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Sample records for assessing cigarette consumption

  1. A Quantitative Epigenetic Approach for the Assessment of Cigarette Consumption

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    Robert ePhilibert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Despite the development of numerous preventive and treatment interventions, the rate of daily smoking in the United States is still approximately 22%. Effective psychosocial interventions and pharmacologic agents exist for the prevention and treatment of smoking. Unfortunately, both approaches are hindered by our inability to accurately quantify amount of cigarette consumption from the point of initial experimentation to the point of total dependency . Recently, we and others have demonstrated that smoking is associated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation. However, whether this advance in basic science can be employed as a reliable assay that is useful for clinical diagnosis and treatment has not been shown. In this communication, we determine the sensitivity and specificity of five of the most consistently replicated CpG loci with respect to smoking status using data from a publically available dataset. We show that methylation status at a CpG locus in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor, cg05575921, is both sensitive and specific for smoking status in adults with a receiver operated curve characteristic (ROC area under the curve of 0.99. Given recent demonstrations that methylation at this locus reflects both intensity of smoking and the degree of smoking cessation, we conclude that a methylation-based diagnostic at this locus could have a prominent role in understanding the impact of new products, such as e-cigarettes on initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents, while improving the prevention and treatment of smoking and smoking related disorders.

  2. A quantitative epigenetic approach for the assessment of cigarette consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, Robert; Hollenbeck, Nancy; Andersen, Eleanor; Osborn, Terry; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Despite the development of numerous preventive and treatment interventions, the rate of daily smoking in the United States is still approximately 22%. Effective psychosocial interventions and pharmacologic agents exist for the prevention and treatment of smoking. Unfortunately, both approaches are hindered by our inability to accurately quantify amount of cigarette consumption from the point of initial experimentation to the point of total dependency. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that smoking is associated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation. However, whether this advance in basic science can be employed as a reliable assay that is useful for clinical diagnosis and treatment has not been shown. In this communication, we determine the sensitivity and specificity of five of the most consistently replicated CpG loci with respect to smoking status using data from a publically available dataset. We show that methylation status at a CpG locus in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor, cg05575921, is both sensitive and specific for smoking status in adults with a receiver operated curve characteristic area under the curve of 0.99. Given recent demonstrations that methylation at this locus reflects both intensity of smoking and the degree of smoking cessation, we conclude that a methylation-based diagnostic at this locus could have a prominent role in understanding the impact of new products, such as e-cigarettes on initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents, while improving the prevention and treatment of smoking, and smoking related disorders.

  3. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S; Lai, Sue Min

    2015-06-11

    Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation.

  4. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

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    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1 Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2 Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. Methods To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972–2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Results We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. Conclusion The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and

  5. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie-Min

    2007-06-25

    Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant--betel nuts--increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1) Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2) Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972-2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and consumers because it not only reduces cigarette consumption, but it also

  6. Estimating adolescent cigarette consumption in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Y; Kawaminami, K; Minowa, M

    1999-04-01

    We estimated the cigarette consumption among Japanese adolescents based on the data which was obtained from a 1990 nationwide school-based questionnaire survey of smoking prevalence among high school students. Cigarette consumption for adolescents was estimated using the data on current smokers' rate and cigarette consumption per day. Participants were 57,189 high school students (aged 13-18 years) including 4666 current smokers. The estimated adolescents' consumption was calculated at 3.5 to 4.3 billion units in 1990. The proportion of adolescents' consumption to the total sales was 1.1% to 1.3%. The corresponding tax amounted to between 21 and 25 billion yen in 1990. The difference between the total sales and the crude cigarette consumption for adults has increased gradually over 20 years. Logically, some part of this increase should be attributed to cigarettes consumed by adolescents. The increase in this difference seemed to keep pace with the increasing number of cigarette vending machines. These results indicate that a considerable amount of cigarettes were consumed by adolescents in 1990.

  7. Effect of a large increase in cigarette tax on cigarette consumption: an empirical analysis of cross-sectional survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie-Min

    2008-10-01

    This study used cigarette price elasticity estimates to assess the possible effects on cigarette consumption of a large increase in cigarette tax. It also investigated different responses to the cigarette tax increase among smokers from different socio-economic backgrounds and with different smoking characteristics. Cross-sectional study on 483 valid questionnaires completed during a telephone survey of current smokers aged 15 years and above from all 23 major cities and counties in Taiwan. This study analysed the willingness of current smokers to quit smoking or reduce cigarette consumption when faced with a tax increase of NT$22 per pack, which would raise the price of cigarettes by 44%. The Tobit regression model and the maximum likelihood method were used to estimate cigarette demand elasticity. Estimation results yielded a cigarette price elasticity of -0.29 in connection with a 44% increase in the price of cigarettes. This suggests that smokers will have relatively little response to such an event. The most significant response to the price increase was found among women, low-income smokers, moderately addicted smokers, and smokers who regularly purchase low-price cigarettes. A 44% increase in the price of cigarettes would reduce the average annual per capita cigarette consumption in Taiwan by 14.86 packs; a reduction of 12.87%. The tax increase would also boost the Government's cigarette tax revenue by approximately NT$41.4 billion, and increase cigarette merchants' income by approximately NT$27.4 billion. Since current cigarette prices are low in Taiwan and smokers are relatively insensitive to cigarette price hikes, a large increase in cigarette tax would reduce cigarette consumption effectively, and would also increase the Government's cigarette tax revenue and cigarette merchants' income. Clearly, such a tax would create a win-win outcome for the Government, cigarette merchants and smokers, and it is therefore recommended.

  8. Interactions between cigarette and alcohol consumption in rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiaohua; Abler, David

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze interdependencies between cigarette and alcohol consumption in rural China, using panel data for 10 years (1994–2003) for rural areas of 26 Chinese provinces. There have been many studies in which cigarette and alcohol consumption have been considered separately but few to date for China on interactions between the consumption of these two products. Taxes are often recommended as a tool to reduce alcohol and cigarette consumption. If cigarettes and al...

  9. Chinese Smokers’ Cigarette Purchase Behaviors, Cigarette Prices and Consumption: Findings from the ITC China Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background While cigarette purchasing behavior has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviors and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world’s largest cigarette consumer. Objective The goal of this study is to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviors, and estimate the impact of these behaviors on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socio-economic differences in compensatory purchase behaviors, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviors, cigarette prices, and cigarette consumption. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves - Wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), Wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and Wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010) - of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers’ self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviors were analyzed. Findings Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase

  10. Chinese smokers' cigarette purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and consumption: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    While cigarette purchasing behaviour has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviours and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world's largest cigarette consumer. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviours, and estimate the impact of these behaviours on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socioeconomic differences in compensatory purchase behaviours, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and cigarette consumption. Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves--wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010)--of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers' self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviours were analysed. Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase behaviours. Those behaviours led to reductions

  11. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

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    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  12. Effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, tea and coffee in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J M; Chen, M-G; Hwang, T-C; Yeh, C-Y

    2010-08-01

    To analyse whether a health tax of 10 New Taiwan Dollars (NT$) (US$0.3) imposed on cigarettes in 2009 will help to reduce cigarette consumption, and whether or not the cigarette tax will affect consumption of alcohol, coffee and tea. Time series data for consumption and retail prices of tobacco, alcohol, tea and coffee were collected and analysed for the period 1973-2007. To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function to estimate the overall demand price elasticities of cigarettes, alcohol, tea and coffee, a seemingly unrelated regression analysis was used. The independent variables were annual consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, tea and coffee. The dependent variables were prices of and expenditures on cigarettes, alcohol, tea and coffee. The estimated own-price elasticities for cigarettes and alcohol are close to -0.726. The own-price elasticities for tea and coffee are less than those for cigarettes and alcohol. Hence, it is predicted that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 13.19%. Analysis of cross-price elasticity reveals that alcohol is complementary to cigarettes. Taxation is an effective smoking control policy tool that not only helps to reduce consumption of cigarettes, but also reduces consumption of alcoholic beverages. Copyright 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

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    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  14. Interactions between cigarette and alcohol consumption in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohua; Abler, David

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze interdependencies between cigarette and alcohol consumption in rural China, using panel data for 10 years (1994-2003) for rural areas of 26 Chinese provinces. There have been many studies in which cigarette and alcohol consumption have been considered separately but few to date for China on interactions between the consumption of these two products. Taxes are often recommended as a tool to reduce alcohol and cigarette consumption. If cigarettes and alcohol are complements, taxing one will reduce the consumption of both and thus achieve a double public health dividend. However, if they are substitutes, taxing one will induce consumers to increase consumption of the other, offsetting the public health benefits of the tax. Our results indicate that the demands for both cigarettes and alcohol are very sensitive to the price of alcohol, but not to the price of cigarettes or to income. This suggests that taxes on alcohol can have a double dividend. On the other hand, an increase in cigarette taxes may not be effective in curbing cigarette or alcohol consumption in rural China.

  15. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol......, and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had...

  16. The effect of cigarette price increase on the cigarette consumption in Taiwan: evidence from the National Health Interview Surveys on cigarette consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chun-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Methods Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of cigarette demand and cigarette price elasticity. Results In 2002, after Taiwan had enacted the new tax scheme, cigarette price elasticity in Taiwan was found to be -0.5274. The new tax scheme brought about an average annual 13.27 packs/person (10.5% reduction in cigarette consumption. Using the cigarette price elasticity estimate from -0.309 in 2003, we calculated that if the Health and Welfare Tax were increased by another NT$ 3 per pack and cigarette producers shifted this increase to the consumers, cigarette consumption would be reduced by 2.47 packs/person (2.2%. The value of the estimated cigarette price elasticity is smaller than one, meaning that the tax will not only reduce cigarette consumption but it will also generate additional tax revenues. Male smokers who had no income or who smoked light cigarettes were found to be more responsive to changes in cigarette price. Conclusions An additional tax added to the cost of cigarettes would bring about a reduction in cigarette consumption and increased tax revenues. It would also help reduce incidents smoking-related illnesses. The additional tax revenues generated by the tax increase could be used to offset the current financial deficiency of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program and provide better public services.

  17. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    differences in degree of exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol consumption will alter serum magnesium (Mg), Cobalt. (Co) and ... subjects using combined oral contraceptive, consuming alcohol and exposed to cigarette smoke may be at greater risks of diseases linked with ..... Food & Drug Interaction. Precept. Press ...

  18. Illicit cigarette consumption and government revenue loss in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Abdillah; Wiyono, Nur Hadi; Setyonaluri, Diahhadi; Denniston, Ryan; So, Anthony D

    2014-11-19

    Illicit cigarettes comprise more than 11% of tobacco consumption and 17% of consumption in low- and middle-income countries. Illicit cigarettes, defined as those that evade taxes, lower consumer prices, threaten national tobacco control efforts, and reduce excise tax collection. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette consumption within Indonesia using two methods: the discrepancies between legal cigarette sales and domestic consumption estimated from surveys, and discrepancies between imports recorded by Indonesia and exports recorded by trade partners. Smuggling plays a minor role in the availability of illicit cigarettes because Indonesians predominantly consume kreteks, which are primarily manufactured in Indonesia. Looking at the period from 1995 to 2013, illicit cigarettes first emerged in 2004. When no respondent under-reporting is assumed, illicit consumption makes up 17% of the domestic market in 2004, 9% in 2007, 11% in 2011, and 8% in 2013. Discrepancies in the trade data indicate that Indonesia was a recipient of smuggled cigarettes for each year between 1995 and 2012. The value of this illicit trade ranges from less than $1 million to nearly $50 million annually. Singapore, China, and Vietnam together accounted for nearly two-thirds of trade discrepancies over the period. Tax losses due to illicit consumption amount to between Rp 4.1 and 9.3 trillion rupiah, 4% to 13% of tobacco excise revenue, in 2011 and 2013. Due to the predominance of kretek consumption in Indonesia and Indonesia's status as the predominant producer of kreteks, illicit domestic production is likely the most important source for illicit cigarettes, and initiatives targeted to combat this illicit production carry the promise of the greatest potential impact.

  19. Impact of cigarette taxation policy on excise revenues and cigarette consumption in Uzbekistan

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    Konstantin S. Krasovsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uzbekistan ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which states that price and tax measures are an effective means of reducing tobacco consumption. We aimed to explore the effect of taxation policies on revenues and cigarette consumption. METHODS: Data on tax rates, revenues, cigarette sales were taken from national reports. To forecast potential revenues, a scenario analysis was performed. RESULTS: In 1991-2004, ad valorem excise system was in place in Uzbekistan, which was later replaced by the specific excise system. In 1997-2011, the nominal average excise has increased by a factor of twenty, but in real terms, after a sharp increase in 1999, average excise declined annually and increased only in 2010-2011. Annual cigarette sales per capita of adult population in 1999-2007 constituted 17-25 cigarette packs, while in 2008-2011 it increased to 30-37 packs. Four scenarios of excise tax increases in 2012 were developed: one actual scenario based on the rates effective in Uzbekistan in 2012, and three hypothetical ones anticipating excise rates increase by 1.5, 2 and 3-fold. With actual excise increase in 2012, the inflation-adjusted budget revenues would grow by 5%, and with three hypothetical - by 17%, 35% and 66% respectively, despite the decline of tax-paid cigarette sales. CONCLUSION: Stabilization or reduction in cigarette excises in Uzbekistan in 2002-2008 led to a decline in real excise revenues and the growth of cigarette sales. In 1999 and 2010-2011, excises were significantly increased and the real revenues have risen, despite the decline in cigarette sales. As cigarette prices are low, the illegal outflow of cigarettes from Uzbekistan apparently exceeds the illegal inflow. A significant increase in cigarette excise (1.5-3 fold can both increase budget revenues and reduce cigarette consumption, with greater increase yielding more benefits.

  20. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Drugs and life style choices such as alcohol consumption and smoking are capable of independently altering levels of essential trace elements as well as tissue or organ function. The purpose of the study is to determine how differences in degree of exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol consumption will alter ...

  1. Brand switching or reduced consumption? A study of how cigarette taxes affect tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2014-12-01

    We examined the influence of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption, with an emphasis on smokers' choice between reducing cigarette consumption and switching brands. We constructed three scenario-based models to study the following two subjects: (1) the relationship between deciding whether to reduce one's cigarette consumption and to practice brand switching (simultaneous or sequential); (2) the key determinants that affect smokers' decisions in terms of their consumption and brand switching when facing higher taxes. We applied data collected from a survey in Taiwan, and the results indicated that both independent and two-stage decision-making models generated very similar conclusions. We also found that gender difference contributed to reduce cigarette consumption. In addition, this study indicated that high-income smokers were less likely to switch brands, whereas well-educated smokers were more likely to switch brands. Most importantly, we questioned the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy, as our results suggested that higher price did not necessarily reduce consumption. Indeed, data indicated that smokers actually reduced their cigarette consumption after the tax on cigarettes increased.

  2. Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripp, T; Markewitz, D; Uhde, E; Salthammer, T

    2013-02-01

    Electronic cigarette consumption ('vaping') is marketed as an alternative to conventional tobacco smoking. Technically, a mixture of chemicals containing carrier liquids, flavors, and optionally nicotine is vaporized and inhaled. The present study aims at the determination of the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and (ultra)fine particles (FP/UFP) from an e-cigarette under near-to-real-use conditions in an 8-m(3) emission test chamber. Furthermore, the inhaled mixture is analyzed in small chambers. An increase in FP/UFP and VOC could be determined after the use of the e-cigarette. Prominent components in the gas-phase are 1,2-propanediol, 1,2,3-propanetriol, diacetin, flavorings, and traces of nicotine. As a consequence, 'passive vaping' must be expected from the consumption of e-cigarettes. Furthermore, the inhaled aerosol undergoes changes in the human lung that is assumed to be attributed to deposition and evaporation. The consumption of e-cigarettes marks a new source for chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. To evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes on indoor air quality and to estimate the possible effect of passive vaping, information about the chemical characteristics of the released vapor is needed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. [Changes in tobacco consumption: boom of roll-your-own cigarettes and emergence of e-cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrazo, Marina; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María I; Malvar, Alberto; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    To assess changes in smoking prevalence and study roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco and e-cigarette use in the Galician population between 2007 and 2015. Data were obtained from five independent, cross-sectional studies carried out in Galicia (Spain) between 2007-2015 in the population aged 16 and over (n=8,000/year). Prevalence of use was estimated, with 95% confidence intervals, overall, according to sex and by age group, area of residence and level of education. Smoking prevalence decreased from 25.4% in 2007 to 21.8% in 2015. In 2007, 1.8% of current smokers declared that they had smoked RYO tobacco, compared to 18.6% in 2015. Among smokers, RYO tobacco consumption increased across all demographic groups. In both 2014 and 2015, ever use of e-cigarettes was 0.7%. E-cigarette use was more frequent in urban settings. Smoking prevalence decreased in Galicia between 2007 and 2015, and there has been rapid growth in the prevalence of RYO tobacco use. Although smokers are more likely to use e-cigarettes, both former and never smokers declared their use. The boom of RYO cigarettes and the emergence of e-cigarettes highlight the importance of having continuous surveillance systems to identify smoking behavioural changes. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Inequality in Cigarette Consumption, Cigarette Dependence, and Intention to Quit among Norwegian Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The study aim was to examine the influence of education and income on multiple measures of risk of smoking continuation. Three logistic regression models were run on cigarette consumption, dependence, and intention to quit based on nationally representative samples (2007-2012) of approximately 1 200 current smokers aged 30-66 years in Norway. The relative risk ratio for current versus never smokers was RRR 5.37, 95% CI [4.26-6.77] among individuals with low educational level versus high and RRR 1.53, 95% CI [1.14-2.06] in the low-income group versus high (adjusted model). Low educational level was associated with high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence, and no intention to quit. The difference in predicted probability for having high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence, and no intention to quit were in the range of 10-20 percentage points between smokers with low versus those with high educational level. A significant difference between low- and high-income levels was observed for intention to quit. The effect of education on high consumption and dependence was mainly found in smokers with high income. Increased effort to combat social differences in smoking behaviour is needed. Implementation of smoking cessation programmes with high reach among low socioeconomic groups is recommended.

  5. Consumption of cigarettes and combustible tobacco--United States, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Smoking cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products causes adverse health outcomes, particularly cancer and cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. A priority of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is to develop innovative, rapid-response surveillance systems for assessing changes in tobacco use and related health outcomes. The two standard approaches for measuring smoking rates and behaviors are 1) surveying a representative sample of the public and asking questions about personal smoking behaviors and 2) estimating consumption based on tobacco excise tax data. Whereas CDC regularly publishes findings on national and state-specific smoking rates from public surveys, CDC has not reported consumption estimates. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which previously provided such estimates, stopped reporting on consumption in 2007. To estimate consumption for the period 2000-2011, CDC examined excise tax data from the U.S. Department of Treasury's Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB); consumption estimates were calculated for cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, pipe tobacco, and small and large cigars. From 2000 to 2011, total consumption of all combustible tobacco decreased from 450.7 billion cigarette equivalents to 326.6, a 27.5% decrease; per capita consumption of all combustible tobacco products declined from 2,148 to 1,374, a 36.0% decrease. However, while consumption of cigarettes decreased 32.8% from 2000 to 2011, consumption of loose tobacco and cigars increased 123.1% over the same period. As a result, the percentage of total combustible tobacco consumption composed of loose tobacco and cigars increased from 3.4% in 2000 to 10.4% in 2011. The data suggest that certain smokers have switched from cigarettes to other combustible tobacco products, most notably since a 2009 increase in the federal tobacco excise tax that created tax disparities between product types.

  6. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized...

  7. The effect of cigarette price increase on the cigarette consumption in Taiwan: evidence from the National Health Interview Surveys on cigarette consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Ye Chun-Yuan; Hwang Tsorng-Chyi; Lee Jie-Min; Chen Sheng-Hong

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Methods Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of ciga...

  8. Population cigarette consumption in Great Britain: novel insights using retail sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Reid, Garth

    2017-12-20

    Accurate data to measure population cigarette consumption are vital for surveillance and for evaluating the impact of tobacco control policies. This study uses cigarette retail sales data to provide novel insights into trends and patterns in cigarette consumption in Great Britain. Cigarette sales estimates derived from electronic sales from most large grocery stores and a weighted representative sample of smaller convenience stores were obtained from Nielsen. Data on the number of cigarette sticks sold per calendar month and per week were obtained for Scotland and England/Wales (combined) for the period January 2008 to December 2015. Cigarette consumption per adult smoker per month was calculated using survey-based smoking prevalence estimates and mid-year population estimates. Population cigarette consumption in Great Britain declined between 2008 and 2013. Cigarette sales have since stabilised at around 400 cigarettes per adult smoker per month. Cigarettes sold in 14- to 19-packs have substituted a sharp decline in 20-packs and now account for over half of all cigarettes sold in Great Britain. Cigarette consumption has been consistently higher in Scotland than England/Wales. This is due to higher sales of 20-packs in Scotland between 2008 and 2013, which has been substituted by higher sales of 14- to 19-packs in recent years. Cigarette retail sales data provide unique insights into levels and patterns of cigarette consumption and should be used for monitoring and evaluating tobacco control policy in Great Britain.

  9. Analysis of cigarette demand in Argentina: the impact of price changes on consumption and government revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Rodríguez-Iglesias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate cigarette demand and to simulate a tax policy targeted to reduce tobacco consumption. Materials and methods. Demand was estimated using a vector error correction model. Simulation exercises present the impact of a tax increase on consumption and revenues. Results. Changes in real income and the real price of cigarettes affect the demand for cigarettes in Argentina. The long term price elasticity is 0.279 (a 10% increase in real prices reduces cigarette consumption by 2.79% per quarter and the long term income elasticity is 0.411 (a 10% increase in real income raises consumption by 4.11% per quarter. Even in a conservative scenario, imulations show that increasing the price of cigarettes by 100% using excise taxes would maximize revenues and reduce cigarette consumption. Conclusion. There is sufficient room to increase taxes, reducing cigarette consumption, while still increasing tax revenues.

  10. Analysis of cigarette demand in Argentina: the impact of price changes on consumption and government revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Iglesias, Germán; Schoj, Verónica; Chaloupka, Frank; Champagne, Beatriz; González-Rozada, Martín

    2017-01-01

    To estimate cigarette demand and to simulate a tax policy targeted to reduce tobacco consumption. Demand was estimated using a vector error correction model. Simulation exercises present the impact of a tax increase on consumption and revenues. Changes in real income and the real price of cigarettes affect the demand for cigarettes in Argentina. The long term price elasticity is 0.279 (a 10% increase in real prices reduces cigarette consumption by 2.79% per quarter) and the long term income elasticity is 0.411 (a 10% increase in real income raises consumption by 4.11% per quarter). Even in a conservative scenario, simulations show that increasing the price of cigarettes by 100% using excise taxes would maximize revenues and reduce cigarette consumption. There is sufficient room to increase taxes, reducing cigarette consumption, while still increasing tax revenues.

  11. Smoking behaviour and associated factors of illicit cigarette consumption in a border province of southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchoo, Chittawet; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Illicit cigarette consumption has increased worldwide. It is important to understand this problem thoroughly. To investigate behaviours and factors associated with illicit cigarette consumption in southern Thailand. A survey and qualitative study were conducted in a border province in southern Thailand next to Malaysia. A modified snowballing technique was used to recruit 300 illicit and 150 non-illicit cigarette smokers. A questionnaire was used to interview subjects. Illicit cigarette packs were obtained in order to identify their characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used for data analysis. Smoking of illicit cigarettes has become accepted in the communities. They were available in supermarkets and vendor shops. Friends and other illicit smokers known by illicit cigarette smokers were an important source of information for access to illicit cigarette products. The main factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes, compared with smoking non-illicit cigarettes, were younger age, higher education and higher average monthly expenditure on cigarettes (most illicit smokers smoked illicit cigarettes (average price per packet = 33 THB (US$1.1), while most non-illicit smokers smoked hand-rolled cigarettes (average price per packet = 7 THB (US$0.2)) and knowledge of other illicit cigarette smokers. The low price of illicit cigarettes was the main reason for their use. Selling strategies included sale of singles, sale in shops and direct sale through social networking. Illicit cigarette consumption has become more acceptable especially among young adult smokers. Age and extent of social networks are important factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes.

  12. Self-reported price of cigarettes, consumption and compensatory behaviours in a cohort of Mexican smokers before and after a cigarette tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-de-Miera, Belen; Thrasher, James F; Chaloupka, Frank J; Waters, Hugh R; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-12-01

    To assess the impact of a 2007 cigarette tax increase from 110% to 140% of the price to the retailer on cigarette price and consumption among Mexican smokers, including efforts to offset price increases. Data were analysed from the 2006 and 2007 administrations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico, which is a population-based cohort of adult smokers. Self-reported price of last cigarette purchase, place of last purchase, preferred brand, daily consumption and quit behaviour were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Self-reported cigarette prices increased by 12.7% after the tax increase, with prices for international brands increasing more than for national brands (13.5% vs 8.7%, respectively). Although the tax increases were not fully passed onto consumers particularly on national brands, no evidence was found for smokers changing behaviour to offset price increases. Consistent declines in consumption across groups defined by sociodemographic and smoking-related psychosocial variables suggest a relatively uniform impact of the tax increase across subpopulations. However, decreased consumption appeared limited to people who smoked relatively more cigarettes a day (>5 cigarettes/day). Average daily consumption among lighter smokers did not significantly decline. A total of 13% (n=98) of the sample reported being quit for a month or more at follow-up. In multivariate models, lighter smokers were more likely than heavier smokers to be quit. Results suggest that the 2007 tax increase was passed on to consumers, whose consumption generally declined. Since no other tobacco control policies or programmes were implemented during the period analysed, the tax increase appears likely to have decreased consumption.

  13. Reciprocal associations between cigarette consumption and DSM-IV nicotine dependence criteria in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mei-Chen; Griesler, Pamela C; Wall, Melanie M; Kandel, Denise B

    2014-09-01

    To examine the inter-relationships between cigarette consumption and DSM-IV nicotine dependence (ND) criteria from smoking onset in adolescence up to 7 years later, adjusting for alcohol consumption and DSM-IV alcohol dependence (AD) criteria. A cohort drawn from grades 6-10 in an urban school system was interviewed five times at 6-month intervals (waves 1-5) and 4.5 years later (wave 6). A parent was interviewed three times. Chicago, Illinois. Recent smokers (n = 409). Structured household interviews ascertained number of cigarettes smoked, DSM-IV ND symptoms, drinks consumed, DSM-IV AD symptoms, and selected covariates. Reciprocal prospective associations between number of cigarettes smoked and ND criteria, controlling for time-varying alcohol consumption and dependence criteria, were examined with cross-lagged models. Reciprocal associations between number of cigarettes smoked and ND criteria were both significant. Cigarette consumption had stronger associations with later ND [β = 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.17-0.32] than dependence had with later cigarette consumption (β = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.01-0.16). Alcohol and cigarette consumption influenced each other; AD scores were associated with later ND scores but not the reverse. Reports of pleasant initial experiences from smoking were associated positively with cigarette consumption and ND the first year after smoking onset; later smoking onset was negatively associated with cigarette consumption the seventh year after onset; parental ND predicted cigarette consumption and ND throughout. In adolescent smokers, higher cigarette consumption predicts later severity of DSM-IV nicotine dependence more than the reverse. Smoking and drinking also influence each other mutually over time. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Attributions for Smoking Behavior: Comparing Smokers with Nonsmokers and Predicting Smokers' Cigarette Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinke, Chris L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared smokers' (214) and nonsmokers' (220) explanations for cigarette smoking behavior to determine predictors of cigarette consumption. Results showed addiction and affective smoking were the most important motives predicting consumption. Presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 1980. (WAS)

  15. Did the tobacco industry inflate estimates of illicit cigarette consumption in Asia? An empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; McGhee, Sarah M; Townsend, Joy; Lam, Tai Hing; Hedley, Anthony J

    2015-06-01

    Estimates of illicit cigarette consumption are limited and the data obtained from studies funded by the tobacco industry have a tendency to inflate them. This study aimed to validate an industry-funded estimate of 35.9% for Hong Kong using a framework taken from an industry-funded report, but with more transparent data sources. Illicit cigarette consumption was estimated as the difference between total cigarette consumption and the sum of legal domestic sales and legal personal imports (duty-free consumption). Reliable data from government reports and scientifically valid routine sources were used to estimate the total cigarette consumption by Hong Kong smokers and legal domestic sales in Hong Kong. Consumption by visitors and legal duty-free consumption by Hong Kong passengers were estimated under three scenarios for the assumptions to examine the uncertainty around the estimate. A two-way sensitivity analysis was conducted using different levels of possible undeclared smoking and under-reporting of self-reported daily consumption. Illicit cigarette consumption was estimated to be about 8.2-15.4% of the total cigarette consumption in Hong Kong in 2012 with a midpoint estimate of 11.9%, as compared with the industry-funded estimate of 35.9% of cigarette consumption. The industry-funded estimate was inflated by 133-337% of the probable true value. Only with significant levels of under-reporting of daily cigarette consumption and undeclared smoking could we approximate the value reported in the industry-funded study. The industry-funded estimate inflates the likely levels of illicit cigarette consumption. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Consumption of single cigarettes and quitting behavior: A longitudinal analysis of Mexican smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnoya Joaquin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous cross-sectional research has suggested single cigarettes could either promote or inhibit consumption. The present study aimed to assess the effects of single cigarette availability and consumption on downstream quit behavior. Methods We analyzed population-based, longitudinal data from adult smokers who participated in the 2008 and 2010 administrations of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico. Results At baseline, 30% of smokers saw single cigarettes for sale on a daily basis, 17% bought singles at their last purchase, and 7% bought singles daily. Smokers who most frequently purchased singles, both in general and specifically to control their consumption, were no more likely to attempt to quit over the 14 month follow-up period than those who did not purchase singles. Frequency of buying singles to reduce consumption had a non-monotonic association with being quit at followup. The odds of being quit was only statistically significant when comparing those who had not bought singles to reduce consumption with those who had done so on a more irregular basis (AOR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.19, 4.45, whereas those who did so more regularly were no more likely to be quit at followup. Frequency of self-reported urges to smoke upon seeing singles for sale was unassociated with either quit attempts or being quit at followup. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between singles consumption and quit behavior is complex, with no clear evidence that singles either promote or inhibit downstream quit behavior.

  17. Consumption of single cigarettes and quitting behavior: A longitudinal analysis of Mexican smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional research has suggested single cigarettes could either promote or inhibit consumption. The present study aimed to assess the effects of single cigarette availability and consumption on downstream quit behavior. Methods We analyzed population-based, longitudinal data from adult smokers who participated in the 2008 and 2010 administrations of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico. Results At baseline, 30% of smokers saw single cigarettes for sale on a daily basis, 17% bought singles at their last purchase, and 7% bought singles daily. Smokers who most frequently purchased singles, both in general and specifically to control their consumption, were no more likely to attempt to quit over the 14 month follow-up period than those who did not purchase singles. Frequency of buying singles to reduce consumption had a non-monotonic association with being quit at followup. The odds of being quit was only statistically significant when comparing those who had not bought singles to reduce consumption with those who had done so on a more irregular basis (AOR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.19, 4.45), whereas those who did so more regularly were no more likely to be quit at followup. Frequency of self-reported urges to smoke upon seeing singles for sale was unassociated with either quit attempts or being quit at followup. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between singles consumption and quit behavior is complex, with no clear evidence that singles either promote or inhibit downstream quit behavior. PMID:21352526

  18. Conditional risk assessment of adolescents' electronic cigarette perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Gansky, Stuart A; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Couch, Elizabeth T; Essex, Gwen; Walsh, Margaret M

    2015-05-01

    To adapt an established instrument for measuring adolescents' cigarette-related perceptions for new application with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In this exploratory study, 104 male high school students (40% tobacco ever-users) estimated the probability of potential e-cigarette risks (eg, lung cancer) or benefits (eg, look cool). We calculated associations between risk/benefit composite scores, ever-use, and use intention for e-cigarettes, and analogously, for combustible cigarettes. E-cigarette ever-use was associated with lower perceived risks, with adjusted differences versus never-users greater for e-cigarettes than for cigarettes. Risk composite score was inversely associated, and benefit score positively associated, with e-cigarette ever-use and use intention. Conditional risk assessment characterized adolescents' perceived e-cigarette risk/benefit profile, with potential utility for risk-perception measurement in future studies.

  19. Assessment of Cigarette Smoking in Epidemiologic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Weitkunat R; Coggins CRE; Sponsiello-Wang Z; Kallischnigg G; Dempsey R

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of cumulative exposure based on collecting information on the history of active cigarette smoking has been and is being undertaken in a variety of ways. While a very detailed assessment may be required for studies with a focus on particular aspects of smoking behavior and history, comparability of measurements and results across studies remains a primary concern. Addressing the problem of heterogeneity of exposure assessment across studies can be achieved by a core set of quest...

  20. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and incidence of aortic valve stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, S C; Wolk, A; Bäck, M

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are modifiable lifestyle factors with important impact on public health. It is unclear whether these factors influence the risk of aortic valve stenosis (AVS). To investigate the associations of alcohol consumption and smoking, including smoking intensity and time since cessation, with AVS incidence in two prospective cohorts. This analysis was based on data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men, comprising 69 365 adults without cardiovascular disease at baseline. Participants were followed for AVS incidence and death by linkage to the Swedish National Patient and Causes of Death Registers. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. Over a mean follow-up of 15.3 years, 1249 cases of AVS (494 in women and 755 in men) were recorded. Compared with never drinkers of alcohol (lifelong abstainers), the risk of AVS was significantly lower in current light drinkers (1-6 drinks per week [1 drink = 12 g alcohol]; multivariable HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68-0.99). The risk of AVS increased with increasing smoking intensity. Compared with never smokers, the HR was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.16-1.85) in current smokers of ≥30 pack-years. Former smokers who had quit smoking 10 or more years previously had similar risk for AVS as never smokers. This study suggests that current light alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of AVS, and indicates that the association between smoking and AVS risk is reversible. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  1. Assessment of Cigarette Smoking in Epidemiologic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitkunat R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of cumulative exposure based on collecting information on the history of active cigarette smoking has been and is being undertaken in a variety of ways. While a very detailed assessment may be required for studies with a focus on particular aspects of smoking behavior and history, comparability of measurements and results across studies remains a primary concern. Addressing the problem of heterogeneity of exposure assessment across studies can be achieved by a core set of questions that cover the major dimensions of cigarette smoking, and yet comply with current criteria used for defining smoking history and status. In studies where no very high level of exposure assessment is required or where smoking is not the major subject of investigation, a practical standardized core set of questions appears to be of considerable value, in particularwith regard to making results more comparable across studies.

  2. Reducing cigarette consumption in California: tobacco taxes vs an anti-smoking media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T W; Sung, H Y; Keeler, T E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effects of taxation vs an anti-smoking media campaign on cigarette consumption in California. METHODS: Quarterly cigarette sales data reported by the California State Board of Equalization between 1980 and 1992 were used to estimate a time-series model, adjusted for seasonal variations and time trends. RESULTS: The estimated results show that sales of cigarettes were reduced by 819 million packs from the third quarter of 1990 through the fourth quarter of 1992 owing to an additional 25-cent state tax increase, while the anti-smoking media campaign reduced the cigarette sales by 232 million packs during the same period. CONCLUSIONS: Both taxation and anti-smoking media campaigns are effective means of reducing cigarette consumption. The strength of those effects, however, is influenced by the magnitude of the taxes and the amount of media campaign expenditures. PMID:7661228

  3. The dynamics of food, alcohol and cigarette consumption in Russia during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya; Rizov, Marian

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on the dynamics of fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on the diversity of the diet in Russia between 1994 and 2005. All those aspects of nutritional behavior are important inputs to the production of health. A dynamic panel data model is used to estimate demand functions for fat, protein, alcohol, cigarettes and diversity of the diet. The results suggest the existence of strong habits in drinking and smoking, and the absence of habits in fat and protein consumption. We also found evidence of habit formation for food diversity. Comparing nutritional behavior of younger and older consumers, we find significant differences in the demand for fat and cigarettes. Older consumers seem to be more persistent in their drinking and smoking behavior. Similarly, men show higher habit persistence for alcohol and cigarette consumption. The results also suggest that among individual determinants, especially education, income and employment have statistically significant impacts on consumption behavior. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, economic growth is negatively related to protein consumption, while regional unemployment rate is negatively affecting the demand for protein and food diversity. Finally, Russian consumers react to the price changes of alcohol, cigarettes, fat and protein as suggested by theory. Consumer demand for food diversity responds negatively to price changes of alcohol and cigarettes, but positively to the price of fat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of MPOWER scores on cigarette smoking prevalence and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Anh; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J; Shang, Ce

    2017-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the MPOWER package to support policy implementation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This study examined the effect of MPOWER policies on smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in a global context. The MPOWER composite score was constructed by adding up the six MPOWER scores for each country and survey year 2007-2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014, with a possible range between 6 (1 in each of the six score) and 29 (4 in M score and 5 in POWER scores). MPOWER composite scores that measured policy implementation were then linked to cigarette smoking prevalence and consumption data from Euromonitor International. Fractional logit and OLS regressions were employed to examine the effect of the composite MPOWER score on adult smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption, respectively. Results indicate that a 1-unit increase in the composite score reduces smoking prevalence by 0.2 percentage points (p<0.05) among adults and 0.3 percentage points (p<0.01) among adult males; and a reduction of 23 sticks of cigarette (1 pack of cigarettes) in cigarette consumption per capita per year. At this rate, if countries had implemented the MPOWER package to the highest levels during 2007-2014, they would have experienced a reduction in smoking prevalence of 7.26% among adults and 7.87% among adult males and a reduction of 13.80% in cigarette consumption. MPOWER policies were effective in reducing cigarette smoking among adults. Parties should continue to implement MPOWER policies that have been recommended by the WHO FCTC to curb tobacco epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The prevalence of illicit cigarette consumption and related factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bekir; Navas-Acien, Ana; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-06-30

    The tobacco industry claims that high cigarette taxes drive illicit trade and that governments should therefore not increase tobacco tax because it will increase the level of illicit trade. This study examines illicit cigarette consumption in Turkey after a tobacco tax increase and its related factors. This national cross-sectional survey was conducted in March-June 2013 and 9717 people aged ≥18 years participated in the interviewer-administered survey. Smokers were asked to show their last used cigarette pack to the interviewers and price paid for their cigarettes. Factors associated with smoking cigarettes with a tobacco tax stamp and paying ≥5 TL (Turkish lira) for a pack of cigarettes were analysed with logistic regression. Among the observed cigarette packs, 12.1% did not have the Turkish tax stamp. More illicit cigarettes were observed in the East region than in other regions (pcigarettes was €2.12 (€2.15 for men and €1.97 for women, pcigarettes with a tax stamp (€2.15) was higher than the amount paid for cigarettes without tax stamp (€1.08) (per cigarette pack) (psmokers (12%) had an illicit cigarette pack about 5 months after the final tax increase; this was most common in the East region of Turkey. Estimates are comparable to those in previous studies and do not indicate that an increase occurred in the prevalence of illicit cigarette use compared with before the tobacco tax increase. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Healthy life style and food, beverages and cigarettes consumption in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Foret

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article, the authors analyze the term healthy life style. Information sources focusing on health and factors influencing it and having the final impact on it are mostly of medicine character. Together with the development of medicinal diagnostic and curing procedures, the importance of health conditions influenced by infectious diseases is decreasing. On the other hand, the importance of factors related to the life style (eating habits in particular is growing.In the second part of the article, the authors analyze and interpret the data of the Czech Statistical Office about the consumption of selected foods in the form of secondary analysis. The effort was to take into account the assessment of the trends as well as to deduce their possible impact on the health condition of the individual. From the analyses mentioned it is obvious that in the selected statistical data of the development of food and beverages consumption in the Czech Republic the tendencies towards healthy life style have not been unambiguous or significant within the last eight years.In certain areas such as consumption of alcoholic beverages, milk and diary products and meat there have been noted changes for better. In most of the areas analyzed (alcoholic beverages, fruit and vegetable, oil, fish these tendencies are not obvious or significant. Alarming is the growing consumption of cigarettes.

  7. The dynamics of food, alcohol and cigarette consumption in Russia during transition

    OpenAIRE

    Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K.; Rizov, Marian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on the dynamics of fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on the diversity of the diet in Russia between 1994 and 2005. All those aspects of nutritional behavior are important inputs to the production of health. A dynamic panel data model is used to estimate demand functions for fat, protein, alcohol, cigarettes and diversity of the diet. The results suggest the existence of strong habit...

  8. Bladder cancer mortality in England and Wales in relation to cigarette smoking and saccharin consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bruce; Doll, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Cohort analyses of bladder cancer mortality rates in men and women in England and Wales have been compared with figures for the per caput consumption of saccharin and cigarette tobacco and with similar analyses of cigarette smoking habits. The increase in bladder cancer mortality rates in male cohorts born since 1870 can be attributed to cigarette smoking, and there is no evidence of any break in the continuity of the trends in either men or women which corresponds to the introduction of saccharin. PMID:4455341

  9. Cross sectional survey on association between alcohol, betel- nut, cigarette consumption and health promoting behavior of industrial workers in Ghaziabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Dimple; Marya, Charu Mohan; Menon, Ipseeta; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Dhingra, Chandan; Anand, Richa

    2015-01-01

    The work force in industries are at risk of developing unduly high rates of health and behaviour related problems including abuse of alcohol, betel nut and cigarette (alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption). This study describes the relationships between alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption and health promoting behaviour among industrial workers. A cross sectional survey was conducted on workers in various industries of Ghaziabad city with concerned authority permission. A sample size of 732 workers was calculated based on pilot study. Through Simple random sampling 732 workers in 20 to 50 years age group with informed consent were interviewed through structured, pretested, validated questionnaire in vernacular language by one calibrated investigator. Data on socio demography, alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption pattern and health behaviour were collected. The association between health promoting behaviour and alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption was analysed by Logistic regression and Chi-square test through SPSS 16 at pbetel nut and cigarette consumption in study population was 88%. The prevalence of individual alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption were 82%, 68% and 79% respectively. Combined alcohol, betel nut and cigarette prevalence in study population was 58%. Alcohol and cigarette users were significantly higher (pbetel nut and cigarette users.

  10. The Impact of the Master Settlement Agreement on Cigarette Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A.; Trogdon, Justin G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, 46 states and the four major tobacco companies signed the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), which stipulated that the tobacco companies pay states $206 billion over 25 years and take steps to reduce youth smoking. The remaining states settled separately. We sought to determine the effect of the settlements on demand for cigarettes. Using…

  11. Portrayal of tobacco use in prime-time TV dramas: trends and associations with adult cigarette consumption--USA, 1955-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Patrick E; Romer, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Although portrayal of television (TV) and movie tobacco use has been linked with initiation of cigarette smoking in adolescents, its association with smoking in adults has not been assessed. Therefore, we examined long-term and annual changes in tobacco portrayal in popular US TV dramas and their associations with comparable trends in national adult cigarette consumption. Tobacco use in 1838 h of popular US TV dramas was coded from 1955-2010. The long-term trend and annual deviations from trend were studied in relation to comparable trends in adult per capita cigarette consumption using correlational and time-series methods that controlled for other potential predictors. TV tobacco portrayal has trended downward since 1955 in line with the historical trend in cigarette consumption. Controlling for changes in cigarette prices and other factors, annual changes of one tobacco instance per episode hour across 2 years of programming were associated with annual change of 38.5 cigarettes per US adult. The decline in TV tobacco portrayal was associated with nearly half the effect of increases in cigarette prices over the study period. The correlation between tobacco portrayal in TV dramas and adult cigarette consumption is consistent with well-established effects of exposure to tobacco cues that create craving for cigarettes in adult smokers. Although tobacco use in TV dramas along with movies has declined over time, portrayal of smoking on screen media should be a focus for future adult tobacco control research and policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. An Experimental Investigation of the Joint Effects of Advertising and Peers on Adolescents' Beliefs and Intentions about Cigarette Consumption.

    OpenAIRE

    Pechmann, Cornelia; Knight, Susan J

    2002-01-01

    Ninth graders were randomly exposed to one of eight slice-of-life videotapes showing stimulus advertising (cigarette, antismoking, both, neither) and unfamiliar peers who either did or did not smoke cigarettes. The findings indicate that the cigarette advertising primed positive smoker stereotypes, which caused subjects to seek out favorable information about the peers shown smoking. Subjects' beliefs and intentions about cigarette consumption were thereby enhanced by the joint effects of adv...

  13. The cross-effects of cigarette and betel nut consumption in Taiwan: have tax increases made a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Hung; Lee, Jie-Min; Liu, Hsiang-Hsi; Wang, Hui-Cheng; Ye, Chun-Yuan

    2011-05-01

    This paper empirically identifies cross-price elasticities of betel nut and cigarette consumption in Taiwan based on the Central Bureau of Statistics demand model. It compares reduction of cigarette consumption as a result of the proposed Betel Nut Health Tax with reduction of betel nut consumption as a result of the Tobacco Health and Welfare Taxes levied in 2002 and 2006, in order to determine which tax is most effective. Results from a simulated comparative analysis indicate that the Betel Nut Health Tax reduces cigarette consumption to a much greater extent than the Tobacco Health and Welfare Taxes reduce betel nut consumption.

  14. Increased cigarette tax is associated with reductions in alcohol consumption in a longitudinal U.S. sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Kasza, Karin A; Hyland, Andrew J; McKee, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette taxation has been recognized as one of the most significant policy instruments to reduce smoking. Smoking and drinking are highly comorbid behaviors, and the public health benefits of cigarette taxation may extend beyond smoking-related outcomes to impact alcohol consumption. The current study is the first to test whether increases in cigarette taxes are associated with reductions in alcohol consumption among smokers using a large, prospective U.S. sample. Our sample included 21,473 alcohol consumers from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate whether increases in cigarette taxes between Waves 1 (2001 to 2002) and 2 (2004 to 2005) were associated with reductions in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, adjusting for demographics, baseline alcohol consumption, and alcohol price. Stratified analyses were conducted by sex, hazardous drinking status, and age and income group. Increases in cigarette taxes were associated with modest reductions in typical quantity of alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking among smokers. Cigarette taxation was not associated with changes in alcohol consumption among nonsmokers. In analyses stratified by sex, the inverse associations of cigarette taxes with typical quantity and binge drinking frequency were found only for male smokers. Further, the inverse association of cigarette taxation and alcohol consumption was stronger among hazardous drinkers (translating into approximately 1/2 a drink less alcohol consumption per episode), young adult smokers, and smokers in the lowest income category. Findings from this longitudinal, epidemiological study suggest increases in cigarette taxes are associated with modest to moderate reductions in alcohol consumption among vulnerable groups. Additional research is needed to further quantify the public health benefits of cigarette taxation on alcohol consumption and

  15. A major state tobacco tax increase, the master settlement agreement, and cigarette consumption: the California experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hai-Yen; Hu, Teh-wei; Ong, Michael; Keeler, Theodore E; Sheu, Mei-ling

    2005-06-01

    We evaluated the combined effects on California cigarette consumption of an additional 50 cent per pack state tax imposed by Proposition 10 of January 1999 and a 45 cent per pack increase in cigarette prices stemming from the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) of November 1998. We used quarterly cigarette sales data for the period 1984-2002 to estimate a time-series intervention model adjusting for seasonal variations and time trend. Over the period 1999 through 2002, the combined effect was to reduce cigarette consumption by 2.4 packs per capita per quarter (1.3 billion packs total over the 4-year period) and to raise state tax revenues by $2.1 billion. These effects were similar to the effects of a 25 cent per pack tax increase enacted by Proposition 99 a decade earlier, although with decreased relative effectiveness as measured by percentage of reduction in cigarette consumption divided by percentage of increase in taxation (-0.44 vs -0.60). A major increase in price through taxation and the MSA provided a strong economic disincentive for smokers in a state with a low smoking prevalence. This effect could be reinforced if part of the MSA payments were devoted to tobacco control programs.

  16. Comparison of Ecological Momentary Assessment Versus Direct Measurement of E-Cigarette Use With a Bluetooth-Enabled E-Cigarette: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Elmasry, Hoda; Das, Babita; Smiley, Sabrina L; Rubin, Leslie F; DeAtley, Teresa; Harvey, Emily; Zhou, Yitong; Niaura, Raymond; Abrams, David B

    2017-05-29

    Assessing the frequency and intensity of e-cigarette use presents special challenges beyond those posed by cigarette use. Accurate measurement of e-cigarette consumption, puff duration, and the stability of these measures over time will be informative for estimating the behavioral and health effects of e-cigarette use. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the accuracy of self-reported e-cigarette puff counts collected via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to objective puff count data collected by a Bluetooth-enabled e-cigarette device and to examine the feasibility and acceptability of using a second-generation e-cigarette among adult smokers. A total of 5 adult smokers were enrolled in a longitudinal parent study assessing how e-cigarette use affects cigarette use among e-cigarette-naïve smokers. Using a text message-based EMA system, participants reported e-cigarette puffs for 2 weeks. Participants were also given a Bluetooth-enabled e-cigarette (Smokio) that passively collected puff counts and puff duration. Comparisons between mean reports of Smokio (device-report) and EMA (self-report) use were evaluated using paired t tests. Correlation and agreement between device- and self-reports were evaluated using Pearson correlation and the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), respectively. A linear mixed effect model was used to determine the fixed effect of timing and Smokio-reported daily puffs on report accuracy. We examined the relationship between time of day and reporting accuracy using Tukey's test for multiple pairwise comparisons. A total of 5 African American participants, 4 men and 1 woman, who ranged in age from 24 to 59 years completed the study, resulting in 5180 observations (device-report) of e-cigarette use. At baseline, participants reported smoking for 5 to 25 years and consumed a mean of 7 to 13 cigarettes per day (CPD); 4 smoked within 30 minutes of waking. At the 30-day follow-up, CPD range decreased to 1 to 3 cigarettes; 4

  17. Consumption of Cigarettes but not Betel Quid or Alcohol Increases Colorectal Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chen Wu

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicated that consumption of cigarettes but not betel quid or alcohol was a risk factor for male CRC. A large study is necessary to investigate the risk factors for female CRC in Taiwan, and to understand the effect of betel quid exposure on male CRC.

  18. Alcohol use, cigarette consumption and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Op den Velde, W; Aarts, PGH; Falger, PRJ; Hovens, JE; van Duijn, H; de Groen, JHM; van Duijn, MAJ

    2002-01-01

    Aims: The relationship between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was studied in 147 male former members of the civilian resistance against the Nazi occupation of Holland during World War II. Methods: The subjects were interviewed at home. Measures

  19. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  20. The dynamics of food, alcohol and cigarette consumption in Russia during transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Huffman, S.; Rizov, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on the dynamics of fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on the diversity of the diet in Russia between 1994 and 2005. All those aspects of nutritional behavior are important inputs to the

  1. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  2. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerbroks, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer. Methods: In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women. Follow-up for

  3. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes: Part 1: background, assessment approach, and summary of findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    This publication introduces a series of six other publications describing the toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes, i.e., cigarettes characterized primarily by the use of a significant amount of cloves as an ingredient added to the tobacco. This paper presents background information on kretek cigarettes, describes the general approach of the in vitro and in vivo toxicological assessment of mainstream smoke from kretek cigarettes, presents the methodology used, and summarizes the results of the assessment program. In summary, the smoke from kretek cigarettes gives rise to the typical cigarette smoke-related effects known from American-blended cigarettes, does not reveal any novel toxicity, and exhibits an unexpected distinct attenuation of pulmonary inflammation. Based on equal amounts of smoke total particulate matter (TPM), kretek cigarettes deliver less toxicants when compared to American-blended cigarettes; when assessed in vitro, the smoke from kretek cigarettes is less cytotoxic (gas/vapor phase) and less mutagenic (TPM). When assessed in vivo, kretek cigarette smoke shows lower toxicity in the respiratory tract. When based on an equal nicotine basis, several of the toxicity endpoints in kretek cigarettes become equivalent to American-blended cigarettes. The data do not indicate an increased hazard potential of kreteks compared to American-blended cigarettes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of a rise in cigarette price on cigarette consumption, tobacco taxation revenues, and of smoking-related deaths in 28 EU countries-- applying threshold regression modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Yuan; Schafferer, Christian; Lee, Jie-Min; Ho, Li-Ming; Hsieh, Chi-Jung

    2017-09-21

    European Union public healthcare expenditure on treating smoking and attributable diseases is estimated at over €25bn annually. The reduction of tobacco consumption has thus become one of the major social policies of the EU. This study investigates the effects of price hikes on cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenues and smoking-caused deaths in 28 EU countries. Employing panel data for the years 2005 to 2014 from Euromonitor International, the World Bank and the World Health Organization, we used income as a threshold variable and applied threshold regression modelling to estimate the elasticity of cigarette prices and to simulate the effect of price fluctuations. The results showed that there was an income threshold effect on cigarette prices in the 28 EU countries that had a gross national income (GNI) per capita lower than US$5418, with a maximum cigarette price elasticity of -1.227. The results of the simulated analysis showed that a rise of 10% in cigarette price would significantly reduce cigarette consumption as well the total death toll caused by smoking in all the observed countries, but would be most effective in Bulgaria and Romania, followed by Latvia and Poland. Additionally, an increase in the number of MPOWER tobacco control policies at the highest level of achievment would help reduce cigarette consumption. It is recommended that all EU countries levy higher tobacco taxes to increase cigarette prices, and thus in effect reduce cigarette consumption. The subsequent increase in tobacco tax revenues would be instrumental in covering expenditures related to tobacco prevention and control programs.

  5. The effects of a rise in cigarette price on cigarette consumption, tobacco taxation revenues, and of smoking-related deaths in 28 EU countries-- applying threshold regression modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yuan Yeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European Union public healthcare expenditure on treating smoking and attributable diseases is estimated at over €25bn annually. The reduction of tobacco consumption has thus become one of the major social policies of the EU. This study investigates the effects of price hikes on cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenues and smoking-caused deaths in 28 EU countries. Methods Employing panel data for the years 2005 to 2014 from Euromonitor International, the World Bank and the World Health Organization, we used income as a threshold variable and applied threshold regression modelling to estimate the elasticity of cigarette prices and to simulate the effect of price fluctuations. Results The results showed that there was an income threshold effect on cigarette prices in the 28 EU countries that had a gross national income (GNI per capita lower than US$5418, with a maximum cigarette price elasticity of −1.227. The results of the simulated analysis showed that a rise of 10% in cigarette price would significantly reduce cigarette consumption as well the total death toll caused by smoking in all the observed countries, but would be most effective in Bulgaria and Romania, followed by Latvia and Poland. Additionally, an increase in the number of MPOWER tobacco control policies at the highest level of achievment would help reduce cigarette consumption. Conclusions It is recommended that all EU countries levy higher tobacco taxes to increase cigarette prices, and thus in effect reduce cigarette consumption. The subsequent increase in tobacco tax revenues would be instrumental in covering expenditures related to tobacco prevention and control programs.

  6. [The e-cigarette disrupts other consumptions in Parisian teenagers (2012-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautzenberg, B; de Souza Moura, M-A; Rieu, N; Dautzenberg, M-D; Birkui, P

    2016-03-01

    To analyze experimentation with and use of e-cigarette by middle school and high school students in Paris. Since 2012, questions about e-cigarette use have been included in the cross-sectional survey on tobacco that is administered annually since 1991 by the Paris sans tabac association. Overall, 2% of the 12-19 years-old attending school in Paris were surveyed. Of the 10,051 teenagers aged 12-19 surveyed in 2012-2014, 21.8% (n=2194) had tried e-cigarettes. Among these experimenters, 58.9% (n=1292) were smokers, 37.4% (n=820) were non-smokers and 3.7% (n=82) were ex-smokers. From 2012 to 2014, the rate of e-cigarette experimenters increased significantly (from 7.9% to 26.3% for 12-15 years and from 12.2% to 47.2% for 16-19 years-old). The rate of regular e-cigarettes users increased in the same proportion. However over this time, there has been a decline from 15.3% to 10.9% in the rate of 12-15 year old smokers (regular or occasional) and from 38.3% to 33.5% of smokers aged 16-19. Other consumption (cannabis, alcohol abuse) also decreased but no causal relationship can be established. The annual doubling of e-cigarette experimentation and regular use rates has been associated with a decrease in the consumption of tobacco and other products. These data should provide some reassurance against fears that e-cigarette use among young people will provide a significant gateway to tobacco smoking. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in puffing topography and nicotine consumption depending on the power setting of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos; Poulas, Konstantinos; Voudris, Vasillis

    2017-10-03

    The study purpose was to evaluate changes in puffing topography of experienced electronic cigarette users (vapers) when changing power settings in electronic cigarette battery device. Experienced adult vapers (n = 21) were recruited. Participants used their own liquids and an atomizer and battery provided by the researchers. Two 30-minute sessions were performed, with the device power set at 6 W and 10 W, in a randomized, cross-over, participant-blinded design. Puff number and duration (mean [SD]) were recorded in the provided electronic cigarette battery device, while the atomizers were weighted before and after use to determine liquid and nicotine consumption. Puff number and puff duration were lower at 10 W [46 (16) puffs and 3.8 (0.8) s] compared to 6 W [57 (20) puffs and 4.6 (1.0) s]. Liquid and nicotine consumption was higher at 10 W [373 (176) mg and 4.2 (2.4) mg respectively] compared to 6 W [308 (165) mg and 3.5 (2.3) mg respectively]. Vapers reported more aerosol volume and ease of use at 10 W compared to 6 W. The study identified an attempt for compensatory puffing patterns and nicotine self-titration, with a change in puffing patterns (puff number and duration) observed when changing the power settings of an e-cigarette device. Compensatory smoking behavior and nicotine self-titration is a well-established phenomenon. In electronic cigarettes, changing nicotine concentration in the liquid has been shown to trigger a compensatory puffing pattern. Herein, power setting of the electronic cigarette device was found to be a parameter associated with changes in puffing behavior, while higher power was preferable for the participants. These findings could contribute to the understanding of patterns of electronic cigarette use and could explain the preference of dedicated vapers to higher power devices. Additionally, laboratory studies evaluating aerosol emissions should consider using different puffing patterns according to the power settings tested.

  8. Naturalistic assessment of demand for cigarettes, snus, and nicotine gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Wilson, A George; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Judd, Michael C; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral economic measures of demand provide estimates of tobacco product abuse liability and may predict effects of policy-related price regulation on consumption of existing and emerging tobacco products. In the present study, we examined demand for snus, a smokeless tobacco product, in comparison to both cigarettes and medicinal nicotine. We used both a naturalistic method in which participants purchased these products for use outside the laboratory, as well as laboratory-based self-administration procedures. Cigarette smokers (N = 42) used an experimental income to purchase their usual brand of cigarettes and either snus or gum (only one product available per session) across a range of prices, while receiving all products they purchased from one randomly selected price. In a separate portion of the study, participants self-administered these products during laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions. Demand elasticity (sensitivity of purchasing to price) was significantly greater for snus than cigarettes. Elasticity for gum was intermediate between snus and cigarettes but was not significantly different than either. Demand intensity (purchasing unconstrained by price) was significantly lower for gum compared to cigarettes, with no significant difference observed between snus and cigarettes. Results of the laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions were generally discordant with measures of demand elasticity, with significantly higher "breakpoints" for cigarettes compared to gum and no significant differences between other study products. Moreover, breakpoints and product purchasing were generally uncorrelated across tasks. Under naturalistic conditions, snus appears more sensitive to price manipulation than either cigarettes or nicotine gum in existing smokers.

  9. Influence of green tea consumption on cigarette smoking-induced biochemical changes in plasma and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthadu Shakeela Begum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking causes numerous adverse biochemical changes in plasma and blood leading to ill health effects for which therapeutic approaches are sought. The present study investigates the effect of green tea consumption on confirmed cigarette smokers. Blood samples were collected from 120 selected human male volunteers categorized in to four groups viz., controls, smokers, control volunteers consuming green tea with no habit of smoking and smokers consuming green tea were analysed. Results showed that altered plasma glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total cholesterol, lipoprotein patterns (HDL, LDL, VLDL and lipid peroxidation along with vitamins (vitamin-D, vitamin-B12, vitamin-C and minerals (iron, total iron binding capacity, calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, chloride followed by the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of green tea confirmed the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Antioxidants and free radical scavenging effects of green tea were assessed using 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+ and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH+. Results of this study clearly demonstrated that the adverse changes observed in the above biochemical parameters in smokers were reversed upon green tea supplementation which can be attributed to the phytoconstituents present in green tea. In conclusion, both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that phytocompounds present in green tea are able to scavenge free radicals and by there offers protection against smoking induced biochemical alterations.

  10. Cigarette consumption habits and related factors among college students in Turkey: a logit model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Gulstan; Erdal, Hilmi; Esengun, Kemal; Karakas, Gungor

    2015-02-01

    To investigate smoking habits, related factors and level of consciousness among college students in Turkey. The study was conducted at Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat, Turkey, in May 2013. Data was obtained through face-to-face questionnaires. It was tested using Binomial Logit Regression Model. In addition, students were asked to answer a five-score question group in order to determine the reflections and judgments of smoker students. Of the 253 students in the study, 125(49%) were males. Overall, there were 101 (40%) smokers. Smoking ban was found to lower cigarette smoking among the smokers (p < 0.0001). On the other hand, smoking habit of parents and friends, income levels and differences in places where they lived positively affected cigarette smoking (p < 0.05). Tobacco policies and precautions taken to lower tobacco use resulted in considerable decrease in cigarette consumption.

  11. Assessing contraband tobacco in two jurisdictions: a direct collection of cigarette butts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Stratton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sale of contraband tobacco allows for tobacco tax evasion, which can undermine the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies in reducing the number of smokers. Estimates of the proportion of contraband vary widely as do the methods used to measure the proportion of contraband being smoked. The purpose of this study is to determine the proportion of contraband use in two different jurisdictions. Methods A cross-sectional direct collection of cigarette butts was conducted in Peel and Brantford, Ontario, Canada in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Cigarette butts were collected from a variety of locations within both regions. Cigarette butts were assessed and classified into one of the following categories: contraband, legal Canadian, legal Native, International, unknown, and discards. Results The overall proportion of contraband cigarettes in Peel was 5.3 %, ranging from 2.8 to 8.6 % by location. In Brantford, the proportion of contraband was 33.0 %, with a range from 32.8 to 33.1 % by location. Conclusions The direct collection of cigarette butts was determined to be a feasible method for a local public health unit in determining the proportion of contraband cigarettes. This approach showed that Brantford has a higher proportion of contraband consumption compared to Peel, which may be due to geographic location and proximity to the United States (US-Canada border and Native Reserves. More research is needed to confirm this geographic association with other jurisdictions.

  12. Assessing contraband tobacco in two jurisdictions: a direct collection of cigarette butts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Julie; Shiplo, Samantha; Ward, Megan; Babayan, Alexey; Stevens, Adam; Edwards, Sarah

    2016-07-22

    The sale of contraband tobacco allows for tobacco tax evasion, which can undermine the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies in reducing the number of smokers. Estimates of the proportion of contraband vary widely as do the methods used to measure the proportion of contraband being smoked. The purpose of this study is to determine the proportion of contraband use in two different jurisdictions. A cross-sectional direct collection of cigarette butts was conducted in Peel and Brantford, Ontario, Canada in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Cigarette butts were collected from a variety of locations within both regions. Cigarette butts were assessed and classified into one of the following categories: contraband, legal Canadian, legal Native, International, unknown, and discards. The overall proportion of contraband cigarettes in Peel was 5.3 %, ranging from 2.8 to 8.6 % by location. In Brantford, the proportion of contraband was 33.0 %, with a range from 32.8 to 33.1 % by location. The direct collection of cigarette butts was determined to be a feasible method for a local public health unit in determining the proportion of contraband cigarettes. This approach showed that Brantford has a higher proportion of contraband consumption compared to Peel, which may be due to geographic location and proximity to the United States (US)-Canada border and Native Reserves. More research is needed to confirm this geographic association with other jurisdictions.

  13. Cigarette smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Piers; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Moore, David R; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Fortnum, Heather; Munro, Kevin J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and hearing loss. The study sample was a subset of the UK Biobank Resource, 164,770 adults aged between 40 and 69 years who completed a speech-in-noise hearing test (the Digit Triplet Test). Hearing loss was defined as speech recognition in noise in the better ear poorer than 2 standard deviations below the mean with reference to young normally hearing listeners. In multiple logistic regression controlling for potential confounders, current smokers were more likely to have a hearing loss than non-smokers (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.21). Among non-smokers, those who reported passive exposure to tobacco smoke were more likely to have a hearing loss (OR 1.28, 95 %CI 1.21-1.35). For both smoking and passive smoking, there was evidence of a dose-response effect. Those who consume alcohol were less likely to have a hearing loss than lifetime teetotalers. The association was similar across three levels of consumption by volume of alcohol (lightest 25 %, OR 0.61, 95 %CI 0.57-0.65; middle 50 % OR 0.62, 95 %CI 0.58-0.66; heaviest 25 % OR 0.65, 95 %CI 0.61-0.70). The results suggest that lifestyle factors may moderate the risk of hearing loss. Alcohol consumption was associated with a protective effect. Quitting or reducing smoking and avoiding passive exposure to tobacco smoke may also help prevent or moderate age-related hearing loss.

  14. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was avai...

  15. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are enemy of male fertility? A patho-radiological correlation study

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Rai; Garjesh Singh Rai

    2016-01-01

    Background: About 15% of the sexually active population is suffering from infertility in India, and in 50% of cases, male partner is involved, either as a primary cause or in combination a problem in the female partner. Modern life style changes like cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are emerging out to cause a detrimental effect on male fertility due to adverse effects on semen volume, sperm morphology, total count and motility. The aim of the study was to study the effects of cigare...

  16. Drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene variation, nicotine metabolism, prospective abstinence, and cigarette consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Bergen, Andrew W; Martha Michel; Denise Nishita; Ruth Krasnow; Javitz, Harold S.; Conneely, Karen N; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Hyman Hops; Zhu, Andy Z. X.; Baurley, James W; McClure, Jennifer B.; Hall, Sharon M.; Baker, Timothy B; Conti, David V; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Bergen et al. The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a met...

  17. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of subtypes of oesophageal and gastric cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking may be differentially associated with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). However, because this was based on retrospective

  18. Blood Harmane Concentrations in 497 Individuals Relative to Coffee, Cigarettes, and Food Consumption on the Morning of Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan D. Louis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmane, a potent neurotoxin linked with several neurological disorders, is present in many foods, coffee, and cigarettes. We assessed whether morning food/coffee consumption and smoking were reflected in blood harmane concentrations (BHCs we obtained in an epidemiologic sample (=497. Participants who smoked on the morning of phlebotomy had similar logBHCs to those who had not smoked (=.57; there was no correlation between logBHCs and number of cigarettes (=.59. Among the coffee drinkers, there was no correlation between number of cups and logBHCs (=.98. Participants who had eaten on the morning of phlebotomy had similar logBHCs to those who had not (=.49; logBHCs did not correlate with the time latency between last food consumption and phlebotomy (=.74. BHCs in this sample of ~500 individuals did not covary with recent smoking, coffee, or food consumption, suggesting that our inability to withhold these exposures on the morning of phlebotomy was not reflected in the BHCs we measured.

  19. BMI, physical inactivity, cigarette and alcohol consumption in female nursing students: a 5-year comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Franziska; von Lindeman, Katharina; Klewer, Jörg; Kugler, Joachim

    2014-04-17

    Nursing staff are often involved in counseling patients with regard to health behavior. Although care promoting healthy lifestyle choices is included in the curriculum of nursing students in Germany, several studies of nursing students have reported a high prevalence of unhealthy behavior. This paper focuses on the behavior of female nursing students with regard to body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. It describes trends through the comparison of results from 2008 and 2013. Data was collected in two waves at a regional medical training college. First, 301 nursing students were asked to fill out a 12 page questionnaire on health behavior in 2008. The questioning was repeated in 2013 with 316 participating nursing students using the previous questionnaire. 259 female nursing students completed the questionnaire in 2013. 31.6% of them were either overweight or obese, 28.5% exercised less than once a week, 42.9% smoked between 10 and 20 cigarettes a day and 72.6% drank alcohol, wherefrom 19.7% consumed alcohol in risky quantities. In comparison to the data of 266 female nursing students from 2008, there were significant differences in the BMI and alcohol consumption: The percentage of overweight and obese students and the percentage of alcohol consumers at risk increased significantly. Health behavior of female nursing students is often inadequate especially in regard to weight and cigarette and alcohol consumption. Strategies are required to promote healthy lifestyle choices.

  20. Increased exhalation of hydrogen peroxide in healthy subjects following cigarette consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Baltazar Guatura

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Increased hydrogen peroxide has been described in the expired breath condensate (H2O2-E of several lung conditions, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. This technique has been advocated as being a simple method for documenting airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate H2O2-E in healthy cigarette smokers, and to determine the acute effects of the consumption of one cigarette on H2O2-E levels. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective, controlled trial. SETTING: A pulmonary function laboratory in a University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Two groups of healthy volunteers: individuals who had never smoked (NS; n=10; 4 men; age = 30.6 ± 6.2 years and current cigarette smokers (S; n=12; 7 men; age = 38.7 ± 9.8. None of the volunteers had respiratory symptoms and all showed normal spirometric tests. INTERVENTION: Expired air was collected from all volunteers through a face mask and a plastic collecting system leading into a flask with dry ice and pure ethanol. Samples from the group S were collected twice, before and half an hour after the combustion of one cigarette. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Expired hydrogen peroxide using the Gallati and Pracht method. RESULTS: The S and NS groups showed comparable levels of H2O2-E at basal conditions [NS = 0.74 muM (DP 0.24 vs. S = 0.75 muM (DP 0.31]. The smokers showed a significant increase in H2O2-E levels half an hour after the consumption of only one cigarette [0.75 muM (DP 0.31 vs. 0.95 muM (DP 0.22]. CONCLUSION: The present results are consistent with the concept that smokers increase oxidative stress with elevated production of reactive oxygen species, contributing to the development of smoking-related disorders.

  1. A comparative assessment of e-cigarette aerosols and cigarette smoke on in vitro endothelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark; Jaunky, Tomasz; Hewitt, Katherine; Breheny, Damien; Lowe, Frazer; Fearon, Ian M; Gaca, Marianna

    2017-08-05

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for several diseases. There has been a steep increase in the use of e-cigarettes that may offer a safer alternative to cigarette smoking. In vitro models of smoking-related diseases may provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms associated with tobacco use and could be used to assess e-cigarettes. We previously reported the application of a 'scratch wound' assay, measuring endothelial cell migration rate following artificial wounding, in the presence or absence of cigarette smoke extracts. This study reports the comparative effects of two commercial e-cigarette products (Vype ePen and Vype eStick) and a scientific reference cigarette (3R4F) on endothelial migration in vitro. Puff-matched extracts were generated using the Health Canada Intense (HCI) regime for cigarettes and a modified HCI for e-cigarettes. Exposure to 3R4F extract (20h) induced concentration-dependent inhibition of endothelial cell migration, with complete inhibition at concentrations >20%. E-cigarette extracts did not inhibit migration, even at double the 3R4F extract nicotine concentration, allowing cells to migrate into the wounded area. Our data demonstrate that e-cigarettes do not induce the inhibition of endothelial cell migration in vitro when compared to 3R4F. The scratch wound assay enables the comparative assessment between tobacco and nicotine products in vitro. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and healthcare costs: 1989-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightwood, James; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that tobacco control funding in California has reduced per capita cigarette consumption and per capita healthcare expenditures. This paper refines our earlier model by estimating the effect of California tobacco control funding on current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker and the effect of prevalence and consumption on per capita healthcare expenditures. The results are used to calculate new estimates of the effect of the California Tobacco Program. Using state-specific aggregate data, current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker are modeled as functions of cumulative California and control states' per capita tobacco control funding, cigarette price, and per capita income. Per capita healthcare expenditures are modeled as a function of prevalence of current smoking, cigarette consumption per smoker, and per capita income. One additional dollar of cumulative per capita tobacco control funding is associated with reduction in current smoking prevalence of 0.0497 (SE.00347) percentage points and current smoker cigarette consumption of 1.39 (SE.132) packs per smoker per year. Reductions of one percentage point in current smoking prevalence and one pack smoked per smoker are associated with $35.4 (SE $9.85) and $3.14 (SE.786) reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure, respectively (2010 dollars), using the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) measure of healthcare spending. Between FY 1989 and 2008 the California Tobacco Program cost $2.4 billion and led to cumulative NIPA healthcare expenditure savings of $134 (SE $30.5) billion.

  3. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking pattern among brothel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Alcohol and tobacco use are known risk factors for non communicable diseases especially among women. Brothel based ... Objective: To assess the pattern of alcohol and tobacco use among female sex workers in two selected local government areas in .... behavior and the prevention of sexually transmitted.

  4. Association of socioeconomic status with consumption of cigarettes, illicit drugs, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Maryam; Hadji, Maryam; Gholipour, Mahin; Rashidian, Hamideh; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Hasanzadeh, Jafar; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Ghiasvand, Reza; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Khavari-Daneshvar, Hossein; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kamangar, Farin; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2017-08-18

    Socioeconomic Status (SES) is considered as one of the important factors associated with use of various drugs. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of SES on cigarette smoking, alcohol use, drug use, and passive exposure to opium and cigarette smoke. In this study, which is part of a multicenter case-control study, the research hypothesis was checked among controls who had referred to hospitals. Data were collected through a questionnaire and laboratory tests to determine the actual consumers of opium and other illicit drugs. Then, the data were analyzed using STATA 13. This study was performed on 364 individuals within the age range of 30 to 75 years. More than 55% of the participants had a history of life-time consumption of cigarettes and hookah as well as alcohol and drugs. The results revealed an inverse relationship between SES and life-time consumption of hookah and alcohol. Furthermore, individuals with higher SES were more likely to deny their drug use. The results revealed little robust evidence supporting the assumption that SES level can have an important effect on illicit drug use. On the other hand, the participants' characteristics could have a prominent effect on precise evaluation of the relationship between SES and drug use. Further multicenter studies are needed with samples diversified in terms of age and ethnicity to identify these confounding relationships.

  5. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-07-01

    Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06-3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86-9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62-1.39). In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not.

  6. The effect of Taiwan's tax-induced increases in cigarette prices on brand-switching and the consumption of cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Yang, Chung-Lin; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Pei-Fen

    2005-06-01

    The effect of raising cigarette taxes to reduce smoking has been the subject of several studies, which often treat the price of cigarettes as an exogenous factor given to smokers who respond to it by adjusting their smoking behavior. However, cigarette prices vary with brand and quality, and smokers can and do switch to lower-priced brands to reduce the impact of the tax on the cost of cigarettes as they try to consume the same number of cigarettes as they had before a tax hike. Using data from a two-year follow-up interview survey conducted before and after a new cigarette tax scheme was imposed in Taiwan in 2002, this study examines three behavioral changes smokers may make to respond to tax-induced cigarette price increase: brand-switching, amount consumed, and amount spent on smoking. These changes were studied in relation to smoker income, before-tax cigarette price, level of addiction, exposure to advertizing, and consumer loyalty. We found that smokers, depending upon exposure to advertizing, level of consumer loyalty and initial price of cigarettes, switched brands to maintain current smoking habits and control costs. We also found that the initial amount smoked and level of addiction, not price, at least not at the current levels in Taiwan, determined whether a smoker reduced the number of cigarettes he consumed. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The effect of cigarette price increases on cigarette consumption, tax revenue, and smoking-related death in Africa from 1999 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Li-Ming; Schafferer, Christian; Lee, Jie-Min; Yeh, Chun-Yuan; Hsieh, Chi-Jung

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of price hikes on cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenues, and reduction in smoking-caused mortality in 36 African countries. Using panel data from the 1999-2013 Euromonitor International, the World Bank and the World Health Organization, we applied fixed-effects and random-effects regression models of panel data to estimate the elasticity of cigarette prices and simulate the effect of price fluctuations. Cigarette price elasticity was the highest for low-income countries and considerably lower for other African economies. The administered simulation shows that with an average annual cigarette price increase of 7.38%, the average annual cigarette consumption would decrease by 3.84%, and the average annual tobacco tax revenue would increase by 19.39%. By 2050, the number of averted smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) will be the highest in South Africa, followed by the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, and Ethiopia. Excise tax increases have a significant effect on the reduction of smoking prevalence and the number of averted smoking-attributable deaths, Low-income countries are most affected by high taxation policies.

  8. Use of and reasons for using multiple other tobacco products in daily and nondaily smokers: Associations with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael S; Shadel, William G; Tucker, Joan S; Edelen, Maria O

    2016-11-01

    Use of other tobacco products (OTPs) among smokers is increasing. Little is known about types of OTP used and the reasons for use, and how OTP use and reasons for use correlate with smoking patterns and nicotine dependence in daily and nondaily smokers. This paper addresses these gaps in the literature. 656 daily smokers and 203 nondaily smokers provided information on their use of different OTPs (hookah, e-cigarettes, chew/snuff, snus, cigars, dissolvables), and reasons for using OTPs (e.g., "to cut down on smoking"), as well as their cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models assessed the association of smoking status with OTP use (ever and current) and reasons for use. Within each smoking group, separate logistic regression models examined the associations of OTP use and reasons for use with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. Compared to daily smokers, nondaily smokers were more likely to use hookah and cigars, less likely to use dissolvables, and less likely to endorse using OTPs to reduce their smoking. Among non-daily smokers, nicotine dependence was associated with a higher likelihood of current OTP use (OR=1.04 [95% CI 1.01-1.07]; pcigarette consumption was not. Results suggest OTP use in nondaily smokers does not correlate with less frequent smoking, but may correlate with higher nicotine dependence. Use of combustible OTPs among nondaily smokers may offset any potential benefits achieved through less frequent cigarette consumption. Providers should explicitly address OTP use when discussing cigarette cessation and reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Progressive Commercial Cigarette Yield Reduction: Biochemical Exposure and Behavioral Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L.; Dains, Katherine M.; Hall, Sharon M.; Stewart, Susan; Wilson, Margaret; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton

    2009-01-01

    Background Mandated reduction of exposure to nicotine and other cigarette toxins has been proposed as a possible national regulatory strategy. However, tapering using lower yield commercial cigarettes may not be effective in reducing nicotine or tar exposure due to compensatory smoking behavior. We examined the effects of gradual reduction of nicotine yield in commercial cigarettes on smoking behavior, with an assessment of nicotine intake and exposure to tobacco smoke toxins. Methods This 10-week longitudinal study of 20 smokers involved smoking the usual brand followed by different brands with progressively lower machine-determined yields, ranging from 0.9 to 0.1 mg nicotine, each smoked for 1 week. Subjects were followed for 4 weeks after returning to smoking the usual brand (or quitting). Smoking behaviors, biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure, and cardiovascular effects were measured. Findings Cotinine and other biomarkers of smoke exposure remained unchanged comparing the usual brand with the 0.4 mg nicotine brands. A 30% to 40% decrease in nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carcinogen exposure comparing 0.1 mg nicotine cigarettes with baseline was observed. Self-efficacy was significantly increased and dependence decreased after tapering. Implications We confirm prior cross-sectional population and experimental studies showing complete compensation for cigarettes down to the 0.4 mg nicotine range. Nicotine and tobacco toxin exposure were substantially reduced while smoking 0.1 mg nicotine cigarettes. Our data suggest that the degree of nicotine dependence of smokers may be lowered with progressive yield tapering. Gradual tapering of smokers from regular to ultralow nicotine yield commercial cigarettes might facilitate smoking cessation and warrants future research. PMID:19258480

  10. Consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal substances among physicians and medical students in Brandenburg and Saxony (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kugler Joachim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients regard health care professionals as role models for leading a healthy lifestyle. Health care professionals' own behaviour and attitudes concerning healthy lifestyle have an influence in counselling patients. The aim of this study was to assess consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal substances among physicians and medical students in two German states: Brandenburg and Saxony. Methods Socio-demographic data and individual risk behaviour was collected by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Physicians were approached via mail and students were recruited during tutorials or lectures. Results 41.6% of physicians and 60.9% of medical students responded to the questionnaire; more than 50% of the respondents in both groups were females. The majority of respondents consumed alcohol at least once per week; median daily alcohol consumption ranged from 3.88 g/d (female medical students to 12.6 g/d (male physicians. A significantly higher percentage of men (p Conclusion More than one third of the medical students and health care professionals showed problematic alcohol-drinking behaviour. Although the proportion of non-smokers in the investigated sample was higher than in the general population, when compared to the general population, medical students between 18-24 reported higher consumption of illegal substances. These results indicate that methods for educating and promoting healthy lifestyle, particularly with respect to excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use and abuse of illegal drugs should be considered.

  11. Correlation between precancerous bronchial metaplasia and cigarette consumption, and preliminary results of retinoid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, G; Gouveia, J; Hercend, T; Gros, F; Dorval, T; Hazon, J; Misset, J L; Schwarzenberg, L; Ribaud, P; Lemaigre, G; Santelli, G; Reizenstein, P; Homasson, J P; Gaillard, J P; Angebault, M; Bonniot, J P; Lededente, A; Marsac, J; Parrot, R; Pretet, S; Gaget, H

    1982-01-01

    Vitamin A and its derivatives, so-called retinoids, can prevent squamous metaplasia induced not only by vitamin A deficiency but also by carcinogenic hydrocarbons. An aromatic retinoid, such as ET1, has been shown to prevent chemically induced papillomas in mice and to amplify certain immunologic reactions. Heavy smokers, 106 volunteers, were submitted to fibrobronchoscopy with bronchial biopsies. An index of metaplasia (IM) was calculated on the basis of microscopical examination of a total of 9,633 sections of 1,010 biopsies. Despite the subjectivity of the estimates of cigarette consumption, this was significantly (P less than 0.02) and positively correlated to the IM. Eighty-five percent of the women had a low IM as compared to only 42% of the men (P less than 0.01), although there was no significant difference in the reported cigarette consumption. Fifty-two subjects had an IM greater than 15% and were given 25 mg ET1 orally daily for 6 months. The bronchoscopy was repeated in 30 patients following completion of the 6-month treatment. The IM was significantly (P less than 0.01) reduced after treatment.

  12. The Effect of the California Tobacco Control Program on Smoking Prevalence, Cigarette Consumption, and Healthcare Costs: 1989–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightwood, James; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that tobacco control funding in California has reduced per capita cigarette consumption and per capita healthcare expenditures. This paper refines our earlier model by estimating the effect of California tobacco control funding on current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker and the effect of prevalence and consumption on per capita healthcare expenditures. The results are used to calculate new estimates of the effect of the California Tobacco Program. Methodology/Principal Findings Using state-specific aggregate data, current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker are modeled as functions of cumulative California and control states' per capita tobacco control funding, cigarette price, and per capita income. Per capita healthcare expenditures are modeled as a function of prevalence of current smoking, cigarette consumption per smoker, and per capita income. One additional dollar of cumulative per capita tobacco control funding is associated with reduction in current smoking prevalence of 0.0497 (SE.00347) percentage points and current smoker cigarette consumption of 1.39 (SE.132) packs per smoker per year. Reductions of one percentage point in current smoking prevalence and one pack smoked per smoker are associated with $35.4 (SE $9.85) and $3.14 (SE.786) reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure, respectively (2010 dollars), using the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) measure of healthcare spending. Conclusions/Significance Between FY 1989 and 2008 the California Tobacco Program cost $2.4 billion and led to cumulative NIPA healthcare expenditure savings of $134 (SE $30.5) billion. PMID:23418411

  13. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes: Part 2: kretek and American-blended cigarettes, smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piadé, J-J; Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Hornig, G; Deger Evans, A; Völkel, H; Schramke, H; Trelles-Sticken, E; Wittke, S; Weber, S; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    Two commercial kretek cigarettes typical for the Indonesian market and a reference kretek cigarette were compared to the American-blended reference cigarette 2R4F by smoke chemistry characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assessments. Despite the widely diverse designs and deliveries of the selected kretek cigarettes, their smoke composition and in vitro toxicity data present a consistent pattern when data were normalized to total particulate matter (TPM) deliveries. This confirms the applicability of the studies' conclusions to a wide range of kretek cigarette products. After normalization to TPM delivery, nicotine smoke yields of kretek cigarettes were 29-46% lower than that of the 2R4F. The yields of other nitrogenous compounds were also much lower, less than would be expected from the mere substitution of one third of the tobacco filler by clove material. Yields of light molecular weight pyrolytic compounds, notably aldehydes and hydrocarbons, were reduced, while yields of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were unchanged and phenol yield was increased. The normalized in vitro toxicity was lowered accordingly, reflecting the yield reductions in gas-phase cytotoxic compounds and some particulate-phase mutagenic compounds. These results do not support a higher toxicity of the smoke of kretek cigarettes compared to American-blended cigarettes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and the risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasland, Denise H E; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kremer, Bernd; Goldbohm, R Alexandra Sandra; Schouten, Leo J

    2014-03-14

    Prospective data on alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of head-neck cancer (HNC) subtypes, i.e. oral cavity cancer (OCC), oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and laryngeal cancer (LC), are limited. We investigated these associations within the second largest prospective study on this topic so far, the Netherlands Cohort Study. 120,852 participants completed a questionnaire on diet and other cancer risk factors in 1986. After 17.3 years of follow-up, 395 HNC (110 OCC, 83 OHPC, and 199 LC) cases and 4288 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analysis using Cox proportional hazards models. For total HNC, the multivariable adjusted incidence rate ratio (RR) was 2.74 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-4.06) for those drinking ≥30 g ethanol/day compared with abstainers; in subtypes, RRs were 6.39 for OCC, 3.52 for OHPC, and 1.54 for LC. Compared with never cigarette smokers, current cigarette smokers had a RR of 4.49 (95%CI 3.11-6.48) for HNC overall, and 2.11 for OCC, 8.53 for OHPC, and 8.07 for LC. A significant, positive, multiplicative interaction between categories of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking was found for HNC overall (P interaction 0.03). Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were independently associated with risk of HNC overall, with a positive, multiplicative interaction. The strength of these associations differed among HNC-subtypes: OCC was most strongly associated with alcohol consumption but most weakly with cigarette smoking, whereas LC was not statistically significantly associated with alcohol consumption.

  15. The price sensitivity of cigarette consumption in Bangladesh: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Wave 1 (2009) and Wave 2 (2010) Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, Nigar; Ruthbah, Ummul H; Hussain, A K M Ghulam; Fong, Geoffrey T; Huq, Iftekharul; Ashiquzzaman, S M

    2014-03-01

    In Bangladesh, the average excise tax on cigarettes accounted for just 38% of the average retail price of cigarettes in 2009, and 45% in 2010. Both these rates are well below the WHO recommended share of 70% of the retail price at a minimum. There is thus ample room for raising taxes on cigarettes in Bangladesh. The objective of the present work was therefore to estimate the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes and the effect of tax increases on the consumption of cigarettes and on tax revenue in Bangladesh. Based on data from Wave 1 (2009) and Wave 2 (2010) of the International Tobacco Control Bangladesh Survey, we estimated the overall impact of a price change on cigarette demand using a two-part model. The total price elasticity of cigarettes was measured by the sum of the elasticity of smoking prevalence and the elasticity of average daily consumption conditional on smoking participation. The price elasticity estimates were used in a simulation model to predict changes in cigarette consumption and tax revenue from tax and price increases. The total price elasticity of demand for cigarettes was estimated at -0.49. The elasticity of smoking prevalence accounted for 59% of the total price elasticity. The price elasticity of cigarette consumption is higher for people belonging to lower socioeconomic status. Increases in taxes would result in a significant reduction in cigarette consumption while increasing tax revenue. Raising cigarette prices through increased taxation could lead to a win-win-win situation in Bangladesh: it would reduce cigarette consumption, increase tobacco tax revenue and potentially decrease socioeconomic inequities.

  16. Association of asthma symptoms with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Bo Hye

    2013-03-01

    The association of asthma symptoms with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in Korean adolescents was investigated in this study using the data of Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Associated risk factors for experiencing asthma symptoms were explored in 3432 adolescents. In the symptomatic group, 21.7% were current smokers, compared to 10.9% in the asymptomatic group. Current smokers in the symptomatic group also smoked more cigarettes than those in the asymptomatic group. In the symptomatic group, 27.4% were current drinkers, compared to 17.9% in the asymptomatic group. Current drinkers in the symptomatic group were more likely to drink alcohol and to have experienced severe intoxication than those in the asymptomatic group. Participants who had been diagnosed within one year (odds ratio = 5.19, 95% confidence interval = 4.17-6.44) and those who had smoked over 20 days during the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.26-2.49) were more likely to experience asthma symptoms. Healthcare providers should identify the risk behaviors of adolescents with asthma and counsel them and their parents simultaneously. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. The dynamics of the Russian lifestyle during transition: Changes in food, alcohol and cigarette consumption. ISU Economics Working Papers 09019

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Huffman, S.K.; Rizov, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on diet’s diversity between 1994 and 2004. The results from a dynamic econometric model suggest that among individual determinants such as

  18. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and the risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, D.H.E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Kremer, S.H.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prospective data on alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of head-neck cancer (HNC) subtypes, i.e. oral cavity cancer (OCC), oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and laryngeal cancer (LC), are limited. We investigated these associations within the second largest prospective study

  19. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Bergen

    Full Text Available The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine, has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3. Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis.

  20. Comparative tumor promotion assessment of e‐cigarette and cigarettes using the in vitro Bhas 42 cell transformation assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Oluwatobiloba; Pant, Kamala; Gaça, Marianna; Umbezeiro, G.

    2017-01-01

    In vitro cell transformation assays (CTA) are used to assess the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and complex mixtures and can detect nongenotoxic as well as genotoxic carcinogens. The Bhas 42 CTA has been developed with both initiation and promotion protocols to distinguish between these two carcinogen classes. Cigarette smoke is known to be carcinogenic and is positive in in vitro genotoxicity assays. Cigarette smoke also contains nongenotoxic carcinogens and is a tumour promoter and cocarcinogen in vivo. We have combined a suite of in vitro assays to compare the relative biological effects of new categories of tobacco and nicotine products with traditional cigarettes. The Bhas promotion assay has been included in this test battery to provide an in vitro surrogate for detecting tumor promoters. The activity of an electronic cigarette (e‐cigarette; Vype ePen) was compared to that of a reference cigarette (3R4F) in the promotion assay, using total particulate matter (TPM)/aerosol collected matter (ACM) and aqueous extracts (AqE) of product aerosol emissions. 3R4F TPM was positive in this assay at concentrations ≥6 µg/mL, while e‐cigarette ACM did not have any promoter activity. AqE was found to be a lesssuitable test matrix in this assay due to high cytotoxicity. This is the first study to use the Bhas assay to compare tobacco and nicotine products and demonstrates the potential for its future application as part of a product assessment framework. These data add to growing evidence suggesting that e‐cigarettes may provide a safer alternative to traditional cigarettes. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:190–198, 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:28444993

  1. Consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal substances among physicians and medical students in Brandenburg and Saxony (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Karen; Twork, Sabine; Mittag, Dirk; Göbel, Anne; Voigt, Roger; Klewer, Jörg; Kugler, Joachim; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bergmann, Antje

    2009-12-03

    Patients regard health care professionals as role models for leading a healthy lifestyle. Health care professionals' own behaviour and attitudes concerning healthy lifestyle have an influence in counselling patients. The aim of this study was to assess consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal substances among physicians and medical students in two German states: Brandenburg and Saxony. Socio-demographic data and individual risk behaviour was collected by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Physicians were approached via mail and students were recruited during tutorials or lectures. 41.6% of physicians and 60.9% of medical students responded to the questionnaire; more than 50% of the respondents in both groups were females. The majority of respondents consumed alcohol at least once per week; median daily alcohol consumption ranged from 3.88 g/d (female medical students) to 12.6 g/d (male physicians). A significantly higher percentage of men (p illegal substances was considerably lower in physicians (5.1%) than medical students (33.0%). Male students indicated a significantly (p illegal drug-use compared to female students. More than one third of the medical students and health care professionals showed problematic alcohol-drinking behaviour. Although the proportion of non-smokers in the investigated sample was higher than in the general population, when compared to the general population, medical students between 18-24 reported higher consumption of illegal substances.These results indicate that methods for educating and promoting healthy lifestyle, particularly with respect to excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use and abuse of illegal drugs should be considered.

  2. Has Underreporting of Cigarette Consumption Changed Over Time? Estimates Derived from US National Health Surveillance Systems between 1965 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Warner, Kenneth E

    2017-06-08

    Survey data find Americans' self-reported cigarette smoking prevalence dropping steadily. However, the accuracy of national surveys has been questioned, given declining response rates and increasing stigmatization of smoking. Using data from two repeated cross-sectional nationally-representative health surveys (National Survey on Drug Use and Health [NSDUH], 1979-2014, and National Health Interview Survey [NHIS], 1965-2015), we determine if self-reported cigarette consumption has changed over time as a proportion of federally taxed cigarette sales. From each survey, we calculate national equivalents of annual cigarette consumption. From 1979-1997, NSDUH and NHIS respondents reported smoking an average of 59.5% (SD = 2.3%) and 65.6% (SD = 3.2%), respectively, of taxed cigarette sales. After 1997 respondents reported an average of 64.2% (SD = 5.9%) and 63.3% (SD = 2.5%), respectively. NHIS figures remained steady throughout the latter period, with a concerning decline 2013-15 from 65.9% to 61.1%. NSDUH figures grew steadily, exceeding those of NHIS after 2002. Given the stability of underreporting of cigarette consumption over time, these surveys are likely not less accurate than they were previously. The recent decrease in NHIS accuracy, however, gives pause about the magnitude of the reported decline in smoking prevalence in 2014 and 2015. Improvement in NSDUH's accuracy is encouraging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Association between Parkinson's Disease and Cigarette Smoking, Rural Living, Well-Water Consumption, Farming and Pesticide Use: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge, Charles B; Berry, Colin; Chang, Ellen T; Sielken, Robert L; Mandel, Jack S

    2016-01-01

    Bradford Hill's viewpoints were used to conduct a weight-of-the-evidence assessment of the association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and rural living, farming and pesticide use. The results were compared with an assessment based upon meta-analysis. For comparison, we also evaluated the association between PD and cigarette smoking as a "positive control" because a strong inverse association has been described consistently in the literature. PubMed was searched systematically to identify all published epidemiological studies that evaluated associations between Parkinson's disease (PD) and cigarette smoking, rural living, well-water consumption, farming and the use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides or paraquat. Studies were categorized into two study quality groups (Tier 1 or Tier 2); data were abstracted and a forest plot of relative risks (RRs) was developed for each risk factor. In addition, when available, RRs were tabulated for more highly exposed individuals compared with the unexposed. Summary RRs for each risk factor were calculated by meta-analysis of Tier 1, Tier 2 and all studies combined, with sensitivity analyses stratified by other study characteristics. Indices of between-study heterogeneity and evidence of reporting bias were assessed. Bradford Hill's viewpoints were used to determine if a causal relationship between PD and each risk factor was supported by the weight of the evidence. There was a consistent inverse (negative) association between current cigarette smoking and PD risk. In contrast, associations between PD and rural living, well-water consumption, farming and the use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides or paraquat were less consistent when assessed quantitatively or qualitatively. The weight of the evidence and meta-analysis support the conclusion that there is a causal relationship between PD risk and cigarette smoking, or some unknown factor correlated with cigarette smoking. There may be risk

  4. Association between Parkinson’s Disease and Cigarette Smoking, Rural Living, Well-Water Consumption, Farming and Pesticide Use: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge, Charles B.; Berry, Colin; Chang, Ellen T.; Sielken, Robert L.; Mandel, Jack S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bradford Hill’s viewpoints were used to conduct a weight-of-the-evidence assessment of the association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and rural living, farming and pesticide use. The results were compared with an assessment based upon meta-analysis. For comparison, we also evaluated the association between PD and cigarette smoking as a “positive control” because a strong inverse association has been described consistently in the literature. Methods PubMed was searched systematically to identify all published epidemiological studies that evaluated associations between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and cigarette smoking, rural living, well-water consumption, farming and the use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides or paraquat. Studies were categorized into two study quality groups (Tier 1 or Tier 2); data were abstracted and a forest plot of relative risks (RRs) was developed for each risk factor. In addition, when available, RRs were tabulated for more highly exposed individuals compared with the unexposed. Summary RRs for each risk factor were calculated by meta-analysis of Tier 1, Tier 2 and all studies combined, with sensitivity analyses stratified by other study characteristics. Indices of between-study heterogeneity and evidence of reporting bias were assessed. Bradford Hill’s viewpoints were used to determine if a causal relationship between PD and each risk factor was supported by the weight of the evidence. Findings There was a consistent inverse (negative) association between current cigarette smoking and PD risk. In contrast, associations between PD and rural living, well-water consumption, farming and the use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides or paraquat were less consistent when assessed quantitatively or qualitatively. Conclusion The weight of the evidence and meta-analysis support the conclusion that there is a causal relationship between PD risk and cigarette smoking, or some unknown factor

  5. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Polosa, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes are a recent development in tobacco harm reduction. They are marketed as less harmful alternatives to smoking. Awareness and use of these devices has grown exponentially in recent years, with millions of people currently using them. This systematic review appraises existing laboratory and clinical research on the potential risks from electronic cigarette use, compared with the well-established devastating effects of smoking tobacco cigarettes. Currently available evidenc...

  6. Recommended core items to assess e-cigarette use in population-based surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Hitchman, Sara C.; Brose, Leonie S.; Bauld, Linda; Glasser, Allison M; Villanti, Andrea C; McNeill, Ann; Abrams, David B.; Cohen, Joanna E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: A consistent approach using standardized items to assess e-cigarette use in both youth and adult populations will aid cross-survey and cross-national comparisons of the effect of e-cigarette (and tobacco) policies and improve our understanding of the population health impact of e-cigarette use. Focusing on adult behavior, we propose a set of e-cigarette use items, discuss their utility and potential adaptation, and highlight e-cigarette constructs that researchers should avoid wit...

  7. Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; Hitchman, Sara C; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; McNeill, Ann

    2015-07-01

    To use a unique longitudinal data set to assess the association between e-cigarette use while smoking with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and substantial reduction, taking into account frequency of use and key potential confounders. Web-based survey, baseline November/December 2012, 1-year follow-up in December 2013. Great Britain. National general population sample of 4064 adult smokers, with 1759 (43%) followed-up. Main outcome measures were cessation attempt, cessation and substantial reduction (≥50% from baseline to follow-up) of cigarettes per day (CPD). In logistic regression models, cessation attempt in the last year (analysis n = 1473) and smoking status (n = 1656) at follow-up were regressed on to baseline e-cigarette use (none, non-daily, daily) while adjusting for baseline socio-demographics, dependence and nicotine replacement (NRT) use. Substantial reduction (n = 1042) was regressed on to follow-up e-cigarette use while adjusting for baseline socio-demographics and dependence and follow-up NRT use. Compared with non-use, daily e-cigarette use at baseline was associated with increased cessation attempts [odds ratio (OR) = 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-3.58, P = 0.006], but not with cessation at follow-up (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.28-1.37, P = 0.24). Non-daily use was not associated with cessation attempts or cessation. Daily e-cigarette use at follow-up was associated with increased odds of substantial reduction (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.14-5.45, P = 0.02), non-daily use was not. Daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking appears to be associated with subsequent increases in rates of attempting to stop smoking and reducing smoking, but not with smoking cessation. Non-daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking does not appear to be associated with cessation attempts, cessation or reduced smoking. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Changes in cigarette prices, affordability, and brand-tier consumption after a tobacco tax increase in Thailand: Evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Surveys, 2009 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Mbulo, Lazarous; Benjakul, Sarunya; Kengganpanich, Mondha; Andes, Linda

    2017-06-01

    Despite the 2009 implementation of a tobacco tax increase in Thailand, smoking rates remained unchanged between 2009 and 2011. Prior evidence has linked cigarette tax increases to compensatory behaviours aimed at lowering the cost of smoking, such as switching to lower-priced cigarette brands. Using data from 2009 and 2011 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys in Thailand, we estimated unadjusted changes in cigarette prices paid, cigarette affordability, and consumption of cigarettes in three price categories classified as upper-, middle-, and lower-priced brand tiers (or price tertiles). We used ordered logit regression to analyse the correlates of price-tier choice and to estimate the change in price-tier consumption adjusted for demographic and region characteristics. Between 2009 and 2011, real cigarette prices increased, but the affordability of cigarettes remained unchanged overall. There was a significant reduction in the consumption of cigarette brands in the top price-tier overall, accompanied by increases in the consumption of brands in the bottom and middle price-tiers, depending on the region. Adjusted estimates from the logit models indicate that, on average, the proportion of smokers selecting brands from upper- and middle price-tiers decreased while consumption of lower price-tier brands increased during the study period. The estimated shifts in consumption from more expensive to less expensive cigarette brands and the overall lack of change in cigarette affordability in Thailand between 2009 and 2011 are both factors that may have contributed to the observed lack of change in smoking rates after the 2009 tax increase. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Comparative assessment of toxicities of mainstream smoke from commercial cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Detlef; Knebel, Jan; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2004-09-01

    Three cigarette types were compared using an experimental approach for quantifying selected toxicological effects of diluted fresh whole cigarette mainstream smoke in vitro. The test procedure involved automatic smoking of cigarettes according to the FTC/ISO standard, online monitoring of generated smoke aerosols with respect to particulate and gas-phase components, and direct exposure of a human type II-like lung cell line (A549) using exposure conditions relevant to human smoking. Test specimens were the K1R4F standard research cigarettes (9.2 mg tar/cigarette) and two commercial European light filter cigarettes (brand 1, brand 2) having the same tar content (7.0 mg/cigarette). As a representative of the toxicological effect of smoke, intracellular reduced glutathione was analyzed directly after exposure of cells. Results revealed statistically significant different quantitative effects with regard to glutathione depletion when comparing whole smoke and filtered smoke from all three cigarettes. ED50 values revealed a depletion of reduced glutathione by brand 1 cigarettes that was more than twice the depletion caused by brand 2 cigarettes on a per cigarette basis. Also, quantitatively different effects were found on a per particle and on a per CO concentration basis using whole or filtered smoke from the cigarettes. We conclude that the methods we employed provide sensitive and reproducible ways of detecting differences in the toxicological action of smoke from various types of cigarettes. Copyright Taylor & Francis Inc.

  10. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and the risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maasland, D.H.E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Kremer, S.H.A.; Goldbohm, R A; Schouten, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prospective data on alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of head-neck cancer (HNC) subtypes, i.e. oral cavity cancer (OCC), oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and laryngeal cancer (LC), are limited. We investigated these associations within the second largest prospective study on this topic so far, the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: 120,852 participants completed a questionnaire on diet and other cancer risk factors in 1986. After 17.3 years of follow-up, 395 HNC (1...

  11. 76 FR 19710 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Cigar and Cigarette Per Unit Assessments; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Payment Program; Cigar and Cigarette Per Unit Assessments; Correction AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation... correction to the Request for Comments titled ``Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Cigar and Cigarette Per... correcting an inaccurate statement about the possible consequences of an alternative assessment methodology...

  12. Development of a questionnaire for assessing dependence on electronic cigarettes among a large sample of ex-smoking E-cigarette users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Jonathan; Veldheer, Susan; Yingst, Jessica; Hrabovsky, Shari; Wilson, Stephen J; Nichols, Travis T; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are becoming increasingly popular, but little is known about their dependence potential. This study aimed to assess ratings of dependence on electronic cigarettes and retrospectively compare them with rated dependence on tobacco cigarettes among a large sample of ex-smokers who switched to e-cigs. A total of 3,609 current users of e-cigs who were ex-cigarette smokers completed a 158-item online survey about their e-cig use, including 10 items designed to assess their previous dependence on cigarettes and 10 almost identical items, worded to assess their current dependence on e-cigs (range 0-20). Scores on the 10-item Penn State (PS) Cigarette Dependence Index were significantly higher than on the comparable PS Electronic Cigarette Dependence Index (14.5 vs. 8.1, p e-cigarette users reported being less dependent on e-cigarettes than they retrospectively reported having been dependent on cigarettes prior to switching. E-cig dependence appears to vary by product characteristics and liquid nicotine concentration, and it may increase over time. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Methods Five databases were searched through Januar...

  14. Effects of state cigarette excise taxes and smoke-free air policies on state per capita alcohol consumption in the United States, 1980 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Melissa J; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Plunk, Andrew D; Bierut, Laura J; Grucza, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    Increasing state cigarette excise taxes and strengthening smoke-free air (SFA) laws are known to reduce smoking prevalence. Some studies suggest that such policies may also reduce alcohol use, but results for cigarette taxes have been mixed, and associations with smoke-free air policies have been limited to some demographic subgroups. To shed further light on the potential secondary effects of tobacco control policy, we examined whether increases in cigarette taxes and strengthening of SFA laws were associated with reductions of per capita alcohol consumption and whether any reductions were specific to certain beverage types. State per capita alcohol consumption from 1980 to 2009 was modeled as a function of state price per pack of cigarettes and SFA policy scores while controlling for secular trends and salient state covariates. Both policy measures also accounted for local policies. Total alcohol, beer, wine, and spirits consumption per capita were modeled separately. For each type of beverage, we used a nested models approach to determine whether the 2 policies together were associated with reduced consumption. For total alcohol consumption, and for beer or spirits (but not wine), one or both tobacco policies were associated with reductions in consumption. A 1% increase in cigarette price per pack was associated with a 0.083% decrease in per capita total alcohol consumption (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0002 to 0.166, p = 0.0495), and a 1-point increase in SFA policy score, measured on a 6-point scale, was associated with a 1.1% decrease in per capita total alcohol consumption (95% CI 0.4 to 1.7, p = 0.001; p consumption). The public health benefits of increasing cigarette taxes and smoke-free policies may go beyond the reduction of smoking and extend to alcohol consumption, specifically beer and spirits. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. VapeTracker: Tracking Vapor Consumption to Help E-cigarette Users Quit

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Abdallah El; Matviienko, Andrii; Feld, Yannick; Heuten, Wilko; Boll, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Despite current controversy over e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid, we present early work based on a web survey (N=249) that shows that some e-cigarette users (46.2%) want to quit altogether, and that behavioral feedback that can be tracked can fulfill that purpose. Based on our survey findings, we designed VapeTracker, an early prototype that can attach to any e-cigarette device to track vaping activity. We discuss our future research on vaping cessation, addressing how to improve our ...

  16. A review and assessment of menthol employed as a cigarette flavoring ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, J Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is established as a substantial contributor to risks for cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Less is known about the potential of cigarette composition to affect smoking risks. The use of cigarette flavoring ingredients such as menthol is currently of worldwide public health and regulatory interest. The unique conditions of menthol inhalation exposure that occur coincident with that of the complex cigarette smoke aerosol require specialized studies to support an assessment of its safety in cigarette flavoring applications. The present state of knowledge is sufficient to support an assessment of the safety of the use of menthol in cigarettes. Scientific, smoking behavioral and epidemiological data available through mid-2009 is critically reviewed and a broad convergence of findings supports a judgment that menthol employed as a cigarette tobacco flavoring ingredient does not meaningfully affect the inherent toxicity of cigarette smoke or the human risks that attend smoking. There remains a need for well-designed studies of the potential of menthol to affect smoking initiation, cessation and addiction in order to differentiate any independent effects of menthol in cigarettes from those imposed by socioeconomic, environmental and peer influences on these complex human behaviors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of state cigarette excise taxes and smoke-free air policies on state per capita alcohol consumption in the U.S., 1980–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Melissa J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Plunk, Andrew D.; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing state cigarette excise taxes and strengthening smoke-free air laws are known to reduce smoking prevalence. Some studies suggest that such policies may also reduce alcohol use, but results for cigarette taxes have been mixed and associations with smoke-free air policies have been limited to some demographic subgroups. To shed further light on the potential secondary effects of tobacco control policy, we examined whether increases in cigarette taxes and strengthening of smoke-free air laws were associated with reductions of per capita alcohol consumption and whether any reductions were specific to certain beverage types. Methods State per capita alcohol consumption from 1980–2009 was modeled as a function of state price per pack of cigarettes and smoke-free air policy scores while controlling for secular trends and salient state covariates. Both policy measures also accounted for local policies. Total alcohol, beer, wine, and spirits consumption per capita were modeled separately. For each type of beverage, we used a nested models approach to determine whether the two policies together were associated with reduced consumption. Results For total alcohol consumption, and for beer or spirits (but not wine), one or both tobacco policies were associated with reductions in consumption. A one percent increase in cigarette price per pack was associated with a 0.083% decrease in per capita total alcohol consumption (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0002% to 0.166%, p=.0495), and a one point increase in SFA policy score, measured on a 6-point scale, was associated with a 1.1% decrease in per capita total alcohol consumption (95% CI 0.4% to 1.7%, p=.001; pconsumption). Conclusions The public health benefits of increasing cigarette taxes and smoke-free policies may go beyond the reduction of smoking and extend to alcohol consumption, specifically beer and spirits. PMID:25257814

  18. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, including rs25531 with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Bagger, Yu; Tanko, Laszlo B

    2009-01-01

    and previous consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were obtained using a questionnaire. Genotypes were classified according to allele size, that is, S and L with 14 and 16 repeat units, respectively, and on a functional basis by amalgamation of the L(G) and S alleles. Data were subjected to regression analyses....... These analyses revealed P values for associations between 5-HTTLPR genotype and alcohol and cigarette consumption in the range from 0.15 to 0.92. On adjustment for age and educational level, significance for the associations of 5-HTTLPR with the smoking and alcohol consumption measures was not reached. We...

  19. How do minimum cigarette price laws affect cigarette prices at the retail level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Schleicher, N C; Zellers, L; Wellington, N

    2005-04-01

    Half of US states have minimum cigarette price laws that were originally passed to protect small independent retailers from unfair price competition with larger retailers. These laws prohibit cigarettes from being sold below a minimum price that is set by a formula. Many of these laws allow cigarette company promotional incentives offered to retailers, such as buydowns and master-type programmes, to be calculated into the formula. Allowing this provision has the potential to lower the allowable minimum price. This study assesses whether stores in states with minimum price laws have higher cigarette prices and lower rates of retailer participation in cigarette company promotional incentive programmes. Retail cigarette prices and retailer participation in cigarette company incentive programmes in 2001 were compared in eight states with minimum price laws and seven states without them. New York State had the most stringent minimum price law at the time of the study because it excluded promotional incentive programmes in its price setting formula; cigarette prices in New York were compared to all other states included in the study. Cigarette prices were not significantly different in our sample of US states with and without cigarette minimum price laws. Cigarette prices were significantly higher in New York stores than in the 14 other states combined. Most existing minimum cigarette price laws appear to have little impact on the retail price of cigarettes. This may be because they allow the use of promotional programmes, which are used by manufacturers to reduce cigarette prices. New York's strategy to disallow these types of incentive programmes may result in higher minimum cigarette prices, and should also be explored as a potential policy strategy to control cigarette company marketing practices in stores. Strict cigarette minimum price laws may have the potential to reduce cigarette consumption by decreasing demand through increased cigarette prices and reduced

  20. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-05-01

    A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Five databases were searched through January 2014 and publications relevant to HF were incorporated. Voluntary adverse event (AE) reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the package labelling of 12 e-cigarette products were analysed. No studies specifically addressing the impact of HF on e-cigarette use risks were identified. Most e-cigarette users are smokers, but data on the user population are inconsistent. No articles focused specifically on e-cigarette use environments, storage conditions, product operational requirements, product complexities, user errors or misuse. Twelve published studies analysed e-cigarette labelling and concluded that labelling was inadequate or misleading. FDA labelling analysis revealed similar concerns described in the literature. AE reports related to design concerns are increasing and fatalities related to accidental exposure and misuse have occurred; however, no publications evaluating the relationship between AEs and HF were identified. The HF impacting e-cigarette use and related hazards are inadequately characterised. Thorough analyses of user-product-environment interfaces, product complexities and AEs associated with typical and atypical use are needed to better incorporate HF engineering principles to inform and potentially reduce or mitigate the emerging hazards associated with e-cigarette products.

  1. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Methods Five databases were searched through January 2014 and publications relevant to HF were incorporated. Voluntary adverse event (AE) reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the package labelling of 12 e-cigarette products were analysed. Results No studies specifically addressing the impact of HF on e-cigarette use risks were identified. Most e-cigarette users are smokers, but data on the user population are inconsistent. No articles focused specifically on e-cigarette use environments, storage conditions, product operational requirements, product complexities, user errors or misuse. Twelve published studies analysed e-cigarette labelling and concluded that labelling was inadequate or misleading. FDA labelling analysis revealed similar concerns described in the literature. AE reports related to design concerns are increasing and fatalities related to accidental exposure and misuse have occurred; however, no publications evaluating the relationship between AEs and HF were identified. Conclusions The HF impacting e-cigarette use and related hazards are inadequately characterised. Thorough analyses of user–product–environment interfaces, product complexities and AEs associated with typical and atypical use are needed to better incorporate HF engineering principles to inform and potentially reduce or mitigate the emerging hazards associated with e-cigarette products. PMID:24732164

  2. Assessment of Nicotine Exposure From Active Human Cigarette Smoking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of a cigarette is a series of consecutive sequences of both passive and active burnings when a smoking cycle is applied to the cigarette. A previous study, using a smoking machine, showed that cigarette nicotine yields are dependent linearly on the difference between the time of smouldering (passive burning and the time of smoking (active burning. It is predicted that the smoker’s nicotine yield increases when the intensity of smoking increases, i.e., when the time to smoke a cigarette (smoking time decreases. Note that observations made on machines might not be comparable to human behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine whether nicotine mouth-level exposure could be predicted through measurement of human smoking time. A smoking behaviour study was conducted to compare human smoking nicotine yields obtained from both filter tip analysis and the cigarette burning time model. Results showed that smokers’ exposure to the smoke depends essentially on the speed at which the cigarette is smoked. An increase in human smoking intensity, resulting in a decrease in smoking time, generates an increase in smoke exposure, whatever the puff number, puff duration, puff volume and filter ventilation (open or blocked. The association of a machine smoking yield with a corresponding smoking time, and the time taken by a consumer to smoke the cigarette would provide information on the exposure to smoke constituents in a simple and effective manner.

  3. The Lebanese Cigarette Dependence (LCD) Score: a comprehensive tool for cigarette dependence assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, P; Khayat, G; Waked, M

    2014-04-01

    Cigarette smoking induces dependence. The primary objective of this work was to validate the use of the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) in the Lebanese population, and to broaden it eventually by adding new items covering DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence components. We used data from two samples: a cross-sectional national study and a case-control study. A standardized questionnaire was administered, with items related to cigarette dependence: the FTND and the new Lebanon Cigarette Dependence (LCD) scale. For both tools, an exploratory factor analysis was performed on sample 1, while confirmatory factor analysis was performed on sample 2. Although the FTND test showed satisfactory psychometric properties, the LCD showed better validity and reliability, covered dependence concept better, and showed a higher correlation with the number of times the participant tried to stop smoking (r = -0.087; p = 0.029 versus r = -0.215; p LCD scale may be more useful.

  4. Electronic cigarettes: a systematic review of available studies on health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Aziemah; Abidin, Emilia Zainal; Abidin, Najihah Zainol; Amer Nordin, Amer Siddiq; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah; Rasdi, Irniza; Karuppiah, Karmegam; Rahman, Anita Abd

    2016-04-21

    This paper primarily aimed to review articles which specifically quantified the risk of electronic cigarette's (e-cigarette) usage via the health risk assessment (HRA) approach. Systematic literature searches were conducted using PubMed search engine databases. Search terms such as "electronic cigarette", "e-cigarette", "electronic nicotine delivery systems", "electronic cigarette liquid", "electronic cigarette vapors", and "health risk assessment" were used to identify the relevant articles to be included in this review. To enable comparison, hazard quotient (HQ) and lifetime cancer risk (LCR) for the chemicals measured in the selected articles were calculated for three of the articles using the formula: [1] HQ=average daily dose (ADD)/reference dose (RfD) or exposure air concentration (EC)/reference concentration (RfC); [2] LCR=lifetime average daily dose (LADD) × cancer slope factor (CSF) or exposure air concentration (EC) × inhalation unit risk (IUR). Four articles pertaining to HRA of e-cigarettes were critically reviewed, three of the papers focused on specific chemicals namely nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), glycerol and 1,2-propanediol, while one article evaluated the health risks posed by heavy metals contained in e-cigarettes. The calculated HQs for the chemicals in this review had large variations. HQs of the six chemicals, i.e. nicotine, PG, glycerol, cadmium, ethylene glycol, nickel, aluminum and titanium, were found to have the potential to contribute to non-carcinogenic health risks. None of the LCR calculated had risks exceeding the acceptable limit. There are limited HRA studies and the ones that were available provided inconsistent scientific evidences on the health risk characterization arising from the usage of e-cigarettes. As such, there is a need to perform more studies on HRA of e-cigarettes by using uniformed and comprehensive steps and similar reference threshold levels of exposures.

  5. Correlation between tobacco control policies, consumption of rolled tobacco and e-cigarettes, and intention to quit conventional tobacco, in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saliba, Patrick; Graffelman, Jan; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2017-03-01

    To analyse the correlation between the implementation of tobacco control policies and tobacco consumption, particularly rolling tobacco, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) users and the intent to quit smoking in 27 countries of the European Union. Ecological study with the country as the unit of analysis. We used the data from tobacco control activities, measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), in 27 European countries, in 2010, and the prevalence of tobacco consumption data from the Eurobarometer of 2012. Spearman correlation coefficients (rsp) and their 95% CIs. There was a negative correlation between TCS and prevalence of smoking (rsp=-0.41; 95% CI -0.67 to -0.07). We also found a negative correlation (rsp=-0.31) between TCS and the prevalence of ever e-cigarette users, but it was not statistically significant. Among former cigarette smokers, there was a positive and statistically significant correlation between TCS and the consumption of hand-rolled tobacco (rsp=0.46; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.70). We observed a similar correlation between TCS and other tobacco products (cigars and pipe) among former cigarette smokers. There was a significant positive correlation between TCS and intent to quit smoking in the past 12 months (rsp=0.66; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.87). The level of smoke-free legislation among European countries is correlated with a decrease in the prevalence of smoking of conventional cigarettes and an increase in the intent to quit smoking within the past 12 months. However, the consumption of other tobacco products, particularly hand-rolled tobacco, is positively correlated with TCS among former cigarette smokers. Therefore, tobacco control policies should also consider other tobacco products, such as rolling tobacco, cigars and pipes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Effects of experimental income on demand for potentially real cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Wilson, Arlington George; Bickel, Warren K

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette demand, or the change in cigarette consumption as a function of price, is a measure of reinforcement that is associated with level of tobacco dependence and other clinically relevant measures, but the effects of experimentally controlled income on real-world cigarette consumption have not been examined. In this study, income available for cigarette purchases was manipulated to assess the effect on cigarette demand. Tobacco-dependent cigarette smokers (n = 15) who smoked 10-40 cigarettes per day completed a series of cigarette purchasing tasks under a variety of income conditions meant to mimic different weekly cigarette budgets: $280, approximately $127, $70, or approximately $32 per week. Prices of $0.12, $0.25, $0.50, and $1.00 per cigarette were assessed in each income condition. Participants were instructed to purchase as many cigarettes as they would like for the next week and to only consume cigarettes purchased in the context of the study. One price in 1 income condition was randomly chosen to be "real," and the cigarettes and the excess money in the budget for that condition were given to the participant. Results indicate that demand elasticity was negatively correlated with income. Demand intensity (consumption at low prices) was unrelated to income condition and remained high across incomes. These results indicate that the amount of income that is available for cigarette purchases has a large effect on cigarette consumption, but only at high prices. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Assessment of global DNA methylation in the first trimester fetal tissues exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fa, Svetlana; Larsen, Trine Vilsbøll; Bilde, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies...... to exposures with an epigenetic impact. We have assessed the influence of maternal cigarette smoking during the first trimester for fetal global DNA methylation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the human fetal intestines and livers as well as the placentas from the first trimester pregnancies. Global DNA...

  8. The mutagenic assessment of an electronic-cigarette and reference cigarette smoke using the Ames assay in strains TA98 and TA100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, D; Crooks, I; Hollings, M; Seymour, A; Meredith, C; Gaca, M

    2016-12-01

    Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 were used to assess the mutagenic potential of the aerosol from a commercially available, rechargeable, closed system electronic-cigarette. Results obtained were compared to those for the mainstream smoke from a Kentucky reference (3R4F) cigarette. Two different test matrices were assessed. Aerosol generated from the e-cigarette was trapped on a Cambridge filter pad, eluted in DMSO and compared to cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), which was generated in the same manner for mutagenicity assessment in the Salmonella assay. Fresh e-cigarette and cigarette smoke aerosols were generated on the Vitrocell ® VC 10 smoking robot and compared using a modified scaled-down 35mm air agar interface (AAI) methodology. E-cigarette aerosol collected matter (ACM) was found to be non-mutagenic in the 85mm plate incorporation Ames assay in strains TA98 and TA100 conducted in accordance with OECD 471, when tested up to 2400μg/plate. Freshly generated e-cigarette aerosol was also found to be negative in both strains after an AAI aerosol exposure, when tested up to a 1L/min dilution for up to 3h. Positive control responses were observed in both strains, using benzo[a]pyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, sodium azide and 2-aminoanthracene in TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of metabolic activation respectively. In contrast, cigarette smoke TPM and aerosol from 3R4F reference cigarettes were found to be mutagenic in both tester strains, under comparable test conditions to that of e-cigarette exposure. Limited information exists on the mutagenic activity of captured e-cigarette particulates and whole aerosol AAI approaches. With the lower toxicant burden of e-cigarette aerosols compared to cigarette smoke, it is clear that a more comprehensive Ames package of data should be generated when assessing e-cigarettes, consisting of the standard OECD-five, TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 (or TA97) and E. coli (or TA102). In addition, TA104

  9. Assessing modified risk tobacco and nicotine products: Description of the scientific framework and assessment of a closed modular electronic cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James; Gaca, Marianna; Lowe, Frazer; Minet, Emmanuel; Breheny, Damien; Prasad, Krishna; Camacho, Oscar; Fearon, Ian M; Liu, Chuan; Wright, Christopher; McAdam, Kevin; Proctor, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Cigarette smoking causes many human diseases including cardiovascular disease, lung disease and cancer. Novel tobacco products with reduced yields of toxicants compared to cigarettes, such as tobacco-heating products, snus and electronic cigarettes, hold great potential for reducing the harms associated with tobacco use. In the UK several public health agencies have advocated a potential role for novel products in tobacco harm reduction. Public Health England has stated that "The current best estimate is that e-cigarettes are around 95% less harmful than smoking" and the Royal College of Physicians has urged public health to "Promote e-cigarettes widely as substitute for smoking". Health related claims on novel products such as 'reduced exposure' and 'reduced risk' should be substantiated using a weight of evidence approach based on a comprehensive scientific assessment. The US FDA, has provided draft guidance outlining a framework to assess novel products as Modified Risk Tobacco Products (MRTP). Based on this, we now propose a framework comprising pre-clinical, clinical, and population studies to assess the risk profile of novel tobacco products. Additionally, the utility of this framework is assessed through the pre-clinical and part of the clinical comparison of a commercial e-cigarette (Vype ePen) with a scientific reference cigarette (3R4F) and the results of these studies suggest that ePen has the potential to be a reduced risk product. Copyright © 2017 British American Tobacco Ltd. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prohibition of e-cigarettes in the US: Are prohibitions where alcohol is consumed related to lower alcohol consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Alexandra R; Karyadi, Kenny A; Cyders, Melissa A

    2016-12-01

    Recently, research has suggested negative consequences related to electronic cigarette (e-cig) use, including the increased risk for alcohol use and abuse. Previous work found that cigarette smoking ban legislation lowered overall smoking and alcohol use rates; however, researchers have not yet examined the potential effects of prohibiting e-cig use. The present study surveyed 617 individuals from a community-based online sample in the US (mean age = 33.33, SD = 10.50, 54.7 per cent female) who reported their smoking/e-cig use status, alcohol consumption, and the presence of e-cig prohibitions where they consume alcohol. E-cig prohibition was associated with a lower likelihood of being an e-cig user (OR = 0.12, p < 0.001) or dual user (use both cigarettes and e-cigs) (OR = 0.07, p < 0.001). Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test scores (b = -1.92, p < 0.001), total drinks consumed over 14 days (b = -4.58, p = 0.002), and average drinks per drinking day (b = -0.71, p < 0.001) were all lower when e-cigs were prohibited. Findings are an initial step in this line of research and suggest important future work examining implications of e-cig prohibition recommendations and policy.

  11. [Assessment of cadmium and lead released from cigarette smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suna, S; Asakawa, F; Jitsunari, F; Manabe, Y; Gotou, A; Fukunaga, I; Nakajima, T

    1991-12-01

    Cigarette smoke, which contains many harmful compounds, affects not only the smoker's health but also indoor air quality. To evaluate indoor air contamination by cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), we measured Cd and Pb contained in the mainstream and sidestream smoke exhaled by experimental smoking of Japanese cigarettes and also determined urinary and blood Cd and Pb levels in smokers and non-smokers and air Cd and Pb levels in smoky environments. 1. One cigarette of each of 7 Japanese brands contained about 1 microgram each of Cd and Pb, of which about 50 ng each was released to the mainstream and 250 ng of Cd and 50 ng of Pb to the sidestream by smoking. 2. The blood Cd level in the smokers was significantly higher than that in the non-smokers. The urinary Cd level in the smokers was slightly higher than that in the non-smokers. The blood Cd level was related to the number of cigarettes smoked daily. Blood and urinary Pb levels did not differ between the smokers and non-smokers, but the blood Pb level was also related to the number of cigarettes smoked daily. 3. The air Cd levels in smoky places such as the smoking car of the special express train, an office, and a pachinko parlor were markedly higher than that in outdoor air. The air Cd concentration was well correlated with the environmental tobacco smoke concentration. On the other hand, the air Pb level was slightly higher in the above smoky places than outdoors. The mean air Pb concentration was not correlated with the environmental tobacco smoke concentration but was higher at higher environmental tobacco smoke concentration in each place.

  12. Maternal cigarette, alcohol, and coffee consumption in relation to risk of clubfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werler, Martha M; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Kasser, James R; Mahan, Susan T; Meyer, Robert E; Anderka, Marlene; Druschel, Charlotte M; Mitchell, Allen A

    2015-01-01

    Clubfoot is associated with maternal cigarette smoking in several studies, but it is not clear if this association is confined to women who smoke throughout the at-risk period. Maternal alcohol and coffee drinking have not been well studied in relation to clubfoot. The present study used data from a population-based case-control study of clubfoot conducted in Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina from 2007 to 2011. Mothers of 646 isolated clubfoot cases and 2037 controls were interviewed about pregnancy events and exposures, including the timing and frequency of cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and coffee drinking. More mothers of cases than controls reported smoking during early pregnancy (28.9% vs. 19.1%). Of women who smoked when they became pregnant, those who quit in the month after a first missed period had a 40% increase in clubfoot risk and those who continued to smoke during the next 3 months had more than a doubling in risk, after controlling for demographic factors, parity, obesity, and specific medication exposures. Adjusted odds ratios for women who drank >3 servings of alcohol or coffee per day throughout early pregnancy were 2.38 and 1.77, respectively, but the numbers of exposed women were small and odds ratios were unstable. Clubfoot risk appears to be increased for offspring of women who smoke cigarettes, particularly those who continue smoking after pregnancy is recognisable, regardless of amount. For alcohol and coffee drinkers, suggested increased risks were only observed in higher levels of intake. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Assessment of global DNA methylation in the first trimester fetal tissues exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fa, Svetlana; Larsen, Trine Vilsbøll; Bilde, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies...... to exposures with an epigenetic impact. We have assessed the influence of maternal cigarette smoking during the first trimester for fetal global DNA methylation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the human fetal intestines and livers as well as the placentas from the first trimester pregnancies. Global DNA...... changes in exposure responses to the first trimester maternal cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging that only examining subsets of global DNA methylation markers and fetal sample availability represents possible limitations for the analyses, our presented results indicate that the first trimester...

  14. The comparative in vitro assessment of e-cigarette and cigarette smoke aerosols using the γH2AX assay and applied dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, David; Larard, Sophie; Baxter, Andrew; Meredith, Clive; Gaҫa, Marianna

    2017-01-04

    DNA damage can be caused by a variety of external and internal factors and together with cellular responses, can establish genomic instability through multiple pathways. DNA damage therefore, is considered to play an important role in the aetiology and early stages of carcinogenesis. The DNA-damage inducing potential of tobacco smoke aerosols in vitro has been extensively investigated; however, the ability of e-cigarette aerosols to induce DNA damage has not been extensively investigated. E-cigarette use has grown globally in recent years and the health implications of long term e-cigarette use are still unclear. Therefore, this study has assessed the induction of double-strand DNA damage in vitro using human lung epithelial cells to e-cigarette aerosols from two different product variants (a "cigalike" and a closed "modular" system) and cigarette smoke. A Vitrocell® VC 10 aerosol exposure system was used to generate and dilute cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols, which were delivered to human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2Bs) housed at the air-liquid-interface (ALI) for up to 120min exposure (diluting airflow, 0.25-1L/min). Following exposure, cells were immediately fixed, incubated with primary (0.1% γH2AX antibody in PBS) and secondary antibodies (DyLight™ 549 conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG) containing Hoechst dye DNA staining solution (0.2% secondary antibody and 0.01% Hoechst in PBS), and finally screened using the Cellomics Arrayscan VTI platform. The results from this study demonstrate a clear DNA damage-induced dose response with increasing smoke concentrations up to cytotoxic levels. In contrast, e-cigarette aerosols from two product variants did not induce DNA damage at equivalent to or greater than doses of cigarette smoke aerosol. In this study dosimetry approaches were used to contextualize exposure, define exposure conditions and facilitate comparisons between cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM

  15. Associations of lifelong cigarette consumption and hypertension with airflow limitation in primary care clinic outpatients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsugi, Harue; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Tomoko; Maeno, Toshitaka; Nagata, Makoto; Kanazawa, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Underdiagnosis is a critical problem in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is important to screen patients at risk for COPD among those with lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, since these diseases promote the development of cardiovascular diseases closely associated with increased COPD mortality. Thirteen primary care clinics in a suburb of Tokyo participated in the current study. A total of 950 patients from these clinics were enrolled in the study between 2010 and 2012; the patients ranged in age from 40 to 79 years, and they had no diagnosed respiratory diseases at the time of enrollment. Patients fulfilling the selection criteria were recruited to undergo spirometry and then completed a self-report questionnaire about comorbid diseases and smoking habits. Spirometry was performed 15 min after inhalation of 200 μg of salbutamol sulfate. The prevalence of airflow limitation was 12.7% in the 950 primary care clinic patients. Lifelong cigarette consumption was the most significant risk factor for airflow limitation, e.g., patients who smoked 60 pack-years or more had a 40% likelihood of airflow limitation. Among common lifestyle-related diseases, hypertension was associated with the severity of airflow limitation (p=0.03), whereas dyslipidemia appeared to be inversely correlated with the severity of airflow limitation (p=0.004) on multiple regression analysis including lifelong cigarette consumption as a factor. Undiagnosed airflow limitation was detected in 12.7% of outpatients at the primary care clinics. Since most patients with lifestyle-related diseases are treated by primary care physicians, it is essential for the physicians to obtain an accurate history of smoking and comorbid diseases to screen patients for COPD. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. E-cigarette specialty retailers: Data to assess the association between retail environment and student e-cigarette use

    OpenAIRE

    Bostean, Georgiana; Crespi, Catherine M.; Vorapharuek, Patsornkarn; McCarthy, William J.

    2017-01-01

    The retail environment is a major social determinant of health, yet little is known about the e-cigarette specialty retailer environment. The e-cigarette specialty retail environment may be associated with e-cigarette use by middle and high school students, an issue that was addressed in a recent article entitled, ?E-cigarette use among students and e-cigarette specialty retailer presence near schools,? by Bostean and colleagues (G. Bostean, C.M. Crespi, P. Vorapharuek, W.J. McCarthy, 2016 [1...

  17. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption, Cigarette Smoking, and Physical Activity on Leukocyte Telomere Length

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Latifovic, Lidija; Peacock, Sarah D; Massey, Thomas E; King, Will D

    2016-01-01

    ...): alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 477 healthy volunteers ages 20 to 50 years who completed a questionnaire and provided a fasting blood sample...

  18. Assessing the Association Between E-Cigarette Use and Exposure to Social Media in College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawdey, Michael D; Hancock, Linda; Messner, Marcus; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth C

    2017-12-06

    Social media platforms provide an indirect medium for encouraging e-cigarette use between individuals and also serve as a direct marketing tool from e-cigarette brands to potential users. E-cigarette users share information via social media that often contains product details or health-related claims. Determine whether e-cigarette use is associated with exposure to e-cigarettes on social media in college students. Data from a sample of 258 college students was obtained via a clicker-response questionnaire (90% response rate). Demographic, lifetime and current e-cigarette/cigarette use, and e-cigarette exposure via social media (peer posts or advertisements) were examined. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between lifetime and current e-cigarette use and viewing peer posts or advertisements on social media while adjusting for cigarette use and self-posting about e-cigarettes. Overall, 46% of participants reported lifetime e-cigarette use, 16% current e-cigarette use, and 7% were current dual users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes. There were positive and significant associations between lifetime e-cigarette use and viewing peer posts (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI = 1.25-7.76) as well as advertisements (aOR = 3.01; 95% CI = 1.19-7.65) on e-cigarettes via social media after adjusting for cigarette use. Current e-cigarette use was only significantly associated with viewing peer posts via social media (aOR = 7.58; 95% CI = 1.66-34.6) after adjusting for cigarette use. Conclusions/Importance: Almost half of college students view peer posts and advertisements on e-cigarettes via social media. This exposure is associated with individual e-cigarette use. Continued efforts to examine online e-cigarette content are needed to help future interventions decrease e-cigarette use.

  19. Effects of cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, and alcohol intake on fecundability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, K M; Savitz, D A; Arbuckle, T E

    1997-01-01

    ...% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-0.98 and fecundability ratio = 0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.95, respectively). Caffeine consumption of 100 mg or less versus more than 100 mg in women and men was not associated...

  20. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Results Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p’s < 0.001); 23.1% reported no cigarette use in the past month at week 8. There was no significant decrease in cotinine from baseline to week 4 or 8 (p’s = ns). At week 8, the majority reported improved health (65.4%), reduced smoker’s cough (57.7%), and improved sense of smell (53.8%) and taste (50.0%). The majority believed that e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Conclusions Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes. PMID:25621193

  1. The effects of higher cigarette prices on tar and nicotine consumption in a cohort of adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, M C; Nimsch, C T; Hyland, A; Cummings, M

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the demand for tar and nicotine in cigarettes as a function of cigarette prices in a cohort of cigarette 11,966 smokers followed for 5 years. Data for the analysis come from a longitudinal telephone survey of 11,966 smokers who were interviewed in 1988 and 1993 as part of the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Separate models are estimated for three age groups to account for differences in levels of addiction and brand loyalty across age. We found that smokers respond to higher cigarette prices by reducing the number of cigarettes smoked per day but also by switching to cigarettes that are higher in tar and nicotine per cigarette. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Assessing notions of denormalization and renormalization of smoking in light of e-cigarette regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæbø, Gunnar; Scheffels, Janne

    2017-11-01

    The rationale for 'denormalization' of smoking in tobacco policies has been challenged by the emergence of e-cigarettes and the need to regulate e-cigarette use and promotion. Our aim is to assess the research status on e-cigarettes' contribution to 'renormalization' of smoking and to clarify how renormalization of smoking can be appraised at the conceptual and empirical level. Combining conceptual analysis and narrative review, the paper brings out three dimensions of denormalization/renormalization of smoking ('unacceptability/acceptability'; 'invisibility/visibility'; 'phasing out behaviour/maintaining behaviour') and an inherent duality of the e-cigarette as a smoking-like device and a smoking alternative. These analytical dimensions are applied qualitatively to consider the literature identified by searching the Web of Science database for 'e-cigarettes AND renormalization' (and variants thereof). Theoretically, normative changes in smoking acceptability, increased visibility of e-cigarettes and use, and observations of actual use (prevalence, dual use, gateway) can all be applied to illustrate processes of renormalization. However, only acceptability measures and user measures can be said to be empirical tests of renormalization effects. Visibility measures are only based on logical assumptions of a possible renormalization; they are not in themselves indicative of any "real" renormalization effects and can just as well be understood as possible consequences of normalization of e-cigarettes. Just as a downward trend in smoking prevalence is the litmus test of whether denormalization policy works, stagnating or rising smoking prevalence should be the main empirical indicator of renormalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The independent effects of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and serum aspartate aminotransferase on the alanine aminotransferase ratio in korean men for the risk for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Heejin; Kim, Sangwon; Jee, Sun Ha

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this study is to assess the interactions among alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) / alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratios on esophageal cancer. Alcohol and the risk of incidence and death from esophageal cancer were examined in a 14-year prospective cohort study of 782,632 Korean men, 30 to 93 years of age, who received health insurance from the National Health Insurance Corporation and had a medical evaluation from 1992 to 1995. Smoking, alcohol intake, and AST/ALT ratios were associated with the increased risk of esophageal cancer in a dose-dependent manner independent of each other. Smoking was associated with an increased risk of incidence [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.8 to 2.5] and mortality (HR = 2.5, 2.0 to 3.1). Combined HR of incidence for alcohol consumption (> 25 g/day) and smoking was 4.5 (3.8-5.5); for alcohol (> 25 g/day) and the AST/ALT ratio (>or= 2.0), it was 5.8 (4.6-7.2); for smoking and the AST/ALT ratio (>or= 2.0), it was 6.3 (5.1-7.5). Similar results were seen for mortality from esophageal cancer. Subjects who drank >or= 25 g/day with an AST/ALT ratio >or= 2 had a higher risk of esophageal cancer incidence (HR = 6.5, 4.8 to 8.7) compared with those who drank >or= 25 g/day with an AST/ALT ratio smoking, and the AST/ALT ratio are independently associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer but did not interact synergistically. The combination of the AST/ALT ratio with a questionnaire for alcohol consumption may increase the effectiveness for determining the risk of esophageal cancer.

  4. Independent and supra-additive effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and metabolic syndrome on the elevation of serum liver enzyme levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Park

    Full Text Available We investigated the independent and combined effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome on abnormal liver function, i.e., the elevation of serum liver enzyme levels. Participants of a Korean population-based prospective cohort aged ≥30 years without liver disease, diabetes, or cardiovascular diseases were included. Information on alcohol consumption, smoking status, and metabolic syndrome, defined as per the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel III, were applied to evaluate their impact on serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome were the significant individual factors that elevated serum liver enzyme levels. Supra-additive effects of metabolic syndrome and either alcohol consumption or cigarette smoking were also identified. The combination of heavy drinking (≥24 g/day and metabolic syndrome conferred an effect that was higher than the sum of the two individual effects (Synergic Index (SI: AST, 2.37 [1.20-4.67]; GGT, 1.91 [1.17-3.13]. Only GGT level (odds ratio 6.04 [3.68-9.94], SI 2.33 [1.24-4.41] was significantly elevated when the effect of moderate drinking (20 pack years, 1.80 for ≥24 g/day and ≤20 pack years, 2.03 for ≥24 g/day and >20 pack years, while only the combined effect of drinking ≥24 g/day and smoking >20 pack years elevated the AST level (SI 4.55 [3.12-6.61]. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome was not supra-additive. To prevent fatty liver disease and other related diseases, a multifactorial prevention strategy that includes limited alcohol consumption, smoking cessation and rectification of adverse metabolic profiles is required.

  5. Assessing human exposure risk to cadmium through inhalation and seafood consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liao, Chung-Min, E-mail: cmliao@ccms.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trophically available fraction in seafood and bioaccessibility is linked. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human health risk to Cd can via inhalation and seafood consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Female had the higher Cd accumulation in urine and blood than male. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoking is a major determinant of human Cd intake. - Abstract: The role of cadmium (Cd) bioaccessibility in risk assessment is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess human health risk to Cd through inhalation and seafood consumption by incorporating bioaccessibility. The relationships between trophically available Cd and bioaccessibility were constructed based on available experimental data. We estimated Cd concentrations in human urine and blood via daily intake from seafood consumption and inhalation based on a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. A Hill-based dose-response model was used to assess human renal dysfunction and peripheral arterial disease risks for long-term Cd exposure. Here we showed that fish had higher bioaccessibility ({approx}83.7%) than that of shellfish ({approx}73.2%) for human ingestion. Our results indicated that glomerular and tubular damage among different genders and smokers ranged from 18.03 to 18.18%. Our analysis showed that nonsmokers had 50% probability of peripheral arterial disease level exceeding from 3.28 to 8.80%. Smoking populations had 2-3 folds higher morbidity risk of peripheral arterial disease than those of nonsmokers. Our study concluded that the adverse effects of Cd exposure are exacerbated when high seafood consumption coincides with cigarette smoking. Our work provides a framework that could more accurately address risk dose dependency of Cd hazard.

  6. Assessment of global DNA methylation in the first trimester fetal tissues exposed to maternal cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Svetlana; Larsen, Trine Vilsbøll; Bilde, Katrine; Daugaard, Tina F; Ernst, Emil H; Olesen, Rasmus H; Mamsen, Linn S; Ernst, Erik; Larsen, Agnete; Nielsen, Anders L

    2016-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies. Maternal smoking induces gene-specific DNA methylation alterations as well as global DNA hypermethylation in the term placentas and hypomethylation in the cord blood. Early pregnancy represents a developmental time where the fetal epigenome is remodeled and accordingly can be expected to be highly prone to exposures with an epigenetic impact. We have assessed the influence of maternal cigarette smoking during the first trimester for fetal global DNA methylation. We analyzed the human fetal intestines and livers as well as the placentas from the first trimester pregnancies. Global DNA methylation levels were quantified with ELISA using a methylcytosine antibody as well as with the bisulfite pyrosequencing of surrogate markers for global methylation status, LINE-1, and AluYb8. We identified gender-specific differences in global DNA methylation levels, but no significant DNA methylation changes in exposure responses to the first trimester maternal cigarette smoking. Acknowledging that only examining subsets of global DNA methylation markers and fetal sample availability represents possible limitations for the analyses, our presented results indicate that the first trimester maternal cigarette smoking is not manifested in immediate aberrations of fetal global DNA methylation.

  7. Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Overweight in Multiple Sclerosis: Disability Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ballesteros, Wayra Citlali; Monterrubio-Flores, Eric Alejandro; de Jesús Flores-Rivera, José; Corona-Vázquez, Teresa; Hernández-Girón, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The rate at which disability progresses in multiple sclerosis (MS), and its severity, have been associated with modifiable lifestyle habits. To investigate the risk of disability progression in MS patients according to tobacco and alcohol consumption and to the presence of overweight. This was a follow-up of MS cases from a concluded case-control study (National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico 2010-2013). The evolution in EDSS (Expanded Disability Scale Score) units was followed through a medical record review. Kaplan Meier statistics and multivariate Cox regression analysis were performed. Of 181 cases, 63.5% were women and 82.5% had relapsing remitting MS. Study duration was 19.95 ± 15.24 months. The disease progressed faster in daily smokers than in non-smokers (p = 0.0168). In overweight patients, disability progressed faster than in normal weight patients (p = 0.0249). Ex-consumers of alcohol had lower risk of progression than current consumers (HR = 0.33 CI 95% = 0.14-0.83, p = 0.019) and both daily and ex-smokers presented higher risk of progression than non-smokers (HR = 2.32 CI 95% = 1.14-4.72, p = 0.020 and HR = 3.56, CI 95% = 1.21-10.46, p = 0.021). Stratifying by gender, the effects of smoking and overweight were only found in men. Smoking is associated with rapid disability progression in MS. Our results suggest that cessation of tobacco and alcohol consumption could be clinically beneficial. Although there is association between overweight and disability progression in men, a further exploration of gender differences is necessary to corroborate this finding. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxicity Assessment of Refill Liquids for Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Varlet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 42 models from 14 brands of refill liquids for e-cigarettes for the presence of micro-organisms, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and solvents. All the liquids under scrutiny complied with norms for the absence of yeast, mold, aerobic microbes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol and ethanol were detected, but remained within limits authorized for food and pharmaceutical products. Terpenic compounds and aldehydes were found in the products, in particular formaldehyde and acrolein. No sample contained nitrosamines at levels above the limit of detection (1 μg/g. Residual solvents such as 1,3-butadiene, cyclohexane and acetone, to name a few, were found in some products. None of the products under scrutiny were totally exempt of potentially toxic compounds. However, for products other than nicotine, the oral acute toxicity of the e-liquids tested seems to be of minor concern. However, a minority of liquids, especially those with flavorings, showed particularly high ranges of chemicals, causing concerns about their potential toxicity in case of chronic oral exposure.

  9. Assessing Electronic Cigarette-Related Tweets for Sentiment and Content Using Supervised Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Varghese, Arun; Sanders, Amy; Schwarz, Mary; Pugatch, Jillian; Augustson, Erik

    2015-08-25

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) continue to be a growing topic among social media users, especially on Twitter. The ability to analyze conversations about e-cigarettes in real-time can provide important insight into trends in the public's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding e-cigarettes, and subsequently guide public health interventions. Our aim was to establish a supervised machine learning algorithm to build predictive classification models that assess Twitter data for a range of factors related to e-cigarettes. Manual content analysis was conducted for 17,098 tweets. These tweets were coded for five categories: e-cigarette relevance, sentiment, user description, genre, and theme. Machine learning classification models were then built for each of these five categories, and word groupings (n-grams) were used to define the feature space for each classifier. Predictive performance scores for classification models indicated that the models correctly labeled the tweets with the appropriate variables between 68.40% and 99.34% of the time, and the percentage of maximum possible improvement over a random baseline that was achieved by the classification models ranged from 41.59% to 80.62%. Classifiers with the highest performance scores that also achieved the highest percentage of the maximum possible improvement over a random baseline were Policy/Government (performance: 0.94; % improvement: 80.62%), Relevance (performance: 0.94; % improvement: 75.26%), Ad or Promotion (performance: 0.89; % improvement: 72.69%), and Marketing (performance: 0.91; % improvement: 72.56%). The most appropriate word-grouping unit (n-gram) was 1 for the majority of classifiers. Performance continued to marginally increase with the size of the training dataset of manually annotated data, but eventually leveled off. Even at low dataset sizes of 4000 observations, performance characteristics were fairly sound. Social media outlets like Twitter can uncover real-time snapshots of

  10. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ruiz, Carl D; Graff, Donald W; Robinson, Edward

    2016-07-11

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes. Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE) representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products. Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %-95 %) of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %-40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %-38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %-20 %) in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %-96 %) and e-cigarette use groups (11 %-83 %); dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %-89 %). Exhaled NO increases (46 %-63 %) were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed. Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

  11. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl D. D’Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes. Methods Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products. Results Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %–95 % of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %–40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %–38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %–20 % in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %–96 % and e-cigarette use groups (11 %–83 %; dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %–89 %. Exhaled NO increases (46 %–63 % were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

  12. The effect of drinking coffee and smoking cigarettes on the risk of cirrhosis associated with alcohol consumption. A case-control study. Provincial Group for the Study of Chronic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, G; Lepore, A R; Torchio, P; Valenti, M; Galatola, G; D'Amicis, A; Aricó, S; di Orio, F

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the interaction between alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and coffee consumption in determining the risk of liver cirrhosis we carried out a hospital-based case-control study involving 115 patients at their first diagnosis of cirrhosis and 167 control patients consecutively enrolled in the General Hospitals of the Province of L'Aquila (Central Italy). The mean life-time daily alcohol intake (as g ethanol consumed daily) was measured by direct patient interviews, whose reproducibility was > 0.80 and similar for cases and controls, as checked by interviewing the relatives of a sample of 50 cases and 73 controls. During the same patient's interview we also measured the mean consumption of coffee (daily number of cups of filtered coffee) and tobacco (life-time daily number of cigarettes smoked). A dose-effect relationship on the risk of cirrhosis was present both for alcohol intake--for which the risk was significantly increased above 100 g of daily intake--and for cigarette consumption. The latter did not however improve the goodness-of-fit of a logistic regression model including alcohol intake as covariate. By contrast, coffee consumption had a protective effect on the risk of cirrhosis and significantly improved the goodness-of-fit of such a model. Abstaining from coffee consumption determined both a significantly increased risk of cirrhosis, even for daily alcohol intake below 100 g, and a multiplicative effect with alcohol intake on this risk. In patients drinking > or = 101 g ethanol daily the relative risk increased from 5.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-22.0) for coffee consumers to 10.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-58.1) for coffee abstainers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Nutrient adequacy: assessment using food consumption surveys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Criteria for Dietary Evaluation

    1986-01-01

    ... of Food Consumption Surveys Food and Nutrition Board Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1986 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this ...

  14. Alcohol, betel-nut and cigarette consumption are negatively associated with health promoting behaviors in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Su-Er; Huang, Tung-Jung; Huang, Jui-Chu; Lin, Ming-Shyan; Hong, Rei-Mei; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-03-21

    Oral cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death due to cancer in the south-western coastal region of Taiwan; the standardized mortality of oral cancer is higher than elsewhere in the world. According to the evidence, alcohol, betel-nut and cigarette (ABC) consumption cause oral, nasopharyngeal and related cancers. This study describes the relationships between ABC consumers and health promoting behaviors among community adults living around an area with a high prevalence of oral cancer. A population-based, cross-sectional study design was conducted in oral cancer epidemic areas in south-western coastal Taiwan in 2010, 6,203 community residents over 20 years of age participated. Demographic data, ABC habits, and health-promoting behaviors were explored. A logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with ABC consumers. A high percentage of participants consumed alcohol, betel-nut and cigarettes. Betel-nut and cigarette consumers took low levels of exercise, adopted a poor diet, and had poor oral hygiene. After adjusting for potential confounders, the logistic regression model indicated that middle aged males of poor education and low economic status, who did not exercise regularly and had poor oral hygiene, were more likely to chew betel quid and smoke cigarettes. It has identified that BC consumers are negatively associated with health promoting behaviors. Further research is required to understand the reasons why the subjects consume ABC, and explore ways to prevent initiation and enhance cessation of ABC habits in this population.

  15. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers, and coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, R.K.; McClure, M.E.; Hays, M.D.; Green, F.H.Y.; McPhee, L.J.; Vallyathan, V.; Gilmour, M.I. [US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, miners, and control subjects and explore the relationship between EC level, exposure history, and the extent of chronic lung disease. The samples comprised three subgroups representing never smokers (8), chronic cigarette smokers (26), and coal miners (6). Following the dissolution of lung tissue, the extracted EC residue was quantified using a thermal-optical transmission (TOT) carbon analyzer. Mean EC levels in the lungs of the control group were 56.68 +/- 24.86 (SD) g/g dry lung weight. Respective mean EC values in lung samples from the smokers and coal miners were 449.56 +/- 320.3 g/g and 6678.2 +/- 6162 g/g. These values were significantly higher than those obtained from the never-smoker group. EC levels in the lung and pack-years of cigarette smoking correlated significantly, as did EC levels and the severity of small airway disease. This study provides one of the first quantitative assessments of EC in human lungs from populations at high relative risk for the development of chronic lung disease.

  16. Consumption of tea and coffee and the risk of lung cancer in cigarette-smoking men: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendilaharsu, M; De Stefani, E; Deneo-Pellegrini, H; Carzoglio, J C; Ronco, A

    1998-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of drinking tea or coffee on the lung cancer risk of male cigarette smokers in a case-control in Uruguay. Four hundred and twenty-seven lung cancer cases were frequency matched on age and residence with 428 hospitalized controls suffering from conditions unrelated to tobacco smoking and diet. Whereas coffee drinking had no effect on the lung cancer risk of the cigarette-smoking men in this study, black tea consumption decreased this risk. Heavy drinkers of tea (two or more cups of tea per day) were associated with a reduced risk of 0.34 (95% CI 0.14-0.84). This protective effect was more evident among Kreyberg I tumors (squamous cell and small cell) and among light smokers. Possible sources of bias and mechanisms of action are discussed.

  17. Assessment of pattern of cigarette smoking and associated factors among male students in public secondary schools in Anambra State, Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nwafor, C C; Ibeh, C C; Aguwa, E N; Chukwu, J N

    2012-01-01

    ...%) of these deaths will occur in the developing countries. The objective of the study was to assess the cigarette smoking pattern and associated factors among male students in public secondary schools in Anambra State...

  18. Assessing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousaleh, Mustafa M.

    Mobile devices are increasingly becoming essential in people's lives. The advancement in technology and mobility factor are allowing users to utilize mobile devices for communication, entertainment, financial planning, fitness tracking, etc. As a result, mobile applications are also becoming important factors contributing to user utility. However, battery capacity is the limiting factor impacting the quality of user experience. Hence, it is imperative to understand how much energy impact do mobile apps have on the system relative to other device activities. This thesis presents a systematic studying of the energy impact of mobile apps features. Time-series electrical current measurements are collected from 4 different modern smartphones. Statistical analysis methodologies are used to calculate the energy impact of each app feature by identifying and extracting mobile app-feature events from the overall current signal. In addition, the app overhead energy costs are also computed. Total energy consumption equations for each component is developed and an overall total energy consumption equation is presented. Minutes Lost (ML) of normal phone operations due to the energy consumption of the mobile app functionality is computed for cases where the mobile app is simulated to run on the various devices for 30 minutes. Tutela Technologies Inc. mobile app, NAT, is used for this study. NAT has two main features: QoS and Throughput. The impact of the QoS feature is indistinguishable, i.e. ML is zero, relative to other phone activities. The ML with only the TP feature enabled is on average 2.1 minutes. Enabling the GPS increases the ML on average to 11.5 minutes. Displaying the app GUI interface in addition to running the app features and enabling the GPS results in an average ML of 12.4 minutes. Amongst the various mobile app features and components studied, the GPS consumes the highest amount of energy. It is estimated that the GPS increases the ML by about 448%.

  19. The relation between cigarette price and hand-rolling tobacco consumption in the UK: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Lucas; Britton, John; Bogdanovica, Ilze

    2015-06-15

    Cigarette price increases reduce smoking prevalence but as a tobacco control policy are undermined by the availability of lower cost alternatives such as hand-rolling tobacco. The aim of this descriptive study is to explore time trends in the price of manufactured cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco, and in the numbers of people who smoke these products, over recent years in the UK. UK. Trends in the most popular price category (MPPC) data for cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco from 1983 to 2012 adjusted for inflation using the Retail Price Index, and trends in smoking prevalence and the proportion of smokers using hand-rolling tobacco from 1974 to 2010. After adjustment for inflation, there was an increase in prices of manufactured cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco between 1983 and 2012. Between 1974 and 2010, the prevalence of smoking fell from 45% to 20%, and the estimated total number of smokers from 25.3 to 12.4 million. However the number of people smoking hand-rolling tobacco increased from 1.4 to 3.2 million, and MPPC cigarette price was strongly correlated with number of people smoking hand-rolling tobacco. Although the ecological study design precludes conclusions on causality, the association between increases in manufactured cigarette price and the number of people smoking hand-rolling tobacco suggests that the lower cost of smoking hand-rolling tobacco encourages downtrading when cigarette prices rise. The magnitude of this association indicates that the lower cost of hand-rolling tobacco seriously undermines the use of price as a tobacco control measure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. The relation between cigarette price and hand-rolling tobacco consumption in the UK: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Lucas; Britton, John; Bogdanovica, Ilze

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cigarette price increases reduce smoking prevalence but as a tobacco control policy are undermined by the availability of lower cost alternatives such as hand-rolling tobacco. The aim of this descriptive study is to explore time trends in the price of manufactured cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco, and in the numbers of people who smoke these products, over recent years in the UK. Settings and participants UK. Outcome measures Trends in the most popular price category (MPPC) data for cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco from 1983 to 2012 adjusted for inflation using the Retail Price Index, and trends in smoking prevalence and the proportion of smokers using hand-rolling tobacco from 1974 to 2010. Results After adjustment for inflation, there was an increase in prices of manufactured cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco between 1983 and 2012. Between 1974 and 2010, the prevalence of smoking fell from 45% to 20%, and the estimated total number of smokers from 25.3 to 12.4 million. However the number of people smoking hand-rolling tobacco increased from 1.4 to 3.2 million, and MPPC cigarette price was strongly correlated with number of people smoking hand-rolling tobacco. Conclusions Although the ecological study design precludes conclusions on causality, the association between increases in manufactured cigarette price and the number of people smoking hand-rolling tobacco suggests that the lower cost of smoking hand-rolling tobacco encourages downtrading when cigarette prices rise. The magnitude of this association indicates that the lower cost of hand-rolling tobacco seriously undermines the use of price as a tobacco control measure. PMID:26078312

  1. Adolescent consumption of sports and energy drinks: linkages to higher physical activity, unhealthy beverage patterns, cigarette smoking, and screen media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Dewolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Data were drawn from Eating and Activity in Teens, a population-based study. Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN completed classroom-administered surveys. A total of 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6-12. Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P Sports drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P sports drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only after vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption, to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Basic science of electronic cigarettes: assessment in cell culture and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Pieter S; Bals, Robert

    2016-10-07

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, ECIGs) were introduced into the market a decade ago as an alternative to tobacco smoking. Whether ECIGs are safe and whether they qualify as smoking cessation tool is currently unknown. Their use has markedly expanded in that period, despite the fact that potential toxic effects of the vapour created by the e-cigarette and the nicotine-containing cartridge fluid have been incompletely studied. Marketing targets diverse groups including older smokers but also young people. Whereas the adverse health effects of nicotine inhaled by users of ECIGs has been well documented, less is known about the other components. An increasing number of in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate a range of adverse effects of both the vapour created by ECIGs as well as the nicotine-containing fluid. Importantly, these studies demonstrate that toxicity from ECIGs, although this may be less than that caused by tobacco products, not only arises from its nicotine content. Furthermore, there are no data on the long-term consequences of ECIG use. The wide range of ECIG products available to consumers and the lack of standardisation of toxicological approaches towards ECIG evaluation complicates the assessment of adverse health effects of their use. Here we review the current data on preclinical studies on ECIGs describing their effects in cell culture and animal models.

  3. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes Part 4: mechanistic investigations, smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Lawless-Pyne, J; Lukman, S; Evans, A Deger; Trelles-Sticken, E; Wittke, S; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    The smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicity of mainstream smoke (MS) was investigated in American-blended cigarettes with or without the addition of 2.5%, 5% or 10% eugenol to the tobacco and in Indonesian-blended cigarettes with and without the addition of cloves, cloves extracted with hot ethanol, and extracted cloves replenished with eugenol or clove oil. The addition of eugenol reduced the concentration of nearly all toxicants measured in MS as well as the in vitro cytotoxicity of the gas/vapor phase. Reductions were also seen in bacterial mutagenicity of the total particulate matter (TPM) assessed by the Ames Assay. The addition of extracted cloves led to increases and decreases of toxicant concentrations in MS. Replenishment with eugenol or clove oil decreased the toxicant concentrations; with most smoke constituent concentrations reduced below the concentration found in tobacco-only cigarettes. Cytotoxicity of the TPM was not affected by the clove preparations. However, GVP cytotoxicity was reduced (untreated cloves showing the highest reductions). Mutagenicity of TPM was decreased by the clove preparations. Mechanisms for the reductions, (up to 40%), are most likely due to dilution effects by eugenol, changed burning characteristics of the tobacco, and free radical scavenging by eugenol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing water consumption in extreme diet scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti

    2017-04-01

    Most of the food for humanity comes from agriculture. Producing it requires enormous resources, and the projected population growth will further increase the stress on the environment. A number of strategies have been suggested to make food production sustainable. One of them, changing the human diet, has been shown to have a considerable potential in reducing use of resources, including water. Using water footprint methodology, our results show that moving to a mostly plant-based diet or a more conservative diet change combined with halving food losses would reduce the number of people living under water scarcity by hundreds of millions. Alternatively, it would enable producing sufficient, healthy food supply for a much larger population. Questions are still remaining, though. While water footprints alone have been criticised for only concentrating on water volumes and not the impacts of consumption, with proper attention to existing resources and the ecological relevance of using them, the water footprints allow straightforward analysis of limited modifications to food systems. On the other hand, large changes to the demand of each of the crops as well as shifts in ratios between plant- and animal-based foodstuffs alter some of the underlying assumptions, which are based on the current production. We present concepts to try to tackle the dynamics involved with diet change. Specifically, we discuss and present results related to: 1) Effects of changes in the areas used for production of a crop on its marginal water footprint 2) Use of non-food grade crop production as feed 3) Use of feed from co-production systems

  5. Perception of health risks among adolescents due to consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and psychoactive substances in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilav, A; Rudić, A; Branković, S; Djido, V

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the perception of health risks in adolescents due to the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and psychoactive substances in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBIH), as well as their observation of the behavior of their peers related to addictive behaviors. For the analysis was used a database from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) survey which was conducted in FBIH in 2011. The target population were students in the second grade of secondary schools in FBIH born in 1995 according to the ESPAD protocol. The total number of respondents from the cohort born in 1995 was 3813 students. The research results showed that the prevalence of risk perception due to the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and psychoactive substances among adolescents in the FBIH is lower than the mean prevalence in countries which have implemented the ESPAD survey of 2011. PPreventive activities should be aimed at adolescent risk behaviours and empower them to make the right decisions that can have far reaching significance. Attention has to be paid to selective prevention that is directed towards individuals or subgroup of population where the risk of developing disorder is much higher than average. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Period and cohort trends for mortality and cigarette consumption in England and Wales, 1946 to 1980, with emphasis on sex ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, P R

    1988-01-01

    In an earlier paper (Burch P. R. J. J Chron Dis 1981; 34: 87-103) changes in sex- and age-specific mortality from all causes of death in England and Wales were studied in relation to changes in sex- and age-specific cigarette consumption. The absence of a consistent correlation between the two variables, and the general characteristics of the data, suggested that studies of sex ratios might provide a better test of the hypothesis that the association between smoking and mortality has a causal basis. In this paper temporal changes in the sex ratio of cumulative cigarette consumption by cohort, and of smoking rates by age, are considered in relation to changes in the sex ratio of mortality. Again, no consistent correlations emerge and it is evident that factors other than smoking have played a dominant part in determining recent changes in the sex ratio of mortality in all age groups from 35-39 to 80-84 years. Among these "other factors" are birth cohort effects that can be attributed, in part, to birth cohort changes in the sex ratio of mortality from bronchitis and emphysema. The present results, together with other evidence (vide supra; and Burch P. R. J. J Chron Dis 1984; 37: 148-156), show that great care needs to be exercised when attempts are made to deduce causation from epidemiologic surveys.

  7. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  8. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Cigarette Pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cathleen C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of an adolescent with mental retardation and autism found that pica of cigarette butts was maintained in a condition with no social consequences when cigarettes contained nicotine but not when cigarettes contained herbs without nicotine. A procedure based on stimulus control, which reduced cigarette consumption to zero, is described.…

  9. Changes in cigarette consumption patterns among Brazilian smokers between 1989 and 2008 Mudanças nos padrões de consumo de cigarros dos fumantes brasileiros entre 1989 e 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Salem Szklo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of temporal differences in cigarette consumption may help in understanding whether a smoking population is becoming more resistant to quitting over time. We calculated absolute differences in average cigarette consumption, stratified by birth cohort and age group. Data were obtained from random samples from two Brazilian national household surveys (1989, N = 12,782; 2008, N = 6,675. A linear regression model was used to adjust estimates by gender, educational level, and place of residence. Birth cohort analysis found that average daily cigarette consumption increased for individuals born after 1964 and decreased for those born before 1955 (adjusted p-values A avaliação temporal das mudanças no consumo de cigarros pode ajudar a entender se os fumantes estão se tornando mais resistentes à cessação. Calcularam-se as diferenças absolutas no consumo médio de cigarros, estratificadas por coorte de nascimento e faixa etária. Utilizaram-se dados provenientes de dois inquéritos domiciliares nacionais brasileiros (1989, N = 12.782; 2008, N = 6.675. Um modelo de regressão linear foi usado para ajustar as diferenças por sexo, escolaridade e residência. A análise por coorte de nascimento mostrou que o uso de cigarros diários aumentou entre os indivíduos nascidos após 1964 e diminuiu entre aqueles nascidos antes de 1955 (valores de p ajustados < 0,001. A análise por faixa etária mostrou que a população remanescente de fumantes com menos de 65 anos reduziu o uso de cigarros entre 1989 e 2008 (valores de p ajustados < 0,001. Mudanças nas políticas antitabaco e o rápido crescimento econômico do Brasil podem estar preferencialmente relacionados a mudanças temporais no consumo de cigarros na maioria dos grupos etários, ao invés de uma mudança na associação entre idade e consumo de cigarro.

  10. Increasing availability and consumption of single cigarettes: trends and implications for smoking cessation from the ITC Mexico Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marissa G; Fleischer, Nancy L; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Thrasher, James F

    2015-07-01

    Determine (1) trends in single cigarette availability and purchasing in Mexico and (2) the association between neighbourhood access to singles and cessation behaviour among adult Mexican smokers. We analysed data from Wave 4 (2010), Wave 5 (2011) and Wave 6 (2012) of the Mexican International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey. We used data from all three waves to examine time trends in singles availability and purchasing. To explore the association between neighbourhood access to singles and cessation behaviour, we used data from participants who were smokers at Wave 5 and followed up at Wave 6 (n=1272). The percentage of participants who saw singles sold daily (45.2% in 2010; 51.4% in 2011; 64.9% in 2012), who bought singles at least once a week (22.3% in 2010; 29.1% in 2011; 29.1% in 2012) and whose last cigarette purchase was a single (16.6% in 2010; 20.7% in 2011; 25.8% in 2012) increased significantly from 2010 to 2012 (all pcigarettes appear widely accessible in Mexico and growing in availability. Future research should explore potential explanations, consequences and effective methods for reducing the availability of single cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Analytical Assessment of the Effects of Alcohol Consumption on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... Ifeanyi Reuben Nkechi Jecinta, Department of Computer Science, Rhema University, Aba Abia State. Abstract. Alcohol is ... involved conducting the clinical test to determine the independent assessment of impact of alcohol using ... Keywords: Alcohol consumption, software, disease, simulation, model ...

  12. Cancer risk assessment for arsenic exposure through oyster consumption.

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, How-Ran

    2002-01-01

    Risk is assessed on the basis of assumptions, but this practice might not be well received by the general public. To avoid miscommunication, the assumptions should be stated clearly in reporting the results. Recently, a report on an assessment of the cancer risk associated with consumption of oysters caused a panic among consumers in Taiwan and produced significant effects on related industries. A group of researchers measured the arsenic content in oysters in the Taiwan area and conducted a ...

  13. A TWO-PART MIXED EFFECTS MODEL FOR CIGARETTE PURCHASE TASK DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tingting; Luo, Xianghua; Chu, Haitao; Le, Chap T.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Thomas, Janet L.

    2016-01-01

    The Cigarette Purchase Task is a behavioral economic assessment tool designed to measure the relative reinforcing efficacy of cigarette smoking across different prices. An exponential demand equation has become a standard model for analyzing purchase task data, but its utility is compromised by its inability to accommodate values of zero consumption. We propose a two-part mixed effects model that keeps the same exponential demand equation for modeling nonzero consumption values, while providi...

  14. Perception of electronic cigarettes in the general population: does their usefulness outweigh their risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Ballbè, Montse; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-11-03

    To describe and compare the perceptions of the general population about the harmful effects of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on users and on those passively exposed to e-cigarettes and the perceptions about e-cigarette usefulness for reducing or eliminating tobacco smoking. We analysed cross-sectional data from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the general adult (≥16 years) population of Barcelona, Spain (336 men and 400 women). The fieldwork was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. We computed the percentages, adjusted OR and their corresponding 95% CI among participants with some awareness of e-cigarettes (79.2% of the sample). We assessed the perception about harmfulness for e-cigarette users and for passively exposed non-e-cigarette users, as well as the perception of usefulness for smokers of cigarette cessation and reduction. In this sample, 40.1% thought that e-cigarettes had a harmful effect on users, and 27.1% thought that e-cigarettes had a harmful effect on passively exposed bystanders (pe-cigarettes had harmful effects on passively exposed bystanders than current smokers (34.4% vs 20.6%; OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.63). More people perceived e-cigarettes as being useful for reducing smoking than for quitting (50.6% vs 29.9%, pe-cigarettes are useful for reducing tobacco consumption was more prevalent than the perception that e-cigarettes are harmful to users and to those passively exposed to e-cigarettes. Advertisements and messages about the use of e-cigarettes and their harmful effects should be regulated and based on scientific evidence to avoid creating erroneous ideas about their use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. A Risk Assessment Matrix for Public Health Principles: The Case for E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, Daniela; Chowdhury, Azim; Ferro, Giancarlo Antonio; Nalis, Federico Giuseppe; Polosa, Riccardo

    2017-03-31

    Besides nicotine replacement therapies, a realistic alternative for smoking cessation or for smoking substitution may come from electronic cigarettes (ECs), whose popularity has been steadily growing. As for any emerging behaviour associated with exposure to inhalational agents, there is legitimate cause for concern and many health organizations and policy makers have pushed for restrictive policy measures ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products. Nonetheless, it is important to reframe these concerns in context of the well-known harm caused by cigarette smoking. In this article, we discuss key public health principles that should be considered when regulating ECs. These include the concept of tobacco harm reduction, importance of relative risk and risk continuum, renormalization of smoking, availability of low-risk product, proportionate taxation, and reassessment of the role of non-tobacco flavours. These public health principles may be systematically scrutinized using a risk assessment matrix that allows: (1) to determine the measure of certainty that a risk will occur; and (2) to estimate the impact of such a risk on public health. Consequently, the ultimate goal of responsible ECs regulation should be that of maximizing the favourable impact of these reduced-risk products whilst minimizing further any potential risks. Consumer perspectives, sound EC research, continuous post-marketing surveillance and reasonable safety and quality product standards should be at the very heart of future regulatory schemes that will address concerns while minimizing unintended consequences of ill-informed regulation.

  16. Assessing tobacco marketing receptivity among youth: integrating point of sale marketing, cigarette package branding and branded merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sandra; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Barrientos, Inti; Mejía, Raúl; Morello, Paola; Sargent, James D; Thrasher, James F

    2016-11-01

    As countries prohibit tobacco marketing through traditional channels, marketing at point of sale (PoS) and through tobacco packaging is increasingly important for promoting tobacco consumption. Assess the validity of a novel marketing receptivity index that considers frequency of PoS exposures, tobacco brand recall and ownership of branded merchandise. Data come from a cross-sectional survey of 3172 secondary school students in Argentina. Questions assessed frequency of going to stores where tobacco is often sold; cued recall of brand names for 3 cigarette packages with brand name removed and ownership of branded merchandise. A four-level marketing receptivity index was derived: low PoS exposure only; high PoS exposure or recall of 1 brand; recall of 2 or more brands; and ownership of branded merchandise. Indicators of marketing receptivity and smoking involvement were regressed on the index, including in adjusted models that controlled for sociodemographics, social influences and sensation seeking. Among never-smokers, the index had independent positive associations with smoking susceptibility (ie, adjusted OR (AOR) 2v1 =1.66; AOR 3v1 =1.64; AOR 4v1 =2.95), willingness to try a specific brand (ie, AOR 2v1 =1.45; AOR 3v1 =2.38; AOR 4v1 =2.20) and positive smoking expectancies (ie, B adj 2v1 =0.09; B adj 3v1 =0.18; B adj 4v1 =0.34). A more marked dose-response independent association was found with current smoking behaviour (ie, AOR 2v1 =2.47; AOR 3v1 =3.16; AOR 4v1 =3.62). The marketing receptivity index was associated with important variation in smoking-related perceptions, intentions and behaviour among Argentine adolescents. Future research should determine the predictive validity and generalisability of this measure to other contexts, including the explanatory power gained by integrating cigarette package brand recognition tasks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. The role of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in the differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma for the males in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Xu, Ji; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Huiming

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world and two-thirds of the OSCC occur in developing countries. Male and female have different smoking and drinking habit. However, there is little gender-specific risk study between OSCC and the habit of drinking and smoking in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of smoking and alcohol consumption in the differentiation grade of OSCC for the male in China. Review cases of male patients who suffered from OSCC tylectomy and were pathologically confirmed the diagnosis of OSCC. Data from 210 cases, related to patient, smoking, and alcohol drinking, were collected and analyzed using multivariate conditional logistic regression models. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were strongly associated with differentiation of oral cancer (P = 0.013 and 0.005, respectively). The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for smoker were 1.45 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.145-4.19). The ORs for drinkers were 0.56 (95% CI = 0.19-1.58). The risk of the two habits in the development of oral cancer appeared to be significant increase. Increased risk of low oral cancer differentiation was associated with increased amount of alcohol consumed. Heavy and long-term smoking and drinking habit might pronouncedly increase the risk of triggering OSCC. Tobacco and alcohol consumption seems to play a role in the differentiation characteristics of the tumor.

  18. A Case-Control Study of the Protective Effect of Alcohol, Coffee, and Cigarette Consumption on Parkinson Disease Risk : Time-Since-Cessation Modifies the Effect of Tobacco Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Nijssen, Peter C. G.; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Huss, Anke; Mulleners, Wim M.; Sas, Antonetta M. G.; van Laar, Teus; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible reduced risk of Parkinson Disease (PD) due to coffee, alcohol, and/or cigarette consumption. In addition, we explored the potential effect modification by intensity, duration and time-since-cessation of smoking on the association between

  19. A case-control study of the protective effect of alcohol, coffee, and cigarette consumption on parkinson disease risk: Time-since-cessation modifies the effect of tobacco smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Mark, Marianne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322848350; Nijssen, Peter C G; Vlaanderen, Jelle|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31403160X; Huss, Anke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331385880; Mulleners, Wim M.; Sas, Antonetta M G; Van Laar, Teus; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible reduced risk of Parkinson Disease (PD) due to coffee, alcohol, and/or cigarette consumption. In addition, we explored the potential effect modification by intensity, duration and time-since-cessation of smoking on the association between

  20. Cigarettes and Alcohol: Substitutes or Complements?

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Sandra L.; Amy Ellen Schwartz

    2000-01-01

    Taxation of cigarettes and alcohol can raise revenue and reduce consumption of goods with negative external effects. Despite medical and psychological evidence linking their consumption, little previous work has investigated the significance of cross-price effects in cigarette and alcohol consumption. We use individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to investigate cigarette and alcohol consumption in the US, estimating both own and cross-price elasticities. Res...

  1. Public opinion regarding earmarked cigarette tax in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Yen, Lee-Lan; Yang, Chung-Lin; Chen, Pei-Fen

    2003-01-01

    Background Cigarette taxation has been perceived by academics and policy-makers as one of the most effective ways of reducing the use of cigarettes. On January 1 2002, the Taiwan government imposed a New Taiwan (NT) $5 per pack tax earmarked for the purpose of tobacco control. This study uses a survey collected prior to taxation to assess public attitudes toward cigarette taxation, public beliefs about the effectiveness of cigarette taxation at reducing cigarette use and public opinions about the allocation of this tax revenue. Methods Data were drawn from a national face-to-face interview on cigarette consumption in 2000. A total of 3,279 adults were aged 18 to 64 years; 49.9% of whom were male and 50.1% female, and with a smoking prevalence of 49.1% and 4.1%, respectively. The attitudes toward cigarette tax were analysed using multi-logit regressions. We analysed by logistic regression the potential changes in smoking behaviour that smokers might make in response to the five NT (New Taiwan) dollar earmarked tax on cigarettes per pack. We summarized public opinions about the allocation of earmarked tax revenue using descriptive statistics. Results Current smokers (OR = 0.34) and former smokers (OR = 0.68) were less likely to support the cigarette tax than non-smokers. A favourable attitude toward the tax was positively associated with personal monthly income, especially among females. Among male smokers, the possibility of reducing/quitting smoking in response to the five-NT-dollar tax was negatively associated with the monthly expense for smoking. The two most frequently-suggested areas to receive money from the revenue collected from the earmarked tax were health education and cancer subsidy. Conclusions Smoking status and economic factors determine the attitude and potential responses of people toward the cigarette tax. Taiwan's five NT-dollar earmarked tax for cigarettes may have only a limited effect upon the reduction in cigarette use. PMID:14693036

  2. Safety Assessment of Electronic Cigarettes and Their Relationship with Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking leads to the occurrence and development of a variety of diseases. Most importantly, it is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular atherosclerosis. In recent years, electronic cigarettes have become a popular alternative to traditional cigarettes, since modern micro-electronic techniques provide the possibility of simulating the process of traditional smoking. Additionally, it is convenient and fashionable. Nevertheless, comments about the safety of electronic cigarettes remain controversial. Although the research about electronic cigarettes increased exponentially, there has been no systematic study of its safety. The aim of the current study is to review the literature reports about the safety of electronic cigarettes, and to understand their hazards and disadvantages. It was found that most of the current research about electronic cigarettes comprises short-term and in vitro studies. There are few reports of in vivo and long-term studies. Notably, the level of harmful components such as volatile organic compounds, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and heavy metals in electronic cigarettes are even higher than in traditional cigarettes. Therefore, the harm of electronic cigarettes should not be underestimated. In conclusion, the question of whether electronic cigarettes are a safe and sufficient substitute for traditional smoking needs further investigation.

  3. Comparative assessment of HPHC yields in the Tobacco Heating System THS2.2 and commercial cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, G; Tafin Djoko, D; Moennikes, O; Jeannet, C; Kondylis, A; Belushkin, M

    2017-11-01

    There has been a sustained effort in recent years to develop products with the potential to present less risk compared with continued smoking as an alternative for adult smokers who would otherwise continue to smoke cigarettes. During the non-clinical assessment phase of such products, the chemical composition and toxicity of their aerosols are frequently compared to the chemical composition and toxicity of the smoke from a standard research cigarette - the 3R4F reference cigarette. In the present study, it is demonstrated that results of these analytical comparisons are similar when considering commercially available cigarette products worldwide. A market mean reduction of about 90% is observed on average across a broad range of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) measured in the aerosol of a candidate modified risk tobacco product, the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2), compared against the levels of HPHC of cigarettes representative of selected markets; this mean reduction is well in line with the reduction observed against 3R4F smoke constituents in previous studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Safety Assessment of Electronic Cigarettes and Their Relationship with Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Guangwei Zhang; Zhangli Wang; Kai Zhang; Rui Hou; Chunli Xing; Qi Yu; Enqi Liu

    2018-01-01

    Smoking leads to the occurrence and development of a variety of diseases. Most importantly, it is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular atherosclerosis. In recent years, electronic cigarettes have become a popular alternative to traditional cigarettes, since modern micro-electronic techniques provide the possibility of simulating the process of traditional smoking. Additionally, it is convenient and fashionable. Nevertheless, comments about the safety of electronic cigarettes remain co...

  5. Evaluation of Electronic Cigarette Use (Vaping Topography and Estimation of Liquid Consumption: Implications for Research Protocol Standards Definition and for Public Health Authorities’ Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatis Kyrzopoulos

    2013-06-01

    nicotine delivery by tobacco cigarettes, it seems that liquids with even higher than 24 mg/mL nicotine concentration would be comparable to one tobacco cigarette. Conclusions: EC use topography is significantly different compared to smoking. Four-second puffs with 20–30 s interpuff interval should be used when assessing EC effects in laboratory experiments, provided that the equipment used does not get overheated. Based on the characteristics of the device used in this study, a 20 mg/mL nicotine concentration liquid would be needed in order to deliver nicotine at amounts similar to the maximum allowable content of one tobacco cigarette (as measured by the ISO 3308 method. The results of this study do not support the statement of the European Commission Tobacco Product Directive that liquids with nicotine concentration of 4 mg/mL are comparable to NRTs in the amount of nicotine delivered to the user.

  6. Evaluation of Electronic Cigarette Use (Vaping) Topography and Estimation of Liquid Consumption: Implications for Research Protocol Standards Definition and for Public Health Authorities’ Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Romagna, Giorgio; Tsiapras, Dimitris; Kyrzopoulos, Stamatis; Voudris, Vassilis

    2013-01-01

    delivery by tobacco cigarettes, it seems that liquids with even higher than 24 mg/mL nicotine concentration would be comparable to one tobacco cigarette. Conclusions: EC use topography is significantly different compared to smoking. Four-second puffs with 20–30 s interpuff interval should be used when assessing EC effects in laboratory experiments, provided that the equipment used does not get overheated. Based on the characteristics of the device used in this study, a 20 mg/mL nicotine concentration liquid would be needed in order to deliver nicotine at amounts similar to the maximum allowable content of one tobacco cigarette (as measured by the ISO 3308 method). The results of this study do not support the statement of the European Commission Tobacco Product Directive that liquids with nicotine concentration of 4 mg/mL are comparable to NRTs in the amount of nicotine delivered to the user. PMID:23778060

  7. Evaluation of electronic cigarette use (vaping) topography and estimation of liquid consumption: implications for research protocol standards definition and for public health authorities' regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Romagna, Giorgio; Tsiapras, Dimitris; Kyrzopoulos, Stamatis; Voudris, Vassilis

    2013-06-18

    , it seems that liquids with even higher than 24 mg/mL nicotine concentration would be comparable to one tobacco cigarette. EC use topography is significantly different compared to smoking. Four-second puffs with 20-30 s interpuff interval should be used when assessing EC effects in laboratory experiments, provided that the equipment used does not get overheated. Based on the characteristics of the device used in this study, a 20 mg/mL nicotine concentration liquid would be needed in order to deliver nicotine at amounts similar to the maximum allowable content of one tobacco cigarette (as measured by the ISO 3308 method). The results of this study do not support the statement of the European Commission Tobacco Product Directive that liquids with nicotine concentration of 4 mg/mL are comparable to NRTs in the amount of nicotine delivered to the user.

  8. A comparative assessment of the price, brands and pack characteristics of illicitly traded cigarettes in five cities and towns in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Anna E; McCray, Cheyenne A; Adedeji-Fajobi, Temidayo I; Sibiya, Xolani; Ucko, Peter; Lebina, Limakatso; Golub, Jonathan E; Cohen, Joanna E; Martinson, Neil A

    2014-05-08

    The prevalence of illicitly traded cigarettes in South Africa has been reported to be 40-50%. However, these estimates do not account for the more nuanced characteristics of the illicit cigarette trade. With the goal of better understanding contraband cigarettes in South Africa, this study piloted three methods for assessing the price, brands, pack features and smoker's views about illicit cigarettes in five cities/towns. Data were collected in June and July 2012. A convenience sample of three South African cities (Johannesburg, Durban and Nelspruit) and two smaller towns (Musina and Ficksburg) were chosen for this study. Three cross-sectional approaches were used to assess the characteristics of contraband cigarettes: (1) a dummy purchase of cigarettes from informal retailers, (2) the collection of discarded cigarette packs and (3) a survey of tobacco smokers. For the purposes of the survey, 40 self-reported smokers were recruited at taxi ranks in each downtown site. Adults who were over the age of 18 were asked to verbally consent to participate in the study and answer a questionnaire administered by a researcher. The leading reason for labelling a pack as illicit in each city/town was the absence of an excise stamp (28.6% overall), and the least common reason was an illegal tar or nicotine level (11.1% overall). The overall proportion of informal vendors who sold illicit cigarettes was 41%. Singles and packs of 20 were consistently cheaper at informal vendors. Survey participants' responses reflected varied perspectives on illicit cigarettes and purchasing preferences. Each approach generated an interesting insight into physical aspects of illicit cigarettes. While this pilot study cannot be used to generate generalisable statistics on illicit cigarettes, more systematic surveys of this nature could inform researchers' and practitioners' initiatives to combat illicit and legal cigarette sales and usage.

  9. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in combination: A predictor of contralateral breast cancer risk in the WECARE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Julia A; Fan, Jing; Malone, Kathleen E; John, Esther M; Lynch, Charles F; Langballe, Rikke; Bernstein, Leslie; Shore, Roy E; Brooks, Jennifer D; Reiner, Anne S; Woods, Meghan; Liang, Xiaolin; Bernstein, Jonine L

    2017-09-01

    Alcohol drinking and, to a lesser extent, cigarette smoking are risk factors for a first primary breast cancer. Information on these behaviours at diagnosis may contribute to risk prediction of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and they are potentially modifiable. The WECARE Study is a large population-based case-control study of women with breast cancer where cases (N = 1,521) had asynchronous CBC and controls (N = 2,212), matched on survival time and other factors, had unilateral breast cancer (UBC). Using multivariable conditional logistic regression to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), we examined the risk of CBC in relation to drinking and smoking history at and following first diagnosis. We adjusted for treatment, disease characteristics and other factors. There was some evidence for an association between CBC risk and current drinking or current smoking at the time of first breast cancer diagnosis, but the increased risk occurred primarily among women exposed to both (RR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.24-2.11). CBC risk was also elevated in women who both smoked and drank alcohol after diagnosis (RR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.18-1.99). In the subset of women with detailed information on amount consumed, smoking an average of ≥10 cigarettes per day following diagnosis was also associated with increased CBC risk (RR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.08-2.08; p-trend = 0.03). Among women with a diagnosis of breast cancer, information on current drinking and smoking could contribute to the prediction of CBC risk. Women who both drink and smoke may represent a group who merit targeted lifestyle intervention to modify their risk of CBC. © 2017 UICC.

  10. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  11. A qualitative assessment of the perceived risks of electronic cigarette and hookah use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Maike K; Padgett, Shannon; Shope, Cindy D; Griffin, Emily N; Xie, Susan S; Gonzalez, Pablo J; Levison, Judy; Mastrobattista, Joan; Abramovici, Adi R; Northrup, Thomas F; Stotts, Angela L; Aagaard, Kjersti M; Suter, Melissa A

    2015-12-21

    Studies reveal that electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and hookah use are increasing among adolescents and young adults. However, the long-term health effects are unknown, especially with regards to pregnancy. Because of the increased use in women of reproductive age, and the unknown long-term health risks, our primary objectives were to determine the perceived risks of e-cigarette and hookah use in pregnancy, and learn common colloquial terms associated with e-cigarettes. Furthermore, we sought to determine if there is a stigma associated with e-cigarette use in pregnancy. Eleven focus groups including 87 participants were conducted immediately following regularly scheduled CenteringPregnancy® prenatal care with women at three different clinics in the greater Houston area. A minimum of two facilitators led the groups, using ten lead-in prompts, with Spanish translation as necessary. Facilitators took notes which were compared immediately following each group discussion and each group was audio recorded and transcribed. Three facilitators utilized NVivo 9.0 software to organize the transcribed data into nodes to identify major themes. To increase rigor, transcripts were further analyzed by two obstetricians who were instructed to find the major themes. Analyses revealed contradicting themes concerning e-cigarette use. In general, e-cigarettes were perceived as safer alternatives to regular tobacco cigarettes, especially if used as smoking cessation devices. A major theme is that use in pregnancy is harmful to the fetus. However, it was perceived that use for smoking cessation in pregnancy may have fewer side effects. We found that a common term for e-cigarettes is "Blu." In our discussion of hookah use, participants perceived use as popular among teenagers and that use in pregnancy is dangerous for the fetus. Although a strong theme emerged against hookah use, we found contradicting themes in our discussions on e-cigarette use in pregnancy. It is possible that e-cigarette

  12. The recent and projected public health and economic benefits of cigarette taxation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Vardavas, Constantine I; Chaloupka, Frank J; Vozikis, Athanassios; Athanasakis, Konstantinos; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis; Bertic, Monique; Behrakis, Panagiotis K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-09-01

    Greece is in an economic crisis compounded by the costs caused by smoking. The present investigation estimates the economic and public health benefits ensuing from the recent cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 and projects the potential benefits from an additional €2.00 per pack cigarette tax increase. The effects of the recent cigarette excise tax increase were calculated on outcome measures: total price per pack, including specific excise, ad valorem tax, and value-added tax consumption; tax revenue; and per capita consumption of cigarettes. Additionally, smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses were estimated. Projected effects of an additional €2.00 per pack tax increase on consumption and tax revenue were also assessed. The cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 created €558 million in new tax revenue. Cigarette consumption reached a recent low of 24.9 billion sticks sold or 2197 sticks per person in 2011, indicating a 16% decrease in per capita cigarette consumption from the previous year. An additional €2.00 per pack increase in Greek cigarette taxes is projected to result in reduced cigarette sales by an additional 20% and lead to an increase in total cigarette tax revenues by nearly €1.2 billion and the prevention of 192,000 premature deaths. Nations such as Greece, should employ taxation as a crucial measure to promote public health and economic development in such dire times. International economic organisations should aggressively pursue programmes and policies that champion the economic benefits of tobacco taxation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Hospitalized Smokers’ Expectancies for Electronic Cigarettes versus Tobacco Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Peter S.; Cases, Mallory G.; Thorne, Christopher B.; Cheong, JeeWon; Harrington, Kathleen F.; Kohler, Connie L.; Bailey, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To compare hospitalized smokers’ expectancies for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) against their expectancies for tobacco cigarettes and evaluate relationships between e-cigarette expectancies and intention to use e-cigarettes. Methods Analysis of baseline data from a one-year longitudinal observational study. The setting was a tertiary care academic center hospital in the Southeastern U.S. Participants were 958 hospitalized tobacco cigarette smokers. A questionnaire of e-cigarette expectancies based on the Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (BSCQ-A) was developed and administered along with the original, tobacco-specific, BSCQ-A. Intention to use e-cigarettes was assessed with a single 10-point Likert scale item. Results Participants reported significantly weaker expectancies for e-cigarettes relative to tobacco cigarettes on all 10 BSCQ-A scales. Participants held sizably weaker expectancies for the health risks of e-cigarettes (p < .001, Cohen's d = −2.07) as well as the ability of e-cigarettes to relieve negative affect (p < .001, Cohen's d = −1.01), satisfy the desire for nicotine (p < .001, Cohen's d = −.83), and taste pleasant (p < .001, Cohen's d = −.73). Among the strongest predictors of intention to use e-cigarettes were greater expectancies that e-cigarettes taste pleasant (p < .001, adjusted β = .34), relieve negative affect (p < .001, adjusted β = .32), and satisfy the desire for nicotine (p < .001, adjusted β = .31). Conclusions Hospitalizedtobacco smokers expect fewer negative and positive outcomes from e-cigarettes versus tobacco cigarettes. This suggests that e-cigarettes might be viable though imperfect substitutes for tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25452052

  14. Assessment of indoor air quality at an electronic cigarette (Vaping) convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Aherrera, Angela; Isichei, Chineye; Olmedo, Pablo; Jarmul, Stephanie; Cohen, Joanna E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Rule, Ana M

    2017-12-29

    E-cigarette (vaping) conventions are public events promoting electronic cigarettes, in which indoor use of e-cigarettes is allowed. The large concentration of people using e-cigarettes and poor air ventilation can result in indoor air pollution. In order to estimate this worst-case exposure to e-cigarettes, we evaluated indoor air quality in a vaping convention in Maryland (MD), USA. Real-time concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ) and real-time total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), CO 2 and NO 2 concentrations were measured. Integrated samples of air nicotine and PM 10 concentrations were also collected. The number of attendees was estimated to range from 75 to 600 at any single observation time. The estimated 24-h time-weighted average (TWA) PM 10 was 1800 μg/m 3 , 12-fold higher than the EPA 24-h regulation (150 μg/m 3 ). Median (range) indoor TVOCs concentration was 0.13 (0.04-0.3) ppm. PM 10 and TVOC concentrations were highly correlated with CO 2 concentrations, indicating the high number of people using e-cigarettes and poor indoor air quality. Air nicotine concentration was 125 μg/m 3 , equivalent to concentrations measured in bars and nightclubs. E-cigarette aerosol in a vaping convention that congregates many e-cigarette users is a major source of PM 10 , air nicotine and VOCs, impairing indoor air quality. These findings also raise occupational concerns for e-cigarette vendors and other venue staff workers.

  15. Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, topography and subjective effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah E; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, topography, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Methods Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. Results A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. Topography (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects’ previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. Conclusions Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, topography and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess topography as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of ‘real-world’ use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects. PMID:24732159

  16. Why and how to tax cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the article is to identify the functions and requirements an excise tax on cigarettes should fulfil, next also to calculate a model for the taxation of cigarettes in the Czech Republic with practical relevance, and to formulate recommendations for cigarette tax policy. Determining the role which should be fulfilled by cigarette excise taxes necessarily requires knowledge of the costs of cigarette consumption, which may be used to calculate the specific tax burden on cigarettes for the particular case of the Czech Republic and to formulate general conclusions and recommendations for cigarette tax policy. Cigarette excise taxes must primarily fulfil a remedial function. Other functions and requirements which may also be fulfilled by the tax are also naturally important but they should be accorded second place. Cigarette excise taxes should reclaim societal costs for the consumption of cigarettes, primarily including healthcare costs, as well as other costs connected to the consumption of cigarettes, by utilizing a specific tax which appears most suitable to the purpose at hand. Relevant studies show taxation of cigarettes in the Czech Republic is inadequate, falling short of covering costs for the consumption of cigarettes identified in the studies, by 13% according to one study, 22% according to another, and up to 58% according to a third study. Cigarettes should be burdened by a specific tax corresponding to the costs of their consumption. Calculations show that cigarette taxes must be increased in the Czech Republic by a significant amount. This will require close cooperation with public institutions, particularly those focusing on healthcare and finance. The generally accepted results of cost calculations and the cigarette taxation rates they entail must be enforced in practice and enshrined in the European Union context in an appropriate directive as well as in national laws.

  17. A prospective study of trends in consumption of cigarettes and alcohol among adults in a rural Ugandan population cohort, 1994-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiki, Gershim; Baisley, Kathy; Kamali, Anatoli; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Seeley, Janet; Newton, Robert

    2015-04-01

    To characterise trends over time in smoking and alcohol consumption in a rural Ugandan population between 1994 and 2011. We used self-reported data from a long-standing population cohort - the General Population Cohort. From 1989 to 1999, the study population comprised about 10 000 residents of 15 adjacent villages. From 1999, 10 more villages were added, doubling the population. Among adults (≥13 years, who comprise about half of the total study population), data on smoking were collected in 1994/1995, 2008/2009 and in 2010/2011. Data on alcohol were collected in 1996/1997, 2000/2001, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The reported prevalence of smoking among men was 17% in 1994/1995, 14% in 2008/2009 and 16% in 2010/2011; equivalent figures for women were 1.5%, 1% and 2%. In the most recent time period, for both sexes combined, prevalence of smoking increased from 1.5% in those aged <29 years, to 18% in those 50+ years (P < 0.001); prevalence was 14.8% in the lowest tertile of socio-economic status, decreasing to 3.7% in the highest (P < 0.001). For alcohol consumption, current drinking was reported by 39% in 1996/1997, 35% in 2000/2001 and 28% in 2010/2011; men were more likely to drink than women (32.9% vs. 23.5% in 2010/2011) and consumption increased with age (P < 0.001); and was associated with low socio-economic status, riskier sexual behaviour and being HIV positive (P < 0.001). In this rural Ugandan population, consumption of cigarettes and alcohol is higher among men than women, increases with age and is more frequent among those with low socio-economic status. We find no evidence of increases in either exposure over time. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Efficacy and security of electronic cigarette for tobacco harm reduction: Systematic review and meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkam, Paul; Boussageon, Rémy; Underner, Michel; Langbourg, Nicolas; Brabant, Yann; Binder, Philippe; Freche, Bernard; Jaafari, Nematollah

    2016-11-01

    Smoking is the first cause of preventable death in France and in the world. Without help, it was shown that 80 % of smokers who try to quit smoking relapse after one month with a low long-term success rate. Smoking reduction can concern smokers who did not want to quit or failed in their attempt to weaning. The final aim is to increase attractiveness of drug therapies by developing new products, such as electronic cigarettes, that can compete cigarette without reproducing its harmful effects. Assess the capacity of electronic cigarettes to reduce or stop tobacco use among regular smokers. Consultations MEDLINE and COCHRANE databases. e-cigarette; electronic cigarettes; ENDD (electronic nicotine delivery system); ENDS (electronic nicotine delivery device); vaping were used. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the electronic cigarette with nicotine versus placebo device. Two randomized controlled trials were included in the quantitative analysis. The nicotine electronic cigarette users have tobacco consumption significantly decreased compared to the placebo group (RR: 1.30, 95 % CI [1.02 to 1.66]) at 6 months. Smoking cessation rate at 3 months was greater with the electronic cigarette contains nicotine (RR: 2.55, 95 % CI [1.31 to 4.98]). The small number of RCTs included does not allow definitive conclusions about the effectiveness of electronic cigarettes, especially in the medium to long term. The use of electronic cigarette with nicotine decreases tobacco consumption among regular smokers. Further studies are needed to specify electronic cigarettes safety profile and its ability to cause a reduction in consumption and a long-term cessation in smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Scientific assessment of the use of sugars as cigarette tobacco ingredients: A review of published and other publicly available studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Ewald; Schorp, Matthias K; Piadé, Jean-Jacques; Seeman, Jeffrey I; Leyden, Donald E; Haussmann, Hans-Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Sugars, such as sucrose or invert sugar, have been used as tobacco ingredients in American-blend cigarettes to replenish the sugars lost during curing of the Burley component of the blended tobacco in order to maintain a balanced flavor. Chemical-analytical studies of the mainstream smoke of research cigarettes with various sugar application levels revealed that most of the smoke constituents determined did not show any sugar-related changes in yields (per mg nicotine), while ten constituents were found to either increase (formaldehyde, acrolein, 2-butanone, isoprene, benzene, toluene, benzo[k]fluoranthene) or decrease (4-aminobiphenyl, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosonornicotine) in a statistically significant manner with increasing sugar application levels. Such constituent yields were modeled into constituent uptake distributions using simulations of nicotine uptake distributions generated on the basis of published nicotine biomonitoring data, which were multiplied by the constituent/nicotine ratios determined in the current analysis. These simulations revealed extensive overlaps for the constituent uptake distributions with and without sugar application. Moreover, the differences in smoke composition did not lead to relevant changes in the activity in in vitro or in vivo assays. The potential impact of using sugars as tobacco ingredients was further assessed in an indirect manner by comparing published data from markets with predominantly American-blend or Virginia-type (no added sugars) cigarettes. No relevant difference was found between these markets for smoking prevalence, intensity, some markers of dependence, nicotine uptake, or mortality from smoking-related lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In conclusion, thorough examination of the data available suggests that the use of sugars as ingredients in cigarette tobacco does not increase the inherent risk and harm of cigarette smoking. PMID:22263649

  20. Assessment of an in vitro whole cigarette smoke exposure system: The Borgwaldt RM20S 8-syringe smoking machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAughey John

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many recent developments of in vitro cigarette smoke systems closely replicating in vivo exposures. The Borgwaldt RM20S smoking machine (RM20S enables the serial dilution and delivery of cigarette smoke to exposure chambers for in vitro analyses. In this study we have demonstrated reliability and robustness testing of the RM20S in delivering smoke to in vitro cultures using an in-house designed whole smoke exposure chamber. Results The syringe precision and accuracy of smoke dose generated by the RM20S was assessed using a methane gas standard and resulted in a repeatability error of ≤9%. Differential electrical mobility particle spectrometry (DMS measured smoke particles generated from reference 3R4F cigarettes at points along the RM20S. 53% ± 5.9% of particles by mass reached the chamber, the remainder deposited in the syringe or connecting tubing and ~16% deposited in the chamber. Spectrofluorometric quantification of particle deposition within chambers indicated a positive correlation between smoke concentration and particle deposition. In vitro air-liquid interface (ALI cultures (H292 lung epithelial cells, exposed to whole smoke (1:60 dilution (smoke:air, equivalent to ~5 μg/cm2 demonstrated uniform smoke delivery within the chamber. Conclusions These results suggest this smoke exposure system is a reliable and repeatable method of generating and exposing ALI in vitro cultures to cigarette smoke. This system will enable the evaluation of future tobacco products and individual components of cigarette smoke and may be used as an alternative in vitro tool for evaluating other aerosols and gaseous mixtures such as air pollutants, inhaled pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

  1. A Pilot Study to Assess Solanesol Levels in Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

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    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results obtained during the measurement of the level of solanesol in exhaled cigarette smoke from human subjects. The study was performed with three different cigarettes with U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC ‘tar’ values of 5.0 mg, 10.6 mg, and 16.2 mg. The number of human subjects was ten smokers for each of the evaluated products, each subject smoking three cigarettes within one hour. The exhaled smoke was collected using a vacuum assisted procedure that avoids strain in exhaling, and the solanesol was analyzed using an original high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC technique. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and also analyzed for solanesol. The results obtained for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of solanesol delivered to the smoker, based on calibration curves. These curves were generated separately by analyzing the solanesol in smoke and in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. Knowing the levels of solanesol delivered to the smoker and the exhaled levels it was possible to calculate the retention and retention % of this compound from mainstream smoke for different cigarettes types. The amount of retained solanesol is the lowest for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ product, and the highest for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product, although there is not much difference between the 10.6 mg ‘tar’ product and the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product. For the 10.6 mg ‘tar’ cigarettes the retention % was between 60% and 72%, for the 5.0 mg product the retention % was slightly lower ranging between 53% and 70%, while for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product, the retention % was slightly higher ranging between 62% and 82%.

  2. Cigarette smoking is associated with unhealthy patterns of food consumption, physical activity, sleep impairment, and alcohol drinking in Chinese male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Shabana; Cappelli, Christopher; Li, Yawen; Tanenbaum, Hilary; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Palmer, Paula H; Johnson, C Anderson; Xie, Bin

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent national survey, tobacco use is a critical public health issue in China, with more than two-thirds of Chinese males smoking. Findings in Western populations suggest that smoking may cluster with other health-risk behaviors. To explore these relationships in Chinese male adults, we utilized baseline data from the China Seven Cities Study (CSCS). Male adults (n = 12,122) were included. Smoking status was defined as never smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and current heavy smokers. Logistic regression was employed to investigate the association of cigarette smoking and patterns of food consumption, physical activity, and alcohol drinking. After controlling for age, socioeconomic status, and city residence, heavy smokers consumed significantly less vegetables, fruits, milk and other dairy products, spent significantly more time watching television, slept and exercised less, and got drunk or engaged in binge drinking more frequently compared to never, ex-, or current smokers (p adults, underscoring the need for tobacco control interventions for Chinese males.

  3. Hospitalized smokers' expectancies for electronic cigarettes versus tobacco cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Peter S; Cases, Mallory G; Thorne, Christopher B; Cheong, JeeWon; Harrington, Kathleen F; Kohler, Connie L; Bailey, William C

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the current study were to compare hospitalized smokers' expectancies for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) against their expectancies for tobacco cigarettes and evaluate relationships between e-cigarette expectancies and intention to use e-cigarettes. Analysis of baseline data from a one-year longitudinal observational study. The setting was a tertiary care academic center hospital in the Southeastern U.S. Participants were 958 hospitalized tobacco cigarette smokers. A questionnaire of e-cigarette expectancies based on the Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (BSCQ-A) was developed and administered along with the original, tobacco-specific, BSCQ-A. Intention to use e-cigarettes was assessed with a single 10-point Likert scale item. Participants reported significantly weaker expectancies for e-cigarettes relative to tobacco cigarettes on all 10 BSCQ-A scales. Participants held sizably weaker expectancies that e-cigarettes pose health risks (p<.001, Cohen's d=-2.07), relieve negative affect (p<.001, Cohen's d=-1.01), satisfy the desire for nicotine (p<.001, Cohen's d=-.83), and taste pleasant (p<.001, Cohen's d=-.73). Among the strongest predictors of intention to use e-cigarettes were greater expectancies that e-cigarettes taste pleasant (p<.001, adjusted β=.34), relieve negative affect (p<.001, adjusted β=.32), and satisfy the desire for nicotine (p<.001, adjusted β=.31). Hospitalized tobacco smokers expect fewer negative and positive outcomes from e-cigarettes versus tobacco cigarettes. This suggests that e-cigarettes might be viable though imperfect substitutes for tobacco cigarettes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in real-world and clinical settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-02-01

    Smokers increasingly use e-cigarettes for many reasons, including attempts to quit combustible cigarettes and to use nicotine where smoking is prohibited. We aimed to assess the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking cessation among adult cigarette smokers, irrespective of their motivation for using e-cigarettes. PubMed and Web of Science were searched between April 27, 2015, and June 17, 2015. Data extracted included study location, design, population, definition and prevalence of e-cigarette use, comparison group (if applicable), cigarette consumption, level of nicotine dependence, other confounders, definition of quitting smoking, and odds of quitting smoking. The primary endpoint was cigarette smoking cessation. Odds of smoking cessation among smokers using e-cigarettes compared with smokers not using e-cigarettes were assessed using a random effects meta-analysis. A modification of the ACROBAT-NRSI tool and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool were used to assess bias. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42015020382). 38 studies (of 577 studies identified) were included in the systematic review; all 20 studies with control groups (15 cohort studies, three cross-sectional studies, and two clinical trials) were included in random effects meta-analysis and sensitivity analyses. Odds of quitting cigarettes were 28% lower in those who used e-cigarettes compared with those who did not use e-cigarettes (odds ratio [OR] 0·72, 95% CI 0·57-0·91). Association of e-cigarette use with quitting did not significantly differ among studies of all smokers using e-cigarettes (irrespective of interest in quitting cigarettes) compared with studies of only smokers interested in cigarette cessation (OR 0·63, 95% CI 0·45-0·86 vs 0·86, 0·60-1·23; p=0·94). Other study characteristics (design, population, comparison group, control variables, time of exposure assessment, biochemical verification of abstinence, and definition of e-cigarette use

  5. Energy Consumption Series: Assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This study originally had two primary objectives: (1) to improve EIA`s estimates of district heat consumption for commercial buildings in the CBECS sample that lacked individual metering and (2) to provide a basis for estimating primary fuel consumption by central plants serving commercial buildings. These objectives were expanded to include additional questions relating to these central plants. Background information is provided on the CBECS and on district heating and cooling, which is the most important type of energy-related service provided by multibuilding facilities with central physical plants. Chapters 2 and 3 present data results on multibuilding facilities from the 1989 CBECS and the pilot Facility Survey. Chapter 2 presents the characteristics of multibuilding facilities and the individual buildings located on these facilities. Chapter 3 provides estimates of energy inputs and outputs of multibuilding facilities with central physical plants. Chapter 4 assesses the quality of the pilot Facility Survey and includes recommendations for future work in this area. The appendices provide more detailed information on the Facility Survey itself, in particular the limitations on the use of these results. Appendix B, ``Data Quality``, provides detailed information relating to the limitations of the data and the conclusions presented in this report. As a pilot study, the 1989 Facility Survey has some serious flaws and limitations which are recognized in this report.

  6. Implications of raising cigarette excise taxes in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rozada, Martin; Ramos-Carbajales, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    To assess how raising cigarette excise taxes in Peru might impact cigarette consumption, and to determine if higher taxes would be regressive. Total demand price elasticity was estimated by income groups using two datasets: quarterly time-series data from 1993 - 2012 and data from a cross-sectional survey of income and expenses conducted in 2008 - 2009 . A functional form of the cigarette demand in Peru was specified using the quarterly data set, and the demand price elasticity was estimated for the short and long run. Using the second data set and Deaton methodology, the implementation of elasticity estimation and by groups' elasticity was done in a two-step procedure. Demand price elasticity was -0.7, implying that a 10% price increase via a new tax would reduce consumption by 7%. Demand price elasticity estimations by income group suggested that poorer families are not more price sensitive than richer ones, which implies that increasing cigarette taxes could be regressive. Increasing cigarette taxes is the most efficient policy for inducing a reduction in smoking. However, in the case of Peru, an increase in cigarette taxes could be regressive.

  7. [Alcohol consumption in patients with psychiatric disorders: assessment and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J-P; Bonnewitz, M-L; Kusterer, M; Lalanne-Tongio, L

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol consumption in France exceeds the European average (12.7L of pure alcohol/habitant/year in 2009 for an average of 12.5 L). This consumption has a major professional, social and health impact on the individuals and their families. The cost of such, estimated in Europe to be of 155.8 billion Euros in 2010, is the highest among the central nervous system diseases in Europe, far higher than that of depression or dementia. Patients suffering from psychiatric disorders are more frequently affected by problems related to alcohol use than the general population. They are also more vulnerable to the immediate and subsequent consequences of their consumption. The alcohol related disorders that are often accompanied by risk taking and other addictive behaviour require a global assessment of the addiction, with and without substance, and of the complications. These have a strong impact on risk taking, compliance with care, and the morbidity of somatic and psychiatric disorders, as well as access to optimal care and the life span of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. The development of addictology care, with integrative treatment programs, is recommended in response to these public health issues. Nevertheless, specific addictology practices and partners with addictology care structures are still scarcely developed in psychiatry. Firstly, it would be necessary to set up such integrated treatments through the systematisation of an "addictology" checkup on admission, a global assessment of addictive behaviour and cognitive disorders, using pragmatic tools that are user-friendly for the care teams, maintain the reduction in risk taking, and apply prescriptions for addiction to psychotropic treatments, in liaison with the referring general practitioner. As early as possible, accompanied by specific training in addictology for the psychiatrists and the mental health nursing teams, such care could be enhanced by the development of liaison and advanced psychiatric

  8. Alcohol, tabaco y deterioro cognoscitivo en adultos mexicanos mayores de 65 años Cognitive impairment and alcohol and cigarette consumption in Mexican adults older than 65 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gloria Aguilar-Navarro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la prevalencia del consumo de alcohol y tabaco y su asociación con deterioro cognoscitivo en la población mexicana mayor de 65 años. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 4 872 mayores de 65 años en la muestra del Estudio Nacional sobre Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM 2001. Se interrogó sobre el consumo de alcohol y tabaco. Para la clasificación de los sujetos con deterioro cognoscitivo, se utilizó la escala total de los diferentes dominios cognoscitivos. Se aplicaron ji cuadrada, Mann Whitney U y regresión logística para encontrar asociaciones. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de alcoholismo según CAGE fue de 2.8% y la del consumo de tabaco de 14 por ciento. Factores asociados con el consumo de alcohol: edad 65-69 años (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the consumption of alcohol and cigarette smoking and their association with cognitive impairment among older Mexican adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 4 872 people over 65 years of age included in the sample of the National Mexican Health and Aging Study carried out in 2001 were questioned about their consumption of alcohol and cigarette smoking. For the classification of those subjects with cognitive impairment, the total scale of the different cognitive domains was used. The chi-square, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistical regression were used in order to find associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of alcoholism according to CAGE was 2.8% and the prevalence of the consumption of cigarette smoking was 14%. Factors associated with the consumption of alcohol were:age 65-69 (p <0.001, men (RR 3.17,p <0.001, and high level of education (p <0.001. The association between the consumption of alcohol and cognitive impairment (X2=6.59, p <0.01 was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of consumption of alcohol and cigarette smoking in older Mexican adults are similar to that reported in other countries; the consumption of alcohol and its

  9. Changes in cigarette smoking and coffee drinking after alcohol detoxification in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, H J; Laureaux, C; Tilikete, S; Barrucand, D

    1999-03-01

    To assess the changes in cigarette smoking and coffee drinking after alcohol detoxification in alcoholics. Evaluation at admission and an average 16 days following discharge. Alcohol detoxification inpatient programme. Seventy-three alcohol dependent (DSM-III-R) inpatients. Average number of cigarettes and of cups of coffee per day; urine cotinine level. Smokers were classified as moderate on the basis of consuming fewer than 30 cigarettes per day at the time of admission; heavy smokers were those who smoked 30 cigarettes per day or more. As a group, the smokers (N = 58) did not significantly change their cigarette consumption and there was no change in urine cotinine level. Heavy smokers (N = 34), however, significantly decreased their cigarette consumption, but urine cotinine was unchanged. Moderate smokers (N = 24) significantly increased their cigarette consumption but urine cotinine was not significantly changed. All patients--non-smokers, moderate and heavy smokers--significantly increased their coffee intake. The results suggest that heavy smokers may react to alcohol cues and thus reduce smoking activity when sober. Moderate smokers may increase their smoking rate to cope with alcohol abstinence. These changes appear only to reflect a behavioural adjustment, without modification of patients' nicotine-seeking. Alcoholics may increase their coffee intake to cope with alcohol abstinence.

  10. Cigarette butt decomposition and associated chemical changes assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Bonanomi

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts (CBs are the most common type of litter on earth, with an estimated 4.5 trillion discarded annually. Apart from being unsightly, CBs pose a serious threat to living organisms and ecosystem health when discarded in the environment because they are toxic to microbes, insects, fish and mammals. In spite of the CB toxic hazard, no studies have addressed the effects of environmental conditions on CB decomposition rate. In this study we investigate the interactive effects of substrate fertility and N transfer dynamics on CB decomposition rate and carbon quality changes. We carried out an experiment using smoked CBs and wood sticks, used as a slow decomposing standard organic substrate, incubated in both laboratory and field conditions for two years. CB carbon quality changes during decomposition was assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR. Our experiment confirmed the low degradation rate of CBs which, on average, lost only 37.8% of their initial mass after two years of decomposition. Although a net N transfer occurred from soil to CBs, contrary to our hypothesis, mass loss in the medium-term (two years was unaffected by N availability in the surrounding substrate. The opposite held for wood sticks, in agreement with the model that N-rich substrates promote the decomposition of other N-poor natural organic materials with a high C/N ratio. As regards CB chemical quality, after two years of decomposition 13C NMR spectroscopy highlighted very small changes in C quality that are likely to reflect a limited microbial attack.

  11. Assessing the Effect of Simultaneous Exposure to Noise and Cigarette Smoke on Workers' Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Farzane; Rafiei Manesh, Ehsan; Jarahi, Lida; Eghbali, Saba

    2016-11-01

    Noise, as the most common pollutant in the industrial environment, can lead to hearing loss and negatively affect other organs such as the cardiovascular system. Cigarette smoking is a popular habit among some workers, and can also have a negative effect on the cardiovascular system. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous exposure to noise and cigarette smoke on the blood pressure of workers at a manufacturing factory. This cross-sectional study enrolled 604 workers at a steel factory. Information relating to workers' demography, employment, and risk factors were recorded. Based on the level of smoking per day, workers exposed to noise fell into one of the four following groups: 1) Non-smokers exposed to noise workers. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 112.3 and 73.9 mmHg, respectively. A significant difference was observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressures in four groups (P=0.001). Posthoc test showed a significant difference between groups 1 and 3 (P=0.001). Regression analysis indicated no significant difference in workers who were simultaneously exposed to noise and cigarette smoke. This study demonstrates that noise is an important factor in terms of hypertension, with no significant differences observed in the prevalence of hypertension between workers who were simultaneously exposed to noise and cigarette smoke. It is suggested that workers' blood pressure should be regularly monitored in noisy environments.

  12. Electronic cigarettes: assessing the efficacy and the adverse effects through a systematic review of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Passi, Stefano; Bert, Fabrizio; La Torre, Giuseppe; Scaioli, Giacomo; Siliquini, Roberta

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy and the adverse effects (AEs) of the electronic cigarette, we performed a systematic review of published studies. We selected experimental and observational studies examining the efficacy (as reduction of desire to smoke and/or number of cigarettes smoked and/or quitting or as reduction of nicotine withdrawal symptoms) and the safety of EC (AEs self-reported or clinical/laboratory). The following search engines were used: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Finally, six experimental studies and six cohort studies were included. In the prospective 12-month, randomized controlled trial, smoking reduction was documented in 22.3 and 10.3% at Weeks 12 and 52, respectively (P < 0.001 versus baseline). Moreover, two cohort studies reported a reduction in the number of cigarette/day (from 50 to 80%) after the introduction of the EC. 'Mouth and throat irritation', 'nausea', 'headache' and 'dry cough' were the most frequently AEs reported. The use of the EC can reduce the number of cigarettes smoked and withdrawal symptoms, but the AEs reported are mainly related to a short period of use. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the effects of the EC usage after a chronic exposure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Development of Scales to Assess Homeownership Consumption and Investment Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jeanette A.; Olson, Geraldine I.

    1986-01-01

    A method to measure homeowners' housing consumption and investment attitudes was developed. Dimensions in the consumption scale were space, tenure, structure, quality, and neighborhood. The investment scale included tax benefits, equity, rate of return, leverage, and risk. Personal variables were hypothesized to have an effect on overall…

  14. Synergistic effects of betel quid chewing, tobacco use (in the form of cigarette smoking), and alcohol consumption on the risk of malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF): a case-control study in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bowen; Shen, Minxue; Xiong, Jimin; Yuan, Yongxiang; Wu, Xiaoshan; Gao, Xing; Xu, Junji; Guo, Feng; Jian, Xinchun

    2015-09-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a potentially malignant disorder, wherein 7% to 13% of patients with OSF develop oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) at clinically coincident sites established to have OSF. We aimed at investigating the lifestyle-related risk factors for malignant transformation of OSF. A case-control study was conducted among 80 cases with OSF-associated OSCC and 80 controls with OSF but without clinically or histopathologically evident OSCC, recruited from January 2012 to October 2014 in the Xiangya Hospital, Hunan Province, Mainland China. The odds ratios (OR) for OSCC were 13.3 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 3.1-56.4) and 45.1 (95% CI: 9.6-212.9) at the highest exposure of betel quid (BQ) chewing, by duration and frequency, respectively. Higher risks were also found to be associated with the consumption of cigarette (OR = 5.0, 95% CI: 1.7-14.8) and alcohol (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.1-8.6). Adjusted ORs increased substantially among patients who consumed BQ and cigarette or alcohol simultaneously, which were 26.1 (95% CI: 4.0-172.6) and 55.-(95% CI: 1.8-1742.8) at the longest duration, and 160.3 (95% CI: 18.7-11371.2) and 58.1 (95% CI: 2.4-1434.9) at the highest dose, respectively. The use of BQ, cigarette, and alcohol were identified as risk factors for malignant transformation of OSF in the Hunan province, Mainland China. Synergistic effects between BQ chewing and cigarette or alcohol consumption were revealed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Critical Assessment of Recent Work on the Application of Gas/Particle Partitioning Theories to Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauterbach JH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the August 1997 issue of Environmental Science&Technology (ES&T, PANKOW and co-workers at the Oregon Graduate Institute reported that the addition of ammonia-containing additives to cigarette tobacco increased the amount of unprotonated nicotine in cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS and thus increased the bioavailability of nicotine to the smoker. Articles about PANKOW's work also appeared in other publications along with allegations that ammonia-containing additives are used to manipulate nicotine deliveries. However, initial review of PANKOW's research and that reported on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in an earlier paper showed that potentially serious issues existed with PANKOW's experimental data and conclusions. Consequently, a critical assessment of PANKOW's research and the underlying theories of gas/particle partitioning was undertaken. This assessment confirmed that PANKOW and his co-workers made a number of errors not only in their determinations of the gas/particle partitioning coefficients for nicotine in MSS and ETS but also in the interpretations of the data. During the preparation of this assessment, data from other researchers became public. These data showed that there was no correlation between tobacco ammonia (including residual ammonia from the use of ammonia-containing additives and MSS ammonia deliveries and MSS smoke pH, and that the amount of unprotonated nicotine in the undiluted MSS of a full flavor (FF American filter cigarette was less than 0.1%. These new data fully substantiated the findings of this assessment, and it can be safely concluded that the assertions made by PANKOW and his co-workers were incorrect. However, this assessment also showed that there is significant merit in the application of PANKOW's theory of absorptive partitioning for the estimation of the gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile components in MSS and ETS. Application of PANKOW's theory along with data from recent tobacco related

  16. Adolescent Sports Participation, E-cigarette Use, and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Sean Esteban; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Although sport participation among adolescents has been found to lower the risk of traditional cigarette smoking, no studies to date have assessed if this type of physical activity lowers the risk of e-cigarette use among adolescents. National data from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future study of 12th-grade students were used and analyses were conducted in 2016. Measures for past 30-day e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were used to assess differences between adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the past year and adolescents who did not. Differences in e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were assessed between 13 different sports to determine which sports were associated with a greater or lower risk of these behaviors. Adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport were less likely to engage in past 30-day traditional cigarette smoking (AOR=0.73, 95% CI=0.538, 0.973) and past 30-day dual use of traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.438, 0.982) when compared with their nonparticipating peers. Adolescents who participated in baseball/softball and wrestling were at greatest risk of e-cigarette use. Of the 13 assessed sports, none were found to lower the odds of e-cigarette use. No significant evidence was found that participation in a sport was a protective factor against e-cigarette use. Certain types of athletes are at an elevated risk of e-cigarette use, and prevention efforts targeted at these specific sports should be considered by school administrators. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Electronic Cigarette Use (Vaping) Topography and Estimation of Liquid Consumption: Implications for Research Protocol Standards Definition and for Public Health Authorities’ Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatis Kyrzopoulos; Vassilis Voudris; Dimitris Tsiapras; Giorgio Romagna; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although millions of people are using electronic cigarettes (ECs) and research on this topic has intensified in recent years, the pattern of EC use has not been systematically studied. Additionally, no comparative measure of exposure and nicotine delivery between EC and tobacco cigarette or nicotine replacement therapy (NRTs) has been established. This is important, especially in the context of the proposal for a new Tobacco Product Directive issued by the European Commission. Met...

  18. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-12-29

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  19. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Meernik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121 to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62% completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  20. Bisphenol A exposure assessment from olive oil consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Omar, Tarek F; Sukhn, Carol; Fares, Souha A; Abiad, Mohamad G; Habib, Rima R; Dhaini, Hassan R

    2017-07-01

    The use of bisphenol A (BPA) in packaging has grown over the past 50 years despite concerns of its migration into packaged food and beverages, resulting in human exposure. Many studies have reported tumorigenic effects and endocrine alterations associated with BPA in animal models. This study aims at assessing human exposure to BPA from olive oil. A total of 27 olive oil samples were collected from mills and local villagers in the Hasbaya District, a major olive oil harvesting region in Lebanon. Information on storage conditions was also collected. BPA was extracted and quantified by HPLC. Results showed significantly higher BPA levels in olive oil samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging (mean = 333 vs. 150 μg/kg, p value = 0.006), samples with a plastic storage duration of >1 year compared to those with a storage duration of <1 year (mean = 452 vs. 288 μg/kg, p value = 0.008), and oil samples sourced from locals compared to oil mills (mean = 376 vs. 228 μg/kg, p value = 0.022). Statistically significant higher BPA levels remained for samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging in the bootstrap multivariable linear regression (B = 121.56, 95% CI 53.44-194.39, p value = 0.009). This is the first report on BPA levels in Mediterranean olive oil. The estimated exposure was 1.38% of the EFSA tolerable daily intake, hence there are no concerns about potential health risks from olive oil consumption.

  1. Behavioral economic substitution between conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes differs as a function of the frequency of e-cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Sarah E; Cummings, K Michael; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-08-01

    Models measuring the interactions between consumption of conventional cigarettes and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the marketplace are becoming vital forecast tools as the popularity of e-cigarettes increases and policy on tobacco products changes. Behavioral economics, which involves the integration of psychology and consumer demand, can be used to measure individuals' purchase behavior under different marketplace conditions. Our goal was to measure hypothetical conventional cigarette and e-cigarette purchasing among smokers with varying e-cigarette use patterns. Daily cigarette smokers were recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing tool. Participants were asked about their frequency of e-cigarette use and to complete hypothetical single and cross-commodity purchase tasks. Frequency of e-cigarette use differentially affected how individuals consumed both conventional and e- cigarettes in different hypothetical marketplace conditions. The present study demonstrates four main findings: 1) the demand for conventional cigarettes was the lowest in those with greater frequency of e-cigarette use, 2) the demand for e-cigarettes was the highest in those with greater frequency of e-cigarette use, 3) when both products were available together, daily e-cigarette users purchased more e-cigarettes, but e-cigarettes served as a substitute for cigarettes in all groups regardless of frequency of use, and 4) the demand for conventional cigarette demand was lower in frequent e-cigarette users when e-cigarettes were concurrently available. Together, these data suggest that price and marketplace conditions will impact purchasing behavior of conventional and e-cigarettes users heterogeneously. Therefore, frequency of use patterns should be considered when implementing novel policies and/or marketplace changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of assessment methods for self-reported alcohol consumption in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Christensen, K

    2008-01-01

    To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking.......To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking....

  3. Prevalence and correlates of purchasing contraband cigarettes on First Nations reserves in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Rita; Cohen, Joanna E; Ferrence, Roberta; McDonald, Paul W; Schwartz, Robert; Bondy, Susan J

    2009-03-01

    Non-First Nations people purchasing cigarettes on First Nations reserves do not pay applicable taxes. We estimated prevalence and identified correlates of purchasing contraband cigarettes on reserves; we also quantified the share of contraband purchased on reserves relative to reported total cigarette consumption and the associated financial impact on taxation revenue. Data from the Ontario Tobacco Survey, a regionally stratified representative population telephone survey that over-samples smokers. Ontario, Canada. A total of 1382 adult current smokers. Reported status of purchasing cigarettes on reserves and the quantity of cigarettes bought on reserves. The prevalence of purchasing cigarettes on reserves was assessed with descriptive statistics. A two-part model was used to analyse correlates of having recently purchased contraband. A total of 25.8% reported recent purchasing and 11.5% reported usual purchasing. Heavy smoking, having no plans to quit and lower education were correlated with recent purchasing. Heavy smoking and not having plans to quit were also correlated with buying more packs of cigarettes on reserves. Contraband purchases on reserves accounted for 14.0% of the reported total cigarette consumption and resulted in an estimated tax loss of $122.2 million. There was substantial purchasing of contraband cigarettes on reserves in Ontario, resulting in significant losses in tax revenues. The availability of these cheap cigarettes undermines the effectiveness of tobacco taxation to reduce smoking. Wherever indicated, governments should strengthen their contraband prevention and control measures, as recommended by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, to ensure that tobacco taxation achieves its intended health benefits and that tax revenues are protected.

  4. Short-term in vitro and in vivo analyses for assessing the tumor-promoting potentials of cigarette smoke condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Hanausek, Margaret; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Mosberg, Arnold T; Slaga, Thomas J

    2004-09-01

    Previous studies found that repeated application of smoke condensate from tobacco-burning reference cigarettes to chemically initiated SENCAR mouse skin promoted the development of tumors in a statistically significant and dose-dependent manner, while condensate from prototype cigarettes that primarily heat tobacco promoted statistically fewer tumors. Based on the recognized correlation between sustained, potentiated epidermal hyperplasia and tumor promotion, we conducted tests to examine the utility of selected short-term analyses for discriminating between condensates exhibiting significantly different promotion activities. In vitro analyses assessing the potential for inducing cytotoxicity (ATP bioluminescence) or free radical production (cytochrome c reduction, salicylate trapping) demonstrated significant reductions when comparing condensate collected from prototype cigarettes to reference condensate. Short-term in vivo analyses conducted within the context of a mouse skin, tumor-promotion protocol (i.e., comparative measures of epidermal thickness, proliferative index, myeloperoxidase activity, leukocyte invasion, mutation of Ha-ras, and formation of modified DNA bases) provided similar results. Reference condensate induced statistically significant and dose-dependent increases (relative to vehicle control) for nearly all indices examined, while prototype condensate possessed a significantly reduced potential for inducing changes that we regarded as consistent with sustained epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation. Collectively, these data support the contention that selected short-term analyses associated with sustained hyperplasia and/or inflammation are capable of discriminating between smoke condensates with dissimilar tumor-promotion potentials. Moreover, our results suggest that comparative measures of proliferative index and myeloperoxidase activity, both possessing favorable correlation coefficients relative to tumor formation (i.e., > or = 0

  5. Public opinion regarding earmarked cigarette tax in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chung-Lin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette taxation has been perceived by academics and policy-makers as one of the most effective ways of reducing the use of cigarettes. On January 1 2002, the Taiwan government imposed a New Taiwan (NT $5 per pack tax earmarked for the purpose of tobacco control. This study uses a survey collected prior to taxation to assess public attitudes toward cigarette taxation, public beliefs about the effectiveness of cigarette taxation at reducing cigarette use and public opinions about the allocation of this tax revenue. Methods Data were drawn from a national face-to-face interview on cigarette consumption in 2000. A total of 3,279 adults were aged 18 to 64 years; 49.9% of whom were male and 50.1% female, and with a smoking prevalence of 49.1% and 4.1%, respectively. The attitudes toward cigarette tax were analysed using multi-logit regressions. We analysed by logistic regression the potential changes in smoking behaviour that smokers might make in response to the five NT (New Taiwan dollar earmarked tax on cigarettes per pack. We summarized public opinions about the allocation of earmarked tax revenue using descriptive statistics. Results Current smokers (OR = 0.34 and former smokers (OR = 0.68 were less likely to support the cigarette tax than non-smokers. A favourable attitude toward the tax was positively associated with personal monthly income, especially among females. Among male smokers, the possibility of reducing/quitting smoking in response to the five-NT-dollar tax was negatively associated with the monthly expense for smoking. The two most frequently-suggested areas to receive money from the revenue collected from the earmarked tax were health education and cancer subsidy. Conclusions Smoking status and economic factors determine the attitude and potential responses of people toward the cigarette tax. Taiwan's five NT-dollar earmarked tax for cigarettes may have only a limited effect upon the reduction in cigarette

  6. 'Loose' cigarettes association with intensity of smoking: A secondary data analysis from Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India, 2009-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitasha Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Raising tax on tobacco products is one of the key tobacco control strategies. Globally, it has led to decrease in overall cigarette consumption but on the other hand contributed to increased sale and purchase of loose cigarettes. These loose cigarettes have many important public health implications. Aim: To assess the association between practice of buying loose cigarettes and intensity of smoking. Materials and Methods: A secondary analysis of Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India 2009–2010 data was performed in May 2014, on adult population age 15 years and above. The key outcome variable was “intensity of smoking” defined as average number of cigarettes smoked per day, whereas the key exposure variable was “practice of purchasing loose cigarettes.” Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using EpiData software (version 2.2.2.182 and STATA version 12.1. Results: Nearly, 57% of current cigarette smokers (approximately 3.46 million bought loose cigarettes. The proportion of buying loose cigarettes decreased with increasing level of education and wealth index as well as least among government employees. The intensity of smoking was 70% less among loose cigarette buyers than nonbuyers (odds ratio [OR]: 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.24–0.34. It was found to be significantly lower in rural areas (OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68–0.97 and among homemakers and those who had formal schooling. Conclusion: This study showed that loose cigarette buying is associated with decreased in smoking intensity. This may be due to increased taxes leading to increased buying of single cigarettes. These findings, therefore, highlight a need for a comprehensive policy and further studies on loose cigarette selling.

  7. Cigarette smokers' classification of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casseus, M; Garmon, J; Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C D

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette consumption has declined in the USA. However, cigar consumption has increased. This may be due in part to some cigarette smokers switching to filtered cigars as a less expensive substitute for cigarettes. Additionally, some cigarette smokers may perceive and consume little filtered cigars as cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine how cigarette smokers classify tobacco products when presented with photographs of those products. An online survey was conducted with a sample of 344 self-identified cigarette smokers. Respondents were presented with pictures of various types of tobacco products, both with and without packaging, and then asked to categorise them as either a cigarette, little cigar, cigarillo, cigar or machine-injected roll-your-own cigarette (RYO). Respondents were also asked about their tobacco use and purchasing behaviour. Overall, respondents had difficulty distinguishing between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos and RYO. When presented with images of the products without packaging, 93% of respondents identified RYO as a cigarette, while 42% identified a little cigar as a cigarette. Additionally, respondents stated that they would consider purchasing little cigars as substitutes for cigarettes because of the price advantage. The results of this survey suggest that when presented with photographs of tobacco products, large proportions of current smokers were unable to differentiate between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos, RYO and cigars. Findings have implications for existing public health efforts targeting cigarette smokers, and underscore the need to review current definitions of tobacco products and federal excise taxes on such products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Self-reported smoking effects and comparative value between cigarettes and high dose e-cigarettes in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sterling; Howell, Donelle; Lewis, Jennifer; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Bertotti Metoyer, Patrick; Roll, John

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the comparative value of cigarettes versus high dose e-cigarettes among nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers when compared with money or use of their usual cigarette brand. The experiment used a within-subject design with four sessions. After baseline assessment, participants attended two 15-min unrestricted smoking sessions: one cigarette smoking session and one e-cigarette smoking session. Participants then attended two multiple-choice procedure (MCP) sessions: a session comparing cigarettes and money and a session comparing e-cigarettes and money. Participants (n=27) had used cigarettes regularly, had never used e-cigarettes, and were not currently attempting to quit smoking. The sample consisted primarily of males (72%), with a mean age of 34 years. When given the opportunity to choose between smoking a cigarette or an e-cigarette, participants chose the cigarette 73.9% of the time. Findings from the MCP demonstrated that after the first e-cigarette exposure sessions, the crossover value for cigarettes ($3.45) was significantly higher compared with the crossover value for e-cigarettes ($2.73). The higher participant preference, self-reported smoking effects, and higher MCP crossover points indicate that cigarettes have a higher comparative value than high dose e-cigarettes among e-cigarette naive smokers.

  9. Primary Care Physicians’ Beliefs and Practices Regarding E-Cigarette Use by Patients Who Smoke: A Qualitative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar El-Shahawy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We explored primary care physicians’ (PCPs’ beliefs and practices about e-cigarettes. Cross-sectional, semi-structured interviews with PCPs in 2014 were conducted and audio-recorded. Participants were 15 general internal and family medicine physicians practicing in two settings in Virginia, USA. Interview recordings were transcribed, and the content analyzed using the Constant Comparative Method to identify key themes regarding PCPs’ reported current practices and beliefs. Five themes were identified: (1 existing clinic processes do not include mechanisms to screen for noncombustible tobacco products (such as e-cigarettes; (2 e-cigarette discussions are becoming commonplace with patients initiating the discussions and seeking physician guidance regarding e-cigarette use; (3 a lack of knowledge regarding the potential harms and benefits of e-cigarettes, yet a willingness to support their patients’ desire to use e-cigarettes (4 believing e-cigarettes are a safer alternative to smoking combustible tobacco products; and (5 abandoning concerns regarding the potential harms of e-cigarettes in the context of highly addicted patients and those with extensive comorbidities. Despite acknowledging limited knowledge regarding e-cigarettes, findings suggest that some PCPs are currently recommending e-cigarettes to their patients for smoking cessation and relative harm reduction, often personalizing recommendations based on the patient’s perceived addiction level and current health status. Physicians need to be informed about the evolving evidence regarding the risks and benefits of e-cigarettes.

  10. Assessment of household charcoal consumption in urban areas: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic characteristics of the respondents and charcoal consumption. Results revealed that regardless of their income level, 79.8% of the respondents used charcoal as their main source of energy for cooking followed by gas (16.9%). Charcoal was ...

  11. Analytical assessment of the effects of alcohol consumption on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recognition of the consequences of alcohol and abuse on physical and mental health as well as socio-occupational life are necessary steps for initiating appropriate action to reduce the harm/dangers from alcohol consumption. This work was motivated by the observed and anticipated negative health burden with its ...

  12. Assessment of the effect of probiotic curd consumption on salivary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of use of various Probiotic products including curd. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of short‑term consumption of probiotic curd containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and normal curd on salivary Streptococcus Mutans counts, as well as salivary pH.

  13. Assessment of chronic exposure to cigarette smoke and its change during pregnancy by segmental analysis of maternal hair nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichini, Simona; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Muñoz, Laura; Vall, Oriol; Pacifici, Roberta; Figueroa, Cecilia; Pascual, José Antonio; Diaz, David; Sunyer, Jordi

    2003-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between biomarkers of fetal exposure to smoking during the whole pregnancy, nicotine in maternal and newborns hair samples, and quantitative measurement of smoking intake and exposure evaluated by maternal self-reported questionnaire. Study subjects were 150 mothers and their newborns from a hospital in Barcelona. A questionnaire including smoking habits was completed in the third trimester of pregnancy and on the day of delivery. Nicotine content was measured in two subsequent segments of maternal hair accounting for the first and last months of pregnancy, and in fetal hair. The geometric mean of nicotine concentration in maternal hair discriminated between nonexposition (3.84 and 2.80 ng/mg in distal and proximal hair segment, respectively) and exposition to cigarette smoke during pregnancy (6.06 and 4.30 ng/mg in distal and proximal hair segment, respectively) (P<0.05), and between these two classes and active smoking (14.40 and 11.08 ng/mg in distal and proximal hair segment, respectively). Maternal hair nicotine was able to differentiate levels of exposure to tobacco smoke and levels of intake. Nicotine concentration in hair from newborns did not differentiate between exposure and nonexposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in nonsmoking mothers. Finally, chronic exposure to cigarette smoke during pregnancy, assessed by maternal hair nicotine, correlated negatively with anthropometric parameters of newborns.

  14. Development of a Rapid Cell-free Method for Cytotoxicity Assessment of Vapor Phase of Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours X

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, several in vitro tests are widely used to measure toxicological properties of mainstream smoke (Neutral Red Uptake Assay, Micronucleus assay, Ames Test. These tests are necessary to assess cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity, but are time consuming. This is essentially due to the preparation and the handling of cells. It is difficult to use these in vitro tests as screening method for product testing and development. For a better assessment of the cytotoxicity of the vapor phase, a rapid cell-free method has been developed. This paper describes a capillary electrophoresis cell-free method, based on the depletion of an anti-oxidant L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (GSH, applied to an aliquot of vapor phase phosphate buffered saline (PBS-trapped cigarette smoke (as recommended for in vitro testing. The correlation between this method and the survival/viability test (Neutral Red cytotoxicity is excellent (coefficient of correlation (r = 0.99.

  15. Electronic cigarettes, quit attempts and smoking cessation: a 6-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquereau, Anne; Guignard, Romain; Andler, Raphaël; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt

    2017-09-01

    There is conflicting evidence that use of e-cigarettes promotes cessation in regular smokers, but contrasting findings may be due to differing definitions of vaping. The aim was to assess whether regular use of e-cigarettes while smoking is associated with subsequent smoking cessation. Baseline internet survey with outcomes measured at 6-month follow-up. All French metropolitan territory. A total of 2057 smokers aged 15-85 years were recruited through an access panel and responded to a 6-month follow-up: 1805 exclusive tobacco smokers and 252 dual users (tobacco plus regular e-cigarette users) at baseline. The three outcomes assessed at 6 months were: a minimum 50% reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts of at least 7 days and smoking cessation of at least 7 days at the time of follow-up. Logistic regressions were performed to model the three outcomes according to regular e-cigarette use at baseline, adjusted for socio-economic variables and smoking behaviours. Baseline dual users were more likely than baseline exclusive tobacco smokers to have halved cigarette consumption [25.9 versus 11.2%, P difference was found for 7-day cessation rates at 6 months (12.5 versus 9.5%, P = 0.18, aOR = 1.2, CI = 0.8-1.9). Among people who smoke, those also using an e-cigarette regularly are more likely to try to quit smoking and reduce their cigarette consumption during the next 6 months. It remains unclear whether regular e-cigarette users are also more likely to stop smoking. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Latent factor structure of a behavioral economic cigarette demand curve in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L Cinnamon; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G; Tidey, Jennifer W; Colby, Suzanne M

    2012-11-01

    Behavioral economic demand curves, or quantitative representations of drug consumption across a range of prices, have been used to assess motivation for a variety of drugs. Such curves generate multiple measures of drug demand that are associated with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. However, little is known about the relationships among these facets of demand. The aim of the study was to quantify these relationships in adolescent smokers by using exploratory factor analysis to examine the underlying structure of the facets of nicotine incentive value generated from a demand curve measure. Participants were 138 adolescent smokers who completed a hypothetical cigarette purchase task, which assessed estimated cigarette consumption at escalating levels of price/cigarette. Demand curves and five facets of demand were generated from the measure: Elasticity (i.e., 1/α or proportionate price sensitivity); Intensity (i.e., consumption at zero price); O(max) (i.e., maximum financial expenditure on cigarettes); P(max) (i.e., price at which expenditure is maximized); and Breakpoint (i.e., the price that suppresses consumption to zero). Principal components analysis was used to examine the latent structure among the variables. The results revealed a two-factor solution, which were interpreted as "Persistence," reflecting insensitivity to escalating price, and "Amplitude," reflecting the absolute levels of consumption and price. These findings suggest a two factor structure of nicotine incentive value as measured via a demand curve. If supported, these findings have implications for understanding the relationships among individual demand indices in future behavioral economic studies and may further contribute to understanding of the nature of cigarette reinforcement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  18. Building environment assessment and energy consumption estimation using smart phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangli; Zhang, Li; Jia, Yingqi; Wang, Zihan; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an APP for building indoor environment evaluation and energy consumption estimation based on Android platform is proposed and established. While using the APP, the smart phone built-in sensors are called for real-time monitoring of the building environmental information such as temperature, humidity and noise, etc. the built-in algorithm is developed to calculate the heat and power consumption, and questionnaires, grading and other methods are used to feed back to the space heating system. In addition, with the application of the technology of big data and cloud technology, the data collected by users will be uploaded to the cloud. After the statistics of the uploaded data, regional difference can be obtained, thus providing a more accurate basis for macro-control and research of energy, thermal comfort, greenhouse effect.

  19. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETTER, Jean-François; EISSENBERG, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Design Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale, the Cigarette Dependence Scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Results Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Conclusions Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. PMID:25561385

  20. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: (a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; (b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); (c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence, the nicotine dependence syndrome scale, the cigarette dependence scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (≤3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A public health strategy for e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sven; Diehl, Katharina

    2015-07-01

    The e-cigarette may present a new and significant Public Health problem: Studies published so far do not seem to indicate that e-cigarette use is just a passing trend. If e-cigarette use is less harmless than it is portrayed in many advertisements, Public Health would do well to start a serious discussion about a suitable prevention policy as soon as possible.The aim of this short paper is to discuss a range of measures designed to prevent e-cigarette consumption.Concretely, we suggest to monitor e-cigarette use, the e-cigarette industry and prevention policies, to implement a vapor-free policy, to develop help to quit e-cigarette use, to inform about the health risks of e-cigarette use, to establish regulations on e-cigarette advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and to introduce taxes on e-cigarettes.

  2. Electronic Cigarette Use among Mississippi Adults, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent L. Mendy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine in the form of aerosol. We identify differences and associations in e-cigarette use by sociodemographic characteristics and describe the reported reasons for initiating use among Mississippi adults. We used the 2015 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which collected information on e-cigarette use from 6,035 respondents. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use and having ever tried an e-cigarette was determined overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. Weighted prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and prevalences for subgroups were compared using the X2 tests and associations were assessed using logistic regression. In 2015, 4.7% of Mississippi adults currently used e-cigarettes, while 20.5% had ever tried an e-cigarette. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use was significantly higher for young adults, whites, men, individuals unable to work, those with income $35,000–$49,999, and current smokers compared to their counterparts. Similar results were observed for having ever tried an e-cigarette. E-cigarette use was associated with age, race, income, and smoking status. Most (71.2% of current e-cigarette users and over half (52.1% of those who have ever tried e-cigarettes reported that a main reason for trying or using e-cigarettes was “to cut down or quit smoking.”

  3. Impact of cigarette minimum price laws on the retail price of cigarettes in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Michael A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Loomis, Brett R

    2013-05-01

    Cigarette price increases prevent youth initiation, reduce cigarette consumption and increase the number of smokers who quit. Cigarette minimum price laws (MPLs), which typically require cigarette wholesalers and retailers to charge a minimum percentage mark-up for cigarette sales, have been identified as an intervention that can potentially increase cigarette prices. 24 states and the District of Columbia have cigarette MPLs. Using data extracted from SCANTRACK retail scanner data from the Nielsen company, average cigarette prices were calculated for designated market areas in states with and without MPLs in three retail channels: grocery stores, drug stores and convenience stores. Regression models were estimated using the average cigarette pack price in each designated market area and calendar quarter in 2009 as the outcome variable. The average difference in cigarette pack prices are 46 cents in the grocery channel, 29 cents in the drug channel and 13 cents in the convenience channel, with prices being lower in states with MPLs for all three channels. The findings that MPLs do not raise cigarette prices could be the result of a lack of compliance and enforcement by the state or could be attributed to the minimum state mark-up being lower than the free-market mark-up for cigarettes. Rather than require a minimum mark-up, which can be nullified by promotional incentives and discounts, states and countries could strengthen MPLs by setting a simple 'floor price' that is the true minimum price for all cigarettes or could prohibit discounts to consumers and retailers.

  4. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and the Morphology of Atherosclerotic Plaques in the Extracranial Arteries Assessed by Computed Tomography Angiography in Patients with Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gać, Paweł; Jaźwiec, Przemysław; Mazur, Grzegorz; Poręba, Rafał

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between exposure to cigarette smoke and the morphology of atherosclerotic plaques in the extracranial arteries assessed by computed tomography angiography in patients with hypertension. The study included 61 hypertensive patients: 17 active smokers (group A), 18 non-smokers, declaring environmental exposure to tobacco smoke (group B), and 26 non-smokers, not declaring exposure to cigarette smoke (group C). The number of segments with plaques was significantly higher in group A compared to groups B and C. The number of segments with non-calcified and mixed plaques was significantly higher in group A and group B than in group C. A positive correlation between cigarette-years and the number of segments with atherosclerotic plaques was noted. In summary, both active smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke appear to increase the number of segments of the extracranial arteries with non-calcified and mixed atherosclerotic plaques.

  5. Comparison of Methods to Assess Consumption of Micronutrient Powders Among Young Children in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'eno, Bernadette N; Perrine, Cria G; Subedi, Giri Raj; Mebrahtu, Saba; Dahal, Pradiumna; Jefferds, Maria Elena D

    2017-09-01

    Assessing micronutrient powder (MNP) consumption is the key for monitoring program performance; no gold standard exists for assessing consumption in nutrition programs. To compare estimates of MNP consumption assessed by maternal report versus observed unopened MNP sachets in the household. Cross-sectional household surveys of children aged 6 to 23 months were conducted to assess an MNP project in Nepal; eligible children received 60 sachets per distribution. Mothers reported the number of sachets consumed and showed unused sachets. Directly observed difference (DOD) of MNP consumption was calculated by subtracting the number of observed unopened sachets from 60. Spearman correlation coefficient, categories of MNP consumption, and end digit preference were assessed. A total of 205 mothers did not show remaining unopened sachets despite reporting that all were not consumed. For the remaining 605 children, median consumption was 60.0 sachets by DOD and maternal report; the correlation coefficient was 0.91. With consumption grouped into categories of 0 to 14, 15 to 29, 30 to 44, and 45 to 60 sachets, the percent categorized into the same groupings by DOD and maternal report was 100%, 80.6%, 80.7%, and 91.2%, respectively. Excluding those who consumed 60 sachets, 16.9% and 8.0% by report and 14.2% and 6.1% DOD, ended with 0 and 5, respectively. Had the observation of unused sachets been used alone to assess MNP consumption, 205 children would not have been assessed. Estimates of MNP consumption by DOD and maternal report were similar in this population with high intake adherence.

  6. Menthol Content in US Marketed Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jiu; Taylor, Kenneth M; Lisko, Joseph G; Tran, Hang; Watson, Clifford H; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-07-01

    In 2011 menthol cigarettes accounted for 32 percent of the market in the United States, but there are few literature reports that provide measured menthol data for commercial cigarettes. To assess current menthol application levels in the US cigarette market, menthol levels in cigarettes labeled or not labeled to contain menthol was determined for a variety of contemporary domestic cigarette products. We measured the menthol content of 45 whole cigarettes using a validated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. In 23 cigarette brands labeled as menthol products, the menthol levels of the whole cigarette ranged from 2.9 to 19.6mg/cigarette, with three products having higher levels of menthol relative to the other menthol products. The menthol levels for 22 cigarette products not labeled to contain menthol ranged from 0.002 to 0.07mg/cigarette. The type of packaging (soft vs. hard pack) for a given cigarette product does not appear to affect menthol levels based on the current limited data. Menthol levels in cigarette products labeled as containing menthol are approximately 50- to 5000-fold higher than those in cigarette products not labeled as containing menthol. In general, menthol content appears to occur within discrete ranges for both mentholated and nonmentholated cigarettes. This study shows that menthol may be present in non-mentholated cigarettes and adds to the understanding of how menthol may be used in cigarette products. It is the first systematic study from the same laboratory which will readily enable comparison among menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Thac Nguyen

    Full Text Available Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine

  8. The Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Tax Avoidance and Illicit Trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve

  9. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Infogallery Be Tobacco Free Search betobaccofree.gov Menu Search ABOUT TOBACCO Tobacco Facts and Figures Tobacco and Nicotine Smoked Tobacco Products Smokeless Tobacco Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction ...

  10. Assessment methods for alcohol consumption, prevalence of high risk drinking and harm: a sensitivity analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rehm, J; Greenfield, T K; Walsh, G; Xie, X; Robson, L; Single, E

    1999-01-01

    .... The main objective of the present study was to compare three widely used methods for assessing alcohol consumption with respect to resulting prevalence estimates for high risk drinking and harm...

  11. A propulsion injury following a spontaneous electronic cigarette explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherrie Chan Yiru

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes have become increasingly popular at an alarming rate. This coincides with the public perception that they are a safer mean of nicotine consumption. Unregulated devices carry unrecognized safety risks that have led to numerous cases of burns, associating with spontaneous combustions of e-cigarettes.

  12. Cigarette trafficking in five northeastern US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Grimshaw, Victoria; Merriman, David; Farrelly, Matthew C; Chernick, Howard; Coady, Micaela H; Campbell, Kelsey; Kansagra, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    Cigarette taxation is effective in reducing tobacco use in the USA. However, these benefits are reduced when taxes are unpaid. Cigarette trafficking (ie, the illegal importation of cigarettes into a high-tax jurisdiction from a lower-tax jurisdiction) is well documented in high-tax places like New York City (NYC), but the extent of trafficking in other northeastern cities is relatively unknown. To estimate the extent of cigarette trafficking in Boston, NYC, Philadelphia, Providence and Washington, DC, and project the benefits of reducing cigarette trafficking for recouping lost taxes and reducing smoking in these cities. Littered cigarette packs were collected from a random sample of Census tracts in five US cities. Data collection yielded 1439 total littered packs. The share of cigarette packs bearing proper local, known non-local, foreign or unknown, or no tax stamp was calculated for each city. These data were used to estimate tax revenue recovery if cigarette trafficking could be eliminated. We also estimated the extent to which eliminating cigarette trafficking would reduce cigarette consumption. Overall, 58.7% of packs did not have a proper local tax stamp, and 30.5-42.1% were attributed to trafficking. We estimate that eliminating cigarette trafficking would result in declines in youth smoking prevalence ranging from negligible in low-tax cities like Philadelphia to up to 9.3% in higher-tax NYC. We estimate that these five cities could recoup $680-729 million annually in cigarette tax revenue if cigarette trafficking was eliminated. Reducing cigarette trafficking would increase the effectiveness of tobacco taxes in reducing smoking and generate additional tax revenue, particularly in higher-taxed cities. Federal action to reduce cigarette trafficking, such as a track-and-trace system, is needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Consumption patterns and biomarkers of exposure in cigarette smokers switched to Snus, various dissolvable tobacco products, Dual use, or tobacco abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautter, George R; Chen, Peter X; Borgerding, Michael F

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this clinical study were to evaluate changes in tobacco product use behavior and levels of selected biomarkers of exposure (BOEs) for smokers who switched to one of six conditions during clinical confinement: exclusive use of; Camel Snus, Sticks, Strips or Orbs, controlled Dual use of cigarettes and Camel Snus, or tobacco abstinence. The controlled Dual use (DU) condition mandated a 60% reduction in cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). 167 healthy U.S. male and female smokers were randomized to the six groups (n=25-30/group). Subjects smoked their usual brand of cigarette for 1 day prior to switching to their designated intervention condition. Levels of thirty-two BOEs in plasma, whole blood, urine and feces were determined before and after switching. Questionnaires that scored nicotine dependence and withdrawal discomfort were also administered. After 5 days, exclusive Snus, Sticks, Strips, or Orbs use averaged 6.1, 5.9, 13.5, and 8.5 units/day, respectively. DU subjects smoked 7.6 CPD and used 3.2 Snus pouches/day, on average. After 5 days, substantial reductions of most biomarkers, including nicotine, were observed in all groups. Toxicant exposures were similar to being tobacco abstinent after switching exclusively to Camel Snus, Sticks, Strips or Orbs. DU reductions were more modest. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption on bone formation and osseous integration of hydroxyapatite implant Os efeitos do cigarro e do consumo de café sobre a formação óssea e a integração óssea de implantes de hidroxiapatita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Andrade

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to assess the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation and/or coffee consumption on bone formation and osseous integration of a dense hydroxyapatite (DHA implant in rats. For this study, 20 male rats were divided into four groups (n = 5: CT (control group, CE (coffee group, CI (cigarette group and CC (coffee + cigarette group. During 16 weeks, animals in the CI group were exposed to cigarette smoke inhalation equivalent to 6 cigarettes per day; specimens in the CE group drank coffee as liquid diet; and rats in the CC group were submitted to both substances. In the 6th week a 5 mm slit in the parietal bone and a 4 mm slit in the tibia were performed on the left side: the former was left open while the latter received a DHA implant. As soon as surgeries were finished, the animals returned to their original protocols and after 10 weeks of exposure they were euthanised (ethically sacrificed and the mentioned bones collected for histological processing. Data showed that exposure to cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption did not interfere in weight gain and that solid and liquid diet consumption was satisfactory. Rats in the CC group showed a decrease in bone neoformation around the tibial DHA implant (31.8 ± 2.8 as well as in bone formation in the parietal slit (28.6 ± 2.2. On their own, cigarette smoke inhalation or coffee consumption also led to diminished bone neoformation around the implant and delayed the bone repair process in relation to the CT group. However, reduction in the bone repair process was accentuated with exposure to both cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption in this study.O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do tabagismo e do consumo de café, isolada ou concomitantemente, sobre a formação óssea e a osseointegração de implantes hidroxiapatita densa. Foram utilizados 20 ratos machos, divididos em quatro grupos (n = 5: grupo CT (controle; grupo CA (café; grupo CI

  15. Non-cigarette tobacco and the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schivo, Michael; Avdalovic, Mark V; Murin, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for "safer" alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use.

  16. Expectancies for Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Nicotine Replacement Therapies Among E-Cigarette Users (aka Vapers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquinez, Nicole S.; Correa, John B.; Meltzer, Lauren R.; Unrod, Marina; Sutton, Steven K.; Simmons, Vani N.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of e-cigarettes has been increasing exponentially, with the primary motivation reported as smoking cessation. To understand why smokers choose e-cigarettes as an alternative to cigarettes, as well as to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved nicotine replacement therapies (NRT), we compared outcome expectancies (beliefs about the results of drug use) for the three nicotine delivery systems among vapers, i.e., e-cigarette users, who were former smokers. Methods: Vapers (N = 1,434) completed an online survey assessing 14 expectancy domains as well as perceived cost and convenience. We focused on comparisons between e-cigarettes and cigarettes to determine the attraction of e-cigarettes as a smoking alternative and between e-cigarettes and NRT to determine perceived advantages of e-cigarettes over FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. Results: Participants believed that e-cigarettes, in comparison to conventional cigarettes, had fewer health risks; caused less craving, withdrawal, addiction, and negative physical feelings; tasted better; and were more satisfying. In contrast, conventional cigarettes were perceived as better than e-cigarettes for reducing negative affect, controlling weight, providing stimulation, and reducing stress. E-cigarettes, compared to NRT, were perceived to be less risky, cost less, cause fewer negative physical feelings, taste better, provide more satisfaction, and be better at reducing craving, negative affect, and stress. Moderator analyses indicated history with ad libitum forms of NRT was associated with less positive NRT expectancies. Conclusions: The degree to which expectancies for e-cigarettes differed from expectancies for either tobacco cigarettes or NRT offers insight into the motivation of e-cigarette users and provides guidance for public health and clinical interventions to encourage smoking-related behavior change. PMID:25168035

  17. Expectancies for cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and nicotine replacement therapies among e-cigarette users (aka vapers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Marquinez, Nicole S; Correa, John B; Meltzer, Lauren R; Unrod, Marina; Sutton, Steven K; Simmons, Vani N; Brandon, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    Use of e-cigarettes has been increasing exponentially, with the primary motivation reported as smoking cessation. To understand why smokers choose e-cigarettes as an alternative to cigarettes, as well as to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)--approved nicotine replacement therapies (NRT), we compared outcome expectancies (beliefs about the results of drug use) for the three nicotine delivery systems among vapers, i.e., e-cigarette users, who were former smokers. Vapers (N = 1,434) completed an online survey assessing 14 expectancy domains as well as perceived cost and convenience. We focused on comparisons between e-cigarettes and cigarettes to determine the attraction of e-cigarettes as a smoking alternative and between e-cigarettes and NRT to determine perceived advantages of e-cigarettes over FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. Participants believed that e-cigarettes, in comparison to conventional cigarettes, had fewer health risks; caused less craving, withdrawal, addiction, and negative physical feelings; tasted better; and were more satisfying. In contrast, conventional cigarettes were perceived as better than e-cigarettes for reducing negative affect, controlling weight, providing stimulation, and reducing stress. E-cigarettes, compared to NRT, were perceived to be less risky, cost less, cause fewer negative physical feelings, taste better, provide more satisfaction, and be better at reducing craving, negative affect, and stress. Moderator analyses indicated history with ad libitum forms of NRT was associated with less positive NRT expectancies. The degree to which expectancies for e-cigarettes differed from expectancies for either tobacco cigarettes or NRT offers insight into the motivation of e-cigarette users and provides guidance for public health and clinical interventions to encourage smoking-related behavior change. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved

  18. Do Current and Former Cigarette Smokers have an Attentional Bias for E-cigarette Cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Wileyto, E Paul; Tang, Kathy Z; Mercincavage, Melissa; Cappella, Joseph N; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-09-01

    The similarity of e-cigarettes to tobacco cigarettes with regard to shape and usage raises the question of whether e-cigarette cues have the same incentive motivational properties as tobacco cigarette cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether e-cigarette cues capture and hold smokers' and former smokers' attention and whether the attentional focus is associated with subsequent craving for tobacco cigarettes. It was also examined whether device type (cigalike or mod) moderated this relationship. Participants (46 current daily smokers, 38 former smokers, 48 non-smokers) were randomly assigned to a device type condition in which their eye-movements were assessed while completing a visual probe task. Craving was assessed before and after the task. Smokers, but not former or non-smokers, maintained their gaze longer on e-cigarette than on neutral pictures ( p = 0.004). No difference in dwell time was found between device type. None of the smoking status groups showed faster initial fixations or faster reaction times to e-cigarette compared with neutral cues. Baseline craving was associated with dwell time on e-cigarette cues ( p = 0.004). Longer dwell time on e-cigarette cues was associated with more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes. These findings indicate that e-cigarette cues may contribute to craving for tobacco cigarettes and suggest the potential regulation of e-cigarette marketing.

  19. Characteristics of cigarette smoking without alcohol consumption and laryngeal cancer: overall and time-risk relation. A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jing-Jing; Tao, Ze-Zhang; Chen, Chen; Hu, Zhang-Wei; Xu, Ye-Xing; Zheng, An-Yuan; Guo, Yi

    2017-03-01

    Tobacco smoking was one of the risk factors for upper aerodigestive tract cancer, but exclusive quantification of the impact of cigarette smoking on laryngeal cancer had not been investigated. A meta-analysis of researches that had reported quantitative estimates of cigarette smoking and risk of laryngeal cancer by March 2016 was performed. Pooled estimates of relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals were obtained and summarized. Sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were implemented to find out sources of research heterogeneity and the effect of potential confounders. Publication bias was investigated and corrected if found to be present through Egger's and Begg's test, and trim and fill algorithm. Thirty researches based on a total of 14,292 cases from three cohort and fifteen case-control studies were included and pooled estimate for the correlation between cigarette smoking and the risk of laryngeal cancer was 7.01 (95% confidence interval 5.56-8.85), with moderate heterogeneity across the researches (I 2 = 56.7%, p = 0.002). The RRs were 5.04 (95% CI 3.09-8.22) for cohort studies (p = 0.121), 7.59 (95% CI 5.86-9.82) for case-control studies (p = 0.005). The risk kept elevated within the first fifteen years of quitting smoking(RR 3.62, 95% CI 1.88-7.00) but dropped in the 16 years and more after smoking cessation(RR 1.88, 95% CI 1.16-3.05). Individuals who smoked with 40 or more pack-years had nine times the risk of laryngeal cancer(RR 9.14; 95% CI 6.24-13.39). Subjects who smoked 30 or more cigarettes a day had sevenfolds the risk of laryngeal cancer (RR 7.02; 95% CI 4.47-11.02) and who smoked 40 or more years had five times the risk versus never smokers (RR 5.76; 95% CI 3.69-8.99). Evidence of publication bias was not detected for the correlation between current cigarette smoking and risk of laryngeal cancer (p = 0.225 with Begg's test, p = 0.317 with Egger's test). The results demonstrated strong correlation referring to dose

  20. Impact of Exposure to Electronic Cigarette Advertising on Susceptibility and Trial of Electronic Cigarettes and Cigarettes in US Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie F; Pearson, Jennifer L; Richardson, Amanda; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the impact of brief exposure to four electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) print advertisements (ads) on perceptions, intention, and subsequent use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes in US young adults. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a national sample of young adults from an online panel survey in 2013. Participants were randomized to ad exposure or control. Curiosity, intentions, and perceptions regarding e-cigarettes were assessed post-exposure and e-cigarette and cigarette use at 6-month follow-up. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Approximately 6% of young adults who had never used an e-cigarette at baseline tried an e-cigarette at 6-month follow-up, half of whom were current cigarette smokers at baseline. Compared to the control group, ad exposure was associated with greater curiosity to try an e-cigarette (18.3% exposed vs. 11.3% unexposed, AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.18, 2.26) among never e-cigarette users and greater likelihood of e-cigarette trial at follow-up (3.6% exposed vs. 1.2% unexposed, AOR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.07, 7.61) among never users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Exploratory analyses did not find an association between ad exposure and cigarette trial or past 30-day use among never users, nor cigarette use among smokers over time. Curiosity mediated the relationship between ad exposure and e-cigarette trial among e-cigarette never users. Exposure to e-cigarette ads may enhance curiosity and limited trial of e-cigarettes in never users. Future studies are needed to examine the net effect of curiosity and trial of e-cigarettes on longer-term patterns of tobacco use. This randomized trial provides the first evidence of the effect of e-cigarette advertising on a behavioral outcome in young adults. Compared to the control group, ad exposure was associated with greater curiosity to try an e-cigarette among never e-cigarette users and greater likelihood of e-cigarette trial at follow-up in a small number of never e-cigarette

  1. Are Metals Emitted from Electronic Cigarettes a Reason for Health Concern? A Risk-Assessment Analysis of Currently Available Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have found that metals are emitted to the electronic cigarette (EC aerosol. However, the potential health impact of exposure to such metals has not been adequately defined. The purpose of this study was to perform a risk assessment analysis, evaluating the exposure of electronic cigarette (EC users to metal emissions based on findings from the published literature. Methods: Two studies were found in the literature, measuring metals emitted to the aerosol from 13 EC products. We estimated that users take on average 600 EC puffs per day, but we evaluated the daily exposure from 1200 puffs. Estimates of exposure were compared with the chronic Permissible Daily Exposure (PDE from inhalational medications defined by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the Minimal Risk Level (MRL defined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (manganese and the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (aluminum, barium, iron, tin, titanium, zinc and zirconium. Results: The average daily exposure from 13 EC products was 2.6 to 387 times lower than the safety cut-off point of PDEs, 325 times lower than the safety limit of MRL and 665 to 77,514 times lower than the safety cut-off point of RELs. Only one of the 13 products was found to result in exposure 10% higher than PDE for one metal (cadmium at the extreme daily use of 1200 puffs. Significant differences in emissions between products were observed. Conclusions: Based on currently available data, overall exposure to metals from EC use is not expected to be of significant health concern for smokers switching to EC use, but is an unnecessary source of exposure for never-smokers. Metal analysis should be expanded to more products and exposure can be further reduced through improvements in product quality and appropriate choice of materials.

  2. Are metals emitted from electronic cigarettes a reason for health concern? A risk-assessment analysis of currently available literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Voudris, Vassilis; Poulas, Konstantinos

    2015-05-15

    Studies have found that metals are emitted to the electronic cigarette (EC) aerosol. However, the potential health impact of exposure to such metals has not been adequately defined. The purpose of this study was to perform a risk assessment analysis, evaluating the exposure of electronic cigarette (EC) users to metal emissions based on findings from the published literature. Two studies were found in the literature, measuring metals emitted to the aerosol from 13 EC products. We estimated that users take on average 600 EC puffs per day, but we evaluated the daily exposure from 1200 puffs. Estimates of exposure were compared with the chronic Permissible Daily Exposure (PDE) from inhalational medications defined by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel), the Minimal Risk Level (MRL) defined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (manganese) and the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (aluminum, barium, iron, tin, titanium, zinc and zirconium). The average daily exposure from 13 EC products was 2.6 to 387 times lower than the safety cut-off point of PDEs, 325 times lower than the safety limit of MRL and 665 to 77,514 times lower than the safety cut-off point of RELs. Only one of the 13 products was found to result in exposure 10% higher than PDE for one metal (cadmium) at the extreme daily use of 1200 puffs. Significant differences in emissions between products were observed. Based on currently available data, overall exposure to metals from EC use is not expected to be of significant health concern for smokers switching to EC use, but is an unnecessary source of exposure for never-smokers. Metal analysis should be expanded to more products and exposure can be further reduced through improvements in product quality and appropriate choice of materials.

  3. E-Cigarettes and Future Cigarette Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Urman, Robert; Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess Boley; Pentz, Mary Ann; Samet, Jonathan M; Leventhal, Adam M; McConnell, Rob

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research examining whether e-cigarette use increases the risk of cigarette initiation among adolescents in the transition to adulthood when the sale of cigarettes becomes legal...

  4. Clove cigar sales following the US flavoured cigarette ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Hrywna, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Following the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009, flavoured cigarettes, including clove cigarettes, were banned based on the rationale that such cigarettes appealed to youth. However, the ban on characterising flavours was not extended to cigars. This study reviewed industry documents from Kretek International, the parent company behind Djarum clove cigars, to document the changes in their marketing and production strategies following the flavour ban on cigarettes. To assess sales trends following the ban, data for clove cigar sales in the USA from 2009 to 2012 were analysed using Nielsen's Convenience Track retail scanner database. Additionally, data on tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia were obtained from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System for the years 2008-2012. In anticipation of Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) flavour ban on cigarettes and recognising the regulatory advantages of cigars, Kretek International began developing Djarum clove cigars in 2007. Immediately following the flavour ban, sales of this product increased by more than 1400% between 2009 and 2012. During this same period, tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia, a leader in clove tobacco production, shifted from cigarettes to almost exclusively cigars. Kretek International, like other tobacco manufacturers, manipulated its products following the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act as a way to capitalise on regulatory loopholes and replace its now banned clove cigarettes. As a result, consumption of the company's Djarum clove cigars increased exponentially in recent years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Trends in annual sales and current use of cigarettes, cigars, roll-your-own tobacco, pipes, and smokeless tobacco among US adults, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Alpert, Hillel R

    2016-07-01

    Regulatory imbalances exist in the treatment of cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products in the USA. We assessed whether declines in cigarette consumption during 2002-2012 were offset by increased use of non-cigarette tobacco products-cigars, pipes, roll-your-own (RYO) and smokeless tobacco. Industry-reported taxable removals (actual sales) were converted into packs for cigarettes and cigarette pack equivalents (CPEs) for loose tobacco (RYO plus pipe tobacco) and moist snuff. Cigars were not converted to CPEs because of their heterogeneity in size/tobacco content. Per capita sales were calculated for the US adult population aged ≥18 years based on the US Census Bureau data. Self-reported data on current (past 30-day) tobacco use among US adults aged ≥18 years were from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Joinpoint and logistic regression were used to assess linear trends during 2002-2012. During 2002-2012, cigarette sales declined from 96.91 to 59.85 cigarette packs per capita; increases occurred for sale of cigars (30.51-57.42 cigars per capita), loose tobacco (2.50-5.63 CPEs per capita) and moist snuff (10.64-14.58 CPEs per capita; all psmokeless tobacco use (3.5-3.7%; all ptobacco consumption is a public health concern because all tobacco products are harmful. Eliminating imbalances in tax structure and regulations between cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products may help reduce aggregate tobacco consumption. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Quality Assessment of Some High Consumption Foods in Zanjan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hassanzad Azar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foods go through many changes from production to table and continuous control is necessary to maintain food safety and supply foods with good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of some foods with high consumption in Zanjan city within 5 years from 2009 to 2013. Methods: In a case-control descriptive study with an annually- controlled program within 5 years from 2009 to 2014, some food samples including pasteurized milk, vegetable oils, flour, kebab, salt, confectionary products and a special cookie called nan-chay were collected and analyzed in food control laboratory of Zanjan university of medical sciences. Results: According to national standard of Iran, of Nan-chay, salt, vegetable oils, kebab, confectionary products, and pasteurized milk samples 68.4%, 46%, 24.3%, 10.4%, 9.3%, 5% were out of national standard limits and unacceptable, respectively. All flour samples had good standard quality. Mean± sd values of pH in Nan-chay samples were 7.5 and 1.19, respectively. Mean± sd values of the degree of purity in salt samples were 98.21 and 1.75, respectively. Conclusion: Results showed that among the 7 types of collected foods in Zanjan city, the most nonstandard cases were of Nan-chay samples and the best quality was seen in flour samples.

  7. Historical overview of diet assessment and food consumption surveys in Spain: assessment methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán Fagúndez, Luis Juan; Rivera Torres, Alejandra; González Sánchez, María Eugenia; de Torres Aured, Mari Lourdes; López-Pardo Martínez, Mercedes; Irles Rocamora, José Antonio

    2015-02-26

    The food consumption assessment methods are used in nutrition and health population surveys and are the basis for the development of guidelines, nutritional recommendations and health plans, The study of these issues is one of the major tasks of the research and health policy in developed countries. Major advances nationally in this area have been made since 1940, both in the reliability of the data and in the standardization of studies, which is a necessary condition to compare changes over time. In this article the history and application of different dietary surveys, dietary history and food frequency records are analyzed. Besides information from surveys conducted at a national level, the main data currently available for public health planning in nutrition comes from nutritional analysis of household budget surveys and food balance sheets, based on data provided by the Ministry of Agriculture. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. An exploratory analysis of cigarette price premium, market share and consumer loyalty in relation to continued consumption versus cessation in a national US panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Cahn, Zachary; Berg, Carla J

    2015-11-03

    Brand equity and consumer loyalty play a role in continued purchasing behaviour; however, this research has largely focused on non-addictive products without counter-marketing tactics. We examined the impact of brand equity (price premium, market share) and consumer loyalty (switching rates) on smoking cessation (discontinued cigarette purchases for 1 year) among smokers in a consumer panel. In Spring 2015, we analysed 1077 cigarette-purchasing households in the Nielsen Homescan Panel. We analysed cessation in relation to brand equity, consumer loyalty, other purchasing behaviours (nicotine intake, frequency), sociodemographics and tobacco control activities (per state-specific data) over a 6-year period (2004-2009) using Cox proportional hazard modelling. The sample was 13.28% African-American; the average income was $52,334 (SD=31,445). The average price premium and market share of smokers' dominant brands were $1.31 (SD=0.49) and 15.41% (SD=19.15), respectively. The mean brand loyalty level was 0.90 (SD=0.17), indicating high loyalty. In our final model, a higher price premium and market share were associated with lower quit rates (p=0.039); however, an interaction effect suggested that greater market share was not associated with lower cessation rates for African-American smokers (p=0.006). Consumer loyalty was not associated with cessation. Other predictors of lower quit rates included a higher nicotine intake (p=0.006) and baseline purchase frequency (pequity cigarette brands are less likely to quit, perhaps due to strong brand-consumer relationships. Thus, continued efforts should aim to regulate tobacco marketing efforts in order to disrupt these relationships to promote cessation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L; Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends' cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking.

  10. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. Methods. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. Results. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends’ cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Conclusions. Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking. PMID:26066954

  11. Study frequency of hypertension and obesity and their relationship with lifestyle factors (nutritional habits, physical activity, cigarette consumption in Ardabil city physicians, 2012-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Fathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Few studies have been done on lifestyle of Iranian physicians. As physicians have important role in health promotion, the main goal of the study was to assess the lifestyle of this influential group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on lifestyle of all registered physicians of Ardabil hospitals, Iran, 2012–13. In this research, 225 physicians were selected, by using simple random sampling. Demographic and lifestyle data were obtained by self-report using standard questionnaires, physical activity by official Iranian short-version of the international physical activity questionnaire, and dietary intake by food frequency questionnaire. Weight and height was performed according to standard protocols by using standardized and zero calibrated instruments. Data were analyzed by inferential statistics using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.16 software. Results: Findings showed that 8% of participants were hypertensive, 21.3% smoker, 40%–47% inactive, 51.1% overweight, and 18.2% obese. There was a significant relationship between blood pressure and self-reported lifestyle habits (P < 0.05. And 70.7% of males and 74.1% of females had regular 10-min walking each day and moderate activity of males was significantly higher than females (P < 0.05. Food frequency weekly consumption of overweight and obese physicians were significantly higher than normal weight physicians (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Few doctors follow a healthy lifestyle; this may have a negative effect on society attitude about health.

  12. Assessing electronic cigarette effects and regulatory impact: Challenges with user self-reported device power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Alyssa K; Leventhal, Adam M; Goldenson, Nicholas I; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) aerosolize liquids for user inhalation that usually contain nicotine. ECIG nicotine emission is determined, in part, by user behavior, liquid nicotine concentration, and electrical power. Whether users are able to report accurately nicotine concentration and device electrical power has not been evaluated. This study's purpose was to examine if ECIG users could provide data relevant to understanding ECIG nicotine emission, particularly liquid nicotine concentration (mg/ml) as well as battery voltage (V) and heater resistance (ohms, Ω) - needed to calculate power (watts, W). Adult ECIG users (N=165) were recruited from Los Angeles, CA for research studies examining the effects of ECIG use. We asked all participants who visited the laboratory to report liquid nicotine concentration, V, and Ω. Liquid nicotine concentration was reported by 89.7% (mean=9.5mg/ml, SD=7.3), and responses were consistent with the distribution of liquids available in commonly marketed products. The majority could not report voltage (51.5%) or resistance (63.6%). Of the 40 participants (24.8%) who reported voltage and resistance, there was a substantial power range (2.2-32,670W) the upper limit of which exceeds that of the highest ECIG reported by any user to our knowledge (i.e., 2512W). If 2512W is taken as the upper limit, only 30 (18.2%) reported valid results (mean 237.3W, SD=370.6; range=2.2-1705.3W). Laboratory, survey, and other researchers interested in understanding ECIG effects to inform users and policymakers may need to use methods other than user self-report to obtain information regarding device power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetics of brain nicotine accumulation in dependent and nondependent smokers assessed with PET and cigarettes containing 11C-nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jed E.; Mukhin, Alexey G.; Lokitz, Stephen J.; Turkington, Timothy G.; Herskovic, Joseph; Behm, Frederique M.; Garg, Sudha; Garg, Pradeep K.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a chronic, relapsing disorder that constitutes one of the primary preventable causes of death in developed countries. Two of the popular hypotheses to explain the development and maintenance of strong nicotine dependence in cigarette smokers posit (i) a rapid brain nicotine accumulation during cigarette smoking and/or (ii) puff-associated spikes in brain nicotine concentration. To address these hypotheses, we investigated the dynamics of nicotine accumulation in the smoker's brain during actual cigarette smoking using PET with 3-s temporal resolution and 11C-nicotine loaded into cigarettes. The results of the study, performed in 13 dependent smokers (DS) and 10 nondependent smokers (NDS), suggest that puff-associated spikes in the brain nicotine concentration do not occur during habitual cigarette smoking. Despite the presence of a puff-associated oscillation in the rate of nicotine accumulation, brain nicotine concentration gradually increases during cigarette smoking. The results further suggest that DS have a slower process of brain nicotine accumulation than NDS because they have slower nicotine washout from the lungs and that DS have a tendency to compensate for their slower rate of brain nicotine accumulation compared with NDS by inhaling a larger volume of smoke. For these reasons, smokers’ dependence on cigarette smoking, or the resistance of NDS to becoming dependent, cannot be explained solely by a faster brain nicotine accumulation. PMID:20212132

  14. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Increasing the price of cigarettes can reduce smoking substantially by discouraging initiation among youths and young adults, prompting quit attempts, and reducing average cigarette consumption among those who continue to smoke. Increasing cigarette excise taxes is one of the most effective tobacco control policies because it directly increases cigarette prices, thereby reducing cigarette use and smoking-related death and disease. All states and the District of Columbia (DC) impose an excise tax on cigarettes. Because many states increased their cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of these tax increases. For this report, CDC reviewed data contained in a legislative database to identify cigarette excise tax legislation that was enacted during 2009 by the 50 states and DC. During that period, 15 states (including DC), increased their state excise tax on cigarettes, increasing the national mean from $1.18 per pack in 2008 to $1.34 per pack in 2009. However, none of the 15 states dedicated any of the new excise tax revenue by statute to tobacco control. Additionally, for the first time, two states (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had excise tax rates of at least $3.00 per pack. Additional increases in cigarette excise taxes, and dedication of all resulting revenues to tobacco control and prevention programs at levels recommended by CDC, could result in further reductions in smoking and associated morbidity and mortality.

  15. The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this paper is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the

  16. Beliefs and Experimentation with Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional studies found that positive beliefs about electronic nicotine delivery systems (commonly known as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) were associated with use of these products. However, the prospective association between these beliefs and subsequent use of e-cigarettes is unclear. Purpose To identify the beliefs predicting subsequent use of e-cigarettes. Methods 1379 young adults (mean age=24.1 years) from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort who reported never using e-cigarettes at baseline (collected Oct 2010–Mar 2011) and completed follow-up data collection (during Oct 2011–Mar 2012) were included in this analysis. Participants’ beliefs about e-cigarettes (potential as quit aids, harmfulness and addictiveness relative to cigarettes) were asked at baseline (yes/no). At follow-up, participants were asked if they had ever used e-cigarettes. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between beliefs about e-cigarettes and subsequent experimentation. Analysis was conducted in 2012. Results At follow-up, 7.4% of the sample reported ever using e-cigarettes (21.6% among baseline current smokers, 11.9% among baseline former smokers, and 2.9% among baseline nonsmokers). Participants who believed e-cigarettes can help people quit smoking and perceived e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes at baseline were more likely to report experimenting with e-cigarettes at follow-up (pe-cigarettes as quit aids and the unknown health risk of e-cigarettes may deter young adults from trying these products. PMID:24439352

  17. Biosafety assessment of probiotics used for human consumption: recommendations from the EU-PROSAFE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vankerckhoven, V.; Huys, G.; Vancanneyt, M.; Vael, C.; Klare, I.; Romond, M.B.; Entenza, J.M.; Moreillon, P.; Wind, R.D.; Knol, J.; Wiertz, E.; Pot, B.; Vaughan, E.E.; Kahlmeter, G.; Goossens, H.

    2008-01-01

    On June 26-27, 2006, 60 academic and industry scientists gathered during the PROSAFE workshop to discuss recommendations on taxonomy, antibiotic resistance, in vitro assessment of virulence and in vivo assessment of safety of probiotics used for human consumption. For identification of lactic acid

  18. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products' ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products' impact on public health.

  19. An empirical analysis of cigarette demand in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eugenio; Mejia, Raul; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the long-term and short-term effects on cigarette demand in Argentina based on changes in cigarette price and income per person >14 years old. Method Public data from the Ministry of Economics and Production were analysed based on monthly time series data between 1994 and 2010. The econometric analysis used cigarette consumption per person >14 years of age as the dependent variable and the real income per person >14 years old and the real average price of cigarettes as independent variables. Empirical analyses were done to verify the order of integration of the variables, to test for cointegration to capture the long-term effects and to capture the short-term dynamics of the variables. Results The demand for cigarettes in Argentina was affected by changes in real income and the real average price of cigarettes. The long-term income elasticity was equal to 0.43, while the own-price elasticity was equal to −0.31, indicating a 10% increase in the growth of real income led to an increase in cigarette consumption of 4.3% and a 10% increase in the price produced a fall of 3.1% in cigarette consumption. The vector error correction model estimated that the short-term income elasticity was 0.25 and the short-term own-price elasticity of cigarette demand was −0.15. A simulation exercise showed that increasing the price of cigarettes by 110% would maximise revenues and result in a potentially large decrease in total cigarette consumption. Conclusion Econometric analyses of cigarette consumption and their relationship with cigarette price and income can provide valuable information for developing cigarette price policy. PMID:23760657

  20. An empirical analysis of cigarette demand in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eugenio; Mejia, Raul; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the long-term and short-term effects on cigarette demand in Argentina based on changes in cigarette price and income per person >14 years old. Public data from the Ministry of Economics and Production were analysed based on monthly time series data between 1994 and 2010. The econometric analysis used cigarette consumption per person >14 years of age as the dependent variable and the real income per person >14 years old and the real average price of cigarettes as independent variables. Empirical analyses were done to verify the order of integration of the variables, to test for cointegration to capture the long-term effects and to capture the short-term dynamics of the variables. The demand for cigarettes in Argentina was affected by changes in real income and the real average price of cigarettes. The long-term income elasticity was equal to 0.43, while the own-price elasticity was equal to -0.31, indicating a 10% increase in the growth of real income led to an increase in cigarette consumption of 4.3% and a 10% increase in the price produced a fall of 3.1% in cigarette consumption. The vector error correction model estimated that the short-term income elasticity was 0.25 and the short-term own-price elasticity of cigarette demand was -0.15. A simulation exercise showed that increasing the price of cigarettes by 110% would maximise revenues and result in a potentially large decrease in total cigarette consumption. Econometric analyses of cigarette consumption and their relationship with cigarette price and income can provide valuable information for developing cigarette price policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. The role of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in the differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma for the males in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Heavy and long-term smoking and drinking habit might pronouncedly increase the risk of triggering OSCC. Tobacco and alcohol consumption seems to play a role in the differentiation characteristics of the tumor.

  2. Have combustible cigarettes met their match? The nicotine delivery profiles and harmful constituent exposures of second-generation and third-generation electronic cigarette users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Theodore L; Floyd, Evan L; Stepanov, Irina; Driskill, Leslie M; Frank, Summer G; Meier, Ellen; Leavens, Eleanor L; Tackett, Alayna P; Molina, Neil; Queimado, Lurdes

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes' (e-cigarettes) viability as a public health strategy to end smoking will likely be determined by their ability to mimic the pharmacokinetic profile of a cigarette while also exposing users to significantly lower levels of harmful/potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). The present study examined the nicotine delivery profile of third- (G3) versus second-generation (G2) e-cigarette devices and their users' exposure to nicotine and select HPHCs compared with cigarette smokers. 30 participants (10 smokers, 9 G2 and 11 G3 users) completed baseline questionnaires and provided exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO), saliva and urine samples. Following a 12-hour nicotine abstinence, G2 and G3 users completed a 2-hour vaping session (ie, 5 min, 10-puff bout followed by ad libitum puffing for 115 min). Blood samples, subjective effects, device characteristics and e-liquid consumption were assessed. Smokers, G2 and G3 users had similar baseline levels of cotinine, but smokers had 4 and 7 times higher levels of eCO (pe-cigarettes resulted in significantly lower levels of exposure to a potent lung carcinogen and cardiovascular toxicant. These findings have significant implications for understanding the addiction potential of these devices and their viability/suitability as aids to smoking cessation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Using a health informatics system to assess effect of a federal cigarette tax increase on readiness to quit among low-income smokers, Louisiana, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Tung-Sung; Moody-Thomas, Sarah; Horswell, Ronald; Yi, Yong; Celestin, Michael D; Jones, Krysten D

    2014-04-04

    Health informatics systems are a proven tool for tobacco control interventions. To address the needs of low-income groups, the Tobacco Control Initiative was established in partnership with the Louisiana State University Health Care Services Division to provide cost-effective tobacco use cessation services through the health informatics system in the state public hospital system. In this study we used a Web-based, result-reporting application to monitor and assess the effect of the 2009 federal cigarette tax increase. We assessed readiness to quit tobacco use before and after a cigarette tax increase among low-income tobacco users who were outpatients in a public hospital system. Overall, there was an increase in readiness to quit, from 22% during the first week of February to 33% during the first week of April, when the tax went into effect. Smokers who were female, 31 or older, African American, and assessed at a clinic visit in April were more likely to report readiness to quit than were men, those aged 30 or younger, those who were white, and those who were assessed at a clinic visit in February. A health informatics system that efficiently tracks trends in readiness to quit can be used in combination with other strategies and thus optimize efforts to control tobacco use. Our data suggest that a cigarette tax increase affects smokers' readiness to quit and provides an opportunity to intervene at the most beneficial time.

  4. An Assessment of Indoor Air Quality before, during and after Unrestricted Use of E-Cigarettes in a Small Room

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connell, Grant; Colard, Stéphane; Cahours, Xavier; Pritchard, John D

    2015-01-01

    ... (including nicotine and low molecular weight carbonyls), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and trace metal levels in the air before, during and after e-cigarette use in a typical small office meeting room...

  5. Public opinion regarding earmarked cigarette tax in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Chung-Lin; Yen Lee-Lan; Tsai Yi-Wen; Chen Pei-Fen

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Cigarette taxation has been perceived by academics and policy-makers as one of the most effective ways of reducing the use of cigarettes. On January 1 2002, the Taiwan government imposed a New Taiwan (NT) $5 per pack tax earmarked for the purpose of tobacco control. This study uses a survey collected prior to taxation to assess public attitudes toward cigarette taxation, public beliefs about the effectiveness of cigarette taxation at reducing cigarette use and public opini...

  6. A procedure for grouping food consumption data for use in food allergen risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birot, Sophie; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kruizinga, Astrid G.

    2017-01-01

    , the risk was calculated for each initial food group and its subgroups to verify if it also represents a relevant difference in risk. Forty-eight food groups were designated in Denmark (53 in the Netherlands, 54 in France). Finally, summary statistics and names for each food group for the Danish data...... consumers. One of the input parameters in risk assessment is the amount of a given food consumed in a meal. There has been little emphasis on how food consumption data can be used in food allergen risk assessment. The aim of the study was to organize the complex datasets from National Food Consumption...... Surveys from different countries (France, Netherlands and Denmark) to be manageable in food allergen risk assessment. To do this, a two-step method was developed. First, based on initial groups of similar food items, the homogeneity of consumption was evaluated using a customized clustering method. Then...

  7. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J; Sargent, James D

    2015-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012-2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary fully adjusted models, baseline e-cigarette use was independently associated with progression to smoking

  8. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  9. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Hann, Nicholas; Wilson, Andrew; Mnatzaganian, George; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation. To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation. A systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases. Published studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated. Six studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97). Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18%) reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28). Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used. Included studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis. Use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction. More randomised

  10. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aziz Rahman

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation.To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation.A systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases.Published studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated.Six studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97. Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18% reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28. Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used.Included studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis.Use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction. More

  11. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    OpenAIRE

    Clare Meernik; Baker, Hannah M.; Karina Paci; Isaiah Fischer-Brown; Daniel Dunlap; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess w...

  12. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  13. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T M; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-09-01

    This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions.

  14. Characteristics of smoking used cigarettes among an incarcerated population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantini, Ryan; van den Berg, Jacob J; Roberts, Mary B; Bock, Beth C; Stein, L A R; Parker, Donna R; Friedmann, Peter D; Clarke, Jennifer G

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about smoking behaviors involving shared and previously used cigarettes, which we refer to as "smoking used cigarettes." Examples include: cigarette sharing with strangers, smoking discarded cigarettes ("butts"), or remaking cigarettes from portions of discarded cigarettes. The current study focuses on the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking used cigarettes prior to incarceration among a U.S. prison population. Questionnaires were administered to 244 male and female inmates at baseline. Prevalence of smoking used cigarettes was assessed using 3 questions; 1 about sharing cigarettes with strangers, 1 about smoking a "found" cigarette, and 1 about smoking previously used cigarettes. Factors associated with those who engaged in smoking used cigarettes were then compared with those who did not engage in smoking used cigarettes. A majority of participants (61.5%) endorsed engaging in at least 1 smoking used cigarette behavior in the past prior to incarceration. Those who engaged in these behaviors were more likely to have a higher degree of nicotine dependence, to have started smoking regularly at a younger age, and to have lived in an unstable living environment prior to incarceration. Our results indicate that a history of smoking used cigarettes is common among incarcerated persons in the United States. Consistent with our hypothesis, engaging in smoking used cigarettes was found to be associated with a higher degree of nicotine dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The effect of retail cigarette pack displays on impulse purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Germain, Daniella; Henriksen, Lisa

    2008-02-01

    To assess the extent to which point-of purchase (POP) cigarette displays stimulate impulse purchases. Telephone-administered population survey. Victoria, Australia. A total of 2996 adults, among whom 526 smoked factory-made cigarettes and 67 were recent quitters (quit in the past 12 months). Reported cigarette purchase behaviour; perceived effect on smoking of removing cigarettes from view in retail outlets; reported urges to buy cigarettes as a result of seeing the cigarette display. When shopping for items other than cigarettes, 25.2% of smokers purchased cigarettes at least sometimes on impulse as a result of seeing the cigarette display. Thirty-eight per cent of smokers who had tried to quit in the past 12 months and 33.9% of recent quitters experienced an urge to buy cigarettes as a result of seeing the retail cigarette display. One in five smokers trying to quit and one in eight recent quitters avoided stores where they usually bought cigarettes in case they might be tempted to purchase them. Many smokers (31.4%) thought the removal of cigarette displays from stores would make it easier for them to quit. POP cigarette displays act as cues to smoke, even among those not explicitly intending to buy cigarettes, and those trying to avoid smoking. Effective POP marketing restrictions should encompass cigarette displays.

  16. 77 FR 20844 - Certain Reduced Ignition Proclivity Cigarette Paper Wrappers and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Reduced Ignition Proclivity Cigarette Paper Wrappers and Products Containing Same... importation, importation, or sale after importation of certain reduced ignition proclivity cigarette paper... consumption, the party should so indicate and provide information establishing that activities involving other...

  17. Consumption and exposure assessment to cosmetic products for children under 2 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Berrada, Marie-Pierre; Ficheux, Anne-Sophie; Guillou, Sonia; Berge, Carole; de Javel, Dominique; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Ferret, Pierre-Jacques

    2017-07-01

    Today, the use of personal care products is an integral part of daily life. Little information about children's consumption and exposure to cosmetic products is available. The aim of the study was to assess the consumption and the exposure of French babies aged 0-23 months old to seven common baby care products: shampoo, shower gel, cleansing water, cleansing milk, moisturizing cream, bottom cream and wipes. Consumption and exposure were assessed using small age intervals in order to identify any differences. Exposure was calculated using a probabilistic method. These original data will be useful for safety assessors and safety agencies in order to protect consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Cigarette prices, tobacco taxes and the proportion of contraband cigarettes in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effertz, T; Schlittgen, R

    2013-06-01

    Taxes on tobacco products are among the most efficient instruments against tobacco consumption and the arising cost of illness associated with them. The main argument of the tobacco industry against increases of excise taxes on cigarettes is a presumed substitution effect of smokers turning from consumption of legal cigarettes to smuggled ones. Besides deriving this proposition from the tobacco industry's own funded research, it has never been tested empirically. This article analyses the interdependence between contraband cigarettes and cigarette prices in Germany. Using VAR-modelling on the time-series of the variables of interest, we find no empirically valid correlation or causation between prices and untaxed contraband cigarettes. Furthermore, we find a positive relationship between contraband and legal taxed cigarettes, i. e., when the demand for legal cigarettes decreased in amount, so did the quantity of untaxed cigarettes. We conclude that the proposed relationship between prices and smuggled cigarettes as well as an overall substitution effect among smokers is non-existent. This has important implications for public health policy. The proposition that higher taxes on tobacco products incur social costs from increased smuggling activity cannot be corroborated empirically. Furthermore, this finding should encourage public health policy to keep using tobacco taxes as an instrument for prevention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Impact assessment of repeated exposure of organotypic 3D bronchial and nasal tissue culture models to whole cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Diana; Majeed, Shoaib; Guedj, Emmanuel; Dulize, Remi; Baumer, Karine; Iskandar, Anita; Boue, Stephanie; Martin, Florian; Kostadinova, Radina; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Frentzel, Stefan; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2015-02-12

    Cigarette smoke (CS) has a major impact on lung biology and may result in the development of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or lung cancer. To understand the underlying mechanisms of disease development, it would be important to examine the impact of CS exposure directly on lung tissues. However, this approach is difficult to implement in epidemiological studies because lung tissue sampling is complex and invasive. Alternatively, tissue culture models can facilitate the assessment of exposure impacts on the lung tissue. Submerged 2D cell cultures, such as normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell cultures, have traditionally been used for this purpose. However, they cannot be exposed directly to smoke in a similar manner to the in vivo exposure situation. Recently developed 3D tissue culture models better reflect the in vivo situation because they can be cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Their basal sides are immersed in the culture medium; whereas, their apical sides are exposed to air. Moreover, organotypic tissue cultures that contain different type of cells, better represent the physiology of the tissue in vivo. In this work, the utilization of an in vitro exposure system to expose human organotypic bronchial and nasal tissue models to mainstream CS is demonstrated. Ciliary beating frequency and the activity of cytochrome P450s (CYP) 1A1/1B1 were measured to assess functional impacts of CS on the tissues. Furthermore, to examine CS-induced alterations at the molecular level, gene expression profiles were generated from the tissues following exposure. A slight increase in CYP1A1/1B1 activity was observed in CS-exposed tissues compared with air-exposed tissues. A network-and transcriptomics-based systems biology approach was sufficiently robust to demonstrate CS-induced alterations of xenobiotic metabolism that were similar to those observed in the bronchial and nasal epithelial cells obtained from smokers.

  20. Strategies to reduce electricity consumption on dairy farms : an economic and environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to assess how, and to what extent, do managerial and technology changes affect electricity consumption, associated costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dairy farms. Dairy farms in Ireland are expected to expand in the future, due to policy incentives and the

  1. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y., Van der Meer, T.H., 2007. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers. In: proceedings ‘First World Water Sustainability-Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition’. 25-28 November 2007, Maastricht, the

  2. The consumptive water footprint of electricity and heat: a global assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Water is essential for electricity and heat production. This study assesses the consumptive water footprint (WF) of electricity and heat generation per world region in the three main stages of the production chain, i.e. fuel supply, construction and operation. We consider electricity from power

  3. Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania. Tobacco consumption in Tanzania rose by 20% between 2002 and 2007, and is predicted to increase by a further 46% by 2016. The impact of this increase in consumption on public health and economic development is likely to be serious. Experience elsewhere has shown that the single ...

  4. Using Cognitive Interviewing to Better Assess Young Adult E-cigarette Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Josephine T; Loukas, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Pasch, Keryn E; Harrell, Melissa B; Perry, Cheryl L; Delnevo, Cristine; Wackowski, Olivia A

    2016-10-01

    Characteristics of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) make assessment of their use a challenge for researchers. Cognitive interviews are a way of gaining insight into participants' interpretations of survey questions and the methods they use in answering them, to improve survey tools. We used cognitive interviews to modify a young adult survey and improve assessment of quantity and frequency of ENDS use, as well as reasons for initiation and use of ENDS products. Twenty-five college students between the ages of 18 and 32 participated in individual cognitive interviews, which assessed question comprehension, answer estimation, retrieval processes, and answer response processes. Comprehension issues arose discerning between ENDS device types (eg, cigalikes vs. vape pens), and answer estimation issues arose regarding ENDS use as drug delivery systems. These issues appeared to improve when pictures were added specifying the device in question, as well as when specific language naming nicotine as the ENDS product content was added to survey questions. Regarding answer retrieval, this sample of users had problems reporting their frequency of ENDS use, as well as quantifying the amount of ENDS products consumed (eg, volume of e-juice, number of cartridges, nicotine concentration). Accurate assessment of ENDS products proved challenging, but cognitive interviews provided valuable insight into survey interpretation that was otherwise inaccessible to researchers. Future research that explores how to assess the wide array of ENDS devices, as well as possible population differences among specific device-type users would be valuable to public health researchers and professionals. This study extends the current literature by using cognitive interviews to test ENDS assessment questions in a sample of young adults, a population at elevated risk for ENDS use. Problems encountered when answering ENDS use questions underscore the need to develop easily understood ENDS

  5. Estimating Demand and Cross-Price Elasticity for Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) Cigarettes Using a Simulated Demand Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Megan R; Laugesen, Murray; Grace, Randolph C

    2017-03-03

    Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes might be useful as part of a tobacco control strategy, but relatively little is known about their acceptability as substitutes for regular cigarettes. We compared subjective effects and demand for regular cigarettes and Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes, and estimated cross-price elasticity for VLNC cigarettes, using simulated demand tasks. 40 New Zealand smokers sampled a VLNC cigarette and completed Cigarette Purchase Tasks to indicate their demand for regular cigarettes and VLNC cigarettes at a range of prices, and a cross-price task indicating how many regular cigarettes and VLNC cigarettes they would purchase at 0.5x, 1x, and 2x the current market price for regular cigarettes, assuming the price of VLNC cigarettes remained constant. They also rated the subjective effects of the VLNC cigarette and their usual-brand regular cigarettes. Cross-price elasticity for VLNC cigarettes was estimated as 0.24 and was significantly positive, indicating that VLNC cigarettes are partially substitutable for regular cigarettes. VLNC cigarettes were rated as less satisfying and psychologically rewarding than regular cigarettes, but this was unrelated to demand or substitutability. VLNC cigarettes are potentially substitutable for regular cigarettes. Their availability may reduce tobacco consumption, nicotine intake and addiction; making it easier for smokers to quit. VLNC cigarettes share the behavioural and sensory components of smoking whilst delivering negligible levels of nicotine. Although smokers rated VLNCs as less satisfying than regular cigarettes, smokers said they would increase their consumption of VLNCs as the price of regular cigarettes increased, if VLNCs were available at a lower price. This suggests that VLNCs are partially substitutable for regular cigarettes. VLNCs can be part of an effective tobacco control strategy, by reducing nicotine dependence and improving health and financial outcomes for smokers.

  6. Tax Avoidance and Evasion: Cigarette Purchases From Indian Reservations Among US Adult Smokers, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Xu, Xin; Tynan, Michael A; Gerzoff, Robert B; Caraballo, Ralph S; Promoff, Gabbi R

    Excise taxes are the primary public health strategy used to increase the price of cigarettes in the United States. Rather than quitting or reducing consumption of cigarettes, some price-sensitive smokers may avoid state and local excise taxes by purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide the most recent state-specific prevalence of purchases made on Indian reservations by non-American Indians/Alaska Natives (non-AI/ANs) and (2) assess the impact of these purchases on state tax revenues. We used data from a large national and state-representative survey, the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, which collects self-reported measures on cigarette use and purchases. Nationwide, 3.8% of non-AI/AN smokers reported purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. However, in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, and Washington State, about 15% to 30% of smokers reported making such purchases, resulting in annual tax revenue losses ranging from $3.5 million (Washington State) to $292 million (New York) during 2010-2011. Strategies to reduce the sale of non- or lower-taxed cigarettes to non-AI/ANs on Indian reservations have the potential to decrease smoking prevalence and recoup lost revenue from purchases made on reservations.

  7. Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking by American Students in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2016-08-01

    High school students' electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use rose rapidly in 2014, to levels higher than cigarette smoking, which declined significantly. This study assesses how frequency of e-cigarette use is associated with students' smoking status. Using Monitoring the Future data in 2015, this study evaluated the association between students' smoking and frequency of 30-day e-cigarette use in 2014, focusing on high school seniors. Previous research has considered only whether e-cigarettes were used at all during the past month. Non-smokers were far less likely than smokers to have used an e-cigarette (pcigarette use frequency rose with the amount of ever smoking (pdifference in e-cigarette use by very light smokers (cigarette/day); light smokers (1-5 cigarettes/day); and heavy smokers (≥1/2 pack/day) (p=0.99). Because most students have never smoked, never smokers constituted 25% of all seniors who used an e-cigarette. Among tenth- and eighth-graders, 43% and 48% of past-month e-cigarette users had never smoked. Non-smoking high school students are highly unlikely to use e-cigarettes; among those who do, most used them only on 1-2 of the past 30 days. By contrast, current smokers are likely to use e-cigarettes and on many more days. It is unclear whether students' e-cigarette use represents short-term experimentation or future sustained use, and whether it will eventually increase or decrease youth smoking and nicotine addiction. More sophisticated research methods, employing better data, will be essential to unravel the mystery that is the e-cigarette phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing projected impacts of cigarette floor price and excise tax policies on socioeconomic disparities in smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; Farrelly, Matthew C; Luke, Douglas A; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-10-01

    About half of all US states have cigarette minimum price laws (MPLs) that require a per cent mark-up on prices, but research suggests they may not be very effective in raising prices. An alternative type of MPL sets a floor price below which packs cannot be sold, and may be more promising. This new type of MPL policy has only been implemented in 1 city, therefore its benefits relative to excise taxes is difficult to assess. We constructed a set of possible state floor price MPL options, and matched them to possible state excise tax hikes designed to produce similar average price increases. Using self-reported price and cigarette consumption data from 23 521 participants in the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey, we projected changes in pack prices and cigarette consumption following implementation of each paired MPL and tax option, for lower and higher income groups. We project that state MPLs set at the average reported pack price would raise prices by $0.33 and reduce cigarette consumption by about 4%; a tax with a similar average price effect would reduce consumption by 2.3%. MPLs and taxes that raise average prices by more than $2.00 would reduce consumption by 15.9% and 13.5%, respectively. In all models, we project that MPLs will reduce income-based smoking disparities more than their comparable excise taxes. Floor price cigarette MPLs set at or above what consumers currently report paying could reduce both tobacco use and socioeconomic disparities in smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Hand-rolled cigarette smoking patterns compared with factory-made cigarette smoking in New Zealand men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glover Marewa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Roll-your-own (RYO cigarettes have increased in popularity, yet their comparative potential toxicity is uncertain. This study compares smoking of RYO and factory-made (FM cigarettes on smoking pattern and immediate potential toxicity. Methods At a research clinic, 26 RYO and 22 FM volunteer male cigarette smokers, (addicted and overnight-tobacco-abstinent each smoked 4 filter cigarettes, one half-hourly over 2 hours, either RYO or FM according to usual habit, using the CReSSMicro flowmeter. First cigarette smoked was their own brand. Subsequent cigarettes, all Holiday regular brand, were RYOs (0.5 g tobacco with filter, or FM with filter. Cravings on 100 mm visual analogue scale, and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO were measured before and after each cigarette smoked. Results Smokers reported similar daily cigarette consumption (RYO 19.0, FM 17.4, p = 0.45, and similar time after waking to first cigarette. (RYO 6.1 minutes, FM 8.6 minutes, p = 0.113. First cigarette's RYO tobacco (0.45 g weighed less than for FM (0.7 g, p Conclusion In these smokers, RYO smoking was associated with increased smoke exposure per cigarette, and similar CO breath levels, and even with filters is apparently no less and possibly more dangerous than FM smoking. Specific package warnings should warn of RYO smoking's true risk. RYOs are currently taxed much less than FM cigarettes in most countries; similar harm merits similar excise per cigarette.

  10. The association of e-cigarette use with exposure to nickel and chromium: A preliminary study of non-invasive biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aherrera, Angela; Olmedo, Pablo; Grau-Perez, Maria; Tanda, Stefan; Goessler, Walter; Jarmul, Stephanie; Chen, Rui; Cohen, Joanna E; Rule, Ana M; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-11-01

    Nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) are components of e-cigarette heating coils. Whether e-cigarettes increase metal internal dose, however, is unknown. We assessed the association of e-cigarette use patterns and of e-liquid and aerosol metal concentrations with Ni and Cr biomarker levels in e-cigarette users from Maryland. We recruited 64 e-cigarette users from December 2015 to March 2016. We collected urine, saliva, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC), data on e-cigarette use, and samples from their e-cigarette device (dispenser e-liquid, aerosol, and tank e-liquid). Median Ni and Cr levels were 0.73 and 0.39μg/g creatinine in urine, 2.25 and 1.53μg/L in saliva, and 1.25 and 0.29μg/L in EBC. In adjusted models, tertiles 2 and 3 of aerosol Ni concentrations were associated with 16% and 72% higher urine Ni and 202% and 321% higher saliva Ni compared to the lowest tertile. Tertile 3 of aerosol Cr levels were associated with 193% higher saliva Cr. An earlier time to first vape in the morning and more frequent coil change were associated with higher urine Ni. Tertile 2 of e-liquid consumption per week and voltage were associated with higher saliva Ni levels than tertile 1. Positive associations of Ni and Cr aerosol concentrations with corresponding Ni and Cr biomarker levels indicate e-cigarette emissions increase metal internal dose. Increased e-cigarette use and consumption were also associated with higher Ni biomarker levels. Metal level standards are needed to prevent involuntary metal exposure among e-cigarette users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Should Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) be used for nutritional assessment and planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne; Ruel, Marie; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2012-09-01

    Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are routinely conducted in several countries on nationally representative samples, often on a regular basis. The HCES have been considered as a potential alternative to more expensive surveys of individuals'food intakes for use in nutritional assessment and in planning programs such as food fortification. HCES gather information on household food availability (purchased, produced, or received as gifts) and use over a given period of time, often the past week or month. To discuss the potential usefulness of HCES consumption data for nutritional assessment and planning for populations of households and individuals within the households. There are several limitations to the HCES, most notably the difficulty of estimating the intrahousehold allocation of foods and therefore of quantifying the actual food intake of individual household members. Another concern is the lack of information on the variability of consumption over time, making it difficult to estimate the distribution of usual consumption, and thus the prevalence of nutrient inadequacies or excesses. Other potential limitations might be addressed by improvements to the HCES questionnaires, such as including information on foods that are available but not consumed and those that are consumed outside the home. Research is needed to better understand both the strengths and the weaknesses of the HCES data when used to assess and plan intakes at the household and individual levels.

  12. High School Students’ Use of Electronic Cigarettes to Vaporize Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly among high school (HS) students. Of concern, e-cigarettes can be used to vaporize cannabis, although use rates among adolescents are unknown. We evaluated lifetime rates of using e-cigarettes to vaporize cannabis among all lifetime e-cigarette users (27.9%), all lifetime cannabis users (29.2%), and lifetime users of both e-cigarettes and cannabis (18.8%); common means of vaporizing cannabis including hash oil, wax infused with Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and dried cannabis; and demographic predictors of using e-cigarettes to vaporize cannabis. METHODS: In the spring of 2014, 3847 Connecticut HS students completed an anonymous survey assessing e-cigarette and cannabis use. RESULTS: Vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes was common among lifetime e-cigarette users, lifetime cannabis users, and lifetime dual users (e-cigarette 18.0%, cannabis 18.4%, dual users 26.5%). Students reported using e-cigarettes to vaporize hash oil (e-cigarette 15.4%, cannabis 15.5%, dual users 22.9%) and wax infused with THC (e-cigarette 10.0%, cannabis 10.2%, dual users 14.8%) and using portable electronic vaporizers to vaporize dried cannabis leaves (e-cigarette 19.6%, lifetime cannabis 23.1%, lifetime dual users 29.1%). Binary logistic regression indicated that male students (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05), younger students (OR = 0.64), lifetime e-cigarette users (OR = 5.27), and lifetime cannabis users (OR = 40.89) were most likely to vaporize cannabis using e-cigarettes. Rates also differed by HS attended. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes were high. These findings raise concerns about the lack of e-cigarette regulations and the potential use of e-cigarettes for purposes other than vaping nicotine. PMID:26347431

  13. High School Students' Use of Electronic Cigarettes to Vaporize Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Kong, Grace; Camenga, Deepa R; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-10-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly among high school (HS) students. Of concern, e-cigarettes can be used to vaporize cannabis, although use rates among adolescents are unknown. We evaluated lifetime rates of using e-cigarettes to vaporize cannabis among all lifetime e-cigarette users (27.9%), all lifetime cannabis users (29.2%), and lifetime users of both e-cigarettes and cannabis (18.8%); common means of vaporizing cannabis including hash oil, wax infused with Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and dried cannabis; and demographic predictors of using e-cigarettes to vaporize cannabis. In the spring of 2014, 3847 Connecticut HS students completed an anonymous survey assessing e-cigarette and cannabis use. Vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes was common among lifetime e-cigarette users, lifetime cannabis users, and lifetime dual users (e-cigarette 18.0%, cannabis 18.4%, dual users 26.5%). Students reported using e-cigarettes to vaporize hash oil (e-cigarette 15.4%, cannabis 15.5%, dual users 22.9%) and wax infused with THC (e-cigarette 10.0%, cannabis 10.2%, dual users 14.8%) and using portable electronic vaporizers to vaporize dried cannabis leaves (e-cigarette 19.6%, lifetime cannabis 23.1%, lifetime dual users 29.1%). Binary logistic regression indicated that male students (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05), younger students (OR = 0.64), lifetime e-cigarette users (OR = 5.27), and lifetime cannabis users (OR = 40.89) were most likely to vaporize cannabis using e-cigarettes. Rates also differed by HS attended. Rates of vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes were high. These findings raise concerns about the lack of e-cigarette regulations and the potential use of e-cigarettes for purposes other than vaping nicotine. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Estimating cross-price elasticity of e-cigarettes using a simulated demand procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Randolph C; Kivell, Bronwyn M; Laugesen, Murray

    2015-05-01

    Our goal was to measure the cross-price elasticity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and simulated demand for tobacco cigarettes both in the presence and absence of e-cigarette availability. A sample of New Zealand smokers (N = 210) completed a Cigarette Purchase Task to indicate their demand for tobacco at a range of prices. They sampled an e-cigarette and rated it and their own-brand tobacco for favorability, and indicated how many e-cigarettes and regular cigarettes they would purchase at 0.5×, 1×, and 2× the current market price for regular cigarettes, assuming that the price of e-cigarettes remained constant. Cross-price elasticity for e-cigarettes was estimated as 0.16, and was significantly positive, indicating that e-cigarettes were partially substitutable for regular cigarettes. Simulated demand for regular cigarettes at current market prices decreased by 42.8% when e-cigarettes were available, and e-cigarettes were rated 81% as favorably as own-brand tobacco. However when cigarettes cost 2× the current market price, significantly more smokers said they would quit (50.2%) if e-cigarettes were not available than if they were available (30.0%). Results show that e-cigarettes are potentially substitutable for regular cigarettes and their availability will reduce tobacco consumption. However, e-cigarettes may discourage smokers from quitting entirely as cigarette price increases, so policy makers should consider maintaining a constant relative price differential between e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Evaluating nicotine dependence levels in e-cigarette users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Roz, Alba; Secades Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-01-11

    Despite the fact that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly growing in popularity and use worldwide, there is scarce scientific data on abuse liability among e-cigarette users, and about whether e-cigarette use is related to nicotine dependence or not. The aim of this study is to explore nicotine dependence levels in a sample of experienced e-cigarette users (n= 39) and to compare them with current tobacco cigarette smokers (n=42). We conducted several face-to-face interviews in order to assess sociodemographic and dependence related characteristics in both e-cigarette users and in smokers. Adapted versions of both the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and the nicotine dependence syndrome scale (NDSS) were used to analyze nicotine dependence in each of the groups. Biochemical markers of carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine analysis were also collected. Results showed that e-cigarette users scored lower than cigarette smokers in both FTND and all NDSS subscales. Our findings extend previous research on e-cigarette use and nicotine addiction and suggest that e-cigarette users are less dependent on nicotine than current tobacco cigarette smokers. Further prospective studies are needed to better ascertain their addictiveness potential, comparing those smokers who switched to e-cigarettes from smoking cigarettes, and those who had never been tobacco cigarette smokers.

  16. Food Consumption and Handling Survey for Quantitative Microbiological Consumer Phase Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Jurgen; Swart, Arno

    2016-07-01

    In the consumer phase of a typical quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA), mathematical equations identify data gaps. To acquire useful data we designed a food consumption and food handling survey (2,226 respondents) for QMRA applications that is especially aimed at obtaining quantitative data. For a broad spectrum of food products, the survey covered the following topics: processing status at retail, consumer storage, preparation, and consumption. Questions were designed to facilitate distribution fitting. In the statistical analysis, special attention was given to the selection of the most adequate distribution to describe the data. Bootstrap procedures were used to describe uncertainty. The final result was a coherent quantitative consumer phase food survey and parameter estimates for food handling and consumption practices in The Netherlands, including variation over individuals and uncertainty estimates.

  17. Strategic assessment of capacity consumption in railway networks: Framework and model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new framework for strategic planning purposes to calculate railway infrastructure occupation and capacity consumption in networks, independent of a timetable. Furthermore, a model implementing the framework is presented. In this model different train sequences...... are generated and assessed to obtain timetable independence. A stochastic simulation of delays is used to obtain the capacity consumption. The model is tested on a case network where four different infrastructure scenarios are considered. Both infrastructure occupation and capacity consumption results...... are obtained efficiently with little input. The case illustrates the model's ability to quantify the capacity gain from infrastructure scenario to infrastructure scenario which can be used to increase the number of trains or improve the robustness of the system....

  18. Proxy measures of household food consumption for food security assessment and surveillance: comparison of the household dietary diversity and food consumption scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, G.L.; Berardo, A.; Papavero, C.; Horjus, P.; Ballard, T.; Dop, M.C.; Delbaere, J.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the household dietary diversity score and the food consumption score, two indicators used for food security assessment and surveillance, and compare their performance in food security assessments in three countries. Design Cross-sectional cluster sampling design

  19. Establishment of a seafood index to assess the seafood consumption in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markhus, Maria W; Graff, Ingvild E; Dahl, Lisbeth; Seldal, Camilla F; Skotheim, Siv; Braarud, Hanne C; Stormark, Kjell M; Malde, Marian K

    2013-01-01

    Seafood (fish and shellfish) is an excellent source of several essential nutrients for pregnant and lactating women. A short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that can be used to quantitatively estimate seafood consumption would be a valuable tool to assess seafood consumption in this group. Currently there is no such validated FFQ in Norway. The objective of this study was to establish and validate a seafood index from a seafood FFQ against blood biomarkers (the omega-3 index, the omega-3 HUFA score, and serum 25OH vitamin D). We assessed maternal seafood consumption during the 28th gestation week in healthy Norwegian women (n=54) with a seafood FFQ. A seafood index was developed to convert ordinal frequency data from the FFQ into numerical scale data. The following blood biomarkers were used as a validation method: omega-3 index, omega-3 HUFA score, and the serum 25OH vitamin D. The reported frequency of seafood as dinner and as spread was strongly correlated with the estimated frequencies of seafood as dinner and as spread. This indicated that the seafood index is a valuable tool to aggregate reported frequencies from the seafood FFQ. The seafood index composed of the frequency of seafood consumption and intake of omega-3 supplements, termed the total seafood index, correlated positively with the omega-3 index, omega-3 HUFA score, and 25OH vitamin D. We established and validated a seafood index from a seafood FFQ. The developed seafood index can be used when studying health effects of seafood consumption in large populations. This seafood FFQ captures seafood consumption and omega-3 supplement intake considerably well in a group of pregnant women.

  20. Establishment of a seafood index to assess the seafood consumption in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild E. Graff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seafood (fish and shellfish is an excellent source of several essential nutrients for pregnant and lactating women. A short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ that can be used to quantitatively estimate seafood consumption would be a valuable tool to assess seafood consumption in this group. Currently there is no such validated FFQ in Norway. Objective: The objective of this study was to establish and validate a seafood index from a seafood FFQ against blood biomarkers (the omega-3 index, the omega-3 HUFA score, and serum 25OH vitamin D. Design: We assessed maternal seafood consumption during the 28th gestation week in healthy Norwegian women (n=54 with a seafood FFQ. A seafood index was developed to convert ordinal frequency data from the FFQ into numerical scale data. The following blood biomarkers were used as a validation method: omega-3 index, omega-3 HUFA score, and the serum 25OH vitamin D. Results: The reported frequency of seafood as dinner and as spread was strongly correlated with the estimated frequencies of seafood as dinner and as spread. This indicated that the seafood index is a valuable tool to aggregate reported frequencies from the seafood FFQ. The seafood index composed of the frequency of seafood consumption and intake of omega-3 supplements, termed the total seafood index, correlated positively with the omega-3 index, omega-3 HUFA score, and 25OH vitamin D. Conclusion: We established and validated a seafood index from a seafood FFQ. The developed seafood index can be used when studying health effects of seafood consumption in large populations. This seafood FFQ captures seafood consumption and omega-3 supplement intake considerably well in a group of pregnant women.

  1. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter Foodborne Illness in Raw Beef Offal Consumption in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiyeon; Lee, Jeeyeon; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Ha, Jimyeong; Yoon, Ki-Sun; Yoon, Yohan

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal in South Korea. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw beef offal (liver and tripe) was investigated by plating samples on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar with Preston enrichment broth. Data were collected about storage temperature and length of storage of raw beef offal, and probabilistic distributions for the data were determined, using @RISK software. Predictive models were developed to describe the fate of Campylobacter in raw beef offal, and the amount and frequency of consumption and dose-response model were surveyed. Subsequently, these data were used to estimate the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal. Of 80 beef offal samples, 1 (1.25%) was contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni . Predictive models were used for exposure assessment. An exponential distribution was selected to represent beef offal consumption by people who eat this occasionally, with a mean of 60.2 g and 3.6% monthly consumption frequency. Simulations using @RISK predicted that the probability of Campylobacter foodborne illness per person per month is 1.56 × 10-5 for home consumption and 1.74 × 10-5 for restaurant consumption in South Korea, which indicates the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness by intake of raw beef offal in South Korea.

  2. Informing tobacco control policy in Jordan: assessing the effectiveness of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha K. Bader

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pictorial warning labels (PWLs deter initiation and motivate quitting. Assessing PWLs is important to track effectiveness and wear out. Jordan introduced an updated set of PWLs in 2013. This study assessed the effectiveness of the set after 2.5 years on the market. Methods We administered a survey in a cross-sectional sample of young adults aged 17–26 years. For convenience, respondents were recruited on university campuses. For heterogeneity, respondents were solicited from the different schools in four geographically diverse university campuses. The study compared perceptions of effectiveness surveyed in 2015 to perceptions gauged in 2010 during a pre-launch evaluation exercise. Outcomes of interest were: salience, fear evocation, adding information, and ability to motivate quitting smoking (for smokers or deterring starting (for non-smokers. Results Results indicate awareness of the set among smokers and non-smokers, and their recall of at least one PWL message. Results also indicate effectiveness of the set: (1 1/3 smokers who frequently saw them reported PWLs to trigger considering quitting, (2 and among both smokers and non-smokers the set in 2015 sustained ability to motivate quitting and staying smoke-free. However, results uncover erosion of salience, suggesting that the set has reached its end of life. Finally, results reveal variability in performance among PWLs; the one PWL that depicts human suffering significantly outperformed the others, and its ability to motivate was most strongly associated with its ability to evoke fear. Conclusion Based on the early signs of wear-out (i.e. erosion of salience, and understanding the importance of sustaining upstream outcomes (especially fear evocation to sustain motivation, we recommend retiring this set of PWLs and replacing it with a stronger set in line with proven standards.

  3. A Methodology to Assess the Benefit of Operational or Tactic Adjustments to Reduce Marine Corps Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    to continue research. 14. SUBJECT TERMS systems engineering, model based systems engineering, fuel consumption , close air support, ground combat...distribution is unlimited A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE BENEFIT OF OPERATIONAL OR TACTIC ADJUSTMENTS TO REDUCE MARINE CORPS FUEL CONSUMPTION by Team...SUBTITLE A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE BENEFIT OF OPERATIONAL OR TACTIC ADJUSTMENTS TO REDUCE MARINE CORPS FUEL CONSUMPTION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR

  4. Is Every Smoker Interested in Price Promotions? An Evaluation of Price-Related Discounts by Cigarette Brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Wang, Xu; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2016-01-01

    Raising unit price is one of the most effective ways of reducing cigarette consumption. A large proportion of US adult smokers use generic brands or price discounts in response to higher prices, which may mitigate the public health impacts of raising unit price. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the retail price impact and the determinants of price-related discount use among US adult smokers by their most commonly used cigarette brand types. Data from the 2009-2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a telephone survey of US adults 18 years or older, was used to assess price-related discount use by cigarette brands. Price-related discounts included coupons, rebates, buy 1 get 1 free, 2 for 1, or any other special promotions. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess sociodemographic and tobacco use determinants of discount use by cigarette brands. Discount use was most common among premium brand users (22.1%), followed by generic (13.3%) and other brand (10.8%) users. Among premium brand users, those who smoked 10 to 20 cigarettes per day were more likely to use discounts, whereas elderly smokers, non-Hispanic blacks, those with greater annual household income, dual users of cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products, and those who had no quit intentions were less likely to do so. Among generic brand users, those who had no quit intentions and those who smoked first cigarette within 60 minutes after waking were more likely to use discounts. Frequent use of discounts varies between smokers of premium and generic cigarette brands. Setting a high minimum price, together with limiting the use of coupons and promotions, may uphold the effect of cigarette excise taxes to reduce smoking prevalence.

  5. Marijuana and tobacco cigarettes: Estimating their behavioral economic relationship using purchasing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Erica N; Rosenberry, Zachary R; Schauer, Gillian L; O'Grady, Kevin E; Johnson, Patrick S

    2017-06-01

    Although marijuana and tobacco are commonly coused, the nature of their relationship has not been fully elucidated. Behavioral economics has characterized the relationship between concurrently available commodities but has not been applied to marijuana and tobacco couse. U.S. adults ≥18 years who coused marijuana and tobacco cigarettes were recruited via Mechanical Turk, a crowdsourcing service by Amazon. Participants (N = 82) completed online purchasing tasks assessing hypothetical marijuana or tobacco cigarette puff consumption across a range of per-puff prices; 2 single-commodity tasks assessed these when only 1 commodity was available, and 2 cross-commodity tasks assessed these in the presence of a concurrently available fixed-price commodity. Purchasing tasks generated measures of demand elasticity, that is, sensitivity of consumption to prices. In single-commodity tasks, consumption of tobacco cigarette puffs (elasticity of demand: α = 0.0075; 95% confidence interval [0.0066, 0.0085], R² = 0.72) and of marijuana puffs (α = .0044; 95% confidence interval [0.0038, 0.0049], R² = 0.71) declined significantly with increases in price per puff. In cross-commodity tasks when both tobacco cigarette puffs and marijuana puffs were available, demand for 1 commodity was independent of price increases in the other commodity (ps > .05). Results revealed that, in this small sample, marijuana and tobacco cigarettes did not substitute for each other and did not complement each other; instead, they were independent of each other. These preliminary results can inform future studies assessing the economic relationship between tobacco and marijuana in the quickly changing policy climate in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Vehicle Lightweighting: Novel Mathematical Methods to Estimate Use-Phase Fuel Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J; Sullivan, John L; Keoleian, Gregory A

    2015-08-18

    Lightweighting is a key strategy to improve vehicle fuel economy. Assessing the life-cycle benefits of lightweighting requires a quantitative description of the use-phase fuel consumption reduction associated with mass reduction. We present novel methods of estimating mass-induced fuel consumption (MIF) and fuel reduction values (FRVs) from fuel economy and dynamometer test data in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) database. In the past, FRVs have been measured using experimental testing. We demonstrate that FRVs can be mathematically derived from coast down coefficients in the EPA vehicle test database avoiding additional testing. MIF and FRVs calculated for 83 different 2013 MY vehicles are in the ranges 0.22-0.43 and 0.15-0.26 L/(100 km 100 kg), respectively, and increase to 0.27-0.53 L/(100 km 100 kg) with powertrain resizing to retain equivalent vehicle performance. We show how use-phase fuel consumption can be estimated using MIF and FRVs in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of vehicle lightweighting from total vehicle and vehicle component perspectives with, and without, powertrain resizing. The mass-induced fuel consumption model is illustrated by estimating lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission benefits from lightweighting a grille opening reinforcement component using magnesium or carbon fiber composite for 83 different vehicle models.

  7. Cigarette smoking among college students with disabilities: National College Health Assessment II, Fall 2008-Spring 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Traci; Pignataro, Rose M

    2013-07-01

    People with disabilities are 1.5 times more likely to smoke than their peers without disabilities, intensifying risk of health related disparities and further loss of function. When compared with the general population, college students also have a higher smoking prevalence. This study explores smoking rates among college students with disabilities. College students with disabilities have an increased likelihood of smoking, as compared with students without disabilities. Type of disability also influences smoking rates. This study explores the association between smoking and disability using multiple regression analyses and data from the National College Health Assessment II (NCHA II), Fall 2008-Spring 2009 (N = 79,915). People with disabilities comprised 15.6% of the total sample: 3.4% reported a physical disability, 8.3% reported a mental disability, 2.5% reported a sensory disability, and 3.7% reported a learning disability. Smoking prevalence among those reporting disabilities was 23.1% versus 15% in those without disabilities. Those reporting mental disabilities had the highest rates (29.9%), followed by those with learning disabilities (23.7%), sensory disabilities (19.8%), and physical disabilities (16.4%). Students with disabilities were 1.23 times more likely to report current smoking than those without any disabilities, controlling for other factors (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.16-1.30). Results are consistent with previous research regarding the general adult population. Epidemiologic data demonstrating differences in risk behaviors for young adults with disabilities are important in allocation of resources. Findings of this study highlight the need for tailored smoking cessation programs for college students with disabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 61365 - Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated... entitled ``Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts... of the risk of human salmonellosis associated with the consumption of tree nuts. We are taking this...

  9. Assessing the mutagenic activities of smoke from different cigarettes in direct exposure experiments using the modified Ames Salmonella assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shinkichi; Kanemaru, Yuki; Nara, Hidenori; Erami, Kazuo; Nagata, Yasufumi

    2016-06-01

    The Ames assay is useful for evaluating the mutagenic potentials of chemicals, and it has been used to evaluate the mutagenic potential of cigarette smoke (CS). In vitro direct exposure systems have been developed to mimic CS exposure in the human respiratory tract, and the Ames assay has been used with such systems. Ames tests were performed using the Vitrocell(®) direct exposure system in this study. The mutagenic potentials of whole mainstream CS and gas/vapor phase fractions produced by conventional combustible cigarettes under two smoking regimens were compared. Salmonella Typhimurium TA98 and TA100 were used with and without metabolic activation, and the number of revertants induced by exposure to each CS was determined. The amount of smoke particles to which cells were exposed were also determined, and dose-response curves describing the relationships between exposure to smoke particles and the number of revertants induced were plotted. The slopes of linear regressions of the dose-response curves were determined, and the slope for each CS was used as a mutagenic activity index for that CS. A new heated cigarette was also tested and smoke from the heated cigarette had a lower mutagenic activity in TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation than did the conventional CS. The results indicate that the direct exposure system and the Ames test can be used to determine the mutagenic potentials of CS produced by different cigarettes under different conditions (i.e., using different Salmonella Typhimurium strains with and without metabolic activation, and using different smoking conditions). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuropsychological assessment at school-age and prenatal low-level exposure to mercury through fish consumption in an Italian birth cohort living near a contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroma, L; Parpinel, M; Tognin, V; Channoufi, L; Tratnik, J; Horvat, M; Valent, F; Barbone, F

    2013-07-01

    The relative effects of prenatal and postnatal low-level mercury exposure and fish intake on child neurodevelopment are still controversial. Limited evidence is available from Mediterranean populations. In this prospective study, we measured the Verbal and Performance IQ in Italian children at school-age who were resident in an area declared as a National contaminated site because of mercury pollution, taking into account the possible beneficial effect of fish consumption and potential confounders. A mother-child cohort made up of 242 children was established at birth in Northeastern Italy in 2001. Their mothers were interviewed approximately 2 months after delivery to determine type, quantity, and origin of fish consumed during pregnancy and about a number of mother, child and family characteristics. Total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were assessed in maternal hair and breast milk and in the child's hair. When children reached 7-9 years of age, 154 (63.6%) parents gave consent to participate in a follow-up evaluation. On that occasion, a child's hair sample was collected to determine the current concentration of THg, mothers were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire, and children underwent neuropsychological testing. Verbal IQ, performance IQ and full scale IQ were measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC III) administered by psychologists at school or local health centers. Demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle information, medical information of the child's family and the child's dietary habits were collected using a questionnaire filled in by mothers. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between prenatal THg exposure through fish consumption of mothers in pregnancy and children's IQ after adjustment for possible confounders such as fish consumption of mothers in pregnancy, child's fish consumption at follow-up, child's birthweight, maternal cigarette smoking during

  11. Menthol cigarette and marijuana use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Singh, Nisha; Camenga, Deepa; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2013-12-01

    Menthol cigarette and marijuana use among adolescents is high; however, little is known about dual use in this age. Thus, we examined these rates among 2 samples of adolescents in Connecticut. Study 1 examined a school-wide survey assessing variables related to cigarettes and marijuana among high school students (N = 837 [13% smokers]), and Study 2 examined these factors using baseline data of high school-aged, treatment-seeking, daily cigarette smokers prior to quitting (N = 132). In Study 1, lifetime marijuana use among all adolescents was 33% and past 30-day marijuana use was 21%. Among cigarette smokers, 55% reported smoking menthol cigarettes, 84% reported lifetime marijuana use, and 66% reported past 30-day marijuana use. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that cigarette smokers, when compared with nonsmokers, had greater rates of lifetime (odds ratio [OR] = 10.91) and past 30-day marijuana use (OR = 10.44). Among smokers, use of menthol cigarettes, when compared with use of nonmenthol cigarettes, was associated with greater lifetime (OR = 5.05) but not past 30-day marijuana use. In Study 2 with daily smokers, 59% of adolescents reported use of menthol cigarettes and 66% reported past 30-day marijuana use. Compared with nonmenthol cigarette smokers, menthol cigarette smokers were more likely to report past 30-day marijuana use (OR = 2.44). Cigarette smoking is associated with marijuana use, and among smokers, menthol cigarette smoking further increased the odds of marijuana use. More research on the dual use of marijuana and tobacco is needed to inform prevention and treatment of substance use.

  12. Assessment of Food Security in China: A New Perspective Based on Production-Consumption Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhai Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The grain output of China increased continuously for 11 years from 2004 to 2014, effectively ensuring security of the country’s food supply. At the same time, rapid advancement of urbanization and industrialization generated marked changes in the food consumption patterns of residents, and supply-demand structural problems, such as the variety, quality and region of grains, became increasingly prominent. Currently, national food security goes beyond the guarantee of total grain demand. Therefore, both the production and consumption systems must be evaluated to produce a scientific measurement of food security. From the perspective of food production-consumption coordination and matching, this article sets up a multidimensional coupling assessment index system and model, and carries out assessment of the food security level and the warning status of China between 1995 and 2012. Results show that the level of quantity coordination remained high and the level of variety coordination fluctuated before 2006 and continued decreasing afterwards. The regional coordination level largely continued to decline during the whole research period. The level of coordination of Chinese food production-consumption was high overall. The warning situation existed only for four years, but it started to decrease continuously since 2007 because of aggravated structural and regional disharmony. The state of coordination at the early stage primarily reflected variation of food production, but that of the later stage greatly reflected the problems caused by food consumption. In the future, food security of China can be ensured overall, but regional and variety coordination problems may worsen further, which may exert a potentially negative influence on agricultural trade, industrial security and market stability, thereby leading to decrease in food security at the regional and household levels. In the future, this problem can be addressed by ensuring the self

  13. Risk assessment of excessive CO{sub 2} emission on diatom heavy metal consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fengjiao; Li, Shunxing, E-mail: shunxing_li@aliyun.com; Zheng, Fengying; Huang, Xuguang

    2016-10-01

    Diatoms are the dominant group of phytoplankton in the modern ocean, accounting for approximately 40% of oceanic primary productivity and critical foundation of coastal food web. Rising dissolution of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in seawater may directly/indirectly cause ocean acidification and desalination. However, little is known about dietary diatom-associated changes, especially for diatom heavy metal consumption sensitivity to these processes, which is important for seafood safety and nutrition assessment. Here we show some links between ocean acidification/desalination and heavy metal consumption by Thalassiosira weissflogii. Excitingly, under desalination stress, the relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated, especially between Cu and Zn (r = 0.989, total intracellular concentration) and between Zn and Cd (r = 0.962, single-cell intracellular concentration). Heavy metal consumption activity in decreasing order was acidification < acidification + desalination < desalination for Zn, acidification < desalination < acidification + desalination for Cu and Cd, i.e., heavy metal uptake (or release) were controlled by environmental stress. Our findings showed that heavy metal uptake (or release) was already responded to ongoing excessive CO{sub 2} emission-driven acidification and desalination, which was important for risk assessment of climate change on diatom heavy metal consumption, food web and then seafood safety in future oceans. - Highlights: • Excessive CO{sub 2} in seawater may causes ocean acidification and desalination. • The relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated by desalination. • Significant effects of salinity on intracellular concentration of Cu and Cd • Cu and Cd in marine phytoplankton could be regulated by metal excretion. • Heavy metal consumption was affect by excessive CO{sub 2}.

  14. Comparative Exposure Assessment of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli through Meat Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Eric G.; Pielaat, Annemarie; Joost H Smid; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Vennemann, Francy B. C.; Wijnands, Lucas M.; Chardon, Jurgen E.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) producing Escherichia coli (EEC) in food animals, especially broilers, has become a major public health concern. The aim of the present study was to quantify the EEC exposure of humans in The Netherlands through the consumption of meat from different food animals. Calculations were done with a simplified Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) model. The model took the effect of pre-retail processing, ...

  15. Electronic cigarette: use and perceptions among French military nurses in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, Sébastien; Sicard, Sébastien; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Mayet, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Paramedical personnel are exposed to tobacco smoking. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be considered as a lower-risk substitute for cigarettes. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette use, the motives for use and the perceptions among French military nurses. A cross-sectional survey, using self-administered questionnaires, was conducted in 2013 among 300 students and instructors of the French school of military paramedical personnel. Prevalences of e-cigarette use among smokers and nonsmokers were compared using logistic regressions adjusted on age and gender. The prevalence of smoking was 40% among the 200 responders. E-cigarette current use prevalence was 25% (6% daily users), without significant difference according to gender and age. Tobacco smokers reported significantly more e-cigarette current use (51% vs7%). Motives for e-cigarette use reported by smokers were curiosity (48%), intention to reduce tobacco consumption (43%) or to quit smoking (8%). Among users of both tobacco and e-cigarettes, 48% reported a significant decrease in tobacco consumption following e-cigarette initiation (average decrease of 5-10 cigarettes smoked per day; p cigarette use was potentially harmful for health, but it was perceived as less harmful than tobacco by 46%. E-cigarette use among military nurses follows the trends observed in the general population in terms of prevalence and motives. E-cigarettes, which are seen as an attractive alternative to cigarettes, may contribute to a reduction in tobacco use among healthcare workers.

  16. An exposure assessment of methyl mercury via fish consumption for the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Nakai, Satoshi; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this article was to propose an exposure assessment model to describe the relationship between fish consumption and body methyl mercury (MeHg) levels in the Japanese population. Individual MeHg intake was estimated by the summation of species-specific fish consumption multiplied by species-specific fish MeHg levels. The distribution of fish consumed by individuals and the MeHg level in each fish species were assigned based on published data from Japanese government institutions. The probability of MeHg intake for a population was accomplished through a Monte Carlo simulation by the random sampling of fish consumption and species-specific MeHg levels. Internal body MeHg levels in blood and hair were estimated using a one-compartment model. Overall, the mean value of MeHg intake for the Japanese population was estimated to be 6.76 microg/day or 0.14 microg/kg body weight per day (bw/day), while the mean value for the hair mercury level was 2.02 microg/g. Compared with the survey data that tabulated hair mercury levels in a cross-section of the Japanese population, the simulation results matched the hair mercury survey data very well for women, but somewhat underestimated for men and all of the population. This exposure assessment model is a useful attempt at further risk assessment with respect to a risk-benefit analysis.

  17. Comparison of Overall Resource Consumption of Biosolids Management System Processes Using Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanya, Sevda; Dewulf, Jo; Duran, Metin

    2015-08-18

    This study focused on the evaluation of biosolids management systems (BMS) from a natural resource consumption point of view. Additionally, the environmental impact of the facilities was benchmarked using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive assessment. This is the first study to apply a Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) method for an in-depth resource use assessment of BMS where two full-scale BMS and seven system variations were analyzed. CEENE allows better system evaluation and understanding of how much benefit is achievable from the products generated by BMS, which have valorization potential. LCA results showed that environmental burden is mostly from the intense electricity consumption. The CEENE analysis further revealed that the environmental burden is due to the high consumption of fossil and nuclear-based natural resources. Using Cumulative Degree of Perfection, higher resource-use efficiency, 53%, was observed in the PTA-2 where alkaline stabilization rather than anaerobic digestion is employed. However, an anaerobic digestion process is favorable over alkaline stabilization, with 35% lower overall natural resource use. The most significant reduction of the resource footprint occurred when the output biogas was valorized in a combined heat and power system.

  18. Availability and costs of single cigarettes in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ojeda, Ana; Barnoya, Joaquin; Thrasher, James F

    2013-01-01

    Single-cigarette sales have been associated with increased cigarette accessibility to less educated, lower-income populations, and minors; lower immediate cost, and increased smoking cues. Since 1997, Guatemalan Law bans the sale of single cigarettes and packs with fewer than 20 cigarettes. In 2005, Guatemala ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC); it is therefore obliged to "prohibit sale of cigarettes individually or in small packets." Blocks were numbered and randomly selected in Guatemala City and 3 neighboring towns. All stores in each block were surveyed. Single-cigarette and fewer than 20-cigarette pack sales were assessed by observation and purchase attempts. Cigarette brands and manufacturers (Philip Morris, PM or British American Tobacco, BAT) were also recorded. Percentages and means were used to describe data. Analyses were done using STATA 11.0. Of 398 stores and street vendors surveyed, 75.6% (301) sold cigarettes. Of these, 91% (275) sold single cigarettes and none sold fewer than 20-cigarette packs. Only informal economic sectors sold singles. There was no difference on sales between Guatemala City and neighboring towns and by store type. Buying 20 single cigarettes was US$ 0.83 more expensive than buying a 20-cigarette pack. The most prevalent brands were Rubios (PM), Marlboro (PM), Payasos (BAT), and After Hours (BAT). Single-cigarettes sales are highly prevalent among informal economic sectors in Guatemala City and its neighboring towns. Our data should prove useful to advocate for FCTC Article 16 enforcement in Guatemala.

  19. Electronic cigarettes as smoking cessation tool: are we there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sohini; Drummond, M Bradley

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rapidly increasing, with many users reporting trying e-cigarettes as a method to quit combustible cigarettes. This review highlights recently published studies assessing the use of e-cigarettes as a tool for cessation of combustible cigarettes. When evaluating data from four randomized controlled trials and multiple cohort studies, differential association between e-cigarette use and cessation rates was seen. Cessation rates are highest in UK cohort studies and in studies using a multifaceted approach, such as with the addition of varenicline. The largest evidence base is derived from observational cohort studies. Overall, the current evidence remains too small for conclusive results regarding efficacy of e-cigarettes for combustible cessation. There does appear to be a consistent reduction in daily combustible cigarette use in regular e-cigarette users. Currently, there are conflicting data which can be used to support or dismiss e-cigarettes as a tool for smoking cessation. As larger population-based studies become available, the potential harms and benefits of e-cigarettes will become clearer. In the short term, shared decision-making with combustible cigarette users will be imperative when considering e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool.

  20. E-Cigarettes Use Behavior and Experience of Adults: Qualitative Research Findings to Inform E-Cigarette Use Measure Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoshin; Davis, Andrew H; Dohack, Jaime L; Clark, Pamela I

    2017-02-01

    To gain a better understanding of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use behavior and experience among adult e-cigarette users, with the goal of informing development of future e-cigarette use measures. Between August and October 2014 six focus groups were conducted in Seattle. Participants (63% male; 60% >35 years old; 60% White): e-cigarette users who used combustible tobacco products either currently or in the past. E-cigarette discussion topics covered: their daily use pattern (eg, frequency), product-related characteristics (eg, nicotine levels), and perceptions about health risks and benefits. Participants' descriptions of daily use were so varied that no common "unit" of a "session" easily summarized frequency or quantity of typical e-cigarette use. Most users had difficulty in tracking their own use. Participants reported nicotine craving relief when using e-cigarettes, but described e-cigarettes use as less satisfying than combustible cigarettes. Valued characteristics included "ready availability" and the possibility of using indoors. A unique aspect of the e-cigarette use experience is the option of adding flavors and having the ability to exhale "big clouds" of vapor/aerosol. Most perceived e-cigarettes as a better and safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, yet still sought further information about health consequences and safety of e-cigarettes from trusted sources. E-cigarettes users are far from homogeneous in their behavior and motivation for adopting e-cigarettes. A range of use patterns arising from both hedonic and utilitarian factors, along with product characteristics (eg, variable nicotine levels and flavors) extending beyond those of conventional cigarettes, suggest that new, specific e-cigarette use measures must be developed. The current study provides timely information on adult e-cigarette use behavior, which is a crucial step in measuring this new phenomenon and assessing the risks associated with using e-cigarette products. Our

  1. High-resolution Behavioral Economic Analysis of Cigarette Demand to Inform Tax Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Few, Lauren R.; Murphy, James G.; Wier, Lauren M.; Acker, John; Murphy, Cara; Stojek, Monika; Carrigan, Maureen; Chaloupka, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Aims Novel methods in behavioral economics permit the systematic assessment of the relationship between cigarette consumption and price. Toward informing tax policy, the goals of this study were to conduct a high-resolution analysis of cigarette demand in a large sample of adult smokers and to use the data to estimate the effects of tax increases in ten U.S. States. Design In-person descriptive survey assessment. Setting Academic departments at three universities. Participants Adult daily smokers (i.e., 5+ cigarettes/day; 18+ years old; ≥8th grade education); N = 1056. Measurements Estimated cigarette demand, demographics, expired carbon monoxide. Findings The cigarette demand curve exhibited highly variable levels of price sensitivity, especially in the form of ‘left-digit effects’ (i.e., very high price sensitivity as pack prices transitioned from one whole number to the next; e.g., $5.80-$6/pack). A $1 tax increase in the ten states was projected to reduce the economic burden of smoking by an average of $531M (range: $93.6M-$976.5M) and increase gross tax revenue by an average of 162% (range: 114%- 247%). Conclusions Tobacco price sensitivity is nonlinear across the demand curve and in particular for pack-level left-digit price transitions. Tax increases in U.S. states with similar price and tax rates to the sample are projected to result in substantial decreases in smoking-related costs and substantial increases in tax revenues. PMID:22845784

  2. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation. Similar efficacy to other nicotine delivery devices, but many uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    E-cigarettes, marketed as an alternative to conventional cigarettes, are designed to transform a solution of variable composition, with or without nicotine, into an aerosol that the user inhales. How effective are e-cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation, and what are their known adverse effects? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. A randomised trial involving 657 individuals who wanted to stop smoking compared e-cigarettes (with or without nicotine) with nicotine patches. There was no difference between the groups after 6 months, with an overall quit rate of about 5%. A double-blind randomised trial including 300 smokers compared the impact of e-cigarettes with or without nicotine on tobacco consumption. After 3 months, 14% of those using e-cigarettes with nicotine had quit completely, compared to 4% of those using e-cigarettes without nicotine. Adverse events reported in these trials were mild and transient, and mainly included dry mouth, irritation of the mouth and throat, dizziness, and nausea. When the solution ("e-liquid") contains nicotine, the main adverse effects are those of nicotine. Bronchial disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders and ocular irritation have been reported with inhaled propylene glycol. The effects of propylene glycol and glycerol, when heated and inhaled over long periods, are not known. The addictive effect is difficult to determine. Long-term use of e-cigarettes has been observed in about one-third of people who stopped smoking. Toxic or carcinogenic substances have been found in some e-cigarette aerosols, but at lower concentrations than in tobacco smoke. The diversity in the composition of e-liquids and the lack of proper controls make it difficult to assess the associated dangers. In early 2015, e-cigarettes containing nicotine appear to have efficacy similar to that of other nicotine delivery systems as an aid to smoking cessation. Apart from the effects of

  3. An Assessment of Indoor Air Quality before, during and after Unrestricted Use of E-Cigarettes in a Small Room

    OpenAIRE

    Grant O'Connell; Stéphane Colard; Xavier Cahours; Pritchard, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne chemicals in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as burning fuels and cooking, construction materials and furniture, environmental tobacco smoke as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol to the pre-existing chemicals in the ambient air, an indoor air quality study was conducted to measure volatile organic compounds (including nicotine and low molecular weight carbonyls), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tob...

  4. Primary Care Physicians? Beliefs and Practices Regarding E-Cigarette Use by Patients Who Smoke: A Qualitative Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Omar El-Shahawy; Richard Brown; Jennifer Elston Lafata

    2016-01-01

    We explored primary care physicians’ (PCPs’) beliefs and practices about e-cigarettes. Cross-sectional, semi-structured interviews with PCPs in 2014 were conducted and audio-recorded. Participants were 15 general internal and family medicine physicians practicing in two settings in Virginia, USA. Interview recordings were transcribed, and the content analyzed using the Constant Comparative Method to identify key themes regarding PCPs’ reported current practices and beliefs. Five themes were i...

  5. Estimates of price and income elasticity in Greece. Greek debt crisis transforming cigarettes into a luxury good: an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantilis, Filippos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Zavras, Dimitris; Vozikis, Athanassios; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-05

    During the past decades, smoking prevalence in Greece was estimated to be near or over 40%. Following a sharp fall in cigarette consumption, as shown in current data, our objective is to assess smokers' sensitivity to cigarette price and consumer income changes as well as to project health benefits of an additional tax increase. Cigarette consumption was considered as the dependent variable, with Weighted Average Price as a proxy for cigarette price, gross domestic product as a proxy for consumers' income and dummy variables reflecting smoking restrictions and antismoking campaigns. Values were computed to natural logarithms and regression was performed. Then, four scenarios of tax increase were distinguished in order to calculate potential health benefits. Short-run price elasticity is estimated at -0.441 and short-run income elasticity is estimated at 1.040. Antismoking campaigns were found to have a statistically significant impact on consumption. Results indicate that, depending on the level of tax increase, annual per capita consumption could fall by at least 209.83 cigarettes; tax revenue could rise by more than €0.74 billion, while smokers could be reduced by up to 530 568 and at least 465 smoking-related deaths could be averted. Price elasticity estimates are similar to previous studies in Greece, while income elasticity estimates are far greater. With cigarettes regarded as a luxury good, a great opportunity is presented for decisionmakers to counter smoking. Increased taxation, along with focused antismoking campaigns, law reinforcement (to ensure compliance with smoking bans) and intensive control for smuggling could invoke a massive blow to the tobacco epidemic in Greece. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. An Assessment of Indoor Air Quality before, during and after Unrestricted Use of E-Cigarettes in a Small Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Grant; Colard, Stéphane; Cahours, Xavier; Pritchard, John D

    2015-05-06

    Airborne chemicals in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as burning fuels and cooking, construction materials and furniture, environmental tobacco smoke as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol to the pre-existing chemicals in the ambient air, an indoor air quality study was conducted to measure volatile organic compounds (including nicotine and low molecular weight carbonyls), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and trace metal levels in the air before, during and after e-cigarette use in a typical small office meeting room. Measurements were compared with human Health Criteria Values, such as indoor air quality guidelines or workplace exposure limits where established, to provide a context for potential bystander exposures. In this study, the data suggest that any additional chemicals present in indoor air from the exhaled e-cigarette aerosol, are unlikely to present an air quality issue to bystanders at the levels measured when compared to the regulatory standards that are used for workplaces or general indoor air quality.

  7. An Assessment of Indoor Air Quality before, during and after Unrestricted Use of E-Cigarettes in a Small Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant O'Connell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Airborne chemicals in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as burning fuels and cooking, construction materials and furniture, environmental tobacco smoke as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol to the pre-existing chemicals in the ambient air, an indoor air quality study was conducted to measure volatile organic compounds (including nicotine and low molecular weight carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and trace metal levels in the air before, during and after e-cigarette use in a typical small office meeting room. Measurements were compared with human Health Criteria Values, such as indoor air quality guidelines or workplace exposure limits where established, to provide a context for potential bystander exposures. In this study, the data suggest that any additional chemicals present in indoor air from the exhaled e-cigarette aerosol, are unlikely to present an air quality issue to bystanders at the levels measured when compared to the regulatory standards that are used for workplaces or general indoor air quality.

  8. Assessment of Trends in Fish Products Consumption by the Citizens of the Republic of Buryatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Platonovna Nikiforova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the assessment of fish products consumption by the citizens of the region. The purpose of the research is the development and application of the tools simulating consumer demand on fish products on the example of the households in the Republic of Buryatia for the “Baikal omul” brand promotion. The authors have found that the rise of consumer demand in world fish products consumption is due to the increase of aquaculture in artificial reservoirs. On the fish market, we have observed the steady differentiation of cultivated fish and fish from natural reservoirs. The rise of prices on fish products significantly changes the segments of consumers especially depending on their incomes. We have found that fish products are significant for the citizens of the Republic of Buryatia. Some key factors of fish products consumption were established. The authors offered the methodological approach of making the survey of the population on consumption of fish products based on the cluster analysis. The methodology toolkit includes the mathematical methods of statistical and survey data processing. We have proved that fish products play an important role in the diet of the citizens of the Republic of Buryatia. There are significant differences in fish consumption according to the income of respondents. The scientific novelty of the study includes establishing the deterrent factors of fish products in the conditions of decreasing incomes and increasing prices on fish market; estimation of traditional kind of processed fish production from the lake Baikal in terms of technology of fermentation for developing a brand and its promotion outwards of local market; applying a differential approach to the analysis of consumers preferences in fish products; reasoning the deficiency of “omul with odor” brand estimation in the context of the prospect development of tourist cluster. The results can be used in marketing promotion of

  9. Differential Effects of Alcoholic Beverages and Cigarette Smoke on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are among social practices of some Nigerian youths. These practices have adverse health consequences but the basis of which is yet to be elucidated. This study was designed to provide information on humoral immune responses in Nigerians that smoke cigarettes, consume ...

  10. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bjerregaard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been published from circumpolar indigenous communities. Objective. The purpose of the study is to compare information on the consumption of tobacco and alcohol obtained from 3 population surveys in Greenland with import statistics. Design. Estimates of consumption of cigarettes and alcohol using several different survey instruments in cross-sectional population studies from 1993–1994, 1999–2001 and 2005–2010 were compared with import statistics from the same years. Results. For cigarettes, survey results accounted for virtually the total import. Alcohol consumption was significantly under-reported with reporting completeness ranging from 40% to 51% for different estimates of habitual weekly consumption in the 3 study periods. Including an estimate of binge drinking increased the estimated total consumption to 78% of the import. Conclusion. Compared with import statistics, questionnaire-based population surveys capture the consumption of cigarettes well in Greenland. Consumption of alcohol is under-reported, but asking about binge episodes in addition to the usual intake considerably increased the reported intake in this population and made it more in agreement with import statistics. It is unknown to what extent these findings at the population level can be inferred to population subgroups.

  11. An investigation on the assessed thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2010-01-01

    perception of the indoor environment is rare. As the building should provide healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in the building and within the human body. A relatively new approach of the relation between the exergy concept and the built......-environment research has been explored in the present work. The relationship of subjectively assessed thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to the calculated human-body exergy consumption has been analysed. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate was related......The exergy concept helps to optimize indoor climate conditioning systems to meet the requirements of sustainable building design. While the exergy approach to design and operation of indoor climate conditioning systems is relatively well established, its exploitation in connection to human...

  12. An impact assessment of functional systems in vehicles on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkisz Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of facilities for a driver increasing the travel comfort in a PC vehicle is constantly increasing. Most of them are powered by electricity generated at a cost of additional engine load. Power is received directly from the crankshaft by an alternator or air conditioning compressor, which negatively affects fuel consumption. This paper presents the results of CO2 emission testing in actual traffic conditions for vehicles with on and off functional systems responsible for driving comfort. In addition, an assessment of fuel consumption calculated using the carbon balance method was performed. Measurements were made for cold start and preheated combustion unit the research used the latest PEMS mobile apparatus.

  13. Comparative Exposure Assessment of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli through Meat Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Eric G; Pielaat, Annemarie; Smid, Joost H; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Vennemann, Francy B C; Wijnands, Lucas M; Chardon, Jurgen E

    2017-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) producing Escherichia coli (EEC) in food animals, especially broilers, has become a major public health concern. The aim of the present study was to quantify the EEC exposure of humans in The Netherlands through the consumption of meat from different food animals. Calculations were done with a simplified Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) model. The model took the effect of pre-retail processing, storage at the consumers home and preparation in the kitchen (cross-contamination and heating) on EEC numbers on/in the raw meat products into account. The contribution of beef products (78%) to the total EEC exposure of the Dutch population through the consumption of meat was much higher than for chicken (18%), pork (4.5%), veal (0.1%) and lamb (0%). After slaughter, chicken meat accounted for 97% of total EEC load on meat, but chicken meat experienced a relatively large effect of heating during food preparation. Exposure via consumption of filet americain (a minced beef product consumed raw) was predicted to be highest (61% of total EEC exposure), followed by chicken fillet (13%). It was estimated that only 18% of EEC exposure occurred via cross-contamination during preparation in the kitchen, which was the only route by which EEC survived for surface-contaminated products. Sensitivity analysis showed that model output is not sensitive for most parameters. However, EEC concentration on meat other than chicken meat was an important data gap. In conclusion, the model assessed that consumption of beef products led to a higher exposure to EEC than chicken products, although the prevalence of EEC on raw chicken meat was much higher than on beef. The (relative) risk of this exposure for public health is yet unknown given the lack of a modelling framework and of exposure studies for other potential transmission routes.

  14. Cigarette smuggling in Europe: who really benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1998-01-01

    Cigarette smuggling, now on the increase, is so widespread and well organised that it poses a serious threat to public health. This threat comes from two principal directions. First, smuggling makes cigarettes available cheaply, thereby increasing consumption. A third of annual global exports go to the contraband market, representing an enormous impact on consumption, and thus causing an increase in the burden of disease, especially in poorer countries. It is also costing government treasuries thousands of millions of dollars in lost tax revenue. Second, the tobacco industry uses smuggling politically, lobbying governments to lower tax, arguing that smuggling is caused by price differences. This paper shows that the claimed correlation between high prices and high levels of smuggling does not exist in western Europe. In fact, countries such as Norway and Sweden, with expensive cigarettes, do not have a large smuggling problem, whereas countries in the south of Europe do. Cigarette smuggling is not caused principally by "market forces". It is mainly caused by fraud, by the illegal evasion of import duty. The cigarettes involved are not the cheap brands from southern European countries, for which there is no international market. It is the well-known international brands such as Marlboro and Winston. We propose much tighter regulation of cigarette trade, including an international transport convention, and a total ban on transit trade-sale by the manufacturers to dealers, who sell on to smugglers.

  15. Proxy measures of household food consumption for food security assessment and surveillance: comparison of the household dietary diversity and food consumption scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gina; Berardo, Andrea; Papavero, Cinzia; Horjus, Peter; Ballard, Terri; Dop, MarieClaude; Delbaere, Jan; Brouwer, Inge D

    2010-12-01

    To provide an overview of the household dietary diversity score and the food consumption score, two indicators used for food security assessment and surveillance, and compare their performance in food security assessments in three countries. Cross-sectional cluster sampling design using an interview-administered structured questionnaire on household food security, including household-level food group consumption measured over 1 d and 7 d. Survey data are from Burkina Faso, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and northern Uganda. Households in Burkina Faso (n 3640), Lao PDR (n 3913) and northern Uganda (n 1956). Spearman's correlation coefficients between the scores were 0·73 in Burkina Faso, 0·65 in Lao PDR and 0·53 in northern Uganda. Prevalence-adjusted kappa coefficients showed substantial strength of agreement in two countries. The proportion of agreement between the two scores ranged from 85 % in Lao PDR to 65 % in northern Uganda. Dietary profiles based on food group consumption using score tertiles were comparable. Rankings of the most food-insecure areas within a country corresponded well in northern Uganda and Burkina Faso but not in Lao PDR. Both indicators showed moderate correlations with other proxy measures of food security. The comparative study highlights the similarities and differences between the food consumption and household dietary diversity scores. Similar classification of the most food-insecure areas within sub-national levels was obtained. The choice of indicator for food security assessment and surveillance will vary depending on user needs.

  16. The behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y-W; Sung, H-Y; Yang, C-L; Shih, S-F

    2003-03-01

    Since market liberalization in 1987, the Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau (TTWMB) annual statistics indicate that both the demand for imported cigarettes as well as the number of seized smuggled packs have increased with an average revenue loss of NT dollars 4942 million over the past 15 years. The NT dollars 10 average increase in cigarette prices after Taiwan entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Tobacco and Alcohol Tax Law in 2002 are forcing policy makers to examine smuggling even more closely. This study evaluates factors that affect an individual smoker's decision to purchase smuggled cigarettes, particularly when faced with higher prices. 437 male smokers of imported cigarettes were drawn from a national interview survey on cigarette consumption, which the Division of Health Policy Research at the National Health Research Institutes conducted during the year 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes with respect to demographic factors, economic factors, smoking behaviour, and other variables. Cigarette price was the driving factor most closely linked to the purchase of smuggled cigarettes--a 1% increase in cigarette price raised the likelihood of purchasing smuggled cigarettes at least 2.60 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 6.26). Smokers who spent more than NT 1000/month dollars on cigarettes were twice as likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes as those who spent less than NT 1000 dollars (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.70). Betel nut chewers were more likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.90). Smokers who opposed cigarette taxation policy were 1.69 times more likely to buy smuggled cigarettes. Personal income was not significantly associated with smuggled cigarettes purchases. This study evaluates what causes smokers to purchase smuggled cigarettes. We have determined that cigarette price is the most

  17. Cigarette smoking before and after an excise tax increase and an antismoking campaign--Massachusetts, 1990-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-08

    In November 1992, residents of Massachusetts approved a ballot petition (Question 1) that increased the tax on each pack of cigarettes from $.26 to $.51 beginning January 1, 1993, and requested that the legislature spend the proceeds on tobacco control and health education. The Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program (MTCP), administered by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH), was established in response to the approval of the petition. In October 1993, MTCP initiated a statewide mass-media antismoking campaign. In early 1994, the program began funding local boards of health and school health and other youth programs to promote policies to reduce public exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and to restrict youth access to cigarettes. Efforts also included support to health education programs, primary-care providers, and other services to help smokers quit. Through June 1996, MTCP expenditures totaled $116 million, including $43 million for the mass-media campaign. To assess the effects of the excise tax increase and the antismoking campaign on cigarette smoking in Massachusetts, CDC and MDPH analyzed data about the number of packs of cigarettes taxed per capita and the prevalence of cigarette smoking during the period preceding (1990-1992) and following (1993-1996) implementation of the ballot petition. This report summarizes the findings of the assessment and compares trends in cigarette consumption (i.e., purchases) in Massachusetts, in California (where a voter-mandated cigarette tax increase in January 1989 funded a statewide antismoking campaign that began in April 1990, and in the 48 remaining states and the District of Columbia combined. The findings suggest that the number of packs of cigarettes taxed per capita declined substantially in Massachusetts after implementation of the ballot petition.

  18. Assessment of alcohol consumption in liver transplant candidates and recipients: the best combination of the tools available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Salvatore; Marchioro, Lucio; Gola, Elisabetta; Rosi, Silvia; Morando, Filippo; Cavallin, Marta; Sticca, Antonietta; Fasolato, Silvano; Forza, Giovanni; Chiara Frigo, Anna; Plebani, Mario; Zanus, Giacomo; Cillo, Umberto; Gatta, Angelo; Angeli, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    The detection of alcohol consumption in liver transplant candidates (LTCs) and liver transplant recipients (LTRs) is required to enable a proper assessment of transplant eligibility and early management of alcohol relapse, respectively. In this clinical setting, urinary ethyl glucuronide (uEtG), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Alcohol Consumption (AUDIT-c), serum ethanol, urinary ethanol, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), and other indirect markers of alcohol consumption were evaluated and compared prospectively in 121 LTCs and LTRs. Alcohol consumption was diagnosed when AUDIT-c results were positive or it was confirmed by a patient's history in response to abnormal results. Alcohol consumption was found in 30.6% of the patients. uEtG was found to be the strongest marker of alcohol consumption (odds ratio = 414.5, P alcohol consumption [area under receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve = 0.94] than CDT (area under ROC curve = 0.63, P alcohol consumption in comparison with the combination of CDT and AUDIT-c (area under ROC curve = 0.98 versus 0.80, P alcohol consumption in patients with negative AUDIT-c results. In conclusion, the combination of AUDIT-c and uEtG improves the detection of alcohol consumption in LTCs and LTRs. Therefore, they should be used routinely for these patients. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE...... consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE....... The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3. L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE...

  20. [Teenage tobacco consumption in five Colombian cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Constanza; Piñeros, Marion

    2010-01-01

    The consumption of tobacco is a public health problem around the world. In Colombia, each year approximately 17,000 deaths are attributed to smoking. The monitoring of tobacco consumption is necessary to estimate population risk for chronic diseases and cancer. The prevalence of smoking was estimated and factors assessed that influence the use of tobacco among youths. The survey was implemented by the Colombian National Cancer Institute in 2007, in public and private schools located in 5 cities in Colombia. The survey was anonymous, voluntary and self-processed by students 13 to 15 years of age and the participants selected by a multi-stage sampling process. Statistical analysis was performed with SUDAAN software. Differences in proportions were considered statistically significant at the pcities was 11.9 years. The prevalence of cigarette smoking varied between 7.4% and 34.1% among the cities and susceptibility to initiate smoking among non smokers was between 12.3% to 32.0%. Between 40% and 60% of students were exposed to secondhand smoke in public places. Approximately 70% were exposed to indirect tobacco advertising. Between 40% and 69% of students who currently smoke cigarettes reported that they wanted to stop smoking. Approximately 80% of students who currently smoke cigarettes were not refused when they purchased cigarettes in a store or supermarket. Finally, 34% to 54% of students reported having been taught in school about the harmful effects of smoking. The high prevalence of consumption in four of the five cities suggested interventions that aim primarily at prevention components, smoke-free spaces and advertising control.

  1. Differences in the design and sale of e-cigarettes by cigarette manufacturers and non-cigarette manufacturers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Jo, Catherine L; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-04-01

    Three categories of e-cigarette brands have emerged within the US market: e-cigarette brands developed by cigarette manufacturers, brands acquired by cigarette manufacturers and brands with no cigarette manufacturer affiliation. In the absence of federal regulatory oversight of e-cigarettes, we assessed differences in e-cigarette products and sales practices across these categories. Brand websites for top-selling e-cigarette brands from each of these categories were examined in October of 2015 to compare website access restrictions, online sales practices and products sold, including e-cigarette model type (eg, 'cigalike' vs advanced systems) and options available (eg, flavoured, nicotine free). Website access to brands developed by cigarette manufacturers was restricted to users aged 21 years or older, and one website required user registration. In addition, these brands were exclusively reusable/rechargeable 'cigalikes.' Limited flavour options were available for these products, and nicotine-free options were not sold. In contrast, brands acquired by cigarette manufacturers and brands with no cigarette manufacturer affiliation generally required website visitors to be 18, offered a nicotine-free option, and most offered disposable products and an array of flavoured products (eg, fruit/candy flavours). This exploratory study finds differences in e-cigarette products and sales practices across these three e-cigarette brand categories, with brands developed by cigarette manufacturers adopting a particularly distinctive product and sales strategy. Anticipated regulation of e-cigarettes in the USA may be influencing these product and sales decisions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Electronic cigarette use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use among Chinese adolescents. We examined the prevalence of current (past 30-day e-cigarette use and its associated factors in a large sample of adolescents in Hong Kong. Methods We analyzed data of the School-based Survey on Smoking among Students 2012/13 from a representative sample of 45,857 secondary school students (mean age: 14.8 ± 1.9. We conducted chi-square tests and t-test to compare current e-cigarette use by covariates. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between current e-cigarette use and demographic variables, parental smoking, peer smoking, knowledge about the harm of cigarette smoking, attitudes toward cigarette smoking, cigarette smoking status, use of other tobacco products, and alcohol consumption. Results Overall, 1.1 % of students reported current e-cigarette use. Of e-cigarette users, 11.7 % were never-cigarette smokers, 15.8 % were experimental cigarette smokers, 39.3 % were former cigarette smokers, and 33.2 % were current cigarette smokers. Current e-cigarette use was associated with male sex, poor knowledge about the harm of smoking, cigarette smoking, use of other tobacco products, and alcohol consumption. Conclusions Surveillance and intervention efforts should address a wide range of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. Tobacco cessation programs should also address alcohol use collectively. Policies prohibiting e-cigarette sales to minors may help prevent e-cigarette uptake among adolescents.

  3. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-04-01

    Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. No effect of cigarette smoking on attention or mood in non-deprived smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, M; Foulds, J; Fife-Schaw, C

    2001-09-01

    This study aimed (a) to assess whether smoking reduces anxiety when paired with a pleasant distractor and (b) to investigate the effect of smoking a cigarette on cognitive performance in non-deprived smokers. Participants were allocated randomly to four conditions in a 2 x 2 factorial design: 1, Smoke + Distractor; 2, Smoke + No Distractor; 3, No Smoke + Distractor; 4, No Smoke + No Distractor. University psychology department (University of Surrey, UK). Forty-five volunteer cigarette smokers (mean consumption = 16 cigarettes per day) allowed to smoke normally prior to the study. Participants were either allowed to smoke a cigarette of their choice in a manner of their choosing or not allowed to smoke, either with or without a concurrent distractor (a music video). Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) performance was measured via computer before and after a 10-minute break (during which the interventions took place). Mood was measured by (a) State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) and (b) Feeling State Questionnaire (FSQ), before and after the first RVIP task and then immediately after the break/cigarette. The RVIP task produced a significant increase in both measures of anxiety (SAI and FSQ stress subscale). Smoking, when paired with a distractor, did not decrease anxiety compared with when no distractor was present. Furthermore, smoking did not decrease anxiety or increase attentional (RVIP) performance compared with not smoking. The findings of this study failed to support the idea that smoking has anxiety-reducing or attention-enhancing properties in non-abstinent smokers.

  5. Receipt and redemption of cigarette coupons, perceptions of cigarette companies and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Hennrikus, Deborah J; Forster, Jean L; Moilanen, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Although it is known that cigarette companies use cigarette coupons to market their products, little is known about the characteristics of those who receive these coupons. The influence of receipt and redemption of these coupons is also unknown. Participants of the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey Cohort Study who were smokers in 2008, completed surveys in 2008 and 2009, and had smoked for at least 6 months between those surveys, were included. In 2009, participants reported whether they had received cigarette coupons in the past 12 months, and whether they had used the coupons. They also reported their perceptions of cigarette companies and their smoking status. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess associations between receiving and redeeming coupons, perceptions of cigarette companies, and smoking status. Overall, 49.4% of the sample reported receiving cigarette coupons, and 39.9% redeemed them (80.1% of those who received these coupons). Female, younger and heavier smokers were more likely to report receiving these coupons (pcompanies care about their health and do the best they can to make cigarettes safe, and less likely to agree that cigarette companies lie (p<0.05). Smokers who used these coupons were less likely to quit smoking (p<0.05). Our findings suggest a negative association between cigarette coupons and smoking cessation. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish whether cigarette coupons influence smoking behaviour to inform the necessity for policies to prohibit the use of these coupons to assist smokers to quit smoking.

  6. Electronic Cigarette Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Michaels, David; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity.

  7. Safety assessment of consumption of glabrous canary seed (Phalaris canariensis L.) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, B A; Patterson, C A; Hucl, P; Newkirk, R W; Ram, J I; Classen, H L

    2014-01-01

    Canary seed is a nutrient-rich cereal grain; however, it has not been used in human food in part due to concerns regarding safety of consumption. Glabrous or hairless canary seed has potential human food use as trichomes are absent. The objective of the oral feeding studies reported here was to assess the safety of yellow and brown glabrous canary seed cultivars as human cereal foods. The first study was a 90-day rat oral toxicity study, which compared the effects of diets containing 50% of either brown dehulled glabrous, brown hulled glabrous, or brown hulled pubescent (hairy) hulled canary seed to a diet containing 50% wheat. No significant adverse effects were observed. In a 28-day and a 90-day study rats were fed yellow or brown glabrous canary seed groats in the AIN-76 diet at concentrations levels of 2.5%, 5% and 10%. The NOAELs in 90-day study were 5.15 g/kg/d and 5.23 g/kg/d for yellow and brown canary seed groats. Consumption of canary seed was associated with reduced incidence and severity of liver lipidosis as compared to controls. The combined results of these studies clearly demonstrate the safety of consumption of glabrous canary seed, and support its use as a human cereal grain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of the Effect of Fruit (Apple and Plain Yoghurt Consumption on Plaque pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyvand Moeiny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, thanks to improvements in fruit yoghurt tastes, more tendencies are seen in their consumption especially among children. Therefore, their cariogenicity evaluation as healthy snacks is important. The goal of this study was the assessment of the consumption effect of two kinds of Iranian fruit (apple and plain yoghurts on dental plaque PH. Methods: In this experimental study, 10 healthy dentistry students were selected upon inclusion criteria. Plaque pH in the certain areas of the mouth was measured by microelectrode and digital pH meter. PH was measured at the baseline and intervals of 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes after eating test products: fruit yoghurt (apple and plain Yoghurt. For positive control group, just the baseline PH and at intervals of 2 and 5 min after swishing with 10% sucrose solutions were recorded. The results were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Lowest pH was obtained after fruit yoghurt consumption followed by plain yoghurt and %10 sucrose solution and the plaque PH difference was significant (P=0.05. Furthermore, time duration which remained below the critical pH was longer after consuming fruit yoghurt. Conclusion: Both kinds of yoghurts were considered cariogenic since plaque pH drop below critical points. Average of plaque pH after consuming fruit yoghurt was significantly lower in almost all the time intervals

  9. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  10. Support for indoor bans on electronic cigarettes among current and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Stephanie K; Rogers, Brooke G; Hooper, Monica Webb

    2014-11-25

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June-September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%). RESULTS demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  11. Changes in cigarette expenditure minimising strategies before and after a cigarette tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Boyle, Raymond G

    2017-02-20

    Smokers use cigarette expenditure minimising strategies (CEMS) to alleviate the effect of tax increases on their cigarette expenses. We examined changes in smokers' CEMS use before and after a 2013 Minnesota $1.75 cigarette tax increase. Data were from representative samples of smokers who participated in the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey 2010 (n=948) and 2014 (n=1229). Participants indicated CEMS used in the past year from a list. Weighted multiple logistic regressions were used to examine changes in prevalence of each CEMS use over time adjusting for demographics and cigarette consumption. Characteristics associated with CEMS use in 2014 were examined. Between 2010 and 2014, more smokers tried to save money on cigarettes by rolling their own cigarettes (from 19% to 29%), using other tobacco products (from 13% to 25%), and buying cigarettes from cheaper places (from 48% to 55%). Yet, fewer smokers used coupons/promotions (from 63% to 50%) and bought cigarettes by the carton (from 39% to 32%). These changes varied somewhat by race/ethnicity and education, for example, more smokers with smokers. CEMS use in 2014 varied by demographics, for example, smokers with lower education were more likely than those with higher education to purchase discount brands, roll their own cigarettes, use coupons/promotions and cut back on smoking (psmokers were most likely to use CEMS and continue smoking after a cigarette tax increase. Regulations that would reduce CEMS use could boost the effectiveness of cigarette tax increases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) [year]. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Portrayal of electronic cigarettes on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuan; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Leischow, Scott

    2014-10-03

    As the most popular video sharing website in the world, YouTube has the potential to reach and influence a huge audience. This study aims to gain a systematic understanding of what e-cigarette messages people are being exposed to on YouTube by assessing the quantity, portrayal and reach of e-cigarette videos. Researchers identified the top 20 search results on YouTube by relevance and view count for the following search terms: "electronic cigarettes", "e-cigarettes", "ecigarettes", "ecigs", "smoking electronic cigarettes", "smoking e-cigarettes", "smoking ecigarettes", "smoking ecigs". A sample of 196 unique videos was coded for overall portrayal and genre. Main topics covered in e-cigarette videos were recorded and video statistics and viewer demographic information were documented. Among the 196 unique videos, 94% (n = 185) were "pro" to e-cigarettes and 4% (n = 8) were neutral, while there were only 2% (n = 3) that were "anti" to e-cigarettes. The top 3 most prevalent genres of videos were advertisement, user sharing and product review. 84.3% of "pro" videos contained Web links for e-cigarette purchase. 71.4% of "pro" videos claimed that e-cigarettes were healthier than conventional cigarettes. Audience was primarily from the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada and "pro" e-cigarette videos were watched more frequently and rated much more favorably than "anti" ones. The vast majority of information on YouTube about e-cigarettes promoted their use and depicted the use of e-cigarettes as socially acceptable. It is critical to develop appropriate health campaigns to inform e-cigarette consumers of potential harms associated with e-cigarette use.

  13. Electronic cigarette use outcome expectancies among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Little, Melissa A; Fagan, Pebbles; Muranaka, Nicholas; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-06-01

    E-cigarette use outcome expectancies and their relationships with demographic and e-cigarette use variables are not well understood. Based on past cigarette as well as e-cigarette use research, we generated self-report items to assess e-cigarette outcome expectancies among college students. The objective was to determine different dimensions of e-cigarette use expectancies and their associations with e-cigarette use and use susceptibility. Self-report data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students [M age=23.5 (SD=5.5); 65% Female; 35% current cigarette smokers] in Hawaii. Data analyses were conducted by using factor and regression analyses. Exploratory factor analysis among e-cigarette ever-users indicated 7 factors: 3 positive expectancy factors (social enhancement, affect regulation, positive sensory experience) and 4 negative expectancy factors (negative health consequences, addiction concern, negative appearance, negative sensory experience). Confirmatory factor analysis among e-cigarette never-users indicated that the 7-factor model fitted reasonably well to the data. Being a current cigarette smoker was positively associated with positive expectancies and inversely with negative expectancies. Higher positive expectancies were significantly associated with greater likelihood of past-30-day e-cigarette use. Except addiction concern, higher negative expectancies were significantly associated with lower likelihood of past-30-day e-cigarette use. Among e-cigarette never-users, positive expectancy variables were significantly associated with higher intentions to use e-cigarettes in the future, adjusting for current smoker status and demographic variables. E-cigarette use expectancies determined in this study appear to predict e-cigarette use and use susceptibility among young adults and thus have important implications for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing Health Impacts of Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Korea Using DYNAMO-HIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eunjeong

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to predict the 10-year impacts of the introduction of pictorial warning labels (PWLs) on cigarette packaging in 2016 in Korea for adults using DYNAMO-HIA. In total, four scenarios were constructed to better understand the potential health impacts of PWLs: two for PWLs and the other two for a hypothetical cigarette tax increase. In both policies, an optimistic and a conservative scenario were constructed. The reference scenario assumed the 2015 smoking rate would remain the same. Demographic data and epidemiological data were obtained from various sources. Differences in the predicted smoking prevalence and prevalence, incidence, and mortality from diseases were compared between the reference scenario and the four policy scenarios. It was predicted that the optimistic PWLs scenario (PWO) would lower the smoking rate by 4.79% in males and 0.66% in females compared to the reference scenario in 2017. However, the impact on the reduction of the smoking rate was expected to diminish over time. PWO will prevent 85 238 cases of diabetes, 67 948 of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 31 526 of ischemic heart disease, 21 036 of lung cancer, and 3972 prevalent cases of oral cancer in total over the 10-year span due to the reductions in smoking prevalence. The impacts of PWO are expected to be between the impact of the optimistic and the conservative cigarette tax increase scenarios. The results were sensitive to the transition probability of smoking status. The introduction of PWLs in 2016 in Korea is expected reduce smoking prevalence and disease cases for the next 10 years, but regular replacements of PWLs are needed for persistent impacts.

  15. Assessing Health Impacts of Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Korea Using DYNAMO-HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjeong Kang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to predict the 10-year impacts of the introduction of pictorial warning labels (PWLs on cigarette packaging in 2016 in Korea for adults using DYNAMO-HIA. Methods In total, four scenarios were constructed to better understand the potential health impacts of PWLs: two for PWLs and the other two for a hypothetical cigarette tax increase. In both policies, an optimistic and a conservative scenario were constructed. The reference scenario assumed the 2015 smoking rate would remain the same. Demographic data and epidemiological data were obtained from various sources. Differences in the predicted smoking prevalence and prevalence, incidence, and mortality from diseases were compared between the reference scenario and the four policy scenarios. Results It was predicted that the optimistic PWLs scenario (PWO would lower the smoking rate by 4.79% in males and 0.66% in females compared to the reference scenario in 2017. However, the impact on the reduction of the smoking rate was expected to diminish over time. PWO will prevent 85 238 cases of diabetes, 67 948 of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 31 526 of ischemic heart disease, 21 036 of lung cancer, and 3972 prevalent cases of oral cancer in total over the 10-year span due to the reductions in smoking prevalence. The impacts of PWO are expected to be between the impact of the optimistic and the conservative cigarette tax increase scenarios. The results were sensitive to the transition probability of smoking status. Conclusions The introduction of PWLs in 2016 in Korea is expected reduce smoking prevalence and disease cases for the next 10 years, but regular replacements of PWLs are needed for persistent impacts.

  16. Assessment of consumption of marine food in Greenland by a food frequency questionnaire and biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We studied the association and agreement between questionnaire data and biomarkers of marine food among Greenland Inuit. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. METHODS: The study population comprised 2,224 Inuit, age 18+ (43% men); data collected 2005-2008 in Greenland. Using a food frequency...... questionnaire (FFQ), we calculated consumption of seal, whale, and fish (g/day) and as meals/month, intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), total N3, and mercury. We measured erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA) and whole blood mercury (Hg). Associations were assessed by Pearson...

  17. Assessment of obesity, overweight and its association with the fast food consumption in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Trushna; Purohit, Geetanjali; Nair, Sandhya Pillai; Patel, Bhavita; Rawal, Yash; Shah, R M

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a condition in which excess body fat accumulates, which leads to various adverse effects on health, particularly cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which reduce life expectancy and/or increase health problems. Fast food consumption is one of the factors which have been reported as a cause of obesity. Body mass index (BMI) is used to assess obesity and overweight, which can be calculated by using the formula, weight in kg, divided by square of height in metres. This study focused on the relationship of body mass index with fast food consumption, associated soft drink consumption and physical activity. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry, SBKS MI and RC, and Sumandeep Vidyapeeth. This study was approved by the ethical review board .One hundred and forty seven medical students from 1(st) year MBBS course were included in this study. Self-structured questionnaire was used, which contained several data like information on age, height, weight, education level. The formula used for calculating BMI was, weight in kg, divided by square of height in metres (Kg/m(2)). In our study, out of 147 students, a total of 138 students (more than 90%) used to have fast food. Among these, a total of 47 students (34.05%) were pre-obese and obese. Out of 147 students, 87 students (59.18%) were in normal weight range, while 13 (8.84%) students were underweight. Data was compiled in an Excel worksheet and it was analyzed for percentages and proportions. Chi-square and Pearson's correlation test were also applied wherever they were applicable and Alpha error was set at a 5% level. In our study, a significant relationship was found between BMI and fast food consumption, less physical activity, and intake of soft drinks.

  18. Cigarette advertising and teen smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2011-02-01

    To test the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. A longitudinal survey of 2102 adolescents, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline, who never smoked was conducted by using masked images of 6 cigarette advertisements and 8 other commercial products with all brand information digitally removed. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency and cued recall of brands for cigarette and other advertisements. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were used to assess smoking initiation 9 months after the baseline assessment as a function of cigarette-advertisement exposure, other advertisement exposure, and baseline covariates. Thirteen percent (n = 277) of students initiated smoking during the observation period. Although the incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to cigarette advertisements (10% in the low, 12% in the medium, and 19% in the high cigarette-advertisement exposure tertile initiated smoking), exposure to other advertisements did not predict smoking initiation. Compared with low exposure to cigarette advertisements, high exposure remained a significant predictor of adolescent smoking initiation after controlling for baseline covariates (adjusted relative risk: 1.46 [95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.97]; P advertisements and underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and teen smoking; exposure to cigarette advertisements, but not other advertisements, is associated with smoking initiation.

  19. Measuring E-cigarette dependence: Initial guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bold, Krysten W; Sussman, Steve; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Grana, Rachel; Foulds, Jonathan; Fishbein, Howard; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2018-04-01

    E-cigarette use rates are increasing among youth and adults, despite limited knowledge about the safety, risks, and potential for this product in substituting for or reducing other tobacco use. Understanding how to characterize and assess e-cigarette dependence will be important for evaluating the public health impact of e-cigarettes and considering prevention and intervention strategies. To provide an initial review of constructs to consider when assessing e-cigarette dependence, a content expert group within the Tobacco Center for Regulatory Science (TCORS) Measurement Workgroup engaged in a review of published manuscripts and 12 tobacco dependence measures, followed by review of suggested dependence domains by a 10-person external subject-matter expert panel. The final domains selected to be considered in the development of a measure of e-cigarette dependence included: 1) Quantity and frequency of use, 2) Tolerance, 3) Perceived benefits, 4) Withdrawal symptoms, 5) Craving/urge to use, 6) Use despite harm, 7) Impaired control, 8) Automaticity, 9) Preferred over competing rewards, and 10) Sensory dependence. Similarities and differences in potential features of e-cigarette dependence compared with dependence on other tobacco products is discussed. Future work will evaluate these dependence items and constructs in a sample of e-cigarette users with a goal of developing a valid, brief, standardized measure of e-cigarette dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, Emmanuel; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Sterz, Katharina; Scherer, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile.

  1. A cross-country study of cigarette prices and affordability: evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Chaloupka, Frank J; Yurekli, Ayda; Ross, Hana; Cherukupalli, Rajeev; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2014-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of two primary determinants of cigarette consumption: cigarette affordability and the range of prices paid for cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in a set of 15 countries. From this cross-country comparison, identify places where opportunities may exist for reducing consumption through tax adjustments. Self-response data from 45,838 smokers from 15 countries, obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2008-2011. Using self-response data on individual cigarette expenditure and consumption, we construct a measure of the average cigarette price smokers pay for manufactured cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in 15 countries. We use these prices to evaluate cigarette affordability and the range of prices available in each country. These survey-derived measures of cigarette price and affordability are uniquely suited for cross-country comparison because they represent each country's distinctive mix of individual consumption characteristics such as brand choice, intensity of consumption, and purchasing behavior. In this sample of countries, cigarettes are most affordable in Russia, which has the most room for tobacco tax increase. Affordability is also relatively high in Brazil and China for cigarettes, and in India and Bangladesh for bidis. Although the affordability of cigarettes in India is relatively low, the range of cigarette prices paid is relatively high, providing additional evidence to support the call for simplifying the existing tax structure and reducing the width of price options. China has both high affordability and wide price ranges, suggesting multiple opportunities for reducing consumption through tax adjustments.

  2. Risk factors for exclusive e-cigarette use and dual e-cigarette use and tobacco use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Knight, Rebecca; Williams, Rebecca J; Pagano, Ian; Sargent, James D

    2015-01-01

    To describe electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and cigarette use among adolescents and determine whether established risk factors for smoking discriminate user categories. School-based survey of 1941 high school students (mean age 14.6 years) in Hawaii; data collected in 2013. The survey assessed e-cigarette use and cigarette use, alcohol and marijuana use, and psychosocial risk and protective variables (eg, parental support, academic involvement, smoking expectancies, peer smoking, sensation seeking). Analysis of variance and multinomial regression examined variation in risk and protective variables across the following categories of ever-use: e-cigarette only, cigarette only, dual use (use of both products), and nonuser (never used either product). Prevalence for the categories was 17% (e-cigarettes only), 12% (dual use), 3% (cigarettes only), and 68% (nonusers). Dual users and cigarette-only users were highest on risk status (elevated on risk factors and lower on protective factors) compared with other groups. E-cigarette only users were higher on risk status than nonusers but lower than dual users. E-cigarette only users and dual users more often perceived e-cigarettes as healthier than cigarettes compared with nonusers. This study reports a US adolescent sample with one of the largest prevalence rates of e-cigarette only use in the existing literature. Dual use also had a substantial prevalence. The fact that e-cigarette only users were intermediate in risk status between nonusers and dual users raises the possibility that e-cigarettes are recruiting medium-risk adolescents, who otherwise would be less susceptible to tobacco product use. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. The social norms and beliefs of teenage male electronic cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ronald J; Meshack, Angela; Lin, Mi-Ting; Hill, Mandy; Abughosh, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are novel, battery-operated inhalation devices that provide warm, vaporized nicotine, and often propylene glycol, to users without the inclusion of tobacco smoke. Because men, in general, are more likely to use cigarettes and illicit drugs than women, a qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the beliefs and perceived social norms regarding this issue among 47 teenage boys who self-identified themselves as current e-cigarette smokers. The majority of respondents reported that they used e-cigarettes because of expeditious consumption and concealment. Furthermore, the most common places respondents self-reported using e-cigarettes were everywhere, in school bathrooms, at home, and in school staircases. Interestingly, respondents stated that e-cigarettes are popular because they are accessible, healthier than tobacco cigarettes, and more aesthetically pleasing. Because of the growing popularity and uncertainty regarding the social and physical consequences of e-cigarettes, this study shows a need for additional research discovery.

  4. Psychosocial Factors Associated With Adolescent Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess Boley; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Urman, Robert; Wang, Kejia; Howland, Steve; Gilreath, Tamika D; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann; McConnell, Rob

    2015-08-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents has increased since their introduction into the US market in 2007. Little is known about the role of e-cigarette psychosocial factors on risk of e-cigarette or cigarette use in adolescence. Information on e-cigarette and cigarette psychosocial factors (use and attitudes about use in the home and among friends) was collected from 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children's Health Study during the spring of 2014. Of 2084 participants, 499 (24.0%) had used an e-cigarette, including 200 (9.6%) current users (past 30 days); 390 participants (18.7%) had smoked a combustible cigarette, and 119 (5.7%) were current cigarette smokers. Cigarette and e-cigarette use were correlated. Nevertheless, 40.5% (n = 81) of current e-cigarette users had never smoked a cigarette. Psychosocial factors (home use of each product, friends' use of and positive attitudes toward e-cigarettes and cigarettes) and participant perception of the harm of e-cigarettes were strongly positively associated both with e-cigarette and cigarette use. Most youth who reported e-cigarette use had friends who used e-cigarettes, and almost half of current users reported that they did not believe there were health risks associated with e-cigarette use. Longitudinal studies of adolescents are needed to determine whether the strong association of e-cigarette psychosocial factors with both e-cigarette and cigarette use will lead to increased cigarette use or dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or whether e-cigarettes will serve as a gateway to cigarette use. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Psychosocial Factors Associated With Adolescent Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M.; Urman, Robert; Wang, Kejia; Howland, Steve; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann; McConnell, Rob

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents has increased since their introduction into the US market in 2007. Little is known about the role of e-cigarette psychosocial factors on risk of e-cigarette or cigarette use in adolescence. METHODS: Information on e-cigarette and cigarette psychosocial factors (use and attitudes about use in the home and among friends) was collected from 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study during the spring of 2014. RESULTS: Of 2084 participants, 499 (24.0%) had used an e-cigarette, including 200 (9.6%) current users (past 30 days); 390 participants (18.7%) had smoked a combustible cigarette, and 119 (5.7%) were current cigarette smokers. Cigarette and e-cigarette use were correlated. Nevertheless, 40.5% (n = 81) of current e-cigarette users had never smoked a cigarette. Psychosocial factors (home use of each product, friends’ use of and positive attitudes toward e-cigarettes and cigarettes) and participant perception of the harm of e-cigarettes were strongly positively associated both with e-cigarette and cigarette use. Most youth who reported e-cigarette use had friends who used e-cigarettes, and almost half of current users reported that they did not believe there were health risks associated with e-cigarette use. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies of adolescents are needed to determine whether the strong association of e-cigarette psychosocial factors with both e-cigarette and cigarette use will lead to increased cigarette use or dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or whether e-cigarettes will serve as a gateway to cigarette use. PMID:26216326

  6. Does coffee consumption impact on heaviness of smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Jennifer J; Tanner, Julie-Anne; Taylor, Amy E; Bin, Zhao; Haycock, Philip; Bowden, Jack; Rogers, Peter J; Davey Smith, George; Tyndale, Rachel F; Munafò, Marcus R

    2017-10-01

    Coffee consumption and cigarette smoking are strongly associated, but whether this association is causal remains unclear. We sought to: (1) determine whether coffee consumption influences cigarette smoking causally, (2) estimate the magnitude of any association and (3) explore potential mechanisms. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses of observational data, using publicly available summarized data from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium, individual-level data from the UK Biobank and in-vitro experiments of candidate compounds. The TAG consortium includes data from studies in several countries. The UK Biobank includes data from men and women recruited across England, Wales and Scotland. The TAG consortium provided data on n ≤ 38 181 participants. The UK Biobank provided data on 8072 participants. In MR analyses, the exposure was coffee consumption (cups/day) and the outcome was heaviness of smoking (cigarettes/day). In our in-vitro experiments we assessed the effect of caffeic acid, quercetin and p-coumaric acid on the rate of nicotine metabolism in human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed human CYP2A6. Two-sample MR analyses of TAG consortium data indicated that heavier coffee consumption might lead to reduced heaviness of smoking [beta = -1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -2.88 to -0.09]. However, in-vitro experiments found that the compounds investigated are unlikely to inhibit significantly the rate of nicotine metabolism following coffee consumption. Further MR analyses in UK Biobank found no evidence of a causal relationship between coffee consumption and heaviness of smoking (beta = 0.20, 95% CI = -1.72 to 2.12). Amount of coffee consumption is unlikely to have a major causal impact upon amount of cigarette smoking. If it does influence smoking, this is not likely to operate via effects of caffeic acid, quercetin or p-coumaric acid on nicotine metabolism. The observational association between coffee consumption and cigarette

  7. Prevalence of smuggled and foreign cigarette use in Tehran, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Tafti, Saeid Fallah; Telischi, Firouzeh; Joossens, Luk; Hosseini, Mostafa; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Ghafari, Mostafa

    2010-10-01

    Iran is one of two main target markets for tobacco smuggling in the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Iranian government has a local tobacco monopoly but there is high demand for international brands. Informal reports show about 20% of cigarette consumption is smuggled brands. This pack survey study is the first in Iran to gather validated information on use of smuggled cigarettes. A randomized cross-sectional household survey in Tehran in 2008-2009 of 1540 smokers aged 16-90 (83% men) was performed, including interviewer checking of cigarette packs. In all, 20.9% of cigarettes and 6.7% of domestic branded cigarettes were smuggled. A total of 60.1% of smokers preferred foreign cigarettes. There was no significant difference between consumption of illegal cigarettes by sex. (Fisher exact test p=0.61) Use of smuggled cigarettes was higher among younger smokers (p=0.01). Use of illegal cigarettes is high. Tobacco control laws outlawing their sale are not being enforced.

  8. Prevalence of smuggled and foreign cigarette use in Tehran, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Tafti, Saeid Fallah; Telischi, Firouzeh; Joossens, Luk; Hosseini, Mostafa; Ghafari, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Background Iran is one of two main target markets for tobacco smuggling in the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Iranian government has a local tobacco monopoly but there is high demand for international brands. Informal reports show about 20% of cigarette consumption is smuggled brands. This pack survey study is the first in Iran to gather validated information on use of smuggled cigarettes. Methods A randomized cross-sectional household survey in Tehran in 2008–2009 of 1540 smokers aged 16–90 (83% men) was performed, including interviewer checking of cigarette packs. Results In all, 20.9% of cigarettes and 6.7% of domestic branded cigarettes were smuggled. A total of 60.1% of smokers preferred foreign cigarettes. There was no significant difference between consumption of illegal cigarettes by sex. (Fisher exact test p=0.61) Use of smuggled cigarettes was higher among younger smokers (p=0.01) Conclusions Use of illegal cigarettes is high. Tobacco control laws outlawing their sale are not being enforced. PMID:20876076

  9. Assessment of dietary fish consumption in pregnancy: comparing 1, 4, and 36 item questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oken, Emily; Guthrie, Lauren B.; Bloomingdale, Arienne; Gillman, Matthew W.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Platek, Deborah N.; Bellinger, David C.; Wright, Robert O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fish consumption influences a number of health outcomes. Few studies have directly compared dietary assessment methods to determine the best approach to estimating intake of fish and its component nutrients, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and toxicants, including methylmercury. Our objective was to compare 3 methods of assessing fish intake. Design We assessed 30-day fish intake using 3 approaches: a single question on total fish consumption, a brief comprehensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that included 4 questions about fish, and a focused FFQ with 36 questions about different finfish and shellfish. Setting Obstetrics practices in Boston, MA Subjects 59 pregnant women who consumed mercury were lowest with the 1-question screener, and highest with the 36-item fish questionnaire. Estimated intake of DHA with the 36-item questionnaire was 4.4 fold higher (97 vs. 22 mg/day), and intake of mercury was 3.8-fold higher (1.6 vs. 0.42 mcg/day), compared with the 1-question screener. Plasma DHA concentration was correlated with fish intake assessed with the 1-question screener (Spearman r=0.27, p=0.04), but not with the 4-item FFQ (r=0.08, p=0.54) or 36-item fish questionnaire (r=0.01, p=0.93). In contrast, blood and hair mercury concentrations were similarly correlated with fish and mercury intake regardless of the assessment method (r= 0.35 to 0.52). Conclusions A longer questionnaire provides no advantage over shorter questionnaires in ranking intake of fish, DHA, and mercury compared with biomarkers, but estimates of absolute intakes can vary by as much as 4-fold across methods. PMID:23883550

  10. Acute Response to Cigarette Smoking Assessed in Exhaled Breath Condensate in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Healthy Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey-Warzęchowska, M; Nejman-Gryz, P; Osinka, K; Lis, P; Malesa, K; Górska, K; Krenke, R

    2017-01-01

    The effect of acute exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) on the respiratory system has been less extensively studied than the long term effects of smoking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute response to CS in smokers suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in healthy smokers. Nineteen stable COPD patients and 19 young healthy smokers were enrolled. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) before and 60 min after smoking a cigarette. When pre- and post-CS levels of the evaluated biomarkers were compared, no differences were found in either group. However, the post-CS MDA was significantly greater in healthy smokers than that in COPD patients; 20.41 vs. 16.81 nmol/L, p = 0.01, respectively. Post-CS TNF-α correlated inversely with FEV 1 /FVC in healthy smokers. We conclude that CS does not acutely increase the EBC concentration of the inflammatory markers either in COPD patients or healthy smokers. The short term CS-induced oxidative stress is higher in young smokers than in COPD patients, which what may indicate a higher susceptibility to CS content of the former.

  11. Heavy metals bioaccumulation in fish of southern Iran and risk assessment of fish consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study purposed to assess the health risks of heavy metals including nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr, mercury (Hg, and lead (Pb in three widely-consumed fish from the coast of Bandar Abbas (Persian Gulf and to determine the maximum amounts allowed for consumption according to the degree of contamination. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the summer and fall of 2013. Thunnus tonggol and Liza klunzingeri were selected from the Bandar Abbas market, and Pleuronectiformes were caught from the sea. Heavy metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption. Risk assessment and allowable consumption levels were determined according to methods provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. Results: The highest average levels of Ni and Cr in Thunnus tonggol were 0.059 and 0.234 (µg/g dry weight, respectively. The highest average level of Hg in Pleuronectiformes was 0.095 (µg/g dry weight, and the highest average level of Pb in Liza klunzingeri was 0.006 (µg/g dry weight. The target hazard quotient (THQ for all analyses of metals in the studied species and the hazard index (HI were less than 1 for all three species. Conclusion: The results showed that despite Ni, Cr, Hg, and Pb pollution, the consumption of up to 4 (kg/d of Thunnus tonggol by adults and up to 2.2 (kg/d by children does not cause health problems in terms of the tested heavy metals. For Liza klunzingeri, these levels are 7.32 and 4.02 (kg/d, respectively.

  12. Adolescents’ Perceptions of Risks and Benefits of Conventional Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Marijuana: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditis, Maria L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose While rates of adolescent cigarette use have remained constant, rates of marijuana and e-cigarette use are rising. Knowledge and perceptions of risks and benefits of tobacco products impacts adolescents’ decisions to use these products. However, little is known regarding adolescents’ knowledge and perceptions of risks of e-cigarettes and marijuana nor how these perceptions are formed. This study uses qualitative techniques to assess and compare adolescents’ perceptions of the risks and benefits of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and marijuana. Methods 24 adolescents (9 females and 15 males) from Northern California participated in 6 small-groups discussions. Adolescents were asked what good or bad things might happen from using these products. To assess how perceptions and knowledge of risks and benefits were formed, participants were asked where and from whom they had learned about these products. Results Adolescents described negative consequences of cigarette use, but were much less sure regarding risks of marijuana and e-cigarette use. Conversely, they described few benefits of cigarettes but described a number of benefits of e-cigarette and marijuana use. Adolescents described learning about these products from the media, from family and friends, and from the school environment. Conclusion Adolescents have learned from multiple sources about risks of using cigarettes, but they receive much less and often incorrect information regarding marijuana and e-cigarettes, likely resulting in their positive and often ambivalent perceptions of marijuana and e-cigarettes. PMID:26115908

  13. Tyramine and histamine risk assessment related to consumption of dry fermented sausages by the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Comas-Basté, O; Bover-Cid, S; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2017-01-01

    Tyramine and histamine are the main dietary bioactive amines related to acute adverse health effects. Dry fermented sausages can easily accumulate high levels of these hazards and are frequently consumed in Spain. The present work aims to assess the exposure to tyramine and histamine from the consumption of dry fermented sausages by the Spanish population and to assess the risk to suffer acute health effects from this exposure. A probabilistic estimation of the exposure to these hazards was derived combining probability distributions of these amines in dry fermented sausages (n = 474) and their consumption by the Spanish population. The mean dietary exposure to tyramine and histamine was 6.2 and 1.39 mg/meal, respectively. The risk of suffering hypertensive crisis or histamine intoxication by healthy population due to tyramine or histamine intake, respectively, exclusively from dry fermented sausages, can be considered negligible. For individuals under treatment with MAOI drugs, the probability to surpass the safe threshold dose (6 mg/meal) was estimated as 34%. For patients with histamine intolerance, even the presence of this amine in food is not tolerable and it could be estimated that 7000 individuals per million could be at risk to suffer the related symptoms after consuming dry fermented sausages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Food habits and cigarette smoking in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruppacher, R; Erne, H

    1975-01-01

    Bad eating habits, e.g. no regular breakfast, rarer consumption of fruits and milk, are associated with higher frequency of cigarette smoking in adolescence. Probably this is due to a common factor most likely to be found in the personality of the adolescent and its determinants.

  15. Have combustible cigarettes met their match? The nicotine delivery profiles and harmful constituent exposures of second-generation and third-generation electronic cigarette users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Theodore L; Floyd, Evan L; Stepanov, Irina; Driskill, Leslie M; Frank, Summer G; Meier, Ellen; Leavens, Eleanor L; Tackett, Alayna P; Molina, Neil; Queimado, Lurdes

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Electronic cigarettes’ (e-cigarettes) viability as a public health strategy to end smoking will likely be determined by their ability to mimic the pharmacokinetic profile of a cigarette while also exposing users to significantly lower levels of harmful/potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). The present study examined the nicotine delivery profile of third- (G3) versus second-generation (G2) e-cigarette devices and their users’ exposure to nicotine and select HPHCs compared with cigarette smokers. Methods 30 participants (10 smokers, 9 G2 and 11 G3 users) completed baseline questionnaires and provided exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO), saliva and urine samples. Following a 12-hour nicotine abstinence, G2 and G3 users completed a 2-hour vaping session (ie, 5 min, 10-puff bout followed by ad libitum puffing for 115 min). Blood samples, subjective effects, device characteristics and e-liquid consumption were assessed. Results Smokers, G2 and G3 users had similar baseline levels of cotinine, but smokers had 4 and 7 times higher levels of eCO (pvaped e-cigarette liquids with significantly lower nicotine concentrations. During the vaping session, G3 users achieved significantly higher plasma nicotine concentrations than G2 users following the first 10 puffs (17.5 vs 7.3 ng/mL, respectively) and at 25 and 40 min of ad libitum use. G3 users consumed significantly more e-liquid than G2 users. Vaping urges/withdrawal were reduced following 10 puffs, with no significant differences between device groups. Discussion Under normal use conditions, both G2 and G3 devices deliver cigarette-like amounts of nicotine, but G3 devices matched the amount and speed of nicotine delivery of a conventional cigarette. Compared with cigarettes, G2 and G3 e-cigarettes resulted in significantly lower levels of exposure to a potent lung carcinogen and cardiovascular toxicant. These findings have significant implications for understanding the addiction potential of these devices and

  16. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz

    2009-01-01

    to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach......Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised...... at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data...

  17. Environmental impact assessment of olive pomace oil biodiesel production and consumption: A comparative lifecycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaeifar, M.A.; Akram, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Rafiee, S.; Heijungs, R.; Tabatabaei, M.

    2016-01-01

    The well-to-wheel environmental impacts of olive pomace oil biodiesel (B20 and B100) and conventional petroleum diesel were compared using life cycle assessment. Moreover, energy and economic analyses of olive pomace oil biodiesel production was conducted throughout its life cycle. Human Health,

  18. Manage Emotions Without Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybe you used to reach for a cigarette after a tough day at the office. Or found comfort in the companionship of a cigarette on a lonely night. Maybe you used to have cigarettes available as one way to help you deal with uncomfortable emotions.

  19. E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... However we do know about some dangers of e-cigarettes: They contain nicotine, which is addictive They contain other potentially harmful ... tobacco cigarette use in teens The liquid in e-cigarettes can cause nicotine poisoning if someone drinks, sniffs, or touches it ...

  20. Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørngaard, Johan H; Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Taylor, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK...... Biobank ( N  = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N  = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N  = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS....... Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies. Results: Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per...

  1. The Relationships of Expectancies With E-cigarette Use Among Hospitalized Smokers: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Peter S; Thorne, Christopher B; Lappan, Sara N; Sweat, Noah W; Cheong, JeeWon; Ramachandran, Rekha; Kohler, Connie L; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2018-01-05

    Expectancies demonstrate cross-sectional associations with e-cigarette use, but the prospective relationships between expectancies and e-cigarette use are unknown. This study examined the longitudinal associations of expectancies with e-cigarette use among hospitalized tobacco cigarette smokers. E-cigarette expectancies (e-cigarette-specific Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult [BSCQ-A]), tobacco cigarette expectancies (tobacco-specific BSCQ-A), and number of days used e-cigarettes in the past 30 days were assessed at baseline hospitalization, 6-months post-hospitalization, and 12-months post-hospitalization among 978 hospitalized tobacco cigarette smokers. Expectancy difference scores (e-cigarette-specific expectancies minus tobacco-specific expectancies) were computed for each of the 10 BSCQ-A scales. Cross-lagged panel models tested the relationships between expectancy difference scores and number of days used e-cigarettes in the past 30 days for each of the 10 BSCQ-A scales. Though some models revealed partial associations between expectancies and e-cigarette use, only one yielded results consistent with hypotheses. Greater e-cigarette use at baseline predicted greater expectancies that e-cigarettes taste pleasant as compared to tobacco cigarettes at 6 months, which then predicted greater e-cigarette use at 12 months. To a lesser degree greater expectancies that e-cigarettes taste pleasant as compared to tobacco cigarettes at baseline predicted greater e-cigarette use at 6 months, which then predicted greater expectancies that e-cigarettes taste pleasant as compared to tobacco cigarettes at 12 months. Expectancies that e-cigarettes provide similar or more pleasant taste sensations as compared to tobacco cigarettes may be both a cause and consequence of e-cigarette use. Focusing on the taste experience may prove most effective in modifying e-cigarette use behavior. The current study offers the first longitudinal examination of expectancies and e-cigarette

  2. College Students' Polytobacco Use, Cigarette Cessation, and Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Pasch, Keryn E; Li, Xiaoyin; Hinds Iii, Josephine T; Marti, C Nathan; Harrell, Melissa B; Creamer, MeLisa R; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-07-01

    We examined patterns of tobacco and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among college students. Differences in sociodemographic characteristics between non-users of these products and 4 mutually exclusive groups of tobacco/e-cigarette users were assessed. Differences in cigarette cessation attempts and dependence between exclusive cigarette smokers and users of cigarettes and at least one alternative tobacco product also were examined. Participants were 5468 18-29 year-old students from 24 colleges in Texas who completed an online survey. Multiple-product use was more prevalent than single-product use. All 4 current tobacco/e-cigarette-user groups were more likely than non-users to be men and older. College students who were younger when they smoked their first cigarette, and those reporting ever needing a cigarette, were more likely to be multiple-product users than cigarette-only users. There were no group differences in cigarette cessation attempts or any other variables. Using multiple products is associated with some indicators of dependence, but does not seem to aid or deter college students' smoking cessation attempts. Longitudinal research is needed given that transitions in tobacco/e-cigarette use continue throughout young adulthood.

  3. Differential effects of cigarette price changes on adult smoking behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Chaloupka, Frank J; Luke, Douglas A; Waterman, Brian; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2014-03-01

    Raising cigarette prices through taxation is an important policy approach to reduce smoking. Yet, cigarette price increases may not be equally effective in all subpopulations of smokers. To examine differing effects of state cigarette price changes with individual changes in smoking among smokers of different intensity levels. Data were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of US adults originally interviewed in 2001-2002 (Wave 1) and re-interviewed in 2004-2005 (Wave 2): 34 653 were re-interviewed in Wave 2, and 7068 smokers defined at Wave 1 were included in our study. Mixed effects linear regression models were used to assess whether the effects of changes in state cigarette prices on changes in daily smoking behaviour differed by level of daily smoking. In the multivariable model, there was a significant interaction between change in price per pack of cigarettes from Wave 1 to Wave 2 and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p=0.044). The more cigarettes smoked per day at baseline, the more responsive the smokers were to increases in price per pack of cigarettes (ie, number of cigarettes smoked per day was reduced in response to price increases). Our findings that heavier smokers successfully and substantially reduced their cigarette smoking behaviours in response to state cigarette price increases provide fresh insight to the evidence on the effectiveness of higher cigarette prices in reducing smoking.

  4. Risk of Spina Bifida and Maternal Cigarette, Alcohol, and Coffee Use during the First Month of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Werler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the association between the risks of spina bifida (SB in relation to cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption by women during the first month of pregnancy. Between 1988–2012, this multi-center case-control study interviewed mothers of 776 SB cases and 8,756 controls about pregnancy events and exposures. We evaluated cigarette smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking, and caffeine intake during the first lunar month of pregnancy in relation to SB risk. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Levels of cigarette smoking (1–9 and ≥10/day, alcohol intake (average ≥4 drinks/day and caffeine intake (<1, 1, and ≥2 cups/day were not likely to be associated with increased risk of SB. Further, results were similar among women who ingested less than the recommended amount of folic acid (400 μg/day.

  5. Longitudinal study of e-cigarette use and onset of cigarette smoking among high school students in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Knight, Rebecca; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Pagano, Ian; Williams, Rebecca J

    2017-01-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is prevalent among adolescents, but there is little knowledge about the consequences of their use. We examined, longitudinally, how e-cigarette use among adolescents is related to subsequent smoking behaviour. Longitudinal school-based survey with a baseline sample of 2338 students (9th and 10th graders, mean age 14.7 years) in Hawaii surveyed in 2013 (time 1, T1) and followed up 1 year later (time 2, T2). We assessed e-cigarette use, tobacco cigarette use, and psychosocial covariates (demographics, parental support and monitoring, and sensation seeking and rebelliousness). Regression analyses including the covariates tested whether e-cigarette use was related to the onset of smoking among youth who had never smoked cigarettes, and to change in smoking frequency among youth who had previously smoked cigarettes. Among T1 never-smokers, those who had used e-cigarettes at T1 were more likely to have smoked cigarettes at T2; for a complete-case analysis, adjusted OR=2.87, 95% CI 2.03 to 4.05, pe-cigarettes was not related to significant change in their frequency of smoking at T2. Uptake of e-cigarette use among T1 never-users of either product was predicted by age, Caucasian or Native Hawaiian (vs Asian-American) ethnicity, lower parental education and parental support, higher rebelliousness, and perception of e-cigarettes as healthier. Adolescents who use e-cigarettes are more likely to start smoking cigarettes. This result together with other findings suggests that policies restricting adolescents' access to e-cigarettes may have a rationale from a public health standpoint. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. A comparative evaluation of dietary indicators used in food consumption assessments of at-risk populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donald; Chotard, Sophie; Oliveira, Leila; Mock, Nancy; Libombo, Marcella

    2008-06-01

    Easy-to-collect dietary indicators have been used increasingly for planning and evaluation of food security interventions. Various indicators have been employed, but rarely has a full set of indicators been compared using a common framework. This paper evaluates the performance of five dietary indicators for the assessment of household energy consumption using a common framework and recent data from Mozambique. Data were analyzed from a 2004 household survey, Current Vulnerability Analysis in Seven Provinces of Mozambique. Households (n = 4,358) were sampled from 42 rural districts using a two-stage design, and a quantitative 24-hour dietary recall was employed. Household energy intake ratios were calculated as the food energy consumed by household members divided by the sum of the members' recommended intakes. Five proxy indicators of household consumption in the previous day were developed: the number of meals, the number of food groups, the number of food items, a score based on a simple weighting of food groups consumed, and a predicted energy intake ratio based on weighting of food groups consumed with previously estimated regression coefficients. The performance of these indicators was assessed using correlations with energy intake, receiver operator characteristic analysis, efficiency of predictions, and prevalence estimate comparisons. Although the predicted energy intake ratio performed best on all these performance criteria, and the simple food-group-weighted score performed second best, differences among the indicators on many of the criteria were relatively small. New assessment systems could take full advantage of easy-to-collect information by using one of these best-scoring indicators, although established systems could continue to use some of the other indicators explored here, such as the food item count, without much loss in accuracy.

  7. Particulate Matter from Electronic Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes: a Systematic Review and Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteve; Ballbè, Montse; Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela; Saltó, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to review the literature on the composition of aerosols from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) originated by human vaping and to describe the emission of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM(2.5)) from conventional and e-cigarettes at home in real-use conditions. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Web of Science. We measured PM(2.5) in four different homes: one from a conventional cigarette smoker, one from an e-cigarette user, and two from non-smokers. The review identified eight previous investigations on the composition of aerosols from e-cigarettes originated by human vaping and indicated that emissions from e-cigarettes can contain potential toxic compounds such as nicotine, carbonyls, metals, and organic volatile compounds, besides particulate matter. In the observational study, the PM(2.5) median concentration was 9.88 μg/m³ in the e-cigarette user home and 9.53 and 9.36 μg/m³ in the smoke-free homes, with PM(2.5) peaks concurrent with the e-cigarette puffs. Both the literature review and the observational study indicate that e-cigarettes used under real-conditions emit toxicants, including PM(2.5). Further research is needed to characterize the chemicals emitted by different types of e-cigarettes and to assess secondhand exposure to e-cigarette aerosol using biological markers.

  8. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking pattern among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based female sex workers in 39 consenting brothels. Data was collected by trained interviewers using a pretested structured questionnaire. Results: Majority (67.8%) were current drinkers with 89.5% of these having their most recent drink less ...

  9. The Use of Substances Other Than Nicotine in Electronic Cigarettes Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kenne, Deric R.; Fischbein, Rebecca L; Andy SL Tan; Mark Banks

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have grown in popularity, especially among youth and young adults. Although e-cigarettes were originally intended to vaporize a liquid mixture containing nicotine, there appears to be an increasing trend in other substance use in e-cigarettes (OSUE). Materials and methods: Cross-sectional data from 1542 undergraduate college student e-cigarette users from a large Midwestern university were collected via online survey to assess prevalence of e...

  10. Characterizing use patterns and perceptions of relative harm in dual users of electronic and tobacco cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Rass, Olga; Pacek, Lauren R.; Johnson, Patrick S.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing. Questions regarding positive (e.g., smoking reduction/cessation) and negative (e.g., delay of cessation) potential public health consequences of e-cigarettes may be informed by studying dual users of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. A cross-sectional online survey assessed demographics, product use patterns, and beliefs about relative product benefits and harms among dual users (n = 350) in the United States using th...

  11. Assessment of the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Claudia; Ghisi, Enedir

    2010-09-15

    In many countries the residential sector accounts for about 20.0% of the electricity consumption, which increases the concern about energy savings. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector by using electricity end-use data. The consumption of each appliance is obtained based on official data from existing studies, being estimated for a dwelling and for the whole residential sector. Results indicate that the potential for energy savings by replacing existing appliances with energy-efficient household appliances would be 29.5% in the residential sector of Brazil.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of E-Cigarette Perceptions and Trial Among Early Adolescents in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Barrientos-Gutíerrez, Inti; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Miriam; Mejía, Raúl; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Sargent, James D

    2016-03-01

    Assess the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette perceptions and trial among adolescents in Mexico, where e-cigarettes are banned. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2015 from a representative sample of middle-school students (n = 10,146). Prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, relative harm, and trial were estimated, adjusting for sampling weights and school-level clustering. Multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for school-level clustering to assess correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial. Finally, students who had tried only e-cigarettes were compared with students who had tried: (1) conventional cigarettes only; (2) both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes (dual triers); and (3) neither cigarette type (never triers). Fifty-one percent of students had heard about e-cigarettes, 19% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than conventional cigarettes, and 10% had tried them. Independent correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial included established risk factors for smoking, as well as technophilia (i.e., use of more media technologies) and greater Internet tobacco advertising exposure. Exclusive e-cigarette triers (4%) had significantly higher technophilia, bedroom Internet access, and Internet tobacco advertising exposure compared to conventional cigarette triers (19%) and never triers (71%) but not compared to dual triers (6%), although dual triers had significantly stronger conventional cigarette risk factors. This study suggests that adolescent e-cigarette awareness and use is high in Mexico, in spite of its e-cigarette ban. A significant number of medium-risk youth have tried e-cigarettes only, suggesting that e-cigarettes could lead to more intensive substance use. Strategies to reduce e-cigarette use should consider reducing exposures to Internet marketing. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette perceptions and trial among Mexican adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Barrientos-Gutíerrez, Inti; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Miriam; Mejía, Raúl; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Assess the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette perceptions and trial among adolescents in Mexico, where e-cigarettes are banned. METHODS Cross-sectional data were collected in 2015 from a representative sample of middle school students (n=10,146). Prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, relative harm, and trial were estimated, adjusting for sampling weights and school-level clustering. Multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for school-level clustering to assess correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial. Finally, students who had tried only e-cigarettes were compared with students who had tried: 1) conventional cigarettes only; 2) both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes (dual triers); 3) neither cigarette type (never triers). RESULTS 51% of students had heard about e-cigarettes, 19% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than conventional cigarettes, and 10% had tried them. Independent correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial included established risk factors for smoking, as well as technophilia (i.e., use of more media technologies) and greater Internet tobacco advertising exposure. Exclusive e-cigarette triers (4%) had significantly higher technophilia, bedroom Internet access, and Internet tobacco advertising exposure compared to conventional cigarette triers (19%) and never triers (71%), but not compared to dual triers (6%), even though dual triers had significantly stronger conventional cigarette risk factors. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that adolescent e-cigarette awareness and use is high in Mexico, in spite of its e-cigarette ban. A significant number of medium-risk youth have tried e-cigarettes only, suggesting that e-cigarettes could lead to more intensive substance use. Strategies to reduce e-cigarette use should consider reducing exposures to Internet marketing. PMID:26903433

  14. Risk and benefit assessment of potential neurodevelopmental effect resulting from consumption of marine fish from a coastal archipelago in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi-Xiong; Zhang, Hongxia; Yu, Xinwei; He, Jia-lu; Shang, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaowei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2014-06-04

    The aim of this study was to assess net neurodevelopmental effect via maternal consumption of marine fish. A total of thirty-one species were collected from Zhoushan, China. The net IQ point gain was assessed by FAO/WHO deterministic approach and probabilistic computation (if necessary). Results of the deterministic assessment of two samples belonging to Scoliodon sorrakowah showed negative IQ point gain in both common and extreme consumption scenarios (175 and 450 g/week, respectively); the net IQ gain caused by both consumption scenarios of other species were positive. Both consumption scenarios of Scoliodon sorrakowah showed beneficial neurodevelopmental effect according to probabilistic computation (95% CI for mean of net IQ gain: 0.0536-0.0554 and 0.1377-0.1425, respectively). Except for Scoliodon sorrakowah, this study indicates that both consumption scenarios of other studied species would be recommended according to the FAO/WHO approach. There would be no recommendation of consumption scenarios of Scoliodon sorrakowah for the reason for carefulness.

  15. Assessment of consumption of marine food in Greenland by a food frequency questionnaire and biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Jeppesen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We studied the association and agreement between questionnaire data and biomarkers of marine food among Greenland Inuit. Design. Cross sectional study. Methods. The study population comprised 2,224 Inuit, age 18+ (43% men; data collected 2005–2008 in Greenland. Using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, we calculated consumption of seal, whale, and fish (g/day and as meals/month, intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, total N3, and mercury. We measured erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA and whole blood mercury (Hg. Associations were assessed by Pearson correlation and agreement between the 2 methods was assessed by Bland–Altman plots depicting mean difference between the methods. Using multiple linear regressions, the associations were studied between whole blood mercury, erythrocyte FA and frequency or gram per day of seal, whale, and fish. Results. Partial correlations ranged from r=0.16, p<0.0001 (DHA to r=0.56, p<0.0001 (mercury. The best fitted lines were found for mercury and DHA. Mean difference was negative for mercury but positive for all the FA biomarkers. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the best association was found between whole blood mercury and seal consumption, both as frequency in meals and actual intake gram per day: β=1.07 µg (95% CI: 1.06; 1.08 and β=1.04 µg (95% CI: 1.03; 1.04, respectively. Conclusion. Mercury showed the best correlation and agreement between calculated and measured values. Calculated actual intake in gram per day and frequency of meals showed similar associations with whole blood mercury and erythrocyte membrane FAs.

  16. Quantitative assessment of red meat or processed meat consumption and kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dominik D; Cushing, Colleen A

    2009-01-01

    To conduct a quantitative assessment of red meat or processed meat consumption and kidney cancer. We extracted data from 12 case-control studies, three cohort studies, and the Pooling Project of Diet and Cancer publication for which 13 international cohorts were evaluated. Random effects meta-analysis models were used to calculate summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) based on high vs. low intake values. Sensitivity and influence analyses were conducted, including assessments of heterogeneity. The SRRE for all studies that reported results for red meat (included variables labeled 'red meat' or single red meat items, such as beef, pork, or liver) was 1.12 (95% CI: 0.98-1.29; p-value for heterogeneity=0.015), and the SRRE using only data from prospective cohorts was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.91-1.15) with minimal heterogeneity (p=0.741). Similarly, in a meta-analysis of the five studies that simultaneously adjusted for smoking, BMI, and total energy intake, the SRRE for red meat was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.91-1.15). No significant association was observed in the meta-analysis of processed meat consumption (SRRE=1.07; 95% CI: 0.94-1.23), although a significant association was observed when only data from cohort studies were analyzed (SRRE=1.19; 95% CI: 1.03-1.37). Although many of the summary results were positive, all were weak in magnitude, most were not statistically significant, and associations were attenuated among studies that adjusted for key potential confounding factors. In summary, the findings of this meta-analysis are not supportive of an independent relation between red or processed meat intake and kidney cancer.

  17. Cigarette smoking initiation during college predicts future alcohol involvement: a matched-samples study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Mark G; Doran, Neal M; Edland, Steven D; Schweizer, C Amanda; Wall, Tamaral L

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between cigarette smoking initiation and subsequent alcohol involvement. To address this question, the present study compared alcohol use between students who initiated smoking during college and a matched sample of never-smoking students. We hypothesized greater increases in alcohol involvement among smoking initiators, mediated by exposure to cigarette use situations. Included in the present study were 104 Chinese American and Korean American undergraduates who at baseline (freshman year) reported never having smoked a cigarette. Subjects were drawn from 433 participants in a naturalistic longitudinal study of tobacco use who were assessed annually each year in college. Cigarette smoking status was assessed annually as part of a structured interview. Initiators and never-smokers were matched on gender, ethnicity, baseline alcohol use, parental smoking status, and behavioral undercontrol. As predicted, participants who initiated smoking during college reported significantly greater increases in the number of past-30-day total drinks consumed (p alcohol consumption over and above the effect of exposure. Students who initiate smoking during college appear at risk for increased alcohol involvement. Part of this risk is explained by environmental contextual factors, specifically exposure to situations involving other smokers that also may result in greater exposure to alcohol use.

  18. Chemical Composition of Aerosol from an E-Cigarette: A Quantitative Comparison with Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margham, Jennifer; McAdam, Kevin; Forster, Mark; Liu, Chuan; Wright, Christopher; Mariner, Derek; Proctor, Christopher

    2016-10-17

    There is interest in the relative toxicities of emissions from electronic cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. Lists of cigarette smoke priority toxicants have been developed to focus regulatory initiatives. However, a comprehensive assessment of e-cigarette chemical emissions including all tobacco smoke Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents, and additional toxic species reportedly present in e-cigarette emissions, is lacking. We examined 150 chemical emissions from an e-cigarette (Vype ePen), a reference tobacco cigarette (Ky3R4F), and laboratory air/method blanks. All measurements were conducted by a contract research laboratory using ISO 17025 accredited methods. The data show that it is essential to conduct laboratory air/method measurements when measuring e-cigarette emissions, owing to the combination of low emissions and the associated impact of laboratory background that can lead to false-positive results and overestimates. Of the 150 measurands examined in the e-cigarette aerosol, 104 were not detected and 21 were present due to laboratory background. Of the 25 detected aerosol constituents, 9 were present at levels too low to be quantified and 16 were generated in whole or in part by the e-cigarette. These comprised major e-liquid constituents (nicotine, propylene glycol, and glycerol), recognized impurities in Pharmacopoeia-quality nicotine, and eight thermal decomposition products of propylene glycol or glycerol. By contrast, approximately 100 measurands were detected in mainstream cigarette smoke. Depending on the regulatory list considered and the puffing regime used, the emissions of toxicants identified for regulation were from 82 to >99% lower on a per-puff basis from the e-cigarette compared with those from Ky3R4F. Thus, the aerosol from the e-cigarette is compositionally less complex than cigarette smoke and contains significantly lower levels of toxicants. These data demonstrate that e-cigarettes can be developed that offer the potential

  19. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P.E.; Svensson, K.; Moussavian, S.; Voet, van der H.; Petersen, A.; Ruprich, J.; Debegnach, F.; Boer, de W.J.; Donkersgoed, van G.; Brera, C.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Busk, L.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised at

  20. NIH Electronic Cigarette Workshop: Developing a Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, David B.; Bailey, William C.; Clark, David; Connolly, Gregory N.; Djordjevic, Mirjana V.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Haverkos, Lynne; Hecht, Stephen S.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Hughes, John R.; Oncken, Cheryl A.; Postow, Lisa; Rose, Jed E.; Wanke, Kay L.; Yang, Lucie; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) represent an emerging public health issue. These devices deliver nicotine along with other constituents, including flavorants, via an inhalable aerosol. Their uptake is rapidly increasing in both adults and youths, primarily among current smokers. Public debate is increasing on how these devices should be regulated and used, yet only limited peer-reviewed research exists. To develop a informed policy for e-cigarettes, their effects on human behavior, physiology, and health need to be understood. Purpose: This paper describes proceedings from a National Institutes of Health–sponsored workshop, which was held in November 2013, to identify research needs related to the effects of e-cigarettes. Discussion topics included e-cigarette risks and abuse potential; the potential role for e-cigarettes in harm reduction and smoking cessation; unintended consequences of e-cigarette use, such as becoming a gateway to conventional cigarettes; and dual use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes. Results and Conclusions: The research needs identified by the workshop participants included the following: standards to measure the contents and emissions of e-cigarettes; biomarkers of exposure; physiological effects of e-cigarettes on tissues and organ systems, including pulmonary and cardiovascular; information on e-cigarette users, how the devices are used, and identification of the best tools to assess these measures; factors that drive use and influence patterns of use; and appropriate methods for evaluating a potential role for e-cigarettes in smoking or nicotine cessation. To understand fully the challenges and the opportunities that e-cigarettes represent, expertise will be needed in basic, behavioral, translational, and clinical sciences. PMID:25335949

  1. NIH electronic cigarette workshop: developing a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kevin M; Abrams, David B; Bailey, William C; Clark, David; Connolly, Gregory N; Djordjevic, Mirjana V; Eissenberg, Thomas E; Fiore, Michael C; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Haverkos, Lynne; Hecht, Stephen S; Henningfield, Jack E; Hughes, John R; Oncken, Cheryl A; Postow, Lisa; Rose, Jed E; Wanke, Kay L; Yang, Lucie; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) represent an emerging public health issue. These devices deliver nicotine along with other constituents, including flavorants, via an inhalable aerosol. Their uptake is rapidly increasing in both adults and youths, primarily among current smokers. Public debate is increasing on how these devices should be regulated and used, yet only limited peer-reviewed research exists. To develop a informed policy for e-cigarettes, their effects on human behavior, physiology, and health need to be understood. This paper describes proceedings from a National Institutes of Health-sponsored workshop, which was held in November 2013, to identify research needs related to the effects of e-cigarettes. Discussion topics included e-cigarette risks and abuse potential; the potential role for e-cigarettes in harm reduction and smoking cessation; unintended consequences of e-cigarette use, such as becoming a gateway to conventional cigarettes; and dual use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes. The research needs identified by the workshop participants included the following: standards to measure the contents and emissions of e-cigarettes; biomarkers of exposure; physiological effects of e-cigarettes on tissues and organ systems, including pulmonary and cardiovascular; information on e-cigarette users, how the devices are used, and identification of the best tools to assess these measures; factors that drive use and influence patterns of use; and appropriate methods for evaluating a potential role for e-cigarettes in smoking or nicotine cessation. To understand fully the challenges and the opportunities that e-cigarettes represent, expertise will be needed in basic, behavioral, translational, and clinical sciences. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Illegal Market of Cigarettes in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Evelin Ahermaa

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco products belong to a group of excise goods and an excise duty is levied on them. The latter increases the price, but there are no changes in the quality of the goods and it leads to tax frauds. There has been regular increase in the excise duties on tobacco products in Estonia; changes in tax rates have influenced legal sales, mostly of cigarettes. Consumption of cigarettes is the largest in the group of tobacco products in Estonia; therefore, the paper is especially focused on cigare...

  3. Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

  4. Impact Assessment of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Organotypic Bronchial Epithelial Tissue Cultures: A Comparison of Mono-Culture and Coculture Model Containing Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Anita R.; Xiang, Yang; Frentzel, Stefan; Talikka, Marja; Leroy, Patrice; Kuehn, Diana; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai V.; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Hoeng, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Organotypic 3D cultures of epithelial cells are grown at the air–liquid interface (ALI) and resemble the in vivo counterparts. Although the complexity of in vivo cellular responses could be better manifested in coculture models in which additional cell types such as fibroblasts were incorporated, the presence of another cell type could mask the response of the other. This study reports the impact of whole cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on organotypic mono- and coculture models to evaluate the relevancy of organotypic models for toxicological assessment of aerosols. Two organotypic bronchial models were directly exposed to low and high concentrations of CS of the reference research cigarette 3R4F: monoculture of bronchial epithelial cells without fibroblasts (BR) and coculture with fibroblasts (BRF) models. Adenylate kinase (AK)-based cytotoxicity, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1/1B1 activity, tissue histology, and concentrations of secreted mediators into the basolateral media, as well as transcriptomes were evaluated following the CS exposure. The results demonstrated similar impact of CS on the AK-based cytotoxicity, CYP1A1/1B1 activity, and tissue histology in both models. However, a greater number of secreted mediators was identified in the basolateral media of the monoculture than in the coculture models. Furthermore, annotation analysis and network-based systems biology analysis of the transcriptomic profiles indicated a more prominent cellular stress and tissue damage following CS in the monoculture epithelium model without fibroblasts. Finally, our results indicated that an in vivo smoking-induced xenobiotic metabolism response of bronchial epithelial cells was better reflected from the in vitro CS-exposed coculture model. PMID:26085348

  5. Development of an in vitro cytotoxicity model for aerosol exposure using 3D reconstructed human airway tissue; application for assessment of e-cigarette aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Louise; Mankus, Courtney; Thorne, David; Jackson, George; DeBay, Jason; Meredith, Clive

    2015-10-01

    Development of physiologically relevant test methods to analyse potential irritant effects to the respiratory tract caused by e-cigarette aerosols is required. This paper reports the method development and optimisation of an acute in vitro MTT cytotoxicity assay using human 3D reconstructed airway tissues and an aerosol exposure system. The EpiAirway™ tissue is a highly differentiated in vitro human airway culture derived from primary human tracheal/bronchial epithelial cells grown at the air-liquid interface, which can be exposed to aerosols generated by the VITROCELL® smoking robot. Method development was supported by understanding the compatibility of these tissues within the VITROCELL® system, in terms of airflow (L/min), vacuum rate (mL/min) and exposure time. Dosimetry tools (QCM) were used to measure deposited mass, to confirm the provision of e-cigarette aerosol to the tissues. EpiAirway™ tissues were exposed to cigarette smoke and aerosol generated from two commercial e-cigarettes for up to 6 h. Cigarette smoke reduced cell viability in a time dependent manner to 12% at 6 h. E-cigarette aerosol showed no such decrease in cell viability and displayed similar results to that of the untreated air controls. Applicability of the EpiAirway™ model and exposure system was demonstrated, showing little cytotoxicity from e-cigarette aerosol and different aerosol formulations when compared directly with reference cigarette smoke, over the same exposure time. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. E-cigarette use and smoking reduction or cessation in the 2010/2011 TUS-CPS longitudinal cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuyan; Pierce, John P; White, Martha; Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Compton, Wilson; Conway, Kevin; Hartman, Anne M; Messer, Karen

    2016-10-21

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are heavily marketed and widely perceived as helpful for quitting or reducing smoking intensity. We test whether ever-use of e-cigarettes among early adopters was associated with: 1) increased cigarette smoking cessation; and 2) reduced cigarette consumption. A representative cohort of U.S. smokers (N = 2454) from the 2010 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) was re-interviewed 1 year later. Outcomes were smoking cessation for 30+ days and change in cigarette consumption at follow-up. E-cigarettes use was categorized as for cessation purposes or for another reason. Multivariate regression was used to adjust for demographics and baseline cigarette dependence level. In 2011, an estimated 12 % of adult U.S. smokers had ever used e-cigarettes, and 41 % of these reported use to help quit smoking. Smokers who had used e-cigarettes for cessation were less likely to be quit for 30+ days at follow-up, compared to never-users who tried to quit (11.1 % vs 21.6 %; ORadj = 0.44, 95 % CI = 0.2-0.8). Among heavier smokers at baseline (15+ cigarettes per day (CPD)), ever-use of e-cigarettes was not associated with change in smoking consumption. Lighter smokers (e-cigarettes for quitting had stable consumption, while increased consumption was observed among all other lighter smokers, although this difference was not statistically significant. Among early adopters, ever-use of first generation e-cigarettes to aid quitting cigarette smoking was not associated with improved cessation or with reduced consumption, even among heavier smokers.

  7. E-cigarette use and smoking reduction or cessation in the 2010/2011 TUS-CPS longitudinal cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are heavily marketed and widely perceived as helpful for quitting or reducing smoking intensity. We test whether ever-use of e-cigarettes among early adopters was associated with: 1 increased cigarette smoking cessation; and 2 reduced cigarette consumption. Methods A representative cohort of U.S. smokers (N = 2454 from the 2010 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS was re-interviewed 1 year later. Outcomes were smoking cessation for 30+ days and change in cigarette consumption at follow-up. E-cigarettes use was categorized as for cessation purposes or for another reason. Multivariate regression was used to adjust for demographics and baseline cigarette dependence level. Results In 2011, an estimated 12 % of adult U.S. smokers had ever used e-cigarettes, and 41 % of these reported use to help quit smoking. Smokers who had used e-cigarettes for cessation were less likely to be quit for 30+ days at follow-up, compared to never-users who tried to quit (11.1 % vs 21.6 %; ORadj = 0.44, 95 % CI = 0.2–0.8. Among heavier smokers at baseline (15+ cigarettes per day (CPD, ever-use of e-cigarettes was not associated with change in smoking consumption. Lighter smokers (<15 CPD who had ever used e-cigarettes for quitting had stable consumption, while increased consumption was observed among all other lighter smokers, although this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Among early adopters, ever-use of first generation e-cigarettes to aid quitting cigarette smoking was not associated with improved cessation or with reduced consumption, even among heavier smokers.

  8. [Validity of an instrument for assessing food consumption, food habits and cooking skills in 8-11 years old students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera, Lydia; Fretes, Gabriela; González, Carmen Gloria; Salinas, Judith; Vio del Rio, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    An instrument to measure food knowledge, food consumption, cooking skills, food habits and food expenses at school is necessary to assess changes in food practices. To validate an instrument to measure changes in food knowledge, food consumption, cooking skills, food habits and food expenses in Chilean school children 8 - 11 years from third to fifth grade. A validation of a questionnaire with 42 questions was conducted in two stages: the first to assess temporal stability, concordance and internal consistency in 45 children. The second one to apply the survey, modified with the results of the first stage, in 90 children assessing internal consistency. The first survey with 42 questions showed a reasonable temporal stability, concordance and internal consistency for cooking skills, habits and food expenditure at school. Internal consistency was good for food consumption, but not so good for food knowledge. In the final validation with 90 children, there was good consistency for food consumption but bad for food knowledge. Besides, children with cooking skills ate more healthy food and those who expended more money at school, consumed less healthy food. Food knowledge questions were eliminated from the instrument, which was elaborated with 28 questions about food consumption, cooking skills, food habits and food expenses at school. This instrument is useful to assess changes in food and nutrition education interventions in 8 -11 years children, in particular to measure cooking skills and food expenses at school. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. 27 CFR 40.231 - Consumption by employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturer, for off-factory personal consumption, not more than 5 large cigars or cigarettes, 20 small cigars... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumption by employees..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES...

  10. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ?18 years old, smoking ?25 of the last 30 days, smoking ?5 cigarettes pe...

  11. College Students’ Polytobacco Use, Cigarette Cessation, and Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Pasch, Keryn E.; Li, Xiaoyin; Hinds, Josephine T.; Marti, C. Nathan; Harrell, Melissa B.; Creamer, MeLisa R.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined patterns of tobacco and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among college students. Differences in sociodemographic characteristics between non-users of these products and 4 mutually exclusive groups of tobacco/e-cigarette users were assessed. Differences in cigarette cessation attempts and dependence between exclusive cigarette smokers and users of cigarettes and at least one alternative tobacco product also were examined. Methods Participants were 5468 18–29 year-old students from 24 colleges in Texas who completed an online survey. Results Multiple-product use was more prevalent than single-product use. All 4 current tobacco/e-cigarette-user groups were more likely than non-users to be men and older. College students who were younger when they smoked their first cigarette, and those reporting ever needing a cigarette, were more likely to be multiple-product users than cigaretteonly users. There were no group differences in cigarette cessation attempts or any other variables. Conclusions Using multiple products is associated with some indicators of dependence, but does not seem to aid or deter college students’ smoking cessation attempts. Longitudinal research is needed given that transitions in tobacco/e-cigarette use continue throughout young adulthood. PMID:27338998

  12. Electronic Cigarette Use Among Adolescents in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Idrisov, Bulat; Galimov, Artur; Masagutov, Radik; Sussman, Steve

    2017-02-23

    Information on e-cigarettes among youth in the Russian Federation is lacking. We examined prevalence of and factors associated with youth e-cigarette use in the Russian Federation. A cross-sectional, anonymous survey, conducted among 716 (females 51.5%) high school students in three cities (i.e., Ufa, Sterlitamak, Karagaevo) within the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation in 2015, assessed e-cigarette use and its correlates (i.e., sex, age, ethnicity, family structure, parents' highest degrees, antisocial behaviors, stress coping strategies, lifetime cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and marijuana use). Lifetime use of e-cigarettes was 28.6% and past-30-day use was 2.2%. Multilevel modeling showed that belonging to Tatar/Bashkir ethnicity relative to Russian ethnicity (OR = 1.60) and lifetime use of cigarettes (OR = 21.64), hookah (OR = 4.21), and alcohol (OR = 1.90) was associated with greater odds of lifetime use of e-cigarettes. Furthermore, use of social support coping strategies (i.e., utilizing parents for support) were associated with lower odds of lifetime use of e-cigarettes (OR = 0.94). Despite high lifetime e-cigarette use, past-30-day use was low. Greater knowledge of the reasons for e-cigarette discontinuation through continued surveillance is needed in the Russian Federation. Social coping strategies involving parents may inform e-cigarette use prevention.

  13. Cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Fraiman, Joseph B

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular safety is an important consideration in the debate on the benefits versus the risks of electronic cigarette (EC) use. EC emissions that might have adverse effects on cardiovascular health include nicotine, oxidants, aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants. To date, most of the cardiovascular effects of ECs demonstrated in humans are consistent with the known effects of nicotine. Pharmacological and toxicological studies support the biological plausibility that nicotine contributes to acute cardiovascular events and accelerated atherogenesis. However, epidemiological studies assessing Swedish smokeless tobacco, which exposes users to nicotine without combustion products, generally have not found an increased risk of myocardial infarction or stroke among users, but suggest that nicotine might contribute to acute cardiovascular events, especially in those with underlying coronary heart disease. The effects of aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants derived from ECs on cardiovascular health have not been determined. Although ECs might pose some cardiovascular risk to users, particularly those with existing cardiovascular disease, the risk is thought to be less than that of cigarette smoking based on qualitative and quantitative comparisons of EC aerosol versus cigarette smoke constituents. The adoption of ECs rather than cigarette smoking might, therefore, result in an overall benefit for public health.

  14. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Chee Kong, E-mail: yapckong@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Cheng, Wan Hee [Inti International University, Persiaran Perdana BBN, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Karami, Ali [Laboratory of Aquatic Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-05-15

    A total of 40 marine mussel Perna viridis populations collected (2002–2009) from 20 geographical sites located in two busy shipping lanes namely the Straits of Malacca (10 sites; 16 populations) and the Straits of Johore (8 sites; 21 populations) and three populations (2 sites) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, was determined for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. In comparison with the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) set by existing food safety guidelines, all metal concentrations found in all the mussel populations were lower than the prescribed MPLs. In terms of the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and oral reference doses (ORDs) by the USEPA, all the studied metals (except for Pb) were unlikely to become the limiting factors or unlikely to pose a risk for the consumption of the mussel populations. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for average level mussel (ALM) and high level mussel (HLM) consumers of mussels was found to be lower than the ORD guidelines for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was found to be less than 1 for ALM consumers but higher than 1 for HLM consumers in some sites. Therefore, there were no potential human health risks to the ALM consumers of the mussels. However, for Pb THQ values, the Pb levels in some mussel populations could create a health risk problem. Present results indicate that the consumption amounts of mussels should be limited for minimizing potential health risks of heavy metals to the HLM consumers. - Highlights: • Human health risk assessments of heavy metals in Perna viridis were investigated. • All metals in the mussels were below the established seafood safety guidelines. • Pb in mussels could easily reach the percentage of prescribed PTWI value of Pb. • Potential health risk with Pb exposure was found for the mussel consumers. • Consumption rate of mussels should be limited to

  15. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...... of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy