WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing cumulative health

  1. Cumulative Exposure Assessment of Triazole Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Klaveren, van, M.; Donkersgoed, van, G.; Voet, van der, E.; C. Stephenson; Boon, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    In the EFSA opinion on identification of new approaches to assess cumulative and synergistic risks from pesticides to human health a tiered approach for cumulative risk assessment has been proposed. The first tier is a deterministic approach using average and large portion consumption statistics. The higher tiers include probabilistic exposure assessment and Benchmark Dose (BMD) modeling. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of a higher tier assessment of ...

  2. Modeling Joint Exposures and Health Outcomes for Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Case of Radon and Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Community-based cumulative risk assessment requires characterization of exposures to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors, with consideration of how the non-chemical stressors may influence risks from chemical stressors. Residential radon provides an interesting case example, given its large attributable risk, effect modification due to smoking, and significant variability in radon concentrations and smoking patterns. In spite of this fact, no study to date has estimated geographic and sociodemographic patterns of both radon and smoking in a manner that would allow for inclusion of radon in community-based cumulative risk assessment. In this study, we apply multi-level regression models to explain variability in radon based on housing characteristics and geological variables, and construct a regression model predicting housing characteristics using U.S. Census data. Multi-level regression models of smoking based on predictors common to the housing model allow us to link the exposures. We estimate county-average lifetime lung cancer risks from radon ranging from 0.15 to 1.8 in 100, with high-risk clusters in areas and for subpopulations with high predicted radon and smoking rates. Our findings demonstrate the viability of screening-level assessment to characterize patterns of lung cancer risk from radon, with an approach that can be generalized to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors.

  3. Conceptual models for cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Stephen H; Sexton, Ken

    2011-12-01

    In the absence of scientific consensus on an appropriate theoretical framework, cumulative risk assessment and related research have relied on speculative conceptual models. We argue for the importance of theoretical backing for such models and discuss 3 relevant theoretical frameworks, each supporting a distinctive "family" of models. Social determinant models postulate that unequal health outcomes are caused by structural inequalities; health disparity models envision social and contextual factors acting through individual behaviors and biological mechanisms; and multiple stressor models incorporate environmental agents, emphasizing the intermediary role of these and other stressors. The conclusion is that more careful reliance on established frameworks will lead directly to improvements in characterizing cumulative risk burdens and accounting for disproportionate adverse health effects. PMID:22021317

  4. Health inputs and cumulative health deficits among the older Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Danan; Sautter, Jessica; Huang, Cheng; Zeng, Yi

    2011-03-01

    Using a health economics framework, we examined how both individual level investments at different life stages and current community-level environmental factors affect individual health stock and flows at old ages. We used a nationwide dataset from the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, which included more than 15,000 adults aged 65 and older from 22 provinces in mainland China. We measured health stock with a cumulative health deficit index, a measure developed in geriatrics and gerontology that reflects deficits, illnesses, and functional impairment in numerous domains of health. The cumulative health deficit index has not been used in health economics before, but is a significant contribution because it captures the health stock concept very well and overcomes the problems of inconsistency resulting from the use of different measures of health stock in research. Our results show that several proxy measures for individual health investments in both childhood (nutritional status and parental survival status) and adulthood (family financial condition and access to healthcare) yielded positive returns to health stock measured by the cumulative health deficit index. Investments in social connections and healthy behaviors (religious involvement, alcohol use, and exercise) also produced positive returns in health stock. Current community-level factors such as air quality and labor force participation rate were significantly associated with levels of health deficits in old age as well. Yet, most of these individual investment and community environment variables did not significantly affect short-term health flows (improvement or deterioration in health status over three years). Our findings have important implications for developing preventive health programs in the context of population aging by focusing on policy-relevant predictors and a comprehensive indicator of health status in later life. PMID:21306808

  5. Uncertainty in Mixtures and Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans and environmental species are rarely exposed to single chemicals. These chemicals typically affect multiple tissues through multiple modes of action, which may depend on the dose. Mixtures risk assessment may employ dose response information from the mixture of interest,...

  6. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at hel

  7. Ecosystem assessment methods for cumulative effects at the regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental issues such as nonpoint-source pollution, acid rain, reduced biodiversity, land use change, and climate change have widespread ecological impacts and require an integrated assessment approach. Since 1978, the implementing regulations for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have required assessment of potential cumulative environmental impacts. Current environmental issues have encouraged ecologists to improve their understanding of ecosystem process and function at several spatial scales. However, management activities usually occur at the local scale, and there is little consideration of the potential impacts to the environmental quality of a region. This paper proposes that regional ecological risk assessment provides a useful approach for assisting scientists in accomplishing the task of assessing cumulative impacts. Critical issues such as spatial heterogeneity, boundary definition, and data aggregation are discussed. Examples from an assessment of acidic deposition effects on fish in Adirondack lakes illustrate the importance of integrated data bases, associated modeling efforts, and boundary definition at the regional scale

  8. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  9. The Role of Cumulative Risk Assessment in Decisions about Environmental Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Sexton; Linder, Stephen H.

    2010-01-01

    There is strong presumptive evidence that people living in poverty and certain racial and ethnic groups bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk. Many have argued that conducting formal assessments of the health risk experienced by affected communities is both unnecessary and counterproductive—that instead of analyzing the situation our efforts should be devoted to fixing obvious problems and rectifying observable wrongs. We contend that formal assessment of cumulative heal...

  10. Assessment of cumulative evidence on genetic associations: Interim guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannidis, John; Boffetta, Paolo; Little, Julian; O'Brien, Thomas; Uitterlinden, André; Vineis, Paolo; Balding, David; Chokkalingam, Anand; Dolan, Siobhan; Flanders, Dana; Higgins, Julian; McCarthy, Mark; McDermott, David; Page, Grier; Rebbeck, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    textabstractEstablished guidelines for causal inference in epidemiological studies may be inappropriate for genetic associations. A consensus process was used to develop guidance criteria for assessing cumulative epidemiologic evidence in genetic associations. A proposed semi-quantitative index assigns three levels for the amount of evidence, extent of replication, and protection from bias, and also generates a composite assessment of 'strong', 'moderate' or 'weak' epidemiological credibility...

  11. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  12. Vulnerability as a Function of Individual and Group Resources in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    deFur, Peter L.; Evans, Gary W.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen; Kyle, Amy D.; Morello-Frosch, Rachel A.; Williams, David

    2007-01-01

    Background: The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the “Framework for Cumulative Risk Assessment” [EPA/630/P02/001F. Washington DC:Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2003)]. Simultaneously, several reports concluded that some individuals and grou...

  13. Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

  14. Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Krogman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.

  15. Epigenome: A Biomarker or Screening Tool to Evaluate Health Impact of Cumulative Exposure to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kenneth; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Bussard, David

    2016-06-01

    Current risk assessment practices and toxicity information are hard to utilize for assessing the health impact of combined or cumulative exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors encountered in the "real world" environment. Non-chemical stressors such as heat, radiation, noise, humidity, bacterial and viral agents, and social factors, like stress related to violence and socioeconomic position generally cannot be currently incorporated into the risk assessment paradigm. The Science and Decisions report released by the National Research Council (NRC) in 2009 emphasized the need to characterize the effects of multiple stressors, both chemical and non-chemical exposures. One impediment to developing information relating such non-chemical stressors to health effects and incorporating them into cumulative assessment has been the lack of analytical tools to easily and quantitatively monitor the cumulative exposure to combined effects of stressors over the life course. PMID:27534725

  16. Project 6: Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA) Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project 6: CRA Methods and Applications addresses the need to move beyond traditional risk assessment practices by developing CRA methods to integrate and evaluate impacts of chemical and nonchemical stressors on the environment and human health. Project 6 has three specific obje...

  17. 78 FR 25440 - Request for Information and Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... approaches and methods that can be used to plan and conduct cumulative risk assessments (CRA). Published... interest to persons involved with the design, formulation, and conduct of risk assessments more generally... cumulative risk issues in scoping and planning major risk assessments and to consider a broader scope...

  18. Epigenome: A Biomarker or Screening Tool to Evaluate Health Impact of Cumulative Exposure to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Olden; Yu-Sheng Lin; David Bussard

    2016-01-01

    Current risk assessment practices and toxicity information are hard to utilize for assessing the health impact of combined or cumulative exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors encountered in the “real world” environment. Non-chemical stressors such as heat, radiation, noise, humidity, bacterial and viral agents, and social factors, like stress related to violence and socioeconomic position generally cannot be currently incorporated into the risk assessment paradigm. The Scie...

  19. Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community

    OpenAIRE

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18–50 years; women: n 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, wh...

  20. Cumulative burden of lifetime adversities: Trauma and mental health in low-SES African Americans and Latino/as.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Hector F; Wyatt, Gail E; Ullman, Jodie B; Loeb, Tamra B; Chin, Dorothy; Prause, Nicole; Zhang, Muyu; Williams, John K; Slavich, George M; Liu, Honghu

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men and women with histories of adversities and trauma were recruited and assessed with a standard battery of self-report measures of stress and mental health. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated good overall model fit. As hypothesized, experiences of discrimination, childhood family adversities, childhood sexual abuse, other childhood trauma, and chronic stresses all loaded on the latent cumulative burden of adversities and trauma construct (CBAT). The CBAT stress exposure index in turn predicted the mental health status latent variable. Although there were several significant univariate ethnic and gender differences, and ethnic and gender differences were observed on several paths, there were no significant ethnic differences in the final model fit of the data. These findings highlight the deleterious consequences of cumulative stress and trauma for mental health and underscore a need to assess these constructs in selecting appropriate clinical interventions for reducing mental health disparities and improving human health. PMID:25961869

  1. Not so Black and White: environmental justice and cumulative impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    not typically identified as meeting EJ criteria (in demographic terms) also face more significant ecological hazards. Thus, the strict bifurcation of communities into categories of Environmental Justice and Non-Environmental Justice is problematic, and poses a serious dilemma for policy makers, public health officials, and community activists. To overcome this challenge requires the adoption of a cumulative environmental justice impact assessment (CEJIA), which in addition to the demographic characteristics of a community, also takes into account the total environmental burden and related health impacts upon residents. Furthermore, through the adoption of the precautionary principle, source reduction, and alternative forms of ''cleaner'' production, environmental justice advocates must work for policies which reduce the environmental threat for the full range of communities, as well as their own

  2. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  3. Cumulative Advantage in an Egalitarian Country? Socioeconomic Health Disparities over the Life Course in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Liliya

    2016-06-01

    According to the cumulative advantage hypothesis, health gaps between socioeconomic groups widen with age. In the United States, studies have supported this hypothesis. Outside this context, evidence remains scarce. The present study tests the cumulative advantage hypothesis in Sweden, a society that contrasts sharply with the United States in terms of policies designed to reduce social disparities in health-related resources. I draw on longitudinal data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (N = 9,412 person-years), spanning the period between 1991 and 2010. The results show that gaps in self-rated health increase from early to middle adulthood. This applies to differences between educational groups and between occupational classes. In older age, health gaps remain constant. Cross-cohort analyses reveal a rising importance of cumulative advantage between educational groups but not between occupational classes. I conclude that the forces of accumulation prevail even in one of the most egalitarian welfare states. PMID:27284078

  4. Long term cumulative radiological impact assessment to liquid effluent of american inland NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual radioactivity monitoring reports (2005-2011) for 38 typical inland nuclear power plants in US were investigated, and the artificial radioactivity levels in the sediments of receiving water of liquid effluent were analyzed. It was indicated that the long term operation of these NPPs had no obvious cumulative impacts on sediment, only at a few of which were found radioactivity originated from liquid effluents around discharge points, and much lower than the natural radioactivity concentrations. Only a very few NPPs had an effect with relatively higher concentration levels of radioactivity in sediment, which was due to the poor hydrological conditions of the receiving water for the dilution of radioactive liquid effluents. According to the dose assessments of artificial radioactivity in sediment to public individuals, all American typical inland NPPs had negligible impacts on public health compared to the natural public background and the personal dose constraint of liquid effluent regulated by NRC. (authors)

  5. Methodological Considerations in Screening for Cumulative Environmental Health Impacts: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Study in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Laura Meehan; Faust, John B.; Cushing, Lara; Zeise, Lauren; Alexeeff, George V.

    2012-01-01

    Polluting facilities and hazardous sites are often concentrated in low-income communities of color already facing additional stressors to their health. The influence of socioeconomic status is not considered in traditional models of risk assessment. We describe a pilot study of a screening method that considers both pollution burden and population characteristics in assessing the potential for cumulative impacts. The goal is to identify communities that warrant further attention and to thereby provide actionable guidance to decision- and policy-makers in achieving environmental justice. The method uses indicators related to five components to develop a relative cumulative impact score for use in comparing communities: exposures, public health effects, environmental effects, sensitive populations and socioeconomic factors. Here, we describe several methodological considerations in combining disparate data sources and report on the results of sensitivity analyses meant to guide future improvements in cumulative impact assessments. We discuss criteria for the selection of appropriate indicators, correlations between them, and consider data quality and the influence of choices regarding model structure. We conclude that the results of this model are largely robust to changes in model structure. PMID:23202671

  6. Using Cumulative Risk to Screen for Mental Health Problems in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Julie S.; Barth, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the hypothesis that information typically collected during a maltreatment investigation can be used to screen children for mental health problems. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Cumulative risk scores were created for 3,022 children and compared to reports of clinical-level…

  7. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Nielsen, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    A cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz in combination has been carried out using an Integrated Probabilistic Risk Assessment (IPRA) model. In the model, variability in both exposure and sensitivity between individuals were combined...... into a distribution of Individual Margins of Exposure (IMoE). Additionally, uncertainties related to input parameters were evaluated. The cumulative risk assessment was performed using the Relative Potency Factor (RPF) approach. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three reproductive endpoints in...

  8. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Bosgra, Sieto; Boon, Polly E.;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three...

  9. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process

  10. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika, E-mail: vyskupova@fns.uniba.sk

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  11. Cumulative assessment of persistent organic pollutant toxicity in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Westerholm, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to a multitude of compounds present in the environment and in food. A major challenge in risk assessment is to determine the degree of exposure to multiple chemicals and the hazards associated with such combined exposure. The simultaneous exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), is one example of a complex group of chemicals whic...

  12. Community, State, and Federal Approaches to Cumulative Risk Assessment: Challenges and Opportunities for Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Barzyk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Community, state, and federal approaches to conventional and cumulative risk assessment (CRA were described and compared to assess similarities and differences, and develop recommendations for a consistent CRA approach, acceptable across each level as a rigorous scientific methodology, including partnership formation and solution development as necessary practices. Community, state, and federal examples were described and then summarized based on their adherence to CRA principles of: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 risk analysis and ranking, and (3 risk characterization, interpretation, and management. While each application shared the common goal of protecting human health and the environment, they adopted different approaches to achieve this. For a specific project-level analysis of a particular place or instance, this may be acceptable, but to ensure long-term applicability and transferability to other projects, recommendations for developing a consistent approach to CRA are provided. This approach would draw from best practices, risk assessment and decision analysis sciences, and historical lessons learned to provide results in an understandable and accepted manner by all entities. This approach is intended to provide a common ground around which to develop CRA methods and approaches that can be followed at all levels.

  13. Cumulative risk assessment of the intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in the Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A. F.; Petersen, Annette; Granby, Kit

    2003-01-01

    in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction......The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides that act through a common mechanism of toxicity, and to assess the long- and short-term risks for the Danish population. The intake estimates are based on dietary intake data collected...... of pesticide levels by rinsing and peeling, were applied in the exposure assessment. The "Toxicity Equivalence Factor" (TEF) approach was used to normalise the toxicity of the different organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Cumulative chronic exposure of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides via...

  14. Incorporating cumulative effects into environmental assessments of mariculture: Limitations and failures of current siting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing and evaluating the cumulative impacts of multiple marine aquaculture facilities has proved difficult in environmental assessment. A retrospective review of 23 existing mariculture farms in southwestern New Brunswick was conducted to determine whether cumulative interactions would have justified site approvals. Based on current scientific evidence of cumulative effects, six new criteria were added to a set of far-field impacts and other existing criteria were expanded to include regional and cumulative environmental impacts in Hargrave's [Hargrave BT. A traffic light decision system for marine finfish aquaculture siting. Ocean Coast Manag 2002; 45:215-35.] Traffic Light Decision Support System (DSS) presently used in Canadian aquaculture environmental assessments. Before mitigation, 19 of the 23 sites failed the amended set of criteria and after considering mitigation, 8 sites failed. Site and ecosystem indices yielded varying site acceptability scores; however, many sites would not have been approved if siting decisions had been made within a regional management framework and cumulative impact criteria were considered in the site evaluation process

  15. Cumulative impact assessments and bird/wind farm interactions: Developing a conceptual framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wind power industry has grown rapidly in the UK to meet EU targets of sourcing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although wind power is a renewable energy source, there are environmental concerns over increasing numbers of wind farm proposals and associated cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. EU and UK legislation requires a cumulative impact assessment (CIA) as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). However, in the absence of detailed guidance and definitions, such assessments within EIA are rarely adequate, restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Here we propose a conceptual framework to promote transparency in CIA through the explicit definition of impacts, actions and scales within an assessment. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development EIAs. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating CIA to a strategic level, as a component of spatially explicit planning.

  16. Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) in 0–6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79–107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0–3-yr-old children and 4–6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods. - Graphical abstract: In seven phthalates, the 95th percentile of the average daily dose (ADD) for ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) in 0–3-yr-old male (0–3 M) and female (0–3 F) children accounted for 97% and 84% of TDIs, respectively. For 4–6-yr-old and 7–12-yr-old males and 7–12-yr-old females, ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) accounted for 79%, 72%, and 65% of TDIs, respectively. - Highlights: • A cumulative risk assessment of PAEs was used in a severe plasticizer-contaminated food episode. • ΣDBP(i + n) posed the highest risk potential of all the dietary phthalates. • Females 4–6 yr old had the highest risk for anti-androgenic effects. • Beverages, milk and dairy products were the major contributors to average daily dose of phthalate esters. - The health of young Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of plasticizer-contaminated food

  17. Cumulative Violence Exposure, Emotional Nonacceptance, and Mental Health Symptoms in a Community Sample of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sundermann, Jane M.; Chu, Ann T.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2013-01-01

    Women exposed to more types of violence (e.g., emotional, physical, or sexual violence) – referred to here as cumulative violence exposure – are at risk for more severe mental health symptoms compared to women who are exposed to a single type of violence or no violence. Women exposed to violence may also experience greater emotional nonacceptance compared to women with no exposure to violence. Emotional nonacceptance refers to an unwillingness to experience emotional states, including cogniti...

  18. Weak self-directed learning skills hamper performance in cumulative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tio, Rene A.; Stegmann, Mariken E.; Koerts, Janke; van Os, Titus W. D. P.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-regulated learning is an important determinant of academic performance. Previous research has shown that cumulative assessment encourages students to work harder and improve their results. However, not all students seem to respond as intended. We investigated the influence of studen

  19. Cumulative versus end-of-course assessment : effects on self-study time and test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Mulder, B. Florentine; Muntinghe, Friso L. H.; Tio, Rene A.

    2015-01-01

    ContextStudents tend to postpone preparation for a test until the test is imminent, which raises various risks associated with cramming' behaviours, including that for suboptimal learning. Cumulative assessment utilises spaced testing to stimulate students to study more frequently and to prevent pro

  20. Exploring the practice of assessing cumulative impacts related to offshore oil activities in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Trine Skovgaard; Olsen, Pernille; Mortensen, Lucia;

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Region is characterised by vulnerable ecosystems and residing indigenous people, dependent on nature for fishing and hunting. The Arctic also contains a wealth of non-living natural resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons. Synergies between increased access and growing global demand...... of methodology for assessment of cumulative impacts, knowledge gap of Arctic ecosystems and other....

  1. Optimization of the cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and biocides using computational techniques: Pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette;

    This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...... models. Exposure scenarios were constructed based on findings of pesticide residues in food of ordinary consumers, and assessment of dermal exposure of professional workers. PBTK simulations were carried using these scenarios....

  2. Looking Ahead: The Inclusion of Long-Term Futures in Cumulative Environmental Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceeding of a workshop on the Inclusion of Long-Term Futures in Cumulative Environmental Assessments (CEA's) were presented.. Also included were three working group reports and papers presented at the conference. The issue of the concept of Cumulative Environmental Assessments was summarized, along with the current transformation to a more global outlook. The concepts and methodological questions associated with ecology and economics were tackled. CEA methods were discussed and a contrast was made with land-use planning. The importance of long-term monitoring programs was introduced and examples of early warning systems were given. Social science issues behind CEAs were also discussed. Recommendation e for preparing CEA's, the design of early warning monitoring systems, and public involvement, were made.. Contributed papers covered topics related to environmental assessment, pollution, and climate change

  3. Conceptual and methodological challenges to integrating SEA and cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constraints to assessing and managing cumulative environmental effects in the context of project-based environmental assessment are well documented, and the potential benefits of a more strategic approach to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) are well argued; however, such benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated in practice. While it is widely assumed that cumulative effects are best addressed in a strategic context, there has been little investigation as to whether CEA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are a 'good fit' - conceptually or methodologically. This paper identifies a number of conceptual and methodological challenges to the integration of CEA and SEA. Based on results of interviews with international experts and practitioners, this paper demonstrates that: definitions and conceptualizations of CEA are typically weak in practice; approaches to effects aggregation vary widely; a systems perspective lacks in both SEA and CEA; the multifarious nature of SEA complicates CEA; tiering arrangements between SEA and project-based assessment are limited to non-existing; and the relationship of SEA to regional planning remains unclear.

  4. Application of a Novel Method for Assessing Cumulative Risk Burden by County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sexton

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to apply the Human Security Index (HSI as a tool to detect social and economic cumulative risk burden at a county-level in the state of Texas. The HSI is an index comprising a network of three sub-components or “fabrics”; the Economic, Environmental, and Social Fabrics. We hypothesized that the HSI will be a useful instrument for identifying and analyzing socioeconomic conditions that contribute to cumulative risk burden in vulnerable counties. We expected to identify statistical associations between cumulative risk burden and (a ethnic concentration and (b geographic proximity to the Texas-Mexico border. Findings from this study indicate that the Texas-Mexico border region did not have consistently higher total or individual fabric scores as would be suggested by the high disease burden and low income in this region. While the Economic, Environmental, Social Fabrics (including the Health subfabric were highly associated with Hispanic ethnic concentration, the overall HSI and the Crime subfabric were not. In addition, the Education, Health and Crime subfabrics were associated with African American racial composition, while Environment, Economic and Social Fabrics were not. Application of the HSI to Texas counties provides a fuller and more nuanced understanding of socioeconomic and environmental conditions, and increases awareness of the role played by environmental, economic, and social factors in observed health disparities by race/ethnicity and geographic region.

  5. Modeling the Cumulative Effects of Social Exposures on Health: Moving beyond Disease-Specific Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. White

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional explanatory models used in epidemiology are “disease specific”, identifying risk factors for specific health conditions. Yet social exposures lead to a generalized, cumulative health impact which may not be specific to one illness. Disease-specific models may therefore misestimate social factors’ effects on health. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and Canada 2001 Census we construct and compare “disease-specific” and “generalized health impact” (GHI models to gauge the negative health effects of one social exposure: socioeconomic position (SEP. We use logistic and multinomial multilevel modeling with neighbourhood-level material deprivation, individual-level education and household income to compare and contrast the two approaches. In disease-specific models, the social determinants under study were each associated with the health conditions of interest. However, larger effect sizes were apparent when outcomes were modeled as compound health problems (0, 1, 2, or 3+ conditions using the GHI approach. To more accurately estimate social exposures’ impacts on population health, researchers should consider a GHI framework.

  6. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Herrmann, Susan Strange; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark...... studies. Prochloraz was used as the index compound. All four pesticides increased nipple retention in male offspring, and epoxiconazole, prochloraz, and tebuconazole also increased the gestation period in pregnant rat dams. For women of childbearing age, the high-end cumulative exposure (99.9th percentile...... to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006...

  7. Cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure of Danish children and adolescents using the hazard index approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Human risk assessment of chemicals is traditionally presented as the ratio between the actual level of exposure and an acceptable level of exposure, with the acceptable level of exposure most often being estimated by appropriate authorities. This approach is generally sound when assessing the risk...... endpoint for the phthalates included in this article. Using the EFSA TDI values, 12 children exceeded the hazard quotient for the sum of di-n-butyl phthalate and di-iso-butyl phthalate (∑DBP((i+n)) ) and one child exceeded the hazard quotient for di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Nineteen children...... exceeded the cumulated hazard index for three phthalates. Using the RfD AA values, one child exceeded the hazard quotient for DEHP and the same child exceeded the cumulated hazard index for four phthalates. The EFSA TDI approach thus is more restrictive and identifies ∑DBP((i+n)) as the compound...

  8. DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPAs N-Methyl Carbamate Cumulative Risk Assessment (NMCRA) assesses the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 N-methyl carbamate (NMC) pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures.

  9. Application of the ELDO approach to assess cumulative eye lens doses for interventional cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, J; Struelens, L; Auvinen, A; Jacob, S; Koukorava, C; Schnelzer, M; Vanhavere, F; Clairand, I

    2015-04-01

    In preparation of a large European epidemiological study on the relation between eye lens dose and the occurrence of lens opacities, the European ELDO project focused on the development of practical methods to estimate retrospectively cumulative eye lens dose for interventional medical professionals exposed to radiation. The present paper applies one of the ELDO approaches, correlating eye lens dose to whole-body doses, to assess cumulative eye lens dose for 14 different Finnish interventional cardiologists for whom annual whole-body dose records were available for their entire working period. The estimated cumulative left and right eye lens dose ranged from 8 to 264 mSv and 6 to 225 mSv, respectively. In addition, calculations showed annual eye lens doses sometimes exceeding the new ICRP annual limit of 20 mSv. The work also highlights the large uncertainties associated with the application of such an approach proving the need for dedicated dosimetry systems in the routine monitoring of the eye lens dose. PMID:25316910

  10. Application of the ELDO approach to assess cumulative eye lens doses for interventional cardiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In preparation of a large European epidemiological study on the relation between eye lens dose and the occurrence of lens opacities, the European ELDO project focused on the development of practical methods to estimate retrospectively cumulative eye lens dose for interventional medical professionals exposed to radiation. The present paper applies one of the ELDO approaches, correlating eye lens dose to whole-body doses, to assess cumulative eye lens dose for 14 different Finnish interventional cardiologists for whom annual whole-body dose records were available for their entire working period. The estimated cumulative left and right eye lens dose ranged from 8 to 264 mSv and 6 to 225 mSv, respectively. In addition, calculations showed annual eye lens doses sometimes exceeding the new ICRP annual limit of 20 mSv. The work also highlights the large uncertainties associated with the application of such an approach proving the need for dedicated dosimetry systems in the routine monitoring of the eye lens dose. (authors)

  11. Framework tool for a rapid cumulative effects assessment: case of a prominent wetland in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, N; Habib, H; Venkatappa, M; Ebbers, T; Duboz, R; Shipin, O

    2015-06-01

    The wetland of focus, Inle Lake, located in central Myanmar, is well known for its unique biodiversity and culture, as well as for ingenious floating garden agriculture. During the last decades, the lake area has seen extensive degradation in terms of water quality, erosion, deforestation, and biodiversity concomitant with a major shift to unsustainable land use. The study was conducted, with an emphasis on water quality, to analyze environmental impacts (effects) changing the ecosystem and to comprehensively evaluate the environmental state of the ecosystem through an innovative Rapid Cumulative Effects Assessment framework tool. The assessment started with a framework-forming Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), which quantified and prioritized impacts over space and time. Critically important impacts were assessed for "intra-inter interactions" using the loop analysis simulation. Water samples were analyzed while geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing were used to identify water pollution hotspots. It was concluded that out of a plethora of impacts, pollution from municipal sources, sedimentation, and effects exerted by floating gardens had the most detrimental impacts, which cumulatively affected the entire ecosystem. The framework tool was designed in a broad sense with a reference to highly needed assessments of poorly studied wetlands where degradation is evident, but scarcely quantified, and where long-term field studies are fraught with security issues and resource unavailability (post-conflict, poor and remote regions, e.g., Afghanistan, Laos, Sudan, etc.). PMID:25963760

  12. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects. In...... this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative...... potency factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated....

  13. Current Status of Development of Methods to Assess Effects of Cumulative or Aggregated Underwater Sounds on Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Streever, Bill; Angliss, Robyn; Clark, Christopher W; Ellison, William T; Frankel, Adam; Gedamke, Jason; Leu, Matthias; McKenna, Megan; Racca, Roberto; Simmons, Samantha; Suydam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There are no standards for assessment of the cumulative effects of underwater sound. Quantitative assessments typically consider a single source, whereas qualitative assessments may include multiple sources but rarely identify response variables. As a step toward understanding the cumulative effects of underwater sound, we assessed the aggregated sounds of multiple sources received by migrating bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). The quantitative method models the sound field from multiple sources and simulates movement of a population through it. The qualitative method uses experts to assess the responses of individuals and populations to sound sources and identify the potential mechanisms. These methods increase the transparency of assessments. PMID:26610973

  14. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie; Axelstad, Marta; Herrmann, Susan S; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hass, Ulla

    2013-05-01

    The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006-2009, while residue data for epoxiconazole were obtained from the Swedish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2007-2009. Food consumption data were obtained from the Danish nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Relative potency factors for the four pesticides were obtained from rat studies. Prochloraz was used as the index compound. All four pesticides increased nipple retention in male offspring, and epoxiconazole, prochloraz, and tebuconazole also increased the gestation period in pregnant rat dams. For women of childbearing age, the high-end cumulative exposure (99.9th percentile) was calculated to 9% of the Adjusted Reference Value (ARV) for the effect on nipple retention and to 1% of the ARV for the effect on increased gestation period. PMID:23333574

  15. Suriname: Health Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Rena Eichler

    1999-01-01

    This study assesses the health sector in Suriname, with the goal of assisting policy makers to develop a better understanding of problems and to propose a range of solutions. This study presents the analytical framework used to assess the health sector, reviews the major findings, and presents key recommendations. The focus is on the complex inter-relationships between the major actors in the health sector: policy leaders, consumers, providers, and payers. This market-oriented framework was c...

  16. Appraising the sustainability of project alternatives: An increasing role for cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating and comparing development alternatives with regard to sustainability is an important goal for comprehensive project appraisal. In the United States, this component has been largely missing from standard environmental impact assessment practice. Cumulative effects assessment provides a way to appraise the sustainability of project alternatives in terms of their probable contributions to long-term trends affecting the condition of valued environmental components. Sustainability metrics and predictors are being developed as criteria for rating systems and evaluation processes that are applied to community planning, building design, and transportation infrastructure. Increasing interest in adaptive management is also providing cost-effective solutions to optimizing safety and function throughout the long-term operation of a facility or infrastructure. Recent federal legislation is making it easier to integrate sustainability features into development alternatives through early, community-based planning.

  17. Eye lens radiation exposure to interventional cardiologists: A retrospective assessment of cumulative doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose to the eye lens is a crucial issue for interventional cardiologists (ICs) who are exposed during the procedures they perform. This paper presents a retrospective assessment of the cumulative eye lens doses of ICs enrolled in the O'CLOC study for Occupational Cataracts and Lens Opacities in interventional Cardiology. Information on the workload in the catheterisation laboratory, radiation protection equipment, eye lens dose per procedure and dose reduction factors associated with eye-protective equipment were considered. For the 129 ICs at an average age of 51 who had worked for an average period of 22 years, the estimated cumulative eye lens dose ranged from 25 mSv to more than 1600 mSv; the mean + SD was 423+359 mSv. After several years of practice, without eye protection, ICs may exceed the new ICRP lifetime eye dose threshold of 500 mSv and be at high risk of developing early radiation-induced cataracts. Radiation protection equipment can reduce these doses and should be used routinely. (authors)

  18. IDENTIFYING CHEMICALS FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT USING COMMON MECHANISMS OF ACTION AND TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, potential health risk assessments from exposure to contaminated food, drinking water, or environmental media have been conducted on individual pesticides or chemicals in each medium of concern. However, humans are generally exposed to multiple chemicals and stress...

  19. Assessing Cumulative Thermal Stress in Fish During Chronic Exposure to High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevelhimer, M.S.; Bennett, W.R.

    1999-11-14

    As environmental laws become increasingly protective, and with possible future changes in global climate, thermal effects on aquatic resources are likely to receive increasing attention. Lethal temperatures for a variety of species have been determined for situations where temperatures rise rapidly resulting in lethal effects. However, less is known about the effects of chronic exposure to high (but not immediately lethal) temperatures and even less about stress accumulation during periods of fluctuating temperatures. In this paper we present a modeling framework for assessing cumulative thermal stress in fish. The model assumes that stress accumulation occurs above a threshold temperature at a rate depending on the degree to which the threshold is exceeded. The model also includes stress recovery (or alleviation) when temperatures drop below the threshold temperature as in systems with large daily variation. In addition to non-specific physiological stress, the model also simulates thermal effects on growth.

  20. Alchemy to reason: Effective use of Cumulative Effects Assessment in resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is a tool that can be useful in making decisions about natural resource management and allocation. The decisions to be made include those (i) necessary to construct planning and regulatory frameworks to control development activity so that societal goals will be achieved and (ii) whether or not to approve individual development projects, with or without conditions. The evolution of CEA into a more successful tool cannot occur independently of the evolution of decision making processes. Currently progress is painfully slow on both fronts. This paper explores some opportunities to accelerate improvements in decision making in natural resource management and in the utility of CEA as a tool to assist in making such decisions. The focus of the paper is on how to define the public interest by determining what is acceptable.

  1. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (Sst, Sst, pst) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (Ssu, Ssu, psu) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (Sst, Sst, pst) and (Ssu, Ssu, psu). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems

  2. Cumulative Burden of Lifetime Adversities: Trauma and Mental Health in Low-SES African Americans and Latino/as

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, HF; Wyatt, GE; Ullman, JB; Loeb, TB; Chin, D.; Prause, N.; Zhang, M.; Williams, JK; Slavich, GM; H. Liu

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 American Psychological Association. All rights reserved. This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men...

  3. Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models to Incorporate Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Pesticide Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk assessment has been proposed as an approach to evaluate the health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD models can allow for the inclusion and evaluation of multiple stressors, including non-chemical stressors, but studies have not leveraged PBPK/PD models to jointly consider these disparate exposures in a cumulative risk context. In this study, we focused on exposures to organophosphate (OP pesticides for children in urban low-income environments, where these children would be simultaneously exposed to other pesticides (including pyrethroids and non-chemical stressors that may modify the effects of these exposures (including diet. We developed a methodological framework to evaluate chemical and non-chemical stressor impacts on OPs, utilizing an existing PBPK/PD model for chlorpyrifos. We evaluated population-specific stressors that would influence OP doses or acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, the relevant PD outcome. We incorporated the impact of simultaneous exposure to pyrethroids and dietary factors on OP dose through the compartments of metabolism and PD outcome within the PBPK model, and simulated combinations of stressors across multiple exposure ranges and potential body weights. Our analyses demonstrated that both chemical and non-chemical stressors can influence the health implications of OP exposures, with up to 5-fold variability in AChE inhibition across combinations of stressor values for a given OP dose. We demonstrate an approach for modeling OP risks in the presence of other population-specific environmental stressors, providing insight about co-exposures and variability factors that most impact OP health risks and contribute to children’s cumulative health risk from pesticides. More generally, this framework can be used to inform cumulative risk assessment for any compound impacted by

  4. (BOSC) DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PRESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE US EPA'S N-METHYL CARBAMATE CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT (NMCRA) ASSESSES THE EFFECT ON ACETYLCHOLINE ESTERASE (AChE) ACTIVITY OF EXPOSURE TO 10 N-METHLY CARBAMATE (NMC)PESTICIDES THROUGH DIETARY, DRINKING WATER, AND RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURES. THESE DATA THUS INFORM, BUT DO NOT COM...

  5. Addressing cumulative effects through strategic environmental assessment: a case study of small hydro development in Newfoundland, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental assessment (EA) is widely used as a means of incorporating environmental considerations into decision-making, primarily at the project level. The scope of EA has been expanded considerably in recent years to include earlier stages of the decision-making process, namely, policies, plans and programmes. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) facilitates a planning approach to addressing the overall, cumulative effects of the projects that occur as a result of these decisions. This paper demonstrates the potential benefits of SEA in the assessment and management of cumulative effects, using a case study of recent hydroelectric development planning in Newfoundland, Canada. It goes on to illustrate how SEA could be used to address potential cumulative effects at the various stages of such a decision-making process. Through the case study, the paper also explores a number of issues in the implementation of such a planning approach. (author)

  6. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Benchmark Dose Analysis from Multiple Datasets: The Cumulative Risk Assessment for the N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA’s N-Methyl Carbamate (NMC) Cumulative Risk assessment was based on the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 NMC pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures, assuming the effects of joint exposure to NMCs is dose-...

  8. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) and (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems.

  9. Health care technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Clifford

    1994-12-01

    The role of technology in the cost of health care is a primary issue in current debates concerning national health care reform. The broad scope of studies for understanding technological impacts is known as technology assessment. Technology policy makers can improve their decision making by becoming more aware, and taking greater advantage, of key trends in health care technology assessment (HCTA). HCTA is the systematic evaluation of the properties, impacts, and other attributes of health care technologies, including: technical performance; clinical safety and efficacy/effectiveness; cost-effectiveness and other economic attributes; appropriate circumstances/indications for use; and social, legal, ethical, and political impacts. The main purpose of HCTA is to inform technology-related policy making in health care. Among the important trends in HCTA are: (1) proliferation of HCTA groups in the public and private sectors; (2) higher standards for scientific evidence concerning technologies; (3) methodological development in cost analyses, health-related quality of life measurement, and consolidation of available scientific evidence (e.g., meta-analysis); (4) emphasis on improved data on how well technologies work in routine practice and for traditionally under-represented patient groups; (5) development of priority-setting methods; (6) greater reliance on medical informatics to support and disseminate HCTA findings.

  10. Introducing Health Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, L N; Gulis, G; Lehto, J;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intersectoral Action for Health (IAH) and its Health Impact Assessment (HIA) tool are built on collaboration between actors and sectors, requiring multidimensional and horizontal way of working. The study aims to analyse the enablers and barriers when such a new way of working and tool...... used by which the actual problems, the governmental actions (or non-actions) (politics) and the understanding, implementation and evaluation of the initiative (policy) could be analysed. All actors involved, civil servants, politicians, representatives of the local public health institute and...... researchers, were interviewed and made to answer a questionnaire. RESULTS: The results showed that there were a number of factors behind the initiation of HIA, which either delayed or accelerated the process. The problems identified were e.g. the prevailing traditional health care focus and the deteriorating...

  11. Towards a cumulative collision risk assessment of local and migrating birds in North Sea offshore wind farms

    OpenAIRE

    Brabant, Robin; Vanermen, Nicolas; Stienen,Eric; Degraer, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Bird collision assessments are generally made at the scale of a single wind farm. While especially in offshore situations such assessments already hold several assumptions, even bigger challenges exist on estimating the cumulative impact ofmultiple wind farms and the impacts at population level. In this paper, the number of collision victims at Belgian offshore wind farms was estimated with a(theoretical) collision risk model based on technical turbine specifications, bird-related parameters ...

  12. Potential Health Risks Posed by Plant-Derived Cumulative Neurotoxic Bufadienolides in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Christo

    2016-01-01

    Bufadienolide-type cardiac glycosides have a worldwide distribution and are mainly synthesized by plants, but there are also animal sources. In South Africa, members of three genera of the Crassulaceae (Cotyledon, Tylecodon and Kalanchoe) cause a unique chronic form of cardiac glycoside poisoning, predominantly in small stock. This paretic/paralytic condition is referred to as "krimpsiekte", cotyledonosis or "nenta". "Krimpsiekte" is a plant poisoning only reported from South Africa and is regarded as the most important plant poisoning of small stock in the semi-arid Little Karoo and southern fringes of the Great Karoo. The toxicosis is caused by cumulative bufadienolides which have neurotoxic properties. Four types of cumulative neurotoxic bufadienolides, namely cotyledoside, and the tyledosides, orbicusides and lanceotoxins, have been isolated. Based on the structure activity relationships and certain toxicokinetic parameters possible reasons for their accumulation are presented. Consumption of edible tissues from animals that have ingested these plants poses a potential risk to humans. PMID:27102163

  13. Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scoggins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB, have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1 hazard proximity and land use; (2 air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3 social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns.

  14. Quantitative assessment of cumulative damage from repetitive exposures to suberythemogenic doses of UVA in human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily exposures to relatively small suberythemogenic fluences of UVA (50-200 kJ/m2) for 8 days resulted in cumulative morphological skin alterations indicative of early tissue injury. Histologically, irradiated skin revealed epidermal hyperplasia, inflammation and deposition of lysozyme along the dermal elastic fiber network. Sunburn cells were also present within the epidermis. These changes were quantified by image analysis and were found to be related to the cumulative UVA fluence. A long UVA waveband (UVAI, 340-400 nm) was as effective as a broad UVA band (320-400 nm), suggesting that these changes are induced by longer UVA wavelengths. (author)

  15. An Assessment of Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue in a Cobalt-Base Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative fatigue under axial and torsional loading conditions can include both load-order (higMow and low/high) as well as load-type sequence (axial/torsional and torsional/axial) effects. Previously reported experimental studies on a cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188 at 538 C, addressed these effects. These studies characterized the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue behavior under high amplitude followed by low amplitude (Kalluri, S. and Bonacuse, P. J., "Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue: An Investigation of Load-Type Sequance Effects," in Multiaxial Fatigue and Deformation: Testing and Prediction, ASTM STP 1387, S. Kalluri, and P. J. Bonacuse, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000, pp. 281-301) and low amplitude followed by high amplitude (Bonacuse, P. and Kalluri, S. "Sequenced Axial and Torsional Cumulative Fatigue: Low Amplitude Followed by High Amplitude Loading," Biaxial/Multiaxial Fatigue and Fracture, ESIS Publication 31, A. Carpinteri, M. De Freitas, and A. Spagnoli, Eds., Elsevier, New York, 2003, pp. 165-182) conditions. In both studies, experiments with the following four load-type sequences were performed: (a) axial/axial, (b) torsional/torsional, (c) axial/torsional, and (d) torsional/axial. In this paper, the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue data generated in the two previous studies are combined to generate a comprehensive cumulative fatigue database on both the load-order and load-type sequence effects. This comprehensive database is used to examine applicability of the Palmgren-langer-Miner linear damage rule and a nonlinear damage curve approach for Haynes 188 subjected to the load-order and load-type sequencing described above. Summations of life fractions from the experiments are compared to the predictions from both the linear and nonlinear cumulative fatigue damage approaches. The significance of load-order versus load-type sequence effects for axial and torsional loading conditions

  16. CUMULATIVE TRAUMAS AND RISK THRESHOLDS: 12-MONTH PTSD IN THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH (WMH) SURVEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie G.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric D.; Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Laura; Shahly, Victoria; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia E.; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Posada-Villa, José A.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zarkov, Zahari; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exposed to multiple traumatic events (TEs) rather than a single TE have increased morbidity and dysfunction. Although epidemiological surveys in the United States and Europe also document high rates of multiple TE exposure, no population-based cross-national data have examined this issue. Methods Data were analyzed from 20 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (n 51,295 aged 18+). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (3.0) assessed 12-month PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Respondents with 12-month PTSD were assessed for single versus multiple TEs implicated in their symptoms. Associations were examined with age of onset (AOO), functional impairment, comorbidity, and PTSD symptom counts. Results 19.8% of respondents with 12-month PTSD reported that their symptoms were associated with multiple TEs. Cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs had greater functional impairment, an earlier AOO, longer duration, higher comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders, elevated hyper-arousal symptoms, higher proportional exposures to partner physical abuse and other types of physical assault, and lower proportional exposure to unexpected death of a loved one than cases with fewer associated TEs. Conclusions A risk threshold was observed in this large-scale cross-national database wherein cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs presented a more “complex” clinical picture with substantially greater functional impairment and greater morbidity than other cases of PTSD. PTSD cases associated with four or more TEs may merit specific and targeted intervention strategies. Depression and Anxiety 31:130–142, 2014. PMID:23983056

  17. Potential Health Risks Posed by Plant-Derived Cumulative Neurotoxic Bufadienolides in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Botha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bufadienolide-type cardiac glycosides have a worldwide distribution and are mainly synthesized by plants, but there are also animal sources. In South Africa, members of three genera of the Crassulaceae (Cotyledon, Tylecodon and Kalanchoe cause a unique chronic form of cardiac glycoside poisoning, predominantly in small stock. This paretic/paralytic condition is referred to as “krimpsiekte”, cotyledonosis or “nenta”. “Krimpsiekte” is a plant poisoning only reported from South Africa and is regarded as the most important plant poisoning of small stock in the semi-arid Little Karoo and southern fringes of the Great Karoo. The toxicosis is caused by cumulative bufadienolides which have neurotoxic properties. Four types of cumulative neurotoxic bufadienolides, namely cotyledoside, and the tyledosides, orbicusides and lanceotoxins, have been isolated. Based on the structure activity relationships and certain toxicokinetic parameters possible reasons for their accumulation are presented. Consumption of edible tissues from animals that have ingested these plants poses a potential risk to humans.

  18. Assessing the implications of human land-use change for the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, C. T.; Matthews, H. D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has shown evidence of a linear climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions, which implies that the source, timing, and amount of emissions does not significantly influence the climate response per unit emission. Furthermore, these analyses have generally assumed that the climate response to land-use CO2 emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuels under the assumption that, once in the atmosphere, the radiative forcing induced by CO2 is not sensitive to the emissions source. However, land-cover change also affects surface albedo and the strength of terrestrial carbon sinks, both of which have an additional climate effect. In this study, we use a coupled climate-carbon cycle model to assess the climate response to historical and future cumulative land-use CO2 emissions, in order to compare it to the response to fossil fuel CO2. We find that when we isolate the CO2-induced (biogeochemical) temperature changes associated with land-use change, then the climate response to cumulative land-use emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuel CO2. We show further that the globally-averaged albedo-induced biophysical cooling from land-use change is non-negligible and may be of comparable magnitude to the biogeochemical warming, with the result that the net climate response to land-use change is substantially different from a linear response to cumulative emissions. However, our new simulations suggest that the biophysical cooling from land-use change follows its own independent (negative) linear response to cumulative net land-use CO2 emissions, which may provide a useful scaling factor for certain applications when evaluating the full transient climate response to emissions.

  19. Assessing the implications of human land-use change for the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research has shown evidence of a linear climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions, which implies that the source, timing, and amount of emissions does not significantly influence the climate response per unit emission. Furthermore, these analyses have generally assumed that the climate response to land-use CO2 emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuels under the assumption that, once in the atmosphere, the radiative forcing induced by CO2 is not sensitive to the emissions source. However, land-cover change also affects surface albedo and the strength of terrestrial carbon sinks, both of which have an additional climate effect. In this study, we use a coupled climate-carbon cycle model to assess the climate response to historical and future cumulative land-use CO2 emissions, in order to compare it to the response to fossil fuel CO2. We find that when we isolate the CO2-induced (biogeochemical) temperature changes associated with land-use change, then the climate response to cumulative land-use emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuel CO2. We show further that the globally-averaged albedo-induced biophysical cooling from land-use change is non-negligible and may be of comparable magnitude to the biogeochemical warming, with the result that the net climate response to land-use change is substantially different from a linear response to cumulative emissions. However, our new simulations suggest that the biophysical cooling from land-use change follows its own independent (negative) linear response to cumulative net land-use CO2 emissions, which may provide a useful scaling factor for certain applications when evaluating the full transient climate response to emissions. (letter)

  20. Cumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine Ecosystems: Assessing Current Pressures and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    de Micheli, Fiorenza; Halpern, Benjamin; Walbridge, Shaun; Ciriaco, Saul; Ferretti, Francesco; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lewison, Rebecca; Nykjaer, Leo; ROSENBERG Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quan...

  1. Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems: assessing current pressures and opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    Full Text Available Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60-99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification, demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems.

  2. EPA Peer Consultation Workshop on Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates: Potential Options and Methods for Evaluating the Cumulative Hazard Associated with Six Selected Phthalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA held a 2-day workshop on December 8 and 9, 2010 at the Doubletree Hotel Washington DC-Crystal City in Arlington, Viriginia. The goal of this workshop was to evaulate methods of determining cumulative risk associated with exposure to mulitple phthalates for inclusion in the EP...

  3. [Assessment on the ecological suitability in Zhuhai City, Guangdong, China, based on minimum cumulative resistance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-fei; Li, Lin; Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-hong

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscape has the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. Because the expansion process of urban constructive or ecological land has different resistance values, the land unit stimulates and promotes the expansion of ecological land with different intensity. To compare the effect of promoting and hindering functions in the same land unit, we firstly compared the minimum cumulative resistance value of promoting and hindering functions, and then looked for the balance of two landscape processes under the same standard. According to the ecology principle of minimum limit factor, taking the minimum cumulative resistance analysis method under two expansion processes as the evaluation method of urban land ecological suitability, this research took Zhuhai City as the study area to estimate urban ecological suitability by relative evaluation method with remote sensing image, field survey, and statistics data. With the support of ArcGIS, five types of indicators on landscape types, ecological value, soil erosion sensitivity, sensitivity of geological disasters, and ecological function were selected as input parameters in the minimum cumulative resistance model to compute urban ecological suitability. The results showed that the ecological suitability of the whole Zhuhai City was divided into five levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (10.1%), constructive expansion restricted zone (32.9%), key construction zone (36.3%), priority development zone (2.3%), and basic cropland (18.4%). Ecological suitability of the central area of Zhuhai City was divided into four levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (11.6%), constructive expansion restricted zone (25.6%), key construction zone (52.4%), priority development zone (10.4%). Finally, we put forward the sustainable development framework of Zhuhai City according to the research conclusion. On one hand, the government should strictly control the development of the urban center area. On the other hand, the

  4. Cumulative risk assessment of chemicals in food%食品中化学物累积风险评估方法及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 李凤琴; 刘兆平

    2011-01-01

    Food chemicals, such as contaminants, pesticides and food additives, may cause cumulative exposure of human beings through four types of combined effect or interaction, but traditional risk assessment methodologies were mainly based on single-chemical scenarios.In the past decades, more attention has been paid to health risks caused by cumulative exposure to chemicals, and some cumulative risk assessment methods including group tolerable daily intake (TDI) , hazard index (HI) , relative potency factor (RPF) and physiologically based toxicokinetics (PBTK) models have been developed.The characteristics and application of these methods are discussed in this paper.%食品中存在的各种污染物、农药和添加剂等化学物可能会通过多种机制的联合作用对人体形成累积暴露,但传统的风险评估方法多以单一化学物暴露为基础.近年来,化学物累积暴露形成的健康风险受到越来越多的重视,一些累积风险评估方法,如类别每日可耐受摄入量(TDI)、危害指数(HI)、相对效能因子(RPF)、生理毒代动力学(PBTK)模型等也逐渐发展起来.本文对这些方法的特点及其应用进行了讨论.

  5. Health technology assessment in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Marjukka; Roine, Risto P

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency,...... HTA findings. The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods program links the hospital districts to agree on introduction of technologies. The Ohtanen database provides Finnish-language summaries of major assessments made in other countries....

  6. Childhood Violence Exposure: Cumulative and Specific Effects on Adult Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hooven, Carole; Nurius, Paula S.; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Thompson, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood exposure to violence and victimization is a significant public health problem, with potentially long-lasting, deleterious effects on adult mental health. Using a longitudinal study design, 123 young adults—identified in adolescence as at-risk for high school dropout—were examined for the effects of multi-domain childhood victimization on emotional distress and suicide risk, net of adolescent risk and protective factors, including family dysfunction. The hypothesis that higher levels...

  7. Scientific Opinion on the identification of pesticides to be included in cumulative assessment groups on the basis of their toxicological profile

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues

    2013-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority asked the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues to develop an Opinion on the identification of pesticides to be included in cumulative assessment groups (CAGs) on the basis of their toxicological profile. In 2008, the PPR Panel adopted an Opinion on the suitability of existing methodologies for cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and a tiered approach was proposed, which was applied to a selected group of triazole pesticides in 2009. The...

  8. A Levels-of-Evidence Approach for Assessing Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Estuary and River Restoration Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Vogt, Kristiina A.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Dawley, Earl

    2011-03-01

    Even though large-scale ecological restoration programs are beginning to supplement isolated projects implemented on rivers and tidal waterways, the effects of restoration success often continue to be evaluated at project scales or by integration in an additive manner. Today our scientific understanding is sufficient that we can begin to apply lessons learnt from assessing cumulative impacts of anthropogenic stressors on ecosystems to the assessment of ecological restoration. Integration of this knowledge has the potential to increase the efficacy of restoration projects conducted at several locations but co-managed within the confines of a larger integrative program. We introduce here a framework based on a levels-of-evidence approach that facilitates assessment of the cumulative landscape effects of individual restoration actions taken at many different locations. It incorporates data collection at restoration and reference sites, hydrodynamic modeling, geographic information systems, and meta-analyses in a five-stage process: design, data, analysis, synthesis and evaluation, and application. This framework evolved from the need to evaluate the efficacy of restoration projects designed to increase rearing habitat for outmigrating juvenile salmonids, which are being implemented in numerous wetlands on the 235-km tidal portion of the Columbia River, U.S.A.

  9. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne 222Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee's work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of 210Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of 210Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring 210Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished

  10. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R. [New York Univ. Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  11. Multiple uses of indicators and indices in cumulative effects assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both environmental indicators and multi-metric indices are useful for describing baseline conditions and qualitatively predicting the cumulative consequences of multiple actions. Several examples and case studies associated with indicators and/or indices are presented herein. They can be easily modified for usage in CEAM. Habitat suitability models reflect special indices related to habitat needs and quality for specific species or broad habitat types. Such models have been used to address direct and indirect effects, and with some modification, they can be also used to address cumulative effects of multiple actions. This review has indicated that there are numerous examples of such tools which have been or could be used in both EIA and CEAM. Some key lessons are: (1) in conducting CEAM studies, it is useful to think from the mindset that 'I am the VEC or indicator, and what is my historical and current condition and how have I, or will I, be affected by multiple past, present, and future actions?'; (2) due to the likely absence of detailed information on future actions, the described tools can still be used to 'predict' future conditions by focusing on qualitative up-or-down changes in individual indicators or indices with their aggregated displays; and (3) numerous regional and site-specific tools are currently available, with one example being indices of biological integrity for specific watersheds and water bodies. Such tools, even though they may not have been developed for CEAM usage, can certainly benefit CEAM studies and practice. Finally, usage of selected and appropriate tools as described herein can aid in conducting science-based, systematic, and documentable CEAM studies.

  12. A geographic model to assess and limit cumulative ecological degradation from Marcellus Shale exploitation in New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John B.; Robinson, George R.

    2012-01-01

    When natural resources are exploited, environmental costs and economic benefits are often asymmetric. An example is apparent in the environmental impacts from fossil fuel extraction by hydraulic fracturing. So far, most scrutiny has been focused on water quality in affected aquifers, with less attention paid to broader ecological impacts beyond individual drilling operations. Marcellus Shale methane exploitation in New York State, USA, has been delayed because of a regulatory moratorium, pending evaluation that has been directed primarily at localized impacts. We developed a GIS-based model, built on a hexagonal grid underlay nested within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s EMAP system, to examine potential cumulative ecological impacts. In a two-step process, we characterized > 19,000 hexagons, each sized to approximate the footprint of one drilling site (2.57 km²), using ecological attributes; we then developed a method for apportioning resource access that includes assessments of cumulative ecological costs. Over one-quarter of the hexagons were excluded as off-limits on the basis of six criteria: slope suitability, regulated wetland cover, protected-land cover, length of high-quality streams, mapped road density, and open water cover. Three additional criteria were applied to assess the estimated conservation vulnerability of the remaining sites: density of grassland birds (North American Breeding Bird Survey), percent core forest (Coastal Change Analysis Program), and total density of all state-mapped streams; these were determined and used in combination to rank the 14,000 potentially accessible sites. In a second step, an iterative process was used to distribute potential site access among all towns (sub-county governments) within the Marcellus Shale Formation. At each iteration, one site was selected per town, either randomly or in rank order of increasing vulnerability. Results were computed as percent cumulative impact versus the number of

  13. A Geographic Model to Assess and Limit Cumulative Ecological Degradation from Marcellus Shale Exploitation in New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. Robinson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When natural resources are exploited, environmental costs and economic benefits are often asymmetric. An example is apparent in the environmental impacts from fossil fuel extraction by hydraulic fracturing. So far, most scrutiny has been focused on water quality in affected aquifers, with less attention paid to broader ecological impacts beyond individual drilling operations. Marcellus Shale methane exploitation in New York State, USA, has been delayed because of a regulatory moratorium, pending evaluation that has been directed primarily at localized impacts. We developed a GIS-based model, built on a hexagonal grid underlay nested within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s EMAP system, to examine potential cumulative ecological impacts. In a two-step process, we characterized > 19,000 hexagons, each sized to approximate the footprint of one drilling site (2.57 km², using ecological attributes; we then developed a method for apportioning resource access that includes assessments of cumulative ecological costs. Over one-quarter of the hexagons were excluded as off-limits on the basis of six criteria: slope suitability, regulated wetland cover, protected-land cover, length of high-quality streams, mapped road density, and open water cover. Three additional criteria were applied to assess the estimated conservation vulnerability of the remaining sites: density of grassland birds (North American Breeding Bird Survey, percent core forest (Coastal Change Analysis Program, and total density of all state-mapped streams; these were determined and used in combination to rank the 14,000 potentially accessible sites. In a second step, an iterative process was used to distribute potential site access among all towns (sub-county governments within the Marcellus Shale Formation. At each iteration, one site was selected per town, either randomly or in rank order of increasing vulnerability. Results were computed as percent cumulative impact versus

  14. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  15. Reprint of "Acquisition of choice in concurrent chains: Assessing the cumulative decision model".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Randolph C

    2016-06-01

    Concurrent chains is widely used to study pigeons' choice between terminal links that can vary in delay, magnitude, or probability of reinforcement. We review research on the acquisition of choice in this procedure. Acquisition has been studied with a variety of research designs, and some studies have incorporated no-food trials to allow for timing and choice to be observed concurrently. Results show that: Choice can be acquired rapidly within sessions when terminal links change unpredictably; under steady-state conditions, acquisition depends on both initial- and terminal-link schedules; and initial-link responding is mediated by learning about the terminal-link stimulus-reinforcer relations. The cumulative decision model (CDM) proposed by Christensen and Grace (2010) and Grace and McLean (2006, 2015) provides a good description of within-session acquisition, and correctly predicts the effects of initial and terminal-link schedules in steady-state designs (Grace, 2002a). Questions for future research include how abrupt shifts in preference within individual sessions and temporal control of terminal-link responding can be modeled. PMID:27150444

  16. Experimental assessment of cumulative temperature and UV-B radiation effects on Mediterranean plankton metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2015-07-07

    The Mediterranean Sea is a vulnerable region for climate change, warming at higher rates compare to the global ocean. Warming leads to increased stratification of the water column and enhanced the oligotrophic nature of the Mediterranean Sea. The oligotrophic waters are already highly transparent, however, exposure of Mediterranean plankton to ultraviolet radiation (UV-B and UV-A) may increase further if the waters become more oligotrophic, thereby, allowing a deeper UV radiation penetration and likely enhancing impacts to biota. Here we experimentally elucidate the cumulative effects of warming and natural UV-B radiation on the net community production (NCP) of plankton communities. We conducted five experiments at monthly intervals, from June to October 2013, and evaluated the responses of NCP to ambient UV-B radiation and warming (+3°C), alone and in combination, in a coastal area of the northwest Mediterranean Sea. UV-B radiation and warming lead to reduced NCP and resulted in a heterotrophic (NCP < 0) metabolic balance. Both UV-B radiation and temperature, showed a significant individual effect in NCP across treatments and time. However, their joint effect showed to be synergistic as the interaction between them (UV × Temp) was statistically significant in most of the experiments performed. Our results showed that both drivers, would affect the gas exchange of CO2−O2 from and to the atmosphere and the role of plankton communities in the Mediterranean carbon cycle.

  17. Acquisition of choice in concurrent chains: Assessing the cumulative decision model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Randolph C

    2016-05-01

    Concurrent chains is widely used to study pigeons' choice between terminal links that can vary in delay, magnitude, or probability of reinforcement. We review research on the acquisition of choice in this procedure. Acquisition has been studied with a variety of research designs, and some studies have incorporated no-food trials to allow for timing and choice to be observed concurrently. Results show that: Choice can be acquired rapidly within sessions when terminal links change unpredictably; under steady-state conditions, acquisition depends on both initial- and terminal-link schedules; and initial-link responding is mediated by learning about the terminal-link stimulus-reinforcer relations. The cumulative decision model (CDM) proposed by Christensen and Grace (2010) and Grace and McLean (2006, 2015) provides a good description of within-session acquisition, and correctly predicts the effects of initial and terminal-link schedules in steady-state designs (Grace, 2002a). Questions for future research include how abrupt shifts in preference within individual sessions and temporal control of terminal-link responding can be modeled. PMID:27005579

  18. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... and cereals. The probabilistic approach was used in the assessments. Residue data obtained from the Danish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2004-2007, which included 6704 samples of fruit, vegetables and cereals, were used in the calculations. Food consumption data were obtained from...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  19. Health impact assessment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  20. Assessing cumulative dose distributions in combined radiotherapy for cervical cancer using deformable image registration with pre-imaging preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of deformable image registration (DIR) in assessing cumulative dose distributions of the combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and fractionated intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) for cervical cancer. Three-dimensional image data sets of five consecutive patients were used. The treatment plan consisted of whole pelvic EBRT (total dose: 45 Gy in 25 fractions) combined with computed tomography (CT)-based high-dose rate ICBT (≥24 Gy in 4 fractions to the high risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV)). Organs at risk and HR-CTV were contoured on each CT images and dose-volume parameters were acquired. Pre-imaging preparations were performed prior to each ICBT to minimize the uncertainty of the organ position. Physical doses of each treatment were converted to biologically equivalent doses in 2 Gy daily fractions by the linear quadratic model. Three-dimensional dose distributions of each treatment were accumulated on CT images of the first ICBT using DIR with commercially available image registration software (MIM Maestro®). To compare with DIR, 3D dose distributions were fused by rigid registration based on bony structure matching. To evaluate the accuracy of DIR, the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was measured between deformed contours and initial contours. The cumulative dose distributions were successfully illustrated on the CT images using DIR. Mean DSCs of the HR-CTV, rectum, and bladder were 0.46, 0.62 and 0.69, respectively, with rigid registration; and 0.78, 0.76, and 0.87, respectively, with DIR (p <0.05). The mean DSCs derived from our DIR procedure were comparable to those of previous reports describing the quality of DIR algorithms in the pelvic region. DVH parameters derived from the 2 methods showed no significant difference. Our results suggest that DIR-based dose accumulation may be acceptable for assessing cumulative dose distributions to assess doses to the tumor and organs at risk

  1. Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) (The Use of Life Cycle Assessment for Aquaculture)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research is aimed at the demonstration of the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in aquaculture for the development of process improvement. This work is being...

  2. An Analysis of the Cumulative Uncertainty Associated with a Quantitative Consequence Assessment of a Major Accident

    OpenAIRE

    JIRSA PAVEL

    2005-01-01

    The task of the article is to quantify the uncertainty of the possible results of the accident consequence assessment of the chemical production plant and to provide some description of potentional problems with literature references and examples to help to avoid the erroneous use of available formulas. Based on numbers presented in the article we may conclude, that the main source of uncertainty in the consequence analysis of chemical accident assessment is surprisingly not only the dispers...

  3. Introducing a novel method to assess cumulative steroid concentrations: increased hair cortisol concentrations over 6 months in medicated patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettenborn, Lucia; Muhtz, Christoph; Skoluda, Nadine; Stalder, Tobias; Steudte, Susann; Hinkelmann, Kim; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Otte, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Depression has been linked to increased cortisol concentrations using point measures taken from urine, blood, or saliva samples. However, with regard to hypercortisolism-induced consequences, long-term cumulative cortisol burden is of relevance. Our objective was to use hair analysis as a new method to assess cortisol exposure over 6 months in depressed patients and healthy controls. We examined 23 depressed patients (8 men and 15 women, mean age: 41.6 years ( ± standard deviation (SD), 13.1 years); mean duration of current depressive episode 9 months ( ± SD, 13 months)) and 64 healthy controls, matched for age and gender. Cortisol concentrations in two 3-cm hair segments from near to the scalp were analyzed, representing cortisol secretion during the 6 months prior to sampling. Compared with healthy individuals, depressed patients had higher hair cortisol concentrations in the first (mean ± SD: 26.7 ± 20.8 vs. 18.7 ± 11.5 pg/mg, p < 0.05) and second hair segment (mean ±  SD: 21.9 ± 23.7 vs. 13.4 ± 9.6 pg/mg, p < 0.05). In conclusion, hair cortisol analysis confirmed enhanced cortisol secretion in depressed patients over a prolonged time period. Because of the retrospective and cumulative nature of cortisol in hair, the assessment of hair cortisol concentration may help in addressing unanswered questions regarding hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and associated health consequences in psychiatric disorders. PMID:22043813

  4. CUMEX: a cumulative hazard index for assessing limiting exposures to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hazard index methodology called CUMEX has been developed for limiting human exposure to environmental pollutants. Hazard index is defined as Q/Q/sub L/ where Q is exposure or dose to total-body, organ or tissue from all environmental pathways and Q/sub L/ is a limit which should not be exceeded because of health risk to humans. Mathematical formulations for hazard indices are developed for each sampling medium corresponding to each effluent type. These hazard indices are accumulated into composite indices such that total human intake or dose would not exceed the health risk limit. Mathematical formulation for composite hazard indices or CUMEX indices for multiple pollutants are presented. An example CUMEX application to cadmium release from a smelter complex in East Helena, Montana demonstrates details of the methodology for a single pollutant where human intake occurs through inhalation and ingestion

  5. CUMEX: a cumulative hazard index for assessing limiting exposures to environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, P.J.; Killough, G.G.; Parzyck, D.C.; Rohwer, P.S.; Rupp, e.M.; Whitfield, B.L.; Booth, R.S.; Raridon, R.J.

    1977-04-01

    A hazard index methodology called CUMEX has been developed for limiting human exposure to environmental pollutants. Hazard index is defined as Q/Q/sub L/ where Q is exposure or dose to total-body, organ or tissue from all environmental pathways and Q/sub L/ is a limit which should not be exceeded because of health risk to humans. Mathematical formulations for hazard indices are developed for each sampling medium corresponding to each effluent type. These hazard indices are accumulated into composite indices such that total human intake or dose would not exceed the health risk limit. Mathematical formulation for composite hazard indices or CUMEX indices for multiple pollutants are presented. An example CUMEX application to cadmium release from a smelter complex in East Helena, Montana demonstrates details of the methodology for a single pollutant where human intake occurs through inhalation and ingestion.

  6. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR BENZENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  7. Assessment of cumulative exposure to UVA through study of asymmetric facial skin damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Mac-Mary1

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Mac-Mary1, Jean-Marie Sainthillier1, Adeline Jeudy3, Christelle Sladen2, Cara Williams2, Mike Bell2, Philippe Humbert31Skinexigence SAS, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, Besançon, France; 2The Boots Company, Nottingham, United Kingdom; 3Research and Studies Center on the Integument, Department of Dermatology, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, FranceBackground: Published studies assessing whether asymmetric facial ultraviolet light exposure leads to underlying differences in skin physiology and morphology are only observational. The aim of this study was to assess the visual impact on the skin of repeated ultraviolet-A (UVA exposure through a window.Methods: Eight women and two men presenting with asymmetric signs of photoaging due to overexposure of one side of their face to the sun through a window over a long period of time were enrolled in the study. Split-face biometrologic assessments were performed (clinical scoring, hydration with Corneometer®, mechanical properties with a Cutometer®, transepidermal water loss with AquaFlux®, skin relief with fringe projection, photography, stripping, and then lipid peroxidation analyses.Results: Significant differences were observed in clinical scores for wrinkles, skin roughness assessed by fringe projection on the cheek, and skin heterogeneity assessed with spectrocolorimetry on the cheekbone. Other differences were observed for skin hydration, as well as skin laxity, which tended towards significance.Discussion: This study suggests the potential benefit of daily UVA protection during nondeliberate exposure indoors as well as outside.Keywords: UVA, asymmetry, photodamage, face

  8. Procedure and assessment of cumulative environmental effects Sameiginlegt mat á umhverfisáhrifum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrét Vala Kristjánsdóttir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a provision in Article 5.2 of the Icelandic Act on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, No. 106/2000 that allows for a special procedure of joint EIA of two or more associated projects. Its main aim is to ensure that the overall assessment of environmental effects is taken into account before decisions are made. This provision has raised questions in relation to its scope and applicability. The provision´s origin, substance and application are analysed as well as its conformity to Directive 85/337/EEC as it has been introduced into the EEA Agreement. The paper concludes that administrative implementation has clarified certain aspects, including the legal conditions for its application. However, the application of the provision raises questions as to whether its aim may be achieved by a less onerous procedure; in line with Directive 85/337/EEC as interpreted by the European Commission.Í greininni er fjallað um ákvæði um sameiginlegt mat á umhverfisáhrifum í 2. mgr. 5. gr. laga nr. 106/2000 um mat á umhverfisáhrifum. Meginmarkmið ákvæðisins er að upplýsa um heildaráhrif framkvæmda á umhverfið áður en ákvarðanir um þær eru teknar. Vegna álitaefna sem upp hafa komið í tengslum við framkvæmd ákvæðisins er í greininni leitast við að skýra tilurð þess og efni með hliðsjón af lögskýringargögnum, framkvæmd þess og reglum tilskipunar 85/337/EBE eins og hún hefur verið tekin upp í EES-samninginn. Í greininni er komist að þeirri niðurstöðu að skilyrði fyrir beitingu ákvæðisins hafi skýrst í framkvæmd. Framkvæmdin veki jafnframt spurningar um hvort ná megi markmiðum ákvæðisins jafn vel, með einfaldari leiðum sem samræmast tilskipun 85/337/EBE eins og hún hefur verið skýrð af framkvæmdastjórn Evrópusambandsins.

  9. Physiotherapy students’ mental health assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Gesouli-Voltyraki –E.; Charisi E.; Papastergiou D.; Κostopoulou S.; Borou A.; Alverti V.; Avlakiotis K.; Spanos S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Educational environment has a serious impact on students’ mental health. Few data are available on mental health of Physiotherapy students. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the mental heath of students in a tertiary Physiotherapy Department during the 3rd years of studies. Material and methods: 80 males and females physiotherapy students of the 5th and 6th semester of a tertiary Physiotherapy Department filled in the GHQ-28 questionnaire. Comparisons between groups w...

  10. Knowledge in health technology assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2011-01-01

    Health systems are placing more and more emphasis on designing and delivering services that are focused on the patient, and there is a growing interest in patient aspects of health policy research and health technology assessment (HTA). Only a few HTA agencies use and invest in scientific methods...... to generate knowledge and evidence about the patient aspects of a given technology. This raises questions about how knowledge is produced in HTA reports and what kind of knowledge is considered relevant. This article uses a Danish HTA on patient education from 2009 as empirical material for a...

  11. Quantifying Chronic Stress Exposure for Cumulative Risk Assessment: Lessons Learned from a Case Study of Allostatic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although multiple methods of quantifying environmental chemical exposures have been validated for use in human health risk assessment, quantifying chronic stress exposure is more challenging. Stress is a consequence of perceiving an “exposure” (e.g., violence, poverty) as more th...

  12. Sensor based soil health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantification and assessment of soil health involves determining how well a soil is performing its biological, chemical, and physical functions relative to its inherent potential. Due to high cost, labor requirements, and soil disturbance, traditional laboratory analyses cannot provide high resolut...

  13. Assessment of cumulative external beam and intracavitary brachytherapy organ doses in gynecologic cancers using deformable dose summation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Due to inter-fraction variation in applicator position, organ displacement and deformation, doses to targets and normal tissues may not be accurately represented by adding the doses from external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) using rigid image registration. Deformable image registration permits organ and applicators to be spatially matched in 3D, enabling more accurate tracking of the accumulated volumetric dose to the target as well as organs at risk (OAR). This study assesses the dosimetric impact of using deformable image registration to determine the cumulative EBRT and ICBT doses to the rectum and bladder. Methods and materials: Data from 20 patients with stage IB1-IVA cervical cancer were analyzed. Nine of the patients were treated with ICBT and EBRT which included a nodal or parametrium boost while eleven were treated with ICBT and EBRT with no boost. Dose summation was performed in two stages. For the first stage, only the ICBT fractional doses were added using both “parameter adding” and deformable registration techniques. In the second stage, the ICBT and EBRT doses were combined using “parameter adding” in two ways. Partial “parameter adding” considers the cumulative ICBT dose from deformable registration as one parameter while full “parameter adding” uses fractional ICBT parameters. The cumulative minimum doses to 2cc (D2cc) of the rectum and bladder were compared between deformable registration and “parameter adding” techniques. Results: Dose summation of ICBT fractions only using deformable registration yielded D2cc values that were (10.1 ± 9.5)% lower for the rectum and (7.2 ± 6.3)% lower for the bladder compared to “parameter adding”. When ICBT and EBRT doses were summed deformably, the group without EBRT boost had D2cc that were (0.0 ± 4.6)% and (−1.2 ± 2.9)% lower for the rectum and bladder respectively compared to partial “parameter adding”. With EBRT boost, the

  14. Setting the Stage for Chronic Health Problems: Cumulative Childhood Adversity among Homeless Adults with Mental Illness in Vancouver, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Michelle; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and ...

  15. Issues in health technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In general, the main justification for the provision of health services is to improve the health of individuals and populations. Some experts focus on other goals for the health care systems, such as promoting health care innovation and increasing employment. Information on the efficacy of a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure has become more widely available during the last 25 years, both through increased research and increased availability of data based on, e.g. the Cochrane Collaboration and the Health Technology Assessment Database (INAHTA). At the same time, the most relevant information is often in proprietary hands, that is, in private organizations such as the manufacturing industry or in organizations that collect health information. The American Food and Drug Administration routinely assesses efficacy of devices and makes this information openly accessible. Unfortunately, the European Union focuses on trade issues, including innovation, and does not have a strong focus on public health. Competition for health care resources is a major concern even in segments of the population living in the richest countries. The problem of limited resources is, of course, much more pronounced in poor countries, in particular in the poorest countries. Although cost effectiveness of health care is very important conceptually, data are often not available. Cost effectiveness is often developed within the context of national needs and is very difficult to transfer to other jurisdictions. In addition, data on cost effectiveness are often not available to compare different options in health care. There is thus enormous scope for such studies in the future. Broader issues, such as health care organization and morals and ethics are also important. For example, is it ethical to promote advanced technology in poor countries that cannot provide even basic health care services? Is it ethical for researchers to overlook the basic needs of poor countries when working on

  16. Physiotherapy students’ mental health assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesouli-Voltyraki –E.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Educational environment has a serious impact on students’ mental health. Few data are available on mental health of Physiotherapy students. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the mental heath of students in a tertiary Physiotherapy Department during the 3rd years of studies. Material and methods: 80 males and females physiotherapy students of the 5th and 6th semester of a tertiary Physiotherapy Department filled in the GHQ-28 questionnaire. Comparisons between groups were performed using the non parametric Mann-Whitney-U test at significance level of p=0.05. Results: Physiotherapy students’ mean age was 21.77±2.42 years old. The majority of the sample were women (47 participants, 58.7%. 50% of students had a total GHQ -28 score >5, indicating high levels of distress, with anxiety and insomnia being major problems. No statistically significant differences were traced between men and women, although women had a higher total score in comparison with men (median values: 5 vs 3 respectively. Conclusions: Physiotherapy students’ mental health and especially female physiotherapy students’ mental health appears substantially burdened. Anxiety and insomnia are major problem for students of Physiotherapy.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the identification of pesticides to be included in cumulative assessment groups on the basis of their toxicological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority asked the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues to develop an Opinion on the identification of pesticides to be included in cumulative assessment groups (CAGs on the basis of their toxicological profile. In 2008, the PPR Panel adopted an Opinion on the suitability of existing methodologies for cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and a tiered approach was proposed, which was applied to a selected group of triazole pesticides in 2009. The present Opinion suggests a methodology for grouping of pesticides based on phenomenological effects and provides CAGs for the thyroid and nervous system. This approach can be applied even when the underlying biochemical events mediating the effects are not understood, and is based on a standardised and thorough review of Draft Assessment Reports (DARs supporting the approval of all pesticides in Europe, and on recommendations from the European Commission. Pesticidal active substances exhibiting neurotoxic properties were allocated to CAGs for acute effects on motor, sensory and autonomic divisions of the nervous system and neurochemical endpoints. Chronic effects across the same divisions/endpoints and neuropathological effects were collated. Active substances having adverse effects on the thyroid system were allocated to CAGs for effects either on C-cells/the calcitonin system or on follicular cells/the T3/T4 system. The PPR Panel notes that the resulting groups encompass many pesticides and also that individual pesticides could appear in several groups and therefore the data entries for performing cumulative risk assessment (CRA are of considerable magnitude. Although some CAGs contain a large number of pesticides, little indication of cumulative risk may be inferred from the size of CAGs per se. The PPR Panel recommends that the methodology is implemented for all major organ/systems but the approach used should be considered specific for pesticides.

  18. Community Health Needs Assessment: Potential for Population Health Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennel, Cara L; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Burdine, James N; Matarrita-Cascante, David; Wang, Jia

    2016-06-01

    Derived from various health care policies and initiatives, the concept of population health has been newly adopted by health care and medicine. In particular, it has been suggested that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provision that requires nonprofit hospitals to conduct a community health needs assessment (CHNA) and implement strategies to address health priorities has the potential to improve population health. A mixed methods study design was used to examine the potential for population health improvements to occur through the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)-mandated nonprofit hospital CHNA and planning processes. Methods involved a 2-phased approach composed of (1) content analysis of 95 CHNA/implementation strategies reports and (2) interviews with key informants, consultants, and community stakeholders involved in CHNA and planning processes. Although this is a great opportunity for the nonprofit hospital assessment and planning processes to influence population health outcomes, the findings from the first 3-year assessment and planning cycle (2011-2013) suggest this is unlikely. As nonprofit hospitals begin the second 3-year assessment and planning cycle, this article offers recommendations to increase the potential for nonprofit hospitals to improve population health. These recommendations include clarifying the purpose of IRS CHNA regulations, engaging community stakeholders in collaborative assessment and planning, understanding disease etiology and identifying and addressing broader determinants of health, adopting a public health assessment and planning model, and emphasizing population health improvement. (Population Health Management 2016;19:178-186). PMID:26440370

  19. MERCURY HEALTH EFFECTS UPDATE: HEALTH ISSUE ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report reviews and evaluates the scientific information on the potential health effects from mercury exposure, with emphasis on those effects associated with human chronic inhalation exposures. The findings are based on a review of the scientific literature since the promulg...

  20. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  1. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  2. Establishment of Health Technology Assessment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Doaee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health Technology Assessment (HTA aims at informing healthcare policymakers, managers and practitioners of the "clinical consequences, but also the economic, ethical, and other social implications of the diffusion and use of a specific procedure or technique on medical practice". So considering the policy-oriented nature of HTA that calls for a close integration into the functioning and governance of health systems the present study focuses on executive processes and function of the HTA office of Iran.Materials and methods: Data of this review study were collected through documented sources and observations from 2007 to 2010.Results: Health Technology Assessment began its activities as a secretariat in the Deputy of Health in 2007 and it continues as a Health Technology Assessment Office at the Management of Health Technology Assessment, Standardization, and Tariff at the Deputy of curative affairs of MOHME in the beginning of 2010.14 Technology of modern medical equipment and 8 pharmaceutical medicine are assessed, Now many of measures for HTA establishment  such as cooperation National Institute of Health Research (NIHR, Holding scientific committee meetings, Establishing  the  Master's degree of  health technology assessment ,Building capacities for health technology assessment through education in major universities of the country.Conclusion: pay attention to health technology assessment, selection and application of proper technologies in the frameworks of policy-making and managerial strategies and make efforts to develop it with the support of the governmental in Iran is necessary.

  3. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  4. Cumulants as iterated integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Franz

    2009-01-01

    A formula expressing cumulants in terms of iterated integrals of the distribution function is derived. It generalizes results of Jones and Balakrishnan who computed expressions for cumulants up to order 4.

  5. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J;

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...... planning the use of marine resources.......Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...... Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied in...

  6. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  7. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  8. Health-Care Technology Assessment in Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Deljou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Health-care service provision and procurement is increasingly subject to policy decisions, managed more than ever before. Becoming more international, collaboration is increasing as the health professions, research and industry all work across borders. Differing health-care systems across the countries result from national and regional policy developments and priorities."nIn health-care, all interventions and procedures are basically technologies-including radiology and sur-gery, and technology assessment is mandatory to meet the national and professional goals in this sec-tor. "nHealth-care technology assessment (HTA is a systematic, broad-ranging evaluation of the implications of using technologies within a particular health-care system. Structured and evidence-based input are its aim for policymaking in order to inform the formulation of safe and effective health policies that are patient-focused and seek to achieve the best value in all health-care sectors, more specifically in the radiology department. The following headlines are the topics in our study:"n•Decisions Related to Health Technologies"n•Appraisal Entities and Corresponding As-sessment Units"n•Assessment, Appraisal and Decision-Making Institutions"n•HTA Agencies and Units in Radiology"n•Model of a Policy Process in Radiology"n•Factors that Influence Radiology Policy-Making"n•HTA Process"n•Different Levels of Health-Care Technolo-gies/Intervention

  9. Assessment of health risks of policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ádám, Balázs, E-mail: badam@cmss.sdu.dk [Unit for Health Promotion Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 9, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Molnár, Ágnes, E-mail: MolnarAg@smh.ca [Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 9, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Centre for Research on Inner City Health, Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael' s Hospital, Victoria 209, Rm. 3-26.22, M5B 1C6 Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ádány, Róza, E-mail: adany.roza@sph.unideb.hu [Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 9, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Bianchi, Fabrizio, E-mail: Fabriepi@ifc.cnr.it [Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research, Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bitenc, Katarina, E-mail: katarina.bitenc@ivz-rs.si [National Institute of Public Health, Trubarjeva 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Chereches, Razvan, E-mail: razvan.m.chereches@gmail.com [Faculty of Political, Administrative and Communication Sciences, Babes-Bolyai University, Strada Mihail Kogalniceanu 1, 3400 Cluj (Romania); Cori, Liliana, E-mail: liliana.cori@ifc.cnr.it [Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research, Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Fehr, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.fehr@uni-bielefeld.de [NRW Centre for Health, Westerfeldstr. 35-37, 33611 Bielefeld (Germany); Kobza, Joanna, E-mail: koga1@poczta.onet.pl [Public Health Department, Silesian Medical University, 18 Medykow Street, 40-752 Katowice (Poland); Kollarova, Jana, E-mail: janakollarova@yahoo.com [Department of Health Promotion, Regional Public Health Authority, Ipelska 1, 04011 Kosice (Slovakia); and others

    2014-09-15

    The assessment of health risks of policies is an inevitable, although challenging prerequisite for the inclusion of health considerations in political decision making. The aim of our project was to develop a so far missing methodological guide for the assessment of the complex impact structure of policies. The guide was developed in a consensual way based on experiences gathered during the assessment of specific national policies selected by the partners of an EU project. Methodological considerations were discussed and summarized in workshops and pilot tested on the EU Health Strategy for finalization. The combined tool, which includes a textual guidance and a checklist, follows the top-down approach, that is, it guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The tool discusses the most important practical issues of assessment by impact level. It emphasises the transparent identification and prioritisation of factors, the consideration of the feasibility of exposure and outcome assessment with special focus on quantification. The developed guide provides useful methodological instructions for the comprehensive assessment of health risks of policies that can be effectively used in the health impact assessment of policy proposals. - Highlights: • Methodological guide for the assessment of health risks of policies is introduced. • The tool is developed based on the experiences from several case studies. • The combined tool consists of a textual guidance and a checklist. • The top-down approach is followed through the levels of the full impact chain. • The guide provides assistance for the health impact assessment of policy proposals.

  10. Assessment of health risks of policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of health risks of policies is an inevitable, although challenging prerequisite for the inclusion of health considerations in political decision making. The aim of our project was to develop a so far missing methodological guide for the assessment of the complex impact structure of policies. The guide was developed in a consensual way based on experiences gathered during the assessment of specific national policies selected by the partners of an EU project. Methodological considerations were discussed and summarized in workshops and pilot tested on the EU Health Strategy for finalization. The combined tool, which includes a textual guidance and a checklist, follows the top-down approach, that is, it guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The tool discusses the most important practical issues of assessment by impact level. It emphasises the transparent identification and prioritisation of factors, the consideration of the feasibility of exposure and outcome assessment with special focus on quantification. The developed guide provides useful methodological instructions for the comprehensive assessment of health risks of policies that can be effectively used in the health impact assessment of policy proposals. - Highlights: • Methodological guide for the assessment of health risks of policies is introduced. • The tool is developed based on the experiences from several case studies. • The combined tool consists of a textual guidance and a checklist. • The top-down approach is followed through the levels of the full impact chain. • The guide provides assistance for the health impact assessment of policy proposals

  11. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful. PMID:26455783

  12. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1e3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fum...

  13. Integrating Sexual Minority Health Issues into a Health Assessment Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Jordon D; Nesteby, J Aleah; Randall, Carla E

    2015-01-01

    The health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population are traditionally overlooked by the health care community and are rendered invisible by most nursing school curricula. Initial contact with a nurse during a health history and assessment can have an impact on whether the person will feel comfortable disclosing his or her identity, returning for services, or following plans of care. Because the first interaction with a nurse can be critical, the health assessment course is an appropriate place in the curriculum to discuss the needs of the LGBT community. This article includes a discussion of unique health risks to the LGBT population, benefits, and challenges of incorporating these issues into the classroom and recommendations for including the care of this population into a health assessment nursing course. Specific communication techniques are provided that may be helpful during history taking and physical examination with a patient who is LGBT. Guidance regarding physical examination of the transgender patient is also included. These suggestions will be helpful to nurse faculty who teach health assessment, nursing students, educators who design and implement professional development and continuing education for established nurses, preceptors in the clinical setting, and any nurse who is unfamiliar with the needs and concerns specific to the LGBT population. PMID:26653044

  14. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR TIN AND COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  15. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGLUND,J.W.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,J.D.; SMITH,L.N.; ANDERSON,R.P.

    2000-05-22

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194).

  16. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194)

  17. The relation of risk assessment and health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Gulis, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The level and distribution of health risks in a society is substantially influenced by measures of various policies, programmes or projects. Risk assessment can evaluate the nature, likelihood and severity of an adverse effect. Health impact assessment (HIA) provides similar function when used as a...... risk appraisal phase to describe effects of various factors on different health outcomes. Consequently, HIA is typically led by a large, preferably intersectoral steering group with representatives of communities at risk. Risk assessment, in contrary, is mainly a licensed scientific process completed...... by licensed experts and lacks participatory approach. According to our findings, to be able to manage the analysis of the complex impact structure of various planned measures in HIA, the comprehensive assessment of health effects requires the analysis of the full impact scheme and must follow each...

  18. Office for prevention and health services assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, James A.

    1994-12-01

    The Air Force Surgeon General has established the Office for Prevention and Health Care ASsessment (OPHSA) to become the center of excellence for preventive services and health care assessment in the U.S. Air Force and the Department of Defense. OPHSA using the principles of total quality management and integrated teams will evaluate, compare, and modify preventive services delivery guidelines to preserve the fighting force by preventing illness and injuries in military populations. OPHSA will evaluate and formulate health care delivery guidelines to improve health care access and delivery to military patient populations. OPHSA will develop data to determine the health status and health needs to beneficiary populations so medical managers can deliver medical care in the most cost effective manner. OPHSA is located at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. OPHSA will have thirty seven active duty military, civil service, and contract employees and should be fully functional by the end of 1995.

  19. Private Health Sector Assessment in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Jeff; O'Hanlon, Barbara; Feeley, Frank III; McKeon, Kimberly; Gitonga, Nelson; Decker, Caytie

    2010-01-01

    Kenya private sector is one of the most developed and dynamic in Sub Saharan Africa. In this context, USAID/Kenya requested that the Private Sector Partnerships-One project (PSP One) conduct an assessment of the private health sector in Kenya. The scope of work involved assessing the role of the private sector in the overall health system, considering the potential of the private sector to...

  20. A Stochastic Approach To Human Health Risk Assessment Due To Groundwater Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F. P.; Rubin, Y.

    2006-12-01

    We present a probabilistic framework to addressing adverse human health effects due to groundwater contamination. One of the main challenges in health risk assessment is in relating it to subsurface data acquisition and to improvement in our understanding of human physiological responses to contamination. In this paper we propose to investigate this problem through an approach that integrates flow, transport and human health risk models with hydrogeological characterization. A human health risk cumulative distribution function is analytically developed to account for both uncertainty and variability in hydrogeological as well as human physiological parameters. With our proposed approach, we investigate under which conditions the reduction of uncertainties from flow physics, human physiology and exposure related parameters might contribute to a better understanding of human health risk assessment. Results indicate that the human health risk cumulative distribution function is sensitive to physiological parameters at low risk values associated with longer travel times. The results show that the worth of hydrogeological characterization in human health risk is dependent on the residence time of the contaminant plume in the aquifer and on the exposure duration of the population to certain chemicals.

  1. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. In manned spacecraft, environmental health risks are mitigated by a multi-disciplinary effort, employing several measures including active and passive controls, by establishing environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits), and through environmental monitoring. Human Health and Performance (HHP) scientists and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. ECLS engineers use environmental monitoring data to monitor and confirm the health of ECLS systems, whereas HHP scientists use the data to manage the health of the human system. Because risks can vary between missions and change over time, environmental monitoring is critical. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in environmental health knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of the roadmap development and findings are presented in this paper.

  2. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR GLYCOL ETHERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  3. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA. PMID:24861179

  4. Direct assessment of cumulative aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activity in sera from experimentally exposed mice and environmentally exposed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Bernard, Pamela L; Haas, Amelia;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands adversely affect many biological processes. However, assessment of the significance of human exposures is hampered by an incomplete understanding of how complex mixtures affect AhR activation/inactivation. OBJECTIVES: These studies used biologic...

  5. The Relationship between Cumulative Credits and Student Learning Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Information Literacy and Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonney, Teresa; Montgomery, Joe C.

    2015-01-01

    This article relates the efforts of faculty at one community college to define standards for achievement of two SLOs (critical thinking and effective communication) and to gather and analyze evidence of how well students meet those standards. Faculty from 13 disciplines assessed writing samples from 265 students. We found that, in general,…

  6. Ethical perspectives on health technology assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2004-01-01

    This study analyses why ethical aspects play a minor role in health technology assessment (HTA) studies, even when comprehensive approaches of technology assessment are advocated. Technology is often regarded as a value-neutral tool. At the same time, bioethics is dominated by an engineering model.

  7. Bearing Health Assessment Based on Chaotic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration signals extracted from rotating parts of machinery carry a lot of useful information about the condition of operating machine. Due to the strong non-linear, complex and non-stationary characteristics of vibration signals from working bearings, an accurate and reliable health assessment method for bearing is necessary. This paper proposes to utilize the selected chaotic characteristics of vibration signal for health assessment of a bearing by using self-organizing map (SOM. Both Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm and Takens' theory are employed to calculate the characteristic vector which includes three chaotic characteristics, such as correlation dimension, largest Lyapunov exponent and Kolmogorov entropy. After that, SOM is used to map the three corresponding characteristics into a confidence value (CV which represents the health state of the bearing. Finally, a case study based on vibration datasets of a group of testing bearings was conducted to demonstrate that the proposed method can reliably assess the health state of bearing.

  8. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES ampersand H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy

  9. Health in social impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    den Broeder, Lea; Vanclay, Frank; Fehr, Rainer; Viliani, Francesca; Nowacki, Julia; Martuzzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    SIA developed alongside EIA in the early 1970s as a mechanism to consider the social impacts of planned interventions. The early understanding tended to limit the practical application of SIA to the project level, usually within the context of regulatory frameworks, and primarily considered only the direct negative impacts. However, like other types of impact assessment, SIA has evolved over time and has diverged considerably from EIA. Nowadays, SIA has widened its scope to become a “philosop...

  10. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ''more focused, concentrating on ES ampersand H management, ES ampersand H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES ampersand H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES ampersand H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual

  11. Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Rok; Medved, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol and biodiesel as potential substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector have been analyzed for environmental suitability. However, there could be impacts on human health during the production, therefore adverse health effects have to be analyzed. The aim of this study is to analyze to what health risk factors humans are exposed to in the production of biofuels and what the size of the health effects is. A health impact assessment expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was conducted in SimaPro 7.1 software. The results show a statistically significant lower carcinogenic impact of biofuels (p energy sources, this does not necessary mean that they do not represent any health hazards. PMID:22774773

  12. Risk assessment in support of plant health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeger M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    With the establishment of the Plant Health Panel in 2006, EFSA became the body responsible for risk assessment in the plant health area for the European Union (EU. Since then more than 70 outputs have been produced dealing with the full range of organisms harmful to plant health across all crop types and plants in the environment. There has been an increasing trend towards producing scientific opinions which are full pest risk assessments for the whole EU territory. In its work, and as a contribution to the wider development of risk assessment methodology, the Panel has developed a series of guidance documents. These deal with the peer review of existing pest risk assessments, a framework for conducting risk assessments which harmonise standards set by the International Plant Protection Convention and the legislative requirements of the EU, and extension of this framework to include environmental risk assessment and the evaluation of risk reducing options. Quantitative approaches have become increasingly important during this time. The Panel has developed such methods in climatic mapping (in association with the Joint Research Councils, application of spatial spread models, re-evaluation of quantitative pathway analyses, and in statistical modelling of experimental data. A Plant Health Network has been established to facilitate interaction with EU Member States, especially in relation to data collection and co-ordination of risk assessment activities. At the current time a revision of the EU Plant Health Regime is being formulated. The legislative consequences of the revision will be of considerable significance for the work of the Plant Health Panel.

  13. Psychophysiological assessment of stress and screening of health risk in peacekeeping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Rouja; Aleksiev, Lyubomir; Vukov, Mircho

    2007-01-01

    Medical surveillance for military personnel participating in peacekeeping missions (PKMs) is required to define the effect of stress on health status. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of stress on the autonomic cardiovascular control and health risk of 72 Bulgarian peacekeepers participating in a PKM in Kosovo. The assessment of psychophysiological stress and determination of stress characteristics were implemented with analysis of heart rate variability and personal interviews. As a response to the cumulative exposure to the effect of stress on cognitive function, we observed reductions in parasympathetic function and baroreceptor modulation of heart rhythm. The alteration in cardiovascular control was registered as decreases in short-term variability and spectral powers of cardiointervals in the respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Traube-Hering-Mayer bands. The advantage of psychophysiological stress assessment and screening of health risk in PKMs is that results indicate the mechanisms of the effects of stress on cognitive function and health status. PMID:17274265

  14. Model-based tolerance intervals derived from cumulative historical composition data: application for substantial equivalence assessment of a genetically modified crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bonnie; Fisher, Tracey L; Sult, Theresa S; Maxwell, Carl A; Mickelson, James A; Kishino, Hirohisa; Locke, Mary E H

    2014-10-01

    Compositional analysis is a requisite component of the substantial equivalence framework utilized to assess genetically modified (GM) crop safety. Statistical differences in composition data between GM and non-GM crops require a context in which to determine biological relevance. This context is provided by surveying the natural variation of key nutrient and antinutrient levels within the crop population with a history of safe use. Data accumulated from various genotypes with a history of safe use cultivated in relevant commercial crop-growing environments over multiple seasons are discussed as the appropriate data representative of this natural variation. A model-based parametric tolerance interval approach, which accounts for the correlated and unbalanced data structure of cumulative historical data collected from multisite field studies conducted over multiple seasons, is presented. This paper promotes the application of this tolerance interval approach to generate reference ranges for evaluation of the biological relevance of statistical differences identified during substantial equivalence assessment of a GM crop. PMID:25208038

  15. Binary Cumulant Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic statistics for binary random variables is concerned with highly structured algebraic varieties in the space of 2x2x...x2-tensors. We demonstrate the advantages of representing such varieties in the coordinate system of binary cumulants. Our primary focus lies on hidden subset models. Parametrizations and implicit equations in cumulants are derived for hyperdeterminants, for secant and tangential varieties of Segre varieties, and for certain context-specific independence models. Extending work of Rota and collaborators, we explore the polynomial inequalities satisfied by cumulants.

  16. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In five previous papers, the concept of Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) has been presented as a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Simple nomographic and tabular methods for the solution of practical problems in radiotherapy are now described. An essential feature of solving a CRE problem is firstly to present it in a concise and readily appreciated form, and, to do this, nomenclature has been introduced to describe schedules and regimes as compactly as possible. Simple algebraic equations have been derived to describe the CRE achieved by multi-schedule regimes. In these equations, the equivalence conditions existing at the junctions between schedules are not explicit and the equations are based on the CREs of the constituent schedules assessed individually without reference to their context in the regime as a whole. This independent evaluation of CREs for each schedule has resulted in a considerable simplification in the calculation of complex problems. The calculations are further simplified by the use of suitable tables and nomograms, so that the mathematics involved is reduced to simple arithmetical operations which require at the most the use of a slide rule but can be done by hand. The order of procedure in the presentation and calculation of CRE problems can be summarised in an evaluation procedure sheet. The resulting simple methods for solving practical problems of any complexity on the CRE-system are demonstrated by a number of examples. (author)

  17. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkotter, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.;

    2011-01-01

    contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic...... identify infrastructural needs. HIA delivers information on the impact of technologies in a wider scope and promotes informed decision making. HTA, HNA and HIA provide a partly overlapping and partly unique set of methodologies and infrastructure for the translation and assessment of genomic health......The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the...

  18. Community health assessment. The first step in community health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J A

    1993-01-01

    Hospitals face a paradigm shift: from planning service delivery to population-based community health planning. Comprehensive community health planning is a two-step process: assessment and action, in that order. Assessment identifies community problems and resources; action follows planning, which determines which of those problems should be addressed with which resources. This paper provides an overview of the community assessment process. The first challenge in launching a community health initiative is to identify and recruit partners drawn from the ranks of prominent community organizations, such as school boards, public health agencies, and elected officials. The best enlistment strategies are those that empower persons outside the hospital to take visible control. Defining the community is the first step in analyzing the community. It is important that everyone involved in the assessment process agree on the definition, which should take in those characteristics that make the community unique, including its social systems, environmental factors, and demographics. The next step in the process is developing a community health profile, a set of key community indicators or measures that will help you set priorities, document successes and failures, and monitor trends. There are a number of models available to consult in developing indicators, whether traditional, medically oriented determinants of health or broader parameters, such as housing and public safety. Criteria for selecting indicators include validity, stability and reliability, and responsiveness. Most indicators will be developed using secondary, or already existing, sources of data, such as census data, Medicare and Medicaid files, police records, and hospital admission and exit records. Conducting the community assessment involves putting together a list of problems to be solved and a list of available resources, both of which can be compiled using the same four-step process of gathering and

  19. Health Technology Assessment and patient safety

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Mulcahy; Tom Walley

    2005-01-01

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is a process used to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and costeffectiveness of health technologies by a systematic review of clinical, economic, and utilization research.

    Despite widespread investment in patient safety technologies in the U.K., U.S., and elsewhere, little HTA has been done to establish the clinical or cost-effectiveness of these technologies. The HTA and patient safety literature suggests there are four categori...

  20. The Challenge of Planning Conservation Strategies in Threatened Seascapes: Understanding the Role of Fine Scale Assessments of Community Response to Cumulative Human Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; De Leo, Francesco; Farella, Giulio; Maffia, Anna; Terlizzi, Antonio; Fraschetti, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the distribution and intensity of human threats to biodiversity is a prerequisite for effective spatial planning, harmonizing conservation purposes with sustainable development. In the Mediterranean Sea, the management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is rarely based on explicit consideration of the distribution of multiple stressors, with direct assessment of their effects on ecosystems. This gap limits the effectiveness of protection and is conducive to conflicts among stakeholders. Here, a fine scale assessment of the potential effects of different combinations of stressors (both land- and marine-based) on vulnerable rocky habitats (i.e. lower midlittoral and shallow infralittoral) along 40 km of coast in the western Mediterranean (Ionian Sea) has been carried out. The study area is a paradigmatic example of socio-ecological interactions, where several human uses and conservation measures collide. Significant differences in the structure of assemblages according to different combinations of threats were observed, indicating distinct responses of marine habitats to different sets of human pressures. A more complex three-dimensional structure, higher taxon richness and β-diversity characterized assemblages subject to low versus high levels of human pressure, consistently across habitats. In addition, the main drivers of change were: closeness to the harbour, water quality, and the relative extension of beaches. Our findings suggest that, although efforts to assess cumulative impacts at large scale may help in individuating priority areas for conservation purposes, the fact that such evaluations are often based on expert opinions and not on actual studies limits their ability to represent real environmental conditions at local scale. Systematic evaluations of local scale effects of anthropogenic drivers of change on biological communities should complement broad scale management strategies to achieve effective sustainability of human exploitation of

  1. Dose monitoring using the DICOM structured report: assessment of the relationship between cumulative radiation exposure and BMI in abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To perform a systematic, large-scale analysis using the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine structured report (DICOM-SR) to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and radiation exposure in abdominal CT. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of DICOM-SR of 3121 abdominal CT examinations between April 2013 and March 2014 was performed. All examinations were conducted using a 128 row CT system. Patients (mean age 61 ± 15 years) were divided into five groups according to their BMI: group A <20 kg/m2 (underweight), group B 20–25 kg/m2 (normal weight), group C 25–30 kg/m2 (overweight), group D 30–35 kg/m2 (obese), and group E > 35 kg/m2 (extremely obese). CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose–length product (DLP) were compared between all groups and matched to national diagnostic reference values. Results: The mean CTDIvol and DLP were 5.4 ± 2.9 mGy and 243 ± 153 mGy·cm in group A, 6 ± 3.6 mGy and 264 ± 179 mGy• cm in group B, 7 ± 3.6 mGy and 320 ± 180 mGy• cm in group C, 8.1 ± 5.2 mGy and 375 ± 306 mGy• cm in group D, and 10 ± 8 mGy and 476 ± 403 mGy• cm in group E, respectively. Except for group A versus group B, CTDIvol and DLP differed significantly between all groups (p<0.05). Significantly more CTDIvol values exceeded national diagnostic reference values in groups D and E (2.1% and 6.3%) compared to group B (0.5%, p<0.05). Conclusion: DICOM-SR is a comprehensive, fast, and reproducible way to analyse dose-related data at CT. It allows for automated evaluation of radiation dose in a large study population. Dose exposition is related to the patient's BMI and is increased by up to 96% for extremely obese patients undergoing abdominal CT. - Highlights: • DICOM-SR was used to implement automatic CT-dose monitoring. • DICOM-SR allowed for a fast and comprehensive analysis of CT dose data. • Radiation exposure for abdominal CT was increased by up to 96% for extremely

  2. Divergent Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Chris; Chebib, Jobran

    2016-01-01

    Divergent cumulative cultural evolution occurs when the cultural evolutionary trajectory diverges from the biological evolutionary trajectory. We consider the conditions under which divergent cumulative cultural evolution can occur. We hypothesize that two conditions are necessary. First that genetic and cultural information are stored separately in the agent. Second cultural information must be transferred horizontally between agents of different generations. We implement a model with these ...

  3. Cumulative Conditional Expectation Index

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, M; González-López, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the cumulative conditional expectation function (CCEF) in the copula context. It is shown how to compute CCEF in terms of the cumulative copula function, this natural representation allows to deduce some useful properties, for instance with applications to convex combination of copulas. We introduce approximations of CCEF based on Bernstein polynomial copulas. We introduce estimators for CCEF, which were constructed through Bernstein polynomial estimators for copulas. T...

  4. Shift work, health, the working time regulations and health assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P J; D'Auria, D A

    1999-04-01

    Shift work and night work in particular have been associated with sleep difficulties, general malaise, fatigue, peptic ulceration, ischaemic heart disease, cigarette smoking and adverse pregnancy outcome. The medical conditions previously regarded as making individuals unsuitable for shift work show wide ranging patho-physiological activity and there is no published evidence for any such condition to be regarded an absolute reason to exclude an individual from shift work. The fulfilment of the legal obligations of the Working Time Regulations 1998 is neither prescribed nor constrained in any way. It is advisable therefore to build on existing health procedures where they are in effect. Periodic health questionnaires can offer health professionals an opportunity to detect any disorder likely to be aggravated by shift work or by a combination of shift work, job demands and workplace conditions. A further purpose of the questionnaire is the assessment of ability to undertake shift work duties. However, health questionnaires are neither sensitive nor specific enough to be used to select applicants or employees for shift work, since they do not consistently predict tolerance of shift work or subsequent health problems. Whether employers should offer anything more than a simple questionnaire will depend on the culture of the company and accessibility of health services. Screening programmes affect many people relative to the few who benefit and with existing knowledge, periodic general health examinations performed in asymptomatic subjects have limited predictive or preventive value. PMID:10451593

  5. Radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics related to radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (i) mathematical description of models; (ii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e. epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases; and (iii) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e. aleatory) uncertainty. The presented results indicate that radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite does not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, no radionuclide transport to the boundary with the accessible environment was observed; thus, the associated CCDFs for comparison with the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194) are degenerate in the sense of having a probability of zero of exceeding a release of zero

  6. Radionuclide transport in the vicinity of the repository and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics related to radionuclide transport in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented: (i) mathematical description of models; (ii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e. epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases; (iii) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e. aleatory) uncertainty; and (iv) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that no releases to the accessible environment take place due to radionuclide movement through the anhydrite marker beds, through the Dewey Lake Red Beds or directly to the surface, and also that the releases to the Culebra Dolomite are small. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for release to the Culebra Dolomite fall to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194)

  7. Risk assessment in support of plant health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeger, Michael; Schans, Jan; Lövei, Gabor L.;

    2012-01-01

    types and plants in the environment. There has been an increasing trend towards producing scientific opinions which are full pest risk assessments for the whole EU territory. In its work, and as a contribution to the wider development of risk assessment methodology, the Panel has developed a series...... of guidance documents. These deal with the peer review of existing pest risk assessments, a framework for conducting risk assessments which harmonise standards set by the International Plant Protection Convention and the legislative requirements of the EU, and extension of this framework to include......-evaluation of quantitative pathway analyses, and in statistical modelling of experimental data. A Plant Health Network has been established to facilitate interaction with EU Member States, especially in relation to data collection and co-ordination of risk assessment activities. At the current time a revision of the EU...

  8. Health impact assessment: assessing opportunities and barriers to intersectoral health improvement in an expanded European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Karen; McKee, Martin

    2005-05-01

    On 1 May 2004 the European Union (EU) underwent unprecedented enlargement, from 15 to 25 countries, increasing its population by 20% to over 450 million. Although EU law has limited specific competence in the area of health, its influence on other policy sectors such as agriculture, trade, and employment has wide ranging implications for health. Yet with the exception of provisions on communicable disease control and food safety, public health considerations have played little part in negotiations on EU accession. This paper argues for an intersectoral public health approach in the expanded EU. It reviews the legal basis for assessing the health impacts of policy in the EU and, using health impact assessment as a case study, it examines how well the new member states may be prepared to tackle intersectoral public health action within the constraints imposed by EU policy. PMID:15831682

  9. Remote Sensing of Bioindicators for Forest Health Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, Shawn Carlisle

    The impacts of tropospheric ozone on forest health in Mediterranean type climates in California, USA and Catalonia, Spain were investigated using a combination of remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), and field studies focused on sensitive bioindicator conifer species and ambient ozone monitoring. For the field validation of impacts of tropospheric ozone on conifer health, the Ozone Injury Index (OII) was applied to the bioindicator species Pinus ponderosa, Pinus jeffreyi, and Pinus uncinata. Combining these three tools, it was possible to build meaningful ecological models covering large areas to enhance our understanding of the biotic and abiotic interactions which affect forest health. Regression models predicting ozone injury improved considerably when incorporating ozone exposure with GIS related to plant water status, including water availability and water usage, as a proxies for estimating the stomatal conductance and ozone uptake R2=0.35, p = 0.016 in Catalonia, R2=0.36, p visual chlorotic mottling component of the OII was the most strongly correlated to remote sensing indices, in particular the photochemical reflectance index (PRI; R2=0.28, p=0.0044 for OIIVI-amount and R 2=0.33 and p=0.0016 for OIIVI -severity). Regression models assessing ozone injury to conifers using imaging spectroscopy techniques also improved when incorporating the GIS proxies of stomatal conductance (R 2=0.59, pozone monitoring in Catalonia, it was found that all models improved when incorporating the cumulative exposure to ozone over a period of three years (R2=0.56, pozone using a modified version of the OII (P<0.0001, R2=0.53, RMSE=2.73 with only the OII subcomponents VI-Severity and FWHORL and P<0.0001, R2 = 0.90, RMSE = 1.35 with GIS).

  10. Untapped potential of health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-04-01

    The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to "green economy" and "institutional framework" strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century's sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure. PMID:23599554

  11. Assessment of the health impact of an environmental pollution and quantitative assessment of health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report made by a working group is written for experts in health risk assessment or for professionals involved in risk management. It proposes a methodological and conceptual framework which could build a unified approach to a quantitative assessment of health risks. In the first part, under the form of questions and answers, it defines the health impact, describes how to assess the excess of individual risk and the related hypothesis, how to pass from the excess of individual risk to the health impact, how to express the results of an health impact calculation, how to take the lack of knowledge into account at the different steps of this calculation, what is the significance of the result of such a calculation, and how useful an health impact assessment can be. The second part proposes a more detailed presentation of the scientific background for the health impact calculation with its indicators, its uncertainties, its practice in other countries, its relevance, and its fields of application. Then, after a comment of the dose-response relationship, it reports the scientific validity of the assessment of a number of cases

  12. Assessing Quality in Mental Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Shaw

    1997-01-01

    Quality assessment in mental health services is undergoing change in the United Kingdom following the introduction of market reforms. Traditionally, service quality was monitored by professional practitioners with reference to user satisfaction. This became formalized, and the two main forms of quality assurance currently used are outlined. However, the government is concerned that this may be inadequate for the monitoring of quality standards, specified in contracts between service purchaser...

  13. Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of

  14. Teaching health assessment in the virtual classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Mary

    2005-08-01

    Health assessment skills are vital to professional nursing practice. Health assessment has traditionally been taught using lecture, teacher-developed tests, practice and live demonstration, and interactive and computer-based learning materials. Rapid advances in information technology during the past decade have greatly expanded distance learning options in higher education. Although much nursing education now uses the Internet, there has been limited use of the Web to teach psychomotor and clinical skills. This article describes how online instruction can be integrated into a health assessment course to teach physical examination skills. The development of instructional videos that can be digitally streamed onto the Web for ready and repeated access can also enhance online learning of technical and clinical skills. Student evaluation of this Web-enhanced course revealed that online assignments enabled them to pace their learning, thereby promoting greater flexibility and independence. Students were able to master the technical skills of working online with minimal difficulty and reported that working online was no more stressful than attending class. The most helpful aspect of the online course was the instructor-developed video that was digitally streamed online. PMID:16130340

  15. Strengthening health professions regulation in Cambodia: a rapid assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, David; Duke, Jan; Wuliji, Tana; Smith, Alyson; Phuong, Keat; San, Un

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper describes a rapid assessment of Cambodia’s current system for regulating its health professions. The assessment forms part of a co-design process to set strategic priorities for strengthening health profession regulation to improve the quality and safety of health services. A health system approach for strengthening health professions’ regulation is underway and aims to support the Government of Cambodia’s plans for scaling up its health workforce, improving health servi...

  16. Prospect theory in the health domain: A quantitative assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Attema, Arthur; Brouwer, Werner; L'Haridon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    International audience It is well-known that expected utility (EU) has empirical deficiencies. Cumulative prospect, theory (CPT) has developed as an alternative with more descriptive validity. However, CPT's full, function had not yet been quantified in the health domain. This paper is therefore the first to, simultaneously measure utility of life duration, probability weighting, and loss aversion in this domain., We observe loss aversion and risk aversion for gains and losses, which for g...

  17. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa;

    2015-01-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme...... that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic...... cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  18. Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. [Forest health ecological risk assessment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fengjin; Ouyang, Hua; Cheng, Shulan; Zhang, Qiang

    2004-02-01

    Forest health ecological risk assessment is an important factor in forest resources management. In this paper, we selected forest fire, forest disease-pest disasters and acid rain as main risk sources, described the risk resources by probability, intensity and distributing, and mapped each risk source. The endpoints were the damages that the risk acceptor might and these damages might cause ecosystems' organization and function changing under the uncertainty risk sources. Endpoints of forest might compose of productivity descent, reducing biodiversity, forest degrading, forest ecological function declining, furthermore, forest disappearing. We described exposure in terms of intensity, space, and time. In the exposure and hazard analysis, we used fragile index to show frangibility or resistibility (resistibility is reverse to frangibility), and analyzed the damages by different risk sources. Risk assessment and management was the integrated phase of the research. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of risk sources, all risk index were overlaid in the China map by GIS, which divided the region into 30 ecological risk sub-zones (provinces), according to risk index of each risk sub-zone, and the forest in China was divided into six levels of risk zones. In every level of risk zones, we also put forward the countermeasures for forest health ecological risk management. The result of assessment could provide scientific basis for forest management. PMID:15146655

  20. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential

  1. Managing cumulative impacts: A key to sustainability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    This paper addresses how science can be more effectively used in creating policy to manage cumulative effects on ecosystems. The paper focuses on the scientific techniques that we have to identify and to assess cumulative impacts on ecosystems. The term ``sustainable development`` was brought into common use by the World Commission on Environment and Development (The Brundtland Commission) in 1987. The Brundtland Commission report highlighted the need to simultaneously address developmental and environmental imperatives simultaneously by calling for development that ``meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations.`` We cannot claim to be working toward sustainable development until we can quantitatively assess cumulative impacts on the environment: The two concepts are inextricibally linked in that the elusiveness of cumulative effects likely has the greatest potential of keeping us from achieving sustainability. In this paper, assessment and management frameworks relevant to cumulative impacts are discussed along with recent literature on how to improve such assessments. When possible, examples are given for marine ecosystems.

  2. Environmental, health and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    The environmental, health, and safety (E, H and S) concerns associated with the fabrication, deployment, and decommissioning of photovoltaic (PV) systems in terrestial applications are identified and assessed. Discussion is limited to crystalline silicon technologies. The primary E, H, and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  3. Quantitative health impact assessment: current practice and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Veerman, Lennert; Barendregt, Jan; Mackenbach, Johan

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. DESIGN: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health (exposure impact assessment) and (2) methods used to quantify health outcomes resulting from changes in exposure to determinants (outcome assessment). MAIN RESULTS: Of 98 prospective HIA studies, 17 reported quantitati...

  4. Health risk assessment for fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A health risk assessment for 85Kr was conducted. The purpose of the study was to evaluate radiological impacts of the EPA 85Kr legislation as embodied in 40 CFR 190. This was done by conducting a health risk assessment of the comparative risks involved in a routine release scenario versus 85Kr capture alternatives at a fuel reprocessing plant (FRP). The krypton contained in dissolver offgas, has historically been released routinely into the environment from FRP operations. There is an alternative to the routine release and that is capture, concentrate, and store the gas for long periods of time. Cryogenic distillation or fluorocarbon absorption are alternative methods for the capture of krypton. Ion implantation/sputtering is a method of immobilizing krypton received from the two capture processes. These technologies were evaluated based on the assumption that, for the extremely low doses and dose rates involved, the risks to individuals in the work force can be compared directly to the risks to members of the general public. Early conceptual facility designs for the three processes were taken from the literature

  5. Assessment of radiological technologist health condition by Todai health index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the general health status of radiological technologists by using Todai Health Index(THI) that has been employed as a standard health assessment tool for a specific group. The subjects in this study were 800 radiological technologists who were working in clinics, hospitals and university hospitals in and around Seoul and in some provincial cities. A survey was conducted directly or by mail in June and July, 2001. And the response rate was 68%. Using THI, the following findings were acquired: 1. By gender, both male and female radiological technologists complained about multiple subjective symptom(I) the most, And the women made more significant complaint of eight items including irregular life. 2. By age group, the radiological technologists whose age ranged from 20 to 24 got higher marks in most of the items, including multiple subjective symptom(I) and symptoms related to eyes and skin. 3. For career, those who had worked for a year or less or for one to five years got higher marks in most of the items. 4. Concerning marital status, the unmarried people complained about many items more, and the married people's symptom was more associated with live scale(L). 5. By the type of medical institution, the radiological technologists in the university hospitals got higher marks in two items including aggressiveness(F), but those in the clinics complained about the others more. 6. Regarding a place of service, there were little differences between the radiological technologists in basement and on the ground

  6. Joint cumulants for natural independence

    OpenAIRE

    Hasebe, Takahiro; Saigo, Hayato

    2011-01-01

    Many kinds of independence have been defined in non-commutative probability theory. Natural independence is an important class of independence; this class consists of five independences (tensor, free, Boolean, monotone and anti-monotone ones). In the present paper, a unified treatment of joint cumulants is introduced for natural independence. The way we define joint cumulants enables us not only to find the monotone joint cumulants but also to give a new characterization of joint cumulants fo...

  7. Assessing clinical competency in the health sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarella, Karen Joanne

    To test the success of integrated curricula in schools of health sciences, meaningful measurements of student performance are required to assess clinical competency. This research project analyzed a new performance assessment tool, the Integrated Standardized Patient Examination (ISPE), for assessing clinical competency: specifically, to assess Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students' clinical competence as the ability to integrate basic science knowledge with clinical communication skills. Thirty-four DPT students performed two ISPE cases, one of a patient who sustained a stroke and the other a patient with a herniated lumbar disc. Cases were portrayed by standardized patients (SPs) in a simulated clinical setting. Each case was scored by an expert evaluator in the exam room and then by one investigator and the students themselves via videotape. The SPs scored each student on an overall encounter rubric. Written feedback was obtained from all participants in the study. Acceptable reliability was demonstrated via inter-rater agreement as well as inter-rater correlations on items that used a dichotomous scale, whereas the items requiring the use of the 4-point rubric were somewhat less reliable. For the entire scale both cases had a significant correlation between the Expert-Investigator pair of raters, for the CVA case r = .547, p process of developing cases and patient scenarios that were used in this study. Construct validity was obtained from the survey results analyzed from the experts and students. Future studies should examine the effect of rater training upon the reliability. Criterion or predictive validity could be further studied by comparing students' performances on the ISPE with other independent estimates of students' competence. The unique integration questions of the ISPE were judged to have good content validity from experts and students, suggestive that integration, a most crucial element of clinical competence, while done in the mind of the

  8. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  9. Assessing the health and hygiene performance of apartment buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, AKC; Lau, SSY; Wong, WS; Lung, DPY; Chau, KW; Ho, DCW; Wong, SK; Leung, HF

    2004-01-01

    The recent global outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome has aroused public concern on environmental health and hygiene. Develops a practical assessment scheme for assessing the health and hygiene performance of apartment buildings in Hong Kong. The scheme involves assessing a hierarchy of building factors that have a bearing on environmental qualities, and thus occupants' health. Proposes an index method to integrate the assessment outcomes into a simple and user- friendly performance...

  10. Assessing the health costs of fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally agreed that some analysis of health costs is an essential contribution to an assessment of the impacts of a technological option. The decision could concern the adoption of new technology for a new purpose; a new technology to replace an existing one; or a choice between competing designs. Such analyses are also likely to be used in setting criteria for the acceptance of future projects and in allocating effort and expense on modifications to improve safety within a system. The subject is discussed with special reference to coal, oil and nuclear energy, under the headings: two stages; risk evaluation and acceptability; counter-balancing benefits; quantifying harm; terms of reference; data problems; international comparisons; calculation problems; apportioning costs; confidence and uncertainty; objective estimation. (U.K.)

  11. Exploring Health Impact Assessment in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wismar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Health impact assessment (HIA prospectively judges the potential health impacts of pending decisions and feeds the assessment back into the decision making process. HIA is considered as a key tool for intersectoral collaboration. This article presents selected results of a mapping exercise on HIA in Europe. The mapping exercise is complemented by the presentation of a conceptual framework on the effectiveness of HIA and illustrative examples.

    Method: Two methodologies are employed in this article: First, the use of HIA across Europe is based on a survey conducted by 21 teams in 19 countries. A semi standardized questionnaire was employed, using a wide variety of sources. Second, for the discussion on the effectiveness of HIA, a conceptual framework using four types of effectiveness was employed. Results: HIA is a common practice only in a handful of European countries. In most of Europe, HIA is at an early developmental stage. The mapping exercise, however, provides evidence that HIA can work across all sectors and at all political level, although there is currently a focus on the local level. HIA is conducted in different countries by different sets of actors and organizations, reflecting the existing setup. The evidence on the effectiveness of HIA is still inconclusive. However, single case studies and upcoming evidence suggests that HIA has the capacity to inform and influence the decision making process.

    Conclusions: HIA can work and deliver. The variations in context across European countries have resulted in different forms of implementation and different dynamics of developing HIA.

  12. 75 FR 70009 - Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    .... 111-148) requires that a health risk assessment be included in the annual wellness visit benefit... available HRAs, with the majority of assessments created to support employer-based health and wellness... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  13. Study of occupation health risk assessment on Chinese coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Guo-qing; YAN Xiang-nong

    2007-01-01

    Factors of occupation health hazard were identified and analyzed, and indexes system of occupation health risk assessment were established by applying fuzzy theory and system safety technique, the weights of index system were obtained by AHP, finally a reasonable mathematics model of occupation health risk assessment was accomplished by an example.

  14. Assessing the Strengths of Mental Health Consumers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Victoria J.; Le Boutillier, Clair; Leamy, Mary; Larsen, John; Oades, Lindsay G.; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Strengths assessments focus on the individual's talents, abilities, resources, and strengths. No systematic review of strengths assessments for use within mental health populations has been published. The aims of this study were to describe and evaluate strengths assessments for use within mental health services. A systematic review identified 12…

  15. Association Between Self-Assessed Health and Attitude Towards Own Health

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Možajeva

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores association between health and attitude towards own health in two dimensions – taking care of own health and lifestyle. We apply two-dimensional stereotype logit model to estimate association between self-assessed health and attitude towards health, after accounting for socioeconomic factors. We find evidence of strong positive association between health status and (perceived) taking care of own health and lifestyle. Analysis of perception of the two concepts – "taking car...

  16. Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 Health Topics 2 News & Resources 3 Intramural Research 4 Health Topics Educational Campaigns and Programs Resources Contact the Health ... BMI and Waist Circumference provides you with an idea of whether your BMI ... for Health Topics Associated With Obesity Along with being overweight or ...

  17. An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzaev, V.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov;

    2008-01-01

    area was significantly contaminated by Chernobyl fallout with initial (CS)-C-137 ground deposition level of similar to 1.1 MBq m(-2). The accumulated OSL doses in sections of the bricks varied from 141 to 207 mGy, of which between 76 and 146 mGy are attributable to Chernobyl fallout. Using the OSL...... depth-dose profiles obtained from the exposed bricks and the results from a gamma-ray-survey of the area, the Chernobyl-related cumulative gamma-ray dose for a point detector located in free air at a height of 1 m above the ground in the study area was estimated to be ca. 240 mGy for the time period...... starting on 27 April 1986 and ending on 31 July 2004. This result is in good agreement with the result of deterministic modelling of the cumulative gamma-ray dose in free air above undisturbed ground from the Chernobyl source in the Bryansk Region. Over the same time period, the external Chernobyl...

  18. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    State, followed for 8 years (between the ages 9 and 17). Poverty- related stress was computed using the cumulative risk approach, assessing stressors across 9 domains, including environmental, psychosocial, and demographic factors. Allostatic load captured a range of physiological responses, including...... cardiovascular, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and metabolic activity. Smoking and alcohol/drug use were tested as mediators of the hypothesized childhood risk-adolescent allostatic load relationship. Results: Cumulative risk exposure at age 9 predicted increases in...... allostatic load 8 years later. Smoking, but not alcohol and drug use, was a significant mediator of the prospective, longitudinal relationship between childhood cumulative risk and adolescent allostatic load. Conclusions: The present paper contributes to the understanding of the role of early life stress in...

  19. Health Consequence Scales for Use in Health Impact Assessments of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Brown; Jeffery Spickett

    2014-01-01

    While health impact assessment (HIA) has typically been applied to projects, plans or policies, it has significant potential with regard to strategic considerations of major health issues facing society such as climate change. Given the complexity of climate change, assessing health impacts presents new challenges that may require different approaches compared to traditional applications of HIA. This research focuses on the development of health consequence scales suited to assessing and comp...

  20. A new approach to criteria for health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a developing component of the overall impact assessment process and as such needs access to procedures that can enable more consistent approaches to the stepwise process that is now generally accepted in both EIA and HIA. The guidelines developed during this project provide a structured process, based on risk assessment procedures which use consequences and likelihood, as a way of ranking risks to adverse health outcomes from activities subjected to HIA or HIA as part of EIA. The aim is to assess the potential for both acute and chronic health outcomes. The consequences component also identifies a series of consequences for the health care system, depicted as expressions of financial expenditure and the capacity of the health system. These more specific health risk assessment characteristics should provide for a broader consideration of health consequences and a more consistent estimation of the adverse health risks of a proposed development at both the scoping and risk assessment stages of the HIA process. - Highlights: ► A more objective approach to health risk assessment is provided. ► An objective set of criteria for the consequences for chronic and acute impacts. ► An objective set of criteria for the consequences on the health care system. ► An objective set of criteria for event frequency that could impact on health. ► The approach presented is currently being trialled in Australia.

  1. Simulation-based assessments in health professional education: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryall T

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tayne Ryall,1 Belinda K Judd,2,3 Christopher J Gordon3 1Physiotherapy Department, Canberra Hospital, ACT Health, Canberra, ACT, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, 3Sydney Nursing School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Introduction: The use of simulation in health professional education has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. While simulation has predominantly been used to train health professionals and students for a variety of clinically related situations, there is an increasing trend to use simulation as an assessment tool, especially for the development of technical-based skills required during clinical practice. However, there is a lack of evidence about the effectiveness of using simulation for the assessment of competency. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to examine simulation as an assessment tool of technical skills across health professional education.Methods: A systematic review of Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline, and Web of Science databases was used to identify research studies published in English between 2000 and 2015 reporting on measures of validity, reliability, or feasibility of simulation as an assessment tool. The McMasters Critical Review for quantitative studies was used to determine methodological value on all full-text reviewed articles. Simulation techniques using human patient simulators, standardized patients, task trainers, and virtual reality were included.Results: A total of 1,064 articles were identified using search criteria, and 67 full-text articles were screened for eligibility. Twenty-one articles were included in the final review. The findings indicated that simulation was more robust when used as an assessment in combination with other assessment tools and when more than one simulation scenario was used. Limitations of the

  2. Assessing the oral health literacy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Hongal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral health literacy is the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate oral health decisions. The current review is based on some of the extensive literature in health literacy, much of it focused on the intersection of low literacy and the understanding of basic health care information. Health literacy is a non-pharmacological method of managing and preventing diseases. There are three distinct levels in oral health literacy, i.e. functional, interactive and critical. Health literacy is important for all adults, who must be able to read articles and magazines about oral and general health prevention, interpret instructions on prescription bottles and over-the-counter medications, manage the healthcare needs of their children and ageing parents and interpret insurance and Medicare rules, regulations and benefits. There are several factors which impact on low health literacy level in the community. Poor health literacy is considered as a contributor of poor oral health status in an individual, poor heath outcome in a community and health inequalities. The dental profession is indeed changing the tide and now recognizes that several solutions can be implemented to ensure effective communication becomes a national organizational priority to improve oral healthcare.

  3. An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been used for estimation of the accumulated doses in quartz inclusions obtained from two fired bricks, extracted in July 2004 from a building located in the forested surroundings of the recreational area Novie Bobovichi, the Bryansk Region, Russia. The area was significantly contaminated by Chernobyl fallout with initial 137Cs ground deposition level of ∼1.1 MBq m-2. The accumulated OSL doses in sections of the bricks varied from 141 to 207 mGy, of which between 76 and 146 mGy are attributable to Chernobyl fallout. Using the OSL depth-dose profiles obtained from the exposed bricks and the results from a γ-ray-survey of the area, the Chernobyl-related cumulative γ-ray dose for a point detector located in free air at a height of 1 m above the ground in the study area was estimated to be ca. 240 mGy for the time period starting on 27 April 1986 and ending on 31 July 2004. This result is in good agreement with the result of deterministic modelling of the cumulative γ-ray dose in free air above undisturbed ground from the Chernobyl source in the Bryansk Region. Over the same time period, the external Chernobyl-related dose via forest pathway for the most exposed individuals (e.g., forest workers) is estimated to be ∼39 mSv. Prognosis for the external exposure from 1986 to 2056 is presented and compared with the predictions given by other investigators of the region

  4. Health-Care Technology Assessment in Radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Deljou

    2010-01-01

    Health-care service provision and procurement is increasingly subject to policy decisions, managed more than ever before. Becoming more international, collaboration is increasing as the health professions, research and industry all work across borders. Differing health-care systems across the countries result from national and regional policy developments and priorities."nIn health-care, all interventions and procedures are basically technologies-including radiology and sur-gery, and tec...

  5. HEALTH - module for assessment of stochastic health effects after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the program module HEALTH for assessment of stochastic health effects in the case of nuclear accidents is presented. Program module HEALTH is a part of the new European real-time computer system RODOS for nuclear emergency and preparedness. Some of the key features of module HEALTH are presented, and some possible further improvements are discussed (author)

  6. Promoting social responsibility for health: health impact assessment and healthy public policy at the community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelmark, M B

    2001-09-01

    The 1997 Jakarta Declaration on Health Promotion into the 21st Century called for new responses to address the emerging threats to health. The declaration placed a high priority on promoting social responsibility for health, and it identified equity-focused health impact assessment as a high priority for action. This theme was among the foci at the 2000 Fifth Global Conference on Health Promotion held in Mexico. This paper, which is an abbreviation of a technical report prepared for the Mexico conference, advances arguments for focusing on health impact assessment at the local level. Health impact assessment identifies negative health impacts that call for policy responses, and identifies and encourages practices and policies that promote health. Health impact assessment may be highly technical and require sophisticated technology and expertise. But it can also be a simple, highly practical process, accessible to ordinary people, and one that helps a community come to grips with local circumstances that need changing for better health. To illustrate the possibilities, this paper presents a case study, the People Assessing Their Health (PATH) project from Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It places ordinary citizens, rather than community elites, at the very heart of local decision-making. Evidence from PATH demonstrates that low technology health impact assessment, done by and for local people, can shift thinking beyond the illness problems of individuals. It can bring into consideration, instead, how programmes and policies support or weaken community health, and illuminate a community's capacity to improve local circumstances for better health. This stands in contrast to evidence that highly technological approaches to community-level health impact assessment can be self-defeating. Further development of simple, people-centred, low technology approaches to health impact assessment at the local level is called for. PMID:11509463

  7. Urban Ecosystem Health Assessment: Perspectives and Chinese Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecosystem health is a way to assess the holistic operations and development potential of urban ecosystems. Accelerated by the practical need for integrated ecosystem management, assessment of urban ecosystem health has been greatly developed and extensively applied in urban planning and management. Development is aimed at comprehensively evaluating the performance of urban ecosystems, identifying the limiting factors, and providing suggestions for urban regulation. The time has come for reviewing and establishing an instructional framework for urban ecosystem health assessment to shed light on certain essential issues of urban ecosystem health. Based on literature reviews and series of practice, a holistic framework of urban ecosystem health assessment is proposed. The framework covers the essential elements of urban ecosystem health and integrates three dimensions: theoretical foundation, assessment method, and practical application. Concrete assessment methods are also established, focusing on both external performance and internal metabolic processes. The practice of urban ecosystem health assessment in China is illustrated to briefly demonstrate the application of the established framework and methods. Some prospects are discussed for urban ecosystem health assessment and its application in urban planning and management.

  8. Risk management assessment of Health Maintenance Organisations participating in the National Health Insurance Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Princess Christina Campbell; Patrick Chukwuemeka Korie; Feziechukwu Collins Nnaji

    2014-01-01

    Background: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), operated majorly in Nigeria by health maintenance organisations (HMOs), took off formally in June 2005. In view of the inherent risks in the operation of any social health insurance, it is necessary to efficiently manage these risks for sustainability of the scheme. Consequently the risk-management strategies deployed by HMOs need regular assessment. This study assessed the risk management in the Nigeria social health insurance scheme a...

  9. Private Health Sector Assessment in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    White, James; O’Hanlon, Barbara; Chee, Grace; Malangalila, Emmanuel; Kimambo, Adeline; Coarasa, Jorge; Callahan, Sean; Levey, Ilana Ron; McKeon, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Tanzania exemplifies the developing world's struggle to achieve 'middle-income' country status while confronting widespread poverty and substantial health challenges-such as persistently high child and maternal mortality, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis (TB), and malaria. In this context, Tanzania's National Public Private Partnership (PPP) policy and second Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSSP) included a call for a private health secto...

  10. Learning about health: The pupils' and the school health nurses assessment of the health dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Ina K.

    Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialouge, school health nurse......Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialouge, school health nurse...

  11. Learning about health: The pupils' and the school health nurses assessment of the health dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Ina K.

    Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiental learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialogue, school health nurse......Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiental learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialogue, school health nurse...

  12. An evaluation paradigm for cumulative impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhiv, Eugene Z.

    1988-09-01

    Cumulative impact analysis is examined from a conceptual decision-making perspective, focusing on its implicit and explicit purposes as suggested within the policy and procedures for environmental impact analysis of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and its implementing regulations. In this article it is also linked to different evaluation and decision-making conventions, contrasting a regulatory context with a comprehensive planning framework. The specific problems that make the application of cumulative impact analysis a virtually intractable evaluation requirement are discussed in connection with the federal regulation of wetlands uses. The relatively familiar US Army Corps of Engineers' (the Corps) permit program, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) responsibilities in managing its share of the Section 404 regulatory program requirements, is used throughout as the realistic context for highlighting certain pragmatic evaluation aspects of cumulative impact assessment. To understand the purposes of cumulative impact analysis (CIA), a key distinction must be made between the implied comprehensive and multiobjective evaluation purposes of CIA, promoted through the principles and policies contained in NEPA, and the more commonly conducted and limited assessment of cumulative effects (ACE), which focuses largely on the ecological effects of human actions. Based on current evaluation practices within the Corps' and EPA's permit programs, it is shown that the commonly used screening approach to regulating wetlands uses is not compatible with the purposes of CIA, nor is the environmental impact statement (EIS) an appropriate vehicle for evaluating the variety of objectives and trade-offs needed as part of CIA. A heuristic model that incorporates the basic elements of CIA is developed, including the idea of trade-offs among social, economic, and environmental protection goals carried out within the context of environmental

  13. Human health risks analysis: assessment of health costs of energy related pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains a summary of research on the assessment of health costs of energy related pollutants. It includes the development of new statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases relevant to the assessment

  14. The relationship between perceived own health state and health assessments of anchoring vignettes

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Andreas; Häuser, Winfried; Glaesmer, Heide; Brähler, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    Self-reported health depends on the internal frame of reference and on response styles. One way of studying this dependency is using anchoring vignettes. Response shift effects are assumed to induce a negative correlation between self-reported health and the health assessments attributed to the vignettes. Method: A representative sample of the German adult population (N = 2,409) was selected. Participants were asked to rate their health state and the health states of two rather complex vignet...

  15. Defining and Assessing Public Health Functions: A Global Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Harris, Meggan; Jakubowski, Elke; Kluge, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Given the broad scope and intersectoral nature of public health structures and practices, there are inherent difficulties in defining which services fall under the public health remit and in assessing their capacity and performance. The aim of this study is to analyze how public health functions and practice have been defined and operationalized in different countries and regions around the world, with a specific focus on assessment tools that have been developed to evaluate the performance of essential public health functions, services, and operations. Our review has identified nearly 100 countries that have carried out assessments, using diverse analytical and methodological approaches. The assessment processes have evolved quite differently according to administrative arrangements and resource availability, but some key contextual factors emerge that seem to favor policy-oriented follow-up. These include local ownership of the assessment process, policymakers' commitment to reform, and expert technical advice for implementation. PMID:26789385

  16. Cumulative Production Per Township - SaMiRa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains a selected township grid within the Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment project (SaMiRa) study area attributed with cumulative oil and gas...

  17. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  18. Prospect theory in the health domain: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attema, Arthur E; Brouwer, Werner B F; I'Haridon, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    It is well-known that expected utility (EU) has empirical deficiencies. Cumulative prospect theory (CPT) has developed as an alternative with more descriptive validity. However, CPT's full function had not yet been quantified in the health domain. This paper is therefore the first to simultaneously measure utility of life duration, probability weighting, and loss aversion in this domain. We observe loss aversion and risk aversion for gains and losses, which for gains can be explained by probabilistic pessimism. Utility for gains is almost linear. For losses, we find less weighting of probability 1/2 and concave utility. This contrasts with the common finding of convex utility for monetary losses. However, CPT was proposed to explain choices among lotteries involving monetary outcomes. Life years are arguably very different from monetary outcomes and need not generate convex utility for losses. Moreover, utility of life duration reflects discounting, causing concave utility. PMID:24103499

  19. Learning about health: The pupils' and the school health nurses' assessment of the health dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Ina K.

    Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC), health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children......Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC), health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children...

  20. A health literacy assessment of the epilepsy.com website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John O; Shneker, Bassel F

    2009-07-01

    Current healthcare guidelines identify low health literacy as a major barrier to optimal health communication. Health literacy is defined as the degree to which individuals can obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. An estimated 90 million people in the U.S. have marginal health literacy. The Institute of Medicine and the U.S. Department of Education recommend that health related information be written at the 6th-8th grade level to address low health literacy. Epidemiological studies demonstrate that persons with epilepsy have significantly lower educational attainment and lower incomes placing them at risk for low health literacy and limited Internet access. While Internet users tend to have higher educational attainment, previous research indicates even good readers prefer simpler rather than more complex medical information. Health educational content that could be printed and given to patients addresses an important need in clinical epilepsy care. Previous reviews of health websites found they exceed recommended readability levels. Two online programs were used to assess the reading level of 1327 web pages on the www.epilepsy.com website using established readability formulas. Based on the Flesch Reading Ease assessment, only 3% of epilepsy.com web pages are written for a 6th grade reading level or below. If 8th grade level or below is used as the standard, only 15% are adequate. Recommendations and examples are provided for improving the readability of epilepsy-specific health education content. PMID:19419887

  1. Mental health assessment of rape offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Jaydip

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental ...

  2. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenköttera, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.; Mekel, O.C.L.; Kristensen, F.B.; Brand, A.

    2011-01-01

    The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the im

  3. Health needs assessment in primary care: the evolution of a practical public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, A; McKeown, K; Crowther, A

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of the paper is to place health needs assessment in its primary care context. This is a dynamic context where changes in policies, staff roles and patient expectations have all to be considered. Given this complexity and the variations between practices, it is necessary to help primary health care teams (PHCTs) to understand their stage of development and how this will directly affect any health needs assessment. The technical and methodological aspects of health needs assessment have been explored and described by others, and that work will not be duplicated here. This paper reviews the health needs assessment (HNA) work of the Ribblesdale Total Purchasing Project (RTPP) and then sets this review against the political, organisational, professional and practical pressures that currently confront primary care. Out of this analysis emerges a diagnostic and development tool which links together, and emphasises the intimate relationships between, five stages of development needed for effective primary care-oriented health needs assessment work. The emphasis is on understanding the place of health needs assessment within the general processes and systems of the primary health care team. The paper concludes by suggesting ways in which public health practitioners and specialists might approach the task of supporting and influencing the evolution of the recently proposed Primary Care Groups and Primary Care Trusts. The overall intention of the article is to stimulate debate and action. PMID:9629025

  4. CNC machine tool health assessment using Dynamic Bayesian Networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Tobon-Mejia, Diego; Medjaher, Kamal; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2011-01-01

    The failure of critical components in physical systems may have negative consequences on the availability, the productivity, their security and on the environment. Thus, the assessment of the critical component's health condition, which can be done in the diagnostic and prognostic framework, should be constantly ensured. In this paper, a contribution on the assessment of the health condition of the cutting tool from a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tool and the prediction of its rem...

  5. Uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from Legionella

    OpenAIRE

    Harriet eWhiley; Alexandra eKeegan; Howard eFallowfield; Kirstin eRoss

    2014-01-01

    Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health concern. Current regulatory and management guidelines for the control of this organism are informed by risk assessments. However, there are many unanswered questions and uncertainties regarding Legionella epidemiology, strain infectivity, infectious dose and detection methods. This review follows the EnHealth Risk Assessment Framework, to examine the current information available regarding Legionella risk and discuss the uncertainties a...

  6. Assessing Latin America's Progress Toward Achieving Universal Health Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Adam; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Almeida, Gisele; Buisman, Leander; Hoang-Vu Eozenou, Patrick; Bredenkamp, Caryn; Cercone, James A; Diaz, Yadira; Maceira, Daniel; Molina, Silvia; Paraje, Guillermo; Ruiz, Fernando; Sarti, Flavia; Scott, John; Valdivia, Martin; Werneck, Heitor

    2015-10-01

    Two commonly used metrics for assessing progress toward universal health coverage involve assessing citizens' rights to health care and counting the number of people who are in a financial protection scheme that safeguards them from high health care payments. On these metrics most countries in Latin America have already "reached" universal health coverage. Neither metric indicates, however, whether a country has achieved universal health coverage in the now commonly accepted sense of the term: that everyone--irrespective of their ability to pay--gets the health services they need without suffering undue financial hardship. We operationalized a framework proposed by the World Bank and the World Health Organization to monitor progress under this definition and then constructed an overall index of universal health coverage achievement. We applied the approach using data from 112 household surveys from 1990 to 2013 for all twenty Latin American countries. No country has achieved a perfect universal health coverage score, but some countries (including those with more integrated health systems) fare better than others. All countries except one improved in overall universal health coverage over the time period analyzed. PMID:26438747

  7. Integrating a quantitative risk appraisal in a health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adám, Balázs; Molnár, Agnes; Gulis, Gabriel; Adány, Róza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the quantification of health outcomes in a health impact assessment (HIA) is scarce in practice, it is preferred by policymakers, as it assists various aspects of the decision-making process. This article provides an example of integrating a quantitative risk appraisal in an...

  8. Health Impact Assessment of an oil drilling project in California

    OpenAIRE

    McCallum, Lindsay C.; Kathleen Souweine; Mary McDaniel; Bart Koppe; Christine McFarland; Katherine Butler; Ollson, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was conducted to evaluate the potential community health implications of a proposed oil drilling and production project in Hermosa Beach, California. The HIA considered 17 determinants of health that fell under 6 major categories (i.e., air quality, water and soil quality, upset conditions, noise and light emissions, traffic, and community livability). Material and Methods: This paper attempts to address some of the gaps within the HIA practice b...

  9. An overview of the mental health system in Gaza: an assessment using the World Health Organization’s Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Saymah, Dyaa; Tait, Lynda; Michail, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental health system reform is urgently needed in Gaza to respond to increasing mental health consequences of conflict. Evidence from mental health systems research is needed to inform decision-making. We aimed to provide new knowledge on current mental health policy and legislation, and services and resource use, in Gaza to identify quality gaps and areas for urgent intervention. Methods As part of a mixed methods study, we used the World Health Organization’s Assessment Instrumen...

  10. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. Environmental monitoring coupled with other measures including active and passive controls and the implementation of environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits) are used to ensure environmental health in manned spacecraft. NASA scientists and engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. Environmental monitoring data confirms the health of ECLS systems, in addition to contributing to the management of the health of human systems. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of Exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of this assessment and findings are presented in this paper.

  11. The effect evaluation of the cumulative assessment model in nursing safety control%累计考核管理模式在护理安全管理中应用的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢惠兰; 罗敏; 欧阳庆; 刘玉娥; 成放群; 周利华; 胡碧波; 周扬飞; 张晓玲

    2014-01-01

    目的 探索累计考核管理模式在护理安全管理中的应用及效果评价.方法 在原有“累计扣分制”被动处罚式的管理模式的基础上逐步建立主动预防式的安全管理模式.以5个试点病房为研究对象,比较实施前后护士安全意识及患者安全文化的认知、不良事件主动报告、护理质量及患者满意度的变化情况.结果 5个试点病房的护理人员安全意识及患者安全文化的认知度提高,不良事件主动呈报率较前增多,护理质量及患者满意度提高.结论 通过建立累计考核管理模式改变了以前“扣分、批评、通报、处罚”的管理模式,强化了护士的安全认知和安全行为,构建了积极的患者安全文化氛围,采用“不惩罚”及“保密”的原则,系统地收集、分析、梳理、总结、共享不良事件信息,并着重分析系统层面、管理因素、环境因素的综合成因,逐步实现从系统的角度处理安全隐患的风险管理策略,达到前馈控制安全事件的发生,形成一个利用差错信息来提高护理质量和患者安全的主动预防式管理模式.%Objective To explore the application and the effect evaluation of cumulative assessment management model in nursing safety control.Methods The original passive punishment management such as "cumulative deduction model" was gradually transformed into active precaution safety management model.The objects of research were 5 wards that the cumulative assessment model was applied to.The results were used to compare the changes of the nurses' safety consciousness,patients' safety culture cognition,spontaneous reporting of the adverse events,nursing quality and patients satisfaction before and after the implementation of active precaution safety management.Results In the 5 wards,nurses' safety consciousness and patients' safety culture cognition were improved; the spontaneous reporting of the adverse events increased and the nursing

  12. Integration of site-specific health information: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry health assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, A.M.; Siegel, M.R.

    1990-12-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry is required to conduct a health assessment of any site that is listed on or proposed for the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List. Sixteen US Department of Energy (DOE) sites currently fall into this category. Health assessments contain a qualitative description of impacts to public health and the environment from hazardous waste sites, as well as recommendations for actions to mitigate or eliminate risk. Because these recommendations may have major impacts on compliance activities at DOE facilities, the health assessments are an important source of information for the monitoring activities of DOE's Office of Environmental Compliance (OEC). This report provides an overview of the activities involved in preparing the health assessment, its role in environmental management, and its key elements.

  13. A short assessment of health literacy (SAHL) in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Pander Maat, Henk; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Leenaars, Karlijn EF; Fransen, Mirjam P

    2014-01-01

    Background An earlier attempt to adapt the REALM (Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine) word recognition test to Dutch was not entirely successful due to ceiling effects. In contrast to REALM, the Short Assessment of Health Literacy (SAHL) assesses both word recognition and comprehension in the health domain. The aim of this study was to design, test and validate a SAHL for Dutch patients (SAHL-D). Methods We pretested 95 health-related terms (n = 127) and selected 33 best performing ...

  14. Assessment of the Health Impacts of Climate Change in Kiribati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan McIver

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kiribati—a low-lying, resource-poor Pacific atoll nation—is one of the most vulnerable countries in the World to the impacts of climate change, including the likely detrimental effects on human health. We describe the preparation of a climate change and health adaptation plan for Kiribati carried out by the World Health Organization and the Kiribati Ministry of Health and Medical Services, including an assessment of risks to health, sources of vulnerability and suggestions for highest priority adaptation responses. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages in the process that was followed, lays out a future direction of climate change and health adaptation work in Kiribati, and proposes lessons that may be applicable to other small, developing island nations as they prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change on health.

  15. Utilisation of medical technology assessment in health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, WJA; Wieringh, R; van den Heuvel, LPM

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of medical technology assessment (MTA) to health policy decision making, the question has to be answered whether MTA is actually being used in decision-making processes and what factors are related to its utilisation. Design: We investigated recent Dutch policy

  16. Outcomes Assessment in Accredited Health Information Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dorine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the use and perceived usefulness of outcomes assessment methods in health information management programs. Additional characteristics of the outcomes assessment practices were recognized. The findings were evaluated for significant differences in results based on age of the program, type of institution,…

  17. A short assessment of health literacy (SAHL) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pander Maat, Henk; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Leenaars, Karlijn EF; Fransen, Mirjam P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: An earlier attempt to adapt the REALM (Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine) word recognition test to Dutch was not entirely successful due to ceiling effects. In contrast to REALM, the Short Assessment of Health Literacy (SAHL) assesses both word recognition and compreh

  18. Prioritising investments in health technology assessment: can we assess the potential value for money?

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Davies; Mike Drummond; Panos Papanikoloau

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to develop an economic prioritisation model to assist those involved in (i) the selection and prioritisation of health technology assessment topics and (ii) commissioning of HTA projects. The model used decision analytic techniques to estimate the expected costs and benefits of the health care interventions which were the focus of the HTA question(s) considered by the NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme in England. Initial estimation of the value for money of HTA was ...

  19. A new adaptive testing algorithm for shortening health literacy assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currie Leanne M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low health literacy has a detrimental effect on health outcomes, as well as ability to use online health resources. Good health literacy assessment tools must be brief to be adopted in practice; test development from the perspective of item-response theory requires pretesting on large participant populations. Our objective was to develop a novel classification method for developing brief assessment instruments that does not require pretesting on large numbers of research participants, and that would be suitable for computerized adaptive testing. Methods We present a new algorithm that uses principles of measurement decision theory (MDT and Shannon's information theory. As a demonstration, we applied it to a secondary analysis of data sets from two assessment tests: a study that measured patients' familiarity with health terms (52 participants, 60 items and a study that assessed health numeracy (165 participants, 8 items. Results In the familiarity data set, the method correctly classified 88.5% of the subjects, and the average length of test was reduced by about 50%. In the numeracy data set, for a two-class classification scheme, 96.9% of the subjects were correctly classified with a more modest reduction in test length of 35.7%; a three-class scheme correctly classified 93.8% with a 17.7% reduction in test length. Conclusions MDT-based approaches are a promising alternative to approaches based on item-response theory, and are well-suited for computerized adaptive testing in the health domain.

  20. River Health Assessment Based on Fuzzy Matter-element Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to assess the health state of rivers by using fuzzy matter-element model.[Method] Based on fuzzy matter-element analysis theory,the assessment model of river health was established,then a modified method to calculate the superior subordinate degree was put forward according to Hamming distance.Afterwards,a multi-level evaluation model,which contained the assessment indicators about hydrological features,ecological characteristics,environmental traits and service function,was set ...

  1. Assessment in health psychology: Introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Zeeshan

    2016-09-01

    For the past 27 years, has been committed to publishing empirical research relevant to clinical assessment of basic and applied cognition, personality, interpersonal behavior, psychopathology, forensics, and biological psychology. There is growing interest in the use of patient-centered outcomes in medical/surgical care and for measuring health care performance. Patient-centered outcome measures complement traditional clinical outcomes of morbidity and mortality, capturing the patient's perspective regarding their health and its treatment. In this issue, we highlight 11 articles that address different aspects of such work. The articles in this special issue represent both the depth and breadth of the opportunities that exist for psychological assessment in the health setting. While there are countless patient-centered measures currently in use to measure health and health outcomes, the evidence base for their use can be quite variable (Butt, 2016). The hope is that future issues of will highlight more work in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27536998

  2. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  3. Assessing health impacts of the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project: challenges and a way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health impact assessment (HIA) of projects, programmes and policies is increasingly recognized as a powerful methodology for mitigating negative health impacts and enhancing equitable and sustainable development, yet applications in the developing world are sparse. Here, we focus on a large infrastructure development in sub-Saharan Africa, namely the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project. We adapted a five-step process for HIA, consisting of (1) screening of project documents, (2) profiling of affected communities, (3) identifying priority health areas, predicting potential impacts, and proposing mitigation measures, (4) implementing interventions, and (5) monitoring and evaluation of health impacts. We found that project scoping was broad, including extensive environmental and social assessments. Innovative features of the project include the high degree of public-private partnerships, and the management of oil revenues for purposes of poverty reduction. The project also addressed occupational and public health issues, and developed and implemented measures to prevent or mitigate potential health impacts. However, there was a disproportionate emphasis on workers' health, particularly on the prevention/mitigation of construction-related injuries, sexually transmitted infections (STIs; mainly HIV/AIDS), and malaria. Health impacts among surrounding communities, and cumulative health impacts in the larger region were not considered in a comprehensive way. Concluding, there is a need for a more systemic approach to HIA and its incorporation within 'Equator Principles', which are increasingly adopted by the international financial community. This process would include clarification of corporate social responsibility beyond the project fence line in the mitigation of health problems at regional levels. Finally, we propose the establishment and running of a longitudinal demographic surveillance system, which--coupled with regular household surveys

  4. Editorial: Lead Risk Assessment and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Howard W.

    2016-01-01

    In 1980, Clair C. Patterson stated: “Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century”. We live in the near future about which this quote expressed concern. This special volume of 19 papers explores the status of scientific evidence regarding Dr. Patterson’s statement on the habitability of the environments of communities. Authors from 10 countries describe a variety of lead issues in the context of large and small communities, smelter sites, lead industries, lead-based painted houses, and vehicle fuel treated with lead additives dispersed by traffic. These articles represent the microcosm of the larger health issues associated with lead. The challenges of lead risk require a concerted global action for primary prevention. PMID:27314364

  5. Editorial: Lead Risk Assessment and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard W. Mielke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1980, Clair C. Patterson stated: “Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century”. We live in the near future about which this quote expressed concern. This special volume of 19 papers explores the status of scientific evidence regarding Dr. Patterson’s statement on the habitability of the environments of communities. Authors from 10 countries describe a variety of lead issues in the context of large and small communities, smelter sites, lead industries, lead-based painted houses, and vehicle fuel treated with lead additives dispersed by traffic. These articles represent the microcosm of the larger health issues associated with lead. The challenges of lead risk require a concerted global action for primary prevention.

  6. The "SMART Travel Health" Mobile Application Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Parisis; Mantas, John

    2015-01-01

    An empirical study was conducted to evaluate the users' perception on a pilot mobile application ("SMART Travel Health"), their attitude towards use, and their intention to use it. A theoretical model was constructed based on TAM and other related works. The population was 88 travellers who used the pilot application. Data analysis was performed using partial least squares path modeling. Results highlight the very strong significant effect of perceived ease of use to perceived usefulness, the strong significant effect of perceived usefulness to attitude towards use, as well as, the significant effect of perceived ease of use to attitude towards using the application. Also, the strong significant effect of attitude towards use to behavioral intention to use is presenting the positive perception of the population about this mobile application. PMID:26153000

  7. Health Technology Assessment of Integrated Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Background: The fragmented delivery of healthcare and social services as advanced by WHO 2002. Objectives: This project of international collaboration assesses integrated home care (IHC) for frail elder somatic patients as compared to usual hospital care. Methods: The HTA follows the special......-up: Stroke: A meta-analysis including 14 randomized trials (N=2139) demonstrate a significant reduction (p< 0.001) in the risk being dead or dependent compared with conventional care with OR=0.75 (CI95%: 0.61-0.92). HF: 3 RCT (N=568) demonstrate each a significant reduction of all-cause readmissions. A meta...

  8. Some Insights on Grassland Health Assessment Based on Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grassland ecosystem is one of the largest ecosystems, which naturally occurs on all continents excluding Antarctica and provides both ecological and economic functions. The deterioration of natural grassland has been attracting many grassland researchers to monitor the grassland condition and dynamics for decades. Remote sensing techniques, which are advanced in dealing with the scale constraints of ecological research and provide temporal information, become a powerful approach of grassland ecosystem monitoring. So far, grassland health monitoring studies have mostly focused on different areas, for example, productivity evaluation, classification, vegetation dynamics, livestock carrying capacity, grazing intensity, natural disaster detecting, fire, climate change, coverage assessment and soil erosion. However, the grassland ecosystem is a complex system which is formed by soil, vegetation, wildlife and atmosphere. Thus, it is time to consider the grassland ecosystem as an entity synthetically and establish an integrated grassland health monitoring system to combine different aspects of the complex grassland ecosystem. In this review, current grassland health monitoring methods, including rangeland health assessment, ecosystem health assessment and grassland monitoring by remote sensing from different aspects, are discussed along with the future directions of grassland health assessment.

  9. Some insights on grassland health assessment based on remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin

    2015-01-01

    Grassland ecosystem is one of the largest ecosystems, which naturally occurs on all continents excluding Antarctica and provides both ecological and economic functions. The deterioration of natural grassland has been attracting many grassland researchers to monitor the grassland condition and dynamics for decades. Remote sensing techniques, which are advanced in dealing with the scale constraints of ecological research and provide temporal information, become a powerful approach of grassland ecosystem monitoring. So far, grassland health monitoring studies have mostly focused on different areas, for example, productivity evaluation, classification, vegetation dynamics, livestock carrying capacity, grazing intensity, natural disaster detecting, fire, climate change, coverage assessment and soil erosion. However, the grassland ecosystem is a complex system which is formed by soil, vegetation, wildlife and atmosphere. Thus, it is time to consider the grassland ecosystem as an entity synthetically and establish an integrated grassland health monitoring system to combine different aspects of the complex grassland ecosystem. In this review, current grassland health monitoring methods, including rangeland health assessment, ecosystem health assessment and grassland monitoring by remote sensing from different aspects, are discussed along with the future directions of grassland health assessment. PMID:25643060

  10. Assessing and responding to infant mental health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Judy

    2013-09-01

    Early recognition of mental health problems in maltreated infants, coupled with tailored support to aid recovery, has the potential to offer significant benefits to a population whose needs have perhaps remained hidden in the past. All forms of maltreatment may adversely affect infant mental health, but perhaps none more so than emotional neglect. Universal contact with families with young children makes health visitors ideally placed to provide early support to this vulnerable group, but such practice requires considerable knowledge and understanding. This paper examines how emotional neglect can impact on an infant's mental health and explores how health visitors can assess and respond effectively to this key health need. Throughout, the term 'infant' is used to describe children from birth to age three. PMID:24133942

  11. Community Health Needs Assessments: Filling Data Gaps for Population Health Research and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Community health needs assessments (CHNA) are completed to meet varied regulatory and statutory requirements for local public health departments, tax-exempt 501(c)(3) hospitals, and Federally Qualified Health Centers. Although compliance is a motivating factor, these entities are committed to understanding the communities they serve and to developing strategies to address health needs and inequities in health and health care. Filling Data Gaps: CHNAs have the potential to improve the health of communities and populations by giving crucial qualitative and quantitative context to hospital and patient data, thereby enhancing opportunities for health services and clinical outcomes researchers. Filling in these data gaps can help to improve population health by highlighting community-and social determinant-related dynamics relevant to the improved health of the community. CHNAs and EHRs for Population Health: Successful models exist that that have used CHNAs and the resulting data to improve population health management and reduce inequities, as do health systems that have used the EHR and community-based performance measurement data to achieve population health goals. PMID:25848631

  12. Rapid Health and Needs assessments after disasters: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yzermans CJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publichealth care providers, stakeholders and policy makers request a rapid insight into health status and needs of the affected population after disasters. To our knowledge, there is no standardized rapid assessment tool for European countries. The aim of this article is to describe existing tools used internationally and analyze them for the development of a workable rapid assessment. Methods A review was conducted, including original studies concerning a rapid health and/or needs assessment. The studies used were published between 1980 and 2009. The electronic databasesof Medline, Embase, SciSearch and Psychinfo were used. Results Thirty-three studies were included for this review. The majority of the studies was of US origin and in most cases related to natural disasters, especially concerning the weather. In eighteen studies an assessment was conducted using a structured questionnaire, eleven studies used registries and four used both methods. Questionnaires were primarily used to asses the health needs, while data records were used to assess the health status of disaster victims. Conclusions Methods most commonly used were face to face interviews and data extracted from existing registries. Ideally, a rapid assessment tool is needed which does not add to the burden of disaster victims. In this perspective, the use of existing medical registries in combination with a brief questionnaire in the aftermath of disasters is the most promising. Since there is an increasing need for such a tool this approach needs further examination.

  13. Counseling Health Psychology: Assessing Health Psychology Training within Counseling Psychology Doctoral Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2013-01-01

    Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…

  14. "Sexual Health Assessment" for Mental Health and Medical Practitioners: Teaching Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Barnaby B.; Rand, Marsha A.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of including sexual health assessment (SHA) within the biopsychosocial evaluations of mental health and medical practice is discussed, and various protocols available in the extant literature are reviewed. Six principles for SHA are presented as well as a model protocol consisting of six basic lines of questioning with specific…

  15. Advancing Efforts to Achieve Health Equity: Equity Metrics for Health Impact Assessment Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Heller; Givens, Marjory L.; Yuen, Tina K.; Solange Gould; Maria Benkhalti Jandu; Emily Bourcier; Tim Choi

    2014-01-01

    Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communit...

  16. The Latino Mental Health Project: A Local Mental Health Needs Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Cardemil, Esteban V.; Adams, Sara T.; Calista, Joanne L.; Connell, Joy; Encarnación, José; Esparza, Nancy K.; Frohock, Jeanne; Hicks, Ellen; Kim, Saeromi; Kokernak, Gerald; McGrenra, Michael; Mestre, Ray; Pérez, Maria; Pinedo, Tatiana M.; Quagan, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a local needs assessment of the mental health experiences, service needs, and barriers to treatment-seeking of the Latino population in Worcester, Massachusetts. Overall, participants reported relatively high rates of experiences with symptoms of mental health problems, they indicated using a range of both formal and alternative mental health services, and they noted a variety of instrumental, attitudinal, and culturally-specific barriers to seeking ...

  17. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA. PMID:27021760

  18. An economic assessment of population health risk in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of economic assessment of population health risk as a tool of life qualitymanagement and qualityof labor resources in the region (as factors of a region’s economic security. The technique is based on the cost of reducing the period of disability in the implementation of population health risk and takes into account the effects of risk prevention on levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The method intends to support making decisions on planning measures to reduce population health risk at the level of regions, territories and separate objects to assess their cost-performance, optimization of investment and operating costs to reduce the population health risk and sustainable development of the territory

  19. Palau assessment for a continuing health care professional development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tai-Ho; Dever, Gregory; Kuartei, Stevenson; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2007-03-01

    In 2003, the University of Hawai'i Department of Family Medicine and Community Health entered a 4-year cooperative agreement with the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration to establish the "Pacific Association for Clinical Training" (PACT). PACT's goal is to develop effective distance education methods to improve the education and skills of health care professionals in the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Island nations. To determine the situation existing in 2004, one of PACT's first projects was to perform site visits to each jurisdiction, conducting needs assessments through interviews with key health care professionals, hospital administrators and government officials. This article highlights findings of PACT's Palau assessment. Meant to establish a baseline for future reference, all data were collected in 2004-2005 and have not been updated. PMID:19772140

  20. Uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from Legionella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet eWhiley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health concern. Current regulatory and management guidelines for the control of this organism are informed by risk assessments. However, there are many unanswered questions and uncertainties regarding Legionella epidemiology, strain infectivity, infectious dose and detection methods. This review follows the EnHealth Risk Assessment Framework, to examine the current information available regarding Legionella risk and discuss the uncertainties and assumptions. This review can be used as a tool for understanding the uncertainties associated with Legionella risk assessment. It also serves to highlight the areas of Legionella research that require future focus. Improvement of these uncertainties will provide information to enhance risk management practises for Legionella, potentially improving public health protection and reducing the economic costs by streamlining current management practises.

  1. Reduction of inequalities in health: assessing evidence-based tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shea Beverley

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reduction of health inequalities is a focus of many national and international health organisations. The need for pragmatic evidence-based approaches has led to the development of a number of evidence-based equity initiatives. This paper describes a new program that focuses upon evidence- based tools, which are useful for policy initiatives that reduce inequities. Methods This paper is based on a presentation that was given at the "Regional Consultation on Policy Tools: Equity in Population Health Reports," held in Toronto, Canada in June 2002. Results Five assessment tools were presented. 1. A database of systematic reviews on the effects of educational, legal, social, and health interventions to reduce unfair inequalities is being established through the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. 2 Decision aids and shared decision making can be facilitated in disadvantaged groups by 'health coaches' to help people become better decision makers, negotiators, and navigators of the health system; a pilot study in Chile has provided proof of this concept. 3. The CIET Cycle: Combining adapted cluster survey techniques with qualitative methods, CIET's population based applications support evidence-based decision making at local and national levels. The CIET map generates maps directly from survey or routine institutional data, to be used as evidence-based decisions aids. Complex data can be displayed attractively, providing an important tool for studying and comparing health indicators among and between different populations. 4. The Ottawa Equity Gauge is applying the Global Equity Gauge Alliance framework to an industrialised country setting. 5 The Needs-Based Health Assessment Toolkit, established to assemble information on which clinical and health policy decisions can be based, is being expanded to ensure a focus on distribution and average health indicators. Conclusion Evidence-based planning tools have much to offer the

  2. Protocols for conducting dolphin capture-release health assessment studies

    OpenAIRE

    Fair, Patricia A.; Jeffrey D. Adams; Zolman, Eric; McCulloch, Stephen D.; Goldstein, Juli D.; Murdoch, M. Elizabeth; Varela, Rene; Hansen, Larry; Townsend, Forrest; Kucklick, John; Bryan, Colleen; Christopher, Steven; Pugh, Rebecca; Bossart, Gregory D.

    2006-01-01

    Marine mammals, such as dolphins, can serve as key indicator species in coastal areas by reflecting the effects of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such they are often considered sentinels of environmental and ecosystem health (Bossart 2006; Wells et al. 2004; Fair and Becker 2000). The bottlenose dolphin is an apex predator and a key component of many estuarine environments in the southeastern United States (Woodward-Clyde Consultants 1994; SCDNR 2005). Health assessments of dolphins ...

  3. An assessment of bioterrorism competencies among health practitioners in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Deon Canyon

    2010-01-01

    Public health and medical professionals are expected to be well-prepared for emergencies since they assume an integral role in any response. They need to be aware of planning issues, be able to identify their roles in emergency situations, and show functional competence. However, media perceptions and non-empirical publications often lack an evidence base when addressing this topic. This study attempted to assess the competencies of various health professionals by obtaining quantitat...

  4. Assessments of biofuel sustainability: air pollution and health impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, Chi-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels, particularly, on air quality and human health. Sugarcane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here a systematic framework, including emission modeling, air quality simulation, and health impact assessment was developed to quanti...

  5. Health State Preference Assessment in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Sean D.; Doris P. Lew; E. Beth Devine; Zafar Hakim; Gayle E. Reiber; Veenstra, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess patient preferences for health states associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Design and intervention: Seven health states describing varying stages of disease severity in DPN were developed: mild neuropathy, painful neuropathy, severe neuropathy, minor ulcer, severe ulcer, minor amputation and major amputation. Using a computer interview, both rating scale (RS) and standard gamble (SG) preference scores were elicited from 52 patients with diabetes mellitus....

  6. The evolution of health literacy assessment tools: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Altin, Sibel Vildan; Finke, Isabelle; Kautz-Freimuth, Sibylle; Stock, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Health literacy (HL) is seen as an increasingly relevant issue for global public health and requires a reliable and comprehensive operationalization. By now, there is limited evidence on how the development of tools measuring HL proceeded in recent years and if scholars considered existing methodological guidance when developing an instrument. Methods We performed a systematic review of generic measurement tools developed to assess HL by searching PubMed, ERIC, CINAHL and Web of Kn...

  7. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES ampersand H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy's continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES ampersand H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES ampersand H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES ampersand H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included

  8. Health technology assessment. Evaluation of biomedical innovative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Giuseppe; Spadoni, Enza; Geisler, Eliezer Elie

    2010-01-01

    This article describes health technology assessment (HTA) as an evaluation tool that applies systematic methods of inquiry to the generation and use of health technologies and new products. The focus of this article is on the contributions of HTA to the management of the new product development effort in the biomedical organization. Critical success factors (CSFs) are listed, and their role in assessing success is defined and explained. One of the conclusions of this article is that HTA is a powerful tool for managers in the biomedical sector, allowing them to better manage their innovation effort in their continuing struggle for competitiveness and survival. PMID:20659860

  9. Mental Health Screening and Assessment of Detained Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Matthew; McBride, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The effective rehabilitation of detained youth begins with optimal screening of their mental health needs as they enter the juvenile delinquency system. The Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Version 2 is the most used and empirically proven tool to screen juveniles. Juvenile facilities should consider the use of screening instruments like the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Version 2 as close to intake as feasible. Mental health professionals working in these systems of care will then need adequate resources to assess the mental health needs according to a biopsychosocial model of these youth. PMID:26593116

  10. Differing forms, differing purposes: A typology of health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently considerable diversity in health impact assessment (HIA) practice internationally. Historically this diversity has been described as simple dichotomies, for example the differences between HIAs of projects and policies. However these distinctions have failed to adequately describe the differences that can be observed between different forms of HIAs. This paper describes the three historical and disciplinary fields from which HIA has emerged - environmental health, a social view of health, and health equity. It also puts forward a typology of four different forms of HIA that can be observed in current HIA practice: mandated, decision-support, advocacy, and community-led HIAs. This paper argues that these different forms of HIA serve different purposes and are not necessarily in competition; rather they allow HIA to be responsive to a range of population health concerns and purposes.

  11. Assessing the Anthropogenic Impact on Environment by Health Soil Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geanina Bireescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of soil health due to the current intensive agricultural practices for increasing the level of food production, in terms of both quality and quantity, should be a concern of major interest to the health of plants, animals, humans and environment. Soil health is the net result of the processes of preservation and degradation, depending on the biological component of soil ecosystem that affects plant and environmental health, food safety and quality. This research aimed to assess the main physical, chemical and biological indicators of soil health and the indicators of soil residual pollution in the intensive olericultural systems in transition to organic systems for ensuring a sustainable management. Our research was carried out in conventional olecultural systems of North-Eastern Romania in conversion to organic systems.The conversion intoorganic systems has reduced the effects of intensive practices, creating the premises for an optimal biological activity and production of healthier vegetables.

  12. The Assessment of Mental Health within Health Personnel and Paramedical in "Tabriz Social Insurance Hospitals", Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzan Vahideh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mental health is an important part of individual, social and occupational life. World Health Organization defines mental health as absolute ability of performing social, physical and mental roles. Inattention to mental health is one of the important factors that lowers efficacy, uses up human powers, causes physical and mental complications and job exhaustion, especially in professional services. As health personnel is major part of health services and their high job incentive is a necessity for their health insurance, this research was implemented to assess their mental health quality. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional, correlative study which is conducted on 190 health personnel. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Demographic characteristics and Goldenberg general health questionnaire-28 data analysis was performed by using SPSS and statistical methods were independent samples t-test, chi-square, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlative index. Results: Two-third of cases were female, mean age was 32.22. 76.3% were married, 49.5% had no child, and most of the others had one child. 32.2% of cases had mental disorders (score > 23. Conclusion: Mean score of cases was 21, this score comparing with the general population of Iran is high. Mental health of health personnel for many reasons is at risk. According to these findings, great stressors of such jobs are: Facing with unexpected situations, work turns, especially night turns, organizational and individual factors.

  13. A framework for assessing e-health preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini S; Fadlalla, Adam M A; Geisler, Elie; Schaffer, Jonathan L

    2005-01-01

    Whilst healthcare is the biggest service industry on the globe, it has yet to realise the full potential of the e-business revolution in the form of e-health. This is due to many reasons including the fact that the healthcare industry is faced with many complex challenges in trying to deliver cost-effective, high-value, accessible healthcare and has traditionally been slow to embrace new business techniques and technologies. Given that e-health, to a great extent, is a macro level concern that has far reaching micro level implications, this paper firstly develops a framework to assess a country's preparedness with respect to embracing e-health (the application of e-commerce to healthcare) and from this an e-health preparedness grid to facilitate the assessment of any e-health initiative. Taken together, the integrative framework and preparedness grid provide useful and necessary tools to enable successful e-health initiatives to ensue by helping country and/or an organisation within a country to identify and thus address areas that require further attention in order for it to undertake a successful e-health initiative. PMID:18048213

  14. Predicting cumulative risk of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) using feedlot arrival data and daily morbidity and mortality counts

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Abram H.; White, Brad J.; Renter, David G.; Dubnicka, Suzanne R.; Scott, H. Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Although bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is common in post-weaning cattle, BRDC prediction models are seldom analyzed. The objectives of this study were to assess the ability to predict cumulative cohort-level BRDC morbidity using on-arrival risk factors and to evaluate whether or not adding BRDC risk classification and daily BRDC morbidity and mortality data to the models enhanced their predictive ability. Retrospective cohort-level and individual animal health data were used to cr...

  15. The need for health impact assessment in China: Potential benefits for public health and steps forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a useful tool to predict and estimate the potential health impact associated with programs, projects, and policies by comprehensively identifying relevant health determinants and their consequences. China is undergoing massive and rapid socio-economic changes leading to environment and population health challenges such as a large increase in non-communicable diseases, the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases, new health risks associated with environmental pollutants and escalating health inequality. These health issues are affected by multiple determinants which can be influenced by planned policies, programs, and projects. This paper discusses the needs for health impact assessment in China in order to minimize the negative health consequences from projects, programs and policies associated with rapid social and economic development. It first describes the scope of China's current impact assessment system and points out its inadequacy in meeting the requirements of population health protection and promotion. It then analyses the potential use of HIA and why China needs to develop and apply HIA as a tool to identify potential health impacts of proposed programs, projects and policies so as to influence decision-making early in the planning process. Thus, the paper recommends the development of HIA as a useful tool in China to enhance decision-making for the protection and promotion of population health. For this to happen, the paper outlines steps necessary for the establishment and successful implementation of HIA in China: beginning with the establishment of a HIA framework, followed by workforce capacity building, methodology design, and intersectoral collaboration and stakeholder engagement.

  16. Assessment of public health impact of work-related asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakkola Maritta S; Jaakkola Jouni JK

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases in working-aged populations and occupational exposures are important causal agents. Our aims were to evaluate the best methods to assess occurrence, public health impact, and burden to society related to occupational or work-related asthma and to achieve comparable estimates for different populations. Methods We addressed three central questions: 1: What is the best method to assess the occurrence of occupational asthma? We ...

  17. Assessment of health risks caused by air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a support document to an other report from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 'Risk assessment - a research programme aimed at health risks from air pollution in the general environment', report 3890, 1991 and is a survey of the scientific 'state of the art' in the different parts of risk assessment. Furthermore certain proposals are made concerning the scientific content of the future research in this area. (au)

  18. The Relation between Adolescent Self Assessment of Health and Risk Behaviours: Could a Global Measure of Health Provide Indications of Health Risk Exposures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Walker, Ashley Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations' physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents' subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing…

  19. A Health Impact Assessment Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning for Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Brown; Jeffery Spickett; Dianne Katscherian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action o...

  20. Development of a Health Screening Package Under the Universal Health Coverage: The Role of Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Kingkaew, Pritaporn; Koopitakkajorn, Tanunya; Youngkong, Sitaporn; Tritasavit, Nattha; Srisuwan, Patsri; Tantivess, Sripen

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the systematic development of a population-based health screening package for all Thai people under the universal health coverage (UHC). To determine major disease areas and health problems for which health screening could mitigate health burden, a consultation process was conducted in a systematic, participatory, and evidence-based manner that involved 41 stakeholders in a half-day workshop. Twelve diseases/health problems were identified during the discussion. Subsequently, health technology assessments, including systematic review and meta-analysis of health benefits as well as economic evaluations and budget impact analyses of corresponding population-based screening interventions, were completed. The results led to advice against elements of current clinical practice, such as annual chest X-rays and particular blood tests (e.g. kidney function test), and indicated that the introduction of certain new population-based health screening programs, such as for chronic hepatitis B, would provide substantial health and economic benefits to the Thais. The final results were presented to a wide group of stakeholders, including decision-makers at the Ministry of Public Health and the public health insurance schemes, to verify and validate the findings and policy recommendations. The package has been endorsed by the Thai UHC Benefit Package Committee for implementation in fiscal year 2016. PMID:26774008

  1. Migrants, health, and happiness: Evidence that health assessments travel with migrants and predict well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljunge, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Health assessments correlate with health outcomes and subjective well-being. Immigrants offer an opportunity to study persistent social influences on health where the social conditions are not endogenous to individual outcomes. This approach provides a clear direction of causality from social conditions to health, and in a second stage to well-being. Natives and immigrants from across the world residing in 30 European countries are studied using survey data. The paper applies within country analysis using both linear regressions and two stage least squares. Natives' and immigrants' individual characteristics have similar predictive power for health, except Muslim immigrants who experience a sizeable health penalty. Average health reports in the immigrant's birth country have a significant association with the immigrant's current health. Almost a quarter of the birth country health variation is brought by the immigrants, while conditioning on socioeconomic characteristics. There is no evidence of the birth country predictive power declining neither as the immigrant spends more time in the residence country nor over the life course. The second stage estimates indicate that a one standard deviation improvement in health predicts higher happiness by 1.72 point or 0.82 of a standard deviation, more than four times the happiness difference of changing employment status from unemployed to employed. Studying life satisfaction yields similar results. Health improvements predict substantial increases in individual happiness. PMID:27015612

  2. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  3. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-01-01

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated. PMID:26377091

  4. Reimbursement of pharmaceuticals: Reference pricing versus health technology assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Drummond (Michael); B. Jönsson (Bengt); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans); T. Stargardt (Tom)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractReference pricing and health technology assessment are policies commonly applied in order to obtain more value for money from pharmaceuticals. This study focussed on decisions about the initial price and reimbursement status of innovative drugs and discussed the consequences for market a

  5. PILOT VOLUNTEER TRAINING FOR WETLAND MONITORING AND HEALTH ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Bays Estuary Program expressed a need to better assess and monitor the health of their saltmarshes. By training citizen volunteers in the methodologies of saltmarsh bioassessment, Mass Bays saw the additional opportunity to engage the public in their estuary protec...

  6. Environmental Epigenetics: Potential Application in Human Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although previous studies have shown a significant involvement of epigenetic dysregulation in human diseases, the applicability of epigenetic data in the current human health risk assessment paradigm is unclear. The goals of this study are to compare the relative sensitivities of...

  7. A 21st Century Roadmap for Human Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    For decades human health risk assessment has depended primarily on animal testing to predict adverse effects in humans, but that paradigm has come under question because of calls for more accurate information, less use of animals, and more efficient use of resources. Moreover, t...

  8. Soil Health Assessment Approaches and the Cornell Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Harold

    2016-04-01

    Soil health constraints beyond nutrient limitations and excesses currently limit agroecosystem productivity and sustainability, resilience to drought and extreme rainfall, and progress in soil and water conservation. With mounting pressure to produce food, feed, fiber, and even fuel for an increasing population, the concept of soil health is gaining national and international attention. Multiple regional, national, and global efforts are now leveraging that work to reach new stakeholder audiences, so that soil health management is expanding into mainstream agriculture. Each grower is generally faced with a unique situation in the choice of management options to address soil health constraints and each system affords its own set of opportunities or limitations to soil management. A more comprehensive understanding of soil health status can better guide farmers' management decisions. Until recently, there has not been a formalized decision making process for implementing a soil health management system that alleviates field-specific constrains identified through standard measurements and then maintains improved soil health. This presentation will discuss current US-based efforts related to soil health assessment, including efforts to build national consensus on appropriate methods for simple (inexpensive) and comprehensive tests. This includes the Cornell Soil Health Management Planning and Implementation Framework. The most relevant components of the framework are 1) measurement of indicators that represent critical soil processes, 2) scoring of measured values that allows for interpretation, and 3) linkage of identified constraints with management practices. Land managers can monitor changes over time through further assessment, and adapt management practices to achieve chosen goals. We will discuss the full tests and approaches for simplification.

  9. Assessment of Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) Risk for 3 Different Tasks Constructing and Repairing Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) Blankets, Preparing the Dough for a Pizza, and Operating the Becton-Dickinson FACSAria Flow Cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentzler, Marc; Kline, Martin; Palmer, Andrew; Terrone, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) risks for three different tasks using McCauley-Bell and Badiru's (1993) formula based on task, personal, and organizational factors were examined. For the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blanket task, the results showed that the task, personal, and organizational risks were at about the same level. The personal risk factors for this task were evaluated using a hypothetical female employee age 52. For the pizza dough task, it was shown that the organizational risk was particularly high, with task related factors also at quite dangerous levels. On the other hand, there was a very low level of personal risk factors, based on a female age 17. The flow cytometer task was assessed with three different participants, a11 of whom had quite disparate levels of personal risk, which slightly affected the overall CTD risk. This reveals how individual difference variables certainly need to be considered. The task and organizational risks for this task were rated at about the same moderate level. The overall CTD risk averaged across the three participants was .335, indicating some risk. Compruing across the tasks revealed that the pizza dough task created the greatest overall CTD risk by far (.568), with the MLI (.325) and flow cytometer task (.335) having some risk associated with them. Future research should look into different tasks for more of a comparison

  10. Equity-focused health impact assessment: A tool to assist policy makers in addressing health inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely assess the potential health and equity impacts of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health impacts and assessing the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the case study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA

  11. Development and Implementation of Health Technology Assessment: A Policy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Abooee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA in Iran since 2007, and to facilitate further development of HTA and its integration into policy making.Methods: Data of this study were collected through key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation and analyzed by experts of opinion in form of qualitative methods.Results: Health technology assessment entered to the political agenda in Iran only in 2007 with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement with the bellow objectives: Institutionalization of evidence-based decision making in Ministry of Health, Creating an localization for structural HTA in Health system of Iran, Setting up training courses in order to educate capable manpower to full up the capacity of the universities, Establishment of a new field in HTA subject in medical universities for MSc and PhD degree, International communication about HTA through national website and possible participation in international Congress.Conclusion: HTA has been established in the healthcare system of Iran but what is needed is a clear political will to push forward the objectives of HTA in Iran. Similar to other countries, advance the regulation on the adoption of new health technologies to improve not only technical or allocate efficiency, but also health equity.

  12. Assessing Organizational Readiness for a Participatory Occupational Health/Health Promotion Intervention in Skilled Nursing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Flum, Marian; West, Cheryl; Punnett, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The long-term care sector is characterized by high morbidity and employee turnover, along with associated costs. Effective health protection and health promotion are important to improve physical and psychosocial well-being of caregivers. Assessment of organizational readiness for change is an essential precursor to the successful implementation of workplace programs addressing work climate, structure of tasks and relationships, and other issues that may be perceived as challenging by some within the institution. This study qualitatively assessed readiness of five skilled nursing facilities for a participatory occupational health/health promotion intervention. Selection criteria were developed to screen for program feasibility and ability to conduct prospective evaluations, and information was collected from managers and employees (interviews and focus groups). Three centers were selected for the program, and the first year of formative evaluation and intervention experience was then reviewed to evaluate and modify our selection criteria after the fact. Lessons learned include adding assessment of communication and the structure of problem solving to our selection criteria, improving methods to assess management support in a concrete (potentially nonverbal) form, and obtaining a stated financial commitment and resources to enable the team to function. Assessment of organizational readiness for change is challenging, although necessary to implement effective and sustainable health promotion programs in specific organizations. PMID:25715335

  13. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  14. Identification of Cumulative Assessment Groups of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Nørhede, Pia; Boberg, Julie;

    The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). In accordance with Article 36 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, this task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a grant agreement between the European Food Safety Authority ...

  15. Assessing the privacy policies in mobile personal health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Belén Cruz; Hernández Niñirola, Antonio; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio

    2014-01-01

    The huge increase in the number and use of smartphones and tablets has led health service providers to take an interest in mHealth. Popular mobile app markets like Apple App Store or Google Play contain thousands of health applications. Although mobile personal health records (mPHRs) have a number of benefits, important challenges appear in the form of adoption barriers. Security and privacy have been identified as part of these barriers and should be addressed. This paper analyzes and assesses a total of 24 free mPHRs for Android and iOS. Characteristics regarding privacy and security were extracted from the HIPAA. The results show important differences in both the mPHRs and the characteristics analyzed. A questionnaire containing six questions concerning privacy policies was defined. Our questionnaire may assist developers and stakeholders to evaluate the security and privacy of their mPHRs. PMID:25571104

  16. Health impact assessment. Schiphol airport. Overview of results until 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franssen, E.A.M.; Lebret, E.; Staatsen, B.A.M.

    1999-07-01

    An English overview is given of the current results of the Dutch Health Impact Assessment Schiphol (HIAS) research programme. This programme consists of a series of studies with different designs. Results are described for each separate health end-point instead of by the separate studies: annoyance, cardiovascular diseases, sleep disturbance, respiratory diseases, perceived health, neurobehavioral effects, birth weight and perception of risks and residential satisfaction. Several of the more complex studies are still ongoing, or in the final stages of reporting. These concern a study of respiratory complaints in children in relation to air pollution and another of aircraft noise and sleep disturbance in adults. Based on the results of the HIAS a monitoring system will be developed to study the health status of the population periodically in relation to expansion of the airport.

  17. Finding Qualitative Research Evidence for Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making. PMID:27117960

  18. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna

    2016-08-01

    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25981179

  19. Reducing health inequalities: the use of Health Impact Assessment on Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Sanz Tolosana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health is greatly influenced by social, economic and political determinants. Accordingly, decisions influencing people's health do not concern only health services or 'health policies', but decisions in many different policy areas have their influence on these health determinants. Health Impact assessment (HIA is a predictive tool to support decisions in policy-making. The ultimate goal of this framework is to maximize health gains and, as far as possible, to reduce health inequalities. HIA presents a commitment to ensure that the rural dimension is routinely considered as part of the making and implementing of policy. The aim of this paper is to review the use of HIA on rural areas. Conclusions: HIA shows its great potential to contribute to local authority decision making. The use of HIA was identified in 2 key areas: strategic planning (sustainable development, EU Common Agricultural Policy, Federal Farm Bill, land-use planning work; and in specific smaller scale projects (rural health service redesign proposal, accessing healthy food, transport, health care disparities, etc..

  20. Health Impact Assessment of an oil drilling project in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay C. McCallum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Health Impact Assessment (HIA was conducted to evaluate the potential community health implications of a proposed oil drilling and production project in Hermosa Beach, California. The HIA considered 17 determinants of health that fell under 6 major categories (i.e., air quality, water and soil quality, upset conditions, noise and light emissions, traffic, and community livability. Material and Methods: This paper attempts to address some of the gaps within the HIA practice by presenting the methodological approach and results of this transparent, comprehensive HIA; specifically, the evaluation matrix and decision-making framework that have been developed for this HIA and form the basis of the evaluation and allow for a clear conclusion to be reached in respect of any given health determinant (i.e., positive, negative, neutral. Results: There is a number of aspects of the project that may positively influence health (e.g., increased education funding, ability to enhance green space, and at the same time there have been potential negative effects identified (e.g., odor, blowouts, property values. Except for upset conditions, the negative health outcomes have been largely nuisance-related (e.g., odor, aesthetics without irreversible health impacts. The majority of the health determinants, that had been examined, have revealed that the project would have no substantial effect on the health of the community. Conclusions: Using the newly developed methodology and based on established mitigation measures and additional recommendations provided in the HIA, the authors have concluded that the project will have no substantial effect on community health. This approach and methodology will assist practitioners, stakeholders and decision-makers in advancing the HIA as a useful, reproducible, and informative tool.

  1. Cumulative inertia or cumulative stress? Migration behaviour of Finnish graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Haapanen, Mika; Tervo, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    An interesting yet largely unstudied question regarding labour mi-gration behaviour and residence duration is whether migration be-comes more or less likely over time. This paper analyses the deter-minants of residence duration for Finnish graduates. Our results af-firm the importance of cumulative inertia as a determinant of mi-gration. The longer a person stays in a region, the smaller are the hazard rates of migration. However, for those graduates who moved to a new region during their yea...

  2. HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH CARGINOGEN POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Dumitrescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human health risk assessment of contaminated soils with carcinogenic pollutants is a multidisciplinary and participative procedure. For this reason, the opportunities of involving the beneficiaries and theentire community in considering human health for environmental assessment have to be improved. The present paper shows how to use the risk assessment as a method for investigation and evaluation of contaminated soils. The case study used to illustrate the functionality of the risk assessment model is related to an areacontaminated mainly with heavy metals. The area is located in CentralRomania, close to a specific pollution source–non-ferrous industry.Twenty four soil samples tak en from two depth layers of: 0–0.2 m,respectively 0.2-0.4 m from an area of 4.000 m2 were analyzed.Results of the chemical analysis indicated relatively high concentrations of As, Be, Cd, Cr VI, and Pb, which is matching with the existing pollution levels. Also, in the soil a pollution of organic nature, respectively contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs was identified, its concentration exceeding the intervention threshold established by the Romanian regulation for sensitive uses. Results of the risk assessment revealed a risk factor of contaminated soils of 10-4, with two orders of magnitude above the acceptable risk of 10-6 suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO. Moreover, the contribution of the categories of pollutants(organic/inorganic to the estimated risk for each exposure pathwayconsidered was illustrated. Therefore, the paper, through the case study presented, represents an example of an approach that should be considered by the decision-making factors in approving cert ain projects, but also by environmental specialists when performing the health risk assessment in relation to certain objectives. This aspect is especially important as the experience of those performing the human health risk assessments at the planning stage of

  3. Interview: Health technology assessment in Asia: an emerging trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bong-min

    2012-05-01

    Bong-min Yang, PhD (in economics), is Professor and former Dean of the School of Public Health at the Seoul National University, South Korea. Professor Yang has led research and written many papers in health economics and healthcare systems in Korea and Asia. His recent research and publications focus on the field of economic evaluation and outcomes research. He played a key role in the introduction of a formal health technology assessment system within Korean healthcare. He is currently serving as Executive Director, Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University. In addition to his research and publications, Professor Yang is Associate Editor for Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, is co-editor-in-chief for Value in Health Regional Issues, and is currently chair of the Management Advisory Board of Value in Health and a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Medical Economics. He has been a policy consultant to China, Japan, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand and India. He has also worked as a short-term consultant at the WHO, ADB, UNDP and the World Bank. For the Korean government, he served as Chairperson of the Health Insurance Reform Committee, and Chairperson of the Drug Pricing and Reimbursement Committee. He is currently serving as Chair of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research-Asia Consortium, and a member of the Board of Directors of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. PMID:24237405

  4. An assessment of fiscal space for health in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jayendra

    2016-07-01

    Several factors are expected to put a strain on health financing in Bhutan. In a predominantly public-financed healthcare, ensuring that the health system gains sufficient fiscal space to ensure the sustainability of its financing is a critical policy concern. This fiscal space assessment bases its analysis on national surveys and statistics, international databases and review of official documents and reports. Assuming that the government health spending will continue to respond in the same way to growth as in the period 2002-2012, Bhutan can expect to see a robust increase in government investments in health. If elasticity of health expenditure with respect to GDP does not change significantly, projections indicate that per-capita government spending for health could more than double in the period 2012 to 2019. This increase from Ngultrum 2632 in 2012 to Ngultrum 6724 in 2019 could correspond to government health spending from 2.65% of GDP to 3.98% of GDP in the respective years. The country, however, needs to closely monitor and ensure that government investment in healthcare keeps pace with the growth of the national economy. Along with this, supplementary resources for healthcare could be explored through earmarked taxes and by generating efficiency gains. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25982663

  5. 78 FR 15023 - Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the Assessment of Data Quality in Animal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the Assessment of Data Quality in Animal Studies; Notice of Public Webinar and Registration Information SUMMARY... quality in animal studies. The Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT), Division of...

  6. Health-care technology assessment: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Cyril

    2004-01-01

    Health technology assessment needs to relate to contemporary questions which concern public health-care systems: how to keep people healthy, how to focus on the needs of those with chronic disabilities and integrate care between the hospital and the community, how to encourage and audit effective teamwork, and how to establish a consensus about what is effective and affordable. Clinicians have an ethical responsibility to practice efficiently and economically, for profligacy in the care of one patient may mean that another is treated inadequately. For similar reasons, clinicians need to play a full role in the management of services. Advice from health technology assessment is vital and needs to be accurate, relevant, timely, clear, and accessible. As well as being concerned about what works, we need also to eliminate from practice what does not. Regular audit and appraisal of practice against the evidence base should be useful in this respect. Alternative approaches to management, such as the provision of care as opposed to aggressive treatments, need to be evaluated, and health technology assessment needs to consider how services are delivered, not just specific treatments. PMID:15176183

  7. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  8. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs

  9. Forest ecosystem health assessment and analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOFengjin; OUYANGHua; ZHANGQiang; FUBojie; ZHANGZhicheng

    2004-01-01

    Based on more than 300 forest sample plots surveying data and forestry statistical data, remote sensing information from the NOAA AVHRR database and the daily meteorological data of 300 stations, we selected vigor, organization and resilience as the indicators to assess large-scale forest ecosystem health in China and analyzed the spatial pattern of forest ecosystem health and influencing factors. The results of assessment indicated that the spatial pattern of forest ecosystem health showed a decreasing trend along latitude gradients and longitude gradients. The healthy forests are mainly distributed in natural forests, tropical rainforests and seasonal rainforests; secondarily orderly in northeast national forest zone, subtropical forest zonation and southwest forest zonation; while the unhealthy forests were mainly located in warm temperate zone and Xinjiang-Mongolia forest zone. The coefficient of correction between Forest Ecosystem Health Index (FEHI) and annual average precipitation was 0.58 (p<0.01), while the coefficient of correlation between FEHI and annual mean temperatures was 0.49 (p<0.01), which identified that the precipitation and temperatures affect the pattern of FEHI, and the precipitation's effect was stronger than the temperature's. We also measured the correlation coefficient between FEHI and NPP, biodiversity and resistance, which were 0.64, 0.76 and 0.81 (p<0.01) respectively. The order of effect on forest ecosystem health was vigor, organization and resistance.

  10. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas. PMID:27046140

  11. Stakeholder participation in health impact assessment: A multicultural approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negev, Maya, E-mail: mayane@tau.ac.il [Hartog School of Government and Policy, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tel Aviv University, P.O.B. 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Davidovitch, Nadav, E-mail: nadavd@bgu.ac.il [Department of Health Systems Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, P.O.B. 653, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Garb, Yaakov, E-mail: ygarb@bgu.ac.il [Swiss Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer 84990 (Israel); Tal, Alon, E-mail: alontal@bgu.ac.il [Mitrani Department of Dryland Ecology, Swiss Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer 84990 (Israel)

    2013-11-15

    The literature on impact assessment (HIA) registers the importance of stakeholder participation in the assessment process, but still lacks a model for engaging stakeholders of diverse ethnic, professional and sectorial backgrounds. This paper suggests that the multicultural approach can contribute to HIA through a revision of the generic 5-step HIA model, and its implementation in a metropolitan plan in Southern Israel. The health issue scoped by the stakeholders in the HIA is related to land uses in the vicinity of the national hazardous industry and hazardous waste site. The stakeholders were representatives of the diverse populations at stake, including rural Bedouins and Jewish city dwellers, as well as representatives from the public sector, private sector, non-governmental organizations and academia. The case study revealed that a multicultural stakeholder participation process helps to uncover health issues known to the community which were not addressed in the original plan, and provides local knowledge regarding health conditions that is especially valuable when scientific data is uncertain or absent. It enables diverse stakeholders to prioritize the health issues that will be assessed. The case study also reveals ways in which the model needs revisions and improvements such as in recruitment of diverse participants. This paper presents a multicultural model of HIA and discusses some of the challenges that are faced when HIA is implemented in the context of current decision-making culture. -- Highlights: • We revised the generic HIA model in light of the multicultural approach. • We tested the model in a case study of zoning a hazardous industry site. • Multicultural stakeholder participation uncovers health issues known to communities. • It enables community prioritization of health issues. • We present a model for multicultural stakeholder participation in HIA.

  12. Stakeholder participation in health impact assessment: A multicultural approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on impact assessment (HIA) registers the importance of stakeholder participation in the assessment process, but still lacks a model for engaging stakeholders of diverse ethnic, professional and sectorial backgrounds. This paper suggests that the multicultural approach can contribute to HIA through a revision of the generic 5-step HIA model, and its implementation in a metropolitan plan in Southern Israel. The health issue scoped by the stakeholders in the HIA is related to land uses in the vicinity of the national hazardous industry and hazardous waste site. The stakeholders were representatives of the diverse populations at stake, including rural Bedouins and Jewish city dwellers, as well as representatives from the public sector, private sector, non-governmental organizations and academia. The case study revealed that a multicultural stakeholder participation process helps to uncover health issues known to the community which were not addressed in the original plan, and provides local knowledge regarding health conditions that is especially valuable when scientific data is uncertain or absent. It enables diverse stakeholders to prioritize the health issues that will be assessed. The case study also reveals ways in which the model needs revisions and improvements such as in recruitment of diverse participants. This paper presents a multicultural model of HIA and discusses some of the challenges that are faced when HIA is implemented in the context of current decision-making culture. -- Highlights: • We revised the generic HIA model in light of the multicultural approach. • We tested the model in a case study of zoning a hazardous industry site. • Multicultural stakeholder participation uncovers health issues known to communities. • It enables community prioritization of health issues. • We present a model for multicultural stakeholder participation in HIA

  13. Relationships Between Tobacco Abuse and Self-Assessment of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlikowska-Sroka, A; Dzięciołowska-Baran, E; Szczurowski, J

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cigarettes negatively influences the functioning of the body. Among other effects, it has an important impact on the respiratory system, circulation, and behavior. It leads to morphological and physiological changes in organs and tissues, so it can change mood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between tobacco abuse and self-assessment of health. The survey was conducted among Polish (243) and foreign (80) medical students at the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Poland. The study was based on a survey questionnaire of the authors' own design, comprising open and multi-choice questions. Our questionnaire was based on the international standard questionnaire from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study (Currie et al. 2009). 80 % of students surveyed were free of any chronic diseases. The results showed that only 23 % of the women and 20 % of the men assessed their health as very good, over 60 % as good, and the remaining at lower levels. We did not observe significant differences between smokers and non-smokers. Physical activity in both groups was generally assessed as good or sufficient. We did not observe significant differences between groups in the incidence of headache, abdominal pain, or vertigo. Significant differences were found in the intake of painkillers. PMID:26801152

  14. Towards integration of environmental and health impact assessments for wild capture fishing and farmed fish with particular reference to public health and occupational health dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Watterson; David Little; Kathleen Boyd; Young, James A.; Ekram Azim; Francis Murray

    2008-01-01

    The paper offers a review and commentary, with particular reference to the production of fish from wild capture fisheries and aquaculture, on neglected aspects of health impact assessments which are viewed by a range of international and national health bodies and development agencies as valuable and necessary project tools. Assessments sometimes include environmental health impact assessments but rarely include specific occupational health and safety impact assessments especially integrated ...

  15. A Model for Risk Assessment in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prijatelj, Vesna; Rajkovič, Vladislav; Šušteršič, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our research is to reduce risks and hence prevent errors in the health care process. The aim is to design an organizational information model using error prevention methods for risk assessment in a clinical setting. The model is based on selected indicators of quality nursing care, resulting from the world-known theoretical and practical models combined with experience in the Slovenian health care. The proposed organizational information model and software solution has a significant impact on the professional attention, communication and information, critical thinking, experience and knowledge. PMID:27332383

  16. Family Health Strategy: assessment and reasons for searching of health service by users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeste de Arruda-Barbosa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evaluation of the users regarding the family health services and identify the main reasons that led them to seek such services. Methods: A descriptive study with qualitative approach, carried out in 5 Family Health Units with 25 users of theFamily Health Strategy (FHS of the city of Crato-CE, Brazil. The study took place from March to April 2009. Semi-structured interview was applied and recorded. We used thetechnique of thematic content analysis. Results: We found that the users of the FHS have great dissatisfaction, especially on the organization and access to health services, evaluating the family health as inefficient, although bringing care closer to the population, primarily through home visits. It was clear also that there is a search to the service mainly supported by curative vision and the acquisition of medicines. Conclusions: The subjects evaluate the organization and access to healthcare services as unsatisfactory, but value the actions, when there is a bond with the health team. However, there is still demand for health services, based on the search for medicines and medical consultation. Thus, it is necessary to improve services of the Family Health Strategy in Crato, with a view to ensure quality, accessibilityand greater resolution of health services.

  17. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Schneider, Tapio; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J. B.

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric flows are governed by the equations of fluid dynamics. These equations are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifest itself only weakly through interactions of nontrivial mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. Here we show how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. However, it does not capture important turbulent transport terms in the turbulence kinetic energy budget. Second, we study the evolution of two-dimensional large-scale waves, which are representative of waves seen in Earth's upper atmosphere. We demonstrate that a cumulant expansion truncated at second order (CE2) can capture the evolution of such waves and their nonlinear interaction with the mean flow in some circumstances, for example, when the wave amplitude is small enough or the planetary rotation rate is large enough. However, CE2 fails to capture the flow evolution when strongly nonlinear eddy-eddy interactions that generate small-scale filaments in surf zones around critical layers become important. Higher-order closures can capture these missing interactions. The results point to new ways in which the dynamics of turbulent boundary layers may be represented in climate models, and they illustrate different classes

  18. "Buddha's Light" of Cumulative Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir B; Potashnikova, Irina K

    2014-01-01

    We show analytically that in the cumulative particles production off nuclei multiple interactions lead to a glory-like backward focusing effect. Employing the small phase space method we arrived at a characteristic angular dependence of the production cross section $d\\sigma \\sim 1/ \\sqrt {\\pi - \\theta}$ near the strictly backward direction. This effect takes place for any number $n\\geq 3 $ of interactions of rescattered particle, either elastic or inelastic (with resonance excitations in intermediate states), when the final particle is produced near corresponding kinematical boundary. Such a behaviour of the cross section near the backward direction is in qualitative agreement with some of available data.

  19. The NICE ADHD health technology assessment: A review and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlander Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health technology assessments (HTAs by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE enjoy high levels of international attention. The present analysis addresses NICE's appraisal of methylphenidate, atomoxetine and dexamphetamine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children and adolescents, published in March 2006. Methods A qualitative study of NICE Technology Appraisal No. 98 was done focusing on the >600-page technology assessment report, which aimed at evaluating ADHD treatment strategies by a clinical effectiveness review and an economic analysis using meta-analytical techniques and a cost-effectiveness model. Results The technology assessment was unable to differentiate between the various drugs in terms of efficacy, and its economic model was ultimately driven by cost differences. While the assessment concluded that the economic model "clearly identified an optimal treatment strategy" with first-line dexamphetamine, the NICE appraisal committee subsequently found it impossible to distinguish between the different strategies on grounds of cost-effectiveness. Analyzing the assessment reveals gaps and inconsistencies concerning data selection (ultimately relying on a small number of short-term studies only, data synthesis (pooling of heterogeneous study designs and clinical endpoints, and economic model structure (identifying double-counting of nonresponders as a likely source of bias, alongside further methodological anomalies. Conclusion Many conclusions of the NICE technology assessment rest on shaky grounds. There remains a need for a new, state-of-the-art systematic review of ADHD treatment strategies including economic evaluation, which ideally should address outcomes beyond children's health-related quality of life, such as long-term sequelae of the disorder and caregiver burden.

  20. Assessment and forecast of Beijing and Shanghai's urban ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfa; Li, Dong

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, we first analyze the 5 most cited papers with the title containing "Urban ecosystem health" in Chinese academic journals, and 5 newer papers retrieved from the CSSCI (Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index). The results show that the number of indicators to be used together in more than three papers is 28, and then we select 27 of them to assess Beijing and Shanghai's urban ecosystem health from 2000 to 2011. Secondly, when we standardize the original data, the worst value adjustment coefficient is introduced innovatively. Thirdly, using the entropy method, the weights of concrete indicators of Beijing and Shanghai in the different adjustment coefficients are calculated respectively. Fourthly, based on the fuzzy matter-element method, using the Hamming approach degree, the two cities' ecosystem health index and the contribution value to overall health index from each component are calculated. Lastly, using gray prediction model, the evolutionary time response sequence function of Beijing and Shanghai's urban ecosystem health index is identified, and thus both cities' urban ecosystem health is predicted. PMID:24784740

  1. Cumulative glycaemia as measured by lens fluorometry: association with retinopathy in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, I C; Larsen, M; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Glümer, C; Lund-Andersen, H; Kessel, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between lifelong cumulative glycaemia estimated by lens fluorometry and the presence of retinopathy in individuals with type 2 diabetes.......The aim of this study was to assess the association between lifelong cumulative glycaemia estimated by lens fluorometry and the presence of retinopathy in individuals with type 2 diabetes....

  2. General health assessment in refugees claiming to have been tortured

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draminsky Petersen, Hans; Christensen, Maria Elisabeth; Kastrup, Marianne;

    1994-01-01

    health. Assessment took place with the help of professional interpreters and was, during each interview, performed by two medical doctors using double-blind techniques. Based on a number of highly significant (P < 0.001) correlation coefficients and Kappa values, observers agreed frequently on gradients...... of symptom intensity and less frequently on absolute symptom levels. However, agreement was almost complete when assessing the presence of intense symptoms and the absolute absence of a symptom. Symptom patterns were demonstrated to be consistent, clinically interpretable and, furthermore, closely...

  3. Hospital Based Health Technology Assessment: an example from Siena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Manzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Health Technology Assessment (HTA has emerged in recent years as a useful tool in healthcare decision-making. It is a multidisciplinary process that summarizes information about the medical, social, economic and ethical issues related to the use of a health technology and provides evidence-based information on how to allocate resources. The experience of Siena University Hospital is an example of multidisciplinary hospital-based HTA. In the present paper we summarize the organization of HTA commission and the assessment methodology of the purchase, rental or sale of medical equipment and medical devices. Furthermore we illustrate the data concerning the commission activities in 2013.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v16i1.943

  4. Observations on work force and training needs for assessing environmental health risks.

    OpenAIRE

    DeRoos, R L; Anderson, P N; Berberich, N J; Maugans, B; Omenn, G S; Rentos, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    The continuing discoveries of hazardous waste sites have stimulated environmental health risk assessment efforts in State and local environmental health agencies. Elements of risk assessment are defined, showing how risk assessment interfaces with risk management. Environmental health risk assessment involves work components (tasks, activities, and technologies), the worker (position, classification, and occupation), and work organization (purpose, outputs, and objectives). Information from s...

  5. [Health risk assessment of coke oven PAHs emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wen, Rou; Zhao, Chun-Li; Wu, Tie; Li, Shi-Bei

    2014-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by coke oven are with strong toxicity and carcinogenicity. Taken typical coke oven of iron and steel enterprises as the case study, the dispersion and migration of 13 kinds of PAHs emitted from coke oven were analyzed using AERMOD dispersion model, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks at the receptors within the modeling domain were evaluated using BREEZE Risk Analyst and the Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion (HHRAP) was followed, the health risks caused by PAHs emission from coke oven were quantitatively evaluated. The results indicated that attention should be paid to the non-carcinogenic risk of naphthalene emission (the maximum value was 0.97). The carcinogenic risks of each single pollutant were all below 1.0E-06, while the maximum value of total carcinogenic risk was 2.65E-06, which may have some influence on the health of local residents. PMID:25244863

  6. Adopting a Clinical Assessment Framework in Older Adult Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Lillian; Lee, Patience Anne; Au-Yeung, Andy T; Kucherova, Irina; Harrigan, MaryLou

    2016-07-01

    Obtaining new knowledge accepted and used by practitioners remains a slow process. A dearth of knowledge translation research exists that explores how to effectively move knowledge to practice in the field of older adult mental health. The current article reports findings of a knowledge translation study that examined what factors enabled the adoption of a new clinical assessment framework, P.I.E.C.E.S.™, into practice in an older adult tertiary mental health unit. Theoretical insights of appreciative inquiry were used to guide the study. Qualitative methods were used, including focus groups with 20 staff and individual interviews with three leaders. The appreciative inquiry approach helped researchers successfully facilitate knowledge translation. Enabling factors included: (a) fostering positive energy to make continuous improvement, (b) working with team members across disciplines at all levels, and (c) using knowledge translation tools to enable and sustain the new practice. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54 (7), 26-31.]. PMID:27362382

  7. Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal

  8. Health impact assessment of climate change in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change (GCC) may have serious and irreversible impacts. Improved methods are needed to predict and quantify health impacts, so that appropriate risk management strategies can be focused on vulnerable areas. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is proposed as an effective tool in environmental health impact assessment (HIA). The DALY accounts for years of life lost to premature death and/or morbidity. Both the DALY and the determinants-of-health approach are applied to HIA of GCC in Bangladesh. Based on historical data, a major storm event may result in approximately 290 DALY per 1000 population, including both deaths and injuries, compared to a current all-cause rate of about 280 per 1000 in the region. A more precise result would require a large input of data; however, this level of analysis may be sufficient to rank risks, and to motivate and target risk management efforts

  9. Health technology assessment: the contribution of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The pragmatism in health care has made health technology assessment (HTA) restrict its scope to a particular set of problems, c.q. methods. The "multidisciplinary and comprehensive nature" of HTA, as the concept is presented in certain definitions, is lacking. Health care is also dominated by a positivistic-rationalistic approach of evaluation. In contrast, social studies of evaluations learn that a major difference has to be made between scientific research on (potential) impact of a technology and valuing these effects. In this contribution, we will discuss how the positivistic scientific bias of current HTA practice can be made up with other research traditions. More specifically, we focus on the question of how social scientists and particularly how qualitative research can contribute to HTA, complementary to positivistic studies of evidence and efficacy. PMID:12862189

  10. Proposing a framework for Health Impact Assessment in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhri, Ali; Harris, Patrick; Maleki, MohammadReza

    2015-01-01

    Background Health impact assessments (HIA) of policies and projects are conducted differently in different contexts although there has been less HIA research to date in non-western countries. Global HIA research has however suggested that the technical conduct of HIAs is tied to broader conditions and influences to do with decision making and policy development. This study was conducted to develop a conceptual framework for progressing HIA in Iran including all factors influencing HIA plannin...

  11. The Impact of Inclusion Criteria in Health Economic Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Anke Richter; Patricia Thieda; Kylie Thaler; Gerald Gartlehner

    2011-01-01

    The debate surrounding whether the findings of efficacy studies are applicable to real-world treatment situations is ongoing. The issue of lack of applicability due to a lack of clinical heterogeneity could be addressed by employing less restrictive inclusion criteria. Given that health economic assessments based on cost-effectiveness measures are required by many governments and insurance providers, the impact of this choice may be far reaching. The objective of this article was to explore t...

  12. Assessment of an Anomaly Detector for Jet Engine Health Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien Borguet; Olivier Léonard

    2011-01-01

    The goal of module performance analysis is to reliably assess the health of the main components of an aircraft engine. A predictive maintenance strategy can leverage this information to increase operability and safety as well as to reduce costs. Degradation undergone by an engine can be divided into gradual deterioration and accidental events. Kalman filters have proven very efficient at tracking progressive deterioration but are poor performers in the face of abrupt events. Adaptive estimati...

  13. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. PMID:25979371

  14. Social and ethical analysis in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantivess, Sripen

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a review of the domestic and international literature on the assessment of the social and ethical implications of health technologies. It gives an overview of the key concepts, principles, and approaches that should be taken into account when conducting a social and ethical analysis within health technology assessment (HTA). Although there is growing consensus among healthcare experts that the social and ethical ramifications of a given technology should be examined before its adoption, the demand for this kind of analysis among policy-makers around the world, including in Thailand, has so far been lacking. Currently decision-makers mainly base technology adoption decisions using evidence on clinical effectiveness, value for money, and budget impact, while social and ethical aspects have been neglected. Despite the recognized importance of considering equity, justice, and social issues when making decisions regarding health resource allocation, the absence of internationally-accepted principles and methodologies, among other factors, hinders research in these areas. Given that developing internationally agreed standards takes time, it has been recommended that priority be given to defining processes that are justifiable, transparent, and contestable. A discussion of the current situation in Thailand concerning social and ethical analysis of health technologies is also presented. PMID:24964703

  15. Mutagenesis and teratogenesis as end points in health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic and teratogenic effects of agents released to the environment as a consequence of energy production are exceedingly difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, these effects on human health may be very costly in the context of cost-benefit analysis. In fact, the procedures required to limit mutagenic or teratogenic agents to the levels considered acceptable by regulatory bodies may constitute a major fraction of the cost of energy, especially where prudence dictates that a lack of empirical data requires extremely conservative regulations. Experience with ionizing radiation and with regulation of nuclear power installations illustrates the difficulty of genetic and teratogenic health impact assessment and the great uncertainties involved, as well as the influence of these impacts on the regulatory process and the consequent increased cost of power from this source. Data on genetic and teratogenic impacts on human health from chemical agents released to the environment by other energy technologies are much less complete, and, because of the large number of potentially active agents involved, it is evident that generic solutions to health impact assessment will be required to evaluate these energy alternatives

  16. Mental health services assessment in Brazil: systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Pedro Henrique Antunes; Colugnati, Fernando Antonio Basile; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2015-10-01

    Assessment in the mental health area is a mechanism able to generate information that positively helps decision-making. Therefore, it is necessary to appropriate on the existing discussions, reasoning the challenges and possibilities linked to knowledge production within this scientific filed. A systematic review of publications about the Brazilian scientific production on mental health service assessment was performed, identifying and discussing methods, assessment perspectives and results. The search for articles was done in IBECS, Lilacs and Scielo databases, considering the publication of Federal Law 10.216. Thirty-five articles were selected based on the used terms and on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Scientific production in this field is concentrated in the South and Southwest regions and holds different scopes and participants. Such wide range of possibilities is adopted as a way to help improving services and decision-making processes in mental health care. Advances in humanized, participative and community care are highlighted, but requiring more investments, professional qualification and organizational improvements. It is postulated greater integration among research, with evaluations going beyond structural aspects and the comparison with hospitalocentric models. PMID:26465864

  17. Assessing the Education and Training Needs of Nebraska's Public Health Workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Brandon L Grimm; Patrik eJohansson; Preethy eNayar; Betty eApenteng; Samuel eOpoku; Anh eNguyen

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionIn 2012, the Great Plains Public Health Training Center (Grant #UB6HP22821) conducted an online survey of state and local health departments and the American Indian (tribal clinics, tribal health departments and urban Indian clinic) public health workforce across three professional levels. The objectives of the needs assessment were to, determine the competency levels of the state’s public health workforce, assess gaps in public health competencies, identify public health trainin...

  18. Assessment of the readability of dental health education literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkhorn, A S; Verity, J M

    1979-08-01

    General dental practitioners have an important role in the dissemination of information to their patients and their advice is often reinforced with written health education material. Unfortunately, this written information is often of limited value for particular groups of patients because of its level of readability. This investigation of the problem was in two parts; firstly, a group of 140 secondary schoolchildren were asked to explain the meaning of a selection of words in common use in dental health education, and secondly, the readability of some current dental health education literature was assessed using the Fog Index. The results indicate that current dental health education literature reflects the reading ability of the designers rather than the ability of the potential target group. Many of the words in the dental profession's preventive vocabulary were not understood by the children. Over 80% were unsure of the meaning of fluoride tablets, gum disease, gingivitis and oral hygiene. The results of this investigation indicate that dentists should ensure that dental health education literature is not unduly complex and should take more time explaining the dental vocabulary in lay terminology. PMID:293237

  19. Transport policy and health inequalities: a health impact assessment of Edinburgh's transport policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, D; Douglas, M J; Conway, L; Noble, P; Hanlon, P

    2003-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) can be used to examine the relationships between inequalities and health. This HIA of Edinburgh's transport policy demonstrates how HIA can examine how different transport policies can affect different population groupings to varying degrees. In this case, Edinburgh's economy is based on tourism, financial services and Government bodies. These need a good transport infrastructure, which maintains a vibrant city centre. A transport policy that promotes walking, cycling and public transport supports this and is also good for health. The HIA suggested that greater spend on public transport and supporting sustainable modes of transport was beneficial to health, and offered scope to reduce inequalities. This message was understood by the City Council and influenced the development of the city's transport and land-use strategies. The paper discusses how HIA can influence public policy. PMID:12802900

  20. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Gary R. Krieger; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H.; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2015-01-01

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two ...

  1. Holistic health assessment tool for patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, P R; Mandalika, S

    2012-07-01

    The recent emphasis on assessment of the psychological status, availability of newer and better methods of interpreting the anthropometric measurements of renal patients on dialysis therapy prompted the authors to develop the "Holistic Health Assessment Tool for dialysis patients (HHAT-D)." A total of 30 subjects (25-65 years), enrolled from dialysis centers in Mumbai were administered the HHAT-D tool to assess anthropometric, biochemical, functional, and psychological status (knowledge, needs, that coping strategies) along with dietary intake. The results showed that majority of the patients (73.3%) were mild to moderately malnourished. A highly significant negative correlation of anthropometric measurements (BMI, lean body mass, mid arm circumference, arm muscle area, bicep skin fold thickness, % usual body weight, and % standard body weight) with the HHAT-D scores (P23162270

  2. ARIES: System for Health effects Assessment in industrial risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present a general description of ARIES*, a tool designed in order to support the assessment of expected health effects derived from an accidental release of toxic compounds. ARIES includes two sequential and complementary steps. The first one (a quantitative phase) is being developed. for inhalation exposures, using numerical models, empirical correlations, physiological parameters and toxicological index, to estimate short term consequences over the exposed population. Next it will be published a new report were It will be described with detail the procedure designed to the quantitative assessment of the exposure. The system starts the assessment process with values of external concentrations which are processed, together with different exposure values (existing for humans and scaled up irom animals), as inputs for different kinds of models. From these, and other physiological values ARIES calculates the inhaled equivalent doses and the expected associated effects as a function of the exposure limes. Once overcome this first step, ARIES is complemented with an additional system that executes the selection of relevant information from toxicological data bases (qualitative phase). The system works , applying a string of filters and searches that displays selected Information, giving an additional support to the assessment. Both steps, just referred, are integrated into a logical informatics support. The informatics code is developed in dbase language even for the design of the procedure as for the mathematical models linked to the system ( extrapolation, dose inhaled models, etc.) to execute the numerical analysis of the assessment. The system has been designed in order to include progressively new chemicals and the improvements obtained in the development of mathematical models related with dose-effect relationships. At this moment, is programmed a first prototype of ARIES that can be executed in PC's and it can run for several products

  3. ARIES: System for Health effects Assessment in industrial risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, I.; Vidania, R. de; Inmaculada, S.

    1992-07-01

    In this work we present a general description of ARIES*, a tool designed in order to support the assessment of expected health effects derived from an accidental release of toxic compounds. ARIES includes two sequential and complementary steps. The first one (a quantitative phase) is being developed. for inhalation exposures, using numerical models, empirical correlations, physiological parameters and toxicological index, to estimate short term consequences over the exposed population. Next it will be published a new report were It will be described with detail the procedure designed to the quantitative assessment of the exposure. The system starts the assessment process with values of external concentrations which are processed, together with different exposure values (existing for humans and scaled up irom animals), as inputs for different kinds of models. From these, and other physiological values ARIES calculates the inhaled equivalent doses and the expected associated effects as a function of the exposure limes. Once overcome this first step, ARIES is complemented with an additional system that executes the selection of relevant information from toxicological data bases (qualitative phase). The system works , applying a string of filters and searches that displays selected Information, giving an additional support to the assessment. Both steps, just referred, are integrated into a logical informatics support. The informatics code is developed in dbase language even for the design of the procedure as for the mathematical models linked to the system ( extrapolation, dose inhaled models, etc.) to execute the numerical analysis of the assessment. The system has been designed in order to include progressively new chemicals and the improvements obtained in the development of mathematical models related with dose-effect relationships. At this moment, is programmed a first prototype of ARIES that can be executed in PC's and it can run for several products

  4. The 6/94 gap in health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health impact assessment (HIA), a methodology that aims to facilitate the mitigation of negative and enhancement of positive health effects due to projects, programmes and policies, has been developed over the past 20-30 years. There is an underlying assumption that HIA has become a full fledged critical piece of the impact assessment process with a stature equal to both environmental and social impact assessments. This assumption needs to be supported by evidence however. Within the context of projects in developing country settings, HIA is simply a slogan without a clearly articulated and relevant methodology, offered by academia and having little or no salience in the decision-making process regarding impacts. This harsh assertion is supported by posing a simple question: 'Where in the world have HIAs been carried out?' To answer this question, we systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature and online HIA-specific databases. We identified 237 HIA-related publications, but only 6% of these publications had a focus on the developing world. What emerges is, therefore, a huge disparity, which we coin the 6/94 gap in HIA, even worse than the widely known 10/90 gap in health research (10% of health research funding is utilized for diseases causing 90% of the global burden of disease). Implications of this 6/94 gap in HIA are discussed with pointed emphasis on extractive industries (oil/gas and mining) and water resources development. We conclude that there is a pressing need to institutionalize HIA in the developing world, as a consequence of current predictions of major extractive industry and water resources development, with China's investments in these sectors across Africa being particularly salient

  5. A cumulative scale of severe sexual sadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Joachim; Osterheider, Michael; Mokros, Andreas

    2009-09-01

    The article assesses the scale properties of the criterion set for severe sexual sadism in a sample of male forensic patients (N = 100). Half of the sample consists of sexual sadists; the remainder is sampled at random from the general group of nonsadistic sex offenders. Eleven of 17 criteria (plus the additional item of inserting objects into the victim's bodily orifices) of Marshall, Kennedy, Yates, and Serran's list form a cumulative scale. More specifically, this scale comprises all the 5 core criteria that Marshall and his colleagues considered particularly relevant. The resulting 11-item scale of severe sexual sadism is highly reliable (r(tt) = .93) and represents a strong scale (H = .83) of the Guttman type (coefficient of reproducibility = .97). The 11-item scale distinguishes perfectly between sexual sadists and nonsadistic sex offenders in the sample. PMID:19605691

  6. The Mexican version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, C; Ruperto, N; Goycochea, M V; Maldonado, R; Beristain, R; De Inocencio, J; Burgos-Vargas, R

    2001-01-01

    We report herein the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation into the Mexican language of the parent's version of two health related quality of life instruments. The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) is a disease specific health instrument that measures functional ability in daily living activities in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) is a generic health instrument designed to capture the physical and psychosocial well-being of children independently from the underlying disease. The Mexican CHAQ was already published and therefore it was revalidated while the Mexican CHQ was derived from the European Spanish version with changing of the few words whose use is different in the 2 countries. A total of 182 subjects were enrolled: 89 patients with JIA (26% systemic onset, 47% polyarticular onset, 13.5% extended oligoarticular subtype, and 13.5% persistent oligoarticular subtype) and 93 healthy children. The CHAQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic onset, and polyarticular onset subtypes having a higher degree of disability, pain, and a lower overall well-being when compared to their healthy peers. Also the CHQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic onset, and polyarticular onset having a lower physical and psychosocial well-being when compared to their healthy peers. In conclusion the Mexican version of the CHAQ-CHQ is a reliable, and valid tool for the functional, physical and psychosocial assessment of children with JIA. PMID:11510311

  7. Complex health care interventions: Characteristics relevant for ethical analysis in health technology assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Complexity entails methodological challenges in assessing health care interventions. In order to address these challenges, a series of characteristics of complexity have been identified in the Health Technology Assessment (HTA literature. These characteristics are primarily identified and developed to facilitate effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness analysis. However, ethics is also a constitutive part of HTA, and it is not given that the conceptions of complexity that appears relevant for effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness analysis are also relevant and directly applicable for ethical analysis in HTA. The objective of this article is therefore to identify and elaborate a set of key characteristics of complex health care interventions relevant for addressing ethical aspects in HTA. We start by investigating the relevance of the characteristics of complex interventions, as defined in the HTA literature. Most aspects of complexity found to be important when assessing effectiveness, safety, and efficiency turn out also to be relevant when assessing ethical issues of a given health technology. However, the importance and relevance of the complexity characteristics may differ when addressing ethical issues rather than effectiveness. Moreover, the moral challenges of a health care intervention may themselves contribute to the complexity. After identifying and analysing existing conceptions of complexity, we synthesise a set of five key characteristics of complexity for addressing ethical aspects in HTA: 1 multiple and changing perspectives, 2 indeterminate phenomena, 3 uncertain causality, 4 unpredictable outcome, and 5 ethical complexity. This may serve as an analytic tool in addressing ethical issues in HTA of complex interventions.

  8. Oral-to-inhalation route extrapolation in occupational health risk assessment: A critical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, M.A.J.; Bouwman, T.; Wilschut, A.; Bessems, J.G.M.; Heer, C.de

    2004-01-01

    Due to a lack of route-specific toxicity data, the health risks resulting from occupational exposure are frequently assessed by route-to-route (RtR) extrapolation based on oral toxicity data. Insight into the conditions for and the uncertainties connected with the application of RtR extrapolation ha

  9. Health impact assessment: where does the law come in?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Convention on Human Rights has profound implications for HIA. Public authorities have a positive obligation to stop others from infringing citizens' rights to life and to respect for private and family life. These rights are qualified and have now been interpreted in many thousands of cases. Authorities must, as best they reasonably can, secure the safety of citizens and inform the citizens about the safety or otherwise of any development. Authorities have to strike a balance between the individuals rights and the public benefit. Any public authority before approving a scheme or reaching a regulatory decision which may impact on human rights must consider the nature of that impact, its seriousness and whether it can be justified on public interest grounds. A number of court judgements in cases concerning these issues are discussed. This article is not about how certain of the ideas underlying Health Impact Assessment, in certain circumstances, are or can be incorporated in existing legally recognised instruments such as Environmental Impact Assessments. Nor is it about the statutory powers which authorities--local and national--could, if so inclined, exercise, to further the health and well-being of their constituents. It is about something rather more general, important and yet rather formless, namely the duties identified by the European Court of Human Rights as resting upon public authorities to take steps to safeguard the public health rights of their citizens

  10. An equity tool for health impact assessments: Reflections from Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool for assessing the potential effects of a project or policy on a population's health. In this paper, we discuss a tool for successfully integrating equity concerns into HIAs. This discussion is the product of collaboration by Mongolian and Canadian experts, and it incorporates comments and suggestions of participants of a workshop on equity focused HIAs that took place in Mongolia in October, 2010. Our motivation for discussing this tool is based on the observation that existing HIAs tend either to fail to define equity or use problematic accounts of this concept. In this paper we give an overview of socio-demographic and health indicators in Mongolia and briefly discuss its mining industry. We then review three accounts of equity and argue for the importance of developing a consensus understanding of this concept when integrating considerations of equity into an HIA. Finally, we present findings from the workshop in Mongolia and outline a tool, derived from lessons from this workshop, for critically considering and integrating the concept of equity into an HIA.

  11. Health impact assessment of global climate change: expanding on comparative risk assessment approaches for policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gibbs, Holly; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is projected to have adverse impacts on public health. Cobenefits may be possible from more upstream mitigation of greenhouse gases causing climate change. To help measure such cobenefits alongside averted disease-specific risks, a health impact assessment (HIA) framework can more comprehensively serve as a decision support tool. HIA also considers health equity, clearly part of the climate change problem. New choices for energy must be made carefully considering such effects as additional pressure on the world's forests through large-scale expansion of soybean and oil palm plantations, leading to forest clearing, biodiversity loss and disease emergence, expulsion of subsistence farmers, and potential increases in food prices and emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Investigators must consider the full range of policy options, supported by more comprehensive, flexible, and transparent assessment methods. PMID:18173382

  12. Exploring the role of GIS during community health assessment problem solving: experiences of public health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotch Matthew

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Community health assessment (CHA involves the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS in conjunction with other software to analyze health and population data and perform numerical-spatial problem solving. There has been little research on identifying how public health professionals integrate this software during typical problem solving scenarios. A better understanding of this is needed to answer the "What" and the "How". The "What" identifies the specific software being used and the "How" explains the way they are integrated together during problem solving steps. This level of understanding will highlight the role of GIS utilization during problem solving and suggest to developers how GIS can be enhanced to better support data analysis during community health assessment. Results An online survey was developed to identify the information technology used during CHA analysis. The tasks were broken down into steps and for our analysis these steps were categorized by action: Data Management/Access, Data Navigation, Geographic Comparison, Detection of Spatial Boundaries, Spatial Modelling, and Ranking Analysis. 27 CHA professionals completed the survey, with the majority of participants (14 being from health departments. Statistical software (e.g. SPSS was the most popular software for all but one of the types of steps. For this step (detection of spatial boundaries, GIS was identified as the most popular technology. Conclusion Most CHA professionals indicated they use statistical software in conjunction with GIS. The statistical software appears to drive the analysis, while GIS is used primarily for simple spatial display (and not complex spatial analysis. This purpose of this survey was to thoroughly examine into the process of problem solving during community health assessment data analysis and to gauge how GIS is integrated with other software for this purpose. These findings suggest that GIS is used more for spatial

  13. Self-assessed dental health, oral health practices, and general health behaviors in Chinese urban adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin;

    2005-01-01

    effect of socio-behavioral risk factors on perceived dental health, perceived need for dental care, and experience of dental symptoms. A cross-sectional survey of 2662 adolescents was conducted in eight capital cities in China; the response rate was 92%. The study population was chosen by multistage...

  14. Advancing efforts to achieve health equity: equity metrics for health impact assessment practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jonathan; Givens, Marjory L; Yuen, Tina K; Gould, Solange; Jandu, Maria Benkhalti; Bourcier, Emily; Choi, Tim

    2014-11-01

    Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communities. There have been several HIA frameworks developed to guide the inclusion of equity considerations. However, the field lacks clear indicators for measuring whether an HIA advanced equity. This article describes the development of a set of equity metrics that aim to guide and evaluate progress toward equity in HIA practice. These metrics also intend to further push the field to deepen its practice and commitment to equity in each phase of an HIA. Over the course of a year, the Society of Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA) Equity Working Group took part in a consensus process to develop these process and outcome metrics. The metrics were piloted, reviewed, and refined based on feedback from reviewers. The Equity Metrics are comprised of 23 measures of equity organized into four outcomes: (1) the HIA process and products focused on equity; (2) the HIA process built the capacity and ability of communities facing health inequities to engage in future HIAs and in decision-making more generally; (3) the HIA resulted in a shift in power benefiting communities facing inequities; and (4) the HIA contributed to changes that reduced health inequities and inequities in the social and environmental determinants of health. The metrics are comprised of a measurement scale, examples of high scoring activities, potential data sources, and example interview questions to gather data and guide evaluators on scoring each metric. PMID:25347193

  15. Advancing Efforts to Achieve Health Equity: Equity Metrics for Health Impact Assessment Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Heller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA. Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communities. There have been several HIA frameworks developed to guide the inclusion of equity considerations. However, the field lacks clear indicators for measuring whether an HIA advanced equity. This article describes the development of a set of equity metrics that aim to guide and evaluate progress toward equity in HIA practice. These metrics also intend to further push the field to deepen its practice and commitment to equity in each phase of an HIA. Over the course of a year, the Society of Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA Equity Working Group took part in a consensus process to develop these process and outcome metrics. The metrics were piloted, reviewed, and refined based on feedback from reviewers. The Equity Metrics are comprised of 23 measures of equity organized into four outcomes: (1 the HIA process and products focused on equity; (2 the HIA process built the capacity and ability of communities facing health inequities to engage in future HIAs and in decision-making more generally; (3 the HIA resulted in a shift in power benefiting communities facing inequities; and (4 the HIA contributed to changes that reduced health inequities and inequities in the social and environmental determinants of health. The metrics are comprised of a measurement scale, examples of high scoring activities, potential data sources, and example interview questions to gather data and guide evaluators on scoring each metric.

  16. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools. PMID:25000783

  17. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs

  18. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  19. Using the community health assessment to screen for continued driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John N; Howard, Elizabeth P; Fries, Brant E; Berkowitz, Randi; Goldman, Beryl; David, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    This project used the interRAI based, community health assessment (CHA) to develop a model for identifying current elder drivers whose driving behavior should be reviewed. The assessments were completed by independent housing sites in COLLAGE, a non-profit, national senior housing consortium. Secondary analysis of data drawn from older adults in COLLAGE sites in the United States was conducted using a baseline assessment with 8042 subjects and an annual follow-up assessment with 3840 subjects. Logistic regression was used to develop a Driving Review Index (DRI) based on the most useful items from among the many measures available in the CHA assessment. Thirteen items were identified by the logistic regression to predict drivers whose driving behavior was questioned by others. In particular, three variables reference compromised decision-making abilities: general daily decisions, a recent decline in ability to make daily decisions, and ability to manage medications. Two additional measures assess cognitive status: short-term memory problem and a diagnosis of non-Alzheimers dementia. Functional measures reflect restrictions and general frailty, including receiving help in transportation, use of a locomotion appliance, having an unsteady gait, fatigue, and not going out on most days. The final three clinical measures reflect compromised vision, little interest or pleasure in things normally enjoyed, and diarrhea. The DRI focuses the review process on drivers with multiple cognitive and functional problems, including a significant segment of potentially troubled drivers who had not yet been publicly identified by others. There is a need for simple and quickly identified screening tools to identify those older adults whose driving should be reviewed. The DRI, based on the interRAI CHA, fills this void. Assessment at the individual level needs to be part of the backdrop of science as society seeks to target policy to identify high risk drivers instead of simply age

  20. 78 FR 12764 - Draft Office of Health Assessment and Translation Approach for Systematic Review and Evidence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... for Systematic Review and Evidence Integration for Literature-Based Health Assessments--February 2013... comments on the Draft Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) Approach for Systematic Review and... out literature-based health assessments that incorporates systematic review methodology....

  1. Health Technology Assessment and vaccine: new needs and opportunities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Health Technology Assessment (HTA can represent an innovative and effective approach to supply decisionmakers with a valid instrument to improve the allocation of resources in the field of vaccines. We proposed a HTA approach for considering the introduction of a new vaccine that could potentially have a great impact on the population’s health, using as an example the vaccine against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV. This approach could be of great interest when the decision making process involves choices regarding new vaccines. We developed a HTA approach for assessing all of the aspects involved in the introduction of vaccines against HPV in Italy, considering the following issues: - epidemiological evaluation of HPV infection and related pathologies through the consultation of data banks and the scientific literature; - evaluation of health care resources utilisation by people suffering from the infection/ related diseases, through the consultation of hospital archives; - systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials on HPV vaccination effectiveness and safety; - mathematical modelling and economic evaluation of the vaccination using a cost-effectiveness analysis; - evaluation of the impact of vaccination on the Health System [organisational aspects, vaccine surveillance, relationship between different decisional levels (national, regional]; - analysis of the ethical, social (acceptability, availability, accessibility, information and legislative aspects of vaccination. A HTA report on the new vaccine could represent an new important tool to support the choice of decision makers in order to better inform the allocation of economic resources and maximize healthcare services, since it takes into account not only the burden and the epidemiology of the disease, and the economic evaluation of different scenarios, but also the social, legal and bioethical aspects. For HTA to support the introduction of new technologies, and new

  2. Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

  3. Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Humpage

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms, but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption.

  4. Development of mental health quality indicators (MHQIs) for inpatient psychiatry based on the interRAI mental health assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Perlman Christopher M; Hirdes John P; Barbaree Howard; Fries Brant E; McKillop Ian; Morris John N; Rabinowitz Terry

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Outcome quality indicators are rarely used to evaluate mental health services because most jurisdictions lack clinical data systems to construct indicators in a meaningful way across mental health providers. As a result, important information about the effectiveness of health services remains unknown. This study examined the feasibility of developing mental health quality indicators (MHQIs) using the Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health (RAI-MH), a clinical asses...

  5. Health technology assessment demonstrates efficient health promotion bu Transcendental Meditation (TM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Health Technology Assessment of mantrameditation implemented as Transcendental Meditation (TM) METHODS: MEDLINE contains October 2001 335 titles on 'Transcendental Meditation' including various metaanalyses and a series of randomised, controlled trials: In summary...... mantrameditation (TM) is evidenced to produce a wakeful, hypometabolic state (in-depth-relaxation) independent of personality or individual mantras. A general metaanalysis summarizes the long-termed meditation effects as (1) a low baseline function; (2) release of stress and anxiety empowering self...

  6. Risk assessment of genetically modified crops for nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-Gómez, Javier A; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón

    2009-01-01

    The risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops for human nutrition and health has not been systematic. Evaluations for each GM crop or trait have been conducted using different feeding periods, animal models, and parameters. The most common result is that GM and conventional sources induce similar nutritional performance and growth in animals. However, adverse microscopic and molecular effects of some GM foods in different organs or tissues have been reported. Diversity among the methods and results of the risk assessments reflects the complexity of the subject. While there are currently no standardized methods to evaluate the safety of GM foods, attempts towards harmonization are on the way. More scientific effort is necessary in order to build confidence in the evaluation and acceptance of GM foods. PMID:19146501

  7. Health Technology Assessment of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueze Liu; Jianwen Cao; Zuxun Lu

    2004-01-01

    Assess the current status of MRI in Shanxi province by health technology assessment method to provide suggestion and guidelines for future government decisions on the procurement and installation of new high-tech medical equipments. All of the 21 hospitals installed MRIs were surveyed.The results showed that 1 ) Diffusion of MRI is consistent with the economic development in different regional districts and hospital levels in Shanxi province. 2) There are better monetary returns of MRI in higher level hospitals than lower level hospitals. 3) Most MRIs in Shanxi province had been running at a loss, and the first class tertiary level hospitals had been making profit from providing MRI services to patients. 4) Better cost-benefit accorded with higher hospital level, more patients serviced etc. 5 ) The biggest investment risk is the initial purchase and installation of MRI. 6) Positive rates and veracity of MRI diagnosis were higher. 7) MRI is a safe equipment.

  8. A Health Impact Assessment Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning for Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Brown

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru.

  9. Cumulative Carbon and Anthropocene Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, D.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Solomon, S.

    2010-12-01

    In this presentation we will highlight a few of the key findings of the recently completed National Research Council Study Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations and Impacts over Decades to Millennia (NRC, 2010), and discuss their implications for planetary stewardship. A synthesis of published results shows that the single number which most characterizes the magnitude of the human imprint on the climate of the coming millennia is the net amount of carbon released as CO2 by fossil fuel burning and land use changes during the time over which humanity continues such activities. Details of emissions scenarios are not important; rather it is the net carbon released by the time the emissions have been brought to essentially zero that controls long-term climate changes. In this report, we estimate that global temperatures increase by about 1 degree for approximately every 570 Pg of carbon emitted. Each degree of global temperature change is associated with quantifiable impacts on human and natural systems, including loss of arctic sea ice, decreased productivity of several major food crops, decreased precipitation in dry regions, and increases in area burnt by wildfire. Furthermore, the long timescale of temperature changes due to cumulative carbon emissions entails a lock-in to many centuries of continued sea-level rise, as well as the possibility of substantial contributions to sea-level rise from both Greenland and the West-Antarctic ice sheet. Reductions in methane or other short-lived greenhouse gas emissions can be of benefit in mitigating the near term climate changes, but CO2 is unique among major greenhouse gases in its ability to disrupt climate on multi-millennial time scales. This implies a need for correspondingly special treatment of this gas in emissions control protocols, for example by setting targets for allowable cumulative carbon emissions over time. The authoring committee was composed of Susan Solomon, Chair, David Battisti, Scott

  10. An Integrated Approach to Assess Exposure and Health-Risk from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in a Fastener Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-I Hsu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach was developed to assess exposure and health-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs contained in oil mists in a fastener manufacturing industry. One previously developed model and one new model were adopted for predicting oil mist exposure concentrations emitted from metal work fluid (MWF and PAHs contained in MWF by using the fastener production rate (Pr and cumulative fastener production rate (CPr as predictors, respectively. By applying the annual Pr and CPr records to the above two models, long-term workplace PAH exposure concentrations were predicted. In addition, true exposure data was also collected from the field. The predicted and measured concentrations respectively served as the prior and likelihood distributions in the Bayesian decision analysis (BDA, and the resultant posterior distributions were used to determine the long-term exposure and health-risks posed on workers. Results show that long term exposures to PAHs would result in a 3.1%, 96.7%, and 73.4% chance of exceeding the PEL-TWA (0.2 mg/m3, action level (0.1 mg/m3, and acceptable health risk (10−3, respectively. In conclusion, preventive measures should be taken immediately to reduce workers’ PAH exposures.

  11. Assessing Community Health Risks: Proactive Vs Reactive Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Taylor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A considerable number of native birds died in the West Australian coastal town of Esperance and surroundings during late 2006 and early 2007, which raised community concerns about environmental contamination. Forensic investigations of dead birds suggested that lead may have been the causative agent. At the time, lead and nickel, as well as iron ore and other materials, were being exported through the Port of Esperance (port. Government agencies undertook a targeted environmental sampling programme to identify the exposure sources and the extent of contamination. Results of ambient air monitoring, blood lead level investigations and analysis of metals in rainwater tanks suggested widespread contamination of the Esperance town site with lead and nickel. The Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC retained Golder Associates Pty Ltd., (Golder to undertake a human health and ecological risk assessment (risk assessment using the information collected through the investigation of lead and nickel contamination in Esperance. The quantity and quality of exposure data are an important contributor to the uncertainty associated with the outcomes of a risk assessment. Conclusion: As the data were collected essentially as part of the emergency response to the events in Esperance, there was some uncertainty about the suitability and completeness of the data for risk assessment. The urgent nature of the emergency response meant that sampling was opportunistic and not necessarily sufficient or suitable for risk assessment from a methodical and scientific perspective. This study demonstrated the need for collecting ‘meaningful and reliable’ data for assessing risks from environmental contamination.

  12. Assessing the Physical Activity of Health Volunteers Based on the Pender’s Health Promotion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimian M.* MSc,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Physical inactivity has been identified as the 4th leading risk factor for global mortality causing an estimated of 3.2million deaths per year. This study aimed to assess the physical activity of health volunteers with Pender’s Health Promotion Model. Instrument & Methods This cross-sectional analytical study was performed on 80 health volunteers in Torbat-e-Jam City, Iran, in 2015. A researcher-made questionnaire with the following sections was used to gather data; perceived benefits, perceived barriers, selfefficacy, interpersonal influences, positive emotion, commitment, modeling and competing preferences. SPSS 16 sofware was used to analyze data by independent T, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Findings There was no significant difference between the scores according to educational levels, age groups, BMI score, marital status, habitat and experience as a health volunteer duration. Physical activity had positive correlation with perceived benefits, self-efficacy, commitment, positive emotion and situational influences and a negative correlation with perceived barriers. Situational influences, as the strongest predictor of the physical activity, predicted 35.1% of it and then positive emotions predicted 34.7% and self-efficacy predicted 23.4% of physical activity. Conclusion The level of physical activity in health volunteers of Torbat-e-Jam City, Iran, is not appropriate and is less than moderate.

  13. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  14. Sensor Selection and Optimization for Health Assessment of Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, William A.; Kopasakis, George; Santi, Louis M.; Sowers, Thomas S.; Chicatelli, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace systems are developed similarly to other large-scale systems through a series of reviews, where designs are modified as system requirements are refined. For space-based systems few are built and placed into service these research vehicles have limited historical experience to draw from and formidable reliability and safety requirements, due to the remote and severe environment of space. Aeronautical systems have similar reliability and safety requirements, and while these systems may have historical information to access, commercial and military systems require longevity under a range of operational conditions and applied loads. Historically, the design of aerospace systems, particularly the selection of sensors, is based on the requirements for control and performance rather than on health assessment needs. Furthermore, the safety and reliability requirements are met through sensor suite augmentation in an ad hoc, heuristic manner, rather than any systematic approach. A review of the current sensor selection practice within and outside of the aerospace community was conducted and a sensor selection architecture is proposed that will provide a justifiable, defendable sensor suite to address system health assessment requirements.

  15. Development of the eHealth Literacy Assessment Toolkit, eHLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Dorthe Furstrand; Kayser, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In a world with rising focus on the use of eHealth, the match between the competences of the individual and the demands of eHealth systems becomes increasingly important, thus making assessment of eHealth literacy as a measure of user competences a vital element. We propose the eHealth Literacy...... Assessment toolkit, eHLA, evaluating the user by seven scales: computer familiarity, confidence, incentive and performance as well as functional health literacy, health literacy self-assessment and health literacy performance, as a first step toward development of technology that accommodates the literacy...

  16. [Citizen participation in the context of health technology assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freile-Gutiérrez, Berenice

    2014-01-01

    Citizen participation is important in all economic sectors of the democratic world, as it is also in the field of health. This is due to the significant value of life and therefore enjoying this in a healthy condition. This paper seeks to provide an overview of public participation in the context of Health Technology Assessments (HTA), covering from conceptualization to practical experiences. Within the existing literature, the definitions and methodological aspects of the topic discussed are reviewed, as well as how citizen participation in HTA agencies is manifested, presenting barriers as well as enablers for public involvement. In the Chilean case, where there are no public participation experiences in the context of HTA, a review of these initiatives in the health care sector is performed. In light with the studies examined, it is concluded that there is much to advance in the concreteness of citizen participation in HTA's agencies; efforts at institutional level as well as from community organizations are needed. This review can be useful as an antecedent for countries that are considering incorporating HTA in the future. PMID:24861177

  17. Development of health effect assessment software using MACCS2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extended regulatory interests in severe accidents management and enhanced safety regulatory requirements raise a need of more accurate analysis of the effect to the public health by users with diverse disciplines. This facilitates this work to develop web-based radiation health effect assessment software, RASUM, by using the MACCS2 code and HTML language to provide diverse users (regulators, operators, and public) with easy understanding, modeling, calculating, analyzing, documenting and reporting of the radiation health effect under hypothetical severe accidents. The engine of the web-based RASUM uses the MACCS2 as a base code developed by NRC and is composed of five modules such as development module, PSA training module, output module, input data module (source term, population distribution, meteorological data, etc.), and MACCS2 run module. For verification and demonstration of the RASUM, the offsite consequence analysis using the RASUM frame is performed for such as early fatality risk, organ does, and whole body does for two selected scenarios. Moreover, CCDF results from the RASUM for KSNP and CANDU type reactors are presented and compared. (author)

  18. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  19. Environmental and health impact assessment for ports in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchang, Chamchan; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Supanitayanon, Thanawat

    2016-01-01

    Port development in Thailand is an essential part of the national maritime interest in connection with ship and shore activities. The growth of maritime industry and transportation has led to the expansion of ports' areas and capacity. Each port type causes different environmental impacts. Therefore, the Port Authority of Thailand has set up guidelines on ports' environmental management. This is divided into 3 major phases; namely, planning, construction and operation commencement periods. The Report of Environmental and Health Impact Assessment (EIA, HIA and EHIA) is regarded as the environmental management process in the planning period. It is a key tool to anticipate and prevent any adverse effects that might occur on the environment as well as community health resulting from the project implementation. This measure, in turn, creates advance preparation on both the preventive and problem-solving means before the project gets off the ground. At present, the majority of new projects on port development have still been in the process of information gathering for EHIA submission. Some cannot start to operate due to their EHIA failure. For example, the Tha-sala port which did not pass EHIA, mainly because emphasis had been focused on adhering to legal regulations without taking into consideration the in-depth analysis of data being conducted by community entities in the area. Thus caused the project to be finally abolished. Impact assessment on environment and health should be aimed at detailed understanding of the community in each particular area so that effective data of objective achievement in preventing environmental problems could actually be carried out and welcomed by the concerned society. PMID:27364177

  20. Nanomaterials safety assessment: contribution from the Portuguese National Institute of Health (INSA) research

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, José Maria

    2015-01-01

    The National Health Institute Doutor Ricardo Jorge (INSA) is a public organization of the Portuguese Ministry of Health, which develops a triple role as State Laboratory in the health sector, National Reference Laboratory and National Health Observatory. All operative units composing the departments develop multidisciplinary programs in problem areas of Public Health, namely performing R&D, health monitoring, training, laboratory external quality assessment and general health services. INS...

  1. [Assessing the impact of the environment on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Marine

    2016-05-01

    In public health, nurses are concerned with the global health of populations. A recently qualified nurse, interested in this area of health, enhanced her skills with a master's degree specialising in the links between the environment and health. PMID:27155275

  2. Risk management assessment of Health Maintenance Organisations participating in the National Health Insurance Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Princess Christina; Korie, Patrick Chukwuemeka; Nnaji, Feziechukwu Collins

    2014-01-01

    Background: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), operated majorly in Nigeria by health maintenance organisations (HMOs), took off formally in June 2005. In view of the inherent risks in the operation of any social health insurance, it is necessary to efficiently manage these risks for sustainability of the scheme. Consequently the risk-management strategies deployed by HMOs need regular assessment. This study assessed the risk management in the Nigeria social health insurance scheme among HMOs. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 33 HMOs participating in the NHIS. Results: Utilisation of standard risk-management strategies by the HMOs was 11 (52.6%). The other risk-management strategies not utilised in the NHIS 10 (47.4%) were risk equalisation and reinsurance. As high as 11 (52.4%) of participating HMOs had a weak enrollee base (less than 30,000 and poor monthly premium and these impacted negatively on the HMOs such that a large percentage 12 (54.1%) were unable to meet up with their financial obligations. Most of the HMOs 15 (71.4%) participated in the Millennium development goal (MDG) maternal and child health insurance programme. Conclusions: Weak enrollee base and poor monthly premium predisposed the HMOs to financial risk which impacted negatively on the overall performance in service delivery in the NHIS, further worsened by the non-utilisation of risk equalisation and reinsurance as risk-management strategies in the NHIS. There is need to make the scheme compulsory and introduce risk equalisation and reinsurance. PMID:25298605

  3. A global human health risk assessment for Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Allison; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Greene, Tracy; Plotzke, Kathy; Gentry, Robinan

    2016-02-01

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) is a low-molecular-weight cyclic siloxane used primarily as an intermediate in the production of several widely-used industrial and consumer products and intentionally added to consumer products, personal products and some dry cleaning solvents. The global use requires consideration of consumer use information and risk assessment requirements from various sources and authoritative bodies. A global "harmonized" risk assessment was conducted to meet requirements for substance-specific risk assessments conducted by regulatory agencies such as USEPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), Health Canada and various independent scientific committees of the European Commission, as well as provide guidance for chemical safety assessments under REACH in Europe, and other relevant authoritative bodies. This risk assessment incorporates global exposure information combined with a Monte Carlo analysis to determine the most significant routes of exposure, utilization of a multi-species, multi-route physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to estimate internal dose metrics, benchmark modeling to determine a point of departure (POD), and a margin of safety (MOS) evaluation to compare the estimates of intake with the POD. Because of the specific pharmacokinetic behaviors of D5 including high lipophilicity, high volatility with low blood-to-air partition coefficients and extensive metabolic clearance that regulate tissue dose after exposure, the use of a PBPK model was essential to provide a comparison of a dose metric that reflects these processes. The characterization of the potential for adverse effects after exposure to D5 using a MOS approach based on an internal dose metric removes the subjective application of uncertainty factors that may be applied across various regulatory agencies and allows examination of the differences between internal dose metrics associated with exposure and those associated with adverse effects. PMID

  4. Vegetation Health and Productivity Indicators for Sustained National Climate Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. O.; Running, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment process is developing a system of physical, ecological, and societal indicators that communicate key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness for the purpose of informing both decision makers and the public. Implementing a 14 year record of Gross and Net Primary Productivity (GPP/NPP) derived from the NASA EOS MODIS satellite sensor we demonstrate how these products can serve as Ecosystem Productivity and Vegetation Health National Climate Indicators for implementation in sustained National Climate Assessments. The NPP product combines MODIS vegetation data with daily global meteorology to calculate annual growth of all plant material at 1 sq. km resolution. NPP anomalies identify regions with above or below average plant growth that may result from climate fluctuations and can inform carbon source/sink dynamics, agricultural and forestry yield measures, and response to wildfire or drought conditions. The GPP product provides a high temporal resolution (8-day) metric of vegetation growth which can be used to monitor short-term vegetation response to extreme events and implemented to derive vegetation phenology metrics; growing season start, end, and length, which can elucidate land cover and regionally specific vegetation responses to a changing climate. The high spatial resolution GPP and NPP indicators can also inform and clarify responses seen from other proposed Pilot Indicators such as forest growth/productivity, land cover, crop production, and phenology. The GPP and NPP data are in continuous production and will be sustained into the future with the next generation satellite missions. The long-term Ecosystem Productivity and Vegetation Health Indicators are ideal for use in sustained National Climate Assessments, providing regionally specific responses to a changing climate and complete coverage at the national scale.

  5. A framework for assessing the performance of health systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, C. J.; Frenk, J.

    2000-01-01

    Health systems vary widely in performance, and countries with similar levels of income, education and health expenditure differ in their ability to attain key health goals. This paper proposes a framework to advance the understanding of health system performance. A first step is to define the boundaries of the health system, based on the concept of health action. Health action is defined as any set of activities whose primary intent is to improve or maintain health. Within these boundaries, t...

  6. [COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH IN BABIES OF EARLY PRESCHOOL AGE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, A P; Semenova, N V; Kun, O A; Denisova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Health of the children's population is one of the most important components of safety of the country. The incidence level in children of early age reflects an interaction of economic, ecological, social and hygienic and medico-organizational factors in society. The issue of the paper is the comprehensive assessment of health of children of the first three years of life upon indices of the morbidity rate, physical development, interrelation of given indices with the structure of the family and their social status. Indices of the physical development of boys in the all age groups exceeded the corresponding indices in girls (p children along with the age (p children was established in the first year of life, the minimal one--in the third year. In the all age groups diseases of respiratory organs prevailed, at this their proportion in the total amount of diseases in the third year of life considerably exceeded the same in first and second years of life. The highest incidences of children took place in the families formed by juvenile and lonely women. Diseases of digestive organs in the second and third years of life in children from juvenile and lonely mothers were considerably enlarged on frequency (by 1,4-1,7 times), infectious and parasitic diseases (by 1,1-1,7 times) in comparison with children from full families. In the all studied types offamilies and age groups the state of health of children was worse, than in full families. There was substantiated the development of the multilevel system for the prophylaxis of losses of health in children at early preschool age. PMID:26856178

  7. Environmental health risk assessment and management for global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    This environmental health risk assessment and management approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk management, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing global warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2ºC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5ºC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5ºC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1ºC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed global warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2ºC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5ºC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1ºC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2ºC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2ºC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2ºC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline

  8. Drug delivery system innovation and Health Technology Assessment: Upgrading from Clinical to Technological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzitta, Michele; Bruno, Giorgio; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Mendicino, Francesca R; Ricci, Maurizio

    2015-11-30

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary health political instrument that evaluates the consequences, mainly clinical and economical, of a health care technology; the HTA aim is to produce and spread information on scientific and technological innovation for health political decision making process. Drug delivery systems (DDS), such as nanocarriers, are technologically complex but they have pivotal relevance in therapeutic innovation. The HTA process, as commonly applied to conventional drug evaluation, should upgrade to a full pharmaceutical assessment, considering the DDS complexity. This is useful to study more in depth the clinical outcome and to broaden its critical assessment toward pharmaceutical issues affecting the patient and not measured by the current clinical evidence approach. We draw out the expertise necessary to perform the pharmaceutical assessment and we propose a format to evaluate the DDS technological topics such as formulation and mechanism of action, physicochemical characteristics, manufacturing process. We integrated the above-mentioned three points in the Evidence Based Medicine approach, which is data source for any HTA process. In this regard, the introduction of a Pharmaceutics Expert figure in the HTA could be fundamental to grant a more detailed evaluation of medicine product characteristics and performances and to help optimizing DDS features to overcome R&D drawbacks. Some aspects of product development, such as manufacturing processes, should be part of the HTA as innovative manufacturing processes allow new products to reach more effectively patient bedside. HTA so upgraded may encourage resource allocating payers to invest in innovative technologies and providers to focus on innovative material properties and manufacturing processes, thus contributing to bring more medicines in therapy in a sustainable manner. PMID:26399633

  9. Health technology assessment in middle-income countries: recommendations for a balanced assessment system

    OpenAIRE

    Dankó, Dávid

    2014-01-01

    Because of significant differences in institutional contexts, health technology assessment (HTA) systems that are in place in core pharmaceutical markets may not be suitable, fully or in part, for middle-income countries (MICs) and for other noncore markets. Particular challenges may arise when systems based on the economic evaluation paradigm are conceptualized and implemented in MICs, sometimes with an insufficient level of awareness of the local institutional factors that influence pricing...

  10. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. PMID:25869185

  11. Cumulants, lattice paths, and orthogonal polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Franz

    2001-01-01

    A formula expressing free cumulants in terms of the Jacobi parameters of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials is derived. It combines Flajolet's theory of continued fractions and Lagrange inversion. For the converse we discuss Gessel-Viennot theory to express Hankel determinants in terms of various cumulants.

  12. Free cumulants and enumeration of connected partitions

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Franz

    2001-01-01

    A combinatorial formula is derived which expresses free cumulants in terms of classical comulants. As a corollary, we give a combinatorial interpretation of free cumulants of classical distributions, notably Gaussian and Poisson distributions. The latter count connected pairings and connected set partitions respectively. The proof relies on Moebius inversion on the partition lattice.

  13. Cumulative Exams in the Introductory Psychology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalie K.

    2013-01-01

    Many teachers require their students to take cumulative exams, but there are surprisingly few studies that examine the benefits of such exams. The purpose of this study was to determine whether introductory psychology students who take cumulative exams throughout the semester would have better long-term retention than students who take a…

  14. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  15. Assessment of Regional Human Health Risks from Lead Contamination in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, XueLian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk...

  16. Technical Consultation of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) System Health Assessment: Analysis of HST Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Heard, Brent N.; Hodson, Robert F.; Pettit, Duane H.; Pandolf, John E.; Azzolini, John D.; Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Farley, Rodger E.; Kirchman, Frank J.; Spidaliere, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    The NESC conducted an abridged independent examination of available information and personnel interviews to evaluate the current and anticipated state of the spacecraft subsystems and the parameters that describe the HST's health. These examinations included the projected timeliness of a robotic SM and whether the GSFC baseline concept is likely to provide the capability to extend the useful scientific life of the HST by an additional 5 years. The NESC team collected a broad spectrum of pertinent HST Program analyses, reports, briefings, and the results of the IPAO and the Aerospace Corporation AOA assessments as they relate to the degradation of the HST s health. This review included the state of the HST subsystems having the potential to impact the viability of the HST, but will not be serviced under the baseline robotic SM.

  17. Initiation of health-behaviour change among employees participating in a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Kraaijenhagen Roderik A; Vosbergen Sandra; Peek Niels; Niessen Maurice AJ; Colkesen Ersen B; van Kalken Coenraad K; Tijssen Jan GP; Peters Ron JG

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary prevention programs at the worksite can improve employee health and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Programs that include a web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback hold the advantage of simultaneously increasing awareness of risk and enhancing initiation of health-behaviour change. In this study we evaluated initial health-behaviour change among employees who voluntarily participated in such a HRA program. Methods We conducted a q...

  18. Assessment of an Anomaly Detector for Jet Engine Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Borguet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of module performance analysis is to reliably assess the health of the main components of an aircraft engine. A predictive maintenance strategy can leverage this information to increase operability and safety as well as to reduce costs. Degradation undergone by an engine can be divided into gradual deterioration and accidental events. Kalman filters have proven very efficient at tracking progressive deterioration but are poor performers in the face of abrupt events. Adaptive estimation is considered as an appropriate solution to this deficiency. This paper reports the evaluation of the detection capability of an adaptive diagnosis tool on the basis of simulated scenarios that may be encountered during the operation of a commercial turbofan engine. The diagnosis tool combines a Kalman filter and a secondary system that monitors the residuals. This auxiliary component implements a generalised likelihood ratio test in order to detect abrupt events.

  19. Towards Integration of Environmental and Health Impact Assessments for Wild Capture Fishing and Farmed Fish with Particular Reference to Public Health and Occupational Health Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watterson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a review and commentary, with particular reference to the production of fish from wild capture fisheries and aquaculture, on neglected aspects of health impact assessments which are viewed by a range of international and national health bodies and development agencies as valuable and necessary project tools. Assessments sometimes include environmental health impact assessments but rarely include specific occupational health and safety impact assessments especially integrated into a wider public health assessment. This is in contrast to the extensive application of environmental impact assessments to fishing and the comparatively large body of research now generated on the public health effects of eating fish. The value of expanding and applying the broader assessments would be considerable because in 2004 the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reports there were 41,408,000 people in the total ‘fishing’ sector including 11,289,000 in aquaculture. The paper explores some of the complex interactions that occur with regard to fishing activities and proposes the wider adoption of health impact assessment tools in these neglected sectors through an integrated public health impact assessment tool.

  20. Investigating Underlying Principles to Guide Health Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fakhri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods This study was conducted in three stages: 1 Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2 The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3 Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion Determining the principles of HIA from

  1. Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results: The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion: Determining the principles of HIA from peer

  2. Alberta oil sands community exposure and health effects assessment : analysis of health records as a proxy for health outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large scale study was conducted to assess potential links between air quality and human health outcomes. Health records were used as a proxy measure for health outcomes. Residents of Fort McMurray and Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada were used in the comparison of risks of selected morbidity and mortality measures during a 3 year period between 1995 and 1998. Data on the socio-demography, morbidity, and mortality were linked by PI and geographic area from the Health Care Insurance Plan, physical and hospital billing systems, and vital statistics death registration. Age was the most important confounder. Asthma incidence for children 3 years or less was examined along with prevalence and mortality of selected diseases for each sex and age group. Results showed that the incidence of asthma varied by age and sex but not by study area. There was no major difference in death from lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, respiratory disorders and COPD between residents of the target and control communities. 6 figs

  3. Health Literacy Assessment of the STOFHLA: Paper versus Electronic Administration Continuation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Wipperman, Jennifer; Wilson, Rachel; Dong, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms and pathways of its effects. Computer-based assessment tools may improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness of health literacy research. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess if administration of the Short Test of Functional…

  4. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  5. Reflections on the social epidemiologic dimension of health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Arminée

    2004-01-01

    Certain key parameters such as safety, efficacy, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness have long been established as key in HTA analysis. Equally important, however, are sociolegal and epidemiologic perspectives. A comprehensive analytic framework will consider the implications of using a technology in the context of societal norms, cultural values, and social institutions and relations. The methodology in which this expanded framework has been developed is termed 'Strategic HTA' to denote its power for the decision-making process. In addition to systematic reviews of published evidence, it incorporates analyses of the influence of dominant social relations on technological development and diffusion. This essay discusses the social epidemiologic aspects of health technology assessment, which includes factors such as sex and gender. It seeks to show how it is possible to bring data from wide-ranging disciplinary perspectives within the parameters of a single scientific inquiry; to draw from them scientifically defensible conclusions; and thereby to realize a deeper understanding of technology impact within a health care system. Armed with such an understanding, policy officials will be better prepared to resolve the competitive clamor of stakeholder voices, and to make the most "equitable" use of the available resources. PMID:15209176

  6. 2002 progress report and public health assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    Clean Air Hamilton focuses on improving air quality in the City by providing advice to City Council. The actions and activities of Clean Air Hamilton directly benefit residents. The activities relate to natural areas and corridors; reducing and managing waste; consuming less energy; changing our modes of transportation; land use issues in urban areas; and, personal health and well-being. The report includes an assessment of human health impacts caused by air pollution in Hamilton. It uses the most recent science and Hamilton air quality data as a basis. The results indicate that approximately 100 people die prematurely each year in Hamilton, while approximately 620 people require admission to hospitals for respiratory and cardiovascular problems related to exposure to pollutants. The second Upwind Downwind Conference was held in February 2002, sponsored by Clean Air Hamilton. All three levels of government view Clean Air Hamilton as a success. The City of Hamilton was awarded the prestigious 2000 Dubai International Award for Best Practices in Improving Living Environment as a result of Clean Air Hamilton's community process in local air quality improvement. 47 refs., tabs., 1 fig.

  7. An Assessment of Integrated Health Management (IHM) Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lybeck; M. Tawfik; L. Bond; J. Coble

    2012-05-01

    In order to meet the ever increasing demand for energy, the United States nuclear industry is turning to life extension of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs). Economically ensuring the safe, secure, and reliable operation of aging nuclear power plants presents many challenges. The 2009 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop identified online monitoring of active and structural components as essential to the better understanding and management of the challenges posed by aging nuclear power plants. Additionally, there is increasing adoption of condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components in NPPs. These techniques provide a foundation upon which a variety of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic, and prognostic techniques can be deployed to continuously monitor and assess the health of NPP systems and components. The next step in the development of advanced online monitoring is to move beyond CBM to estimating the remaining useful life of active components using prognostic tools. Deployment of prognostic health management (PHM) on the scale of a NPP requires the use of an integrated health management (IHM) framework - a software product (or suite of products) used to manage the necessary elements needed for a complete implementation of online monitoring and prognostics. This paper provides a thoughtful look at the desirable functions and features of IHM architectures. A full PHM system involves several modules, including data acquisition, system modeling, fault detection, fault diagnostics, system prognostics, and advisory generation (operations and maintenance planning). The standards applicable to PHM applications are indentified and summarized. A list of evaluation criteria for PHM software products, developed to ensure scalability of the toolset to an environment with the complexity of a NPP, is presented. Fourteen commercially available PHM software products are identified and classified into four groups: research tools, PHM system

  8. An Assessment of Integrated Health Management (IHM) Frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to meet the ever increasing demand for energy, the United States (U.S.) nuclear industry is turning to life extension of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs). Economically ensuring the safe, secure, and reliable operation of aging nuclear power plants presents many challenges. The 2009 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop identified online monitoring of active and structural components as essential to the better understanding and management of the challenges posed by aging nuclear power plants. Additionally, there is increasing adoption of condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components in NPPs. These techniques provide a foundation upon which a variety of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic, and prognostic techniques can be deployed to continuously monitor and assess the health of NPP systems and components. The next step in the development of advanced online monitoring is to move beyond CBM to estimating the remaining useful life of active components using prognostic tools. Deployment of prognostic health management (PHM) on the scale of a NPP requires the use of an integrated health management (IHM) framework-a software product (or suite of products) used to manage the necessary elements needed for a complete implementation of online monitoring and prognostics. This paper provides a thoughtful look at the desirable functions and features of IHM architectures. A full PHM system involves several modules, including data acquisition, system modeling, fault detection, fault diagnostics, system prognostics, and advisory generation (operations and maintenance planning). The standards applicable to PHM applications are indentified and summarized. A list of evaluation criteria for PHM software products, developed to ensure scalability of the toolset to an environment with the complexity of a NPP, is presented. Fourteen commercially available PHM software products are identified and classified into four groups: research tools, PHM system

  9. An Assessment of Integrated Health Management (IHM) Frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to meet the ever increasing demand for energy, the United States nuclear industry is turning to life extension of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs). Economically ensuring the safe, secure, and reliable operation of aging nuclear power plants presents many challenges. The 2009 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop identified online monitoring of active and structural components as essential to the better understanding and management of the challenges posed by aging nuclear power plants. Additionally, there is increasing adoption of condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components in NPPs. These techniques provide a foundation upon which a variety of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic, and prognostic techniques can be deployed to continuously monitor and assess the health of NPP systems and components. The next step in the development of advanced online monitoring is to move beyond CBM to estimating the remaining useful life of active components using prognostic tools. Deployment of prognostic health management (PHM) on the scale of a NPP requires the use of an integrated health management (IHM) framework - a software product (or suite of products) used to manage the necessary elements needed for a complete implementation of online monitoring and prognostics. This paper provides a thoughtful look at the desirable functions and features of IHM architectures. A full PHM system involves several modules, including data acquisition, system modeling, fault detection, fault diagnostics, system prognostics, and advisory generation (operations and maintenance planning). The standards applicable to PHM applications are indentified and summarized. A list of evaluation criteria for PHM software products, developed to ensure scalability of the toolset to an environment with the complexity of a NPP, is presented. Fourteen commercially available PHM software products are identified and classified into four groups: research tools, PHM system

  10. Health Risk Assessment of Groundwater Arsenic Pollution in Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the risk of arsenic (As) exposure to the residents in Pingtung Plain of Taiwan, where more than 50% of people extracts groundwater to meet the drinking purpose and monitoring groundwater shows that a considerable portion of groundwater has an As concentration of more than safe drinking water guideline of 10μg/L-1. Exposure and risk assessment are carried out in accordance with the provisional daily intake (PTDI) recommended by the FAO/WHO as well as hazard quotient and cancer risk standards based on the US Environmental Protection Agency. The variability of body weights and drinking water consumption scenarios are considered in exposure and risk assessment. Results shows that daily intake exceeds 2.1μg day-1 kg-1 BW for 2% of population, HQ level above unity for 20% , and can risk greater than 10-6 for 80%. These results implies that drinking water directly from groundwater will place many people at the risk of exposure and any efforts to supply safe drinking water is imperial for governing in order to protect the human health of inhabitants in Pingtung Plain.

  11. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects

  12. Assessment of Environmental Sustainability in Health Care Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carmen Carnero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare organizations should set a standard in corporate social responsibility and encourage environmental sustainability, since protection of the environment implies the development of preventive measures in healthcare. Environmental concern has traditionally focused on manufacturing plants. However, a Health Care Organization (HCO is the only type of company which generates all existing classes of waste, and 20% is dangerous, being infectious, toxic or radioactive in nature. Despite the extensive literature analysing environmental matters, there is no objective model for assessing the environmental sustainability of HCOs in such a way that the results may be compared over time for an organization, and between different organizations, to give a comparison or benchmarking tool for HCOs. This paper presents a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis model integrating a Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and utility theory, to evaluate environmental sustainability in HCOs. The model uses criteria assessed as a function of the number of annual treatments undertaken. The model has been tested in two HCOs of very different sizes.

  13. Health assessment of electric power distribution system in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uninterrupted electrical power is required to continue the decay heat removal and containment of radioactive leakage, subsequent to reactor shut-down following an accident. Assessment of the integrity of electrical power supply system, after an accident, and restoration of supply, at least to the electrical networks feeding the critical loads, is therefore of utmost importance. The availability of one or more of the emergency power sources - DGs, batteries, offsite power etc. - and the survival of the electrical distribution network up to the critical loads are the necessary conditions for recovery. External sources may be required to be connected in-situ, if none of the emergency sources are available. Few cables may have to be laid if the distribution network is not recoverable. To carry out these activities in a post-accident scenario, it is highly desirable to have an in-situ diagnostic system that can assess and present the health of the electrical distribution network to the plant personnel. This paper discusses about a diagnostic technique capable of monitoring and detecting hard (e.g., Open circuit) as well as soft faults created due to rapid degradation of the cables caused due to fire/heat or other mechanisms. (author)

  14. Software Tools to Support the Assessment of System Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of three software tools that were developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center to support the assessment of system health: the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDIMES), the Systematic Sensor Selection Strategy (S4), and the Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) tool. Originally developed to support specific NASA projects in aeronautics and space, these software tools are currently available to U.S. citizens through the NASA Glenn Software Catalog. The ProDiMES software tool was developed to support a uniform comparison of propulsion gas path diagnostic methods. Methods published in the open literature are typically applied to dissimilar platforms with different levels of complexity. They often address different diagnostic problems and use inconsistent metrics for evaluating performance. As a result, it is difficult to perform a one ]to ]one comparison of the various diagnostic methods. ProDIMES solves this problem by serving as a theme problem to aid in propulsion gas path diagnostic technology development and evaluation. The overall goal is to provide a tool that will serve as an industry standard, and will truly facilitate the development and evaluation of significant Engine Health Management (EHM) capabilities. ProDiMES has been developed under a collaborative project of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) based on feedback provided by individuals within the aircraft engine health management community. The S4 software tool provides a framework that supports the optimal selection of sensors for health management assessments. S4 is structured to accommodate user ]defined applications, diagnostic systems, search techniques, and system requirements/constraints. One or more sensor suites that maximize this performance while meeting other user ]defined system requirements that are presumed to exist. S4 provides a systematic approach for evaluating combinations of sensors to determine the set or sets of

  15. 78 FR 59685 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... AGENCY Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability... availability of EPA's draft human health and ecological risk assessments for the registration review for 2... providing advice on ecological risk assessment tools and scientific approaches in developing listed...

  16. 78 FR 38315 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... AGENCY Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments; Notice of Availability... availability of EPA's draft human health and ecological risk assessments for the registration review of... comprehensive draft risk assessments for each of the subject chemicals and is making them available for...

  17. 78 FR 17201 - Pesticide Chemicals; Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Chemicals; Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments... notice announces the availability of EPA's draft human health and ecological risk assessments for the... draft risk assessments for each of the subject chemicals and is making them available for public...

  18. Symmetric cumulants and event-plane correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Giacalone, Giuliano; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration has recently measured the correlations between amplitudes of anisotropic flow in different Fourier harmonics, referred to as symmetric cumulants. We derive approximate relations between symmetric cumulants involving $v_4$ and $v_5$ and the event-plane correlations measured by ATLAS. The validity of these relations is tested using event-by-event hydrodynamic calculations. The corresponding results are in better agreement with ALICE data than existing hydrodynamic predictions. We make quantitative predictions for three symmetric cumulants which are not yet measured.

  19. Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.

  20. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in...... asymptotic variance. The method is illustrated by an application in a bone marrow transplant study and the finite-sample properties are assessed by simulations....

  1. 76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the... human health or the environment. As part of the registration review process, the Agency has completed...

  2. Healthe Kids: An Assessment of Program Performance and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bonnie B.; Kindermann, Sylvia L.; Carson, Tabetha; Gavin, Jan; Frerking, Melissa; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2014-01-01

    Many states in the United States have mandated school health screenings for early identification and referral to professional services for a set of health conditions. Healthe Kids, a community-based program, began offering school-based health screenings to Missouri elementary schools in March 2007. The purpose of the article is to provide a…

  3. How Health Impact Assessments (HIAs Help Us to Select the Public Health Policies Most Likely to Maximise Health Gain, on the Basis of Best Public Health Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreaves Hilary A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Health Impact Assessment (HIA is a decision support tool intended to present timely, evidence–based recommendations to decision makers in all sections of society in order to accentuate potential positive health and well-being impacts (and mitigate potential negative impacts of policies, plans (including local and neighbourhood plans, programmes and projects (including infrastructure and local development proposals, in order to reduce health inequalities/disparities. HIA is a well established and proven means of linking research evidence from public health and the environmental sciences with equitable decision making processes at all levels, from local to global. It may also provide a platform for examination of research proposals to strengthen the impact statement therein, identifying potential for future public benefit. This paper highlights some of the main drivers for a timely re-emphasis on the use of best scientific evidence and systematic HIA to inform decision making for future public benefit, citing the example of air pollution.

  4. A framework for assessing Health Economic Evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health economic evaluations support the health care decision-making process by providing information on costs and consequences of health interventions. The quality of such studies is assessed by health economic evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. At present, there is no instrument for measuring and improving the quality of such HEE quality appraisal instruments. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to establish a framework for assessing the quality of HEE qualit...

  5. School-Based Mental Health Professionals' Bullying Assessment Practices: A Call for Evidence-Based Bullying Assessment Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jamilia; Banks, Courtney S.; Patience, Brenda A.; Lund, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    A sample of 483 school-based mental health professionals completed a survey about the training they have received related to conducting bullying assessments in schools, competence in conducting an assessment of bullying, and the bullying assessment methods they used. Results indicate that school counselors were usually informed about incidents of…

  6. Scoping a Public Health Impact Assessment of Aquaculture with Particular Reference to Tilapia in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Watterson; David Little; Young, James A.; Francis Murray; Larry Doi; Boyd, Kathleen A.; Ekram Azim

    2012-01-01

    Background. The paper explores shaping public health impact assessment tools for tilapia, a novel emergent aquaculture sector in the UK. This Research Council’s UK Rural Economy and Land Use project embraces technical, public health, and marketing perspectives scoping tools to assess possible impacts of the activity. Globally, aquaculture produced over 65 million tonnes of food in 2008 and will grow significantly requiring apposite global public health impact assessment tools. Methods. Qu...

  7. Adapting developing country epidemiological assessment techniques to improve the quality of health needs assessments in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handy Deirdre

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We were commissioned to carry out three health assessments in urban areas of Dublin in Ireland. We required an epidemiologically robust method that could collect data rapidly and inexpensively. We were dealing with inadequate health information systems, weak planning data and a history of inadequate recipient involvement in health service planning. These problems had also been identified by researchers carrying out health assessments in developing countries. This paper reports our experience of adapting a cluster survey model originally developed by international organisations to assess community health needs and service coverage in developing countries and applying our adapted model to three urban areas in Dublin, Ireland Methods We adapted the model to control for socio-economic heterogeneity, to take account of the inadequate population list, to ensure a representative sample and to account for a higher prevalence of degenerative and chronic diseases. We employed formal as well as informal communication methods and adjusted data collection times to maximise participation. Results The model we adapted had the capacity to ascertain both health needs and health care delivery needs. The community participated throughout the process and members were trained and employed as data collectors. The assessments have been used by local health boards and non-governmental agencies to plan and deliver better or additional services. Conclusion We were able to carry out high quality health needs assessments in urban areas by adapting and applying a developing country health assessment method. Issues arose relating to health needs assessment as part of the planning cycle and the role of participants in the process.

  8. An Assessment of Air Pollution Exposure Information for Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick W. Lipfert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of air pollution health effects are based on outdoor ambient exposures, mainly because of the availability of population-based data and the need to support emission control programs. However, there is also a large body of literature on indoor air quality that is more relevant to personal exposures. This assessment attempts to merge these two aspects of pollution-related health effects, emphasizing fine particles. However, the basic concepts are applicable to any pollutant. The objectives are to examine sensitivities of epidemiological studies to the inclusion of personal exposure information and to assess the resulting data requirements. Indoor air pollution results from penetration of polluted outdoor air and from various indoor sources, among which environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is probably the most toxic and pervasive. Adequate data exist on infiltration of outdoor air but less so for indoor sources and effects, all of which have been based on surveys of small samples of individual buildings. Since epidemiology is based on populations, these data must be aggregated using probabilistic methods. Estimates of spatial variation and precision of ambient air quality are also needed. Hypothetical personal exposures in this paper are based on ranges in outdoor air quality, variable infiltration rates, and ranges of indoor source strength. These uncertainties are examined with respect to two types of mortality studies: time series analysis of daily deaths in a given location, and cross-sectional analysis of annual mortality rates among locations. Regressions of simulated mortality on personal exposures, as affected by all of these uncertainties, are used to examine effects on dose-response functions using quasi-Monte Carlo methods. The working hypothesis is that indoor sources are reasonably steady over time and thus applicable only to long-term cross-sectional studies. Uncertainties in exposure attenuate the simulated mortality

  9. Studying cumulative cultural evolution in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Christine A; Millen, Ailsa E

    2008-01-01

    Cumulative cultural evolution is the term given to a particular kind of social learning, which allows for the accumulation of modifications over time, involving a ratchet-like effect where successful modifications are maintained until they can be improved upon. There has been great interest in the topic of cumulative cultural evolution from researchers from a wide variety of disciplines, but until recently there were no experimental studies of this phenomenon. Here, we describe our motivation...

  10. Cumulative creep damage for polycarbonate and polysulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Brinson, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The literature for creep to failure cumulative damage laws are reviewed. Creep to failure tests performed on polycarbonate and polysulfone under single and two step loadings are discussed. A cumulative damage law or modified time fraction rule is developed using a power law for transient creep response as the starting point. Experimental results are approximated well by the new rule. Damage and failure mechanisms associated with the two materials are suggested.

  11. Pion interferometry with higher-order cumulants

    OpenAIRE

    Eggers, H. C.; Buschbeck, B.; Lipa, P.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured second- and third-order cumulants in UA1 data ($\\bar pp$ collisions at 630 GeV/c). Rather than quoting numerical values for source parameters, we have used these in three checks to test the ``quantum statistics'' theory for consistency over these cumulants. In the process, we have found a method for folding theoretical correlation functions with experimental one-particle distributions. Our preliminary results appear to indicate that, for the specific tests performed, the data...

  12. Assessment of medicines use pattern using World Health Organization’s Prescribing, Patient Care and Health facility indicators in selected health facilities in eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal, Arebu I.; Osman, Ebrahim D.; Mulugeta, Anwar

    2016-01-01

    Background About one-third of the world’s population lack access to essential medicines and this is further compounded by inappropriate prescription, dispensing, sale and use of the available medicines. The objective of the study was to assess the patterns of medicine use among health facilities in eastern Ethiopia using World Health Organization’s Prescribing, Patient Care and Health facility indicators. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out in eight randomly selected health center...

  13. Cumulative reproductive effects of in utero administration of mixtures of antiandrogens in male SD rats: synergy or additivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1996 the USEPA was charged under the FQPA to consider the cumulative effects of chemicals in their risk assessments. Our studies were conducted to provide a framework for assessing the cumulative effects of antiandrogens. Toxicants were administered individually or as mixtures...

  14. Oral contraceptive use and impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M T; Jensen, A; Frederiksen, K;

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk.......Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk....

  15. Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lewis G; Vale, Gill L; Laland, Kevin N; Flynn, Emma; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-05-01

    Many animals exhibit social learning and behavioural traditions, but human culture exhibits unparalleled complexity and diversity, and is unambiguously cumulative in character. These similarities and differences have spawned a debate over whether animal traditions and human culture are reliant on homologous or analogous psychological processes. Human cumulative culture combines high-fidelity transmission of cultural knowledge with beneficial modifications to generate a 'ratcheting' in technological complexity, leading to the development of traits far more complex than one individual could invent alone. Claims have been made for cumulative culture in several species of animals, including chimpanzees, orangutans and New Caledonian crows, but these remain contentious. Whilst initial work on the topic of cumulative culture was largely theoretical, employing mathematical methods developed by population biologists, in recent years researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, biology, economics, biological anthropology, linguistics and archaeology, have turned their attention to the experimental investigation of cumulative culture. We review this literature, highlighting advances made in understanding the underlying processes of cumulative culture and emphasising areas of agreement and disagreement amongst investigators in separate fields. PMID:24033987

  16. Cancer and non-cancer health effects from food contaminant exposures for children and adults in California: a risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt Rainbow; Bennett Deborah; Cassady Diana; Frost Joshua; Ritz Beate; Hertz-Picciotto Irva

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In the absence of current cumulative dietary exposure assessments, this analysis was conducted to estimate exposure to multiple dietary contaminants for children, who are more vulnerable to toxic exposure than adults. Methods We estimated exposure to multiple food contaminants based on dietary data from preschool-age children (2–4 years, n=207), school-age children (5–7 years, ...

  17. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at...

  18. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Maug Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  19. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at...

  20. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Rota Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  1. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Oahu, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at...

  2. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Ta'u Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  3. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  4. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Molokai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  5. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Aguijan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 1 sites at...

  6. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Swains Atoll, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at...

  7. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Guam, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at...

  8. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kaula Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at...

  9. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Niihau Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  10. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Agrihan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  11. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at...

  12. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Uracas Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  13. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Guguan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  14. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Lehua Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  15. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Hawaii Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 17 sites at...

  16. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  17. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Lanai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  18. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Alamagan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  19. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  20. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Maui Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 11 sites at...

  1. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  2. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  3. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Asuncion Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  4. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 11 sites at...

  5. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kauai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites at...

  6. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Maro Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  7. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Rose Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at...

  8. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  9. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Tutuila Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 23 sites at...

  10. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Sarigan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  11. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Tinian Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 5 sites at...

  12. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Ofu-Olosega Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at...

  13. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Pagan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  14. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Saipan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at...

  15. Phthalate concentrations in personal care products and the cumulative exposure to female adults and infants in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jiaqin; Wang, Min; Ning, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yaobin; He, Yuping; Yang, Jielin; Gao, Xi; Li, Shuguang; Ding, Zhuoping; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PE) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industry, and have been detected in personal care products (PCP). Recent findings of human reports demonstrated endocrine-disrupting action associated with phthalate exposures. The aims of this study were to (1) measure levels of 11 PE in 198 PCP collected from retail markets in Shanghai and (2) assess daily dermal exposure in adult females and infants. The health risk of cumulative exposure to eight PE on reproductive system function derived from dermal PCP use was further assessed by utilizing the hazard index (HI) approach. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was the most frequently detected compound (29.8%), followed by diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) (6.6%). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of daily exposure to DEP, bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate (DMEP), DiBP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in female adults were 0.018, 0.012, 0.002, 0.001, 0.003, and 0.002 μg/kg body weight (bw)/d, respectively. The GM daily exposure levels to PE in infants and adult females were similar except for DEHP, which was higher in infants. DEP exposure was highest in both subpopulations at either GM or maximal level. All HI of 8 PE were far less than 1, ranging from 0.0002 to 0.005, indicating no cumulative reproductive risks to these populations. DBP, DMEP, and DEHP were three major contributors to the cumulative HI. In summary, the level of phthalate in PCP from Shanghai retail markets posed no apparent cumulative risk to adult females and infants in China. PMID:25734628

  16. A framework for assessing the performance of health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C J; Frenk, J

    2000-01-01

    Health systems vary widely in performance, and countries with similar levels of income, education and health expenditure differ in their ability to attain key health goals. This paper proposes a framework to advance the understanding of health system performance. A first step is to define the boundaries of the health system, based on the concept of health action. Health action is defined as any set of activities whose primary intent is to improve or maintain health. Within these boundaries, the concept of performance is centred around three fundamental goals: improving health, enhancing responsiveness to the expectations of the population, and assuring fairness of financial contribution. Improving health means both increasing the average health status and reducing health inequalities. Responsiveness includes two major components: (a) respect for persons (including dignity, confidentiality and autonomy of individuals and families to decide about their own health); and (b) client orientation (including prompt attention, access to social support networks during care, quality of basic amenities and choice of provider). Fairness of financial contribution means that every household pays a fair share of the total health bill for a country (which may mean that very poor households pay nothing at all). This implies that everyone is protected from financial risks due to health care. The measurement of performance relates goal attainment to the resources available. Variation in performance is a function of the way in which the health system organizes four key functions: stewardship (a broader concept than regulation); financing (including revenue collection, fund pooling and purchasing); service provision (for personal and non-personal health services); and resource generation (including personnel, facilities and knowledge). By investigating these four functions and how they combine, it is possible not only to understand the proximate determinants of health system performance

  17. The health related quality of life of the employees in the Greek hospitals: assessing how healthy are the health workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Aga Jenny; Houliara Lambrini; Yfantopoulos Yannis; Demakakos Panayotes TH; Tountas Yannis; Pavi Elpida

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The main aim of the study was to assess the health status and health related quality of life of the personnel of the Hellenic Network of Health Promotion Hospitals. The instrument used was SF-36. An additional aim was to contribute to the validation of the SF-36. Methods The study instrument was administered to 347 randomly selected employees from seven hospitals within major Athens area. Completed questionnaire were obtained by 292 employees. The statistical significance ...

  18. Health impact assessment in China: Emergence, progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The values, concepts and approaches of health impact assessment (HIA) were outlined in the Gothenburg consensus paper and some industrialized countries have implemented HIA for many years. HIA has played an important role in environmental protection in China, however, the emergence, progress and challenges of HIA in China have not been well described. In this paper, the evolution of HIA in China was analyzed and the challenges of HIA were presented based on the author's experiences. HIA contributed to decision-making for large capital construction projects, such as the Three Gorges Dam project, in its emergence stage. Increasing attention has been given to HIA in recent years due to supportive policies underpinning development of the draft HIA guidelines in 2008. However enormous challenges lie ahead in ensuring the institutionalization of HIA into project, program and policy decision-making process due to limited scope, immature tools and insufficient professionals in HIA practice. HIA should broaden its horizons by encompassing physical, chemical, biological and socio-economic aspects and constant attempts should be made to integrate HIA into the decision-making process, not only for projects and programs but also for policies as well.

  19. Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M.

    2012-10-01

    The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 ± 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

  20. Valdez air health study - Exposure monitoring and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Valdez, Alaska there is concern about exposure of the public to benzene and other light hydrocarbons emitted during the loading of tankers from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. As part of an overall risk assessment, the Valdez Air Health Study, a personal, indoor and outdoor air sampling program patterned after EPA's TEMA Study was designed and carried out. A unique feature of the study is that, during sampling periods, SF6 tracer was released at the terminal site to represent terminal hydrocarbon emissions to provide a basis for directly quantitating any contribution of terminal emissions to personal exposure. Sixty citizens at Valdez were selected to wear vests containing sampling equipment for 24-hour periods summer and winter. At the homes of 30 of the participants simultaneous indoor and outdoor samples for hydrocarbons and tracer were collected during the period that each participant collected personal air samples. The paper reviews the design of the program, details of the procedures used, results of the August, 1990 program and preliminary results from the February-March, 1991 program

  1. Health impact assessment in China: Emergence, progress and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zheng, E-mail: huangzhg@mails.tjmu.edu.cn

    2012-01-15

    The values, concepts and approaches of health impact assessment (HIA) were outlined in the Gothenburg consensus paper and some industrialized countries have implemented HIA for many years. HIA has played an important role in environmental protection in China, however, the emergence, progress and challenges of HIA in China have not been well described. In this paper, the evolution of HIA in China was analyzed and the challenges of HIA were presented based on the author's experiences. HIA contributed to decision-making for large capital construction projects, such as the Three Gorges Dam project, in its emergence stage. Increasing attention has been given to HIA in recent years due to supportive policies underpinning development of the draft HIA guidelines in 2008. However enormous challenges lie ahead in ensuring the institutionalization of HIA into project, program and policy decision-making process due to limited scope, immature tools and insufficient professionals in HIA practice. HIA should broaden its horizons by encompassing physical, chemical, biological and socio-economic aspects and constant attempts should be made to integrate HIA into the decision-making process, not only for projects and programs but also for policies as well.

  2. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, DELIBERATIVE PROCESS, AND ETHICALLY CONTESTED ISSUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Norman; van der Wilt, Gert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare technology assessment (HTA) aims to support decisions as to which technologies should be used in which situations to optimize value. Because such decisions will create winners and losers, they are bound to be controversial. HTA, then, faces a dilemma: should it stay away from such controversies, remaining a source of incomplete advice and risking an important kind of marginalization, or should it enter the controversy? The question is a challenging one, because we lack agreement on principles that are fine grained enough to tell us what choices we should make. In this study, we will argue that HTA should take a stand on ethical issues raised by the technology that is being investigated. To do so, we propose adding a form of procedural justice to HTA to arrive at decisions that the public can regard as legitimate and fair. A fair process involves deliberation about the reasons, evidence, and rationales that are considered relevant to meeting population-health needs fairly. One important way to make sure that there is real deliberation about relevant reasons is to include a range of stakeholders in the deliberative process. To illustrate how such deliberation might work, we use the case of cochlear implants for deaf children. PMID:27472157

  3. Selenium Health Benefit Values: Updated Criteria for Mercury Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Nicholas V C; Ralston, Carla R; Raymond, Laura J

    2016-06-01

    Selenium (Se)-dependent enzymes (selenoenzymes) protect brain tissues against oxidative damage and perform other vital functions, but their synthesis requires a steady supply of Se. High methylmercury (CH3Hg) exposures can severely diminish Se transport across the placenta and irreversibly inhibit fetal brain selenoenzymes. However, supplemental dietary Se preserves their activities and thus prevents pathological consequences. The modified Se health benefit value (HBVSe) is a risk assessment criterion based on the molar concentrations of CH3Hg and Se present in a fish or seafood. It was developed to reflect the contrasting effects of maternal CH3Hg and Se intakes on fetal brain selenoenzyme activities. However, the original equation was prone to divide-by-zero-type errors whereby the calculated values increased exponentially in samples with low CH3Hg contents. The equation was refined to provide an improved index to better reflect the risks of CH3Hg exposures and the benefits provided by dietary Se. The HBVSe provides a biochemically based perspective that confirms and supports the FDA/EPA advice for pregnant and breast-feeding women regarding seafoods that should be avoided vs. those that are beneficial to consume. Since Se can be highly variable between watersheds, further evaluation of freshwater fish is needed to identify locations where fish with negative HBVSe may arise and be consumed by vulnerable subpopulation groups. PMID:26463749

  4. Health assessment of bonded composite repairs with frequency response techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Caleb; Whittingham, Brendan; Li, Henry C. H.; Herszberg, Israel; Mouritz, Adrian P.

    2007-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology may be applied to composite bonded repairs to enable the continuous through-life assessment of the repair's efficacy. This paper describes an SHM technique for the detection of debonding in composite bonded patches based on frequency response. The external doubler repair, commonly used to patch aircraft structures, is examined in this paper. An experimental investigation was conducted using carbon/epoxy doubler repairs bonded to carbon/epoxy substrates, with piezoelectric devices used to measure variations in the frequency response of the repaired structure due to debonding of the external doubler. Three piezoelectric devices were adhered to the structure; the actuator to the external doubler and two sensors to the parent panel. To simulate real repair design requirements (minimum surface perturbation) piezoelectric devices were installed on 'internal' surfaces. Clearance for the actuator was created by the removal of damaged material. The frequency response signature of the repaired structure with simulated debonds is analysed with respect to the response of fully bonded repairs. Results are discussed with implications for the development of a technique to monitor the integrity of external bonded repairs.

  5. The Global Mental Health Assessment Tool - Primary Care Version (GMHAT/PC). Development, reliability and validity

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Vimal K; Lepping, Peter; Cummins, Anthony GP; Copeland, John RM; Parhee, Rashmi; Mottram, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    The Global Mental Health Assessment Tool – Primary Care Version (GMHAT/PC) is a computerised clinical assessment tool developed to assess and identify a wide range of mental health problems in primary care. It generates a computer diagnosis, a symptom rating, a self-harm risk assessment, and a referral letter. Patients from primary care and community psychiatric outpatient clinics and a small sample of inpatients were interviewed for a period of two months using the GMHAT/PC...

  6. Nurses' Evaluation of Their Use and Mastery in Health Assessment Skills: Selected Iran's Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Safa, Azade

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health assessment skills are of the most important skills which nurses require. The more precise assessment, the better results would be obtained and the quality of patient care would be improved. However, in Iran, few studies have investigated nurses’ assessment skills. Objectives: This study was aimed to assessnurses' evaluation of the learned skills of health assessment and their use. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 nurses in Isfahan provi...

  7. Assessing the Use of Mobile Health Technology by Patients: An Observational Study in Primary Care Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Veronica; Johnson, Emily; Gonzalez, Cesar; Ramirez, Vanessa; Rubino, Barbara; Rossetti, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Background There is significant potential for mobile health technology to improve health outcomes for patients with chronic diseases. However, there is a need for further development of mobile health technology that would help to improve the health of lower-income communities. Objective The study objective was to assess mobile phone and app usage among a culturally diverse patient population, and to determine whether patients would be interested in using mobile health technology to help manag...

  8. An Assessment of the National Health Insurance Scheme in the Sekyere South District, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    D. Adei; E. Amankwah; I. Sarfo Mireku

    2015-01-01

    As part of government’s pro-poor strategy to increase access to and improve the quality of basic healthcare services, the National Health Insurance Act (National Health Insurance Authority, 2003, 2010 and 2013) was passed in 2003. The study assessed 379 heads of household, 5 heads of health facilities and the scheme managements’ perception on quality of health service delivery, implementation of the capitation programme, operation of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) and performance...

  9. Development and Validation of the Assessment of Health Literacy in Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Kim, Miyong T.; Kim, Jiyun; Nguyen, Tam

    2014-01-01

    For many people limited health literacy is a major barrier to effective preventive health behavior such as cancer screening, yet a comprehensive health literacy measure that is specific to breast and cervical cancer screening is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and testing of a new instrument to measure health literacy in the context of breast and cervical cancer screening, the Assessment of Health Literacy in Cancer Screening (AHL-C). The AHL-C ...

  10. Assessment vs. appraisal of ethical aspects of health technology assessment: can the distinction be upheld?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandman, Lars

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] An essential component of health technology assessment (HTA is the assessment of ethical aspects. In some healthcare contexts, tasks are strictly relegated to different expert groups: the HTA-agencies are limited to assessment of the technology and other actors within the health care sector are responsible for appraisal and recommendations. Ethical aspects of health technologies are considered with reference to values or norms in such a way that may be prescriptive, or offer guidance as to how to act or relate to the issue in question. Given this internal prescriptivity, the distinction between assessment and appraisal seems difficult to uphold, unless the scrutiny stops short of a full ethical analysis of the technology. In the present article we analyse the distinction between assessment and appraisal, using as an example ethical aspects of implementation of GPS-bracelets for people with dementia. It is concluded that for HTA-agencies with a strictly delineated assessment role, the question of how to deal with the internal prescriptivity of ethics may be confusing. A full ethical analysis might result in a definite conclusion as to whether the technology in question is ethically acceptable or not, thereby limiting choices for decision-makers, who are required to uphold certain ethical values and norms. At the same time, depending on the exact nature of such a conclusion, different action strategies can be supported. A positive appraisal within HTA could result in a decision on implementation, or of the technology, thereby making it available to patients, or decisions to and even the use of the technology (even if someone else will have to fund it. A neutral appraisal, giving no definite answer as to whether implementation is recommended or not, could result in a towards the technology. A negative appraisal could result in a decision to or even implementation. This paper presents an overview of the implications of different outcomes

  11. Environmental Health Risk Assessment and Countermeasures on a Fire Extinguisher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.K.; Jeong, D.W. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Brominated flame retardants encompass a large number of different organic compounds sharing the common feature of containing bromine, which has an inhibitory effect on the development of fire. The substances are added to plastic materials, insulation foam, and other materials so as to enable the products to comply with fire safety requirements and wishes. The most problematic groups of compounds are polybrominated biphenyls(PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs). The objective of this project is to develop a management strategy for all problematic brominated flame retardants. A number of studies have shown that several of the brominated flame retardants occur in increasing concentrations in nature and in human beings. This is of concern because certain of the brominated flame retardants are suspected of having undesirable effects on the environment and health. The substances are generally very stable, especially so in the case of PBBs and PBDEs. These are strong reasons for hastening the phase-out of PBBs and PBDEs as group. Moreover, PBBs and PBDEs have attracted international attention. Within the OECD, business organisations have made voluntary agreements concerning PBBs and PBDEs. Rules of the EU forbid the use of PBBs in textiles coming into contact with the skin. The environmental and health risks of PBDEs are currently being evaluated as a part of an EU programme for existing substances. In Germany, PBBs and PBDEs are restricted through the Dioxin Ordinance and voluntary agreements with industry. Brominated flame retardants encompass a large number of different organic compounds sharing the common feature of containing bromine, which has an inhibitory effect on the development of fire. The substances are added to plastic materials, insulation foam, and other materials so as to enable the products to comply with fire safety requirements and wishes. The most problematic groups of compounds are polybrominated biphenyls(PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl

  12. Development of Welding Fumes Health Index (WFHI for Welding Workplace's Safety and Health Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azian Hariri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an index that can rank welding workplace that associate well with possible health risk of welders.Welding Fumes Health Index (WFHI were developed based on data from case studies conducted in Plant 1 and Plant 2. Personal sampling of welding fumes to assess the concentration of metal constituents along with series of lung function tests was conducted. Fifteen metal constituents were investigated in each case study. Index values were derived from aggregation analysis of metal constituent concentration while significant lung functions were recognized through statistical analysis in each plant.The results showed none of the metal constituent concentration was exceeding the permissible exposure limit (PEL for all plants. However, statistical analysis showed significant mean differences of lung functions between welders and non-welders. The index was then applied to one of the welding industry (Plant 3 for verification purpose. The developed index showed its promising ability to rank welding workplace, according to the multiple constituent concentrations of welding fumes that associates well with lung functions of the investigated welders.There was possibility that some of the metal constituents were below the detection limit leading to '0' value of sub index, thus the multiplicative form of aggregation model was not suitable for analysis. On the other hand, maximum or minimum operator forms suffer from compensation issues and were not considered in this study.

  13. Cumulative effects of planned industrial development and climate change on marine ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing human population, large scale climate changes, and the interaction of multiple stressors, understanding cumulative effects on marine ecosystems is increasingly important. Two major drivers of change in coastal and marine ecosystems are industrial developments with acute impacts on local ecosystems, and global climate change stressors with widespread impacts. We conducted a cumulative effects mapping analysis of the marine waters of British Columbia, Canada, under different scenarios: climate change and planned developments. At the coast-wide scale, climate change drove the largest change in cumulative effects with both widespread impacts and high vulnerability scores. Where the impacts of planned developments occur, planned industrial and pipeline activities had high cumulative effects, but the footprint of these effects was comparatively localized. Nearshore habitats were at greatest risk from planned industrial and pipeline activities; in particular, the impacts of planned pipelines on rocky intertidal habitats were predicted to cause the highest change in cumulative effects. This method of incorporating planned industrial development in cumulative effects mapping allows explicit comparison of different scenarios with the potential to be used in environmental impact assessments at various scales. Its use allows resource managers to consider cumulative effect hotspots when making decisions regarding industrial developments and avoid unacceptable cumulative effects. Management needs to consider both global and local stressors in managing marine ecosystems for the protection of biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  14. Assessing Health Literacy: A New Domain for Collaboration between Language Testers and Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Catherine; Barber, Melissa; Staples, Margaret; Osborne, Richard H.; Clerehan, Rosemary; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Health literacy, defined as an individual's capacity to process health information in order to make appropriate health decisions, is the focus of increasing attention in medical fields due to growing awareness that suboptimal health literacy is associated with poorer health outcomes. To explore this issue, a number of instruments, reported to have…

  15. Cumulants in noncommutative probability I. Noncommutative Exchangeability Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Franz

    2002-01-01

    Cumulants linearize convolution of measures. We use a formula of Good to define noncommutative cumulants in a very general setting.It turns out that the essential property needed is exchangeability of random variables. Roughly speaking the formula says that cumulants are moments of a certain ``discrete Fourier transform'' of a random variable. This provides a simple unified method to understand the known examples of cumulants, like classical, free cumulants and various q-cumulants.

  16. Mapping research on health systems in Europe: a bibliometric assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco Garrido, M.; Hansen, J.; Busse, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Europe's health care decision-makers are facing an increasingly complex and rapidly changing landscape. It is crucial that health care problems are addressed with evidence-informed policy and that evidence finding is aimed at those topics most urgent on policy agendas. Research on health

  17. Special issue on eHealth and mHealth: Challenges and future directions for assessment, treatment, and dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Belinda; Ritterband, Lee M

    2015-12-01

    This special issue is intended to promote a discussion of eHealth and mHealth and its connection with health psychology. "eHealth" generally refers to the use of information technology, including the Internet, digital gaming, virtual reality, and robotics, in the promotion, prevention, treatment, and maintenance of health. "mHealth" refers to mobile and wireless applications, including text messaging, apps, wearable devices, remote sensing, and the use of social media such as Facebook and Twitter, in the delivery of health related services. This special issue includes 11 articles that begin to address the need for more rigorous methodology, valid assessment, innovative interventions, and increased access to evidence-based programs and interventions. PMID:26651461

  18. Competencies for public health finance: an initial assessment and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Kathleen N; Kurz, Richard S; McBride, Timothy; Schmitz, Homer H

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study in this article was to identify The needs of public health managers with regard to public health finance. A survey of public health practitioners regarding competencies was conducted and a review of course offerings in finance among schools of public health was performed. Most public health practitioners surveyed believe that a broad array of management competencies are required to administer the finances of a public health facility or department. Respondents added 35 competencies to those initially given to them for review. Most added competencies that were more specific than the original competencies or could be viewed as subpoints of the original competencies. Many schools offered no courses specifically addressing public health care finance, with a few offering at most only one public health finance course. All schools offered at least one corporate finance course, and the majority offered two or more courses. We conclude with a number of recommendations for education and competency development, suggesting several next steps that can advance the field of public health's understanding of what managers need to master in public health finance to effectively function as public health managers. PMID:15552772

  19. Human health and wellbeing in environmental impact assessment in New South Wales, Australia: Auditing health impacts within environmental assessments of major projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internationally the inclusion of health within environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been shown to be limited. While Australian EIA documentation has not been studied empirically to date, deficiencies in practice have been documented. This research developed an audit tool to undertake a qualitative descriptive analysis of 22 Major Project EAs in New South Wales, Australia. Results showed that health and wellbeing impacts were not considered explicitly. They were, however, included indirectly in the identification of traditional public health exposures associated with the physical environment and to a lesser extent the inclusion of social and economic impacts. However, no health data was used to inform any of the assessments, there was no reference to causal pathways between exposures or determinants and physical or mental health effects, and there was no inclusion of the differential distribution of exposures or health impacts on different populations. The results add conceptually and practically to the long standing integration debate, showing that health is in a position to add value to the EIA process as an explicit part of standard environmental, social and economic considerations. However, to overcome the consistently documented barriers to integrating health in EIA, capacity must be developed amongst EIA professionals, led by the health sector, to progress health related knowledge and tools.

  20. Health workforce development: a needs assessment study in French speaking African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Véronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential trainees and training institutions in nine French-speaking African countries. A needs assessment was conducted in the target countries according to four approaches: (1) Review at national level of health challenges. (2) Semi-directed interviews with heads of relevant training institutions. (3) Focus group discussions with key-informants. (4) A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals identified as potential trainees. A needs assessment showed important public health challenges in the field of health workforce development among the target countries (e.g. unequal HRH distribution in the country, ageing of HRH, lack of adequate training). It also showed a demand for education and training institutions that are able to offer a training programme in health workforce development, and identified training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future trainees (e.g. leadership, planning/evaluation, management, research skill). In combining various approaches our study was able to show a general demand for health managers who are able to plan, develop and manage a nation's health workforce. It also identified specific competencies that should be developed through an education and training program in public health with a focus on health workforce development. PMID:22453358