangyu; Qian, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Hai-Feng; Cui, Li; Feng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) enzymes in the amidohydrolase superfamily hydrolyze various lactones and exhibit latent phosphotriesterase activities. These enzymes serve as attractive templates for in vitro evolution of neurotoxic organophosphates (OPs) with hydrolytic capabilities that can be used as bioremediation tools. Here, a thermostable PLL from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP) was targeted for joint laboratory evolution with the aim of enhancing its catalytic effici...

  12. Histopathological alterations, biochemical responses and acetylcholinesterase levels in Clarias gariepinus as biomarkers of exposure to organophosphates pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, V F; Ladipo, M K; Aneyo, I A; Adeola, A; Odulele, W Y

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphate pesticides, commonly used in large scale farming, have been found to be major contaminants in aquatic environment. Clarias gariepinus was exposed to acute and sublethal concentrations of phostoxin and DD Force to evaluate single and joint action toxicity of the organophosphates. Effects of phostoxin and DD force on antioxidant enzymes, fish organs and acetylcholinesterase levels in fingerlings and juveniles of C. gariepinus were also investigated. The lethal concentrations (96 h LC50) for phostoxin and DD Force were 0.631 and 1.759 mg/l, respectively. The results obtained from the bioassay showed that phostoxin was 2.8× more toxic than DD Force after exposure of C. gariepinus. Joint action toxicity evaluations of phostoxin and DD Force showed that the interaction between the chemicals was synergistic (RTU >1). The biochemical responses in the exposed fish differed significantly (P toxicity studies, respiratory stress, erratic swimming and instant death of fish were observed in the exposed fish. This study reveals that changes in histopathology and acetylcholinesterase level are good biomarkers and can be successfully used to detect exposure to organophosphates pesticides in fish. PMID:27121169

  13. Acetylcholinesterase-Fc Fusion Protein (AChE-Fc): A Novel Potential Organophosphate Bioscavenger with Extended Plasma Half-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy-Porat, Tal; Cohen, Ofer; Ehrlich, Sharon; Epstein, Eyal; Alcalay, Ron; Mazor, Ohad

    2015-08-19

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the physiological target of organophosphate nerve agent compounds. Currently, the development of a formulation for prophylactic administration of cholinesterases as bioscavengers in established risk situations of exposure to nerve agents is the incentive for many efforts. While cholinesterase bioscavengers were found to be highly effective in conferring protection against nerve agent exposure in animal models, their therapeutic use is complicated by short circulatory residence time. To create a bioscavenger with prolonged plasma half-life, compatible with biotechnological production and purification, a chimeric recombinant molecule of HuAChE coupled to the Fc region of human IgG1 was designed. The novel fusion protein, expressed in cultured cells under optimized conditions, maintains its full enzymatic activity, at levels similar to those of the recombinant AChE enzyme. Thus, this novel fusion product retained its binding affinity toward BW284c5 and propidium, and its bioscavenging reactivity toward the organophosphate-AChE inhibitors sarin and VX. Furthermore, when administered to mice, AChE-Fc exhibits exceptional circulatory residence longevity (MRT of 6000 min), superior to any other known cholinesterase-based recombinant bioscavengers. Owing to its optimized pharmacokinetic performance, high reactivity toward nerve agents, and ease of production, AChE-Fc emerges as a promising next-generation organophosphate bioscavenger. PMID:26121420

  14. Quantitative trait locus mapping and functional genomics of an organophosphate resistance trait in the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, B S; Alves, A P; Wang, H; Zhou, X; Nowatzki, T; Chen, H; Rangasamy, M; Robertson, H M; Whitfield, C W; Walden, K K; Kachman, S D; French, B W; Meinke, L J; Hawthorne, D; Abel, C A; Sappington, T W; Siegfried, B D; Miller, N J

    2016-02-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is an insect pest of corn and population suppression with chemical insecticides is an important management tool. Traits conferring organophosphate insecticide resistance have increased in frequency amongst D. v. virgifera populations, resulting in the reduced efficacy in many corn-growing regions of the USA. We used comparative functional genomic and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approaches to investigate the genetic basis of D. v. virgifera resistance to the organophosphate methyl-parathion. RNA from adult methyl-parathion resistant and susceptible adults was hybridized to 8331 microarray probes. The results predicted that 11 transcripts were significantly up-regulated in resistant phenotypes, with the most significant (fold increases ≥ 2.43) being an α-esterase-like transcript. Differential expression was validated only for the α-esterase (ST020027A20C03), with 11- to 13-fold greater expression in methyl-parathion resistant adults (P resistance trait were obtained from a reciprocal backcross design. QTL analyses of high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data predicted involvement of a single genome interval. These data suggest that a specific carboyxesterase may function in field-evolved corn rootworm resistance to organophosphates, even though direct linkage between the QTL and this locus could not be established. PMID:26566705

  15. Cumulative risk disparities in children's neurocognitive functioning: a developmental cascade model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Mark; Browne, Dillon T; Plamondon, Andre; Daniel, Ella; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2016-03-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the role of cumulative social risk on children's theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) across early development. Further, we also tested a cascade model of development in which children's social cognition at 18 months was hypothesized to predict ToM and EF at age 4.5 through intermediary language skills at age 3. We then examined whether this developmental mechanism varied as a function of social risk status. Participants were 501 children recruited when they were newborns, at which point eight psychosocial risk factors were assessed and combined into a metric of cumulative social disadvantage. Families were followed up at 18 months, at which point four social-cognitive skills were assessed using developmentally sensitive tasks: joint attention, empathy, cooperation, and self-recognition. Language was measured at age 3 using a standardized measure of receptive vocabulary. At age 3 and 4.5, EF and ToM were measured using previously validated tasks. Results showed that there were notable cumulative risk disparities in overall neurocognitive skill development, and these effects became more differentiated over time. Support was also found for a developmental mechanism wherein the effect of social cognition at 18 months on ToM and EF in the preschool period operated specifically through children's receptive language ability at age 3. This pathway functioned similarly for children with both low- and high-risk backgrounds. These results extend previous findings by documenting the role of cumulative social disadvantage on children's neurocognition and the pathways that link key neurocognitive abilities across early development. PMID:25845409

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Reading Comprehension Achievement from Grades 3 to 10: Investigating Models of Stability, Cumulative Growth, and Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska-White, Bozena; Kirby, John R.; Lee, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 78 Canadian English-speaking students examined the applicability of the stability, cumulative, and compensatory models in reading comprehension development. Archival government-mandated assessments of reading comprehension at Grades 3, 6, and 10, and the Canadian Test of Basic Skills measure of reading comprehension…

  17. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fallesen

    Full Text Available Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998 the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010, the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period, the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  18. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  19. A study of neurologic symptoms on exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used extensively throughout the world in agriculture and in pest control as well as for community health purposes. Organophosphate (OP pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world that kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is an apparent problem in places where highly toxic OP pesticides are available. Neurologic dysfunction is the best documented health effect of pesticide exposure. High-level exposure has both acute and long-term neurologic signs and symptoms, and adverse effects have been reported in most type of pesticides, including organophosphate (OP, carbamate, organochlorine, and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fumigants. Acute OP pesticide exposure can involve in wide range of both central and peripheral neurologic symptoms. Increased neurologic symptom prevalence may provide early evidence of neurologic dysfunctions, before clinically measurable signs are evident. In this study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data on neurologic signs and symptoms from 225 rural children, both males (n = 132 and females (n = 93 who were occupationally and paraoccupationally exposed to methyl OPs (dichlorvos, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion and ethyl OPs (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, ethyl parathion as they belonged to agricultural families handling, mixing, and spraying the OP pesticides. The children completed a specially designed questionnaire (Q16 on neurologic symptoms associated with pesticide exposure with their parental help. A suitable reference group consisting of rural children (n = 50 never involved in pesticide handling (neither outdoor nor indoor belonging to similar socioeconomic strata included in the study to compare the prevalence of various neurologic symptoms between the two groups. Among all the neurologic self-reported symptoms, headache, watering in eyes, and burning sensation in

  20. Cumulant t-expansion for strongly correlated fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    A systematic nonperturbative scheme is implemented to calculate the ground state energy for a wide class of strongly correlated fermion models. The scheme includes: (a) a method of automatic calculations of the cumulants of the model Hamiltonian, (b) a method of the ground state energy calculation from these cumulants using the t-expansion proposed by Horn and Weinstein (1984) [9] with new procedure of its extrapolation to t → ∞. As an example of application of the scheme all cumulants up to the 8-th order for spinless fermion model are calculated exactly, and converging sequences of approximations to the ground state energy are obtained for one-, two- and three-dimensional versions of the model.

  1. Effect of correlation on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of correlation on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distribution which have been measured for central (0-5\\%) Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied assuming individual proton and anti-proton distributions as Poisson or Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD). In-spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation and kinematical correlations of protons and anti-protons, the measured cumulants of net-proton distribution follow the independent production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and anti-proton distributions obtained from HIJING event generator.

  2. Effect of correlations on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D. K.; Garg, P.; Netrakanti, P. K.

    2016-02-01

    We study the effects of correlations on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distributions which have been measured for central (0%-5%) Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied by assuming individual proton and antiproton distributions as a Poisson or negative binomial distribution (NBD). In spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation, and kinematical correlations of protons and antiprotons, the measured cumulants of the net-proton distribution follow the independent-production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of the correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and antiproton distributions obtained from the hijing event generator.

  3. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  4. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  5. Cholinergic systems in brain development and disruption by neurotoxicants: nicotine, environmental tobacco smoke, organophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters play unique trophic roles in brain development. Accordingly, drugs and environmental toxicants that promote or interfere with neurotransmitter function evoke neurodevelopmental abnormalities by disrupting the timing or intensity of neurotrophic actions. The current review discusses three exposure scenarios involving acetylcholine systems: nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and exposure to the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF). All three have long-term, adverse effects on specific processes involved in brain cell replication and differentiation, synaptic development and function, and ultimately behavioral performance. Many of these effects can be traced to the sequence of cellular events surrounding the trophic role of acetylcholine acting on its specific cellular receptors and associated signaling cascades. However, for chlorpyrifos, additional noncholinergic mechanisms appear to be critical in establishing the period of developmental vulnerability, the sites and type of neural damage, and the eventual outcome. New findings indicate that developmental neurotoxicity extends to late phases of brain maturation including adolescence. Novel in vitro and in vivo exposure models are being developed to uncover heretofore unsuspected mechanisms and targets for developmental neurotoxicants

  6. EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHATES ON ACUTE POISONING AND ACETYL CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ZEBRA FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TH Sukirtha* MV Usharani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates (Ops. are the most widely used insecticides available today. These are a group of insecticides used in chemical sprays to kill bugs, and insects in orchards, vineyards, vegetables and cereal crops. The present study examined effects of the pesticide Methyl parathion, Dichlorvos and Chlorpyrifos on adult zebra fish were exposed to various concentrations (5, 10 & 25mg/L for 24 and 48hrs acute toxic study. Chlorpyrifos showed mortality in all concentrations and Methyl parathion and Dichlorvos showed the same in 25 mg/L. LC 50 value for Methyl parathion and Dichlorvos was 5 & 10 mg/L respectively. The total protein, LPO content was increased except SOD, Catalase in the brain tissue of the treated fishes.  There was no significant decrease in the GPX activity at 5ppm test groups. The GPX activity decreased significantly in test group treated with 10ppm and a significant difference was found between 5ppm and 10ppm test groups. The histopathological studies of brain tissue showed that neuronal degeneration and tissue damages in the brain of treated fishes when compared with the control. Ops. produce toxicity by inhibiting the cholinesterase enzymes in the nervous system. Monitoring of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibition has been widely used in terrestrial and freshwater aquatic systems as an indicator of OP exposure and effects.

  7. Size-dependent atmospheric deposition and inhalation exposure of particle-bound organophosphate flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pei; Bao, Lian-Jun; Guo, Ying; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-01-15

    Atmospheric size-fractionated particles were collected at different heights in an e-waste recycling zone (QY) and urban Guangzhou (GZ), China and analyzed for organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). The total air concentrations of eight OPFRs were 130±130 and 138±127 ng m(-3) in QY and GZ, respectively. Compositional profiles of chlorinated OPFRs were different between QY and GZ, but the size distribution patterns of all OPFRs were not significantly different at different heights. Estimated atmospheric deposition fluxes of OPFRs were 51±67 and 55±13 μg m(-2) d(-1) in QY and GZ, respectively, and the coarse particles (Dp>1.8 μm) dominated both the dry and wet deposition fluxes. Moreover, not all particle-bound OPFRs were inhalable and deposited in the human respiratory tract. The calculated inhalation doses of OPFRs were much lower than the reference doses, suggesting that potential health risk due to inhalation exposure to particle-bound OPFRs in the e-waste recycling zone and urban site was low. PMID:26414926

  8. Effects of an organophosphate on Daphnia magna at suborganismal and organismal levels: implications for population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquesne, Sabine

    2006-10-01

    The effects and recovery of 24 h pulse exposure to paraoxon-methyl on Daphnia magna were recorded for various endpoints to study the propagation of effects through various biological levels of organization. Above a threshold concentration (2.2 microgL(-1)), all selected endpoints were affected. Thus, effects at the suborganismal level (e.g., the biomarker response: transient inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity) were accompanied by effects at the organismal (survival, reduction in reproductive performance, decrease in body size) and population (reduced population growth rate) levels. At intermediate and sublethal concentrations, exposure induced a transient ChE inhibition that was also accompanied by effects at the organismal level and that exerted long-term effects on population dynamics. At lower concentrations, although ChE activity was affected, there was no propagation of effects to higher biological levels. This study shows that effects of pulse exposure to organophosphates propagate from the suborganismal level toward the population level and demonstrates the significance of transient ChE inhibition on population dynamics. PMID:16545452

  9. Biochemical, metabolic, and behavioural responses and recovery of Daphnia magna after exposure to an organophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquesne, Sabine; Küster, Eberhard

    2010-03-01

    The responses of various suborganismal and organismal endpoints of Daphnia magna to pulse exposure to sublethal levels of the organophosphate paraoxon-methyl were compared. The changes and recovery of biochemical, metabolic, and behavioural variables, as well as physiological responses, were observed. The cholinesterase (ChE), filtration, and swimming activities were all affected in a concentration-dependent manner, and these effects reached significance at concentrations of 1.0, 1.5, and 0.7 microg L(-1), respectively. The levels of these variables recovered significantly after detoxification for 24h in clean medium. ChE and swimming activities were affected significantly by lower concentrations of paraoxon-methyl than filtration activity, which had the same threshold as the physiological responses ((15)N abundance and body size). This study showed that among the parameters studied, swimming activity was the most sensitive, whereas changes in filtration activity had the most significant physiological consequences, and were therefore important in terms of effects propagation to the population level. PMID:20031215

  10. Decreased reelin expression and organophosphate pesticide exposure alters mouse behaviour and brain morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A. Ghiani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASDs (autism spectrum disorders. In this study, we examined the combinatorial effect of two factors thought to be involved in autism – reduction in the expression of the extracellular matrix protein reelin and prenatal exposure to an organophosphate pesticide, CPO (chlorpyrifos oxon. Mice with reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to CPO exhibited subtle changes in ultrasound vocalization, open field behaviour, social interaction and repetitive behaviour. Paradoxically, mice exposed to both variables often exhibited a mitigation of abnormal behaviours, rather than increased behavioural abnormalities as expected. We identified specific differences in males and females in response to both of these variables. In addition to behavioural abnormalities, we identified anatomical alterations in the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. As with our behavioural studies, anatomical alterations appeared to be ameliorated in the presence of both variables. While these observations support an interaction between loss of reelin expression and CPO exposure, our results suggest a complexity to this interaction beyond an additive effect of individual phenotypes.

  11. Rice ingestion is a major pathway for human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingli; Zou, Wei; Mu, Li; Chen, Yuming; Ren, Chaoxiu; Hu, Xiangang; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-11-15

    Although organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been shown to accumulate in abiotic and biotic environmental compartments, data about OPFRs concentrations in various foods are limited and are none in humans through diets. In this work, the concentrations of 6 typical OPFRs were investigated in 50 rice samples, 75 commonly consumed foods and 45 human hair samples from China. The dietary intakes of OPFRs for adult people via food ingestion were estimated. The concentrations of ΣOPFRs in foods ranged from 0.004ng/g to 287ng/g. OPFRs were detected in 53.3% of the human hair samples. The highest OPFRs concentrations were found in rice and vegetables. Tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate(TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate(TCIPP), and tri(2-ethyltexyl)phosphate(TEHP) were predominant in all food samples. OPFRs concentrations in foods were not significantly affected by the packaging materials. The mean dietary intakes of ΣOPFRs for adult males and females were 539 and 601ng/kg body weight/day, respectively. The greatest contribution to these values is from rice, accounting for approximately 60% of the total intake, particularly from rice protein. Rice ingestion was considered a potential major pathway for human exposure to OPFRs, and regional differences in the levels of OPFRs in foods and dietary differences should be given more attention in the future. PMID:27484948

  12. Novel nucleophiles enhance the human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1)-mediated detoxication of organophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Janice E; Chambers, Howard W; Meek, Edward C; Funck, Kristen E; Bhavaraju, Manikanthan H; Gwaltney, Steven R; Pringle, Ronald B

    2015-01-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a calcium-dependent hydrolase associated with serum high-density lipoprotein particles. PON1 hydrolyzes some organophosphates (OPs), including some nerve agents, through nucleophilic attack of hydroxide ion (from water) in the active site. Most OPs are hydrolyzed inefficiently. This project seeks to identify nucleophiles that can enhance PON1-mediated OP degradation. A series of novel nucleophiles, substituted phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes, has been synthesized which enhance the degradation of surrogates of sarin (nitrophenyl isopropyl methylphosphonate; NIMP) and VX (nitrophenyl ethyl methylphosphonate; NEMP). Two types of in vitro assays have been conducted, a direct assay using millimolar concentrations of substrate with direct spectrophotometric quantitation of a hydrolysis product (4-nitrophenol) and an indirect assay using submicromolar concentrations of substrate with quantitation by the level of inhibition of an exogenous source of acetylcholinesterase from non-hydrolyzed substrate. Neither NIMP nor NEMP is hydrolyzed effectively by PON1 if one of these novel oximes is absent. However, in the presence of eight novel oximes, PON1-mediated degradation of both surrogates occurs. Computational modeling has created a model of PON1 embedded in phospholipid and has indicated general agreement of the binding enthalpies with the relative efficacy as PON1 enhancers. PON1 enhancement of degradation of OPs could be a unique and unprecedented mechanism of antidotal action. PMID:25304213

  13. Organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers in human placenta in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinjian; Xu, Zemin; Huang, Wei; Feng, Limin; Yang, Fangxing

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) have been widely used in various products as alternatives to brominated flame retardants. Although widespread OPE exposure is expected in humans, the accumulation of OPEs has seldom been studied in the human body. In this study, 12 OPE analogs were analyzed in 50 human placentas collected in Eastern China. The concentrations of the 9 most frequently detected OPEs (Σ9OPEs) ranged from 34.4 to 862ng/g lipid weight (lw), with a median of 301ng/g lw. Tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) was identified as the most abundant analog, with a median concentration of 142ng/g lw, followed by tributoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP). Statistical analysis showed no analog of OPEs or Σ9OPEs was positively correlated with the lipid content of the placentas. There were no correlations observed between the OPE concentrations and maternal characteristics. Food consumption habits exhibited weak effects on OPE levels in the placentas. Further investigation is required to determine the effects of OPEs on fetuses due to the expected increase in maternal exposure to these esters. PMID:26950635

  14. Organophosphates in aircraft cabin and cockpit air--method development and measurements of contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbu, Kasper; Daae, Hanne Line; Olsen, Raymond; Thorud, Syvert; Ellingsen, Dag Gunnar; Lindgren, Torsten; Bakke, Berit; Lundanes, Elsa; Molander, Paal

    2011-05-01

    Methods for measurements and the potential for occupational exposure to organophosphates (OPs) originating from turbine and hydraulic oils among flying personnel in the aviation industry are described. Different sampling methods were applied, including active within-day methods for OPs and VOCs, newly developed passive long-term sample methods (deposition of OPs to wipe surface areas and to activated charcoal cloths), and measurements of OPs in high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) recirculation filters (n = 6). In total, 95 and 72 within-day OP and VOC samples, respectively, have been collected during 47 flights in six different models of turbine jet engine, propeller and helicopter aircrafts (n = 40). In general, the OP air levels from the within-day samples were low. The most relevant OP in this regard originating from turbine and engine oils, tricresyl phosphate (TCP), was detected in only 4% of the samples (min-max cabin and cockpit air, was an order of magnitude higher as compared to after engine replacement (p = 0.02). PMID:21399836

  15. Airborne organophosphate pesticides drift in Mediterranean climate: The importance of secondary drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivan, Ohad; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Dubowski, Yael

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide application is a short-term air-pollution episode with near and far field effects due to atmospheric drift. In order to better evaluate resulting air concentrations in nearby communities following pesticide application, measurements of airborne pesticides were conducted at ∼70 m from field edge. This was done following three different application events of the organophosphate pesticide Chlorpyrifos in a persimmon orchard. Complementary information on larger spatial scale was obtained using CALPUFF modeling in which application and meteorological data was used to better evaluate dispersion patterns. Measurements indicated high airborne concentrations during application hours (few μg m-3 for 8 h average), which dropped to tens of ng m-3 in the following days. Measured atmospheric concentrations show that secondary drift (i.e., post-application drift) involves significant loads of pesticides and hence should not be ignored in exposure considerations. Furthermore, CALPUFF modeling revealed the complex dispersion pattern when weak winds prevailed, and showed that during the 24 h after application air concentrations reached levels above the hourly Texas effect screening level (0.1 μg m-3). Interestingly, weak winds on the night after application resulted in a secondary peak in measured and modeled air concentrations. Long exposure time (when secondary drift is considered) and concentrations measured following such common air-assisted orchard application, suggest pesticide drift may have health repercussions that are currently unknown, and emphasize the need for further epidemiological studies.

  16. Detection and classification of organophosphate nerve agent simulants using support vector machines with multiarray sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, Omowunmi; Land, Walker H; Wanekaya, Adam K; Uematsu, Michiko; Embrechts, Mark J; Wong, Lut; Leibensperger, Dale; Volykin, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The need for rapid and accurate detection systems is expanding and the utilization of cross-reactive sensor arrays to detect chemical warfare agents in conjunction with novel computational techniques may prove to be a potential solution to this challenge. We have investigated the detection, prediction, and classification of various organophosphate (OP) nerve agent simulants using sensor arrays with a novel learning scheme known as support vector machines (SVMs). The OPs tested include parathion, malathion, dichlorvos, trichlorfon, paraoxon, and diazinon. A new data reduction software program was written in MATLAB V. 6.1 to extract steady-state and kinetic data from the sensor arrays. The program also creates training sets by mixing and randomly sorting any combination of data categories into both positive and negative cases. The resulting signals were fed into SVM software for "pairwise" and "one" vs all classification. Experimental results for this new paradigm show a significant increase in classification accuracy when compared to artificial neural networks (ANNs). Three kernels, the S2000, the polynomial, and the Gaussian radial basis function (RBF), were tested and compared to the ANN. The following measures of performance were considered in the pairwise classification: receiver operating curve (ROC) Az indices, specificities, and positive predictive values (PPVs). The ROC Az) values, specifities, and PPVs increases ranged from 5% to 25%, 108% to 204%, and 13% to 54%, respectively, in all OP pairs studied when compared to the ANN baseline. Dichlorvos, trichlorfon, and paraoxon were perfectly predicted. Positive prediction for malathion was 95%. PMID:15032529

  17. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Salles, João Bosco; Lopes, Renato Matos; de Salles, Cristiane M C; Cassano, Vicente P F; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Bastos, Vera L F Cunha; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  18. An efficient thermostable organophosphate hydrolase and its application in pesticide decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Immacolata; Coppolecchia, Rossella; Merone, Luigia; Porzio, Elena; Carusone, Teresa Maria; Mandrich, Luigi; Worek, Franz; Manco, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In vitro evolution of enzymes represents a powerful device to evolve new or to improve weak enzymatic functions. In the present work a semi-rational engineering approach has been used to design an efficient and thermostable organophosphate hydrolase, starting from a lactonase scaffold (SsoPox from Sulfolobus solfataricus). In particular, by in vitro evolution of the SsoPox ancillary promiscuous activity, the triple mutant C258L/I261F/W263A has been obtained which, retaining its inherent stability, showed an enhancement of its hydrolytic activity on paraoxon up to 300-fold, achieving absolute values of catalytic efficiency up to 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) . The kinetics and structural determinants of this enhanced activity were thoroughly investigated and, in order to evaluate its potential biotechnological applications, the mutant was tested in formulations of different solvents (methanol or ethanol) or detergents (SDS or a commercial soap) for the cleaning of pesticide-contaminated surfaces. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 724-734. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26416557

  19. Immobilization of acetylcholinesterase via biocompatible interface of silk fibroin for detection of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui; Kang, Tian-Fang; Lu, Li-Ping; Cheng, Shui-Yuan

    2012-06-01

    An amperometric biosensor for the detection of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides was developed based on the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on regenerated silk fibroin (SF) matrix by non-covalent adsorption. SF and AChE were coated sequentially on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) which was modified with multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs). The obtained biosensor was denoted as AChE-SF/MWNTs/GCE. The atomic force microscopy images showed that the SF matrix provided a more homogeneous interface for the AChE immobilization. The aggregation of immobilizing AChE was therefore avoided. The cyclic voltammogram of thiocholine at this biosensor exhibited a well defined oxidation peak at 0.667 V (vs. SCE). The inhibition rate of methyl parathion to the immobilized AChE was proportional to the logarithm of the concentration of methyl parathion over the range of the concentration of methyl parathion from 3.5 × 10-6 to 2.0 × 10-3 M with a detection limit of 5.0 × 10-7 M. Similarly, the linearly response range of carbaryl was from 1.0 × 10-7 to 3.0 × 10-5 M with a detection limit of 6.0 × 10-8 M. The experimental results indicate that AChE not only can be immobilized steadily on the SF matrix, but also the bioactivity of immobilizing AChE can be preserved effectively.

  20. Is Cumulated Pyrethroid Exposure Associated With Prediabetes? A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming; Condarco, Guido; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pyrethroids are a class of insecticides used widely for vector control programs. Acute pyrethroid poisoning is rare, but well documented, whereas effects of cumulative exposure are insufficiently described, including possible negative effect on glucose regulation. The objective of this study was to investigate an association between exposure to pyrethroids and abnormal glucose regulation (prediabetes or diabetes). A cross-sectional study was performed among 116 pesticide sprayers from public vector control programs in Bolivia and 92 nonexposed controls. Pesticide exposure (duration, intensity, cumulative exposure) was assessed from questionnaire data. Participants were asked about symptoms of diabetes. Blood samples were analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a measure of glucose regulation. No association was found between pyrethroid exposure and diabetes symptoms. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation (defined as HbA1c ≥ 5.6%) was 61.1% among sprayers and 7.9% among nonexposed controls, corresponding to an adjusted odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]) for all sprayers of 11.8 [4.2–33.2] and 18.5 [5.5–62.5] for pyrethroid-exposed only. Among sprayers who had only used pyrethroids, a significant positive trend was observed between cumulative pesticide exposure (total number of hours sprayed) and adjusted OR of abnormal glucose regulation, with OR 14.7 [0.9–235] in the third exposure quintile. The study found a severely increased prevalence of prediabetes among Bolivian pesticide sprayers compared with a control group, but the relevance of the control group is critical. Within the spraying group, an association between cumulative exposure to pyrethroids and abnormal glucose regulation was seen. Further studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID:25275407

  1. Program Theory Building: A Strategy for Deriving Cumulative Evaluation Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Proposed a three-phase model for program theory building and testing in evaluation and tested the model in studies involving 540 employees and 315 elementary school teachers. The studies show how to cumulate knowledge about evaluation and how knowledge can be derived from evaluation. (SLD)

  2. Cumulative Experiences of Violence among High-Risk Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…

  3. Variable cultural acquisition costs constrain cumulative cultural evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mesoudi

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission, population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs.

  4. Physical intelligence does matter to cumulative technological culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiurak, François; De Oliveira, Emmanuel; Navarro, Jordan; Lesourd, Mathieu; Claidière, Nicolas; Reynaud, Emanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Tool-based culture is not unique to humans, but cumulative technological culture is. The social intelligence hypothesis suggests that this phenomenon is fundamentally based on uniquely human sociocognitive skills (e.g., shared intentionality). An alternative hypothesis is that cumulative technological culture also crucially depends on physical intelligence, which may reflect fluid and crystallized aspects of intelligence and enables people to understand and improve the tools made by predecessors. By using a tool-making-based microsociety paradigm, we demonstrate that physical intelligence is a stronger predictor of cumulative technological performance than social intelligence. Moreover, learners' physical intelligence is critical not only in observational learning but also when learners interact verbally with teachers. Finally, we show that cumulative performance is only slightly influenced by teachers' physical and social intelligence. In sum, human technological culture needs "great engineers" to evolve regardless of the proportion of "great pedagogues." Social intelligence might play a more limited role than commonly assumed, perhaps in tool-use/making situations in which teachers and learners have to share symbolic representations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454039

  5. Anti-irritants II: Efficacy against cumulative irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad;

    2006-01-01

    window of opportunity in which to demonstrate efficacy. Therefore, the effect of AI was studied in a cumulative irritation model by inducing irritant dermatitis with 10 min daily exposures for 5+4 days (no irritation on weekend) to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate on the right and 20% nonanoic acid on the left...

  6. Tests on cumulative tensile damage of stone monuments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Šperl, Martin; Beran, Pavel

    Athens : National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2014 ISBN N. [Coastal landscapes, mining activities and preservation of cultural heritage. 17.09.2014-20.09.2014, Milos, Cyclades] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Keywords : sandstone * thermal dilation effects * fatigue tests * cumulative damage

  7. CUMULANTS OF STOCHASTIC RESPONSE FOR A CLASS OF SPECIAL NONHOLONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG MEI; ZHANG YI

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the response cumulants for a kind of special nonholonomic systems under non-Gaussian, delta- correlated excitations. We present a new methodology for formulating the equations governing the evolution of the response cumulants of the stochastic dynamic systems. The response cumulant differential equations (CDEs) derived can be used to calculate the response cumulants for both linear and nonlinear systems. One example is given to illustrate how to use the CDEs for calculating response cumulants.

  8. Evolution of costly explicit memory and cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2016-06-21

    Humans can acquire new information and modify it (cumulative culture) based on their learning and memory abilities, especially explicit memory, through the processes of encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval. Explicit memory is categorized into semantic and episodic memories. Animals have semantic memory, while episodic memory is unique to humans and essential for innovation and the evolution of culture. As both episodic and semantic memory are needed for innovation, the evolution of explicit memory influences the evolution of culture. However, previous theoretical studies have shown that environmental fluctuations influence the evolution of imitation (social learning) and innovation (individual learning) and assume that memory is not an evolutionary trait. If individuals can store and retrieve acquired information properly, they can modify it and innovate new information. Therefore, being able to store and retrieve information is essential from the perspective of cultural evolution. However, if both storage and retrieval were too costly, forgetting and relearning would have an advantage over storing and retrieving acquired information. In this study, using mathematical analysis and individual-based simulations, we investigate whether cumulative culture can promote the coevolution of costly memory and social and individual learning, assuming that cumulative culture improves the fitness of each individual. The conclusions are: (1) without cumulative culture, a social learning cost is essential for the evolution of storage-retrieval. Costly storage-retrieval can evolve with individual learning but costly social learning does not evolve. When low-cost social learning evolves, the repetition of forgetting and learning is favored more than the evolution of costly storage-retrieval, even though a cultural trait improves the fitness. (2) When cumulative culture exists and improves fitness, storage-retrieval can evolve with social and/or individual learning, which

  9. A comprehensive review on experimental and clinical findings in intermediate syndrome caused by organophosphate poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute organophosphate (OP) intoxication is important because of its high morbidity and mortality and occurrence of muscular paralysis associated by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at the neuromuscular junction. Cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome (IMS), and OP-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) are the evidences that can be observed in OP intoxication. The main cause of morbidity due to OP poisoning is IMS that occurs 24–96 h after poisoning. Mechanisms underlying the IMS are not fully known. Although the electrophysiological aspects of delayed neuropathy are best characterized, the IMS remain very little studied. The aim of this study was to revisit current knowledge related to OP and the IMS. For this purpose, a systematic review without date limitation was performed. A total of 599 relevant articles were found and reviewed. Data were categorized according to experimental and clinical studies. Occurrences of persistent AChE inhibition, electromyography changes, muscle cell injury, and oxidative stress are the most important pieces of evidence for involvement of IMS in OP toxicity. Delayed AChE inhibition, muscle necrosis, down regulation or desensitization of postsynaptic ACh receptors, failure of postsynaptic ACh release, and oxidative stress-related myopathy are involved in IMS. Toxicokinetic factors, such as a high lipid-solubility, duration of AChE inhibition and metabolite excretion, evolution of alterations on repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS), type and frequency of muscle lesions can estimate the probability of the IMS. Plasma AChE of less than 200 units is a predictor and the 30 Hz RNS decremental response could be a useful marker for the IMS.

  10. NMDA antagonists exert distinct effects in experimental organophosphate or carbamate poisoning in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors produce seizures and lethality in mammals. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists encourage the investigation of their effects in AChE inhibitor-induced poisonings. In the present study, the effects of dizocilpine (MK-801, 1 mg/kg) or 3-((RS)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, 10 mg/kg), alone or combined with muscarinic antagonist atropine (1.8 mg/kg), on convulsant and lethal properties of an OP pesticide dichlorvos or a carbamate drug physostigmine, were studied in mice. Both dichlorvos and physostigmine induced dose-dependent seizure activity and lethality. Atropine did not prevent the occurrence of convulsions but decreased the lethal effects of both dichlorvos and physostigmine. MK-801 or CPP blocked or attenuated, respectively, dichlorvos-induced convulsions. Contrariwise, NMDA antagonists had no effect in physostigmine-induced seizures or lethality produced by dichlorvos or physostigmine. Concurrent pretreatment with atropine and either MK-801 or CPP blocked or alleviated seizures produced by dichlorvos, but not by physostigmine. Both MK-801 and CPP co-administered with atropine enhanced its antilethal effects in both dichlorvos and physostigmine poisoning. In both saline- and AChE inhibitor-treated mice, no interaction of the investigated antidotes with brain cholinesterase was found. The data indicate that both muscarinic ACh and NMDA receptor-mediated mechanisms contribute to the acute toxicity of AChE inhibitors, and NMDA receptors seem critical to OP-induced seizures

  11. Ecotoxicity of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos on non-targeting cyanobacteria Microcystis wesenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai-Feng; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Duan, Shun-Shan; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Hong, Yi-Guo

    2015-10-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs), as a replacement for the organochlorine pesticides, are generally considered non-toxic to plants and algae. Chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos are two OPs used for pest control all over the world. In this study, the dose-response of cyanobacteria Microcystis wesenbergii on OPs exposure and the stimulating effect of OPs with and without phosphorus source were investigated. The results showed that high concentrations of chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos caused significant decrease of chlorophyll a content. The median inhibitory concentrations (EC50) of chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos at 96 h were 15.40 and 261.16 μmol L(-1), respectively. Growth of M. wesenbergii under low concentration of OPs (ranged from 1/10,000 to 1/20 EC50), was increased by 35.85 % (chlorpyrifos) and 41.83 % (dichlorvos) at 120 h, respectively. Correspondingly, the highest enhancement on the maximum quantum yield (F v/F m) was 4.20 % (24 h) and 9.70 % (48 h), respectively. Chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics, known as O-J-I-P transients, showed significant enhancements in the O-J, J-I, and I-P transients under low concentrations of dichlorvos at 144 h, while enhancements of chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics induced by low concentrations of chlorpyrifos were only observed in the J-I transient at 144 h. Significant decreases of chlorophyll content, F v/F m and O-J-I-P transients with OPs as sole phosphorus source were found when they were compared with inorganic phosphate treatments. The results demonstrated an evidently hormetic dose-response of M. wesenbergii to both chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos, where high dose (far beyond environmental concentrations) exposure caused growth inhibition and low dose exposure induced enhancement on physiological processes. The stimulating effect of two OPs on growth of M. wesenbergii was negligible under phosphate limitation. PMID:25854898

  12. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for organophosphates binding to trypsin and chymotrypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Christopher D; Hack, C Eric; Robinson, Peter J; Gearhart, Jeffery M

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) nerve agents such as sarin, soman, tabun, and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino) ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) do not react solely with acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Evidence suggests that cholinergic-independent pathways over a wide range are also targeted, including serine proteases. These proteases comprise nearly one-third of all known proteases and play major roles in synaptic plasticity, learning, memory, neuroprotection, wound healing, cell signaling, inflammation, blood coagulation, and protein processing. Inhibition of these proteases by OP was found to exert a wide range of noncholinergic effects depending on the type of OP, the dose, and the duration of exposure. Consequently, in order to understand these differences, in silico biologically based dose-response and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methodologies need to be integrated. Here, QSAR were used to predict OP bimolecular rate constants for trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. A heuristic regression of over 500 topological/constitutional, geometric, thermodynamic, electrostatic, and quantum mechanical descriptors, using the software Ampac 8.0 and Codessa 2.51 (SemiChem, Inc., Shawnee, KS), was developed to obtain statistically verified equations for the models. General models, using all data subsets, resulted in R(2) values of .94 and .92 and leave-one-out Q(2) values of 0.9 and 0.87 for trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. To validate the general model, training sets were split into independent subsets for test set evaluation. A y-randomization procedure, used to estimate chance correlation, was performed 10,000 times, resulting in mean R(2) values of .24 and .3 for trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. The results show that these models are highly predictive and capable of delineating the complex mechanism of action between OP and serine proteases, and ultimately, by applying this approach to other OP enzyme reactions such as AChE, facilitate the development of biologically based

  13. A comprehensive review on experimental and clinical findings in intermediate syndrome caused by organophosphate poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammad.abdollahi@utoronto.ca; Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh

    2012-02-01

    Acute organophosphate (OP) intoxication is important because of its high morbidity and mortality and occurrence of muscular paralysis associated by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at the neuromuscular junction. Cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome (IMS), and OP-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) are the evidences that can be observed in OP intoxication. The main cause of morbidity due to OP poisoning is IMS that occurs 24–96 h after poisoning. Mechanisms underlying the IMS are not fully known. Although the electrophysiological aspects of delayed neuropathy are best characterized, the IMS remain very little studied. The aim of this study was to revisit current knowledge related to OP and the IMS. For this purpose, a systematic review without date limitation was performed. A total of 599 relevant articles were found and reviewed. Data were categorized according to experimental and clinical studies. Occurrences of persistent AChE inhibition, electromyography changes, muscle cell injury, and oxidative stress are the most important pieces of evidence for involvement of IMS in OP toxicity. Delayed AChE inhibition, muscle necrosis, down regulation or desensitization of postsynaptic ACh receptors, failure of postsynaptic ACh release, and oxidative stress-related myopathy are involved in IMS. Toxicokinetic factors, such as a high lipid-solubility, duration of AChE inhibition and metabolite excretion, evolution of alterations on repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS), type and frequency of muscle lesions can estimate the probability of the IMS. Plasma AChE of less than 200 units is a predictor and the 30 Hz RNS decremental response could be a useful marker for the IMS.

  14. Neuregulin-1 is neuroprotective in a rat model of organophosphate-induced delayed neuronal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current medical countermeasures against organophosphate (OP) nerve agents are effective in reducing mortality, but do not sufficiently protect the CNS from delayed brain damage and persistent neurological symptoms. In this study, we examined the efficacy of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) in protecting against delayed neuronal cell death following acute intoxication with the OP diisopropylflurophosphate (DFP). Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were pretreated with pyridostigmine (0.1 mg/kg BW, i.m.) and atropine methylnitrate (20 mg/kg BW, i.m.) prior to DFP (9 mg/kg BW, i.p.) intoxication to increase survival and reduce peripheral signs of cholinergic toxicity but not prevent DFP-induced seizures or delayed neuronal injury. Pretreatment with NRG-1 did not protect against seizures in rats exposed to DFP. However, neuronal injury was significantly reduced in most brain regions by pretreatment with NRG-1 isoforms NRG-EGF (3.2 μg/kg BW, i.a) or NRG-GGF2 (48 μg/kg BW, i.a.) as determined by FluroJade-B labeling in multiple brain regions at 24 h post-DFP injection. NRG-1 also blocked apoptosis and oxidative stress-mediated protein damage in the brains of DFP-intoxicated rats. Administration of NRG-1 at 1 h after DFP injection similarly provided significant neuroprotection against delayed neuronal injury. These findings identify NRG-1 as a promising adjuvant therapy to current medical countermeasures for enhancing neuroprotection against acute OP intoxication. -- Highlights: ► NRG-1 blocked DFP induced neuronal injury. ► NRG-1 did not protect against seizures in rats exposed to DFP. ► NRG-1 blocked apoptosis and oxidative stress in the brains of DFP-intoxicated rats. ► Administration of NRG-1 at 1 h after DFP injection prevented delayed neuronal injury.

  15. Immobilization of acetylcholinesterase via biocompatible interface of silk fibroin for detection of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Rui [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Kang Tianfang, E-mail: kangtf@yahoo.cn [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Lu Liping; Cheng Shuiyuan [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2012-06-01

    An amperometric biosensor for the detection of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides was developed based on the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on regenerated silk fibroin (SF) matrix by non-covalent adsorption. SF and AChE were coated sequentially on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) which was modified with multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs). The obtained biosensor was denoted as AChE-SF/MWNTs/GCE. The atomic force microscopy images showed that the SF matrix provided a more homogeneous interface for the AChE immobilization. The aggregation of immobilizing AChE was therefore avoided. The cyclic voltammogram of thiocholine at this biosensor exhibited a well defined oxidation peak at 0.667 V (vs. SCE). The inhibition rate of methyl parathion to the immobilized AChE was proportional to the logarithm of the concentration of methyl parathion over the range of the concentration of methyl parathion from 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M with a detection limit of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M. Similarly, the linearly response range of carbaryl was from 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} to 3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M with a detection limit of 6.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M. The experimental results indicate that AChE not only can be immobilized steadily on the SF matrix, but also the bioactivity of immobilizing AChE can be preserved effectively.

  16. An evaluation of the inhibition of human butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase by the organophosphate chlorpyrifos oxon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) and butyrylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) are enzymes that belong to the superfamily of α/β-hydrolase fold proteins. While they share many characteristics, they also possess many important differences. For example, whereas they have about 54% amino acid sequence identity, the active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase is considerably smaller than that of butyrylcholinesterase. Moreover, both have been shown to display simple and complex kinetic mechanisms, depending on the particular substrate examined, the substrate concentration, and incubation conditions. In the current study, incubation of butyrylthiocholine in a concentration range of 0.005-3.0 mM, with 317 pM human butyrylcholinesterase in vitro, resulted in rates of production of thiocholine that were accurately described by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km of 0.10 mM. Similarly, the inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase in vitro by the organophosphate chlorpyrifos oxon was described by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a ki of 3048 nM-1 h-1, and a KD of 2.02 nM. In contrast to inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase, inhibition of human acetylcholinesterase by chlorpyrifos oxon in vitro followed concentration-dependent inhibition kinetics, with the ki increasing as the inhibitor concentration decreased. Chlorpyrifos oxon concentrations of 10 and 0.3 nM gave kis of 1.2 and 19.3 nM-1 h-1, respectively. Although the mechanism of concentration-dependent inhibition kinetics is not known, the much smaller, more restrictive active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase almost certainly plays a role. Similarly, the much larger active site gorge of butyrylcholinesterase likely contributes to its much greater reactivity towards chlorpyrifos oxon, compared to acetylcholinesterase.

  17. Dual roles of brain serine hydrolase KIAA1363 in ether lipid metabolism and organophosphate detoxification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serine hydrolase KIAA1363 is an acetyl monoalkylglycerol ether (AcMAGE) hydrolase involved in tumor cell invasiveness. It is also an organophosphate (OP) insecticide-detoxifying enzyme. The key to understanding these dual properties was the use of KIAA1363 +/+ (wildtype) and -/- (gene deficient) mice to define the role of this enzyme in brain and other tissues and its effectiveness in vivo in reducing OP toxicity. KIAA1363 was the primary AcMAGE hydrolase in brain, lung, heart and kidney and was highly sensitive to inactivation by chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) (IC50 2 nM) [the bioactivated metabolite of the major insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF)]. Although there was no difference in hydrolysis product monoalkylglycerol ether (MAGE) levels in +/+ and -/- mouse brains in vivo, isopropyl dodecylfluorophosphonate (30 mg/kg) and CPF (100 mg/kg) resulted in 23-51% decrease in brain MAGE levels consistent with inhibition of AcMAGE hydrolase activity. On incubating +/+ and -/- brain membranes with AcMAGE and cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine, the absence of KIAA1363 activity dramatically increased de novo formation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and lyso-PAF, signifying that metabolically-stabilized AcMAGE can be converted to this bioactive lipid in brain. On considering detoxification, KIAA1363 -/- mice were significantly more sensitive than +/+ mice to ip-administered CPF (100 mg/kg) and parathion (10 mg/kg) with increased tremoring and mortality that correlated for CPF with greater brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Docking AcMAGE and CPO in a KIAA1363 active site model showed similar positioning of their acetyl and trichloropyridinyl moieties, respectively. This study establishes the relevance of KIAA1363 in ether lipid metabolism and OP detoxification

  18. In Vitro Rat Hepatic and Intestinal Metabolism of the Organophosphate Pesticides Chlorpyrifos and Diazinon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wu, Hong (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kousba, Ahmed A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Timchalk, Charles (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2003-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) are thionophosphorus organophosphate, insecticides; their toxicity is mediated through CYP450 metabolism to CPF-oxon and DZN-oxon, respectively. Conversely, CYP450s also detoxify these OPs to trichloropyridinol (TCP) and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMHP), respectively. In addition, A-esterase metabolism of CPF- and DZN-oxon also form TCP and IMHP. This study evaluated the role intestinal and hepatic metabolism may play in the first-pass elimination of CPF and DZN. Similar CYP450- and A-esterase-mediated metabolic profiles were demonstrated in microsomes from liver or isolated intestinal enterocytes. In enterocyte microsomes, the CYP450 metabolic efficiency (Vmax/Km) for metabolism to the oxon metabolites was~5-fold greater for CPF than DZN. Compared on a per nmol P450 basis, the Vmax for CPF in enterocytes was~2-3 times higher than in liver microsomes for the production of CPF-oxon and TCP. The affinity (Km) for the metabolism of CPF to CPF-oxon was comparable in liver and enterocyte microsomes, however the enterocyte Km for TCP production was higher (lower affinity). The smaller volume of intestine, lower amount of CYP450, and higher Km for TCP in the enterocyte microsomes, resulted in a lower catalytic efficiency (2 and 62 times) than in liver for oxon and TCP. A-esterase-mediated metabolism of CPF- and DZN-oxon was also demonstrated in liver and enterocyte microsomes. Although A-esterase affinity for the substrates were comparable in hepatic and enterocyte microsomes, the Vmax were 48 - to 275-fold, in the liver. These results suggest that intestinal metabolism may impact first-pass metabolism of CPF and DZN, especially following low-dose oral exposures.

  19. Quaternary and tertiary aldoxime antidotes for organophosphate exposure in a zebrafish model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zebrafish is rapidly becoming an important model system for screening of new therapeutics. Here we evaluated the zebrafish as a potential pharmacological model for screening novel oxime antidotes to organophosphate (OP)-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The ki values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) and dichlorvos (DDVP) showed that CPO was a more potent inhibitor of both human and zebrafish AChE, but overall zebrafish AChE was less sensitive to OP inhibition. In contrast, aldoxime antidotes, the quaternary ammonium 2-PAM and tertiary amine RS-194B, showed generally similar overall reactivation kinetics, kr, in both zebrafish and human AChE. However, differences between the Kox and k2 constants suggest that zebrafish AChE associates more tightly with oximes, but has a slower maximal reactivation rate than human AChE. Homology modeling suggests that these kinetic differences result from divergences in the amino acids lining the entrance to the active site gorge. Although 2-PAM had the more favorable in vitro reactivation kinetics, RS-194B was more effective antidote in vivo. In intact zebrafish embryos, antidotal treatment with RS-194B rescued embryos from OP toxicity, whereas 2-PAM had no effect. Dechorionation of the embryos prior to antidotal treatment allowed both 2-PAM and RS-194B to rescue zebrafish embryos from OP toxicity. Interestingly, RS-194B and 2-PAM alone increased cholinergic motor activity in dechorionated embryos possibly due to the reversible inhibition kinetics, Ki and αKi, of the oximes. Together these results demonstrate that the zebrafish at various developmental stages provides an excellent model for investigating membrane penetrant antidotes to OP exposure. - Highlights: • Zebrafish AChE shares significant structural similarities with human AChE. • OP-inhibited zebrafish and human AChE exhibit similar reactivation kinetics. • The zebrafish chorion is permeable to BBB penetrant and not charged aldoximes. • Zebrafish are

  20. Neuregulin-1 is neuroprotective in a rat model of organophosphate-induced delayed neuronal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yonggang [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30310 (United States); Lein, Pamela J. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States); Liu, Cuimei [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30310 (United States); Bruun, Donald A.; Giulivi, Cecilia [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States); Ford, Gregory D. [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30310 (United States); Department of Biology, Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA, 30310 (United States); Tewolde, Teclemichael [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30310 (United States); Ross-Inta, Catherine [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States); Ford, Byron D., E-mail: bford@msm.edu [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30310 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Current medical countermeasures against organophosphate (OP) nerve agents are effective in reducing mortality, but do not sufficiently protect the CNS from delayed brain damage and persistent neurological symptoms. In this study, we examined the efficacy of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) in protecting against delayed neuronal cell death following acute intoxication with the OP diisopropylflurophosphate (DFP). Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were pretreated with pyridostigmine (0.1 mg/kg BW, i.m.) and atropine methylnitrate (20 mg/kg BW, i.m.) prior to DFP (9 mg/kg BW, i.p.) intoxication to increase survival and reduce peripheral signs of cholinergic toxicity but not prevent DFP-induced seizures or delayed neuronal injury. Pretreatment with NRG-1 did not protect against seizures in rats exposed to DFP. However, neuronal injury was significantly reduced in most brain regions by pretreatment with NRG-1 isoforms NRG-EGF (3.2 μg/kg BW, i.a) or NRG-GGF2 (48 μg/kg BW, i.a.) as determined by FluroJade-B labeling in multiple brain regions at 24 h post-DFP injection. NRG-1 also blocked apoptosis and oxidative stress-mediated protein damage in the brains of DFP-intoxicated rats. Administration of NRG-1 at 1 h after DFP injection similarly provided significant neuroprotection against delayed neuronal injury. These findings identify NRG-1 as a promising adjuvant therapy to current medical countermeasures for enhancing neuroprotection against acute OP intoxication. -- Highlights: ► NRG-1 blocked DFP induced neuronal injury. ► NRG-1 did not protect against seizures in rats exposed to DFP. ► NRG-1 blocked apoptosis and oxidative stress in the brains of DFP-intoxicated rats. ► Administration of NRG-1 at 1 h after DFP injection prevented delayed neuronal injury.

  1. Therapy against organophosphate poisoning: The importance of anticholinergic drugs with antiglutamatergic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potent cholinesterase inhibitors (e.g., soman, sarin), induce a wide range of deleterious effects including convulsions, behavioral impairments and ultimately, death. Due to the likelihood of various scenarios of military or terrorist attacks by these and other chemical weapons, research has to be aimed at finding optimal therapies. Early accumulation of acetylcholine in synaptic clefts was suggested to trigger an array of toxic events including an excessive release of glutamate, culminating in the activation of its receptors. Stimulation of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) subtype of these receptors was associated with the neuronal injury that initiates organophosphate-induced brain damage. The notion of a stepwise mechanism yielded treatments based on a combination of an immediate administration of enzyme reactivators and anticholinergic drugs. This strategy dramatically increased survival rates but did not abolish convulsions and failed to prevent the ensuing cognitive dysfunction. Efforts to improve this paradigm by adding anticonvulsants or antiglutamatergic drugs with anti-epileptic characteristics produced dubious results. Under these conditions, benactyzine and caramiphen, agents with anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic properties, provided improved protection when introduced as adjunct agents to oximes, reversible cholinesterase inhibitors and/or specific antimuscarinic drugs such as atropine. In contrast, the specific antimuscarinic drug scopolamine failed to block soman-induced changes in glutamatergic and behavioral parameters even when given prophylactically. These findings along with a large number of additional reports led towards the conclusion that the therapeutic advantage of drugs such as benactyzine and caramiphen could derive from their ability to modulate central cholinergic and glutamate neurotransmission

  2. Mechanism behind Resistance against the Organophosphate Azamethiphos in Salmon Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is the primary target for organophosphates (OP. Several mutations have been reported in AChE to be associated with the reduced sensitivity against OP in various arthropods. However, to the best of our knowledge, no such reports are available for Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to determine the association of AChE(s gene(s with resistance against OP. We screened the AChE genes (L. salmonis ace1a and ace1b in two salmon lice populations: one sensitive (n=5 and the other resistant (n=5 for azamethiphos, a commonly used OP in salmon farming. The screening led to the identification of a missense mutation Phe362Tyr in L. salmonis ace1a, (corresponding to Phe331 in Torpedo californica AChE in all the samples of the resistant population. We confirmed the potential role of the mutation, with reduced sensitivity against azamethiphos in L. salmonis, by screening for Phe362Tyr in 2 sensitive and 5 resistant strains. The significantly higher frequency of the mutant allele (362Tyr in the resistant strains clearly indicated the possible association of Phe362Tyr mutation in L. salmonis ace1a with resistance towards azamethiphos. The 3D modelling, short term survival experiments and enzymatic assays further supported the imperative role of Phe362Tyr in reduced sensitivity of L. salmonis for azamethiphos. Based on all these observations, the present study, for the first time, presents the mechanism of resistance in L. salmonis against azamethiphos. In addition, we developed a rapid diagnostic tool for the high throughput screening of Phe362Tyr mutation using High Resolution Melt analysis.

  3. Intrinsic optical fiber sensor for sensing organophosphate nerve agent using the modified cladding approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Lalitkumar; El-Sherif, Mahmoud

    2004-03-01

    The concept of modified cladding based sensors represents the largest class of intrinsic fiber optic chemical sensors. In this design, the passive cladding of the optical fiber is replaced by an active coating, called modified cladding. The analyte in this case diffuses into the coating and induces changes in the absorbance, fluorescence, or some other spectroscopic property of the modified cladding, the coating acts as a chemo-chromic transducer and sensing takes place by intensity modulation. This design i.e. of the coating based sensors, has found enormous applicability in the realm of chemical and biochemical sensing which also includes environmental monitoring and detection of chemical warfare agents. In this paper, the development of an intrinsic fiber optic sensor for detection of organophosphate dimethyl-methyl phoshopnate (DMMP) is presented. DMMP is a chemical precursor to the nerve agent sarin. The chemo-chromic transducer material used as a modified coating on the fiber core is NDSA (Naphthalene disulphonic acid) doped polypyrrole. This coating material shows conductivity and absorbance change when exposed to DMMP. The fabrication of the sensor device is a three step process which involves (a) etching a small section of the optical fiber to expose the core, (b) coating the etched section of the optical fiber with the polymer, (c) integration of sensor components and testing. Thin film characterization is done using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer on in-situ coated films of polypyrrole on a glass substrate to check for absorbance change upon exposure to DMMP. The development procedure is presented next and encouraging results are discussed.

  4. In vitro endocrine disruption potential of organophosphate flame retardants via human nuclear receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nuclear receptor activities of OPFRs were studied by in vitro reporter gene assays. • TPhP and TCP acted as ERα/β and PXR agonists as well as AR and GR antagonists. • TDCPP was the most potent AR antagonist among the tested OPFRs. • None of the OPFRs had TRα/β, RARα, RXRα, or PPARα/γ activity. • Several OPFRs might be endocrine disruptors via ERα/β, AR, GR, or PXR. - Abstract: Various organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are widely used in building materials, textiles and electric appliances, and have been reported to cause indoor environmental pollution in houses and office buildings. In this study, using cell-based transactivation assays, we characterized the agonistic and/or antagonistic activities of 11 OPFRs against human nuclear receptors; estrogen receptor α (ERα), ERβ, androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), thyroid hormone receptor α1 (TRα1), TRβ1, retinoic acid receptor α (RARα), retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), pregnane X receptor (PXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), and PPARγ. Of the 11 OPFRs tested, triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) and tricrecyl phosphate (TCP) showed ERα and/or ERβ agonistic activity. In addition, tributyl phosphate (TBP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), TPhP and TCP showed AR antagonistic activity, and TBP, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), TDCPP, TPhP and TCP showed GR antagonistic activity. Furthermore, we found that seven compounds, TBP, tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP), TEHP, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), TDCPP, TPhP, and TCP, display PXR agonistic activity. However, none of test compounds showed agonistic or antagonistic activity against TRα/β, or agonistic activity against RARα, RXRα or PPARα/γ. Taken together, these results suggest that several OPFRs may have potential endocrine disrupting effects via ERα, ERβ, AR, GR and PXR

  5. Sensitivity of nestling and adult starlings to dicrotophos, an organophosphate pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; Shipley, B.K.

    1984-01-01

    The 24-hr median lethal dose (LD50) of dicrotophos (3-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-cis-crotonamide dimethyl phosphate) for free-living 5-day-old nestling European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, LDso = 4.92 mg/kg body wt) was about one-half that obtained for free-living 15day-old nestlings (9.59 mg/kg) and captive adult males (8.37 mg/kg) and females (8.47 mg/ kg). Nestlings and adults with low pretreatment body weights appeared to be more vulnerable to organophosphate (OP) exposure. Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was severely depressed in all birds that died (74-94%); the degree of inhibition did not vary with age or sex. Inhibition of brain ChE in 5-day-old nestlings alive 24 hr post dose (X = 28-43%) was lower than that of 15-day-old (X = 55-68%) and adult (X = 55-77%) survivors. Body weights of OP-dosed birds that died were depressed an average of 20 to 46% in 5-day-olds, 7 to 20% in 15-day-olds, and 0 to 10% in adults; weight losses varied inversely with age and dosage, and directly with time to death. Average weight losses in 5- and 15-day-old survivors (X nestling songbirds may be nearly twice as sensitive as adults to OPs, (2) growth of nestlings may be severely depressed following OP exposure, and (3) recovery of brain ChE activity following exposure to ChE inhibitors may be more rapid in nestlings than adults.

  6. Organophosphate pesticides exposure bring out neurological symptoms in the children of agriculture workers in rural India: A community based cross-sectional study from Maharashtra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhsohale ND

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In rural areas of developing countries, children of agricultural workers have a high potential for exposure to organophosphorus (OP pesticides. This puts them at an increased risk of damage to neurobehavioural performance, cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. The main objective of this study was to assess the neurological risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers in rural India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in 200 children aged 8-15 years in adjoining villages of Taluka Chalisgaon, district Jalgaon, Maharashtra. Various neurological symptoms like muscarinic (diarrhea, urinary incontinence, lacrimation, excessive salivation, nicotinic (tremors, muscle weakness, tachycardia and general symptoms (headache, insomnia, numbness in legs, fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, lethargy were assessed by a specially designed Q16 questionnaire. Exposure index (EI was calculated by multiplying the number of hours exposed to OP pesticides and the number of years of exposure. Results: The predominant clinical symptoms found in children in study group were muscarinic [diarrhea (12%, lacrimation (26% and urinary incontinence (12%]; nicotinic [muscle weakness (42%] and general symptoms [pallor (58%, fatigue (34%, headache (30%, numbness in legs (24%, lethargy (20%]. Also, the cognition and psychological function was more impaired in children exposed to OP pesticides than the non-exposed children. Conclusion: Our study findings suggest that neurologic symptoms involved both central and peripheral nervous systems, resulting from occupational and environmental exposure to OP pesticides. The high prevalence of neurologic symptoms could be attributed to chronic effects of OP pesticides on the central nervous system.

  7. Internal cumulants for femtoscopy with fixed charged multiplicity

    CERN Document Server

    Eggers, H C

    2013-01-01

    A detailed understanding of all effects and influences on higher-order correlations is essential. At low charged multiplicity, the effect of a nonpoissonian multiplicity distribution can significantly distort correlations. Evidently, the reference samples with respect to which correlations are measured should yield a null result in the absence of correlations. We show how the careful specification of desired properties necessarily leads to an average-of-multinomials reference sample. The resulting internal cumulants and their averaging over several multiplicities fulfil all requirements of correctly taking into account nonpoissonian multiplicity distributions as well as yielding a null result for uncorrelated fixed-N samples. Various correction factors are shown to be approximations at best. Careful rederivation of statistical variances and covariances within the frequentist approach yields errors for cumulants that differ from those used so far. We finally briefly discuss the implementation of the analysis t...

  8. Fragmentation of tensor polarized deuterons into cumulative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tensor analyzing power T20 of the reaction d polarized + A → π- (00) + X has been measured in the fragmentation of 9 GeV tensor polarized deuterons into pions with momenta from 3.5 to 5.3 GeV/c on hydrogen, beryllium and carbon targets. This kinematic range corresponds to the region of cumulative hadron production with the cumulative variable xc from 1.08 to 1.76. The values of T20 have been found to be small and consistent with positive values. This contradicts the predictions based on a direct mechanism assuming NN collision between a high momentum nucleon in the deuteron and a target nucleon (NN → NNπ)

  9. Cumulants and Correlation Functions vs the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Bzdak, Adam; Strodthoff, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this note we discuss the relation of particle number cumulants and correlation functions related to them. It is argued that measuring couplings of the genuine correlation functions could provide cleaner information on possible non-trivial dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. We extract integrated multi-particle correlation functions from the presently available experimental data on proton cumulants. We find that the STAR data contain significant four-particle correlations, at least at the lower energies, with indication of changing dynamics in central collisions. We also find that these correlations are rather long-ranged in rapidity. Finally based on the signs of genuine correlation functions we provide exclusion plots for the QCD phase diagram.

  10. Alternation Bias and the Parameterization of Cumulative Prospect Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kaivanto, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Two recently published studies argue that conventional parameterizations of cumulative prospect theory (CPT) fail to resolve the St. Petersburg Paradox. Yet as a descriptive theory CPT is not intended to account for the local representativeness effect, which is known to induce 'alternation bias' on binary iid sequences such as those generated by coin tossing in St. Petersburg gambles. Once alternation bias is controlled for, conventional parameterizations of CPT yield finite certainty equival...

  11. Cumulative impacts of mountaintop mining on an Appalachian watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, T. Ty; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Bier, Raven; Helton, A. M.; Merola, R. Brittany; Vengosh, Avner; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    Mountaintop mining is the dominant form of coal mining and the largest driver of land cover change in the central Appalachians. The waste rock from these surface mines is disposed of in the adjacent river valleys, leading to a burial of headwater streams and dramatic increases in salinity and trace metal concentrations immediately downstream. In this synoptic study we document the cumulative impact of more than 100 mining discharge outlets and approximately 28 km2 of active and reclaimed surf...

  12. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture

    OpenAIRE

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of cul...

  13. The Cumulative Prospect Theory and Managerial Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Can managerial decision making be predicted? Why would we want to predict managerial decision making? Managerial job is largely that of making decisions. In order to be successful, those decisions have to be right. In this article authors investigate if the cumulative prospect theory is applicable to managerial decision making and describe some divergent views about the theory. They also explore risk perception under the influence of decision framing. Risk propensity too is explored as it is ...

  14. Erupted cumulate fragments in rhyolites from Lipari (Aeolian Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Francesca; Ellis, Ben S.; Bachmann, Olivier; Lucchi, Federico; Tranne, Claudio A.; Agostini, Samuele; Dallai, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Over the last ~267 ky, the island of Lipari has erupted magmas ranging in compositions from basaltic andesites to rhyolites, with a notable compositional gap in the dacite field. Bulk geochemical and isotopic compositions of the volcanic succession, in conjunction with major and trace elemental compositions of minerals, indicate that the rhyolites were dominantly generated via crystal fractionation processes, with subordinate assimilation. Radiogenic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) and stable (O) isotopes independently suggest ≤30 % of crustal contamination with the majority of it occurring in mafic compositions, likely relatively deep in the system. Within the rhyolites, crystal-rich, K2O-rich enclaves are common. In contrast to previous interpretations, we suggest that these enclaves represent partial melting, remobilization and eruption of cumulate fragments left-over from rhyolite melt extraction. Cumulate melting and remobilization is supported by the presence of (1) resorbed, low-temperature minerals (biotite and sanidine), providing the potassic signature to these clasts, (2) reacted Fo-rich olivine, marking the presence of mafic recharge, (3) An38-21 plagioclase, filling the gap in feldspar composition between the andesites and the rhyolites and (4) strong enrichment in Sr and Ba in plagioclase and sanidine, suggesting crystallization from a locally enriched melt. Based on Sr-melt partitioning, the high-Sr plagioclase would require ~2300 ppm Sr in the melt, a value far in excess of Sr contents in Lipari and Vulcano magmas (50-1532 ppm) but consistent with melting of a feldspar-rich cumulate. Due to the presence of similar crystal-rich enclaves within the rhyolites from Vulcano, we propose that the eruption of remobilized cumulates associated with high-SiO2 rhyolites may be a common process at the Aeolian volcanoes, as already attested for a variety of volcanic systems around the world.

  15. An empirical analysis of the cumulative nature of deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Wolfersberger; Serge Garcia; Philippe Delacote

    2013-01-01

    Deforestation is one of the major environmental issues in developping countries and agricultural expansion is its first cause. Uqing the Forest Transition hypothesis, the aim of this paper is to improve the knowledge of the cumulative nature of deforestation. To do this, the macroeconomic factors which promote the end of the deforestation in a given country are highlighted. Then the total amount of deforestation during the development is explained.

  16. The relation between physical and risk-neutral cumulants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, H.; Chang, EC; Zhang, EJ

    2009-01-01

    Variance swaps are natural instruments for investors taking directional bets on volatility and are often used for portfolio protection. But the crucial observation suggests that derivative professionals may desire to hedge beyond volatility risk and there exists the need to hedge higher-moment market risks, such as skewness and kurtosis risks. We propose new derivative contracts: skewness swap and kurtosis swap, which trade the forward realized third and fourth cumulants. Using S&P 500 index ...

  17. Effect of correlations on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, D K; Garg, P; Netrakanti, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of correlations on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distributions which have been measured for central (0\\%-5\\%) Au + Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied assuming individual proton and anti-proton distributions as a Poisson or Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD). In-spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation and kinematical correlations of proto...

  18. Cumulants of multiplicity distributions in most central heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hao-jie

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the statistical expectations for cumulants of (net-conserved) charge distributions in relativistic heavy ion collisions, by including a simple but quantitatively more realistic geometric model, i.e. optical Glauber model. We suggest a new approach for centrality definition in studying of multiplicity fluctuations, which aim at eliminating the uncertainties between experimental measurements and theoretical calculations, as well as redoubling the statistics. We find that the stat...

  19. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  20. Analyzing competitiveness of automotive industry through cumulative belief degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Kabak, Özgür; Ülengin, Füsun; Önsel, Şule; Özaydin, Özay; Aktaş, Emel

    2012-01-01

    Copyright @ 2012 The European Mathematical Society This study aims to analyze the automotive industry from competitiveness perspective using a novel cumulative belief degrees (CBD) approach. For this purpose, a mathematical model based on CBD is proposed to quantify the relations among the variables in a system. This model is used to analyze the Turkish Automotive Industry through scenario analysis. This research is supported by SEDEFED (Federation of Industrial Associations), REF (TÜSİ...

  1. Cumulative neutrino background from quasar-driven outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiawei

    2016-01-01

    Quasar-driven outflows naturally account for the missing component of the extragalactic $\\gamma$-ray background through neutral pion production in interactions between protons accelerated by the forward outflow shock and interstellar protons. We study the simultaneous neutrino emission by the same protons. We adopt outflow parameters that best fit the extragalactic $\\gamma$-ray background data and derive a cumulative neutrino background of $\\sim10^{-7}\\,\\rm GeV\\,cm^{-2}\\,s^{-1}\\,sr^{-1}$ at neutrino energies $E_{\

  2. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism. PMID:27352090

  3. Finite Volume Cumulant Expansion in QCD-Colorless Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ladrem, M; Al-Full, Z; Cherif, S

    2015-01-01

    Due to the finite size effects, the localisation of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite volume transition point $T_{0}(V)$ of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a Colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $L_{mn}$-method. The first six cumulants $C_{1,2,3,4,5,6}$ with the corresponding under-normalized ratios(skewness $\\Sigma$, kurtosis $\\kappa$ ,pentosis $\\Pi_{\\pm}$ and hexosis $\\mathcal{H}_{1,2,3}$) and three unnormalized combinations of them ($\\mathcal{O}={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa } }{\\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{U} ={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{-2} \\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{N} = \\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa }$) are calculated and studied as functions of $(T,V)$. A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant...

  4. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Gas-Phase Transport and Reactivity of Two Organophosphate Compounds in Unsaturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhold, M.; Johnson, T.; Szecsody, J.; McKinley, J.; Blake, T.; Wietsma, T.; Covert, M.; Oostrom, M.

    2008-12-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of using organophosphate compounds that can be transported in the gas phase as a source of phosphorus for mineral formation (e.g. apatite) and contaminant sequestration in deep unsaturated zones. Previous work by others with gaseous phosphate compounds utilized triethyl phosphate (TEP) for bioremediation. In the current study we used both TEP and another chemically similar compound, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) that has a higher saturation vapor pressure. Batch abiotic degradation experiments in aqueous solutions with and without sediment (in both oxic and reducing conditions) indicate that both TEP and DMMP are very recalcitrant. Slow conversion from organic-to inorganic-P forms occurred (compounds also adsorb very strongly to unsaturated sediments from the Hanford Site, to the extent that no breakthrough was observed even after >1000 pore volumes of gas exchange and complete dessication of the sediments. Methanol production was observed during the gas transport experiments, indicating that the lack of observed breakthrough of the original organophosphate compounds was attributable to both adsorption and reaction processes. FTIR reflection spectroscopy and microprobe analyses were performed to identify and quantify adsorbed species and possible mineral formation.

  6. Inhalation Exposure of Organophosphate Pesticides by Vegetable Growers in the Bang-Rieng Sub district in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated inhalation exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) and evaluated the associated health risks to vegetable growers living in the Bang-Rieng agricultural community. Air samples were collected by using personal sampling pumps with sorbent tubes placed in the vegetable growers' breathing zone. Samples were collected during both wet and dry seasons. Residues of organophosphate pesticides, that is, chloropyrifos, dicrotofos, and profenofos, were analyzed from 33 vegetable growers and 17 reference subjects. Results showed that median concentrations of OPPs in air in farm areas were in the range of 0.022-0.056 mg/m3 and air in nonfarm areas in the range of 3. The concentration of the three pesticides in the vegetable growers was significantly higher than that of the references during both seasons. The results also indicate that the vegetable growers may be at risk for acute adverse effects via the inhalation of chloropyrifos and dicrotofos during pesticide application, mixing, loading, and spraying. It is suggested that authorities and the community should implement appropriate strategies concerning risk reduction and risk management.

  7. Cholinesterase activity of muscle tissue from freshwater fishes: characterization and sensitivity analysis to the organophosphate methyl-paraoxon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Renato Matos; Filho, Moacelio Veranio Silva; de Salles, João Bosco; Bastos, Vera Lúcia Freire Cunha; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2014-06-01

    The biochemical characterization of cholinesterases (ChE) from different teleost species has been a critical step in ensuring the proper use of ChE activity levels as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs. In the present study, ChE from Oreochromis niloticus, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Leporinus macrocephalus, and Prochilodus lineatus was biochemically characterized by specific substrates and inhibitors. Moreover, muscle tissue ChE sensitivity to the organophosphate pesticide methyl-paraoxon was evaluated by determining the inhibition kinetic constants for its progressive irreversible inhibition by methyl-paraoxon as well as the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for 30 min for each species. The present results indicate that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) must be present in the muscle from P. mesopotamicus, L. macrocephalus, and P. lineatus and that O. niloticus possesses an atypical cholinesterase or AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Furthermore, there is a large difference regarding the sensitivity of these enzymes to methyl-paraoxon. The determined IC50 values for 30 min were 70 nM (O. niloticus), 258 nM (P. lineatus), 319 nM (L. macrocephalus), and 1578 nM (P. mesopotamicus). The results of the present study also indicate that the use of efficient methods for extracting these enzymes, their kinetic characterization, and determination of sensitivity differences between AChE and BChE to organophosphate compounds are essential for the determination of accurate ChE activity levels for environmental monitoring programs. PMID:24648156

  8. Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a lipoprotein-associated enzyme involved in the detoxification of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) by hydrolyzing the bioactive oxons. Polymorphisms of the PON1 gene are responsible for variation in the expression and catalytic activity of PON1 enzyme. In the present study, we have determined (a) the prevalence of two common PON1 polymorphisms, (b) the activity of PON1 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, and (c) the influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes variation on DNA damage in workers exposed to OPs. We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The results revealed that PON1 activity toward paraoxon (179.19 ± 39.36 vs. 241.52 ± 42.32 nmol/min/ml in controls) and phenylacetate (112.74 ± 17.37 vs. 134.28 ± 25.49 μmol/min/ml in controls) was significantly lower in workers than in control subjects (p 192QR (Gln/Arg) and PON155LM (Leu/Met) in workers and control subjects (p > 0.05). The PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was found to be significantly higher in the R/R (Arg/Arg) genotypes than Q/R (Gln/Arg) and lowest in Q/Q (Gln/Gln) genotypes in both workers and control subjects (p 55LM (Leu/Met), PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was observed to be higher in individuals with L/L (Leu/Leu) genotypes and lowest in individuals with M/M (Met/Met) genotypes in both groups (p < 0.001). No influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes was seen on the activity of acetylcholinesterase and arylesterase. The DNA damage was observed to be significantly higher in workers than in control subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the individuals who showed least paraoxonase activity i.e., those with (Q/Q [Gln/Gln] and M/M [Met/Met]) genotypes showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to other isoforms in workers exposed to OPs (p < 0.05). The results indicate that the individuals with PON1 Q/Q and M/M genotypes are more susceptible toward genotoxicity. In conclusion, the study suggests wide

  9. Quaternary and tertiary aldoxime antidotes for organophosphate exposure in a zebrafish model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Hayden R. [Department of Biology, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90608 (United States); Radić, Zoran; Taylor, Palmer [Department of Pharmacology, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0650 (United States); Fradinger, Erica A., E-mail: efrading@whittier.edu [Department of Biology, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90608 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The zebrafish is rapidly becoming an important model system for screening of new therapeutics. Here we evaluated the zebrafish as a potential pharmacological model for screening novel oxime antidotes to organophosphate (OP)-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The k{sub i} values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) and dichlorvos (DDVP) showed that CPO was a more potent inhibitor of both human and zebrafish AChE, but overall zebrafish AChE was less sensitive to OP inhibition. In contrast, aldoxime antidotes, the quaternary ammonium 2-PAM and tertiary amine RS-194B, showed generally similar overall reactivation kinetics, k{sub r}, in both zebrafish and human AChE. However, differences between the K{sub ox} and k{sub 2} constants suggest that zebrafish AChE associates more tightly with oximes, but has a slower maximal reactivation rate than human AChE. Homology modeling suggests that these kinetic differences result from divergences in the amino acids lining the entrance to the active site gorge. Although 2-PAM had the more favorable in vitro reactivation kinetics, RS-194B was more effective antidote in vivo. In intact zebrafish embryos, antidotal treatment with RS-194B rescued embryos from OP toxicity, whereas 2-PAM had no effect. Dechorionation of the embryos prior to antidotal treatment allowed both 2-PAM and RS-194B to rescue zebrafish embryos from OP toxicity. Interestingly, RS-194B and 2-PAM alone increased cholinergic motor activity in dechorionated embryos possibly due to the reversible inhibition kinetics, K{sub i} and αK{sub i}, of the oximes. Together these results demonstrate that the zebrafish at various developmental stages provides an excellent model for investigating membrane penetrant antidotes to OP exposure. - Highlights: • Zebrafish AChE shares significant structural similarities with human AChE. • OP-inhibited zebrafish and human AChE exhibit similar reactivation kinetics. • The zebrafish chorion is permeable to BBB penetrant and not

  10. Development of enzyme-based biosensors for the detection of organophosphate neurotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Sheetal

    Elevated concerns of ecological safety and environmental pollution have facilitated massive research in the area of chemical and biological agent detection. Large numbers of anthropogenic chemicals were introduced in the environment within last 50 years, which posed a serious threat to the natural ecological balance. The series of unfortunate events in the past could have been avoided or minimized by the availability of adequately selective and sensitive detectors, capable of discriminating between common use pesticides and chemical warfare agents. Organophosphates (OPs) in particular are more of a concern because of their toxicity and inhibition of esterase enzymes which are involved in nerve transmission. They have been an integral part of agricultural industry for past decades owing to their specificity. In addition, to their wide usage, they have also been exploited for the development of chemical warfare agents. Consequently, there is an emergent need for rapid and sensitive detection methods. Enzyme-based studies have been investigated in an effort to develop simple, rapid, user-friendly and sensitive detection of OPs. The methods described have been developed using OPH, an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing OPs. A rapid detection method using a fiber-optic waveguide and a portable fluorimeter Analyte 2000 was developed. Immobilization of OPH was accomplished using avidin-biotin chemistry. Change in fluorescence intensity was observed upon hydrolysis of substrate by OPH, concentration as low as 0.05 muM paraoxon (PX) was qualitatively measured. A novel detection method for p-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenyl substituent OPs based on fluorescence quenching of coumarin1, a dye similar in structure to some OPs have also been developed. Decrease in fluorescence intensity of coumarin1 was proportional to paraoxon concentration in the range of 0.7--170 muM. To preserve OPH activity and stability, encapsulation using lysozyme-mediated silica nanoparticles was accomplished

  11. Sperm viability and gene expression in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) following exposure to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid and the organophosphate acaricide coumaphos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Veeranan; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yanping; Jackson, Caitlin; Pettis, Jeffery S

    2016-06-01

    Honey bee population declines are of global concern. Numerous factors appear to cause these declines including parasites, pathogens, malnutrition and pesticides. Residues of the organophosphate acaricide coumaphos and the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, widely used to combat Varroa mites and for crop protection in agriculture, respectively, have been detected in wax, pollen and comb samples. Here, we assess the effects of these compounds at different doses on the viability of sperm stored in the honey bee queens' spermatheca. Our results demonstrate that sub-lethal doses of imidacloprid (0.02ppm) decreased sperm viability by 50%, 7days after treatment. Sperm viability was a downward trend (about 33%) in queens treated with high doses of coumaphos (100ppm), but there was not significant difference. The expression of genes that are involved in development, immune responses and detoxification in honey bee queens and workers exposed to chemicals was measured by qPCR analysis. The data showed that expression levels of specific genes were triggered 1day after treatment. The expression levels of P450 subfamily genes, CYP306A1, CYP4G11 and CYP6AS14 were decreased in honey bee queens treated with low doses of coumaphos (5ppm) and imidacloprid (0.02ppm). Moreover, these two compounds suppressed the expression of genes related to antioxidation, immunity and development in queens at day 1. Up-regulation of antioxidants by these compounds in worker bees was observed at day 1. Coumaphos also caused a repression of CYP306A1 and CYP4G11 in workers. Antioxidants appear to prevent chemical damage to honey bees. We also found that DWV replication increased in workers treated with imidacloprid. This research clearly demonstrates that chemical exposure can affect sperm viability in queen honey bees. PMID:26979384

  12. Determining Prenatal, Early Childhood and Cumulative Long-Term Lead Exposure Using Micro-Spatial Deciduous Dentine Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Austin, Christine; Sarrafpour, Babak; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O.; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of micro-spatial dentine lead (Pb) levels as a biomarker for accurately estimating exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods and long-term cumulative exposure to Pb. In a prospective pregnancy cohort sub-sample of 85 subjects, we compared dentine Pb levels measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with Pb concentrations in maternal blood collected in the second and third trimesters, maternal ...

  13. Predicting cumulative risk of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) using feedlot arrival data and daily morbidity and mortality counts

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Abram H.; White, Brad J.; Renter, David G.; Dubnicka, Suzanne R.; Scott, H. Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Although bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is common in post-weaning cattle, BRDC prediction models are seldom analyzed. The objectives of this study were to assess the ability to predict cumulative cohort-level BRDC morbidity using on-arrival risk factors and to evaluate whether or not adding BRDC risk classification and daily BRDC morbidity and mortality data to the models enhanced their predictive ability. Retrospective cohort-level and individual animal health data were used to cr...

  14. Cumulative impacts predict biodiversity status in space and time in the Baltic Sea: implications for ecosystem-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Bejamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli;

    Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have been...... tool for informed Marine Spatial Planning, designation of marine protected areas and ecosystem-based management, and may prove useful for setting caps to total allowable amount of human impact on ecosystems....

  15. Cumulative Doses of T-Cell Depleting Antibody and Cancer Risk after Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenny H. C.; Wong, Germaine; Chapman, Jeremy R.; Lim, Wai H.

    2015-01-01

    T-cell depleting antibody is associated with an increased risk of cancer after kidney transplantation, but a dose-dependent relationship has not been established. This study aimed to determine the association between cumulative doses of T-cell depleting antibody and the risk of cancer after kidney transplantation. Using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry between 1997–2012, we assessed the risk of incident cancer and cumulative doses of T-cell depleting antibody using adjusted Cox regression models. Of the 503 kidney transplant recipients with 2835 person-years of follow-up, 276 (55%), 209 (41%) and 18 (4%) patients received T-cell depleting antibody for induction, rejection or induction and rejection respectively. The overall cancer incidence rate was 1,118 cancers per 100,000 patient-years, with 975, 1093 and 1377 cancers per 100,000 patient-years among those who had received 1–5 doses, 6–10 doses and >10 doses, respectively. There was no association between cumulative doses of T cell depleting antibody and risk of incident cancer (1–5: referent, 6–10: adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.19, 95%CI 0.48–2.95, >10: HR 1.42, 95%CI 0.50–4.02, p = 0.801). This lack of association is contradictory to our hypothesis and is likely attributed to the low event rates resulting in insufficient power to detect significant differences. PMID:26555791

  16. Cumulative cancer risk from air pollution in Houston: disparities in risk burden and social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Stephen H; Marko, Dritana; Sexton, Ken

    2008-06-15

    Air toxics are of particular concern in Greater Houston, home to one of the world's largest petrochemical complexes and a quarter ofthe nation's refining capacity. Much of this complex lies along a navigable ship channel that flows 50 miles from east of the central business district through Galveston Bay and into the Gulf of Mexico. Numerous communities, including both poor and affluent neighborhoods, are located in close proximity to the 200 facilities along this channel. Our aim is to examine the spatial distribution of cumulative, air-pollution-related cancer risks in Houston and Harris County, with particular emphasis on identifying ethnic, economic, and social disparities. We employ exposure estimates from NATA-1999 and census data to assess whether the cumulative cancer risks from air toxics in Houston (and Harris County) fall disproportionately on certain ethnicities and on the socially and economically disadvantaged. The cancer risk burden across Harris County census tracts increases with the proportion of residents who are Hispanic and with key indicators of relative social disadvantage. Aggregate disadvantage grows at each higher level of cancer risk. The highest cancer risk in Harris County is concentrated along a corridor flanking the ship channel. These high-risk neighborhoods, however, vary markedly in relative disadvantage, as well as in emission source mix. Much of the risk they face appears to be driven by only a few hazardous air pollutants. Results provide evidence of risk disparities from hazardous air pollution based on ethnicity and social disadvantage. At the highest levels of risk the pattern is more complex, arguing for a neighborhood level of analysis, especially when proximity to high-emissions industries is a substantial contributor to cumulative cancer risk. PMID:18605549

  17. Acute disturbance of calcium homeostasis in PC12 cells as a novel mechanism of action for (sub)micromolar concentrations of organophosphate insecticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Marieke; Hamers, Timo; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates are widely used insecticides that exert their neurotoxicity via inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and subsequent overexcitation. OPs can induce additional neurotoxic effects at concentrations below those for inhibition of AChE, indicating other mechani

  18. Comparative Study of Continuous Pralidoxime Infusion versus Intermittent Dosing: Application of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method on Serum of Organophosphate Poisoned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Thunga

    2013-09-01

    How to cite this article: Thunga G, Pandey S, Nair S, Mylapuri R, Vidyasagar S, Kunhikatta V, et al. Comparative Study of Continuous Pralidoxime Infusion versus Intermittent Dosing: Application of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method on Serum of Organophosphate Poisoned Patients. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:105-10.

  19. A Mechanism-based 3D-QSAR Approach for Classification and Prediction of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Potency of Organophosphate and Carbamate Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate esters can inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by binding covalently to a serine residue in the enzyme active site, and their inhibitory potency depends largely on affinity for the enzyme and the reactivity of the ester. Despite this understandi...

  20. Methodological Considerations in Screening for Cumulative Environmental Health Impacts: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Study in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Laura Meehan; Faust, John B.; Cushing, Lara; Zeise, Lauren; Alexeeff, George V.

    2012-01-01

    Polluting facilities and hazardous sites are often concentrated in low-income communities of color already facing additional stressors to their health. The influence of socioeconomic status is not considered in traditional models of risk assessment. We describe a pilot study of a screening method that considers both pollution burden and population characteristics in assessing the potential for cumulative impacts. The goal is to identify communities that warrant further attention and to thereby provide actionable guidance to decision- and policy-makers in achieving environmental justice. The method uses indicators related to five components to develop a relative cumulative impact score for use in comparing communities: exposures, public health effects, environmental effects, sensitive populations and socioeconomic factors. Here, we describe several methodological considerations in combining disparate data sources and report on the results of sensitivity analyses meant to guide future improvements in cumulative impact assessments. We discuss criteria for the selection of appropriate indicators, correlations between them, and consider data quality and the influence of choices regarding model structure. We conclude that the results of this model are largely robust to changes in model structure. PMID:23202671

  1. Health inputs and cumulative health deficits among the older Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Danan; Sautter, Jessica; Huang, Cheng; Zeng, Yi

    2011-03-01

    Using a health economics framework, we examined how both individual level investments at different life stages and current community-level environmental factors affect individual health stock and flows at old ages. We used a nationwide dataset from the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, which included more than 15,000 adults aged 65 and older from 22 provinces in mainland China. We measured health stock with a cumulative health deficit index, a measure developed in geriatrics and gerontology that reflects deficits, illnesses, and functional impairment in numerous domains of health. The cumulative health deficit index has not been used in health economics before, but is a significant contribution because it captures the health stock concept very well and overcomes the problems of inconsistency resulting from the use of different measures of health stock in research. Our results show that several proxy measures for individual health investments in both childhood (nutritional status and parental survival status) and adulthood (family financial condition and access to healthcare) yielded positive returns to health stock measured by the cumulative health deficit index. Investments in social connections and healthy behaviors (religious involvement, alcohol use, and exercise) also produced positive returns in health stock. Current community-level factors such as air quality and labor force participation rate were significantly associated with levels of health deficits in old age as well. Yet, most of these individual investment and community environment variables did not significantly affect short-term health flows (improvement or deterioration in health status over three years). Our findings have important implications for developing preventive health programs in the context of population aging by focusing on policy-relevant predictors and a comprehensive indicator of health status in later life. PMID:21306808

  2. 75 FR 69662 - Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... AGENCY Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information on...: Notice of Peer Consultation Workshop on the Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates; Request... phthalates as set forth in the National Academies of Science (NAS) report ``Phthalates and Cumulative...

  3. Probability model for cumulative solar proton event fluences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have presented a new approach to obtain the cumulative solar proton event fluence distribution at a desired confidence level and for a given period of time. Compared to previous models, the main advantages of the current model are: it includes a broader proton energy range (> 1 to > 300 MeV); it includes more recent data; it is formulated with analytic expressions and is therefore simpler to update and work with; it is consistent with previous probabilistic models of worst case solar proton event fluences, and worst case peak fluxes, thus providing a more complete complement of tools for the spacecraft designer. (authors)

  4. Generalized Cumulative Residual Entropy for Distributions with Unrestricted Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noomane Drissi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider the cumulative residual entropy (CRE a recently introduced measure of entropy. While in previous works distributions with positive support are considered, we generalize the definition of CRE to the case of distributions with general support. We show that several interesting properties of the earlier CRE remain valid and supply further properties and insight to problems such as maximum CRE power moment problems. In addition, we show that this generalized CRE can be used as an alternative to differential entropy to derive information-based optimization criteria for system identification purpose.

  5. Estimating the Cumulative Ecological Effect of Local Scale Landscape Changes in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dianna M.; Labiosa, William; Pearlstine, Leonard; Hallac, David; Strong, David; Hearn, Paul; Bernknopf, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem restoration in south Florida is a state and national priority centered on the Everglades wetlands. However, urban development pressures affect the restoration potential and remaining habitat functions of the natural undeveloped areas. Land use (LU) planning often focuses at the local level, but a better understanding of the cumulative effects of small projects at the landscape level is needed to support ecosystem restoration and preservation. The South Florida Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SFL EPM) is a regional LU planning tool developed to help stakeholders visualize LU scenario evaluation and improve communication about regional effects of LU decisions. One component of the SFL EPM is ecological value (EV), which is evaluated through modeled ecological criteria related to ecosystem services using metrics for (1) biodiversity potential, (2) threatened and endangered species, (3) rare and unique habitats, (4) landscape pattern and fragmentation, (5) water quality buffer potential, and (6) ecological restoration potential. In this article, we demonstrate the calculation of EV using two case studies: (1) assessing altered EV in the Biscayne Gateway area by comparing 2004 LU to potential LU in 2025 and 2050, and (2) the cumulative impact of adding limestone mines south of Miami. Our analyses spatially convey changing regional EV resulting from conversion of local natural and agricultural areas to urban, industrial, or extractive use. Different simulated local LU scenarios may result in different alterations in calculated regional EV. These case studies demonstrate methods that may facilitate evaluation of potential future LU patterns and incorporate EV into decision making.

  6. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. PMID:25896419

  7. Estimating the Cumulative Ecological Effect of Local Scale Landscape Changes in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dianna M.; Labiosa, William; Pearlstine, Leonard; Hallac, David; Strong, David; Hearn, Paul; Bernknopf, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Ecosystem restoration in south Florida is a state and national priority centered on the Everglades wetlands. However, urban development pressures affect the restoration potential and remaining habitat functions of the natural undeveloped areas. Land use (LU) planning often focuses at the local level, but a better understanding of the cumulative effects of small projects at the landscape level is needed to support ecosystem restoration and preservation. The South Florida Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SFL EPM) is a regional LU planning tool developed to help stakeholders visualize LU scenario evaluation and improve communication about regional effects of LU decisions. One component of the SFL EPM is ecological value (EV), which is evaluated through modeled ecological criteria related to ecosystem services using metrics for (1) biodiversity potential, (2) threatened and endangered species, (3) rare and unique habitats, (4) landscape pattern and fragmentation, (5) water quality buffer potential, and (6) ecological restoration potential. In this article, we demonstrate the calculation of EV using two case studies: (1) assessing altered EV in the Biscayne Gateway area by comparing 2004 LU to potential LU in 2025 and 2050, and (2) the cumulative impact of adding limestone mines south of Miami. Our analyses spatially convey changing regional EV resulting from conversion of local natural and agricultural areas to urban, industrial, or extractive use. Different simulated local LU scenarios may result in different alterations in calculated regional EV. These case studies demonstrate methods that may facilitate evaluation of potential future LU patterns and incorporate EV into decision making.

  8. Multiple intranigral unilateral LPS infusion protocol generates a persistent cognitive impairment without cumulative dopaminergic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, Ana Marcia; Carabelli, Bruno; Mori, Marco Aurélio; Pudell, Claudia; da Silva, Danielle R B L; Menezes, Isabela; Kempe, Paula R G; Staziaki, Pedro Vinícius; Dombrowski, Patrícia A; da Cunha, Claudio; Lima, Marcelo M S; Ferraz, Anete C

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a continuous process and might be implicated in the progression of neuronal degeneration. Taking this into account, we proposed a new protocol with multiple and consecutive intranigral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration in order to analyze its effects on cognitive behavior. Additionally, striatal concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin and their respective metabolites were assessed in three different time-points with the purpose of identifying the consecutive and cumulative effects of LPS infusions. We demonstrated that with a minimum administered dose there was stabilization of neuronal damage as revealed by absence of synergic effect on DA concentration. Although the DA decrease (-43%) generates an animal model of early phase of PD, without apparent motor impairment, the LPS group exhibited deficit in episodic-like memory behavior from the first time-point until the last one, indicating persisted disturbances in memory-recognition responses. These findings provide evidence that multiple intranigral LPS infusions are not sufficient to cause cumulative and progressive damage to dopaminergic neurons, but confirm that the LPS model can be adopted as a useful tool providing insight about the cognitive impairment observed in pre-motor phase of PD. PMID:23844681

  9. Cerium dioxide as a new reactive sorbent for fast degradation of parathion methyl and some other organophosphates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pavel Janos; Lubos Vrtoch; Pavel Kuran; Martin Kormunda; Vaclav Stengl; Tomas Matys Grygar; Marek Dosek; Martin Stastny; Jakub Ederer; Vera Pilarova

    2014-01-01

    Cerium dioxide was used for the first time as reactive sorbent for the degradation of the organophosphate pesticides para-thion methyl, chlorpyrifos, dichlofenthion, fenchlorphos, and prothiofos, as well as of some chemical warfare agents-nerve gases soman and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino) ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX). CeO2 specimens were prepared by calcination of basic cerous carbonate obtained by precipitation from an aqueous solution. The CeO2 samples containing certain amounts (1 wt.%-5 wt.%) of the neighboring lanthanides (La, Pr, Nd) were prepared in a similar way from pure lanthanide salts. It was shown that ceria accelerated markedly the decomposition of parathion methyl causing the cleavage of the P-O-aryl bond in the pesticide molecule. A similar reaction mechanism was proposed for the degradation of other organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. The degradation times (reaction half-times) were in an order of minutes in the presence of CeO2, compared to hours or days under common environ-mental conditions. The reaction in suitable organic solvents allowed conversions of about 90%for parathion methyl loading of 20 mg pesticide/g CeO2 within 2 h with a reactant half-life in the order of 0.1 min. The key parameter governing the degradation efficiency of CeO2 was the temperature during calcination. At optimum calcination temperature (about 773.15 K), the produced ceria retained a sufficiently high surface area, and attained an optimum degree of crystallinity (related to a number of crystal defects, and thus poten-tial reactive sites). The presence of other lanthanides somewhat decreased the reaction rate, but this effect was not detrimental and permitted the possible use of chemically impure ceria as a reactive sorbent. A fast organophosphate degradation was demonstrated not only in non-polar solvents (such as heptane), but also in polar aprotic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone) that are miscible with water. This opens new possibilities for

  10. Extraction of Facial Feature Points Using Cumulative Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel adaptive algorithm to extract facial feature points automatically such as eyebrows corners, eyes corners, nostrils, nose tip, and mouth corners in frontal view faces, which is based on cumulative histogram approach by varying different threshold values. At first, the method adopts the Viola-Jones face detector to detect the location of face and also crops the face region in an image. From the concept of the human face structure, the six relevant regions such as right eyebrow, left eyebrow, right eye, left eye, nose, and mouth areas are cropped in a face image. Then the histogram of each cropped relevant region is computed and its cumulative histogram value is employed by varying different threshold values to create a new filtering image in an adaptive way. The connected component of interested area for each relevant filtering image is indicated our respective feature region. A simple linear search algorithm for eyebrows, eyes and mouth filtering images and contour algorithm for nose filtering image are applied to extract our desired corner points automatically. The method was tested on a large BioID frontal face database in different illuminations, expressions and lighting conditions and the experimental results have achieved average success rates of 95.27%.

  11. A Cumulant-based Analysis of Nonlinear Magnetospheric Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay R. Johnson; Simon Wing

    2004-01-28

    Understanding magnetospheric dynamics and predicting future behavior of the magnetosphere is of great practical interest because it could potentially help to avert catastrophic loss of power and communications. In order to build good predictive models it is necessary to understand the most critical nonlinear dependencies among observed plasma and electromagnetic field variables in the coupled solar wind/magnetosphere system. In this work, we apply a cumulant-based information dynamical measure to characterize the nonlinear dynamics underlying the time evolution of the Dst and Kp geomagnetic indices, given solar wind magnetic field and plasma input. We examine the underlying dynamics of the system, the temporal statistical dependencies, the degree of nonlinearity, and the rate of information loss. We find a significant solar cycle dependence in the underlying dynamics of the system with greater nonlinearity for solar minimum. The cumulant-based approach also has the advantage that it is reliable even in the case of small data sets and therefore it is possible to avoid the assumption of stationarity, which allows for a measure of predictability even when the underlying system dynamics may change character. Evaluations of several leading Kp prediction models indicate that their performances are sub-optimal during active times. We discuss possible improvements of these models based on this nonparametric approach.

  12. Cumulative damage estimation of LMR fuel cladding under transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Related to in-pile behaviors of LMR (Liquid Metal Reactor) fuel cladding, the objectives of this study are to establish the design criteria in probabilistic approach for the transient condition based on the data analysis and estimation. Cumulative damage is estimated in this study, which probabilistic estimation method is proposed and the probability of the effective thickness reduction of eutectic penetration depth is determined. As a result of this study, it is found that assumption of 100% cladding reduction of eutectic penetration depth is quite conservative. Basically, CDF (Cumulative Damage Fraction) calculation requires transient condition experiment data, and thus WPF (Whole Pin Furnace) data that is performed at Argon National Lab. are used. By probabilistic estimation of calculated CDF, Weibull plot of LMR transient condition is obtained for the unreliability to CDF. CDF of WPF FM5, simulating experiment of EBR-II's LOF (Loss Of Flow) accident, is 2.7657x10-2 and this value does not exceed the design limit (= 0.2) of CDF. CDF of FM5 does not exceed also the 10% probabilistic design limit, which is estimated in Weibull plot. Also, CDF under 10% probabilistic design limit is changed rapidly by Weibull shape parameter, β. Since probabilistic determination methods in CDF include the uncertainty of correlation and over-estimation tendency, it is concluded that this proposed method may have higher reliability than correlative estimation

  13. Prefiltering and Cumulant Based Harmonic Retrieval in Mixed ARMA Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShenghong; LIJianhua; XUEZhi; CHENLiya

    2005-01-01

    Harmonic retrieval is an important issue in the the field of statistical signal processing. However, in the case of harmonic retrieval in mixed colored Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Autoregressive movingaverage (ARMA) noises, the corresponding existing approaches can not retrieve a harmonic signal either with quadratic phase coupling components, or with cubic phase coupling components, or when the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise is symmetrically distributed. In this paper, a new general approach is proposed to retrieve a one-dimensional real harmonic signal in the above mixed ARMA noises. A suitable filter is first used to remove all the sharp power spectrum peaks of the noisy observed process, then some kind of fourth-order cumulant is employed to identify the Autoregressive (AR) parameter values of the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise model. After the real noisy observed data are filtered with the identified AR parameter values again, cumulant based methods can be made use of to retrieve the harmonics. The proposed new approach can be applied to retrieve a one-dimensional real harmonic signal in the above mixed colored Gaussian and non-Gaussian ARMA noises with no restrictions on the phase coupling of the harmonics and the distribution of the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise. Simulation examples are presented to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  14. Cumulative phase delay imaging for contrast-enhanced ultrasound tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Standard dynamic-contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) imaging detects and estimates ultrasound-contrast-agent (UCA) concentration based on the amplitude of the nonlinear (harmonic) components generated during ultrasound (US) propagation through UCAs. However, harmonic components generation is not specific to UCAs, as it also occurs for US propagating through tissue. Moreover, nonlinear artifacts affect standard DCE-US imaging, causing contrast to tissue ratio reduction, and resulting in possible misclassification of tissue and misinterpretation of UCA concentration. Furthermore, no contrast-specific modality exists for DCE-US tomography; in particular speed-of-sound changes due to UCAs are well within those caused by different tissue types. Recently, a new marker for UCAs has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental component is in fact observable for US propagating through UCAs, and is absent in tissue. In this paper, tomographic US images based on CPD are for the first time presented and compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Results show the applicability of this marker for contrast specific US imaging, with cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI) showing superior capabilities in detecting and localizing UCA, as compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Cavities (filled with UCA) which were down to 1 mm in diameter were clearly detectable. Moreover, CPDI is free of the above mentioned nonlinear artifacts. These results open important possibilities to DCE-US tomography, with potential applications to breast imaging for cancer localization.

  15. Cumulative hierarchies and computability over universes of sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Cantone

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Various metamathematical investigations, beginning with Fraenkel’s historical proof of the independence of the axiom of choice, called for suitable definitions of hierarchical universes of sets. This led to the discovery of such important cumulative structures as the one singled out by von Neumann (generally taken as the universe of all sets and Godel’s universe of the so-called constructibles. Variants of those are exploited occasionally in studies concerning the foundations of analysis (according to Abraham Robinson’s approach, or concerning non-well-founded sets. We hence offer a systematic presentation of these many structures, partly motivated by their relevance and pervasiveness in mathematics. As we report, numerous properties of hierarchy-related notions such as rank, have been verified with the assistance of the ÆtnaNova proof-checker.Through SETL and Maple implementations of procedures which effectively handle the Ackermann’s hereditarily finite sets, we illustrate a particularly significant case among those in which the entities which form a universe of sets can be algorithmically constructed and manipulated; hereby, the fruitful bearing on pure mathematics of cumulative set hierarchies ramifies into the realms of theoretical computer science and algorithmics.

  16. Cumulative genetic risk and prefrontal activity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Esther; Turner, Jessica; Gollub, Randy L; Manoach, Dara S; Yendiki, Anastasia; Ho, Beng-Choon; Sponheim, Scott R; Calhoun, Vince D; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    The lack of consistency of genetic associations in highly heritable mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, remains a challenge in molecular psychiatry. Because clinical phenotypes for psychiatric disorders are often ill defined, considerable effort has been made to relate genetic polymorphisms to underlying physiological aspects of schizophrenia (so called intermediate phenotypes), that may be more reliable. Given the polygenic etiology of schizophrenia, the aim of this work was to form a measure of cumulative genetic risk and study its effect on neural activity during working memory (WM) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neural activity during the Sternberg Item Recognition Paradigm was measured in 79 schizophrenia patients and 99 healthy controls. Participants were genotyped, and a genetic risk score (GRS), which combined the additive effects of 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 34 risk genes for schizophrenia, was calculated. These risk SNPs were chosen according to the continuously updated meta-analysis of genetic studies on schizophrenia available at www.schizophreniaresearchforum.org. We found a positive relationship between GRS and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex inefficiency during WM processing. GRS was not correlated with age, performance, intelligence, or medication effects and did not differ between acquisition sites, gender, or diagnostic groups. Our study suggests that cumulative genetic risk, combining the impact of many genes with small effects, is associated with a known brain-based intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia. The GRS approach could provide an advantage over studying single genes in studies focusing on the genetic basis of polygenic conditions such as neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22267534

  17. Extraction of Facial Feature Points Using Cumulative Histogram

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Sushil Kumar; Bouakaz, Saida

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive algorithm to extract facial feature points automatically such as eyebrows corners, eyes corners, nostrils, nose tip, and mouth corners in frontal view faces, which is based on cumulative histogram approach by varying different threshold values. At first, the method adopts the Viola-Jones face detector to detect the location of face and also crops the face region in an image. From the concept of the human face structure, the six relevant regions such as right eyebrow, left eyebrow, right eye, left eye, nose, and mouth areas are cropped in a face image. Then the histogram of each cropped relevant region is computed and its cumulative histogram value is employed by varying different threshold values to create a new filtering image in an adaptive way. The connected component of interested area for each relevant filtering image is indicated our respective feature region. A simple linear search algorithm for eyebrows, eyes and mouth filtering images and contour algorithm for nos...

  18. Analysis of sensory ratings data with cumulative link models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2013-01-01

    Examples of categorical rating scales include discrete preference, liking and hedonic rating scales. Data obtained on these scales are often analyzed with normal linear regression methods or with omnibus Pearson chi2 tests. In this paper we propose to use cumulative link models that allow for reg...... mixed effects models can provide even stronger tests than naive tests. Examples will be given throughout the paper and the methodology is implemented in the authors’ free R-package ordinal....... a quasi-likelihood approach and a mixed effects approach both being extensions of cumulative link models. We contrast population-average and subject-specific interpretations based on these models and discuss how different approaches lead to different tests. In replicated settings, naive tests that...... ignore replications are often expected to be too liberal because of over-dispersion.We describe how this depends on whether the experimental design is fully randomized or blocked. For the latter situation we describe how naive tests can be stronger than over-dispersion adjusting approaches, and that...

  19. Cumulative lognormal distributions of dose-response vs. dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the author's findings over four decades will show that the lognormal probability density function can be fit to many types of positive-variate radiation measurement and response data. The cumulative lognormal plot on probability vs. logarithmic coordinate graph paper can be shown to be useful in comparing trends in exposure distributions or responses under differing conditions or experimental parameters. For variates that can take on only positive values, such a model is more natural than the 'normal' (Gaussian) model. Such modeling can also be helpful in elucidating underlying mechanisms that cause the observed data distributions. It is important, however, to differentiate between the cumulative plot of a dose distribution, in which successive percentages of data are not statistically independent, and the plots of dose-response data for which independent groups of animals or persons are irradiated or observed for selected doses or dose intervals. While independent response points can often be best fitted by appropriate regression methods, the density functions for cumulative dose or concentration distributions must be fit by particular maximum likelihood estimates from the data. Also, as indicated in the texts by D.J. Finney and by R.O. Gilbert, for example, a simple plot of such data on available probability (or probit) vs. log scale graph paper will quickly show whether an adequate representation of the data is a lognormal function. Processes that naturally generate lognormal variates are sometimes estimated by statistics that follow the lognormal straight line for a cumulative plot on a probability vs. log scale; on the other hand, sometimes the statistics of interpretation follow such a line only over a certain range. Reported examples of lognormal occupational exposure distributions include those in some facilities in which roundoff biases were removed for some years. However, for a number of exposure distributions at licensed facilities in the

  20. Cumulative burden of lifetime adversities: Trauma and mental health in low-SES African Americans and Latino/as.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Hector F; Wyatt, Gail E; Ullman, Jodie B; Loeb, Tamra B; Chin, Dorothy; Prause, Nicole; Zhang, Muyu; Williams, John K; Slavich, George M; Liu, Honghu

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men and women with histories of adversities and trauma were recruited and assessed with a standard battery of self-report measures of stress and mental health. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated good overall model fit. As hypothesized, experiences of discrimination, childhood family adversities, childhood sexual abuse, other childhood trauma, and chronic stresses all loaded on the latent cumulative burden of adversities and trauma construct (CBAT). The CBAT stress exposure index in turn predicted the mental health status latent variable. Although there were several significant univariate ethnic and gender differences, and ethnic and gender differences were observed on several paths, there were no significant ethnic differences in the final model fit of the data. These findings highlight the deleterious consequences of cumulative stress and trauma for mental health and underscore a need to assess these constructs in selecting appropriate clinical interventions for reducing mental health disparities and improving human health. PMID:25961869

  1. Estudo da ototoxicidade em trabalhadores expostos a organofosforados Ototoxicity study in workers exposed to organophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Hiromi Hoshino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A exposição ocupacional e ambiental aos agrotóxicos evidencia-se como um grave problema de Saúde Pública em nosso país. Entre os sintomas apresentados, a tonteira se destaca, em decorrência de uma provável ação tóxica. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo é caracterizar os resultados do exame vestibular de trabalhadores rurais expostos ocupacionalmente e ambientalmente aos agrotóxicos organofosforados. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte com corte transversal em 18 trabalhadores rurais de Teresópolis, RJ. A faixa etária variou de 16 a 59 anos com uma média de 39,6 anos, sendo 5 trabalhadores do sexo masculino e 13 do sexo feminino. Foram utilizados três questionários com perguntas relacionadas à saúde geral e auditiva e perguntas específicas à tonteira e suas relações com o trabalho. Todos os trabalhadores passaram por uma avaliação clínica e realizaram os exames vectoeletronistagmografia e audiometria. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que 16 trabalhadores apresentaram alterações do equilíbrio corporal de tipo periférico irritativo e 7 trabalhadores apresentaram perdas auditivas do tipo neurossensorial, sugerindo que os agrotóxicos induzem alterações do sistema vestibular através de uma intoxicação lenta e silenciosa. CONCLUSÕES: O olhar clínico sobre esta população exposta a substâncias neuro-ototóxicas requer uma abordagem interdisciplinar, assegurando uma intervenção terapêutica e preventiva eficaz.Occupational and environmental exposure to agricultural pesticides represent an important health care problem in our country. Among the symptoms presented, dizziness stands out, because of a probable toxic action. AIM: The goal of our study was to characterize vestibular test results from rural workers occupationally and environmentally exposed to organophosphates used in agricultural pesticides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a cohort cross-sectional study with 18 rural workers

  2. Relations of growth in effortful control to family income, cumulative risk, and adjustment in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, Liliana J; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50 % girls, 50 % boys) from families representing a range of income (29 % at- or near-poverty; 28 % lower-income; 25 % middle-income; 18 % upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36-40 month. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children's preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  3. Phthalate concentrations in personal care products and the cumulative exposure to female adults and infants in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jiaqin; Wang, Min; Ning, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yaobin; He, Yuping; Yang, Jielin; Gao, Xi; Li, Shuguang; Ding, Zhuoping; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PE) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industry, and have been detected in personal care products (PCP). Recent findings of human reports demonstrated endocrine-disrupting action associated with phthalate exposures. The aims of this study were to (1) measure levels of 11 PE in 198 PCP collected from retail markets in Shanghai and (2) assess daily dermal exposure in adult females and infants. The health risk of cumulative exposure to eight PE on reproductive system function derived from dermal PCP use was further assessed by utilizing the hazard index (HI) approach. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was the most frequently detected compound (29.8%), followed by diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) (6.6%). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of daily exposure to DEP, bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate (DMEP), DiBP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in female adults were 0.018, 0.012, 0.002, 0.001, 0.003, and 0.002 μg/kg body weight (bw)/d, respectively. The GM daily exposure levels to PE in infants and adult females were similar except for DEHP, which was higher in infants. DEP exposure was highest in both subpopulations at either GM or maximal level. All HI of 8 PE were far less than 1, ranging from 0.0002 to 0.005, indicating no cumulative reproductive risks to these populations. DBP, DMEP, and DEHP were three major contributors to the cumulative HI. In summary, the level of phthalate in PCP from Shanghai retail markets posed no apparent cumulative risk to adult females and infants in China. PMID:25734628

  4. Cumulative Impact of HIV and Multiple Concurrent Human Papillomavirus Infections on the Risk of Cervical Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, David H; Wallace, Melissa; Bennie, Thola; Abar, Beau; Meiring, Tracy L; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2016-01-01

    Infection with HIV is known to increase the risk of cervical cancer. In addition, evidence suggests that concurrent infection with multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes increases the risk of cervical dysplasia more than infection with a single HPV genotype. However, the impact of the combination of HIV coinfection and presence of multiple concurrent HPV infections on the risk of cervical dysplasia is uncertain. We compared the results of HPV testing and Pap smears between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young women to assess the cumulative impact of these two conditions. We found that both HIV and the presence of multiple concurrent HPV infections are associated with increased risk of associated Pap smear abnormality and that the impact of these two risk factors may be additive. PMID:26997954

  5. Urban Adolescent Mothers Exposed to Community, Family, and Partner Violence: Is Cumulative Violence Exposure a Barrier to School Performance and Participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C.; Bennett, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Using a risk and resilience perspective, the authors assessed urban adolescent mothers' exposure to community, family, and partner violence and analyzed the relationships between cumulative violence exposure and multiple school outcomes, within the context of welfare reforms. Positive attitude toward school and social support were examined as…

  6. Experimental hut evaluation of bednets treated with an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos-methyl) or a pyrethroid (lambdacyhalothrin) alone and in combination against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

    OpenAIRE

    Corbel Vincent; Chandre Fabrice; Hougard Jean-Marc; Curtis Christopher F; Koffi Alphonsine A; N'Guessan Raphael; Asidi Alex N; Darriet Frédéric; Zaim Morteza; Rowland Mark W

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes are becoming increasingly common in parts of Africa. It is important to identify alternative insecticides which, if necessary, could be used to replace or supplement the pyrethroids for use on treated nets. Certain compounds of an earlier generation of insecticides, the organophosphates may have potential as net treatments. Methods Comparative studies of chlorpyrifos-methyl (CM), an organophosphate with low mammalian toxicity, and lambdacyha...

  7. Mathematical modeling of detonation initiation via flow cumulation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, I.; Utkin, P.; Akhmedyanov, I.

    2016-07-01

    The paper concerns two problems connected with the idea of gaseous detonation initiation via flow cumulation effects and convergence of relatively weak shock waves (SW). The first one is the three-dimensional (3D) numerical investigation of shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) in methane-air mixture in a tube with parabolic contraction followed by the tube section of narrow diameter and conical expansion. The second problem is the numerical study of the start-up of the model small-scale hydrogen electrochemical pulse detonation engine with the use of electrical discharge generating the toroidal SW. The investigation is performed by means of numerical simulation with the use of modern high-performance computing systems.

  8. Cumulative Laws,Team Assembling Mechanisms Determining Network Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; LIU Qi; YE Qi

    2008-01-01

    A number of researching works have shed light on the field of complex networks recently.We investigate a wide range of real-world networks and find several interesting phenomena.Firstly,almost all of these networks evolve by overlapping new small graphs on former networks.Secondly,not only the degree sequence of the mature network follows a power-law distribution,but also the distribution of the cumulative occurrence times during the growing process are revealed to have a heavy tail.Existing network evolving models do not provide interpretation to these phenomena.We suggest a model based on the team assembling mechanism,which is extracted from the growing processes of real-world networks and requires simple parameters,and produces networks exhibiting these properties observed in the present study and in previous works.

  9. Effect of rf structure on cumulative beam breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We treat the effect of rf structure of a linac beam on cumulative beam breakup in the presence of external focusing. Starting with the difference equations of Helm and Loew, we derive two forms of an exact analytic solution for coasting beams: as a sum of products of Gegenbauer polynomials involving external focusing and rf structure, and as an integral involving these same parameters. The continuous-beam limit of Neil, Hall, and Cooper is obtained as the bunch separation goes to zero. An explicit solution is presented for the steady state, including modulation of the incoming displacement, showing both stable and unstable behavior with distance. Asymptotic amplitude expressions are derived for the transient solution, which can lead to even larger beam displacements. Approximate solutions also are obtained for accelerated and decelerated beams. Comparison with numerical simulations are presented

  10. Action recognition via cumulative histogram of multiple features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xunshi; Luo, Yupin

    2011-01-01

    Spatial-temporal interest points (STIPs) are popular in human action recognition. However, they suffer from difficulties in determining size of codebook and losing much information during forming histograms. In this paper, spatial-temporal interest regions (STIRs) are proposed, which are based on STIPs and are capable of marking the locations of the most ``shining'' human body parts. In order to represent human actions, the proposed approach takes great advantages of multiple features, including STIRs, pyramid histogram of oriented gradients and pyramid histogram of oriented optical flows. To achieve this, cumulative histogram is used to integrate dynamic information in sequences and to form feature vectors. Furthermore, the widely used nearest neighbor and AdaBoost methods are employed as classification algorithms. Experiments on public datasets KTH, Weizmann and UCF sports show that the proposed approach achieves effective and robust results.

  11. Cumulative semantic interference for associative relations in language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-07-01

    Associations between conceptual representations and thematic relations play an important role in the organization of semantic memory. However, language production research on semantic context effects shows that associative (e.g., dog and bone) and categorical relations (dog and horse) seem to diverge. While categorical contexts typically induce semantic interference that has traditionally been taken to reflect competitive lexical selection, evidence for comparable associative modulations is rare. In three experiments we tested whether thematic associations between objects induce cumulative interference in the continuous naming paradigm, assuming that this paradigm hampers lexical selection via the activation of highly active lexical cohorts steadily increasing in size. Indeed, naming times increased linearly with each newly named member of thematic contexts irrespective of the pre-activation of associations before the naming task (Experiment 1), and irrespective of whether categorical links were partially included (Experiments 1 and 2) or entirely absent (Experiment 3). These findings demonstrate that different types of semantic relations induce interference. PMID:27015349

  12. Cumulative protons in 12C fragmentation at intermediate energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov B.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the FRAGM experiment at heavy ion accelerator complex TWAC-ITEP, the proton yields at an angle 3.5° have been measured in fragmentation of carbon ions at T0 = 0.3, 0.6, 0.95 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on beryllium target. The data are presented as invariant proton yields on cumulative variable x in the range 0.9 < x < 2.4. Proton spectra cover six orders of invariant cross section magnitude. They have been analyzed in the framework of quark cluster fragmentation model. Fragmentation functions of quarkgluon string model are used. The probabilities of the existence of multi-quark clusters in carbon nuclei are estimated to be 8–12% for six-quark clusters and 0.2–0.6% for ninequark clusters.

  13. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  14. Cumulative dietary exposure to a selected group of pesticides of the triazole group in different European countries according to the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Christodoulou, Despo;

    2015-01-01

    exposures obtained with the pessimistic model run. In this model run, animal commodities including cattle milk and different meat types, entered in the exposure calculations at the level of the maximum residue limit (MRL), contributed most to the exposure. We conclude that application of the optimistic......The practicality was examined of performing a cumulative dietary exposure assessment according to the requirements of the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling. For this the acute and chronic cumulative exposure to triazole pesticides was estimated using national food consumption and monitoring...

  15. Cumulative Energy Demands (CED) and Cumulative Emissions of PV systems in the European Union: Methodological aspects; Methodische Aspekte zu kumulierten Energieaufwendungen und Emissionen bei Photovoltaikanlagen in der Europaeischen Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerzenich, D.

    2002-07-01

    The present dissertation investigates options to save primary energy and emissions when manufacturing and using photovoltaic systems in regard to the concept of sustainability. Valuation is done by use of Cumulative Energy Demands (CED) and Cumulative Emissions as well as yearly substituted primary energy and avoided emissions. The main aim is to evaluate the consequences of national differences in electricity supply within the European Community upon the results of an ecological assessment. Therefore seven representative countries were selected within the EU. The most common photovoltaic systems presently and in the near future are monocrystalline- (sc-), multicrystalline- (pc-) and amorphous-silicon (a-Si) based. Comparison of production of these systems - with equal peak power - shows, that CED for production of these systems is lowest with pc-Si, followed by a-Si and sc-Si. The investigated countries are divided into two groups. One group - consisting of Austria and Sweden - with lower CEDs than the other one, whereas the CEDs in the second group approximately lie within the same margin. The Cumulative CO{sub 2}-Emissions show their lowest values not only in Austria and Sweden but also in France, while Cumulative NO{sub x}- and SO{sub 2}-Emissions tend to result in lower values when production takes place in Sweden or France. Especially pc-Si-Systems are found to give best results, whereas sc-Si-Systems lie at the end of the line. The use of the PC-Systems results in highest primary energy substitution in Spain and highest avoided emissions in Italy. In conclusion a comparison between production and use of the systems as well as calculation of energy payback time and emission related payback time is done. (orig.)

  16. Nanoporous membranes for enzyme-based organophosphate biosensors: Characterizating bio-ceramic conjugation, porosity, and activity in stable soil-gel ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeniger, J.S.; Singh, A.K.; Volponi, J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Biosensors for organophosphates in solution may be constructed by monitoring the activities of acetylcholine esterase (AchE) or organophosphate hydrolases (OPHs) immoblized on pH-sensitive field-effect transistors (FETs). In order to construct stable sensors with control over the surface catalytic activity and transport properties, SiO2 or Si3N4 surfaces were coated with highly porous, heat-stabilized sol-gel coatings. Surface porosity was characterized using SEM and AFM. AchE or OPH were covalently attached to the porous ceramics using several different conjugation chemistries and enzyme stabilization techniques. Properties such as covalent vs. non-covalent attachment, specific activity, and robustness of enzyme activity were characterized. Data on the effect of surface modifications on sensor performance will also be presented.

  17. Rapidity window dependences of higher order cumulants and diffusion master equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the rapidity window dependences of higher order cumulants of conserved charges observed in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The time evolution and the rapidity window dependence of the non-Gaussian fluctuations are described by the diffusion master equation. Analytic formulas for the time evolution of cumulants in a rapidity window are obtained for arbitrary initial conditions. We discuss that the rapidity window dependences of the non-Gaussian cumulants have characteristic structures reflecting the non-equilibrium property of fluctuations, which can be observed in relativistic heavy ion collisions with the present detectors. It is argued that various information on the thermal and transport properties of the hot medium can be revealed experimentally by the study of the rapidity window dependences, especially by the combined use, of the higher order cumulants. Formulas of higher order cumulants for a probability distribution composed of sub-probabilities, which are useful for various studies of non-Gaussian cumulants, are also presented

  18. Chemotaxis and degradation of organophosphate compound by a novel moderately thermo-halo tolerant Pseudomonas sp. strain BUR11: evidence for possible existence of two pathways for degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Pailan, Santanu; Saha, Pradipta

    2015-01-01

    An organophosphate (OP) degrading chemotactic bacterial strain BUR11 isolated from an agricultural field was identified as a member of Pseudomonas genus on the basis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain could utilize parathion, chlorpyrifos and their major hydrolytic intermediates as sole source of carbon for its growth and exhibited positive chemotactic response towards most of them. Optimum concentration of parathion for its growth was recorded to be 200 ppm and 62% of which was degrad...

  19. ELP-OPH/BSA/TiO2 nanofibers/c-MWCNTs based biosensor for sensitive and selective determination of p-nitrophenyl substituted organophosphate pesticides in aqueous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jing; Hou, Changjun; Dong, Qiuchen; Ma, Xiaoyu; Chen, Jun; Huo, Danqun; Yang, Mei; Galil, Khaled Hussein Abd El; Chen, Wilfred; Lei, Yu

    2016-11-15

    A novel biosensor for rapid, sensitive and selective monitoring of p-nitrophenyl substituted organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in aqueous system was developed using a functional nanocomposite which consists of elastin-like-polypeptide-organophosphate hydrolase (ELP-OPH), bovine serum albumin (BSA), titanium dioxide nanofibers (TiO2NFs) and carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs). ELP-OPH was simply purified from genetically engineered Escherichia coli based on the unique phase transition of ELP and thus served as biocatalyst for OPs, while BSA was used to stabilize OPH activity in the nanocomposite. TiO2NFs was employed to enrich organophosphates in the nanocomposite due to its strong affinity with phosphoric group in OPs, while c-MWCNTs was used to enhance the electron transfer in the amperometric detection as well as for covalent immobilization of ELP-OPH. ELP-OPH/BSA/TiO2NFs/c-MWCNTs nanocomposite were systematically characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectra, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Under the optimized operating conditions, the ELP-OPH/BSA/TiO2NFs/c-MWCNTs based biosensor for OPs shows a wide linear range, a fast response (less than 5s) and limits of detection (S/N=3) as low as 12nM and 10nM for methyl parathion and parathion, respectively. Such excellent sensing performance can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the individual components in the nanocomposite. Its further application for selectively monitoring OPs compounds spiked in lake water samples was also demonstrated with good accuracy. These features indicate that the developed nanocomposite offers an excellent biosensing platform for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of organophosphates compounds. PMID:27315519

  20. The Organophosphate Chlorpyrifos Interferes with the Responses to 17β-Estradiol in the Digestive Gland of the Marine Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Canesi; Alessandro Negri; Cristina Barmo; Mohamed Banni; Gabriella Gallo; Aldo Viarengo; Francesco Dondero

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many pesticides have been shown to act as endocrine disrupters. Although the potencies of currently used pesticides as hormone agonists/antagonists are low compared with those of natural ligands, their ability to act via multiple mechanisms might enhance the biological effect. The organophosphate Chlorpyrifos (CHP) has been shown to be weakly estrogenic and cause adverse neurodevelopmental effects in mammals. However, no information is available on the endocrine effects of CHP in ...

  1. Liver histopathology of the fish brachydanio rerio hamilton-buchman after acute exposure to sublethal levels of the organophosphate dimethoate 500

    OpenAIRE

    Edson de Lara Rodrigues; Edith Fanta

    1998-01-01

    Among the new substances that were synthesised by the chemical industiy during the last decades, with the aim to improve human prosperity, some cause negative effects on non target organisms like fish. Among the pesticides, the organophosphates (OP) are widely used in cattle management, agriculture and aquaculture activities. Brachydanio rerio Hamilton-Buchman, 1822 is used world-wide in fish-tests for the establishment of the lethal levels of pesticides. Nevertheless, these fish show morphol...

  2. Cumulative biomedical risk and social cognition in the second year of life: prediction and moderation by responsive parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eWade

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available At 18 months, children show marked variability in their social-cognitive skill development, and the preponderance of past research has focused on constitutional and contextual factors in explaining this variability. Extending this literature, the current study examined whether cumulative biomedical risk represents another source of variability in social cognition at 18 months. Further, we aimed to determine whether responsive parenting moderated the association between biomedical risk and social cognition. A prospective community birth cohort of 501 families was recruited at the time of the child’s birth. Cumulative biomedical risk was measured as a count of 10 prenatal/birth complications. Families were followed up at 18 months, at which point social-cognitive data was collected on children’s joint attention, empathy, cooperation, and self-recognition using previously-validated tasks. Concurrently, responsive maternal behavior was assessed through observational coding of mother-child interactions. After controlling for covariates (e.g. age, gender, child language, socioeconomic variables, both cumulative biomedical risk and maternal responsivity significantly predicted social cognition at 18 months. Above and beyond these main effects, there was also a significant interaction between biomedical risk and maternal responsivity, such that higher biomedical risk was significantly associated with compromised social cognition at 18 months, but only in children who experienced low levels of responsive parenting. For those receiving comparatively high levels of responsive parenting, there was no apparent effect of biomedical risk on social cognition. This study shows that cumulative biomedical risk may be one source of inter-individual variability in social cognition at 18 months. However, positive postnatal experiences, particularly high levels of responsive parenting, may protect children against the deleterious effects of these risks on social

  3. Determining source cumulants in femtoscopy with Gram-Charlier and Edgeworth series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegel, Jürgen; Eggers, Hans C.; de Kock, Michiel B

    Lowest-order cumulants provide important information on the shape of the emission source in femtoscopy. For the simple case of noninteracting identical particles, we show how the fourth-order source cumulant can be determined from measured cumulants in momentum space. The textbook Gram......-Charlier series is found to be highly inaccurate, while the related Edgeworth series provides increasingly accurate estimates. Ordering of terms compatible with the Central Limit Theorem appears to play a crucial role even for nongaussian distributions....

  4. Discretised link travel time models based on cumulative flows: Formulations and properties

    OpenAIRE

    J. Long; Gao, Z.; Szeto, WY

    2011-01-01

    In the research area of dynamic traffic assignment, link travel times can be derived from link cumulative inflow and outflow curves which are generated by dynamic network loading. In this paper, the profiles of cumulative flows are piecewise linearized. Both the step function (SF) and linear interpolation (LI) are used to approximate cumulative flows over time. New formulations of the SF-type and LI-type link travel time models are developed. We prove that these two types of link travel time ...

  5. Joint Use of Third and Fourth Cumulants in Independent Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Virta, Joni; Nordhausen, Klaus; Oja, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    The independent component model is a latent variable model where the components of the observed random vector are linear combinations of latent independent variables. The aim is to find an estimate for a transformation matrix back to independent components. In moment-based approaches third cumulants are often neglected in favor of fourth cumulants, even though both approaches have similar appealing properties. This paper considers the joint use of third and fourth cumulants in finding indepen...

  6. Sparse Cumulants Fitting for Direction-of-Arrival Estimation without Redundancy

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Li; Xiaoxiao Jiang; Sai Ma; Yingguan Wang

    2013-01-01

    A novel direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation method is proposed based on the sparse cumulants fitting without redundancy. Firstly, we derive that some fourth order cumulants of the array output are redundant and therefore are removed to reduce computational complexity. Then, the left cumulants are sparsely represented on an overcomplete basis and the DOAs are resolved by using a software package. Despite introducing a high variance, the proposed method shows several advantages including the ...

  7. Systematic investigation of scaled factorial cumulant moments for nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use scaled factorial cumulant moments to analyze pseudorapidity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions. This approach is similar to the method of scaled factorial moments except that it removes the effects of lower-order correlations upon a given moment. Significant second-order cumulants and cumulant indices (slopes with respect to bin size) are found for all of the interactions studied. These indices are found to have an inverse dependence upon average pseudorapidity particle density

  8. The pace of MNEs’ sequential entries: Cumulative entry experience and the dynamic process

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Yong Gao; Yigang Pan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the pace with which multinational enterprises undertake sequential entries in a foreign market. We focus on learning effects from cumulative entry experience of different modes within a host market. Moreover, we investigate the dynamic process of entry mode switch, and how cumulative entry experience reduces the expansion constraint. Using a dataset of sequential entries by US firms in China during 1979–2002, we find that the impact of cumulative entry experience on the pa...

  9. Free nested cumulants and an analogue of a formula of Brillinger

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Franz

    2013-01-01

    We prove a free analogue of Brillinger's formula (sometimes called "law of total cumulance") which expresses classical cumulants in terms of conditioned cumulants. As expected, the formula is obtained by replacing the lattice of set partitions by the lattice of noncrossing set partitions and using and an appropriate notion of noncommutative nested products. As an application we reprove a characterization of freeness due to Nica, Shlyakhtenko and Speicher by M\\"obius inversion techniques, with...

  10. Cumulants in Noncommutative Probability Theory III. Creation- and annihilation operators on Fock spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Franz

    2002-01-01

    Fock space constructions give rise to natural exchangeable families and are thus well suited for cumulant calculations. In this paper we develop some general formulas and compute cumulants for generalized Toeplitz operators, notably for q-Fock spaces, previously considered by M. Anshelevich and A. Nica, and Fock spaces for characters of the infinite symmetric group, which where constructed by Bozejko and Guta. An expression for cumulants in terms of the cycle-cover polynomials of certain dire...

  11. Utility and Limitation of Cumulative Stone Diameter in Predicting Urinary Stone Burden at Flexible Ureteroscopy with Holmium Laser Lithotripsy: A Single-Center Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroki Ito; Takashi Kawahara; Hideyuki Terao; Takehiko Ogawa; Masahiro Yao; Yoshinobu Kubota; Junichi Matsuzaki

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To retrospectively assess the clinical utility in ureteroscopy (URS) planning of cumulative stone diameter (CSD), which does not account for stone width or depth, as a predictor of URS outcome and compare it with stone volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with renal stones treated at a single institute by flexible URS were retrospectively evaluated. To assess the clinical utility of CSD, relationships between stone-free (SF) status and stone burden (CSD and volume) were analyzed u...

  12. Graphene oxide based sol-gel stainless steel fiber for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of organophosphate ester flame retardants in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tingting; Cheng, Jing; Cai, Cuicui; Cheng, Min; Wu, Shiju; Zhou, Hongbin

    2016-07-29

    In this paper, graphene oxide was coated onto a stainless steel wire through sol-gel technique and it was used as a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The prepared fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which displayed that the fiber had crinkled surface and porous structure The application of the fiber was evaluated through the headspace SPME of nine organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPFRs) with different characteristics in water samples followed by gas chromatography and nitrogen-phosphorous detector (GC/NPD). The major factors influencing the extraction efficiency, including the extraction and desorption conditions, were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method was evaluated, and applied to the analysis of organophosphate ester flame retardants in real environmental water samples. The results demonstrated the HS-SPME method based on GO sol-gel fiber had good linearity (R>0.9928), and limits of detection (1.4-135.6ngL(-1)), high repeatability (RSD<9.8%) and good recovery (76.4-112.4%). The GO based sol-gel fiber displayed bigger extraction capability than the commercial PDMS fiber and the pure sol-gel fiber for both polar and apolar organophosphate esters, especially for the OPFRs containing benzene rings. PMID:27371020

  13. Using an object-based grid system to evaluate a newly developed EP approach to formulate SVMs as applied to the classification of organophosphate nerve agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Walker H., Jr.; Lewis, Michael; Sadik, Omowunmi; Wong, Lut; Wanekaya, Adam; Gonzalez, Richard J.; Balan, Arun

    2004-04-01

    This paper extends the classification approaches described in reference [1] in the following way: (1.) developing and evaluating a new method for evolving organophosphate nerve agent Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers using Evolutionary Programming, (2.) conducting research experiments using a larger database of organophosphate nerve agents, and (3.) upgrading the architecture to an object-based grid system for evaluating the classification of EP derived SVMs. Due to the increased threats of chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by international terrorist organizations, a significant effort is underway to develop tools that can be used to detect and effectively combat biochemical warfare. This paper reports the integration of multi-array sensors with Support Vector Machines (SVMs) for the detection of organophosphates nerve agents using a grid computing system called Legion. Grid computing is the use of large collections of heterogeneous, distributed resources (including machines, databases, devices, and users) to support large-scale computations and wide-area data access. Finally, preliminary results using EP derived support vector machines designed to operate on distributed systems have provided accurate classification results. In addition, distributed training time architectures are 50 times faster when compared to standard iterative training time methods.

  14. Analysis of the cumulative exergy consumption of an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Gładysz, Paweł

    2013-09-01

    In order to analyze the cumulative exergy consumption of an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant the method of balance equations was applied based on the principle that the cumulative exergy consumption charging the products of this process equals the sum of cumulative exergy consumption charging the substrates. The set of balance equations of the cumulative exergy consumption bases on the `input-output method' of the direct energy consumption. In the structure of the balance we distinguished main products (e.g. electricity), by-products (e.g. nitrogen) and external supplies (fuels). In the balance model of cumulative exergy consumption it has been assumed that the cumulative exergy consumption charging the supplies from outside is a quantity known a priori resulting from the analysis of cumulative exergy consumption concerning the economy of the whole country. The byproducts are charged by the cumulative exergy consumption resulting from the principle of a replaced process. The cumulative exergy consumption of the main products is the final quantity.

  15. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  16. Medium-term predictions of cumulative runoff in a Mediterranean mountain river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Zacarías; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    It is important to find patterns and hidden connections between data to assess the development of decision-making tools for water management. The climate variability of the Mediterranean environments makes it necessary the establishment of methodological/hydrological frameworks that allow us to limit the uncertainty on the decision for further periods within the year, and thus achieve better resource utilization. For that, a study of different machine learning methods has been applied in a Mediterranean mountainous basin in South Spain, by means of an ensemble classification and regression approach to predict the river flow volumes for further periods on a quarterly scale. The predictions are made within the same hydrological year and under two different time schemes, after three (A-scheme) and six months (B-scheme), testing the further periods. The study was carried out with the longest streamflow time series registered in the basin (43 years), collected at a high mountain gauge station (Narila, 975 metres above sea level) in the Guadalfeo River. This station is located in the upstream part of the river (with an associated 67 km2 contributing area), where there are not significant human alterations of the natural hydrological cycle (withdrawals or discharges) and with a strong influence of the snow regime. The set of selected predictors for the river water volumes includes cumulated runoff, cumulated rainfall and the average of different Climate indexes. The results show that the nature of future periods can be classified accurately in our study case by the methods proposed, classifying correctly more than 90 % of the values during the testing period.

  17. Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Water from Desert Locust Area in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Ilboudo; Adama Makoum Toé; Richard Ouédraogo; Moustapha Ouédraogo; Innocent Pierre Guissou

    2014-01-01

    Locust control requires sometimes an important use of pesticides in infested area with concomitant environment contaminations. Using the Gas Chromatography (GC) technical, pesticide residues were determined in water samples collected from locust outbreak areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. The risk quotient method coupled with probabilistic risk assessment model was used for ecological risk assessment of pesticide detected in water. For ten pesticides belonging to Organophosphates, Pyrethroid...

  18. LINGUISTIC DETERMINISM, CUMULATIVE EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhoverkhov A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to examine how language and its historically inherited content and structure allows accumulating knowledge and determines the development of the individuals, culture and science. The article shows the theoretical drawbacks of modern "pragmatic turn" in which language is depicted only as a derivate of natural, cultural and cognitive systems. Instead, it is stated that language, in addition to all of the above, have to be considered also as a relatively independent basis and one of the causes that determine individual and social development. For that reason, the study examines the system nature of language, thought and culture, their environmental and social "embeddiness", a close relationship with other sign systems and with various forms of social activities. From that point, theoretical reduction of multiple relations and varying causes in complex ecological and social systems only to bilateral relations of language-thought, language-culture are revised. Particular attention is paid to the role of language in the accumulation and systematization of scientific knowledge and the transmission of cultural traditions. In that context, language is seen as part of the non-genetic inheritance systems, "social a priori" that determines the content and creates conditions for cumulative social evolution. Therefore, it is maintained that the comprehensive studies of language and its significance for culture and science have to embrace within a systems approach both the linguistic and pragmatic "turns"

  19. Cumulative biological impacts of The Geysers geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    The cumulative nature of current and potential future biological impacts from full geothermal development in the steam-dominated portion of The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified by the California Energy Commission staff. Vegetation, wildlife, and aquatic resources information have been reviewed and evaluated. Impacts and their significance are discussed and staff recommendations presented. Development of 3000 MW of electrical energy will result in direct vegetation losses of 2790 acres, based on an estimate of 11.5% loss per lease-hold of 0.93 acres/MW. If unmitigated, losses will be greater. Indirect vegetation losses and damage occur from steam emissions which contain elements (particularly boron) toxic to vegetation. Other potential impacts include chronic low-level boron exposure, acid rain, local climate modification, and mechanical damage. A potential exists for significant reduction and changes in wildlife from direct habitat loss and development influences. Highly erosive soils create the potential for significant reduction of aquatic resources, particularly game fish. Toxic spills have caused some temporary losses of aquatic species. Staff recommends monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures at all geothermal development stages.

  20. Discerning mechanistically rewired biological pathways by cumulative interaction heterogeneity statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Travis B; Nguyen, Hien H; Said, Joseph I; Ouyang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Jinfa; Song, Mingzhou

    2015-01-01

    Changes in response of a biological pathway could be a consequence of either pathway rewiring, changed input, or a combination of both. Most pathway analysis methods are not designed for mechanistic rewiring such as regulatory element variations. This limits our understanding of biological pathway evolution. Here we present a Q-method to discern whether changed pathway response is caused by mechanistic rewiring of pathways due to evolution. The main innovation is a cumulative pathway interaction heterogeneity statistic accounting for rewiring-specific effects on the rate of change of each molecular variable across conditions. The Q-method remarkably outperformed differential-correlation based approaches on data from diverse biological processes. Strikingly, it also worked well in differentiating rewired chaotic systems, whose dynamics are notoriously difficult to predict. Applying the Q-method on transcriptome data of four yeasts, we show that pathway interaction heterogeneity for known metabolic and signaling pathways is indeed a predictor of interspecies genetic rewiring due to unbalanced TATA box-containing genes among the yeasts. The demonstrated effectiveness of the Q-method paves the way to understanding network evolution at the resolution of functional biological pathways. PMID:25921728