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Sample records for assessing cigarette consumption

  1. A Quantitative Epigenetic Approach for the Assessment of Cigarette Consumption

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    Robert ePhilibert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Despite the development of numerous preventive and treatment interventions, the rate of daily smoking in the United States is still approximately 22%. Effective psychosocial interventions and pharmacologic agents exist for the prevention and treatment of smoking. Unfortunately, both approaches are hindered by our inability to accurately quantify amount of cigarette consumption from the point of initial experimentation to the point of total dependency . Recently, we and others have demonstrated that smoking is associated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation. However, whether this advance in basic science can be employed as a reliable assay that is useful for clinical diagnosis and treatment has not been shown. In this communication, we determine the sensitivity and specificity of five of the most consistently replicated CpG loci with respect to smoking status using data from a publically available dataset. We show that methylation status at a CpG locus in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor, cg05575921, is both sensitive and specific for smoking status in adults with a receiver operated curve characteristic (ROC area under the curve of 0.99. Given recent demonstrations that methylation at this locus reflects both intensity of smoking and the degree of smoking cessation, we conclude that a methylation-based diagnostic at this locus could have a prominent role in understanding the impact of new products, such as e-cigarettes on initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents, while improving the prevention and treatment of smoking and smoking related disorders.

  2. Cigarette use, Cigarette Consumption and Price of Cigarette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingMing Li

    2016-01-01

    两种经验方法在这篇研究论文中使用,为了调查在美国香烟价格跟香烟需求的关系通过可以找到的数据信息。这篇论文的目的为了调查香烟的价格是否是一个强有力的方式去减少香烟的需求。论文中的的数据收集来源于美国的48个州从1985年到1995年,目的是检测香烟价格跟其他独立的变量对香烟需求的作用。最小二乘回归模型跟虚拟变量的最小二乘法模型已经使用去决定香烟价格的作用。此外,其他因素像人均GDP,人口,CPI也使用在模型中去证实潜在的关系对于香烟需求。报告结果显示了任何方式的香烟价格上升将会导致个人香烟需求的下降。香烟需求的百分比下降取决于香烟价格的百分比上升,这个现象可以通过需求的价格弹性去估量。基于报告的分析可以放心的作出结论,香烟价格上升仍然是一种有效的工具去减少香烟的需求。%In this research paper two empirical methodologies are used for studying the relation between cigarette price and cigarette consumption in America with available statistical information. The purpose of the paper is to investigate whether the price of cigarette is a powerful method for cutting cigarette consumption. The statistical information used in the paper is collected from 48 U.S. states over the period from 1985 to 1995 for examining the effect of cigarette price and others independent variables on cigarette consumption. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model and Least square dummy variable model are used to determine effect of cigarette price. Furthermore, other factors such as GDP per capita, population and Consumer price index (CPI), have been added into the model to attest to their potential nexuses with cigarette consumption. The result of the report shows that any increase in the price of cigarettes will decrease personal consumption of cigarettes. Higher prices increase costs to

  3. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

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    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1 Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2 Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. Methods To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972–2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Results We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. Conclusion The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and

  4. Establishment of the MethyLight Assay for Assessing Aging, Cigarette Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption.

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    Endo, Kosuke; Li, Jiawei; Nakanishi, Michio; Asada, Takashi; Ikesue, Masahiro; Goto, Yoichi; Fukushima, Yasue; Iwai, Naoharu

    2015-01-01

    The environmental factors such as aging, smoking, and alcohol consumption have been reported to influence DNA methylation (DNAm). However, the versatility of DNAm measurement by DNAm array systems is low in clinical use. Thus, we developed the MethyLight assay as a simple method to measure DNAm. In the present study, we isolated peripheral blood DNA from 33 healthy volunteers and selected cg25809905, cg02228185, and cg17861230 as aging, cg23576855 as smoking, and cg02583484 as alcohol consumption biomarkers. The predicted age by methylation rates of cg25809905 and cg17861230 significantly correlated with chronological age. In immortalized B-cells, DNAm rates of two sites showed a younger status than the chronological age of donor. On the other hand, the predicted age of the patients with myocardial infarction (MI) was not accelerated. The methylation rate of cg23576855 was able to discriminate the groups based on the smoking status. The DNAm rate of cg02583484 was reduced in subjects with habitual alcohol consumption compared to that of subjects without habitual alcohol consumption. In conclusion, our MethyLight assay system reconfirms that aging, smoking, and alcohol consumption influenced DNAm in peripheral blood in the Japanese. This MethyLight system will facilitate DNAm measurement in epidemiological and clinical studies.

  5. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

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    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  6. First-year impact of the 1989 California cigarette tax increase on cigarette consumption.

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    Flewelling, R L; Kenney, E; Elder, J P; Pierce, J; Johnson, M; Bal, D G

    1992-06-01

    We employed a time series design to evaluate the impact of the 1989 California cigarette tax increase on cigarette consumption in California. Adult per capita consumption data from 1980 to 1990 were analyzed for California and the United States. Trend data indicated a sharp drop in California cigarette consumption coincident with the tax increase. Time-series regression analyses support this observation, and suggest that a 5% to 7% decline in consumption is attributable to the tax increase.

  7. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

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    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  8. Changes in cigarette consumption patterns among Brazilian smokers between 1989 and 2008.

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    Szklo, André Salem; Levy, David; Souza, Mirian Carvalho de; Szklo, Moysés; Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Perez, Cristina; Almeida, Liz Maria de

    2012-11-01

    The assessment of temporal differences in cigarette consumption may help in understanding whether a smoking population is becoming more resistant to quitting over time. We calculated absolute differences in average cigarette consumption, stratified by birth cohort and age group. Data were obtained from random samples from two Brazilian national household surveys (1989, N = 12,782; 2008, N = 6,675). A linear regression model was used to adjust estimates by gender, educational level, and place of residence. Birth cohort analysis found that average daily cigarette consumption increased for individuals born after 1964 and decreased for those born before 1955 (adjusted p-values consumption between 1989 and 2008 (adjusted p-values consumption for most age groups, rather than to a change in the relationship between age and cigarette consumption.

  9. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

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    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (pmusic (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use.

  10. The effect of cigarette price increase on the cigarette consumption in Taiwan: evidence from the National Health Interview Surveys on cigarette consumption

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    Ye Chun-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Methods Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of cigarette demand and cigarette price elasticity. Results In 2002, after Taiwan had enacted the new tax scheme, cigarette price elasticity in Taiwan was found to be -0.5274. The new tax scheme brought about an average annual 13.27 packs/person (10.5% reduction in cigarette consumption. Using the cigarette price elasticity estimate from -0.309 in 2003, we calculated that if the Health and Welfare Tax were increased by another NT$ 3 per pack and cigarette producers shifted this increase to the consumers, cigarette consumption would be reduced by 2.47 packs/person (2.2%. The value of the estimated cigarette price elasticity is smaller than one, meaning that the tax will not only reduce cigarette consumption but it will also generate additional tax revenues. Male smokers who had no income or who smoked light cigarettes were found to be more responsive to changes in cigarette price. Conclusions An additional tax added to the cost of cigarettes would bring about a reduction in cigarette consumption and increased tax revenues. It would also help reduce incidents smoking-related illnesses. The additional tax revenues generated by the tax increase could be used to offset the current financial deficiency of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program and provide better public services.

  11. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol......, and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had...

  12. Impact of cigarette taxation policy on excise revenues and cigarette consumption in Uzbekistan

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    Konstantin S. Krasovsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uzbekistan ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which states that price and tax measures are an effective means of reducing tobacco consumption. We aimed to explore the effect of taxation policies on revenues and cigarette consumption. METHODS: Data on tax rates, revenues, cigarette sales were taken from national reports. To forecast potential revenues, a scenario analysis was performed. RESULTS: In 1991-2004, ad valorem excise system was in place in Uzbekistan, which was later replaced by the specific excise system. In 1997-2011, the nominal average excise has increased by a factor of twenty, but in real terms, after a sharp increase in 1999, average excise declined annually and increased only in 2010-2011. Annual cigarette sales per capita of adult population in 1999-2007 constituted 17-25 cigarette packs, while in 2008-2011 it increased to 30-37 packs. Four scenarios of excise tax increases in 2012 were developed: one actual scenario based on the rates effective in Uzbekistan in 2012, and three hypothetical ones anticipating excise rates increase by 1.5, 2 and 3-fold. With actual excise increase in 2012, the inflation-adjusted budget revenues would grow by 5%, and with three hypothetical - by 17%, 35% and 66% respectively, despite the decline of tax-paid cigarette sales. CONCLUSION: Stabilization or reduction in cigarette excises in Uzbekistan in 2002-2008 led to a decline in real excise revenues and the growth of cigarette sales. In 1999 and 2010-2011, excises were significantly increased and the real revenues have risen, despite the decline in cigarette sales. As cigarette prices are low, the illegal outflow of cigarettes from Uzbekistan apparently exceeds the illegal inflow. A significant increase in cigarette excise (1.5-3 fold can both increase budget revenues and reduce cigarette consumption, with greater increase yielding more benefits.

  13. Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals.

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    Novotny, Thomas E; Hardin, Sarah N; Hovda, Lynn R; Novotny, Dale J; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar

    2011-05-01

    Discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts in aquatic environments may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues. This report reviews published and grey literature regarding cigarette butt waste consumption by children, pets and wildlife. Although reports of human and animal exposures number in the tens of thousands, severe toxic outcomes due to butt consumption are rare. Nonetheless, the ubiquity of cigarette butt waste and its potential for adverse effects on human and animal health warrants additional research and policy interventions to reduce the stream of these pollutants in the environment.

  14. Brand switching or reduced consumption? A study of how cigarette taxes affect tobacco consumption.

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    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2014-12-01

    We examined the influence of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption, with an emphasis on smokers' choice between reducing cigarette consumption and switching brands. We constructed three scenario-based models to study the following two subjects: (1) the relationship between deciding whether to reduce one's cigarette consumption and to practice brand switching (simultaneous or sequential); (2) the key determinants that affect smokers' decisions in terms of their consumption and brand switching when facing higher taxes. We applied data collected from a survey in Taiwan, and the results indicated that both independent and two-stage decision-making models generated very similar conclusions. We also found that gender difference contributed to reduce cigarette consumption. In addition, this study indicated that high-income smokers were less likely to switch brands, whereas well-educated smokers were more likely to switch brands. Most importantly, we questioned the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy, as our results suggested that higher price did not necessarily reduce consumption. Indeed, data indicated that consumption after the tax on cigarettes increased.

  15. Analysis of cigarette demand in Argentina: the impact of price changes on consumption and government revenues

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    German Rodríguez-Iglesias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate cigarette demand and to simulate a tax policy targeted to reduce tobacco consumption. Materials and methods. Demand was estimated using a vector error correction model. Simulation exercises present the impact of a tax increase on consumption and revenues. Results. Changes in real income and the real price of cigarettes affect the demand for cigarettes in Argentina. The long term price elasticity is 0.279 (a 10% increase in real prices reduces cigarette consumption by 2.79% per quarter and the long term income elasticity is 0.411 (a 10% increase in real income raises consumption by 4.11% per quarter. Even in a conservative scenario, imulations show that increasing the price of cigarettes by 100% using excise taxes would maximize revenues and reduce cigarette consumption. Conclusion. There is sufficient room to increase taxes, reducing cigarette consumption, while still increasing tax revenues.

  16. Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings.

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    Morgan, Celia J A; Das, Ravi K; Joye, Alyssa; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2013-09-01

    The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. We conducted a pilot, randomised double blind placebo controlled study set out to assess the impact of the ad-hoc use of cannabidiol (CBD) in smokers who wished to stop smoking. 24 smokers were randomised to receive an inhaler of CBD (n=12) or placebo (n=12) for one week, they were instructed to use the inhaler when they felt the urge to smoke. Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~40% during treatment. Results also indicated some maintenance of this effect at follow-up. These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration.

  17. The relation between price and daily consumption of cigarettes and bidis: Findings from the Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Wave 1 Survey

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    P S Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In India, 14% of the population use smoked tobacco products. Increasing prices of these products is one of the measures to curb their consumption. Aims: This study analyzes "unit price" and "daily consumption" of cigarettes and bidis and investigates their relation with each other. Settings And Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four states of India (Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra as a part of the International Tobacco Control Policy (TCP Evaluation Project (the TCP India Project during 2010-2011. Methods: Information was collected from adult (aged ≥15 daily exclusive smokers of cigarette/bidi regarding (a last purchase (purchase in pack/loose, brand and price and (b daily consumption. Average unit price and daily consumption was calculated for different brands and states. Regression model was used to assess the impact of price on daily consumption. Results: Bidis were much less expensive (₹0.39 than cigarettes (₹3.1. The daily consumption was higher (14 among bidi smokers than cigarette smokers (8. The prices and daily consumption of bidis (₹0.33-0.43; 12-15 and cigarettes (₹2.9-3.6; 5-9 varied across the four states. The unit prices of bidis and cigarettes did not influence their daily consumption. Smokers purchasing bidis in packs paid substantially less per unit and purchase of bidis and cigarettes in packs influenced their consumption positively. Conclusions: Cigarettes although more expensive than bidis, seem very cheap if compared internationally. Hence, prices of both cigarettes and bidis do not influence their consumption.

  18. Effect of the Arizona tobacco control program on cigarette consumption and healthcare expenditures.

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    Lightwood, James; Glantz, Stanton

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between per capita tobacco control expenditures, cigarette consumption, and healthcare expenditures in the state of Arizona. Arizona's tobacco control program, which was established in 1994, concentrates on youth uptake of smoking and avoids public policy and commentary on the tobacco industry. We use a cointegrating time series analysis using aggregate data on healthcare and tobacco control expenditures, cigarette consumption and prices and other data. We find there is a strong association between per capita healthcare expenditure and per capita cigarette consumption. In the long run, a marginal increase in annual cigarette consumption of one pack per capita increases per capita healthcare expenditure by $19.5 (SE $5.45) in Arizona. A cumulative increase of $1.00 in the difference between control state and Arizona per capita tobacco control expenditures increases the difference in cigarette consumption by 0.190 (SE 0.0780) packs per capita. Between 1996 and 2004, Arizona's tobacco control program was associated with a cumulative reduction in cigarette consumption of 200 million packs (95% CI 39.0 million packs, 364 million packs) worth $500 million (95% CI: $99 million, $896 million) in pre-tax cigarette sales to the tobacco industry. The cumulative healthcare savings was $2.33 billion (95% CI $0.37 billion, $5.00 billion) and the cumulative reduction in cigarette. Arizona's tobacco control expenditures are associated with reduced cigarette consumption and healthcare expenditures, amounting to about 10 times the cost of the program through 2004. This return on investment, while large, was less than the more aggressive California program, which did not limit its focus to youth and included tobacco industry denomalization messages.

  19. The dynamics of food, alcohol and cigarette consumption in Russia during transition.

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    Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya; Rizov, Marian

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on the dynamics of fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on the diversity of the diet in Russia between 1994 and 2005. All those aspects of nutritional behavior are important inputs to the production of health. A dynamic panel data model is used to estimate demand functions for fat, protein, alcohol, cigarettes and diversity of the diet. The results suggest the existence of strong habits in drinking and smoking, and the absence of habits in fat and protein consumption. We also found evidence of habit formation for food diversity. Comparing nutritional behavior of younger and older consumers, we find significant differences in the demand for fat and cigarettes. Older consumers seem to be more persistent in their drinking and smoking behavior. Similarly, men show higher habit persistence for alcohol and cigarette consumption. The results also suggest that among individual determinants, especially education, income and employment have statistically significant impacts on consumption behavior. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, economic growth is negatively related to protein consumption, while regional unemployment rate is negatively affecting the demand for protein and food diversity. Finally, Russian consumers react to the price changes of alcohol, cigarettes, fat and protein as suggested by theory. Consumer demand for food diversity responds negatively to price changes of alcohol and cigarettes, but positively to the price of fat.

  20. Earlier age of smoking initiation may not predict heavier cigarette consumption in later adolescence.

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    Morrell, Holly E R; Song, Anna V; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that earlier cigarette smoking initiation in adolescence predicts greater cigarette consumption later in adolescence or adulthood. Results from these studies have been used to inform interventions for adolescent smoking. However, previous studies suffer from several important methodological limitations. The objective of the present study was to address these limitations by longitudinally and prospectively examining whether and how age of initiation of smoking among adolescents predicts cigarette consumption by age 16 or 17. Participants completed an in-class survey every 6 months for 2-3 school years. Participants included 395 adolescents (Mean age=14 years at baseline; 53.2% female) from two public high schools in Northern California (Schools A and B) who completed self-report measures of smoking initiation, number of friends who smoke, and number of whole cigarettes smoked by the final survey time point. Adolescents who were older when they first smoked one whole cigarette were 5.3 to 14.6 times more likely in School A and 2.9 to 4.3 times more likely in School B to have smoked a greater number of cigarettes by age 16 or 17. Results suggested that earlier smoking initiation may not lead to heavier cigarette consumption later in time, as has been previously shown. There may be a period of heightened vulnerability in mid- or late adolescence where smoking experimentation is more likely to lead to greater cigarette consumption. Targeting prevention efforts to adolescents aged 14 to 17 years may further reduce smoking initiation among youth, thus limiting subsequent smoking-related morbidity and mortality in adulthood.

  1. An Experimental Investigation of the Joint Effects of Advertising and Peers on Adolescents' Beliefs and Intentions about Cigarette Consumption.

    OpenAIRE

    Pechmann, Cornelia; Knight, Susan J

    2002-01-01

    Ninth graders were randomly exposed to one of eight slice-of-life videotapes showing stimulus advertising (cigarette, antismoking, both, neither) and unfamiliar peers who either did or did not smoke cigarettes. The findings indicate that the cigarette advertising primed positive smoker stereotypes, which caused subjects to seek out favorable information about the peers shown smoking. Subjects' beliefs and intentions about cigarette consumption were thereby enhanced by the joint effects of adv...

  2. Alcohol use, cigarette consumption and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Op den Velde, W; Aarts, PGH; Falger, PRJ; Hovens, JE; van Duijn, H; de Groen, JHM; van Duijn, MAJ

    2002-01-01

    Aims: The relationship between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was studied in 147 male former members of the civilian resistance against the Nazi occupation of Holland during World War II. Methods: The subjects were interviewed at home. Measures inclu

  3. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

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    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  4. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

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    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  5. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

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    Loerbroks, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer. Methods: In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women. Follow-up for c

  6. The dynamics of food, alcohol and cigarette consumption in Russia during transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Huffman, S.; Rizov, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on the dynamics of fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on the diversity of the diet in Russia between 1994 and 2005. All those aspects of nutritional behavior are important inputs to the pro

  7. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents.

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    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8-2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4-2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression.

  8. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Older Adults: Do Living Arrangements Matter?

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    Jiaan Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998–2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker, the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others, and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults’ health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  9. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese older adults: do living arrangements matter?

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    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-02-23

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998-2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults' health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  10. The effect of cigarette and alcohol consumption on birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    behaviors, most importantly prenatal alcohol consumption. Second, it uses prenatal maternal reports on inputs and objective administrative data on child outcomes. Both features of the data reduce the threat of recall bias and measurement error. Third, the paper identifies the effect of health behaviors...... suggest a dose-response relationship. Robustness checks suggest that the sibling sample represents the population of multiple mothers well and that smoking results are not driven by misclassification of smoking status....

  11. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of subtypes of oesophageal and gastric cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking may be differentially associated with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). However, because this was based on retrospective

  12. The effect of Taiwan's tax-induced increases in cigarette prices on brand-switching and the consumption of cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Yang, Chung-Lin; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Pei-Fen

    2005-06-01

    The effect of raising cigarette taxes to reduce smoking has been the subject of several studies, which often treat the price of cigarettes as an exogenous factor given to smokers who respond to it by adjusting their smoking behavior. However, cigarette prices vary with brand and quality, and smokers can and do switch to lower-priced brands to reduce the impact of the tax on the cost of cigarettes as they try to consume the same number of cigarettes as they had before a tax hike. Using data from a two-year follow-up interview survey conducted before and after a new cigarette tax scheme was imposed in Taiwan in 2002, this study examines three behavioral changes smokers may make to respond to tax-induced cigarette price increase: brand-switching, amount consumed, and amount spent on smoking. These changes were studied in relation to smoker income, before-tax cigarette price, level of addiction, exposure to advertizing, and consumer loyalty. We found that smokers, depending upon exposure to advertizing, level of consumer loyalty and initial price of cigarettes, switched brands to maintain current smoking habits and control costs. We also found that the initial amount smoked and level of addiction, not price, at least not at the current levels in Taiwan, determined whether a smoker reduced the number of cigarettes he consumed.

  13. The effect of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and healthcare costs: 1989-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lightwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that tobacco control funding in California has reduced per capita cigarette consumption and per capita healthcare expenditures. This paper refines our earlier model by estimating the effect of California tobacco control funding on current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker and the effect of prevalence and consumption on per capita healthcare expenditures. The results are used to calculate new estimates of the effect of the California Tobacco Program. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using state-specific aggregate data, current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker are modeled as functions of cumulative California and control states' per capita tobacco control funding, cigarette price, and per capita income. Per capita healthcare expenditures are modeled as a function of prevalence of current smoking, cigarette consumption per smoker, and per capita income. One additional dollar of cumulative per capita tobacco control funding is associated with reduction in current smoking prevalence of 0.0497 (SE.00347 percentage points and current smoker cigarette consumption of 1.39 (SE.132 packs per smoker per year. Reductions of one percentage point in current smoking prevalence and one pack smoked per smoker are associated with $35.4 (SE $9.85 and $3.14 (SE.786 reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure, respectively (2010 dollars, using the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA measure of healthcare spending. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Between FY 1989 and 2008 the California Tobacco Program cost $2.4 billion and led to cumulative NIPA healthcare expenditure savings of $134 (SE $30.5 billion.

  14. Assessment of carcinogenic heavy metal levels in Brazilian cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Gustavo Freitas de Sousa; Garcia, Karina S; Menezes-Filho, Jose Antonio

    2011-10-01

    Several studies have associated high cancer incidence with smoking habits. According to IARC, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) are carcinogenic to humans. These metals are present in cigarettes and their levels vary according to geographical region of tobacco cultivation, fertilizer treatment, plant variety etc. This study aims to assess these metal levels in cigarettes commercialized in Brazil. Three cigarettes of each 20 different brands were individually weighed, the tobacco filling removed, and homogenized. After desiccation, samples were subjected to microwave-assisted digestion. Analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean levels for Pb, Cd, As, Ni, and Cr were, respectively, 0.27 ± 0.054, 0.65 ± 0.091, 0.09 ± 0.024, 1.26 ± 0.449, and 1.43 ± 0.630, in micrograms per gram of tobacco. No correlation was observed between Cd and any other metal analyzed. A mild correlation (r = 0.483, p < 0.05) was observed between Pb and Cr levels. Strong significant (p < 0.01) correlations were observed between Ni and Cr (r = 0.829), Ni and As (r = 0.799), Ni and Pb (r = 0.637), and between Cr and As (r = 0.621). Chromium and Ni levels were significantly higher in cigarettes from a multinational manufacturer. Our results show a high variability in heavy metal levels in cigarettes, representing an important exposure source of smokers and passive smokers to carcinogenic substances.

  15. The dynamics of the Russian lifestyle during transition: Changes in food, alcohol and cigarette consumption. ISU Economics Working Papers 09019

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Huffman, S.K.; Rizov, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on diet’s diversity between 1994 and 2004. The results from a dynamic econometric model suggest that among individual determinants such as i

  16. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and the risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, D.H.E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Kremer, S.H.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prospective data on alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of head-neck cancer (HNC) subtypes, i.e. oral cavity cancer (OCC), oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and laryngeal cancer (LC), are limited. We investigated these associations within the second largest prospective study

  17. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy by Danish women and their spouses--a potential source of fetal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D H; Krasilnikoff, P A; Leventhal, J M; Berget, A; Weil, B

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption behavior during pregnancy was examined in a select group of Danish women and their spouses. Five-hundred consecutive women who had uncomplicated pregnancies and delivered full-term babies were interviewed 3+ days postpartum. Information was collected about smoking and drinking behavior of all household members during pregnancy. We found (1) a high percentage of Danish women (70%) and their spouses (80%) consume alcohol during pregnancy, and (2) a significant correlation between maternal and paternal smoking (r = .25, P .0001) and maternal and paternal drinking (r = .35, P .0001). These data suggest that even though the potential dangers of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy have been well publicized, there is still a high percentage of women who participate in such behaviors. There may also exist an important role for the father in affecting these two behaviors and therefore indirectly affecting fetal development.

  18. VapeTracker: Tracking Vapor Consumption to Help E-cigarette Users Quit

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Abdallah El; Matviienko, Andrii; Feld, Yannick; Heuten, Wilko; Boll, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Despite current controversy over e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid, we present early work based on a web survey (N=249) that shows that some e-cigarette users (46.2%) want to quit altogether, and that behavioral feedback that can be tracked can fulfill that purpose. Based on our survey findings, we designed VapeTracker, an early prototype that can attach to any e-cigarette device to track vaping activity. We discuss our future research on vaping cessation, addressing how to improve our ...

  19. E-cigarette specialty retailers: Data to assess the association between retail environment and student e-cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostean, Georgiana; Crespi, Catherine M; Vorapharuek, Patsornkarn; McCarthy, William J

    2017-04-01

    The retail environment is a major social determinant of health, yet little is known about the e-cigarette specialty retailer environment. The e-cigarette specialty retail environment may be associated with e-cigarette use by middle and high school students, an issue that was addressed in a recent article entitled, "E-cigarette use among students and e-cigarette specialty retailer presence near schools," by Bostean and colleagues (G. Bostean, C.M. Crespi, P. Vorapharuek, W.J. McCarthy, 2016 [1]). We present data relating to e-cigarette specialty retailers in Orange County, California. We describe the data collection method (including the search methodology to identify e-cigarette specialty retailers), present descriptive retailer data including school proximity, and provide data from multi-level regressions predicting individual-level student use of e-cigarettes based on presence of an e-cigarette specialty retailer in proximity to schools.

  20. The comparative in vitro assessment of e-cigarette and cigarette smoke aerosols using the γH2AX assay and applied dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, David; Larard, Sophie; Baxter, Andrew; Meredith, Clive; Gaҫa, Marianna

    2017-01-04

    DNA damage can be caused by a variety of external and internal factors and together with cellular responses, can establish genomic instability through multiple pathways. DNA damage therefore, is considered to play an important role in the aetiology and early stages of carcinogenesis. The DNA-damage inducing potential of tobacco smoke aerosols in vitro has been extensively investigated; however, the ability of e-cigarette aerosols to induce DNA damage has not been extensively investigated. E-cigarette use has grown globally in recent years and the health implications of long term e-cigarette use are still unclear. Therefore, this study has assessed the induction of double-strand DNA damage in vitro using human lung epithelial cells to e-cigarette aerosols from two different product variants (a "cigalike" and a closed "modular" system) and cigarette smoke. A Vitrocell(®) VC 10 aerosol exposure system was used to generate and dilute cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols, which were delivered to human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2Bs) housed at the air-liquid-interface (ALI) for up to 120min exposure (diluting airflow, 0.25-1L/min). Following exposure, cells were immediately fixed, incubated with primary (0.1% γH2AX antibody in PBS) and secondary antibodies (DyLight™ 549 conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG) containing Hoechst dye DNA staining solution (0.2% secondary antibody and 0.01% Hoechst in PBS), and finally screened using the Cellomics Arrayscan VTI platform. The results from this study demonstrate a clear DNA damage-induced dose response with increasing smoke concentrations up to cytotoxic levels. In contrast, e-cigarette aerosols from two product variants did not induce DNA damage at equivalent to or greater than doses of cigarette smoke aerosol. In this study dosimetry approaches were used to contextualize exposure, define exposure conditions and facilitate comparisons between cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM

  1. [Assessment of cadmium and lead released from cigarette smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suna, S; Asakawa, F; Jitsunari, F; Manabe, Y; Gotou, A; Fukunaga, I; Nakajima, T

    1991-12-01

    Cigarette smoke, which contains many harmful compounds, affects not only the smoker's health but also indoor air quality. To evaluate indoor air contamination by cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), we measured Cd and Pb contained in the mainstream and sidestream smoke exhaled by experimental smoking of Japanese cigarettes and also determined urinary and blood Cd and Pb levels in smokers and non-smokers and air Cd and Pb levels in smoky environments. 1. One cigarette of each of 7 Japanese brands contained about 1 microgram each of Cd and Pb, of which about 50 ng each was released to the mainstream and 250 ng of Cd and 50 ng of Pb to the sidestream by smoking. 2. The blood Cd level in the smokers was significantly higher than that in the non-smokers. The urinary Cd level in the smokers was slightly higher than that in the non-smokers. The blood Cd level was related to the number of cigarettes smoked daily. Blood and urinary Pb levels did not differ between the smokers and non-smokers, but the blood Pb level was also related to the number of cigarettes smoked daily. 3. The air Cd levels in smoky places such as the smoking car of the special express train, an office, and a pachinko parlor were markedly higher than that in outdoor air. The air Cd concentration was well correlated with the environmental tobacco smoke concentration. On the other hand, the air Pb level was slightly higher in the above smoky places than outdoors. The mean air Pb concentration was not correlated with the environmental tobacco smoke concentration but was higher at higher environmental tobacco smoke concentration in each place.

  2. E-cigarette specialty retailers: Data to assess the association between retail environment and student e-cigarette use

    OpenAIRE

    Bostean, Georgiana; Crespi, Catherine M.; Vorapharuek, Patsornkarn; McCarthy, William J

    2017-01-01

    The retail environment is a major social determinant of health, yet little is known about the e-cigarette specialty retailer environment. The e-cigarette specialty retail environment may be associated with e-cigarette use by middle and high school students, an issue that was addressed in a recent article entitled, “E-cigarette use among students and e-cigarette specialty retailer presence near schools,” by Bostean and colleagues (G. Bostean, C.M. Crespi, P. Vorapharuek, W.J. McCarthy, 2016 [1...

  3. Prohibition of e-cigarettes in the US: Are prohibitions where alcohol is consumed related to lower alcohol consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Alexandra R; Karyadi, Kenny A; Cyders, Melissa A

    2016-12-01

    Recently, research has suggested negative consequences related to electronic cigarette (e-cig) use, including the increased risk for alcohol use and abuse. Previous work found that cigarette smoking ban legislation lowered overall smoking and alcohol use rates; however, researchers have not yet examined the potential effects of prohibiting e-cig use. The present study surveyed 617 individuals from a community-based online sample in the US (mean age = 33.33, SD = 10.50, 54.7 per cent female) who reported their smoking/e-cig use status, alcohol consumption, and the presence of e-cig prohibitions where they consume alcohol. E-cig prohibition was associated with a lower likelihood of being an e-cig user (OR = 0.12, p e-cigs) (OR = 0.07, p e-cigs were prohibited. Findings are an initial step in this line of research and suggest important future work examining implications of e-cig prohibition recommendations and policy.

  4. Variabilidad en el consumo de cigarrillos según la fuente de información en España (1993-2009 Variability in cigarette consumption according to the data source in Spain (1993-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la variabilidad en el número de cigarrillos fumados por persona y día en España según la fuente de información (encuestas de salud y datos de ventas. Métodos: Se comparó el consumo de cigarrillos diarios por persona y día (población >16 años de edad obtenido de las encuestas nacionales de salud y de los datos sobre ventas de tabaco del Comisionado para el Mercado de Tabacos entre 1993 y 2009. Resultados: El consumo de cigarrillos diarios por persona y día disminuyó entre 1993 y 2009. En todo el periodo, el número de cigarrillos fumados por persona y día según las ventas excedieron a los derivados de las encuestas de salud (hasta un 46,9%. Conclusión: La diferencia entre el número de cigarrillos fumados obtenidos entre las ventas y las encuestas de salud ha aumentado en los últimos años.Objectives: To assess the variability in the number of cigarettes smoked per person per day in Spain according to the information source (health surveys versus legal sales. Methods: We compared cigarette consumption per person per day (population aged >16 years obtained from the national health surveys in Spain and the official data on legal tobacco sales between 1993 and 2009. Results: Cigarette consumption per person per day decreased between 1993 and 2009. Over the entire period, the number of cigarettes smoked per person per day according to legal sales exceeded that reported by national health surveys (up to 46.9%. Conclusion: The difference in data on the number of cigarettes smoked between national health surveys and legal sales has increased in the last few years in Spain.

  5. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, including rs25531 with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Bagger, Yu; Tanko, Laszlo B;

    2009-01-01

    We addressed the question whether 5-HTTLPR, a variable number of tandem repeats located in the 5' end of the serotonin transporter gene, is associated with smoking or alcohol consumption. Samples of DNA from 1,365 elderly women with a mean age of 69.2 years were genotyped for this polymorphism...... and previous consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were obtained using a questionnaire. Genotypes were classified according to allele size, that is, S and L with 14 and 16 repeat units, respectively, and on a functional basis by amalgamation of the L(G) and S alleles. Data were subjected to regression analyses....... These analyses revealed P values for associations between 5-HTTLPR genotype and alcohol and cigarette consumption in the range from 0.15 to 0.92. On adjustment for age and educational level, significance for the associations of 5-HTTLPR with the smoking and alcohol consumption measures was not reached. We...

  6. The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas E Novotny; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Burt, Lindsay; Curtis, Clifton; Luiza da Costa, Vera; Iqtidar, Silvae Usman; Liu, Yuchen; Pujari, Sameer; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Arti...

  7. Assessment of global DNA methylation in the first trimester fetal tissues exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fa, Svetlana; Larsen, Trine Vilsbøll; Bilde, Katrine;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies....... Maternal smoking induces gene-specific DNA methylation alterations as well as global DNA hypermethylation in the term placentas and hypomethylation in the cord blood. Early pregnancy represents a developmental time where the fetal epigenome is remodeled and accordingly can be expected to be highly prone...... to exposures with an epigenetic impact. We have assessed the influence of maternal cigarette smoking during the first trimester for fetal global DNA methylation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the human fetal intestines and livers as well as the placentas from the first trimester pregnancies. Global DNA...

  8. The effects of higher cigarette prices on tar and nicotine consumption in a cohort of adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, M C; Nimsch, C T; Hyland, A; Cummings, M

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the demand for tar and nicotine in cigarettes as a function of cigarette prices in a cohort of cigarette 11,966 smokers followed for 5 years. Data for the analysis come from a longitudinal telephone survey of 11,966 smokers who were interviewed in 1988 and 1993 as part of the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Separate models are estimated for three age groups to account for differences in levels of addiction and brand loyalty across age. We found that smokers respond to higher cigarette prices by reducing the number of cigarettes smoked per day but also by switching to cigarettes that are higher in tar and nicotine per cigarette.

  9. Perceptions of Asian American men about tobacco cigarette consumption: a social learning theory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, Clarence; Shigaki, Alison; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2005-10-01

    Little information exists regarding the perceptions that ethnic-specific groups of Asian American men have about tobacco cigarette smoking. Thirty Asian American men of immigrant status living in Seattle, Washington, were stratified by ethnicity (Chinese and Vietnamese), language (Mandarin, Cantonese, Vietnamese) and age to comprise six focus groups (two Mandarin speaking men aged 20-40 years and 10 aged 41-65+ years; three Cantonese men aged 20-40 years and another six aged 41-65+ years; four Vietnamese men aged 20-40 years and another five aged 41-65+ years). All group interviews were audio-taped and six separate hard-copy transcripts were produced, independently theme-coded by three investigators to ensure inter-rater reliability, and analyzed with QRS NUD*IST ethnographic software. Bandura (1969, 1986) categorized emergent contextual themes within the constructs of "predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing" behavioral determinants from Social Learning Theory. Smoking to be sociable emerged as the most salient theme. Awareness of tobacco-related diseases other than lung cancer was less evident, as was a self-perceived lack of will-power to quit. Concerns about side-stream smoking affecting family members, along with smoking to alleviate stress, were key findings. Further tobacco-related research is needed that incorporates considerations for cultural dynamics.

  10. Correlates of experimentation with smoking and current cigarette consumption among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gimenes Bonilha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze social characteristics and stress as correlates of cigarette smoking in adolescence. The main intent was to identify elements that distinguish adolescents who had experimented with smoking and did not progress to regular smoking from those who became current smokers. METHODS: Students at 10 high schools in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, completed a questionnaire based on an instrument employed in a similar large-scale study. The students were classified as never-smokers or experimenters. The experimenters were subcategorized as having become current smokers or nonprogressors. Analyses were performed using adjusted logistic models. RESULTS: A total of 2,014 students (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.1 years; females, 53% completed the questionnaire. We categorized 1,283 students (63.7% as never-smokers, 244 (12.1% as current smokers, and 487 (24.2% as nonprogressors. We found that experimentation with smoking was associated with being held back a grade in school (OR = 1.80, alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 8.92; high/regular, OR = 2.64, illicit drug use (OR = 9.32, having a sibling or cousin who smokes (OR = 1.39, having a friend who smokes (OR = 2.08, and high levels of stress (in females only, OR = 1.32. Factors associated with an increased risk of transitioning from experimenter to current smoker were alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 3.28; high/regular, OR = 2.16, illicit drug use (OR = 3.61, and having a friend who smokes (OR = 7.20. CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking was associated with a profile of socioeconomic correlates different from that associated with experimentation only. Our data (showing that current smoking was associated with having a friend who smokes, alcohol intake, and illicit drug use suggest the need for comprehensive approaches to discourage substance use during adolescence.

  11. Toxicity Assessment of Refill Liquids for Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Varlet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 42 models from 14 brands of refill liquids for e-cigarettes for the presence of micro-organisms, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and solvents. All the liquids under scrutiny complied with norms for the absence of yeast, mold, aerobic microbes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol and ethanol were detected, but remained within limits authorized for food and pharmaceutical products. Terpenic compounds and aldehydes were found in the products, in particular formaldehyde and acrolein. No sample contained nitrosamines at levels above the limit of detection (1 μg/g. Residual solvents such as 1,3-butadiene, cyclohexane and acetone, to name a few, were found in some products. None of the products under scrutiny were totally exempt of potentially toxic compounds. However, for products other than nicotine, the oral acute toxicity of the e-liquids tested seems to be of minor concern. However, a minority of liquids, especially those with flavorings, showed particularly high ranges of chemicals, causing concerns about their potential toxicity in case of chronic oral exposure.

  12. Toxicity assessment of refill liquids for electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Vincent; Farsalinos, Konstantinos; Augsburger, Marc; Thomas, Aurélien; Etter, Jean-François

    2015-04-30

    We analyzed 42 models from 14 brands of refill liquids for e-cigarettes for the presence of micro-organisms, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and solvents. All the liquids under scrutiny complied with norms for the absence of yeast, mold, aerobic microbes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol and ethanol were detected, but remained within limits authorized for food and pharmaceutical products. Terpenic compounds and aldehydes were found in the products, in particular formaldehyde and acrolein. No sample contained nitrosamines at levels above the limit of detection (1 μg/g). Residual solvents such as 1,3-butadiene, cyclohexane and acetone, to name a few, were found in some products. None of the products under scrutiny were totally exempt of potentially toxic compounds. However, for products other than nicotine, the oral acute toxicity of the e-liquids tested seems to be of minor concern. However, a minority of liquids, especially those with flavorings, showed particularly high ranges of chemicals, causing concerns about their potential toxicity in case of chronic oral exposure.

  13. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  14. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes Part 5: mechanistic investigations, inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Van Overveld, F J; Berges, A; Pype, J; Weiler, H; Vanscheeuwijck, P; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    The biological effects of mainstream smoke (MS) from Indonesian-blended cigarettes with and without added cloves, cloves extracted with hot ethanol, and extracted cloves replenished with eugenol or clove oil were assessed in a 90-day inhalation study in rats. A separate 35-day inhalation study in rats was performed with MS from American-blended cigarettes with 0%, 2.5%, 5% or 10% added eugenol. Effects commonly seen in inhalation studies with MS were observed. These included histopathological changes indicative of irritation in the entire respiratory tract and inflammatory responses in the lung. Adding cloves to American- or Indonesian-blended cigarettes reduced the inflammatory response in the lung but with no difference between the two blend types. When the clove oil was extracted (∼ 75% reduction of eugenol achieved) from cloves, the inflammatory response in the lung was still reduced similarly to whole cloves but the severity of histopathological changes in the upper respiratory tract was less reduced. Add back of clove oil or pure eugenol reduced this response to a level similar to what was seen with whole cloves. When eugenol was added to American-blended cigarettes, similar findings of reduced lung inflammation and severity of histopathological changes in respiratory the tract was confirmed. These studies demonstrate a clear effect of cloves, and in particular eugenol, in explaining these findings.

  15. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, including rs25531 with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Bagger, Yu; Tanko, Laszlo B; Christiansen, Claus; Werge, Thomas

    2009-06-05

    We addressed the question whether 5-HTTLPR, a variable number of tandem repeats located in the 5' end of the serotonin transporter gene, is associated with smoking or alcohol consumption. Samples of DNA from 1,365 elderly women with a mean age of 69.2 years were genotyped for this polymorphism using a procedure, which allowed the simultaneous determination of variation in the number of repeat units and single nucleotide changes, including the A > G variation at rs25531 for discrimination between the L(A) and L(G) alleles. Qualitative and quantitative information on the women's current and previous consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were obtained using a questionnaire. Genotypes were classified according to allele size, that is, S and L with 14 and 16 repeat units, respectively, and on a functional basis by amalgamation of the L(G) and S alleles. Data were subjected to regression analyses. These analyses revealed P values for associations between 5-HTTLPR genotype and alcohol and cigarette consumption in the range from 0.15 to 0.92. On adjustment for age and educational level, significance for the associations of 5-HTTLPR with the smoking and alcohol consumption measures was not reached. We conclude that 5-HTTLPR is not an important determinant of smoking behavior and alcohol consumption in elderly women.

  16. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Cigarette Pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cathleen C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of an adolescent with mental retardation and autism found that pica of cigarette butts was maintained in a condition with no social consequences when cigarettes contained nicotine but not when cigarettes contained herbs without nicotine. A procedure based on stimulus control, which reduced cigarette consumption to zero, is described.…

  17. Uncertainty of Energy Consumption Assessment of Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Heiselberg, Per; Simonsen, A.;

    2009-01-01

    of the uncertainty of energy consumption assessment of domestic buildings. The calculated energy consumption of a number of almost identical domestic buildings in Denmark is compared with the measured energy consumption. Furthermore, the uncertainty is determined by means of stochastic modelling based on input......In order to assess the influence of energy reduction initiatives, to determine the expected annual cost, to calculate life cycle cost, emission impact, etc. it is crucial to be able to assess the energy consumption reasonably accurate. The present work undertakes a theoretical and empirical study...... to correspond reasonably well; however, it is also found that significant differences may occur between calculated and measured energy consumption due to the spread and due to the fact that the result can only be determined with a certain probability. It is found that occupants' behaviour is the major...

  18. Study on the short-term effects of increased alcohol and cigarette consumption in healthy young men’s seminal quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Cruz, Daniel; Gomes, Mariana; Correia, Bárbara Regadas; Freitas, Maria João; Sousa, Luís; Silva, Vladimiro; Fardilha, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have reported a negative impact of lifestyle factors on testicular function, spermatozoa parameters and pituitary-gonadal axis. However, conclusions are difficult to draw, since studies in the general population are rare. In this study we intended to address the early and late short-term impact of acute lifestyle alterations on young men’s reproductive function. Thirty-six healthy male students, who attended the Portuguese academic festivities, provided semen samples and answered questionnaires at three time-points. The consumption of alcohol and cigarette increased more than 8 and 2 times, respectively, during the academic festivities and resulted in deleterious effects on semen quality: one week after the festivities, a decrease on semen volume, spermatozoa motility and normal morphology was observed, in parallel with an increase on immotile spermatozoa, head and midpiece defects and spermatozoa oxidative stress. Additionally, three months after the academic festivities, besides the detrimental effect on volume, motility and morphology, a negative impact on spermatozoa concentration was observed, along with a decrease on epididymal, seminal vesicles and prostate function. This study contributed to understanding the pathophysiology underlying semen quality degradation induced by acute lifestyle alterations, suggesting that high alcohol and cigarette consumption are associated with decreased semen quality in healthy young men. PMID:28367956

  19. Assessing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousaleh, Mustafa M.

    Mobile devices are increasingly becoming essential in people's lives. The advancement in technology and mobility factor are allowing users to utilize mobile devices for communication, entertainment, financial planning, fitness tracking, etc. As a result, mobile applications are also becoming important factors contributing to user utility. However, battery capacity is the limiting factor impacting the quality of user experience. Hence, it is imperative to understand how much energy impact do mobile apps have on the system relative to other device activities. This thesis presents a systematic studying of the energy impact of mobile apps features. Time-series electrical current measurements are collected from 4 different modern smartphones. Statistical analysis methodologies are used to calculate the energy impact of each app feature by identifying and extracting mobile app-feature events from the overall current signal. In addition, the app overhead energy costs are also computed. Total energy consumption equations for each component is developed and an overall total energy consumption equation is presented. Minutes Lost (ML) of normal phone operations due to the energy consumption of the mobile app functionality is computed for cases where the mobile app is simulated to run on the various devices for 30 minutes. Tutela Technologies Inc. mobile app, NAT, is used for this study. NAT has two main features: QoS and Throughput. The impact of the QoS feature is indistinguishable, i.e. ML is zero, relative to other phone activities. The ML with only the TP feature enabled is on average 2.1 minutes. Enabling the GPS increases the ML on average to 11.5 minutes. Displaying the app GUI interface in addition to running the app features and enabling the GPS results in an average ML of 12.4 minutes. Amongst the various mobile app features and components studied, the GPS consumes the highest amount of energy. It is estimated that the GPS increases the ML by about 448%.

  20. A Risk Assessment Matrix for Public Health Principles: The Case for E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, Daniela; Chowdhury, Azim; Ferro, Giancarlo Antonio; Nalis, Federico Giuseppe; Polosa, Riccardo

    2017-03-31

    Besides nicotine replacement therapies, a realistic alternative for smoking cessation or for smoking substitution may come from electronic cigarettes (ECs), whose popularity has been steadily growing. As for any emerging behaviour associated with exposure to inhalational agents, there is legitimate cause for concern and many health organizations and policy makers have pushed for restrictive policy measures ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products. Nonetheless, it is important to reframe these concerns in context of the well-known harm caused by cigarette smoking. In this article, we discuss key public health principles that should be considered when regulating ECs. These include the concept of tobacco harm reduction, importance of relative risk and risk continuum, renormalization of smoking, availability of low-risk product, proportionate taxation, and reassessment of the role of non-tobacco flavours. These public health principles may be systematically scrutinized using a risk assessment matrix that allows: (1) to determine the measure of certainty that a risk will occur; and (2) to estimate the impact of such a risk on public health. Consequently, the ultimate goal of responsible ECs regulation should be that of maximizing the favourable impact of these reduced-risk products whilst minimizing further any potential risks. Consumer perspectives, sound EC research, continuous post-marketing surveillance and reasonable safety and quality product standards should be at the very heart of future regulatory schemes that will address concerns while minimizing unintended consequences of ill-informed regulation.

  1. A Case-Control Study of the Protective Effect of Alcohol, Coffee, and Cigarette Consumption on Parkinson Disease Risk : Time-Since-Cessation Modifies the Effect of Tobacco Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Nijssen, Peter C. G.; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Huss, Anke; Mulleners, Wim M.; Sas, Antonetta M. G.; van Laar, Teus; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible reduced risk of Parkinson Disease (PD) due to coffee, alcohol, and/or cigarette consumption. In addition, we explored the potential effect modification by intensity, duration and time-since-cessation of smoking on the association between cumulati

  2. Evaluation of Electronic Cigarette Use (Vaping Topography and Estimation of Liquid Consumption: Implications for Research Protocol Standards Definition and for Public Health Authorities’ Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatis Kyrzopoulos

    2013-06-01

    nicotine delivery by tobacco cigarettes, it seems that liquids with even higher than 24 mg/mL nicotine concentration would be comparable to one tobacco cigarette. Conclusions: EC use topography is significantly different compared to smoking. Four-second puffs with 20–30 s interpuff interval should be used when assessing EC effects in laboratory experiments, provided that the equipment used does not get overheated. Based on the characteristics of the device used in this study, a 20 mg/mL nicotine concentration liquid would be needed in order to deliver nicotine at amounts similar to the maximum allowable content of one tobacco cigarette (as measured by the ISO 3308 method. The results of this study do not support the statement of the European Commission Tobacco Product Directive that liquids with nicotine concentration of 4 mg/mL are comparable to NRTs in the amount of nicotine delivered to the user.

  3. Uncertainty of Energy Consumption Assessment of Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Heiselberg, Per; Simonsen, A.;

    2009-01-01

    of the uncertainty of energy consumption assessment of domestic buildings. The calculated energy consumption of a number of almost identical domestic buildings in Denmark is compared with the measured energy consumption. Furthermore, the uncertainty is determined by means of stochastic modelling based on input...... distributions found by literature study, industry guidelines, measurements and - when necessary - simple assumptions. A number of parameters are investigated and ranked in terms of importance to determine which ones contribute the most to the overall level of uncertainty. Measurements and simulations are found...... to correspond reasonably well; however, it is also found that significant differences may occur between calculated and measured energy consumption due to the spread and due to the fact that the result can only be determined with a certain probability. It is found that occupants' behaviour is the major...

  4. Assessing the Feasibility of Using Contingency Management to Modify Cigarette Smoking by Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Many smokers initiate this dangerous behavior during adolescence. This report describes a contingency management intervention designed to initate and maintain a period of abstinence from cigarettes by adolescent smokers. Results suggest that the intervention was…

  5. A Pilot Study to Assess Solanesol Levels in Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results obtained during the measurement of the level of solanesol in exhaled cigarette smoke from human subjects. The study was performed with three different cigarettes with U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC ‘tar’ values of 5.0 mg, 10.6 mg, and 16.2 mg. The number of human subjects was ten smokers for each of the evaluated products, each subject smoking three cigarettes within one hour. The exhaled smoke was collected using a vacuum assisted procedure that avoids strain in exhaling, and the solanesol was analyzed using an original high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC technique. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and also analyzed for solanesol. The results obtained for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of solanesol delivered to the smoker, based on calibration curves. These curves were generated separately by analyzing the solanesol in smoke and in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. Knowing the levels of solanesol delivered to the smoker and the exhaled levels it was possible to calculate the retention and retention % of this compound from mainstream smoke for different cigarettes types. The amount of retained solanesol is the lowest for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ product, and the highest for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product, although there is not much difference between the 10.6 mg ‘tar’ product and the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product. For the 10.6 mg ‘tar’ cigarettes the retention % was between 60% and 72%, for the 5.0 mg product the retention % was slightly lower ranging between 53% and 70%, while for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product, the retention % was slightly higher ranging between 62% and 82%.

  6. Cigarette butt decomposition and associated chemical changes assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; Cesarano, Gaspare; Gaglione, Salvatore A; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette butts (CBs) are the most common type of litter on earth, with an estimated 4.5 trillion discarded annually. Apart from being unsightly, CBs pose a serious threat to living organisms and ecosystem health when discarded in the environment because they are toxic to microbes, insects, fish and mammals. In spite of the CB toxic hazard, no studies have addressed the effects of environmental conditions on CB decomposition rate. In this study we investigate the interactive effects of substrate fertility and N transfer dynamics on CB decomposition rate and carbon quality changes. We carried out an experiment using smoked CBs and wood sticks, used as a slow decomposing standard organic substrate, incubated in both laboratory and field conditions for two years. CB carbon quality changes during decomposition was assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR. Our experiment confirmed the low degradation rate of CBs which, on average, lost only 37.8% of their initial mass after two years of decomposition. Although a net N transfer occurred from soil to CBs, contrary to our hypothesis, mass loss in the medium-term (two years) was unaffected by N availability in the surrounding substrate. The opposite held for wood sticks, in agreement with the model that N-rich substrates promote the decomposition of other N-poor natural organic materials with a high C/N ratio. As regards CB chemical quality, after two years of decomposition 13C NMR spectroscopy highlighted very small changes in C quality that are likely to reflect a limited microbial attack.

  7. Cigarette butt decomposition and associated chemical changes assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Bonanomi

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts (CBs are the most common type of litter on earth, with an estimated 4.5 trillion discarded annually. Apart from being unsightly, CBs pose a serious threat to living organisms and ecosystem health when discarded in the environment because they are toxic to microbes, insects, fish and mammals. In spite of the CB toxic hazard, no studies have addressed the effects of environmental conditions on CB decomposition rate. In this study we investigate the interactive effects of substrate fertility and N transfer dynamics on CB decomposition rate and carbon quality changes. We carried out an experiment using smoked CBs and wood sticks, used as a slow decomposing standard organic substrate, incubated in both laboratory and field conditions for two years. CB carbon quality changes during decomposition was assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR. Our experiment confirmed the low degradation rate of CBs which, on average, lost only 37.8% of their initial mass after two years of decomposition. Although a net N transfer occurred from soil to CBs, contrary to our hypothesis, mass loss in the medium-term (two years was unaffected by N availability in the surrounding substrate. The opposite held for wood sticks, in agreement with the model that N-rich substrates promote the decomposition of other N-poor natural organic materials with a high C/N ratio. As regards CB chemical quality, after two years of decomposition 13C NMR spectroscopy highlighted very small changes in C quality that are likely to reflect a limited microbial attack.

  8. Consumption Type Classification of Cigarette Market in Shandong Province Based on Urban Agglomeration Theory%基于城市群理论的山东卷烟市场消费类型划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席鹏飞; 马君红; 卢迪; 李成斌; 李玲

    2014-01-01

    为研究区域因素对卷烟消费行为的影响,对山东省17个地市级卷烟市场随机抽取的消费者样本进行了问卷调查,并对2011年山东省各地市级商业公司的卷烟销量数据进行了统计分析。结果表明:济南、淄博、潍坊、东营、烟台、青岛、威海、日照的卷烟消费水平相对较高。烟台、济南等地的消费者对非地产烟的接受程度相对较高,东营、潍坊等地的消费者则更倾向于购买地产烟;枣庄地区的消费者对卷烟品牌知名度的关注程度相对较高,其它地区更关注产品价格;除临沂、济宁和泰安三地外,山东省的卷烟消费者对卷烟品牌的忠诚度普遍较低。%In order to investigate the influences of regional factor on cigarette consumption behavior,a questionnaire survey to random consumers of 17 prefecture-level cities of Shandong Province were conducted, and the cigarette sale data in 201 1 of prefecture -level companies were statistically analyzed.The results showed that the cigarette consumption level of Jinan,Zibo,Weifang,Dongying,Yantai,Qingdao,Weihai and Rizhao were relatively higher.The consumers of Yantai and Jinan accepted the nonlocal cigarettes more easily,but consumers of Dongying and Weifang were much more inclined to buy local cigarettes.The consum-ers of Zaozhuang paid more attention to cigarette brand than price,but the other regions were generally the op-posite.The loyalty of consumers to cigarette brand in Shandong Province was generally lower except Linyi,Ji-ning and Taian.

  9. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Meernik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121 to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62% completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  10. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-12-29

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  11. Alcohol, tabaco y deterioro cognoscitivo en adultos mexicanos mayores de 65 años Cognitive impairment and alcohol and cigarette consumption in Mexican adults older than 65 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gloria Aguilar-Navarro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la prevalencia del consumo de alcohol y tabaco y su asociación con deterioro cognoscitivo en la población mexicana mayor de 65 años. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 4 872 mayores de 65 años en la muestra del Estudio Nacional sobre Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM 2001. Se interrogó sobre el consumo de alcohol y tabaco. Para la clasificación de los sujetos con deterioro cognoscitivo, se utilizó la escala total de los diferentes dominios cognoscitivos. Se aplicaron ji cuadrada, Mann Whitney U y regresión logística para encontrar asociaciones. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de alcoholismo según CAGE fue de 2.8% y la del consumo de tabaco de 14 por ciento. Factores asociados con el consumo de alcohol: edad 65-69 años (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the consumption of alcohol and cigarette smoking and their association with cognitive impairment among older Mexican adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 4 872 people over 65 years of age included in the sample of the National Mexican Health and Aging Study carried out in 2001 were questioned about their consumption of alcohol and cigarette smoking. For the classification of those subjects with cognitive impairment, the total scale of the different cognitive domains was used. The chi-square, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistical regression were used in order to find associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of alcoholism according to CAGE was 2.8% and the prevalence of the consumption of cigarette smoking was 14%. Factors associated with the consumption of alcohol were:age 65-69 (p <0.001, men (RR 3.17,p <0.001, and high level of education (p <0.001. The association between the consumption of alcohol and cognitive impairment (X2=6.59, p <0.01 was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of consumption of alcohol and cigarette smoking in older Mexican adults are similar to that reported in other countries; the consumption of alcohol and its

  12. A Critical Assessment of Recent Work on the Application of Gas/Particle Partitioning Theories to Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauterbach JH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the August 1997 issue of Environmental Science&Technology (ES&T, PANKOW and co-workers at the Oregon Graduate Institute reported that the addition of ammonia-containing additives to cigarette tobacco increased the amount of unprotonated nicotine in cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS and thus increased the bioavailability of nicotine to the smoker. Articles about PANKOW's work also appeared in other publications along with allegations that ammonia-containing additives are used to manipulate nicotine deliveries. However, initial review of PANKOW's research and that reported on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in an earlier paper showed that potentially serious issues existed with PANKOW's experimental data and conclusions. Consequently, a critical assessment of PANKOW's research and the underlying theories of gas/particle partitioning was undertaken. This assessment confirmed that PANKOW and his co-workers made a number of errors not only in their determinations of the gas/particle partitioning coefficients for nicotine in MSS and ETS but also in the interpretations of the data. During the preparation of this assessment, data from other researchers became public. These data showed that there was no correlation between tobacco ammonia (including residual ammonia from the use of ammonia-containing additives and MSS ammonia deliveries and MSS smoke pH, and that the amount of unprotonated nicotine in the undiluted MSS of a full flavor (FF American filter cigarette was less than 0.1%. These new data fully substantiated the findings of this assessment, and it can be safely concluded that the assertions made by PANKOW and his co-workers were incorrect. However, this assessment also showed that there is significant merit in the application of PANKOW's theory of absorptive partitioning for the estimation of the gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile components in MSS and ETS. Application of PANKOW's theory along with data from recent tobacco related

  13. Assessing the Effect of Simultaneous Exposure to Noise and Cigarette Smoke on Workers’ Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Farzane; Rafiei Manesh, Ehsan; Jarahi, Lida; Eghbali, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Noise, as the most common pollutant in the industrial environment, can lead to hearing loss and negatively affect other organs such as the cardiovascular system. Cigarette smoking is a popular habit among some workers, and can also have a negative effect on the cardiovascular system. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous exposure to noise and cigarette smoke on the blood pressure of workers at a manufacturing factory. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 604 workers at a steel factory. Information relating to workers’ demography, employment, and risk factors were recorded. Based on the level of smoking per day, workers exposed to noise fell into one of the four following groups: 1) Non-smokers exposed to noise <85 DB; 2) Smokers exposed to noise <85 DB; 3) Non-smokers exposed to noise ≥85 DB; 4) Smokers exposed to noise ≥85 DB. A t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and logistic regression were applied for analysis using SPSS v11.5. Results: The prevalence of hypertension, cigarette smoking, and exposure to noise ≥85 DB was 11.6%, 15.3%, and 56.4%, respectively, among the workers. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 112.3 and 73.9 mmHg, respectively. A significant difference was observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressures in four groups (P=0.001). Posthoc test showed a significant difference between groups 1 and 3 (P=0.001). Regression analysis indicated no significant difference in workers who were simultaneously exposed to noise and cigarette smoke. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that noise is an important factor in terms of hypertension, with no significant differences observed in the prevalence of hypertension between workers who were simultaneously exposed to noise and cigarette smoke. It is suggested that workers’ blood pressure should be regularly monitored in noisy environments. PMID:28008392

  14. Nonfilter and filter cigarette consumption and the incidence of lung cancer by histological type in Japan and the United States: analysis of 30-year data from population-based cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidemi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tanaka, Hideo; Koestler, Devin C; Ombao, Hernando; Fulton, John; Shibata, Akiko; Fujita, Manabu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Soda, Midori; Sobue, Tomotaka; Mor, Vincent

    2011-04-15

    Shifts in the histologic type of lung cancer accompanying changes in lung cancer incidence have been observed in Japan and the United States. We examined the association between the shift in tobacco design from nonfilter to filter cigarettes with changes in the incidence of adenocarcinoma (AD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SQ) of the lung. We compiled population-based incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results in the United States (1973-2005) and from selected Japanese cancer registries (1975-2003). Trends in age-standardized rates of lung cancer incidence by histologic type were characterized using joinpoint analyses. A multiple regression framework was used to examine the relationship between tobacco use and incidence by histologic type. We observed that AD has replaced SQ as the most frequent histologic type in males and females in both Japan and the United States. Filter cigarette consumption was positively associated with the incidence of AD, with time lags of 25 and 15 years in Japan and the United States, respectively ( beta(2)(AD)): 1.946 × 10(-3) , p consumption was positively associated with the incidence of SQ, with time lags of 30 and 20 years in Japan and the United States, respectively (beta (SQ)(2) ): 0.464 × 10(-3) , p = 0.006 and 0.364 × 10(-3) , p = 0.008). In conclusion, the shift from nonfilter to filter cigarettes appears to have merely altered the most frequent type of lung cancer, from SQ to AD.

  15. Public opinion regarding earmarked cigarette tax in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chung-Lin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette taxation has been perceived by academics and policy-makers as one of the most effective ways of reducing the use of cigarettes. On January 1 2002, the Taiwan government imposed a New Taiwan (NT $5 per pack tax earmarked for the purpose of tobacco control. This study uses a survey collected prior to taxation to assess public attitudes toward cigarette taxation, public beliefs about the effectiveness of cigarette taxation at reducing cigarette use and public opinions about the allocation of this tax revenue. Methods Data were drawn from a national face-to-face interview on cigarette consumption in 2000. A total of 3,279 adults were aged 18 to 64 years; 49.9% of whom were male and 50.1% female, and with a smoking prevalence of 49.1% and 4.1%, respectively. The attitudes toward cigarette tax were analysed using multi-logit regressions. We analysed by logistic regression the potential changes in smoking behaviour that smokers might make in response to the five NT (New Taiwan dollar earmarked tax on cigarettes per pack. We summarized public opinions about the allocation of earmarked tax revenue using descriptive statistics. Results Current smokers (OR = 0.34 and former smokers (OR = 0.68 were less likely to support the cigarette tax than non-smokers. A favourable attitude toward the tax was positively associated with personal monthly income, especially among females. Among male smokers, the possibility of reducing/quitting smoking in response to the five-NT-dollar tax was negatively associated with the monthly expense for smoking. The two most frequently-suggested areas to receive money from the revenue collected from the earmarked tax were health education and cancer subsidy. Conclusions Smoking status and economic factors determine the attitude and potential responses of people toward the cigarette tax. Taiwan's five NT-dollar earmarked tax for cigarettes may have only a limited effect upon the reduction in cigarette

  16. 农村卷烟消费市场价值共创的影响因素及对策研究%The Research on Influence Factors and Countermeasures of Rural Cigarette Consumption Value Co-creation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维华

    2015-01-01

    卷烟是一种特殊的产品,顾客在消费过程中表现出个性化、情境化等特点,以顾客为中心的工商零与顾客共同创造价值的共创营销是一种有效的新理念和新方式。首先,本研究以 D 市为例分析了农村卷烟消费市场的消费容量、销售现状、个体消费和集体消费特点。其次,从宏观(政治法律、经济、社会文化)和微观(工业企业卷烟供应能力、卷烟商业企业的营销能力、卷烟零售客户的经营能力)两个视角探讨了农村卷烟消费市场价值共创的影响因素。最后,从卷烟工业企业、商业企业、零售客户三个层面提出了实施价值共创的对策建议。%Cigarette is a special kind of product,and in the process of consumption,customer shows up personalized and contextualized characteristics,so value co-creation marketing is an effective new ideas and new ways. First, this study analyzes the rural cigarette consumption market,such as consumption capacity,the sales situation,individual and collective consumption characteristics .Second,from the perspective of macro and micro,the study explores the influence factors of value co-creation on rural cigarette consumption market,finally,the suggestions on implementating value co-creation are puted forward from three aspects(cigarette industrial enterprises,commercial enterprises and retail customers).

  17. 卷烟生产能耗技术经济分析方法及应用%Techno-economical Analysis Method of Energy Consumption in Cigarette Production and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫亚明; 鲁端峰; 常纪恒; 刘晓萍

    2013-01-01

    为挖掘卷烟企业的节能潜力,采用基于实物量投入产出分析的卷烟生产能源消耗技术经济分析方法,分析了三家卷烟企业不同层级能源消耗.结果表明:①能源种类、地域气候条件对企业综合能耗影响较大;②主要生产系统、辅助生产系统能耗占总能耗比重高达90%以上.其中,制丝能耗占主要生产系统能耗的78%~94%,锅炉房和空调能耗占辅助生产系统能耗的90%;③单位产量膨胀烟丝能耗约是单位产量叶丝、梗丝的5倍.选择高效锅炉、空调设备,提高设备运行效率,是卷烟企业节能的关键.%For tapping the potential in energy conservation in cigarette production,a techno-economical analysis method of the energy consumption based on material quantity input-output analysis was proposed,and the energy consumptions of three cigarette enterprises were analyzed at different levels.The results showed that:1)The major factors affecting the comprehensive energy consumption of the enterprises were energy type and regional climatic conditions.2) Main production system and auxiliary production systems accounted for more than 90% in total energy consumption,primary processing line accounted for 78%-94% of the energy consumption of main production system,and boilers and air conditioners accounted for 90% of that of auxiliary production system.3) The energy consumption per unit output of expanded cut tobacco was 5 times the consumption of cut stem or cut tobacco.It was concluded that using high efficiency boiler and air-conditioning system,and improving the working efficiency of equipments were the key points for energy saving in cigarette enterprises.

  18. Development of a Rapid Cell-free Method for Cytotoxicity Assessment of Vapor Phase of Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours X

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, several in vitro tests are widely used to measure toxicological properties of mainstream smoke (Neutral Red Uptake Assay, Micronucleus assay, Ames Test. These tests are necessary to assess cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity, but are time consuming. This is essentially due to the preparation and the handling of cells. It is difficult to use these in vitro tests as screening method for product testing and development. For a better assessment of the cytotoxicity of the vapor phase, a rapid cell-free method has been developed. This paper describes a capillary electrophoresis cell-free method, based on the depletion of an anti-oxidant L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (GSH, applied to an aliquot of vapor phase phosphate buffered saline (PBS-trapped cigarette smoke (as recommended for in vitro testing. The correlation between this method and the survival/viability test (Neutral Red cytotoxicity is excellent (coefficient of correlation (r = 0.99.

  19. Latent factor structure of a behavioral economic cigarette demand curve in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L Cinnamon; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G; Tidey, Jennifer W; Colby, Suzanne M

    2012-11-01

    Behavioral economic demand curves, or quantitative representations of drug consumption across a range of prices, have been used to assess motivation for a variety of drugs. Such curves generate multiple measures of drug demand that are associated with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. However, little is known about the relationships among these facets of demand. The aim of the study was to quantify these relationships in adolescent smokers by using exploratory factor analysis to examine the underlying structure of the facets of nicotine incentive value generated from a demand curve measure. Participants were 138 adolescent smokers who completed a hypothetical cigarette purchase task, which assessed estimated cigarette consumption at escalating levels of price/cigarette. Demand curves and five facets of demand were generated from the measure: Elasticity (i.e., 1/α or proportionate price sensitivity); Intensity (i.e., consumption at zero price); O(max) (i.e., maximum financial expenditure on cigarettes); P(max) (i.e., price at which expenditure is maximized); and Breakpoint (i.e., the price that suppresses consumption to zero). Principal components analysis was used to examine the latent structure among the variables. The results revealed a two-factor solution, which were interpreted as "Persistence," reflecting insensitivity to escalating price, and "Amplitude," reflecting the absolute levels of consumption and price. These findings suggest a two factor structure of nicotine incentive value as measured via a demand curve. If supported, these findings have implications for understanding the relationships among individual demand indices in future behavioral economic studies and may further contribute to understanding of the nature of cigarette reinforcement.

  20. Cigarette-by-cigarette satisfaction during ad libitum smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2009-05-01

    Smoking is thought to produce immediate reinforcement, and subjective satisfaction with smoking is thought to influence subsequent smoking. The authors used ecological momentary assessment (A. A. Stone & S. Shiffman, 1994) to assess cigarette-by-cigarette smoking satisfaction in 394 heavy smokers who subsequently attempted to quit. Across 14,882 cigarettes rated, satisfaction averaged 7.06 (0-10 scale), but with considerable variation across cigarettes and individuals. Women and African American smokers reported higher satisfaction. More satisfied smokers were more likely to lapse after quitting (HR = 1.1, p < .03), whereas less satisfied smokers derived greater benefit from patch treatment to help them achieve abstinence (HR = 1.23, p < .001). Cigarettes smoked in positive moods were more satisfying, correcting for mood at the time of rating. The best predictor of subsequent smoking satisfaction was the intensity of craving prior to smoking. Understanding subjective smoking satisfaction provides insight into sources of reinforcement for smoking.

  1. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve

  2. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  3. Non-cigarette tobacco and the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schivo, Michael; Avdalovic, Mark V; Murin, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for "safer" alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use.

  4. Assessing summertime urban air conditioning consumption in a semiarid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, F.; Georgescu, M.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.; Wang, M.; Svoma, B. M.

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation of built environment energy demand is necessary in light of global projections of urban expansion. Of particular concern are rapidly expanding urban areas in environments where consumption requirements for cooling are excessive. Here, we simulate urban air conditioning (AC) electric consumption for several extreme heat events during summertime over a semiarid metropolitan area with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to a multilayer building energy scheme. Observed total load values obtained from an electric utility company were split into two parts, one linked to meteorology (i.e., AC consumption) which was compared to WRF simulations, and another to human behavior. WRF-simulated non-dimensional AC consumption profiles compared favorably to diurnal observations in terms of both amplitude and timing. The hourly ratio of AC to total electricity consumption accounted for ˜53% of diurnally averaged total electric demand, ranging from ˜35% during early morning to ˜65% during evening hours. Our work highlights the importance of modeling AC electricity consumption and its role for the sustainable planning of future urban energy needs. Finally, the methodology presented in this article establishes a new energy consumption-modeling framework that can be applied to any urban environment where the use of AC systems is prevalent.

  5. Are Metals Emitted from Electronic Cigarettes a Reason for Health Concern? A Risk-Assessment Analysis of Currently Available Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have found that metals are emitted to the electronic cigarette (EC aerosol. However, the potential health impact of exposure to such metals has not been adequately defined. The purpose of this study was to perform a risk assessment analysis, evaluating the exposure of electronic cigarette (EC users to metal emissions based on findings from the published literature. Methods: Two studies were found in the literature, measuring metals emitted to the aerosol from 13 EC products. We estimated that users take on average 600 EC puffs per day, but we evaluated the daily exposure from 1200 puffs. Estimates of exposure were compared with the chronic Permissible Daily Exposure (PDE from inhalational medications defined by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the Minimal Risk Level (MRL defined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (manganese and the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (aluminum, barium, iron, tin, titanium, zinc and zirconium. Results: The average daily exposure from 13 EC products was 2.6 to 387 times lower than the safety cut-off point of PDEs, 325 times lower than the safety limit of MRL and 665 to 77,514 times lower than the safety cut-off point of RELs. Only one of the 13 products was found to result in exposure 10% higher than PDE for one metal (cadmium at the extreme daily use of 1200 puffs. Significant differences in emissions between products were observed. Conclusions: Based on currently available data, overall exposure to metals from EC use is not expected to be of significant health concern for smokers switching to EC use, but is an unnecessary source of exposure for never-smokers. Metal analysis should be expanded to more products and exposure can be further reduced through improvements in product quality and appropriate choice of materials.

  6. Comparison of assessment methods for self-reported alcohol consumption in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Christensen, K;

    2008-01-01

    To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking.......To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking....

  7. Consumption patterns and biomarkers of exposure in cigarette smokers switched to Snus, various dissolvable tobacco products, Dual use, or tobacco abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautter, George R; Chen, Peter X; Borgerding, Michael F

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this clinical study were to evaluate changes in tobacco product use behavior and levels of selected biomarkers of exposure (BOEs) for smokers who switched to one of six conditions during clinical confinement: exclusive use of; Camel Snus, Sticks, Strips or Orbs, controlled Dual use of cigarettes and Camel Snus, or tobacco abstinence. The controlled Dual use (DU) condition mandated a 60% reduction in cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). 167 healthy U.S. male and female smokers were randomized to the six groups (n=25-30/group). Subjects smoked their usual brand of cigarette for 1 day prior to switching to their designated intervention condition. Levels of thirty-two BOEs in plasma, whole blood, urine and feces were determined before and after switching. Questionnaires that scored nicotine dependence and withdrawal discomfort were also administered. After 5 days, exclusive Snus, Sticks, Strips, or Orbs use averaged 6.1, 5.9, 13.5, and 8.5 units/day, respectively. DU subjects smoked 7.6 CPD and used 3.2 Snus pouches/day, on average. After 5 days, substantial reductions of most biomarkers, including nicotine, were observed in all groups. Toxicant exposures were similar to being tobacco abstinent after switching exclusively to Camel Snus, Sticks, Strips or Orbs. DU reductions were more modest.

  8. Electronic cigarettes. Potential harms and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M Bradley; Upson, Dona

    2014-02-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes, devices that deliver a nicotine-containing vapor, has increased rapidly across the country and globally. Perceived and marketed as a "healthier alternative" to conventional cigarettes, few data exist regarding the safety of these devices and their efficacy in harm reduction and treatment of tobacco dependence; even less is known about their overall impact on population health. This review highlights the recent data regarding electronic cigarette toxicity, impact on lung function, and efficacy in smoking reduction and cessation. Studies show that the vapor generated from electronic cigarettes has variable amounts of nicotine and potential harmful toxins, albeit at levels lower than in conventional cigarettes. The long-term carcinogenic and lung function effects of electronic cigarettes are not known. Although some data demonstrate that electronic cigarettes may be effective in reducing conventional cigarette consumption, there are no data demonstrating the efficacy of electronic cigarettes as a tool to achieve cessation. Until robust longitudinal evaluations demonstrate the safety of electronic cigarettes and efficacy in treatment of tobacco dependence, their role as a harm reduction tool is unclear.

  9. Demand analysis of tobacco consumption in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hana; Al-Sadat, Nabilla A M

    2007-11-01

    We estimated the price and income elasticity of cigarette demand and the impact of cigarette taxes on cigarette demand and cigarette tax revenue in Malaysia. The data on cigarette consumption, cigarette prices, and public policies between 1990 and 2004 were subjected to a time-series regression analysis applying the error-correction model. The preferred cigarette demand model specification resulted in long-run and short-run price elasticities estimates of -0.57 and -0.08, respectively. Income was positively related to cigarette consumption: A 1% increase in real income increased cigarette consumption by 1.46%. The model predicted that an increase in cigarette excise tax from Malaysian ringgit (RM) 1.60 to RM2.00 per pack would reduce cigarette consumption in Malaysia by 3.37%, or by 806,468,873 cigarettes. This reduction would translate to almost 165 fewer tobacco-related lung cancer deaths per year and a 20.8% increase in the government excise tax revenue. We conclude that taxation is an effective method of reducing cigarette consumption and tobacco-related deaths while increasing revenue for the government of Malaysia.

  10. Gray comprehensive assessment and optimal selection of water consumption forecasting model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessing method based on the principle of the gray system theory and gray relational grade analysis was put forward to optimize water consumption forecasting models. The method provides a better accuracy for the assessment and the optimal selection of the water consumption forecasting models. The results show that the forecasting model built on this comprehensive assessing method presents better self-adaptability and accuracy in forecasting.

  11. An investigation on the assessed thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2010-01-01

    -environment research has been explored in the present work. The relationship of subjectively assessed thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to the calculated human-body exergy consumption has been analysed. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate was related...

  12. Assessment of mercury intake associated with fish consumption in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Janković, Saša; Antonijević, Biljana; Ćurčić, Marijana; Radičević, Tatjana; Stefanović, Srđan; Nikolić, Dragica; Ćupić, Vitomir

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional benefits of fish can be attributed primarily to the content of high-quality proteins, vitamins, elements and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. On the other hand, fish and fishery products are susceptible to contamination by chemicals that have been recognized as ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as toxic elements and polychlorinated organic compounds. Fish consumption could be therefore considered as one of the major sources of human exposure to all above-mentioned envir...

  13. Radioactivity of cigarettes and the importance of (210)Po and thorium isotopes for radiation dose assessment due to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubalek, Davor; Serša, Gregor; Štrok, Marko; Benedik, Ljudmila; Jeran, Zvonka

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco and tobacco smoke are very complex mixtures. In addition to various chemical and organic compounds they also contain natural radioactive elements (radionuclides). In this work, the natural radionuclide activity concentrations ((234)U, (238)U, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po) of nine different cigarette samples available on the Slovenian market are reported. In addition to (210)Po, the transfer of thorium isotopes from a cigarette to a smoker's body and lungs have been determined for the first time. Cigarette smoke and exhaled air from smokers' lungs were collected from volunteer smokers (C-4 brand) to determinate what quantity of (210)Po and thorium isotopes is transferred from the tobacco to the smoker's lungs. Cigarette ash and smoked filters were also collected and analysed. Among the determined isotopes, (210)Pb and (210)Po showed the highest activity concentrations. During the smoking of one cigarette approximately 22% of (210)Po (and presumably its predecessor (210)Pb), 0.6% of (228)Th, 24% of (230)Th, and 31% of (232)Th are transferred from the cigarette and retained in the smoker's body. The estimated annual effective dose for smokers is 61 μSv/year from (210)Po; 9 μSv/year from (210)Pb; 6 μSv/year from (228)Th; 47 μSv/year from (230)Th, and 37 μSv/year from (232)Th. These results show the importance of thorium isotopes in contributing to the annual effective dose for smoking.

  14. Evaluating nicotine dependence levels in e-cigarette users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Roz, Alba; Secades Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-01-11

    Despite the fact that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly growing in popularity and use worldwide, there is scarce scientific data on abuse liability among e-cigarette users, and about whether e-cigarette use is related to nicotine dependence or not. The aim of this study is to explore nicotine dependence levels in a sample of experienced e-cigarette users (n= 39) and to compare them with current tobacco cigarette smokers (n=42). We conducted several face-to-face interviews in order to assess sociodemographic and dependence related characteristics in both e-cigarette users and in smokers. Adapted versions of both the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and the nicotine dependence syndrome scale (NDSS) were used to analyze nicotine dependence in each of the groups. Biochemical markers of carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine analysis were also collected. Results showed that e-cigarette users scored lower than cigarette smokers in both FTND and all NDSS subscales. Our findings extend previous research on e-cigarette use and nicotine addiction and suggest that e-cigarette users are less dependent on nicotine than current tobacco cigarette smokers. Further prospective studies are needed to better ascertain their addictiveness potential, comparing those smokers who switched to e-cigarettes from smoking cigarettes, and those who had never been tobacco cigarette smokers.

  15. 76 FR 15859 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Cigar and Cigarette Per Unit Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... understand the context of this notice, the full text of section 518d is available at: http://uscode.house.gov... ``unfair'' because tiny cigars generate as much assessment as very large, and expensive, cigars....

  16. An exploratory analysis of cigarette price premium, market share and consumer loyalty in relation to continued consumption versus cessation in a national US panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Cahn, Zachary; Berg, Carla J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Brand equity and consumer loyalty play a role in continued purchasing behaviour; however, this research has largely focused on non-addictive products without counter-marketing tactics. We examined the impact of brand equity (price premium, market share) and consumer loyalty (switching rates) on smoking cessation (discontinued cigarette purchases for 1 year) among smokers in a consumer panel. Methods In Spring 2015, we analysed 1077 cigarette-purchasing households in the Nielsen Homescan Panel. We analysed cessation in relation to brand equity, consumer loyalty, other purchasing behaviours (nicotine intake, frequency), sociodemographics and tobacco control activities (per state-specific data) over a 6-year period (2004–2009) using Cox proportional hazard modelling. Results The sample was 13.28% African-American; the average income was $52 334 (SD=31 445). The average price premium and market share of smokers’ dominant brands were $1.31 (SD=0.49) and 15.41% (SD=19.15), respectively. The mean brand loyalty level was 0.90 (SD=0.17), indicating high loyalty. In our final model, a higher price premium and market share were associated with lower quit rates (p=0.039); however, an interaction effect suggested that greater market share was not associated with lower cessation rates for African-American smokers (p=0.006). Consumer loyalty was not associated with cessation. Other predictors of lower quit rates included a higher nicotine intake (p=0.006) and baseline purchase frequency (pmarketing efforts in order to disrupt these relationships to promote cessation. PMID:26534732

  17. The role of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in the differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma for the males in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Heavy and long-term smoking and drinking habit might pronouncedly increase the risk of triggering OSCC. Tobacco and alcohol consumption seems to play a role in the differentiation characteristics of the tumor.

  18. Compliance assessment of cigarette and other tobacco products act in public places of Alwar district of Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M L Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Government of India has taken various initiatives for tobacco control by enacting comprehensive tobacco control legislation (Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act [COTPA], 2003. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the level of compliance of Sections 4, 5, 6-a, and 6-b, and 7, 8, and 9 of COTPA with respect to public places, educational institutes, point of sale (PoS, and warning on packaging (COTPA in public places of Alwar District of Rajasthan. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 2014 in Alwar city and four blocks of the district. The study was done around 365 public places for observing the compliance of Section 4 of COTPA, 357 educational institutions for observing the compliance of Section 6-b of COTPA, and 357 tobacco retailers for observing the compliance of Sections 5 and 6-a of COTPA. Results: The criteria for the evaluation (the core indicators and decision criteria for a district to qualify for the "Smoke free" status include six parameters. From the total of 365 places visited, 90% places displayed the "No-smoking" signage and out of total 328 places, 99% were as per the COTPA specification. Alwar city, Ramgarh, Thanagaji, and Alwar rural block followed the compliance of Section 4. The PoS visited Alwar district displayed 93% (332 signage and all the displayed signage followed the COTPA compliance. In Alwar city, Thanagaji, Ramgarh, and Alwar rural block, the compliance of Section 6-a was above 90%. The compliance of Section 6-b was above 90% in Alwar city, Ramgarh, Thanagaji, and Alwar rural block. Ninety-three percent (332 of the PoS did not display tobacco advertisement in Alwar district, which is a positive sign of COTPA compliance. Conclusion: This finding suggest a high level of compliance of Section 4, Section 5, Section 6-a, and Section 6-b of COTPA at Alwar district.

  19. Quality Assessment of Some High Consumption Foods in Zanjan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hassanzad Azar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foods go through many changes from production to table and continuous control is necessary to maintain food safety and supply foods with good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of some foods with high consumption in Zanjan city within 5 years from 2009 to 2013. Methods: In a case-control descriptive study with an annually- controlled program within 5 years from 2009 to 2014, some food samples including pasteurized milk, vegetable oils, flour, kebab, salt, confectionary products and a special cookie called nan-chay were collected and analyzed in food control laboratory of Zanjan university of medical sciences. Results: According to national standard of Iran, of Nan-chay, salt, vegetable oils, kebab, confectionary products, and pasteurized milk samples 68.4%, 46%, 24.3%, 10.4%, 9.3%, 5% were out of national standard limits and unacceptable, respectively. All flour samples had good standard quality. Mean± sd values of pH in Nan-chay samples were 7.5 and 1.19, respectively. Mean± sd values of the degree of purity in salt samples were 98.21 and 1.75, respectively. Conclusion: Results showed that among the 7 types of collected foods in Zanjan city, the most nonstandard cases were of Nan-chay samples and the best quality was seen in flour samples.

  20. Assessing the mutagenic activities of smoke from different cigarettes in direct exposure experiments using the modified Ames Salmonella assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shinkichi; Kanemaru, Yuki; Nara, Hidenori; Erami, Kazuo; Nagata, Yasufumi

    2016-06-01

    The Ames assay is useful for evaluating the mutagenic potentials of chemicals, and it has been used to evaluate the mutagenic potential of cigarette smoke (CS). In vitro direct exposure systems have been developed to mimic CS exposure in the human respiratory tract, and the Ames assay has been used with such systems. Ames tests were performed using the Vitrocell(®) direct exposure system in this study. The mutagenic potentials of whole mainstream CS and gas/vapor phase fractions produced by conventional combustible cigarettes under two smoking regimens were compared. Salmonella Typhimurium TA98 and TA100 were used with and without metabolic activation, and the number of revertants induced by exposure to each CS was determined. The amount of smoke particles to which cells were exposed were also determined, and dose-response curves describing the relationships between exposure to smoke particles and the number of revertants induced were plotted. The slopes of linear regressions of the dose-response curves were determined, and the slope for each CS was used as a mutagenic activity index for that CS. A new heated cigarette was also tested and smoke from the heated cigarette had a lower mutagenic activity in TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation than did the conventional CS. The results indicate that the direct exposure system and the Ames test can be used to determine the mutagenic potentials of CS produced by different cigarettes under different conditions (i.e., using different Salmonella Typhimurium strains with and without metabolic activation, and using different smoking conditions).

  1. EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT) as Tobacco Cigarettes Substitute: A Prospective 12-Month Randomized Control Design Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Caponnetto; Davide Campagna; Fabio Cibella; Morjaria, Jaymin B; Massimo Caruso; Cristina Russo; Riccardo Polosa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. Users report buying them to help quit smoking, to reduce cigarette consumption, to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and to continue having a 'smoking' experience, but with reduced health risks. Research on e-cigarettes is urgently needed in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, healthcare providers and consumers are based on science. Methods ECLAT is a prospective 12-mont...

  2. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    . Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...... consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 ◦C or decreases below 22 ◦C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established....... occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...

  3. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  4. An Assessment of Indoor Air Quality before, during and after Unrestricted Use of E-Cigarettes in a Small Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant O'Connell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Airborne chemicals in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as burning fuels and cooking, construction materials and furniture, environmental tobacco smoke as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol to the pre-existing chemicals in the ambient air, an indoor air quality study was conducted to measure volatile organic compounds (including nicotine and low molecular weight carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and trace metal levels in the air before, during and after e-cigarette use in a typical small office meeting room. Measurements were compared with human Health Criteria Values, such as indoor air quality guidelines or workplace exposure limits where established, to provide a context for potential bystander exposures. In this study, the data suggest that any additional chemicals present in indoor air from the exhaled e-cigarette aerosol, are unlikely to present an air quality issue to bystanders at the levels measured when compared to the regulatory standards that are used for workplaces or general indoor air quality.

  5. 78 FR 61365 - Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... With the Consumption of Tree Nuts; Request for Comments, Scientific Data and Information; Extension of... entitled ``Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts... of the risk of human salmonellosis associated with the consumption of tree nuts. We are taking...

  6. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y., Van der Meer, T.H., 2007. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers. In: proceedings ‘First World Water Sustainability-Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition’. 25-28 November 2007, Maastricht, the

  7. Strategies to reduce electricity consumption on dairy farms : an economic and environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to assess how, and to what extent, do managerial and technology changes affect electricity consumption, associated costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dairy farms. Dairy farms in Ireland are expected to expand in the future, due to policy incentives and the abolish

  8. The consumptive water footprint of electricity and heat : A global assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Water is essential for electricity and heat production. This study assesses the consumptive water footprint (WF) of electricity and heat generation per world region in the three main stages of the production chain, i.e. fuel supply, construction and operation. We consider electricity from power plan

  9. The consumptive water footprint of electricity and heat: a global assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Water is essential for electricity and heat production. This study assesses the consumptive water footprint (WF) of electricity and heat generation per world region in the three main stages of the production chain, i.e. fuel supply, construction and operation. We consider electricity from power plan

  10. Relevant shellfish consumption data for dietary exposure assessment among high shellfish consumers, Western Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Cyndie; Nguyen, Thuan Anh; Carpentier, François-Gilles; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Parent-Massin, Dominique

    2011-04-01

    Shellfish consumption can be a major pathway of exposure to pollutants for humans. It is fundamental to know if people eat enough shellfish to cause health problems, firstly in high consumers as recreational shellfish harvesters. The objectives of this study were to investigate the types of shellfish eaten, number of meals, portion size, sources of shellfish and shellfish consumption rates among French recreational shellfish harvesters; to determine factors affecting consumption patterns and to examine the reliability of the two methods used: a Food Frequency Questionnaire and a one-month food diary. The mean consumption rates were 11.63 and 26.21 g/person/day for shellfish derived from a self-harvested source only and from all sources, respectively. Harvester consumption rates were between 6- and 15-fold higher than the general French population. The comparison between the FFQ and the food diary showed that results were reliable. Thereby, our results are relevant to assess risk due to shellfish consumption.

  11. Low-Yield Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Low-Yield Cigarettes Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... they compensate when smoking them. Smokers Who Use Low-Yield Cigarettes Many smokers consider smoking low-yield ...

  12. Designing and validating the methodology for the Internet assessment of fish consumption at a university setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika da Silva Maciel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing fish consumption is complex and involves several factors; however, the use of questionnaires in surveys and the use of the Internet as tool to collect data have been considered promising approaches. Therefore, the objective of this research was to design a data collection technique using a questionnaire to assess fish consumption by making it available on a specific home page on the Internet. A bibliographical survey or review was carried out to identify the features of the instrument, and therefore pre-tests were conducted with previous instruments, followed by the Focus Group technique. Specialists then performed an analysis and conducted an online pre-test. Multivariate data analysis was applied using the SmartPLS software. The results indicate that 1.966 participants belonging to the University of São Paulo (USP community participated in the test, and after the exclusion of some variables, a statistically significant results were obtained. The final constructs comprised consumption, quality, and general characteristics. The instrument consisted of behavioral statements in a 5-point Likert scale and multiple-choice questions. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient was 0.66 for general characteristics, 0.98 for quality, and 0.91 for consumption, which indicate good reliability of the instrument. In conclusion, the results proved that the Internet assessment is efficient. The instrument of analysis allowed us to better understand the process of buying and consuming fish in the country, and it can be used as base for further research.

  13. Environmental-Economic Assessment Of Generation, Flow And Efficiency Of Use Of Production And Consumption Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. G.; Golofastova, N. N.; Galanina, T. V.; Koroleva, T. G.; Mikhailova, Ya S.

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of environmental and economic analysis of industrial and economic activities of an enterprise to assess the generation, flow and efficiency of production and consumption waste. The purpose of research is the analysis and the development of theoretical propositions for the functioning of the system of environmental and economic indicators for the effective management of production and consumption waste in the enterprise. The analysis of the existing systems of environmental and economic indicators taking into consideration the industry characteristics and the types of negative impacts is carried out. The main result of the study is the development of the system of environmental and economic indicators of production and consumption waste, adapted to the modern requirements. The results of the study can be recommended to support the effective management decision-making concerning waste management and the establishment of appropriate infrastructure.

  14. Food Consumption and Handling Survey for Quantitative Microbiological Consumer Phase Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Jurgen; Swart, Arno

    2016-07-01

    In the consumer phase of a typical quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA), mathematical equations identify data gaps. To acquire useful data we designed a food consumption and food handling survey (2,226 respondents) for QMRA applications that is especially aimed at obtaining quantitative data. For a broad spectrum of food products, the survey covered the following topics: processing status at retail, consumer storage, preparation, and consumption. Questions were designed to facilitate distribution fitting. In the statistical analysis, special attention was given to the selection of the most adequate distribution to describe the data. Bootstrap procedures were used to describe uncertainty. The final result was a coherent quantitative consumer phase food survey and parameter estimates for food handling and consumption practices in The Netherlands, including variation over individuals and uncertainty estimates.

  15. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kan-Atireklap, Supawat [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sanguansin, Joompol [Eastern Marine Fisheries Development Center, Ban Phe, Muang, Rayong 21160 (Thailand); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Jl. Pasir Putih 1, Ancol Timur, Jakarta 11048 (Indonesia); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES), Office of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia.

  16. Establishment of a seafood index to assess the seafood consumption in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild E. Graff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seafood (fish and shellfish is an excellent source of several essential nutrients for pregnant and lactating women. A short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ that can be used to quantitatively estimate seafood consumption would be a valuable tool to assess seafood consumption in this group. Currently there is no such validated FFQ in Norway. Objective: The objective of this study was to establish and validate a seafood index from a seafood FFQ against blood biomarkers (the omega-3 index, the omega-3 HUFA score, and serum 25OH vitamin D. Design: We assessed maternal seafood consumption during the 28th gestation week in healthy Norwegian women (n=54 with a seafood FFQ. A seafood index was developed to convert ordinal frequency data from the FFQ into numerical scale data. The following blood biomarkers were used as a validation method: omega-3 index, omega-3 HUFA score, and the serum 25OH vitamin D. Results: The reported frequency of seafood as dinner and as spread was strongly correlated with the estimated frequencies of seafood as dinner and as spread. This indicated that the seafood index is a valuable tool to aggregate reported frequencies from the seafood FFQ. The seafood index composed of the frequency of seafood consumption and intake of omega-3 supplements, termed the total seafood index, correlated positively with the omega-3 index, omega-3 HUFA score, and 25OH vitamin D. Conclusion: We established and validated a seafood index from a seafood FFQ. The developed seafood index can be used when studying health effects of seafood consumption in large populations. This seafood FFQ captures seafood consumption and omega-3 supplement intake considerably well in a group of pregnant women.

  17. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, Emmanuel; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Sterz, Katharina; Scherer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile. PMID:21108560

  18. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, Emmanuel; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Sterz, Katharina; Scherer, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile.

  19. Risk assessment of excessive CO2 emission on diatom heavy metal consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengjiao; Li, Shunxing; Zheng, Fengying; Huang, Xuguang

    2016-10-01

    Diatoms are the dominant group of phytoplankton in the modern ocean, accounting for approximately 40% of oceanic primary productivity and critical foundation of coastal food web. Rising dissolution of anthropogenic CO2 in seawater may directly/indirectly cause ocean acidification and desalination. However, little is known about dietary diatom-associated changes, especially for diatom heavy metal consumption sensitivity to these processes, which is important for seafood safety and nutrition assessment. Here we show some links between ocean acidification/desalination and heavy metal consumption by Thalassiosira weissflogii. Excitingly, under desalination stress, the relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated, especially between Cu and Zn (r=0.989, total intracellular concentration) and between Zn and Cd (r=0.962, single-cell intracellular concentration). Heavy metal consumption activity in decreasing order was acidificationheavy metal uptake (or release) were controlled by environmental stress. Our findings showed that heavy metal uptake (or release) was already responded to ongoing excessive CO2 emission-driven acidification and desalination, which was important for risk assessment of climate change on diatom heavy metal consumption, food web and then seafood safety in future oceans.

  20. Evaluating Sustainability of Household Consumption Using DEA to Assess Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Line Block; Jensen, Trine Susanne; Wier, Mette

    2005-01-01

    We assess environmental performance across product types and across household types in order to evaluate environmental pressure from human activities. To so do, we combine family budget statistics, input-output tables, energy and material flow matrices, various types of emissions and environmenta...... friendly consumption pattern. Middle income families living in houses have the least environmentally friendly consumer basket, and these families constitute a high share of all families in Denmark....

  1. Evaluating sustainability of household consumption - using DEA to assess environmental performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wier, Mette; Christoffersen, Line Block; Jensen, Trine S.

    2005-01-01

    We assess environmental performance across product types and across household types in order to evaluate environmental pressure from human activities. To so do, we combine family budget statistics, input-output tables, energy and material flow matrices, various types of emissions and environmenta...... friendly consum-ption pattern. Middle income families living in houses have the least environmentally friendly consumer basket, and these families constitute a high share of all families in Denmark....

  2. Risk assessment of excessive CO{sub 2} emission on diatom heavy metal consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fengjiao; Li, Shunxing, E-mail: shunxing_li@aliyun.com; Zheng, Fengying; Huang, Xuguang

    2016-10-01

    Diatoms are the dominant group of phytoplankton in the modern ocean, accounting for approximately 40% of oceanic primary productivity and critical foundation of coastal food web. Rising dissolution of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in seawater may directly/indirectly cause ocean acidification and desalination. However, little is known about dietary diatom-associated changes, especially for diatom heavy metal consumption sensitivity to these processes, which is important for seafood safety and nutrition assessment. Here we show some links between ocean acidification/desalination and heavy metal consumption by Thalassiosira weissflogii. Excitingly, under desalination stress, the relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated, especially between Cu and Zn (r = 0.989, total intracellular concentration) and between Zn and Cd (r = 0.962, single-cell intracellular concentration). Heavy metal consumption activity in decreasing order was acidification < acidification + desalination < desalination for Zn, acidification < desalination < acidification + desalination for Cu and Cd, i.e., heavy metal uptake (or release) were controlled by environmental stress. Our findings showed that heavy metal uptake (or release) was already responded to ongoing excessive CO{sub 2} emission-driven acidification and desalination, which was important for risk assessment of climate change on diatom heavy metal consumption, food web and then seafood safety in future oceans. - Highlights: • Excessive CO{sub 2} in seawater may causes ocean acidification and desalination. • The relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated by desalination. • Significant effects of salinity on intracellular concentration of Cu and Cd • Cu and Cd in marine phytoplankton could be regulated by metal excretion. • Heavy metal consumption was affect by excessive CO{sub 2}.

  3. A novel approach to the assess biotic oxygen consumption in marine sediment communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Victor; Queiros, Ana; Widdicombe, Stephen; Stephens, Nick; Lessin, Gennadi; Krause, Stefan; Lewandowski, Joerg

    2016-04-01

    Bioturbation , the mixing of the sediment matrix by burrowing animals impacts sediment metabolism, including respiration through redistribution of particulate organics, changes in bacterial biota diversity and acitivity, as well as via burrowing fauna's own metabolism. Bioturbation, reflecting faunal activity, is also a proxy for the general sedimentary ecosystem health, and can be impacted by many of emerging marine environmental issues such as ocean acidification, warming and the occurrence of heat waves. Sedimentary oxygen consumption is often taken as a proxy for the activity of bioturbating fauna, but determining baselines can be difficult because of the confounding effects of other fauna and microbes present in sediments, as well as irnorganic processes that consume oxygen. Limitations therefore exist in current methodologies, and numerous confounding factors are hampering progress in this area. Here, we present novel method for the assessment of sediment respiration which is expected to be affected only by the biogenic oxygen consumption (namely aerobic respiration). As long as tracer reduction "immune" to inorganic oxygen consumption, so that measurements using this method can be used, alongside traditional methods, to decouple biological respiration from inorganic oxygen consumption reactions. The tracer is easily detectable, non-toxic and can be applied in systems with constant oxygen supply. The latter allow for incubation without the need to to work with unsealed experimental units, bringing procedural advantage over traditional methods. Consequently assessed bioturbating fauna is not exposed to hypoxia and additional stress. Here, we had applied system for the first time to investigate impacts of a common North-Atlantic bioturbator, the brittle star Amphiura filiformis, - on respiration of marine sediments. Two series of experiments were conducted with animals and sediment collected from Cawsand Bay, Plymouth, UK Preliminary results show that tracer

  4. Comparison of Overall Resource Consumption of Biosolids Management System Processes Using Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanya, Sevda; Dewulf, Jo; Duran, Metin

    2015-08-18

    This study focused on the evaluation of biosolids management systems (BMS) from a natural resource consumption point of view. Additionally, the environmental impact of the facilities was benchmarked using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive assessment. This is the first study to apply a Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) method for an in-depth resource use assessment of BMS where two full-scale BMS and seven system variations were analyzed. CEENE allows better system evaluation and understanding of how much benefit is achievable from the products generated by BMS, which have valorization potential. LCA results showed that environmental burden is mostly from the intense electricity consumption. The CEENE analysis further revealed that the environmental burden is due to the high consumption of fossil and nuclear-based natural resources. Using Cumulative Degree of Perfection, higher resource-use efficiency, 53%, was observed in the PTA-2 where alkaline stabilization rather than anaerobic digestion is employed. However, an anaerobic digestion process is favorable over alkaline stabilization, with 35% lower overall natural resource use. The most significant reduction of the resource footprint occurred when the output biogas was valorized in a combined heat and power system.

  5. A Practical Method for Assessing the Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Mass Haulers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanean S. H. Jassim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mass hauling operations play central roles in construction projects. They typically use many haulers that consume large amounts of energy and emit significant quantities of CO2. However, practical methods for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of such operations during the project planning stage are scarce, while most of the previous methods focus on construction stage or after the construction stages which limited the practical adoption of reduction strategy in the early planning phase. This paper presents a detailed model for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of mass haulers that integrates the mass hauling plan with a set of predictive equations. The mass hauling plan is generated using a planning program such as DynaRoad in conjunction with data on the productivity of selected haulers and the amount of material to be hauled during cutting, filling, borrowing, and disposal operations. This plan is then used as input for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the selected hauling fleet. The proposed model will help planners to assess the energy and environmental performance of mass hauling plans, and to select hauler and fleet configurations that will minimize these quantities. The model was applied in a case study, demonstrating that it can reliably predict energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and hauler productivity as functions of the hauling distance for individual haulers and entire hauling fleets.

  6. [Assessment of frequency of consumption of selected sources of dietary fibre by students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głodek, Elzbieta; Gil, Marian; Rudy, Mariusz; Pawlos, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    The study deals with the evaluation of the frequency of food products consumption that are a source of dietary fiber in the diet of students. Survey was conducted in May 2010 among 96 second-year students of 'Food Processing Technology and Human Nutrition' at the University of Rzeszow. The Block's questionnaire was used to assess the frequency of consumption of selected sources of dietary fiber. In order to determine the frequency of consumption of fruits, fruit juices, salads, potatoes, legumes, white bread, dark bread and other cereal products the 5-degree scale with verbal terms (less than once per week--0 points, roughly once a week--1 point, 2-3 times per week - 2 points, 4-6 times per week--3 points, every day--4 points) was used. It was found that none of the examined persons, both women and men, had a sufficient consumption of fiber in the diet. The main source of dietary fiber in the diet of the examined students were white and dark bread and potatoes. A small percentage of the examined persons consume fruits and vegetables in their daily diet.

  7. Sustainability Indicators Integrating Consumption Patterns in Strategic Environmental Assessment for Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Castellani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA practices in Europe have been traditionally applied to assess potential environmental impacts due to socio-economic drivers implying specific land use (viz. infrastructure, building and industrial development. However, other socioeconomic drivers related to citizen behavior, such as household consumption, may significantly contribute to the overall local impacts, but are usually neglected in SEA. Aiming at enlarging the traditional approaches adopted in SEA, the present study integrates two environmental sustainability indicators capturing different aspects of consumption patterns: ecological footprint and carbon balance. The two indicators are calculated in addition to a more traditional set of environmental indicators in order to: (i understand if the level of consumption of the local community exceeds the limits of natural resources of the area (in a perspective of self-sustainment at the local scale; and (ii identify the role of spatial planning choices in determining the environmental sustainability of the entire system. The two indicators are calculated and discussed in the context of the SEA of the urban master plans of four municipalities in northern Italy. The two indicators may represent a good proxy for lifestyle impacts, even if some strengths and weaknesses arose from the application to the case study.

  8. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-02-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people.

  9. Comparative Exposure Assessment of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli through Meat Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielaat, Annemarie; Smid, Joost H.; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Vennemann, Francy B. C.; Wijnands, Lucas M.; Chardon, Jurgen E.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) producing Escherichia coli (EEC) in food animals, especially broilers, has become a major public health concern. The aim of the present study was to quantify the EEC exposure of humans in The Netherlands through the consumption of meat from different food animals. Calculations were done with a simplified Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) model. The model took the effect of pre-retail processing, storage at the consumers home and preparation in the kitchen (cross-contamination and heating) on EEC numbers on/in the raw meat products into account. The contribution of beef products (78%) to the total EEC exposure of the Dutch population through the consumption of meat was much higher than for chicken (18%), pork (4.5%), veal (0.1%) and lamb (0%). After slaughter, chicken meat accounted for 97% of total EEC load on meat, but chicken meat experienced a relatively large effect of heating during food preparation. Exposure via consumption of filet americain (a minced beef product consumed raw) was predicted to be highest (61% of total EEC exposure), followed by chicken fillet (13%). It was estimated that only 18% of EEC exposure occurred via cross-contamination during preparation in the kitchen, which was the only route by which EEC survived for surface-contaminated products. Sensitivity analysis showed that model output is not sensitive for most parameters. However, EEC concentration on meat other than chicken meat was an important data gap. In conclusion, the model assessed that consumption of beef products led to a higher exposure to EEC than chicken products, although the prevalence of EEC on raw chicken meat was much higher than on beef. The (relative) risk of this exposure for public health is yet unknown given the lack of a modelling framework and of exposure studies for other potential transmission routes. PMID:28056081

  10. Evaluation of Self Body Physical Perception Level of Elite University Footballers due to Cigarette and Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla PULUR

    Full Text Available Our study was aimed to research the level of multi-dimensional physical self-perception by elite footballers, who engage ininter-universities sports activities, due to cigarette and alcohol consumption. The sample of the study included a total of 81volunteers’ male athletes; from 7 universities. The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ; has beenemployed. Then the data obtained from questionnaire has been analyzed by a statistical perspective way of percentage frequencyand the t-test. The findings were tabulated, and found significant differences between the self-image assessment (t=-2.473:p<0,05 and health assessment (t=-2.880: p<0,05 identified in reference to the cigarette consumption by footballers. It hasbeen concluded that the number of footballers, who did not consume cigarettes and alcohol, was higher than the consumers.No meaningful difference was observed among the subjects that consume alcohol in terms of physical perceptions. However, ithas been noted that the smokers had a higher level of physical self-perception when compared with the nonsmokers.Generally, it has been determined that the footballers have a positive level of physical self-perception.

  11. Quantitative risk assessment for human salmonellosis through the consumption of pork sausage in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürmann, Lisandra; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Collor, Alexandre Ávila; Cardoso, Marisa

    2011-04-01

    A quantitative microbiology risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the risk of Salmonella infection to consumers of fresh pork sausages prepared at barbecues in Porto Alegre, Brazil. For the analysis, a prevalence of 24.4% positive pork sausages with a level of contamination between 0.03 and 460 CFU g(-1) was assumed. Data related to frequency and habits of consumption were obtained by a questionnaire survey given to 424 people. A second-order Monte Carlo simulation separating the uncertain parameter of cooking time from the variable parameters was run. Of the people interviewed, 87.5% consumed pork sausage, and 85.4% ate it at barbecues. The average risk of salmonellosis per barbecue at a minimum cooking time of 15.6 min (worst-case scenario) was 6.24 × 10(-4), and the risk assessed per month was 1.61 × 10(-3). Cooking for 19 min would fully inactivate Salmonella in 99.9% of the cases. At this cooking time, the sausage reached a mean internal temperature of 75.7°C. The results of the quantitative microbiology risk assessment revealed that the consumption of fresh pork sausage is safe when cooking time is approximately 19 min, whereas undercooked pork sausage may represent a nonnegligible health risk for consumers.

  12. Assessment of alcohol consumption in liver transplant candidates and recipients: the best combination of the tools available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Salvatore; Marchioro, Lucio; Gola, Elisabetta; Rosi, Silvia; Morando, Filippo; Cavallin, Marta; Sticca, Antonietta; Fasolato, Silvano; Forza, Giovanni; Chiara Frigo, Anna; Plebani, Mario; Zanus, Giacomo; Cillo, Umberto; Gatta, Angelo; Angeli, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    The detection of alcohol consumption in liver transplant candidates (LTCs) and liver transplant recipients (LTRs) is required to enable a proper assessment of transplant eligibility and early management of alcohol relapse, respectively. In this clinical setting, urinary ethyl glucuronide (uEtG), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Alcohol Consumption (AUDIT-c), serum ethanol, urinary ethanol, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), and other indirect markers of alcohol consumption were evaluated and compared prospectively in 121 LTCs and LTRs. Alcohol consumption was diagnosed when AUDIT-c results were positive or it was confirmed by a patient's history in response to abnormal results. Alcohol consumption was found in 30.6% of the patients. uEtG was found to be the strongest marker of alcohol consumption (odds ratio = 414.5, P alcohol consumption [area under receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve = 0.94] than CDT (area under ROC curve = 0.63, P alcohol consumption in comparison with the combination of CDT and AUDIT-c (area under ROC curve = 0.98 versus 0.80, P alcohol consumption in patients with negative AUDIT-c results. In conclusion, the combination of AUDIT-c and uEtG improves the detection of alcohol consumption in LTCs and LTRs. Therefore, they should be used routinely for these patients.

  13. Assessment of effects on health due to consumption of bitter bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.K.; Puri, Rajesh; Jain, Ajay; Sharma, M.P.; Sharma, Anita; Bohra, Shravan; Gupta, Y.K.; Saraya, Anoop; Dwivedi, S.; Gupta, K.C.; Prasad, Mahadeo; Pandey, Janardhan; Dohroo, Netar Prakash; Tandon, Neeraj; Sesikeran, B.; Dorle, A.K.; Tandon, Nikhil; Handa, S.S.; Toteja, G.S.; Rao, Spriha; Satyanarayana, K.; Katoch, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    fully and no sequeale was recorded for any of the cases. Interpretation & conclusions: Cucurbitaceae family, of which bottle gourd is a member contains the toxic tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds called cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste. There is no known antidote for this toxicity and clinicians treat such cases symptomatically only. The Committee made the following recommendations: (i) The community needs to be educated that bitter tasting bottle gourd juice should not be consumed and in case there is any discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea or any feeling of uneasiness after consumption of juice, the person should immediately be taken to a nearby hospital. (ii) Clinicians are suggested that patients coming with symptoms (discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, gastrointestinal bleeding after consumption of juice) should immediately be attended to and general supportive care should be provided, i.e. IV fluids/crystalloids/blood products/fresh frozen plasma to maintain the haemodynamics and electrolyte balance; Ryle's tube to be put in for gastric lavage and to assess gastrointestinal (GI) bleed- aspirate to be preserved; Proton pump inhibitors should be given for management of GI bleed and appropriate treatment for other complications should be given. (iii) The possible research areas identified are chemical composition studies on bitter and normal bottle gourd and other members of cucurbitaceae family; animal toxicity studies and studies on interaction between bottle gourd juice and other drugs. PMID:22382183

  14. Metabonomic study of rats exposed to cigarette sidestream smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Wen-liu; SHI Xian-zhe; LUO Jia; REN Feng-lian

    2016-01-01

    A metabonomic approach was undertaken in order to detect urinary endogenous and exogenous metabolites and to evaluate the effects of passive exposure to cigarette sidestream smoke on rats. Urinary samples from three groups of rats were determined including control rats, rats treated with blended cigarettes (nonmenthol cigarettes) and rats treated with menthol cigarettes. The total urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), total 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) and 3-hydroxybenzo[a] pyrene (3-HOBaP) were determined for assessing exposure to cigarette sidestream smoke toxins. Urinary endogenous metabolites in the three groups of rats were also analyzed and the data were processed by chemometrics. Eleven endogenous metabolites were found and identified. Their relative levels were compared among the three groups. The results show that cigarette sidestream smoke has complex effect on rats. Blended cigarette group makes difference to menthol cigarette group in the rats' urinary metabolic changes. Menthol adding to cigarettes has positive and negative effects on rats, respectively. The urinary metabolic profiling of menthol cigarette group is closer to that of control group.

  15. Assessment of Obesity, Overweight and Its Association with the Fast Food Consumption in Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Geetanjali; Nair, Sandhya Pillai; Patel, Bhavita; Rawal, Yash; Shah, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity is a condition in which excess body fat accumulates, which leads to various adverse effects on health, particularly cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which reduce life expectancy and/or increase health problems. Fast food consumption is one of the factors which have been reported as a cause of obesity. Body mass index (BMI) is used to assess obesity and overweight, which can be calculated by using the formula, weight in kg, divided by square of height in metres. Aim: This study focused on the relationship of body mass index with fast food consumption, associated soft drink consumption and physical activity. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry, SBKS MI and RC, and Sumandeep Vidyapeeth. This study was approved by the ethical review board .One hundred and forty seven medical students from 1st year MBBS course were included in this study. Self-structured questionnaire was used, which contained several data like information on age, height, weight, education level. The formula used for calculating BMI was, weight in kg, divided by square of height in metres (Kg/m2). Results: In our study, out of 147 students, a total of 138 students (more than 90%) used to have fast food. Among these, a total of 47 students (34.05%) were pre-obese and obese. Out of 147 students, 87 students (59.18%) were in normal weight range, while 13 (8.84%) students were underweight. Statistical Analysis: Data was compiled in an Excel worksheet and it was analyzed for percentages and proportions. Chi-square and Pearson’s correlation test were also applied wherever they were applicable and Alpha error was set at a 5% level. Conclusion: In our study, a significant relationship was found between BMI and fast food consumption, less physical activity, and intake of soft drinks. PMID:24995170

  16. Heat Consumption Assessment of the Domestic Hot Water Systems in the Apartment Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Grasmanis, D; Greķis, A; Talcis, N

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the analysis of energy consumption for domestic hot water in apartment buildings in Riga. The aggregate data contains information about 39 apartment buildings, including heat energy consumption and domestic hot water (DHW) consumption. The analysis is focused on the heat energy consumption in the DHW system. The analysis characterizes the DHW consumption, energy consumption for DHW and energy losses in the DHW systems in apartment buildings.

  17. Heat Consumption Assessment of the Domestic Hot Water Systems in the Apartment Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Grasmanis, Dzintars; Talcis, Normunds; Greķis, Aldis

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the analysis of energy consumption for domestic hot water in apartment buildings in Riga, Latvia. The aggregate data contains information about 39 apartment buildings, including heat energy consumption and domestic hot water (DHW) consumption. The analysis is focused on the heat energy consumption and seasonal characteristics in the DHW system.The analysis characterizes the DHW consumption, energy consumption for DHW and energy losses in the DHW systems in apartment buildi...

  18. E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are known to be harmful. Scientists are studying the health effects of using e-cigarettes. New information is coming in, but they don't have the answers yet. Although FDA is working to regulate e-cigarettes, currently they are not ...

  19. Lead exposure through consumption of big game meat in Quebec, Canada: risk assessment and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachehoun, Richard Coovi; Lévesque, Benoit; Dumas, Pierre; St-Louis, Antoine; Dubé, Marjolaine; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Game meat from animals killed by lead ammunition may expose consumers to lead. We assessed the risk related to lead intake from meat consumption of white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition and documented the perception of hunters and butchers regarding this potential contamination. Information on cervid meat consumption and risk perception were collected using a mailed self-administrated questionnaire which was addressed to a random sample of Quebec hunters. In parallel, 72 samples of white-tailed deer (n = 35) and moose (n = 37) meats were collected from voluntary hunters and analysed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A risk assessment for people consuming lead shot game meat was performed using Monte Carlo simulations. Mean lead levels in white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition were 0.28 and 0.17 mg kg(-1) respectively. Risk assessment based on declared cervid meat consumption revealed that 1.7% of the surveyed hunters would exceed the dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP). For consumers of moose meat once, twice or three times a week, simulations predicted that 0.5%, 0.9% and 1.5% of adults would be exposed to a dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in SBP, whereas 0.9%, 1.9% and 3.3% of children would be exposed to a dose associated with 1 point intelligence quotient (IQ) decrease, respectively. For consumers of deer meat once, twice or three times a week, the proportions were 1.6%, 2.9% and 4% for adults and 2.9%, 5.8% and 7.7% for children, respectively. The consumption of meat from cervids killed with lead ammunition may increase lead exposure and its associated health risks. It would be important to inform the population, particularly hunters, about this potential risk and promote the use of lead-free ammunition.

  20. Recent Advances in Cigarette Ignition Propensity Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; O'Connor, Richard J; Spalletta, Ron; Connolly, Gregory N

    2010-04-01

    Major U.S. cigarette companies for decades conducted research and development regarding cigarette ignition propensity which has continued beyond fire safety standards for cigarettes that have recently been legislated. This paper describes recent scientific advances and technological development based on a comprehensive review of the physical, chemical, and engineering sciences, public health, and trade literature, U.S. and international patents, and research in the tobacco industry document libraries.Advancements since the first implementation of standards have made been in: a) understanding the key parameters involved in cigarette smoldering combustion and ignition of substrates; b) developing new cigarette and paper wrapper designs to reduce ignition propensity, including banded and non-banded cigarette paper approaches, c) assessing toxicology, and d) measuring performance. While the implications of manufacturers' non-safety related aims are of concern, this research indicates possible alternative designs should experience with fire loss and existing technologies on the market suggest need for improvement.

  1. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised...... at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data...... to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach...

  2. Tyramine and histamine risk assessment related to consumption of dry fermented sausages by the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Comas-Basté, O; Bover-Cid, S; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2017-01-01

    Tyramine and histamine are the main dietary bioactive amines related to acute adverse health effects. Dry fermented sausages can easily accumulate high levels of these hazards and are frequently consumed in Spain. The present work aims to assess the exposure to tyramine and histamine from the consumption of dry fermented sausages by the Spanish population and to assess the risk to suffer acute health effects from this exposure. A probabilistic estimation of the exposure to these hazards was derived combining probability distributions of these amines in dry fermented sausages (n = 474) and their consumption by the Spanish population. The mean dietary exposure to tyramine and histamine was 6.2 and 1.39 mg/meal, respectively. The risk of suffering hypertensive crisis or histamine intoxication by healthy population due to tyramine or histamine intake, respectively, exclusively from dry fermented sausages, can be considered negligible. For individuals under treatment with MAOI drugs, the probability to surpass the safe threshold dose (6 mg/meal) was estimated as 34%. For patients with histamine intolerance, even the presence of this amine in food is not tolerable and it could be estimated that 7000 individuals per million could be at risk to suffer the related symptoms after consuming dry fermented sausages.

  3. Consumptive water use in cropland and its partitioning:A high-resolution assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Spatially explicit assessments of consumptive water use (CWU) are still at an early stage, and parti-tioning of CWU has rarely been studied on large scales. In this article, CWU is assessed for China’s cropland with a spatial resolution of 30 arc-minutes. The partitioning of CWU is discussed through the simulation of transpiration ratios. The total CWU for Chinese cropland was 839 km3/a during 1998―2002. Spatial distribution of CWU is closely related to cropland area and crop production with the highest CWU in the North China Plain. Transpiration accounts for two-thirds of CWU. The transpiration ratio is affected by precipitation and irrigation. Transpiration ratios are higher in irrigated systems than in rainfed systems when precipitation is low. Competition of water use will impose pressure on China’s irrigation systems in the near future, and it will have a far-reaching effect on the partitioning of consumptive water use. Attention should be paid to green water management and technological improvements to guarantee China’s water and food security.

  4. [Life cycle assessment of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of cellulosic ethanol from corn stover].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wang; Liao, Cuiping; Li, Li; Zhao, Daiqing

    2011-03-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the only standardized tool currently used to assess environmental loads of products and processes. The life cycle analysis, as a part of LCA, is a useful and powerful methodology for studying life cycle energy efficiency and life cycle GHG emission. To quantitatively explain the potential of energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction of corn stover-based ethanol, we analyzed life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of corn stover-based ethanol by the method of life cycle analysis. The processes are dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. The functional unit was defined as 1 km distance driven by the vehicle. Results indicated: compared with gasoline, the corn stover-based E100 (100% ethanol) and E10 (a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume) could reduce life cycle fossil energy consumption by 79.63% and 6.25% respectively, as well as GHG emissions by 53.98% and 6.69%; the fossil energy consumed by biomass stage was 68.3% of total fossil energy input, N-fertilizer and diesel were the main factors which contributed 45.78% and 33.26% to biomass stage; electricity production process contributed 42.06% to the net GHG emissions, the improvement of technology might reduce emissions markedly.

  5. Smaller Cigarette Pack as a Commitment to Smoke Less? Insights from Behavioral Economics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Marti

    Full Text Available Cigarettes are commonly sold in packs of 20 units and therefore little is known about the potential impact of pack size on consumption. Using insights from behavioral economics, we suggest that cigarette packs smaller than the standard size may help some smokers cut back and/or quit, consistent with their long-term goals. Results from an online hypothetical purchase experiment conducted in a sample of US smokers reveal that over a third of smokers are willing to pay a price premium to purchase in smaller quantities. Further, a desire to quit smoking and high self-control is associated with preference for a smaller pack. While we provide some preliminary evidence that smaller packs may be beneficial to certain types of smokers, further research should be conducted to assess whether the smaller pack size should be considered in the arsenal of tobacco control policies to help current smokers quit (JEL: I18; I12; D12.

  6. Smaller Cigarette Pack as a Commitment to Smoke Less? Insights from Behavioral Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Joachim; Sindelar, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Cigarettes are commonly sold in packs of 20 units and therefore little is known about the potential impact of pack size on consumption. Using insights from behavioral economics, we suggest that cigarette packs smaller than the standard size may help some smokers cut back and/or quit, consistent with their long-term goals. Results from an online hypothetical purchase experiment conducted in a sample of US smokers reveal that over a third of smokers are willing to pay a price premium to purchase in smaller quantities. Further, a desire to quit smoking and high self-control is associated with preference for a smaller pack. While we provide some preliminary evidence that smaller packs may be beneficial to certain types of smokers, further research should be conducted to assess whether the smaller pack size should be considered in the arsenal of tobacco control policies to help current smokers quit (JEL: I18; I12; D12).

  7. A longitudinal study of smokers' exposure to cigarette smoke and the effects of spontaneous product switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anthony; Sommarström, Johan; Camacho, Oscar M; Sisodiya, Ajit S; Prasad, Krishna

    2015-06-01

    A challenge in investigating the effect of public health policies on cigarette consumption and exposure arises from variation in a smoker's exposure from cigarette to cigarette and the considerable differences between smokers. In addition, limited data are available on the effects of spontaneous product switching on a smoker's cigarette consumption and exposure to smoke constituents. Over 1000 adult smokers of the same commercial 10mg International Organization for Standardization (ISO) tar yield cigarette were recruited into the non-residential, longitudinal study across 10 cities in Germany. Cigarette consumption, mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone were measured every 6months over a 3 and a half year period. Cigarette consumption remained stable through the study period and did not vary significantly when smokers spontaneously switched products. Mouth level exposure decreased for smokers (n=111) who switched to cigarettes of 7mg ISO tar yield or lower. In addition, downward trends in mouth level exposure estimates were observed for smokers who did not switch cigarettes. Data from this study illustrate some of the challenges in measuring smokers' long-term exposure to smoke constituents in their everyday environment.

  8. Misperceptions of "light" cigarettes abound: National survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson George

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many smokers believe that "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, which is at variance with the scientific evidence. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC aims to address this problem in Article 11 which deals with misleading labelling of tobacco products. In this study we aimed to determine smokers' use and beliefs concerning "light" and "mild" cigarettes ("lights", including in relation to ethnicity, deprivation and other socio-demographic characteristics. Methods The New Zealand (NZ arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project uses as its sampling frame the NZ Health Survey. This is a national sample with boosted sampling of Maori, Pacific peoples and Asians. From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376 about use and beliefs relating to "light" cigarettes. We assessed the associations with smoking "lights" after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, and smoking-related behaviours and beliefs. Results Many smokers of "lights" believed that smoking "lights" made it easier to quit smoking (25%, that "lights" are less harmful (42%, and that smokers of "lights" take in less tar (43%. Overall most "lights" smokers (60% had at least one of these three beliefs, a proportion significantly higher than for smokers of "regular" cigarettes at 45% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.29 – 2.96. While "lights" smokers had significantly lower tobacco consumption and were more aware of smoking harms, they were no more likely to be intending to quit or have made a previous quit attempt. By ethnicity, both Maori and Pacific people were less likely to smoke "lights" than Europeans (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.35 – 0.80 and aOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.05 – 0.40 respectively. In contrast there was no significant difference by level of deprivation. Roll-your-own (RYO tobacco smokers were less likely to smoke "light" forms of RYO tobacco while both older and women

  9. E-Cigarettes (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness E-Cigarettes KidsHealth > For Teens > E-Cigarettes A A ... Habit en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos What Are E-Cigarettes? E-cigarettes look high tech, so it's ...

  10. E-Cigarettes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old E-Cigarettes KidsHealth > For Parents > E-Cigarettes A A ... Using Them en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos About E-Cigarettes E-cigarettes are being marketed as a ...

  11. E-Cigarettes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old E-Cigarettes KidsHealth > For Parents > E-Cigarettes Print A ... Using Them en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos About E-Cigarettes E-cigarettes are being marketed as a ...

  12. E-Cigarettes (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness E-Cigarettes KidsHealth > For Teens > E-Cigarettes Print A ... Habit en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos What Are E-Cigarettes? E-cigarettes look high tech, so it's ...

  13. Mouth-Level Intake of Benzo[a]pyrene from Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan S. Ding

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is a known source of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, especially benzo[a]pyrene (BaP. Exposure to BaP in cigarette smoke is influenced by how a person smokes and factors, such as tobacco blend. To determine whether sustained use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes is associated with changes in exposure to nicotine and BaP, levels of BaP in spent cigarette filter butts were correlated with levels of BaP in cigarette smoke to estimate mouth-level intake (MLI of BaP for 72 daily smokers given three progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Urinary cotinine, a marker of nicotine exposure, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP, a marker of PAH exposure, were measured throughout the study. Median daily BaP MLI and urine cotinine decreased in a similar manner as smokers switched to progressively lower nicotine cigarettes, despite relatively constant daily cigarette consumption. 1-HOP levels were less responsive to the use of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. We demonstrate that spent cigarette filter butt analysis is a promising tool to estimate MLI of harmful chemicals on a per cigarette or per-day basis, which partially addresses the concerns of the temporal influence of smoking behavior or differences in cigarette design on exposure.

  14. No sisyphean task: how the FDA can regulate electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of smoking have fostered a natural market for smoking cessation and smoking reduction products. Smokers attempting to quit or reduce consumption have tried everything: "low" or "light" cigarettes; nicotine-infused chewing gum, lozenges, and lollipops; dermal patches; and even hypnosis. The latest craze in the quest to find a safer source of nicotine is the electronic cigarette. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have swept the market, reaching a rapidly expanding international consumer base. Boasting nicotine delivery and the tactile feel of a traditional cigarette without the dozens of other chemical constituents that contribute to carcinogenicity, e-cigarettes are often portrayed as less risky, as a smoking reduction or even a complete smoking cessation product, and perhaps most troubling for its appeal to youth, as a flavorful, trendy, and convenient accessory. The sensationalism associated with e-cigarettes has spurred outcry from health and medical professional groups, as well as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), because of the unknown effects on public health. Inhabiting a realm of products deemed "tobacco products" under recent 2009 legislation, e-cigarettes pose new challenges to FDA regulation because of their novel method of nicotine delivery, various mechanical and electrical parts, and nearly nonexistent safety data. Consumer use, marketing and promotional claims, and technological characteristics of e-cigarettes have also raised decades old questions of when the FDA can assert authority over products as drugs or medical devices. Recent case law restricting FDA enforcement efforts against e-cigarettes further confounds the distinction among drugs and medical devices, emerging e-cigarette products, and traditional tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. This Article investigates the e-cigarette phenomenon in the wake of the recently enacted Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009

  15. Assessing consumption of bioactive micro-particles by filter-feeding Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Nathan R.; Amberg, Jon J.; Luoma, James A.; Walleser, Liza R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (SVC) and bighead carp H. nobilis (BHC) have impacted waters in the US since their escape. Current chemical controls for aquatic nuisance species are non-selective. Development of a bioactive micro-particle that exploits filter-feeding habits of SVC or BHC could result in a new control tool. It is not fully understood if SVC or BHC will consume bioactive micro-particles. Two discrete trials were performed to: 1) evaluate if SVC and BHC consume the candidate micro-particle formulation; 2) determine what size they consume; 3) establish methods to evaluate consumption of filter-feeders for future experiments. Both SVC and BHC were exposed to small (50-100 μm) and large (150-200 μm) micro-particles in two 24-h trials. Particles in water were counted electronically and manually (microscopy). Particles on gill rakers were counted manually and intestinal tracts inspected for the presence of micro-particles. In Trial 1, both manual and electronic count data confirmed reductions of both size particles; SVC appeared to remove more small particles than large; more BHC consumed particles; SVC had fewer overall particles in their gill rakers than BHC. In Trial 2, electronic counts confirmed reductions of both size particles; both SVC and BHC consumed particles, yet more SVC consumed micro-particles compared to BHC. Of the fish that ate micro-particles, SVC consumed more than BHC. It is recommended to use multiple metrics to assess consumption of candidate micro-particles by filter-feeders when attempting to distinguish differential particle consumption. This study has implications for developing micro-particles for species-specific delivery of bioactive controls to help fisheries, provides some methods for further experiments with bioactive micro-particles, and may also have applications in aquaculture.

  16. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of electronic cigarette use among adolescents: Data from four Swedish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geidne Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – To assess the prevalence rates and risk factors of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use, with special focus on e-cigarettes containing nicotine, among grade 9 students (aged 15–16 years in four different municipalities in Sweden.

  18. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  19. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  20. Assessment of the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Claudia; Ghisi, Enedir

    2010-09-15

    In many countries the residential sector accounts for about 20.0% of the electricity consumption, which increases the concern about energy savings. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector by using electricity end-use data. The consumption of each appliance is obtained based on official data from existing studies, being estimated for a dwelling and for the whole residential sector. Results indicate that the potential for energy savings by replacing existing appliances with energy-efficient household appliances would be 29.5% in the residential sector of Brazil.

  1. Assessment of consumption of marine food in Greenland by a food frequency questionnaire and biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Jeppesen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We studied the association and agreement between questionnaire data and biomarkers of marine food among Greenland Inuit. Design. Cross sectional study. Methods. The study population comprised 2,224 Inuit, age 18+ (43% men; data collected 2005–2008 in Greenland. Using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, we calculated consumption of seal, whale, and fish (g/day and as meals/month, intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, total N3, and mercury. We measured erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA and whole blood mercury (Hg. Associations were assessed by Pearson correlation and agreement between the 2 methods was assessed by Bland–Altman plots depicting mean difference between the methods. Using multiple linear regressions, the associations were studied between whole blood mercury, erythrocyte FA and frequency or gram per day of seal, whale, and fish. Results. Partial correlations ranged from r=0.16, p<0.0001 (DHA to r=0.56, p<0.0001 (mercury. The best fitted lines were found for mercury and DHA. Mean difference was negative for mercury but positive for all the FA biomarkers. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the best association was found between whole blood mercury and seal consumption, both as frequency in meals and actual intake gram per day: β=1.07 µg (95% CI: 1.06; 1.08 and β=1.04 µg (95% CI: 1.03; 1.04, respectively. Conclusion. Mercury showed the best correlation and agreement between calculated and measured values. Calculated actual intake in gram per day and frequency of meals showed similar associations with whole blood mercury and erythrocyte membrane FAs.

  2. Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

  3. Neuropsychological assessment at school-age and prenatal low-level exposure to mercury through fish consumption in an Italian birth cohort living near a contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroma, L; Parpinel, M; Tognin, V; Channoufi, L; Tratnik, J; Horvat, M; Valent, F; Barbone, F

    2013-07-01

    The relative effects of prenatal and postnatal low-level mercury exposure and fish intake on child neurodevelopment are still controversial. Limited evidence is available from Mediterranean populations. In this prospective study, we measured the Verbal and Performance IQ in Italian children at school-age who were resident in an area declared as a National contaminated site because of mercury pollution, taking into account the possible beneficial effect of fish consumption and potential confounders. A mother-child cohort made up of 242 children was established at birth in Northeastern Italy in 2001. Their mothers were interviewed approximately 2 months after delivery to determine type, quantity, and origin of fish consumed during pregnancy and about a number of mother, child and family characteristics. Total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were assessed in maternal hair and breast milk and in the child's hair. When children reached 7-9 years of age, 154 (63.6%) parents gave consent to participate in a follow-up evaluation. On that occasion, a child's hair sample was collected to determine the current concentration of THg, mothers were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire, and children underwent neuropsychological testing. Verbal IQ, performance IQ and full scale IQ were measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC III) administered by psychologists at school or local health centers. Demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle information, medical information of the child's family and the child's dietary habits were collected using a questionnaire filled in by mothers. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between prenatal THg exposure through fish consumption of mothers in pregnancy and children's IQ after adjustment for possible confounders such as fish consumption of mothers in pregnancy, child's fish consumption at follow-up, child's birthweight, maternal cigarette smoking during

  4. Perceived risk and benefits of e-cigarette use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Amy L; Peltier, MacKenzie R; Waldo, Krystal

    2017-02-17

    Recent data demonstrates that the use of e-cigarettes is growing, especially among college students and young adults. This trend is increasingly problematic, as many of these individuals report never using traditional tobacco cigarettes, but nevertheless are using e-cigarettes. The present study sought to develop the Risks and Benefits of E-cigarettes (RABE) questionnaire to assess the perceptions about e-cigarette use among college students. College students (N=734) completed the RABE via online survey. Principal components analysis yielded two reliable scales representing perceptions about e-cigarette use. Based on the two-factor solution, subscales were named according to item content. The resulting 30 items demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Risks scale α=0.92; Benefits scale α=0.89). Subsequent confirmatory factor analysis generally supported the 2-factor structure. As an initial measure of construct validity, scale scores were compared across smoking status groups. Smoking status groups were defined by the following: "e-cigarette users" were current daily users of e-cigarettes, "conventional smokers" were daily traditional cigarette users, and "dual users" were individuals who used both e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes daily. Scale scores for perceived Benefits of e-cigarette use differed significantly across groups (pe-cigarettes or traditional cigarettes reported benefits associated with e-cigarette use. Scale scores for perceived Risks of e-cigarette use across smoking status groups did not significantly differ. The present results indicate that the RABE is a reliable instrument to measure college student's perceived risks and benefits of e-cigarettes.

  5. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Chee Kong, E-mail: yapckong@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Cheng, Wan Hee [Inti International University, Persiaran Perdana BBN, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Karami, Ali [Laboratory of Aquatic Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-05-15

    A total of 40 marine mussel Perna viridis populations collected (2002–2009) from 20 geographical sites located in two busy shipping lanes namely the Straits of Malacca (10 sites; 16 populations) and the Straits of Johore (8 sites; 21 populations) and three populations (2 sites) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, was determined for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. In comparison with the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) set by existing food safety guidelines, all metal concentrations found in all the mussel populations were lower than the prescribed MPLs. In terms of the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and oral reference doses (ORDs) by the USEPA, all the studied metals (except for Pb) were unlikely to become the limiting factors or unlikely to pose a risk for the consumption of the mussel populations. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for average level mussel (ALM) and high level mussel (HLM) consumers of mussels was found to be lower than the ORD guidelines for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was found to be less than 1 for ALM consumers but higher than 1 for HLM consumers in some sites. Therefore, there were no potential human health risks to the ALM consumers of the mussels. However, for Pb THQ values, the Pb levels in some mussel populations could create a health risk problem. Present results indicate that the consumption amounts of mussels should be limited for minimizing potential health risks of heavy metals to the HLM consumers. - Highlights: • Human health risk assessments of heavy metals in Perna viridis were investigated. • All metals in the mussels were below the established seafood safety guidelines. • Pb in mussels could easily reach the percentage of prescribed PTWI value of Pb. • Potential health risk with Pb exposure was found for the mussel consumers. • Consumption rate of mussels should be limited to

  6. Assessment of water consumptions in small mediterranean islands' primary schools by means of a long-term online monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Marco; De Gisi, Sabino; Farina, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    A key challenge of our society is improving schools through the sustainable use of resources especially in countries at risk of desertification. The estimation of water consumption is the starting point for the correct dimensioning of water recovery systems. To date, unlike the energy sector, there is a lack of scientific information regarding water consumption in school buildings. Available data refer roughly to indirect estimates by means of utility bills and therefore no information on the role of water leakage in the internal network of the school is provided. In this context, the aim of the work was to define and implement an on-line monitoring system for the assessment of water consumptions in a small Mediterranean island primary school to achieve the following sub-goals: (1) definition of water consumption profile considering teaching activities and secretarial work; (2) direct assessment of water consumptions and leakages and, (3) quantification of the behaviour parameters. The installed monitoring system consisted of 33 water metres (3.24 persons per water metre) equipped with sensors set on 1-L impulse signal and connected to a data logging system. Results showed consumptions in the range 13.6-14.2 L/student/day and leakage equal to 54.8 % of the total water consumptions. Considering the behavioural parameters, the consumptions related to toilet flushing, personal, and building cleaning were, respectively, 54, 43 and 3 % of the total water ones. Finally, the obtained results could be used for dimensioning the most suitable water recovery strategies at school level such as grey water or rainwater recovery systems.

  7. Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis and listeriosis related to the consumption of raw milk in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Albonetti, Sabrina; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Bertasi, Barbara; Bilei, Stefano; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Mioni, Renzo; Peli, Angelo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative risk assessment (RA) models were developed to describe the risk of salmonellosis and listeriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment considered the official microbiological records monitoring raw milk samples from vending machines performed by the regional veterinary authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, and consumption preference. Two separate RA models were developed: one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk. The RA models predicted no human listeriosis cases per year either in the best or worst storage conditions and with or without boiling raw milk, whereas the annual estimated cases of salmonellosis depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model, the milk storage conditions, and consumer behavior in relation to boiling raw milk or not. For example, the estimated salmonellosis cases ranged from no expected cases, assuming that the entire population boiled milk before consumption, to a maximum of 980,128 cases, assuming that the entire population drank raw milk without boiling, in the worst milk storage conditions, and with the lowest dose-response model. The findings of this study clearly show how consumer behavior could affect the probability and number of salmonellosis cases and in general, the risk of illness. Hence, the proposed RA models emphasize yet again that boiling milk before drinking is a simple yet effective tool to protect consumers against the risk of illness inherent in the consumption of raw milk. The models may also offer risk managers a useful tool to identify or implement appropriate measures to control the risk of acquiring foodborne pathogens. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective.

  8. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P.

    2016-01-01

    consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE......), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol...... revealed geographical differences in the level and pattern of actual alcohol consumption at an inter-city level. All the sampled cities were in the "high risk" category (MOE....

  9. College Students' Perceptions of Risk and Addictiveness of E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: As conventional cigarette use is declining, electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") use is rising and is especially high among college students. Few studies examine dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes among this population. This study explores the relationship between dual and exclusive e-cigarette / cigarette use and…

  10. Cardiology Patient Page: Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of places where tobacco smoking is restricted, including restaurants, bars, offices, and airplanes. What Is Known About ... e-cigarettes helped them quit smoking. Studies with convenience samples of e-cigarette users show that people ...

  11. Cigarette access and pupil smoking rates: a circular relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katrina M; Gordon, Jacki; Young, Robert

    2004-12-01

    Adolescents obtain cigarettes from both commercial and social sources. While the relationship between commercial access and adolescent smoking has been researched, no one has considered in detail whether rates of peer smoking affect cigarette availability. In two relatively deprived Scottish schools that differed in their pupil smoking rates, we assess pupil access to cigarettes. 896 13 and 15 year olds were surveyed, and 25 single-sex discussion groups held with a sub-sample of the 13 year olds. Smokers in both schools obtained cigarettes from shops, food vans and other pupils. However, pupils in the 'high' smoking school perceived greater access to both commercial and social sources, and had access to an active 'peer market'. These findings suggest that variations in cigarette access may contribute to school differences in pupil smoking rates, and that the relationship between access and adolescent smoking is circular, with greater availability increasing rates, and higher rates enhancing access.

  12. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Manzoli

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both.Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up.Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet.Adults (30-75 years were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers, users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers, or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers. Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence.Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily.We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit.Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%. All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35-8.02, whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall.Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate smoking cessation or reduction. If e-cigarette safety will be confirmed, however, the use of e-cigarettes

  13. Biomass burning fuel consumption dynamics in the tropics and subtropics assessed from satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andela, Niels; van der Werf, Guido R.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; van Leeuwen, Thijs T.; Wooster, Martin J.; Lehmann, Caroline E. R.

    2016-06-01

    Landscape fires occur on a large scale in (sub)tropical savannas and grasslands, affecting ecosystem dynamics, regional air quality and concentrations of atmospheric trace gasses. Fuel consumption per unit of area burned is an important but poorly constrained parameter in fire emission modelling. We combined satellite-derived burned area with fire radiative power (FRP) data to derive fuel consumption estimates for land cover types with low tree cover in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Australia. We developed a new approach to estimate fuel consumption, based on FRP data from the polar-orbiting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) in combination with MODIS burned-area estimates. The fuel consumption estimates based on the geostationary and polar-orbiting instruments showed good agreement in terms of spatial patterns. We used field measurements of fuel consumption to constrain our results, but the large variation in fuel consumption in both space and time complicated this comparison and absolute fuel consumption estimates remained more uncertain. Spatial patterns in fuel consumption could be partly explained by vegetation productivity and fire return periods. In South America, most fires occurred in savannas with relatively long fire return periods, resulting in comparatively high fuel consumption as opposed to the more frequently burning savannas in Sub-Saharan Africa. Strikingly, we found the infrequently burning interior of Australia to have higher fuel consumption than the more productive but frequently burning savannas in northern Australia. Vegetation type also played an important role in explaining the distribution of fuel consumption, by affecting both fuel build-up rates and fire return periods. Hummock grasslands, which were responsible for a large share of Australian biomass burning, showed larger fuel build-up rates than equally productive grasslands in

  14. The Contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambali B; Andel I van; Schenk E; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Stevenson H; Vleeming W; TOX; SIR; LVM; PZO

    2003-01-01

    In this report the effect of these compounds on the addiction to cigarette smoking was assessed, using currently available information in the literature on psychoactive compounds of cocoa. The investigated psychoactive cocoa compounds were theobromine, caffeine, serotonin, histamine, tryptophan, try

  15. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed...

  16. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Polly E; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz; van der Voet, Hilko; Petersen, Annette; Ruprich, Jiri; Debegnach, Francesca; de Boer, Waldo J; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Brera, Carlo; van Klaveren, Jacob D; Busk, Leif

    2009-12-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data either (1) to national pesticide concentration data or (2) to a pooled database containing all national pesticide concentration data. We show that with this tool national exposure assessments can be performed in a harmonised way and that pesticide concentrations of other countries can be linked to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach for dietary exposure modelling.

  17. Public awareness of mercury in fish: analysis of public awareness and assessment of fish consumption in vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsky, William E; Duncan, Elizabeth; Flanagan, Noreen; Fromhold, Karen; Dung, Hyunh; Meyer, Russell; Sax, Jordan; Delaney, Thomas; Bress, William; Hoffman-Contois, Razelle; Carney, Jan K

    2009-11-16

    Exposure to mercury from environmental sources, such as fish consumption, poses potential health risks to the public. The state of Vermont has developed educational brochures and posters displaying safe fish consumption guidelines in order to educate the public regarding mercury exposure through fish. In this study, a group of medical students from the University of Vermont College of Medicine, in partnership with the Vermont Department of Health, conducted a study in Chittenden County, Vermont in order to assess both fish consumption practices and overall awareness of such safe eating guidelines and mercury advisories. A total of 166 Vermont residents were surveyed during a six week period. The results of this survey suggest that in Chittenden county of Vermont, these educational efforts are markedly successful, with 48% of respondents being specifically aware of the safe eating guidelines. Further, these results suggest that 61% of those respondents that reported low monthly canned tuna consumption had a decreased their consumption in response to the safe eating guidelines. last, a series of specific, yet widely applicable recommendations are presented for future public educational efforts regarding mercury exposure through fish consumption.

  18. Assessment of Farm Household Food Security and Consumption Indices in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojeleye, O. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess farm households’ food security and consumption indices. The study was conducted in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Data used for this study was collected from a total of 244 farm households with the use of structured questionnaire using a multistage random and purposive sampling technique. The main tools of analysis for this study include descriptive statistics and food security index. The study shows that about one third of the rural farm households sampled was food insecure and that the average farm size of the farm households was 2.05ha as food secure and insecure households cultivate 2.09ha and 1.96ha respectively. Average farm and non-farm income were $1,130.7 and $810.3 per annum respectively as household daily calorie consumed was found to exceed household daily calorie requirement. The food security indices for the food secure and insecure households were found to be 1.462 and 0.852 respectively. Large family size was found to lower available calorie intake of households. The study recommends the need for family planning education and policy frames to increase household farm size.

  19. Climate change impact and adaptation assessment on food consumption utilizing a new scenario framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Shin, Yonghee; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Akemi

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the impacts of climate change and agricultural autonomous adaptation measures (changes in crop variety and planting dates) on food consumption and risk of hunger considering uncertainties in socioeconomic and climate conditions by using a new scenario framework. We combined a global computable general equilibrium model and a crop model (M-GAEZ), and estimated the impacts through 2050 based on future assumptions of socioeconomic and climate conditions. We used three Shared Socioeconomic Pathways as future population and gross domestic products, four Representative Concentration Pathways as a greenhouse gas emissions constraint, and eight General Circulation Models to estimate climate conditions. We found that (i) the adaptation measures are expected to significantly lower the risk of hunger resulting from climate change under various socioeconomic and climate conditions. (ii) population and economic development had a greater impact than climate conditions for risk of hunger at least throughout 2050, but climate change was projected to have notable impacts, even in the strong emission mitigation scenarios. (iii) The impact on hunger risk varied across regions because levels of calorie intake, climate change impacts and land scarcity varied by region.

  20. Exposure Assessment for Italian Population Groups to Deoxynivalenol Deriving from Pasta Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brera, Carlo; Bertazzoni, Valentina; Debegnach, Francesca; Gregori, Emanuela; Prantera, Elisabetta; De Santis, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Four hundred and seventy-two pasta samples were collected from long retail distribution chain sales points located in North, Central and South Italy. Representative criteria in the sample collection were followed in terms of number of samples collected, market share, and types of pasta. Samples were analysed by an accredited HPLC-UV method of analysis. The mean contamination level (64.8 μg/kg) of deoxynivalenol (DON) was in the 95th percentile (239 μg/kg) and 99th percentile (337 μg/kg), far below the legal limit (750 μg/kg) set by Regulation EC/1126/2007, accounting for about one tenth, one third and half the legal limit, respectively. Ninety-nine percent of samples fell below half the legal limit. On the basis of the obtained occurrence levels and considering the consumption rates reported by the Italian official database, no health concern was assessed for all consumer groups, being that exposure was far below the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 1000 ng/kg b.w/day. Nevertheless, despite this, particular attention should be devoted to the exposure to DON by high consumers, such as children aged 3–5 years, who could reach the TDI even with very low levels of DON contamination. PMID:24287568

  1. Exposure Assessment for Italian Population Groups to Deoxynivalenol Deriving from Pasta Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Brera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and seventy-two pasta samples were collected from long retail distribution chain sales points located in North, Central and South Italy. Representative criteria in the sample collection were followed in terms of number of samples collected, market share, and types of pasta. Samples were analysed by an accredited HPLC-UV method of analysis. The mean contamination level (64.8 μg/kg of deoxynivalenol (DON was  in the 95th percentile (239 μg/kg and 99th percentile (337 μg/kg, far below the legal limit (750 μg/kg set by Regulation EC/1126/2007, accounting for about one tenth, one third and half the legal limit, respectively. Ninety-nine percent of samples fell below half the legal limit. On the basis of the obtained occurrence levels and considering the consumption rates reported by the Italian official database, no health concern was assessed for all consumer groups, being that exposure was far below the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI of 1000 ng/kg b.w/day. Nevertheless, despite this, particular attention should be devoted to the exposure to DON by high consumers, such as children aged 3–5 years, who could reach the TDI even with very low levels of DON contamination.

  2. Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Janina S G; Silva, Liliana S O; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the Portuguese population is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, aspartame, caffeine, benzoic and sorbic acid through an assessment of dietary intake of additives and specific consumption of four types of beverages, traditional soft drinks and soft drinks based on mineral waters, energetic drinks, and nectars. The highest mean levels of additives were found for caffeine in energetic drinks, 293.5mg/L, for saccharin in traditional soft drinks, 18.4 mg/L, for acesulfame-K and aspartame in nectars, with 88.2 and 97.8 mg/L, respectively, for benzoic acid in traditional soft drinks, 125.7 mg/L, and for sorbic acid in soft drinks based on mineral water, 166.5 mg/L. Traditional soft drinks presented the highest acceptable daily intake percentages (ADIs%) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, benzoic and sorbic acid and similar value for saccharin (0.5%) when compared with soft drinks based on mineral water, 0.7%, 0.08%, 7.3%, and 1.92% versus 0.2%, 0.053%, 0.6%, and 0.28%, respectively. However for saccharin the highest percentage of ADI was obtained for nectars, 0.9%, in comparison with both types of soft drinks, 0.5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the Portuguese population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for the studied additives.

  3. Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Villalobos, Victor; Szklo, André; Fong, Geoffrey T; Pérez, Cristina; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansone, Natalie; Figueiredo, Valeska; Boado, Marcelo; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of different health warning labels (HWL). Material and Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control Survey (ITC Survey) were analyzed from adult smokers in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, each of which used a different HWL strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively). Main outcomes were HWL salience and cognitive impact. Results HWLs in Uruguay (which was the only country with a HWL on the front of the package) had higher salience than either Brazilian or Mexican packs. People at higher levels of educational attainment in Mexico were more likely to read the text-only HWLs whereas education was unassociated with salience in Brazil or Uruguay. Brazilian HWLs had greater cognitive impacts than HWLs in either Uruguay or Mexico. HWLs in Uruguay generated lower cognitive impacts than the text-only HWLs in Mexico. In Brazil, cognitive impacts were strongest among smokers with low educational attainment. Conclusions This study suggests that HWLs have the most impact when they are prominent (i.e., front and back of the package) and include emotionally engaging imagery that illustrates negative bodily impacts or human suffering due to smoking. PMID:21243191

  4. DV169 Comparative assessment of consumption patterns and environmental issues in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, I.

    2005-01-01

    In this MSc research project the consumption patterns and environmental issues in the developing country Ecuador were studied. Within the ‘Center for Energy and Environmental Studies’ this is a first step in the combined research field of environmental issues and consumption patterns in developing c

  5. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  6. Prisoners' attitudes towards cigarette smoking and smoking cessation: a questionnaire study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopa Krzysztof

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade Poland has successfully carried out effective anti-tobacco campaigns and introduced tobacco control legislation. This comprehensive strategy has focused on the general population and has led to a considerable decrease in tobacco consumption. Prisoners constitute a relatively small part of the entire Polish population and smoking habits in this group have been given little attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Polish male prisoners, factors determining smoking in this group, prisoners' attitudes towards smoking cessation, and to evaluate prisoners' perception of different anti-tobacco measures. Methods An anonymous questionnaire including personal, demographic and smoking data was distributed among 944 male inmates. Of these, 907 men aged between 17 and 62 years (mean 32.3 years met the inclusion criteria of the study. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used with continuity correction whenever appropriate. Results In the entire group, 81% of the subjects were smokers, 12% – ex-smokers, and 7% – never smokers. Current smokers had significantly lower education level than non-smokers (p Conclusion The prevalence of cigarette smoking among Polish prisoners is high. However, a majority of smokers attempt to quit, and they should be encouraged and supported. Efforts to reduce cigarette smoking in prisons need to take into consideration the specific factors influencing smoking habits in prisons.

  7. The Impact of the Malaysian Minimum Cigarette Price Law: Findings from the ITC Malaysia Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C.; Ross, Hana; Omar, Maizurah; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Study the effects of the 2011 Malaysian minimum price law (MPL) on prices of licit and illicit cigarette brands. Identify barriers to the MPL achieving positive public health effects. Methods The International Tobacco Control Project's Southeast Asia survey collected information on Malaysian smokers' cigarette purchases (n=7,520) in five survey waves between 2005 and 2012. Consumption-weighted comparisons of proportions tests and adjusted Wald tests were used to evaluate changes over time in violation rates of the inflation-adjusted MPL, the proportion of illicit cigarette purchases, and mean prices. Results After the passage of the MPL, the proportion of licit brand cigarette purchases that were below the inflation-adjusted 2011 minimum price level fell substantially (before 3.9%, after 1.8%, p=0.002), while violation of the MPL for illicit brand cigarette purchases was unchanged (before 89.8%, after 91.9%, p=0.496). At the same time, the mean real price of licit cigarettes rose (p=0.006) while the mean real price of illicit cigarettes remained unchanged (p=0.134). The proportion of illicit cigarette purchases rose as well (before 13.4%, after 16.5%, p=0.041). Discussion The MPL appears not to have meaningfully changed cigarette prices in Malaysia, as licit brand prices remained well above and illicit brand prices remained well below the minimum price level before and after MPL's implementation. The increasing proportion of illicit cigarettes on the market may have undermined any positive health effects of the Malaysian MPL. The illicit cigarette trade must be addressed before a full evaluation of the Malaysian MPL's impact on public health can take place. The authors encourage the continued use of specific excise tax increases to reliably increase the price and decrease the consumption of cigarettes in Malaysia and elsewhere. PMID:25808666

  8. E-cigarette use results in suppression of immune and inflammatory-response genes in nasal epithelial cells similar to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth M; Clapp, Phillip W; Rebuli, Meghan E; Pawlak, Erica A; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Benowitz, Neal L; Fry, Rebecca C; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke is known to result in impaired host defense responses and immune suppressive effects. However, the effects of new and emerging tobacco products, such as e-cigarettes, on the immune status of the respiratory epithelium are largely unknown. We conducted a clinical study collecting superficial nasal scrape biopsies, nasal lavage, urine, and serum from nonsmokers, cigarette smokers, and e-cigarette users and assessed them for changes in immune gene expression profiles. Smoking status was determined based on a smoking history and a 3- to 4-wk smoking diary and confirmed using serum cotinine and urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) levels. Total RNA from nasal scrape biopsies was analyzed using the nCounter Human Immunology v2 Expression panel. Smoking cigarettes or vaping e-cigarettes resulted in decreased expression of immune-related genes. All genes with decreased expression in cigarette smokers (n = 53) were also decreased in e-cigarette smokers. Additionally, vaping e-cigarettes was associated with suppression of a large number of unique genes (n = 305). Furthermore, the e-cigarette users showed a greater suppression of genes common with those changed in cigarette smokers. This was particularly apparent for suppressed expression of transcription factors, such as EGR1, which was functionally associated with decreased expression of 5 target genes in cigarette smokers and 18 target genes in e-cigarette users. Taken together, these data indicate that vaping e-cigarettes is associated with decreased expression of a large number of immune-related genes, which are consistent with immune suppression at the level of the nasal mucosa.

  9. Impact of hypoxia on consumption of Baltic cod in a multispecies stock assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teschner, E.C.; Kraus, G.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    for organisms living under these conditions. For cod e.g. a direct relationship between oxygen availability and food intake with a decreasing ingestion rate at hypoxia could be revealed. In the present study, the effects of oxygen deficiency on consumption rates were investigated and how these translate...... to stock size estimates in multi-species models. Based on results from laboratory experiments, a model was fitted to evacuation rates at different oxygen levels and integrated into the existing consumption model for Baltic cod. Individual mean oxygen corrected consumption rates were 0.1–10.9% lower than...... the uncorrected ones. At the currently low predator stock size, however, the effect of oxygen-reduced consumption on the total amount of eaten prey biomass and thus predation mortalities was only marginal. But should successful management lead to higher cod stock sizes in the future, then total predation...

  10. Alcohol and cocaine co-consumption in two European cities assessed by wastewater analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Racamonde, Inés; González-Mariño, Iria; Borsotti, Andrea; Rodil, Rosario; Rodríguez, Isaac; Zuccato, Ettore; Quintana, José Benito; Castiglioni, Sara

    2015-12-01

    The quantitative determination of urinary biomarkers in raw wastewater has emerged in recent years as a promising tool for estimating the consumption of illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol in a population and for comparing local and temporal trends. In this study, a three-year monitoring campaign (2012-2014) was conducted to compare alcohol and cocaine use in two European cities (Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and Milan, Italy) by wastewater analysis. Ethyl sulphate and benzoylecgonine were used, respectively, as biomarkers of ethanol and cocaine consumption and cocaethylene as an indicator of co-consumption of both substances. Biomarkers were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and concentrations were converted to rates of consumption using specific correction factors. Results were statistically compared in terms of geographic and temporal tendencies. Alcohol intake was significantly higher in Santiago than in Milan (13.6L versus 5.1L ethanol/1000 people day, averages). Cocaine use was higher in Milan than in Santiago de Compostela (800 versus 632 mg/1000 people day, averages). A significant higher consumption of both alcohol and cocaine was observed during the weekends (~23-75% more than on weekdays) in both cities. In terms of years, slight changes were observed, but no clear trends as representative of the whole year could be identified because of the limited number of days sampled. Co-consumption was evaluated using the cocaethylene/benzoylecgonine ratio, which was higher during the weekend in both cities (58% in Santiago and 47% in Milan over the non-weekend day means), indicating a greater co-consumption when cocaine is used as a recreational drug. Wastewater-based epidemiology gave estimates of alcohol and cocaine use in agreement with previous wastewater studies and with recent European surveillance and prevalence data, and weekly profiles of use and preferential patterns of consumption could be plot.

  11. Strategic assessment of capacity consumption in railway networks: Framework and model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new framework for strategic planning purposes to calculate railway infrastructure occupation and capacity consumption in networks, independent of a timetable. Furthermore, a model implementing the framework is presented. In this model different train sequences are gene......In this paper, we develop a new framework for strategic planning purposes to calculate railway infrastructure occupation and capacity consumption in networks, independent of a timetable. Furthermore, a model implementing the framework is presented. In this model different train sequences...

  12. Exploring maternal patterns of dietary caffeine consumption before conception and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Bell, Erin M; Browne, Marilyn L; Druschel, Charlotte M; Romitti, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    We describe patterns of dietary caffeine consumption before and after pregnancy recognition in a cohort of women who recently gave birth. This study included 8,347 mothers of non-malformed liveborn control infants who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1997-2007. Maternal self-reported consumption of beverages (caffeinated coffee, tea, and soda) and chocolate the year before pregnancy was used to estimate caffeine intake. The proportions of prepregnancy caffeine consumption stratified by maternal characteristics are reported. In addition, patterns of reported change in consumption before and after pregnancy were examined by maternal and pregnancy characteristics. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated to assess factors most associated with change in consumption. About 97 % of mothers reported any caffeine consumption (average intake of 129.9 mg/day the year before pregnancy) and soda was the primary source of caffeine. The proportion of mothers reporting dietary caffeine intake of more than 300 mg/day was significantly increased among those who smoked cigarettes or drank alcohol. Most mothers stopped or decreased their caffeinated beverage consumption during pregnancy. Young maternal age and unintended pregnancy were associated with increases in consumption during pregnancy. Dietary caffeine consumption during pregnancy is still common in the US. A high level of caffeine intake was associated with known risk factors for adverse reproductive outcomes. Future studies may improve the maternal caffeine exposure assessment by acquiring additional information regarding the timing and amount of change in caffeine consumption after pregnancy recognition.

  13. Moving to a consumption-based tax system: a quantitative assessment for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues dos Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years, it has been a primary issue in tax policy whether the tax system ought to be built around income tax or consumption tax. Much of the interest in tax policy arises from the widespread belief that taxes on income and savings tend to lower long-run income by retarding the creation and expansion of firms and by discouraging workers and investments. Following this belief, Brazilian government has proposed a tax reform which, basically, replaces tax on investment and labor with tax on consumption. In this paper, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents to guide our quantitative assessment of the economic and distributional implications of such tax reform. The model is calibrated in such a way that it matches some selected features of the Brazilian economy. We also use the calibrated model to calculate the deadweight loss of each type of taxation and thus provide some rationality for that rearrangement in the tax system. The main result of the paper is that, even though the tax reform increases the asset accumulation, labor and output of economy, it also raises the welfare inequality as borrowing constrained individuals cannot take advantage of the drop in tax on savings.Uma importante questão em política tributária é se o sistema de tributação deve ser construído com foco na taxação da renda ou do consumo. Muito do interesse em política tributária vem da disseminada crença que as taxas sobre a renda e a poupança tendem à reduzir o produto de longo prazo, retardando a criação e a expansão das firmas e desencorajando a oferta de trabalho e o investimento. Seguindo essa idéia, o governo brasileiro propôs uma reforma tributária a qual, basicamente, substitui a taxação do investimento e do trabalho pela taxação do consumo. Nesse artigo, nós desenvolvemos um modelo dinâmico de equilíbrio geral com agentes heterogênios para investigar quantitativamente os efeitos econômicos e

  14. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Davis, S. J.; Guan, D.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2014-10-01

    High anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and it has attracted considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated, however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutants were transferred through economic and trade activities remains challenge. In this work, we assessed China's virtual air pollutant transport embodied in trade, by using consumption-based accounting approach. We first constructed a consumption-based emission inventory for China's four key air pollutants (primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)) in 2007, based on the bottom-up sectoral emission inventory concerning their production activities - a production-based inventory. We used a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to integrate the sectoral production-based emissions and the associated economic and trade activities, and finally obtained consumption-based inventory. Unlike the production-based inventory, the consumption-based inventory tracked emissions throughout the supply chain related to the consumption of goods and services and hereby identified the emission flows followed the supply chains. From consumption-based perspective, emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces due to interprovincial trade. Large amount of emissions were embodied in the net imports of east regions from northern and central regions; these were determined by differences in the regional economic status and environmental policies. We also calculated the emissions embodied in exported and imported goods and services. It is found that 15-23% of China's pollutant emissions were related to exports for foreign consumption; that proportion was much higher for central and export-oriented coastal regions. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers

  15. Graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packs: will they make a difference to adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Judith; Webb, Lisa; Cameron, Linda D; Hoek, Janet

    2012-04-01

    Graphic warning labels and plain cigarette packaging are two initiatives developed to increase quit behaviour among smokers. Although a little is known about how adolescents interpret graphic warning labels, very few studies have examined how plain cigarette packaging would affect adolescents' perceptions of cigarette smoking and smoking behaviour. We explored how teens interpret and respond to graphic warning labels and the plain packaging of cigarettes, to assess the potential these strategies may offer in deterring smoking initiation. Twelve focus group interviews with a sample of 80 14-16 year old students from a diverse range of schools in Auckland, New Zealand were undertaken between June and August 2009. Textual analysis revealed that graphic warning labels may influence adolescents by reiterating a negative image of smokers. Graphic warning on a plain cigarette pack increased the attention paid to graphic warning labels and the overall perceptions of harm caused by cigarette smoking, and reduced the social appeal of cigarette smoking. This research offers evidence on how adolescents are appraising and interpreting graphic warning labels, and explores how dominant appraisals may affect the role graphic warning labels play in preventing smoking. Not only would plain cigarette packaging enhance the salience and impact of graphic warning labels, but it would potentially bolster the overall message that cigarette smoking is harmful. In the context of a comprehensive tobacco control programme, graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packaging present an explicit message about the risks (to health and image) associated with cigarette smoking.

  16. Water consumption from hydropower plants – review of published estimates and an assessment of the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bakken

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the report from IPCC on renewable energy (IPCC, 2012 was published; more studies on water consumption from hydropower have become available. The newly published studies do not, however, contribute to a more consistent picture on what the "true" water consumption from hydropower plants is. The dominant calculation method is the gross evaporation from the reservoirs divided by the annual power production, which appears to be an over-simplistic calculation method that possibly produces a biased picture of the water consumption of hydropower plants. This review paper shows that the water footprint of hydropower is used synonymously with water consumption, based on gross evaporation rates. This paper also documents and discusses several methodological problems when applying this simplified approach (gross evaporation divided by annual power production for the estimation of water consumption from hydropower projects. A number of short-comings are identified, including the lack of clarity regarding the setting of proper system boundaries in space and time. The methodology of attributing the water losses to the various uses in multi-purpose reservoirs is not developed. Furthermore, a correct and fair methodology for handling water consumption in reservoirs based on natural lakes is needed, as it appears meaningless that all the evaporation losses from a close-to-natural lake should be attributed to the hydropower production. It also appears problematic that the concept is not related to the impact the water consumption will have on the local water resources, as high water consumption values might not be problematic per se. Finally, it appears to be a paradox that a reservoir might be accorded a very high water consumption/footprint and still be the most feasible measure to improve the availability of water in a region. We argue that reservoirs are not always the problem; rather they may contribute to the solution of the problems of water scarcity

  17. Water consumption from hydropower plants – review of published estimates and an assessment of the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bakken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the report from IPCC on renewable energy (IPCC, 2012 was published; more studies on water consumption from hydropower have become available. The newly published studies do not, however, contribute to a more consistent picture on what the "true" water consumption from hydropower plants is. The dominant calculation method is the gross evaporation from the reservoirs divided by the annual power production, which appears to be an over-simplistic calculation method that possibly produces a biased picture of the water consumption of hydropower plants. This review paper shows that the water footprint of hydropower is used synonymously to water consumption, based on gross evaporation rates. This paper also documents and discusses several methodological problems when applying this simplified approach (gross evaporation divided by annual power production for the estimation of water consumption from hydropower projects. A number of short-comings are identified, including the lack of clarity regarding the setting of proper system boundaries in space and time. The methodology of attributing the water losses to the various uses in multi-purpose reservoirs is not developed. Furthermore, a correct and fair methodology for handling water consumption in reservoirs based on natural lakes is needed, as it appears meaningless that all the evaporation losses from a close to natural lake should be attributed to the hydropower production. It also appears problematic that the concept is not related to the impact the water consumption will have on the local water resources, as high water consumption values might not be problematic per se. Finally, it appears to be a paradox that a reservoir might be accorded a very high water consumption/footprint and still be the most feasible measure to improve the availability of water in a region. We argue that reservoirs are not always the problem; rather they may contribute to the solution of the problems of water scarcity

  18. Electronic cigarettes: a survey of users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etter Jean-François

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about users of electronic cigarettes, or their opinions, satisfaction or how and why they use such products. Methods An internet survey of 81 ever-users of ecigarettes in 2009. Participants answered open-ended questions on use of, and opinions about, ecigarettes. Results Respondents (73 current and 8 former users lived in France, Canada, Belgium or Switzerland. Most respondents (77% were men; 63% were former smokers and 37% were current smokers. They had used e-cigarettes for 100 days (median and drew 175 puffs per day (median. Participants used the ecigarette either to quit smoking (53 comments, to reduce their cigarette consumption (14 comments, in order not to disturb other people with smoke (20 comments, or in smoke-free places (21 comments. Positive effects reported with ecigarettes included their usefulness to quit smoking, and the benefits of abstinence from smoking (less coughing, improved breathing, better physical fitness. Respondents also enjoyed the flavour of ecigarettes and the sensation of inhalation. Side effects included dryness of the mouth and throat. Respondents complained about the frequent technical failures of ecigarettes and had some concerns about the possible toxicity of the devices and about their future legal status. Conclusions Ecigarettes were used mainly to quit smoking, and may be helpful for this purpose, but several respondents were concerned about potential toxicity. There are very few published studies on ecigarettes and research is urgently required, particularly on the efficacy and toxicity of these devices.

  19. Cigarette smoking and poverty in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanli; Rao, Keqin; Hu, Teh-Wei; Sun, Qi; Mao, Zhenzhong

    2006-12-01

    Drawing on the 1998 China national health services survey data, this study estimated the poverty impact of two smoking-related expenses: excessive medical spending attributable to smoking and direct spending on cigarettes. The excessive medical spending attributable to smoking is estimated using a regression model of medical expenditure with smoking status (current smoker, former smoker, never smoker) as part of the explanatory variables, controlling for people's demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The poverty impact is measured by the changes in the poverty head count, after smoking-related expenses are subtracted from income. We found that the excessive medical spending attributable to smoking may have caused the poverty rate to increase by 1.5% for the urban population and by 0.7% for the rural population. To a greater magnitude, the poverty headcount in urban and rural areas increased by 6.4% and 1.9%, respectively, due to the direct household spending on cigarettes. Combined, the excessive medical spending attributable to smoking and consumption spending on cigarettes are estimated to be responsible for impoverishing 30.5 million urban residents and 23.7 million rural residents in China. Smoking related expenses pushed a significant proportion of low-income families into poverty in China. Therefore, reducing the smoking rate appears to be not only a public health strategy, but also a poverty reduction strategy.

  20. Toxicological evaluation of glycerin as a cigarette ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmines, E L; Gaworski, C L

    2005-10-01

    Glycerin is applied to cigarette tobacco at levels in the range of about 1-5% to improve moisture holding characteristics of tobacco and act as a surface active agent for flavor application. Neat material pyrolysis studies, smoke chemistry and biological activity studies (bacterial mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, in vivo micronucleus, and sub-chronic rodent inhalation) with mainstream smoke, or mainstream smoke preparations from cigarettes containing various target levels (5%, 10%, and 15%) of the glycerin were performed to provide data for an assessment of the use of glycerin as a cigarette tobacco ingredient. The actual levels of glycerin in the respective test cigarettes were determined to be 3.2%, 6.2% and 8.4% after cigarette production. At simulated tobacco burning temperatures up to 900 degrees C, neat glycerin did not pyrolyze extensively suggesting that glycerin would transfer intact to mainstream smoke (smoke was not analyzed for glycerin in this study). On a tar basis, nicotine in smoke was significantly decreased at 10% and 15% glycerin while water was increased at all addition levels. Addition of 10% or 15% glycerin also resulted in a statistically significant increase in acrolein (9%) and a decrease in acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, aromatic amines, nitrogen oxides, tobacco specific nitrosamines, and phenols. Addition of 5% glycerin produced the same decrease in smoke constituents as the 10% and 15% groups but there was no concomitant increase in acrolein. Biological tests indicated no relevant differences in the genotoxic or cytotoxic potential of either mainstream smoke (or smoke preparations) from cigarettes with added glycerin compared to control cigarettes. Cigarette smoke atmosphere dilution, coupled with the lower nicotine delivery in the test cigarettes containing glycerin resulted in a lower nicotine delivery to the glycerin cigarette smoke exposed rats of the 90-day inhalation study. Smoke atmosphere acrolein was also reduced in a concentration

  1. Cross-Sectional Assessment of Nut Consumption and Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The PREDIMED Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Corella, Dolores; Fiol, Miquel; Wärnberg, Julia; Estruch, Ramón; Román, Pilar; Arós, Fernando; Vinyoles, Ernest; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Covas, María-Isabel; Basora, Josep; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prospective studies have consistently suggested that nut consumption is inversely related to fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease. Limited data are available on the epidemiological associations between nut intake and cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective To evaluate associations between frequency of nut consumption and prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors [obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), type-2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia] in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study of 7,210 men and women (mean age, 67 y) recruited into the PREDIMED study. MetS was defined by the harmonized ATPIII and IDF criteria. Diabetes and hypertension were assessed by clinical diagnosis and dyslipidemia (high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, and hypercholesterolemia) by lipid analyses. Nut consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and categorized as 3 servings/wk. Control of confounding was done with multivariate logistic regression. Results Compared to participants consuming 3 servings/wk had lower adjusted odds ratios (OR) for obesity (0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.68; P-trend <0.001), MetS (0.74, 0.65 to 0.85; P-trend<0.001), and diabetes (0.87, 0.78 to 0.99; P-trend = 0.043). Higher nut consumption was also associated with lower risk of the abdominal obesity MetS criterion (OR 0.68, 0.60 to 0.79; P-trend<0.001). No significant associations were observed for the MetS components high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, or elevated fasting glucose. Conclusions Nut consumption was inversely associated with the prevalence of general obesity, central obesity, MetS, and diabetes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:23460844

  2. Cross-sectional assessment of nut consumption and obesity, metabolic syndrome and other cardiometabolic risk factors: the PREDIMED study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Ibarrola-Jurado

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prospective studies have consistently suggested that nut consumption is inversely related to fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease. Limited data are available on the epidemiological associations between nut intake and cardiometabolic risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between frequency of nut consumption and prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors [obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS, type-2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia] in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 7,210 men and women (mean age, 67 y recruited into the PREDIMED study. MetS was defined by the harmonized ATPIII and IDF criteria. Diabetes and hypertension were assessed by clinical diagnosis and dyslipidemia (high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, and hypercholesterolemia by lipid analyses. Nut consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and categorized as 3 servings/wk. Control of confounding was done with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared to participants consuming 3 servings/wk had lower adjusted odds ratios (OR for obesity (0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.68; P-trend <0.001, MetS (0.74, 0.65 to 0.85; P-trend<0.001, and diabetes (0.87, 0.78 to 0.99; P-trend = 0.043. Higher nut consumption was also associated with lower risk of the abdominal obesity MetS criterion (OR 0.68, 0.60 to 0.79; P-trend<0.001. No significant associations were observed for the MetS components high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, or elevated fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Nut consumption was inversely associated with the prevalence of general obesity, central obesity, MetS, and diabetes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

  3. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Mohammad, E-mail: m.yousefi@pgs.razi.ac.ir [Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi [Departments of Agroecology, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoramivafa, Mahmud [Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha{sup −1}, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ{sup −1}, respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO{sub 2,} 31.58 kg N{sub 2}O and 3.82 kg CH{sub 4} per hectare{sub .} Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co{sub 2}eq ha{sup −1} in corn production systems. In terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO{sub 2}, 76% from N{sub 2}O, and 1% from CH{sub 4}. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg C ha{sup −1}. Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg C ha{sup −1} and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. - Highlights: • Increasing of energy consumption leaded to decreasing energy use efficiency in corn agroecosystems. • Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} in corn production systems were 2994.66, 31.58 and 3.82 kg ha{sup -1}, respectively. • Global warming potential (GWP) was 12864.84 kg CO{sub 2}eq ha{sup -1} in corn production systems. • Sustainability index in corn production systems was 2.05. • Reducing use of chemicals fertilizer and diesel fuel

  4. Cardiac output assessment using oxygen consumption estimated from the left ventricular pressure-volume area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Jorge A; Lascano, Elena C; Bertolotti, Alejandro M; Gómez, Carmen B; Rodríguez Correa, Carlos A; Favaloro, Roberto R

    2010-01-01

    Use of a majority of structural variables (age, sex, height) to estimate oxygen consumption in the calculation of cardiac output (CO) by the Fick principle does not account for changes in physiological conditions. To improve this limitation, oxygen consumption was estimated based on the left ventricular pressure-volume area. A pilot study with 10 patients undergoing right cardiac catheterization showed that this approach was successful to estimate CO (r=0,73, vs. thermodilution measured CO). Further essays changing end-diastolic-volume in the pressure-volume area formula by body weight or body surface area showed that this last yielded the best correlation with the thermodilution measured CO (slope=1, ordinate =0.01 and r=0.93). These preliminary results indicate that use of a formula originated from the pressure-volume-area concept is a good alternative to estimate oxygen consumption for CO calculation.

  5. People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith-Hall Carsten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy; each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems. To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous. A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs and

  6. Development of nitroxide radicals-containing polymer for scavenging reactive oxygen species from cigarette smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Kuramochi, Kazuhiro; Binh Vong, Long; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    We developed a nitroxide radicals-containing polymer (NRP), which is composed of poly(4-methylstyrene) possessing nitroxide radicals as a side chain via amine linkage, to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cigarette smoke. In this study, the NRP was coated onto cigarette filters and its ROS-scavenging activity from streaming cigarette smoke was evaluated. The intensity of electron spin resonance signals of the NRP in the filter decreased after exposure to cigarette smoke, indicating consumption of nitroxide radicals. To evaluate the ROS-scavenging activity of the NRP-coated filter, the amount of peroxy radicals in an extract of cigarette smoke was measured using UV-visible spectrophotometry and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The absorbance of DPPH at 517 nm decreased with exposure to cigarette smoke. When NRP-coated filters were used, the decrease in the absorbance of DPPH was prevented. In contrast, both poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters, which have no nitroxide radical, did not show any effect, indicating that the nitroxide radicals in the NRP scavenge the ROS in cigarette smoke. As a result, the extract of cigarette smoke passed through the NRP-coated filter has a lower cellular toxicity than smoke passed through poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters. Accordingly, NRP is a promising material for ROS scavenging from cigarette smoke.

  7. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure (BoE) to harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes in adult smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Grant; Graff, Donald W.; D’Ruiz, Carl D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Changes in fifteen urine, blood and exhaled breath BoEs of HPHCs representing classes of compounds reported by FDA to be significant contributors to smoking-associated disease risks were measured in 105 clinical-confined subjects following randomization and a five-day forced-switch from usual brand conventional combustible cigarettes to: (i) exclusive commercial e-cigarette use; (ii) dual-use of commercial e-cigarettes and the subject’s usual cigarette brand; or (iii) discontinued use of all tobacco or nicotine products. Levels of urinary biomarkers in subjects that completely substituted their usual cigarette with e-cigarettes were significantly lower (29–95%) after 5 days. Percent reductions in eight of nine urinary BoEs were indistinguishable to smokers who had quit smoking, except for nicotine equivalents, which declined by 25–40%. Dual users who halved self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes exhibited reductions (7–38%) in eight of nine urinary biomarkers, but had increase (1–20%) in nicotine equivalents. Reductions were broadly proportional to the reduced numbers of cigarettes smoked. Dual user urinary nicotine equivalents were slightly higher, but not statistically significant. After 5 days, blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75–96%) and exclusive use groups (11–83%); with dual users experiencing no significant reductions. All subjects experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO. Decreases in the cessation and exclusive groups ranged from 88–89% and 27–32% in dual users. Exhaled NO increased in the cessation and exclusive groups (46–63% respectively), whereas the dual users experienced minimal changes. Overall, smokers who completely or partially substituted conventional cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days, experienced reductions in HPHCs. PMID:27401591

  8. Probabilistic intake assessment of multiple compounds as a tool to quantify the nutritional-toxicological conflict related to seafood consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; Verdonck, Frederik; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Willems, Jan; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2008-04-01

    Seafood represents a natural source of valuable nutrients (e.g., long chain omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs), vitamin D, and iodine), but the favourable health perception is troubled by the presence of contaminants (e.g., PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, and (methyl) mercury (MeHg)). This dualism forms the basis for an important public health conflict. The objective of this study was to calculate and evaluate the simultaneous intake of multiple beneficial and harmful compounds (LC n-3 PUFAs, vitamin D, iodine, (Me)Hg, PCBs, and dioxin-like compounds) via seafood consumption in Belgium. A methodology and a software module were developed for executing probabilistic assessments of the simultaneous intake of multiple compounds leading to better insight in the problematic nature of food items involving both health benefits and risks. The simulations concerning seafood consumption in Belgium predicted that, as far as only seafood consumption is concerned, the considered populations do not reach a sufficiently high intake for the three nutrients considered (LC n-3 PUFAs, vitamin D, and iodine). Regarding the contaminants, (Me)Hg contamination of seafood on the Belgian market does not seem to be an issue of major toxicological concern. In contrast, for dioxin-like compounds the tolerable daily intake is reached by people with high seafood consumption.

  9. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  10. Roll-your-own cigarettes in Europe: use, weight and implications for fiscal policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Ghislandi, Simone; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-05-01

    Excise duties on roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, which are generally based on RYO cigarettes containing 1 g of tobacco, are lower than duties on factory-made (FM) cigarettes. This provides a price incentive for smokers to switch to RYO, the use of which is increasing across Europe. To effectively approximate duties on the two types of products, accurate data on the weight of RYO cigarettes are required. We provide updated information on RYO use and RYO cigarette weight across Europe. From a representative face-to-face survey conducted in 2010 in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden), we considered data from 5158 current smokers aged 15 years or above, with available information on daily consumption of FM and RYO cigarettes separately. In Europe, 10.4% of current smokers (12.9% of men and 7.5% of women) were 'predominant' RYO users (i.e. >50% of cigarettes smoked). This proportion was highest in England (27.3%), France (16.5%) and Finland (13.6%). The median weight of one RYO cigarette is 0.75 g (based on 192 smokers consuming exclusively RYO cigarettes). The proportion of RYO smokers is substantial in several European countries. Our finding on the weight of RYO cigarettes is consistent with the scientific literature and industry documents showing that the weight of RYO cigarettes is substantially lower than that of FM ones. Basing excise duties on RYO on an average cigarette weight of 0.75 g rather than 1 g would help increase the excise levels to those on FM cigarettes.

  11. Comparison of household consumption and regional production approaches to assess urban energy use and implications for policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baynes, Timothy, E-mail: Tim.Baynes@csiro.au [Ecosystems Science Division, CSIRO, P.O. Box 310, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Lenzen, Manfred, E-mail: m.lenzen@physics.usyd.edu.au [ISA, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Steinberger, Julia K., E-mail: j.k.steinberger@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Social Ecology Alpen-Adria University, Schottenfeldg. 29, Vienna A-1070 (Austria); Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, LS29JT (United Kingdom); Bai Xuemei, E-mail: Xuemei.Bai@anu.edu.au [Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Assessment of urban energy use may proceed by a number of methods. Here we derive an energy account from local statistics, and compare them with an input output (IO) analysis as applied to Melbourne, Australia. These approaches highlight different aspects of urban energy use and comparable outputs are presented together to assess consistency, to identify complementarities and discuss the insight each approach brings to understanding urban energy. The IO method captures the direct and embodied primary energy requirements of local household expenditure (235.8 GJ/capita/year) while the regional assessment more directly accounts for local production activity (258.1 GJ/capita/year). The parity of these results is unexpected for a developed city with a strong tertiary sector. Sectoral detail reveals differences between the primary energy required by Melbourne's economic structure and that ultimately required through the full supply chain relating to household expenditure. This is accompanied by an IO analysis of the geography of Melbourne's 'energy catchment'. It is suggested that the IO consumption and regional production approaches have particular relevance to policies aimed at consumption behaviour and economic (re)structuring, respectively. Their complementarity further suggests that a combined analysis would be valuable in understanding urban energy futures and economic transitions elsewhere. - Highlights: > We compare an IO approach and a regional assessment of an urban energy use case. > Unusually, regional assessment of the primary energy use exceeds that from IO. > Sectoral and geographical detail reveals the urban consumption/production character. > We discuss the relative merits and policy utility of the different methods. > A combined approach is recommended for urban energy and economic transitions.

  12. Influence of heavy cigarette smoking on heart rate variability and heart rate turbulence parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagirci, Goksel; Cay, Serkan; Karakurt, Ozlem;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular events related with several mechanisms. The most suggested mechanism is increased activity of sympathetic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate turbulence (HRT) has been shown to be independent and powerful...... predictors of mortality in a specific group of cardiac patients. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of heavy cigarette smoking on cardiac autonomic function using HRV and HRT analyses. METHODS: Heavy cigarette smoking was defined as more than 20 cigarettes smoked per day. Heavy cigarette smokers......, 69 subjects and nonsmokers 74 subjects (control group) were enrolled in this study. HRV and HRT analyses [turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS)] were assessed from 24-hour Holter recordings. RESULTS: The values of TO were significantly higher in heavy cigarette smokers than control group...

  13. Cigarette smoke exposure-associated alterations to noncoding RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Alan Maccani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures vary by timing, severity, and frequency and may have a number of deleterious effects throughout the life course. The period of in utero development, for example, is one of the most crucial stages of development during which adverse environmental exposures can both alter the growth and development of the fetus as well as lead to aberrant fetal programming, increasing disease risk. During fetal development and beyond, the plethora of exposures, including nutrients, drugs, stress, and trauma, influence health, development, and survival. Recent research in environmental epigenetics has investigated the roles of environmental exposures in influencing epigenetic modes of gene regulation during pregnancy and at various stages of life. Many relatively common environmental exposures, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use, may have consequences for the expression and function of noncoding RNA (ncRNA, important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. A number of ncRNA have been discovered, including microRNA (miRNA, Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA, and long noncoding RNA (long ncRNA. The best-characterized species of ncRNA are miRNA, the mature forms of which are ~22 nucleotides in length and capable of post-transcriptionally regulating target mRNA utilizing mechanisms based largely on the degree of complementarity between miRNA and target mRNA. Because miRNA can still negatively regulate gene expression when imperfectly base-paired with a target mRNA, a single miRNA can have a large number of potential mRNA targets and can regulate many different biological processes critical for health and development. The following review analyzes the current literature detailing links between cigarette smoke exposure and aberrant expression and function of noncoding RNA, assesses how such alterations may have consequences throughout the life course, and proposes future directions for this intriguing field of

  14. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451...... girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having a smoking father or smoking friends and four related social norms were recorded. Binary logistic...... regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: CIGARETTE AND HOOKAH SMOKERS HAD SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WITH NONSMOKERS IN TWO SOCIAL NORMS: "Perceived smoking by important characters" [odds ratio (OR) = 1...

  15. Integrating nutritional benefits and impacts in a life cycle assessment framework: A US dairy consumption case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Fulgoni III, Victor; Heller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Although essential to understand the overall health impact of a food or diet, nutrition is not usually considered in food-related life cycle assessments (LCAs). As a case study to demonstrate comparing environmental and nutritional health impacts we investigate United States dairy consumption....... Nutritional impacts, interpreted from disease burden epidemiology, are compared to health impacts from more tradi-tional impacts (e.g. due to exposure to particulate matter emissions across the life cycle) considered in LCAs. After accounting for the present consumption, data relating dairy intake to public...... health suggest that low-fat milk leads to nutritional benefits up to one additional daily serving in the American diet. We demonstrate the importance of considering the whole-diet and nutritional trade-offs. The estimated health impacts of various dietary scenarios may be of comparable magnitude...

  16. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady......-state thermal environments. Therefore, the first objective of the current paper was to compare a recently introduced unsteady-state model with previously used steady-state model using data obtained under both constant and transient temperature conditions. The second objective was to explore a relationship...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...

  17. Estimation of the consumption of cold tap water for microbiological risk assessment: An overview of studies and statistical analysis of data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons, M.N.; Wielen, J.M.L. van der; Blokker, E.J.M.; Sinclair, M.I.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Dangendorf, F.; Hunter, P.R.; Medema, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The volume of cold tap water consumed is an essential element in quantitative microbial risk assessment. This paper presents a review of tap water consumption studies. Study designs were evaluated and statistical distributions were fitted to water consumption data from The Netherlands, Great Britain

  18. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Mughal, Anum; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Saleem, Shafaq; Rao, Masood Hussain; Aftab, Anum; Hanif, Maliha; Ahmed, Alina; Khan, Agha Muhammad Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. Methods This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January – Decembe...

  19. Q fever through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products - a risk profile and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Kelly, L; Mearns, R; Duggan, J; Snary, E L

    2015-05-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii which is endemic in cattle, sheep and goats in much of the world, including the United Kingdom (UK). There is some epidemiological evidence that a small proportion of cases in the developed world may arise from consumption of unpasteurised milk with less evidence for milk products such as cheese. Long maturation at low pH may give some inactivation in hard cheese, and viable C. burnetii are rarely detected in unpasteurised cheese compared to unpasteurised milk. Simulations presented here predict that the probability of exposure per person to one or more C. burnetii through the daily cumulative consumption of raw milk in the UK is 0·4203. For those positive exposures, the average level of exposure predicted is high at 1266 guinea pig intraperitoneal infectious dose 50% units (GP_IP_ID50 ) per person per day. However, in the absence of human dose-response data, the case is made that the GP_IP_ID50 unit represents a very low risk through the oral route. The available evidence suggests that the risks from C. burnetii through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products (including cheese) are not negligible but they are lower in comparison to transmission via inhalation of aerosols from parturient products and livestock contact.

  20. Using GIS and Teledetection data to assess mobility and land consumption in polynucleated landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo Duarte, Carlos; Tornés Fernández, Moira

    2014-03-01

    Polycentrism has become the keystone in a major number of regional and urban policies, since it has been seen as a sustainable and equilibrated urban model. In this paper, the problem has been focused in case study the biggest metropolitan areas in Spain and pretends test whether polycentric urban growth does effectively reduce land consumption and travel-to-work journeys, protecting in this way agricultural and forest areas around cities and at the same time reducing energy and air emissions produced by cars. The methodology used has been departed from land-use, transport and census data, and using ArcGIS and TransCAD a group of spatial indicators is calculated and introduced in a family of regression models, where explained variables are per capita land consumption and excess commuting respectively. The results suggest that polynucleation has little effect both in the reduction of land consumption and excess commuting. On the contrary, other variables associated to urban form do highly influence land and mobility patterns, such as fragmentation of urban fabrics, job ratio balance, and the diversity of economic activities and housing offer. Such conclusions may shed light in the design of urban policies, and focus the attention on the definition of small-scale urban variables instead of structural ones at metropolitan scale.

  1. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 2. Biomarkers of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Michael W; Marano, Kristin M; Jones, Bobbette A; Morgan, Walter T; Stiles, Mitchell F

    2015-01-01

    A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) was conducted, and subjects' experience with the products was followed for 24 weeks. Differences in biomarkers of tobacco exposure between smokers and never smokers at baseline and among groups relative to each other and over time were assessed. Results indicated reduced exposure to many potentially harmful constituents found in cigarette smoke following product switching. Findings support differences in exposure from the use of various tobacco products and are relevant to the understanding of a risk continuum among tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917).

  2. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  3. Establishment and assessment of new formulas for energy consumption estimation in adult burn patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xi

    Full Text Available An accurate knowledge of energy consumption in burn patients is a prerequisite for rational nutrition therapy. This study sought to create a formula that accounts for the metabolic characteristics of adult burn patients to accurately estimate energy consumption of patients with different areas and extents of burn and at different times after injury.Resting energy expenditure (REE data on 66 burn patients, with total body surface area (TBSA of burns ranging from 4% to 96%, were evaluated at different times after injury. REE values were determined in patients using indirect calorimetry at days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after injury. We then constructed a mathematical model of REE changes post-burn. Next, established two new formulas (one non-linear and the other linear for energy consumption estimation using model-based analytical solution and regression analysis. The new formulas were compared with measured REE and commonly used formulas including those of Carlson, Xie, Curreri, and Milner to determine accuracy and reliability.Comparative analysis showed that the new formulas offered significantly higher accuracy and reliability than the Milner formula, which is considered the most accurate of commonly used burn energy consumption estimate formulas. The accuracy of the new nonlinear formula (94.29% and that of the linear formula (91.43% were significantly higher than that of Milner formula (72.86% when compared to measured REE (χ2  =  11.706, P  =  0.001; χ2  =  8.230, P  =  0.004, respectively. The reliabilities of the new estimation formulas were both 100% and that of Milner formula was 74.24% (χ2  =  19.513, P  =  0.000.The new formulas constructed in this study provide reliable simulation of the impact of the degree of burn and post-burn days on energy consumption and offer notably higher accuracy and reliability than other formulas. These formulas will help determine nutritional needs of burn patients.The study

  4. Electronic Cigarette Trial and Use among Young Adults: Reasons for Trial and Cessation of Vaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Biener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies predictors of trial and current use, and reasons for trying and ceasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes among young adults, with particular attention to former and never smokers. Data are from a mail survey of a population-based sample of adults aged 18 to 35 (N = 4740 in three U.S. metropolitan areas. Survey items assessed trial and use of e-cigarettes, cigarette smoking status, and reasons for trial and for ceasing use of e-cigarettes. Almost 23% reported trial of e-cigarettes, and 8.4% reported using them in the past month. Current smokers were much more likely to have tried e-cigarettes (70.2% than both former (32.3% and never smokers (7.6%; p < 0.001 and to have used them in the past month (30.8%, 10.1%, 2.0% respectively; p < 0.001. Smoking status and scores on sensation seeking were significant independent predictors of both trial and current use of e-cigarettes. Never-smokers cite curiosity as the reason for trying e-cigarettes and also that their friends used them. The most frequent reason for ceasing use among never and former smokers was health concerns. For virtually none of them were e-cigarettes their first exposure to nicotine.

  5. Black tea prevents cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis and lung damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Dhrubajyoti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung damage. One prominent deleterious effect of cigarette smoke is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may lead to apoptosis and lung injury. Since black tea has antioxidant property, we examined the preventive effect of black tea on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and lung injury in a guinea pig model. Methods Guinea pigs were subjected to cigarette smoke exposure from five cigarettes (two puffs/cigarette per guinea pig/day for seven days and given water or black tea to drink. Sham control guinea pigs were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Lung damage, as evidenced by inflammation and increased air space, was assessed by histology and morphometric analysis. Protein oxidation was measured through oxyblot analysis of dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives of the protein carbonyls of the oxidized proteins. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay, activation of caspase 3, phosphorylation of p53 as well as over-expression of Bax by immunoblot analyses. Results Cigarette smoke exposure to a guinea pig model caused lung damage. It appeared that oxidative stress was the initial event, which was followed by inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury. All these pathophysiological events were prevented when the cigarette smoke-exposed guinea pigs were given black tea infusion as the drink instead of water. Conclusion Cigarette smoke exposure to a guinea pig model causes oxidative damage, inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury that are prevented by supplementation of black tea.

  6. Electronic cigarettes in the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Medrano-Juarez, Rita; Buscemi, Dolores; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular source of nicotine and an increasingly popular topic in the media. Concerns about potential hazards associated with e-cigarette use and advertising, especially to adolescents, have led to studies on e-cigarettes in both traditional media (TV, mail, print, and outdoor advertising) and social media (websites, social networking sites, blogs, and e-mails). This review presents a narrative description of available studies related to e-cigarettes in the media. These articles have focused on promotion in both traditional and social media across a broad range of topics and have concentrated on target audiences, smoking cessation, harm reduction, and advertising. E-cigarette advertising is the most frequent topic in the published articles. Identifying the target audience also is a common objective in articles. The representation of e-cigarettes as a "healthier alternative" to traditional cigarettes and their use as a "smoking cessation aid" are main themes presented through all types of media.

  7. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental fact

  8. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are novel vaporising devices that, similar to nicotine replacement treatments, deliver nicotine but in lower amounts and less swiftly than tobacco smoking. However, they enjoy far greater popularity than these medications due in part to their behaviour replacement characteristics. Evidence for their efficacy as cessation aids, based on several randomised trials of now obsolete e-cigarettes, suggests a modest effect equivalent to nicotine patch. E-cigarettes are almost certainly far less harmful than tobacco smoking, but the health effects of long-term use are as yet unknown. Dual use is common and almost as harmful as usual smoking unless it leads to quitting. Population effects, such as re-normalising smoking behaviour, are a concern. Clinicians should be knowledgeable about these products. If patients who smoke are unwilling to quit or cannot succeed using evidence-based approaches, e-cigarettes may be an option to be considered after discussing the limitations of current knowledge.

  9. Metallic nanoparticle production and consumption in China between 2000 and 2010 and associative aquatic environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Luo, Zhuanxi; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Ming K.

    2013-06-01

    With rapid advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials, metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) have become widely used in many different products and industrial processes. Water is an important medium in the transfer and fate of MNPs. Accordingly, the potential for the inadvertent and incidental release of MNPs into aquatic environments through direct release and waste disposal has increased considerably in China in recent years. Environmental health and human safety are two of the greatest challenges facing the expanding nanomaterial field. However, existing knowledge on MNP toxicity is currently insufficient to carry out a comprehensive risk assessment due to a general lack of data related to the environmental distribution of MNPs within aquatic environments. This study provides a summary of MNP production and consumption trends in China by means of statistical changes in MNP discharge and deposition between 2000 and 2010. China was used as a model for aquatic environmental risks associated with MNP consumption and production. MNP pollution of aquatic environments is discussed as well as the challenges that China will face in the future with increasing nanomaterial consumption and pollution. The study concludes with a discussion on managing MNP exposure of aquatic environments in China and its subsequent risks, if any, which may require greater attention.

  10. Metallic nanoparticle production and consumption in China between 2000 and 2010 and associative aquatic environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yang, E-mail: gaoyang@igsnrr.ac.cn [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling (China); Luo Zhuanxi, E-mail: zxluo@iue.ac.cn [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health (China); He Nianpeng, E-mail: henp@igsnrr.ac.cn [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling (China); Wang, Ming K. [National Taiwan University, Department of Agricultural Chemistry (China)

    2013-06-15

    With rapid advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials, metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) have become widely used in many different products and industrial processes. Water is an important medium in the transfer and fate of MNPs. Accordingly, the potential for the inadvertent and incidental release of MNPs into aquatic environments through direct release and waste disposal has increased considerably in China in recent years. Environmental health and human safety are two of the greatest challenges facing the expanding nanomaterial field. However, existing knowledge on MNP toxicity is currently insufficient to carry out a comprehensive risk assessment due to a general lack of data related to the environmental distribution of MNPs within aquatic environments. This study provides a summary of MNP production and consumption trends in China by means of statistical changes in MNP discharge and deposition between 2000 and 2010. China was used as a model for aquatic environmental risks associated with MNP consumption and production. MNP pollution of aquatic environments is discussed as well as the challenges that China will face in the future with increasing nanomaterial consumption and pollution. The study concludes with a discussion on managing MNP exposure of aquatic environments in China and its subsequent risks, if any, which may require greater attention.

  11. How much is too much? Assessment of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins in Patagonian colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E Sala

    Full Text Available Penguins are major consumers in the southern oceans although quantification of this has been problematic. One suggestion proposes the use of points of inflection in diving profiles ('wiggles' for this, a method that has been validated for the estimation of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus by Simeone and Wilson (2003. Following them, we used wiggles from 31 depth logger-equipped Magellanic penguins foraging from four Patagonian colonies; Punta Norte (PN, Bahía Bustamente (BB, Puerto Deseado (PD and Puerto San Julián (PSJ, all located in Argentina between 42-49° S, to estimate the prey captured and calculate the catch per unit time (CPUT for birds foraging during the early chick-rearing period. Numbers of prey caught and CPUT were significantly different between colonies. Birds from PD caught the highest number of prey per foraging trip, with CPUT values of 68±19 prey per hour underwater (almost two times greater than for the three remaining colonies. We modeled consumption from these data and calculate that the world Magellanic penguin population consumes about 2 million tons of prey per year. Possible errors in this calculation are discussed. Despite this, the analysis of wiggles seems a powerful and simple tool to begin to quantify prey consumption by Magellanic penguins, allowing comparison between different breeding sites. The total number of wiggles and/or CPUT do not reflect, by themselves, the availability of food for each colony, as the number of prey consumed by foraging trip is strongly associated with the energy content and wet mass of each colony-specific 'prey type'. Individuals consuming more profitable prey could be optimizing the time spent underwater, thereby optimizing the energy expenditure associated with the dives.

  12. Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although much is known about smoking cessation behavior, the vast majority of research has not assessed menthol as an independent factor. The objective of this review is to assess the effects, if any, that use of menthol cigarettes has on smoking cessation success in adults and youth. A total of 20 articles are included in this review. Although some studies have found that menthol smokers have less success in quitting smoking, others fail to find significant differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Some clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of various cessation treatments have suggested that menthol smokers have poorer outcomes, however two secondary data analysis studies (which used the same original dataset failed to find any difference in success rate associated with particular treatments. Although there is some suggestion that smoking menthol cigarettes is associated with worse cessation outcomes, differences are not always found. However, if there was a difference, it was always in the direction of worse outcomes for menthol smokers. Given that Black/African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes more than White smokers, possible interactions with race/ethnicity are discussed.

  13. Determination of quantitative food consumption levels for use in microbial risk assessments: cheddar cheese as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Gyung-Jin; Todd, Ewen C D

    2007-01-01

    Microbial risk assessment (MRA) is becoming increasingly used in the management of food safety because it can be used to quantify risks and help rank intervention strategies. The exposure assessment components of the assessments have become complex with many aspects of the contamination, survival, and growth of a pathogen in a food being taken into consideration. Insufficient consumption data constitutes an important data gap and consequently one of many sources of uncertainty in MRA even though the effects of uncertainty are smaller than those affecting bacterial concentration in foods. Therefore, food consumption data also play an important role in exposure assessment of MRA. In the United States, there are large-scale, nationwide sets of consumption data available for use in MRA, i.e., the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Newly released dietary interview data in the NHANES 2001 to 2002 survey show that it has been redesigned and that the data were sufficiently updated from previous versions to have more value for MRAs. We propose a model that can effectively use the new data sets and be incorporated into MRAs, using as an example consumption of Cheddar cheese/American-type cheese. This model included the prevalence of food eaten as well as the amount and frequency. We determined the amount of Cheddar/American cheese consumed per day with probability distribution (e.g., lognormal distribution). These could be further determined by gender, age, pregnancy, and combination food type, which we plan to do in the future. The frequency of the range of serving numbers for Cheddar/American cheese consumed per person per day and prevalence as the proportion of a population (e.g., survey respondents) eating a certain food in a day are also presented. Unlike traditional published mean values, the results of this model provide probability distribution intakes that can be compared with mean and median intakes. This allows values in the upper

  14. DNA typing from cigarette butts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Takayama, Tomohiro; Hirata, Keiji; Yamada, Sadao; Nagai, Atsushi; Nakamura, Isao; Bunai, Yasuo; Ohya, Isao

    2003-03-01

    We performed DNA typing for D1S80, HLADQA1, TH01 and PM using the butts of 100 cigarettes that were smoked by ten different individuals (ten cigarettes per individual). The results obtained from DNA typing for D1S80 agreed with the results obtained using bloodstains in 76 cigarette butt samples. Sixteen samples produced false results, showing the loss of the longer allelic hetero-band. When examined using agarose gel electrophoresis, high-molecular weight DNA was not observed in these samples. The same results were also observed for buccal swab samples and saliva stains obtained from the same individuals. In the remaining eight cigarette butt samples, PCR products were not detected. The results obtained from DNA typing for TH01, HLADQA1 and PM agreed with the results obtained using bloodstains in 90 samples. In the remaining ten samples of a specific kind of cigarette (Marlboro), the PCR products were not detected. The extracts from the ends of the Marlboro cigarettes were stained yellow. When the DNA extracted from Marlboro cigarette butts was treated with Microcon-100 (amicon) or SizeSep 400 Span Columns (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech), PCR products could be detected. When PCR amplification was performed after adding extracts from the ends of unsmoked Marlboro cigarettes to DNA extracted from bloodstains, PCR products could not be detected. The present data indicate that the degradation of high-molecular weight DNA and the inhibition of PCR by dyes of the cigarette end should be kept in mind when performing DNA typing using cigarette ends.

  15. E-Cigarettes for Immediate Smoking Substitution in Women Diagnosed with Cervical Dysplasia and Associated Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley A. James

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if 31 women with cervical dysplasia and associated conditions exacerbated by smoking would be successful substituting cigarettes with their choice of either nicotine replacement therapy (NRT or electronic cigarettes (EC. Women received motivational interviewing and tried both NRT and ECs, choosing one method to use during a six-week intervention period. Daily cigarette consumption was measured at baseline, six, and 12 weeks, with differences analyzed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Study analysis consisted only of women choosing to use ECs (29/31, as only two chose NRT. At the 12-week follow-up, the seven day point prevalence abstinence from smoking was 28.6%, and the median number of cigarettes smoked daily decreased from 18.5 to 5.5 (p < 0.0001. The median number of e-cigarette cartridges used dropped from 21 at the six-week follow-up to 12.5 at the 12-week follow-up. After initiating EC use, women at risk for cervical cancer were able to either quit smoking or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Although a controlled trial with a larger sample size is needed to confirm these initial results, this study suggests that using ECs during quit attempts may reduce cigarette consumption.

  16. Physiological, psychological, social, and cultural influences on the use of menthol cigarettes among Blacks and Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe González

    2004-02-01

    Patterns of menthol cigarette consumption among Blacks and Hispanics are likely a product of the interactive effects of several factors: the physiological and pharmacological sensory effects of menthol, the "cool" psychological identity of being menthol smokers, the promotional marketing of menthol cigarettes, and the cultural effects of health-related beliefs and subjective culture norms. This article presents two conceptual frameworks--a moderation logic model and a mediation logic model--for organizing the disparate literature on factors affecting the consumption of menthol cigarettes among Blacks and Hispanics. Three factor domains are examined as direct effect predictors of menthol cigarette smoking: (a) physiological and pharmacological, (b) psychological, and (c) social and environmental. In addition, a fourth domain of cultural variables is presented as a class of moderator or mediator variables that can interact with these physiological, psychological, and social factors as determinants of menthol cigarette use. These cultural variables are examined as mediating or moderating factors that influence the use of menthol cigarettes by Black and Hispanic consumers. Recommendations are offered for future research to further understand the influence of cultural and other factors as determinants of menthol cigarette smoking among Blacks and Hispanics.

  17. E-Cigarettes for Immediate Smoking Substitution in Women Diagnosed with Cervical Dysplasia and Associated Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Shirley A; Meier, Ellen M; Wagener, Theodore L; Smith, Katherine M; Neas, Barbara R; Beebe, Laura A

    2016-03-04

    The aim of this study was to determine if 31 women with cervical dysplasia and associated conditions exacerbated by smoking would be successful substituting cigarettes with their choice of either nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or electronic cigarettes (EC). Women received motivational interviewing and tried both NRT and ECs, choosing one method to use during a six-week intervention period. Daily cigarette consumption was measured at baseline, six, and 12 weeks, with differences analyzed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Study analysis consisted only of women choosing to use ECs (29/31), as only two chose NRT. At the 12-week follow-up, the seven day point prevalence abstinence from smoking was 28.6%, and the median number of cigarettes smoked daily decreased from 18.5 to 5.5 (p < 0.0001). The median number of e-cigarette cartridges used dropped from 21 at the six-week follow-up to 12.5 at the 12-week follow-up. After initiating EC use, women at risk for cervical cancer were able to either quit smoking or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Although a controlled trial with a larger sample size is needed to confirm these initial results, this study suggests that using ECs during quit attempts may reduce cigarette consumption.

  18. The consequences of high cigarette excise taxes for low-income smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Farrelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To illustrate the burden of high cigarette excise taxes on low-income smokers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from the New York and national Adult Tobacco Surveys from 2010-2011, we estimated how smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, and share of annual income spent on cigarettes vary by annual income (less than $30,000; $30,000-$59,999; and more than $60,000. The 2010-2011 sample includes 7,536 adults and 1,294 smokers from New York and 3,777 adults and 748 smokers nationally. Overall, smoking prevalence is lower in New York (16.1% than nationally (22.2% and is strongly associated with income in New York and nationally (P<.001. Smoking prevalence ranges from 12.2% to 33.7% nationally and from 10.1% to 24.3% from the highest to lowest income group. In 2010-2011, the lowest income group spent 23.6% of annual household income on cigarettes in New York (up from 11.6% in 2003-2004 and 14.2% nationally. Daily cigarette consumption is not related to income. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although high cigarette taxes are an effective method for reducing cigarette smoking, they can impose a significant financial burden on low-income smokers.

  19. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  20. A Wearable Sensor System for Monitoring Cigarette Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Edward; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Tiffany, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Available methods of smoking assessment (e.g., self-report, portable puff-topography instruments) do not permit the collection of accurate measures of smoking behavior while minimizing reactivity to the assessment procedure. This article suggests a new method for monitoring cigarette smoking based on a wearable sensor system (Personal Automatic Cigarette Tracker [PACT]) that is completely transparent to the end user and does not require any conscious effort to achieve reliable monitoring of smoking in free-living individuals. Method: The proposed sensor system consists of a respiratory inductance plethysmograph for monitoring of breathing and a hand gesture sensor for detecting a cigarette at the mouth. The wearable sensor system was tested in a laboratory study of 20 individuals who performed 12 different activities including cigarette smoking. Signal processing was applied to evaluate the uniqueness of breathing patterns and their correlation with hand gestures. Results: The results indicate that smoking manifests unique breathing patterns that are highly correlated with hand-to-mouth cigarette gestures and suggest that these signals can potentially be used to identify and characterize individual smoke inhalations. Conclusions: With the future development of signal processing and pattern-recognition methods, PACT can be used to automatically assess the frequency of smoking and inhalation patterns (such as depth of inhalation and smoke holding) throughout the day and provide an objective method of assessing the effectiveness of behavioral and pharmacological smoking interventions. PMID:24172124

  1. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78 and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51. The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49. Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47 and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30, respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  2. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-12

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70-28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04-19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  3. Proximate analysis of two breeds of goat meat (chevon) and assessment of perception on goat consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.

  4. Assessing feasibility of electrochromic space suit radiators for reducing extravehicular activity water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, Jonathan Glen

    Water consumption for space suit thermal control is a limiting factor on long-term space exploration missions. A concept is proposed for an integrated, flexible suit radiator using infrared electrochromic materials for modulated heat rejection from the suit. Properties of electrochromic materials, the structure of electrochromic devices, and relevant heat transfer processes are presented as background information. Analytical methods are employed to bound theoretical performance and determine required emissivity ranges for lunar surface operations. Case studies are presented incorporating Apollo program and Advanced Walkback Test metabolic and environmental data to estimate sublimator water consumption and hypothetical water savings with the electrochromic radiator. Concepts are presented and analyzed for integrating an electrochromic radiator with existing and future space suit designs. A preliminary systems-level trade analysis is performed with the Equivalent System Mass metric used to compare this technology with the legacy sublimator and other extravehicular activity cooling technologies in development. Experimental objectives, procedures, and results are presented for both bench-top and thermal vacuum testing of electrochromic radiator materials.

  5. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes..., and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or 7652, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 5701 or...

  6. Automation of the in vitro micronucleus and chromosome aberration assay for the assessment of the genotoxicity of the particulate and gas-vapor phase of cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Ewald; Zenzen, Volker; Conroy, Lynda L; Luedemann, Kathrin; Dempsey, Ruth; Schunck, Christian; Sticken, Edgar Trelles

    2015-01-01

    Total particulate matter (TPM) and the gas-vapor phase (GVP) of mainstream smoke from the Reference Cigarette 3R4F were assayed in the cytokinesis-block in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay and the in vitro chromosome aberration (CA) assay, both using V79-4 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts exposed for up to 24 h. The Metafer image analysis platform was adapted resulting in a fully automated evaluation system of the MN assay for the detection, identification and reporting of cells with micronuclei together with the determination of the cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI) to quantify the treatment-related cytotoxicity. In the CA assay, the same platform was used to identify, map and retrieve metaphases for a subsequent CA evaluation by a trained evaluator. In both the assays, TPM and GVP provoked a significant genotoxic effect: up to 6-fold more micronucleated target cells than in the negative control and up to 10-fold increases in aberrant metaphases. Data variability was lower in the automated version of the MN assay than in the non-automated. It can be estimated that two test substances that differ in their genotoxicity by approximately 30% can statistically be distinguished in the automated MN and CA assays. Time savings, based on man hours, due to the automation were approximately 70% in the MN and 25% in the CA assays. The turn-around time of the evaluation phase could be shortened by 35 and 50%, respectively. Although only cigarette smoke-derived test material has been applied, the technical improvements should be of value for other test substances.

  7. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  8. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  9. Alcohol consumption in midlife and cognitive performance assessed 13 years later in the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associations between alcohol consumption and cognitive function are discordant and data focusing on midlife exposure are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between midlife alcohol consumption and cognitive performance assessed 13 y later while accounting for comorbidities and diet. METHODS: 3,088 French middle-aged adults included in the SU.VI.MAX (1994 study with available neuropsychological evaluation 13 y later. Data on alcohol consumption were obtained from repeated 24h dietary records collected in 1994-1996. Cognitive performance was assessed in 2007-2009 via a battery of 6 neuropsychological tests. A composite score was built as the mean of the standardized individual test scores (mean=50, SD=10. ANCOVA were performed to estimate mean differences in cognitive performance and 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: In women, abstainers displayed lower cognitive scores than did low-to-moderate alcohol drinkers (1 to 2 drinks/day (mean difference= -1.77; 95% CI: -3.29, -0.25. In men, heavy drinkers (>3 drinks/day had higher cognitive scores than did low-to-moderate (1 to 3 drinks/day (mean difference=1.05; 95% CI: 0.10, 1.99. However, a lower composite cognitive score was detected in male drinkers consuming ≥ 90 g/d (≈8 drinks/d. A higher proportion of alcohol intake from beer was also associated with lower cognitive scores. These associations remained significant after adjustment for diet, comorbidities and sociodemographic factors. CONCLUSION: In men, heavy but not extreme drinking was associated with higher global cognitive scores. Given the known harmful effects of alcohol even in low doses regarding risk of cancer, the study does not provide a basis for modifying current public health messages. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00272428.

  10. Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Wolfgang; Szendrei, Katalin; Matzen, Wolfgang; Osiander-Fuchs, Helga; Heitmann, Dieter; Schettgen, Thomas; Jörres, Rudolf A; Fromme, Hermann

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recent popularity of e-cigarettes, to date only limited data is available on their safety for both users and secondhand smokers. The present study reports a comprehensive inner and outer exposure assessment of e-cigarette emissions in terms of particulate matter (PM), particle number concentrations (PNC), volatile organic compounds (VOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), carbonyls, and metals. In six vaping sessions nine volunteers consumed e-cigarettes with and without nicotine in a thoroughly ventilated room for two hours. We analyzed the levels of e-cigarette pollutants in indoor air and monitored effects on FeNO release and urinary metabolite profile of the subjects. For comparison, the components of the e-cigarette solutions (liquids) were additionally analyzed. During the vaping sessions substantial amounts of 1,2-propanediol, glycerine and nicotine were found in the gas-phase, as well as high concentrations of PM2.5 (mean 197 μg/m(3)). The concentration of putative carcinogenic PAH in indoor air increased by 20% to 147 ng/m(3), and aluminum showed a 2.4-fold increase. PNC ranged from 48,620 to 88,386 particles/cm(3) (median), with peaks at diameters 24-36 nm. FeNO increased in 7 of 9 individuals. The nicotine content of the liquids varied and was 1.2-fold higher than claimed by the manufacturer. Our data confirm that e-cigarettes are not emission-free and their pollutants could be of health concern for users and secondhand smokers. In particular, ultrafine particles formed from supersaturated 1,2-propanediol vapor can be deposited in the lung, and aerosolized nicotine seems capable of increasing the release of the inflammatory signaling molecule NO upon inhalation. In view of consumer safety, e-cigarettes and nicotine liquids should be officially regulated and labeled with appropriate warnings of potential health effects, particularly of toxicity risk in children.

  11. Methodologies for assessing the use-phase power consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of telecommunications network services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chien A; Gygax, André F; Wong, Elaine; Leckie, Christopher A; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Kilper, Daniel C

    2013-01-02

    Internet traffic has grown rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue to expand significantly over the next decade. Consequently, the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of telecommunications service-supporting infrastructures have become an important issue. In this study, we develop a set of models for assessing the use-phase power consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of telecom network services to help telecom providers gain a better understanding of the GHG emissions associated with the energy required for their networks and services. Due to the fact that measuring the power consumption and traffic in a telecom network is a challenging task, these models utilize different granularities of available network information. As the granularity of the network measurement information decreases, the corresponding models have the potential to produce larger estimation errors. Therefore, we examine the accuracy of these models under various network scenarios using two approaches: (i) a sensitivity analysis through simulations and (ii) a case study of a deployed network. Both approaches show that the accuracy of the models depends on the network size, the total amount of network service traffic (i.e., for the service under assessment), and the number of network nodes used to process the service.

  12. Fire flow water consumption in sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings an assessment of community impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Code Consultants, Inc.

    2012-01-01

    Fire Flow Water Consumption in Sprinklered and Unsprinklered Buildings offers a detailed analysis for calculating the fire water demand required in buildings with existing and non-existant sprinkler systems. The installation of automatic sprinkler systems can significantly reduce the amount of water needed during a fire, but it requires water for commissioning, inspection, testing, and maintenance (CITM). This book provides an estimate of fire water used under both fire conditions, including CITM, to allow communities to develop fire water fees for both sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings that are proportional to the anticipated fire water usage. The types of buildings analyzed include residential (family dwellings as well as those up to four stories in height), business, assembly, institutional, mercantile, and storage facilities. Water volume was studied using guidelines from the International Code Council, the National Fire Protection Association, and the Insurance Services Office. Fire Flow Water Cons...

  13. Assessing corporate social responsibility in China's sports lottery administration and its influence on consumption behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Zhang, James J; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Min, Sophia D

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine consumer perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in China's sports lottery industry, and the effect of perceived CSR initiatives on sports lottery consumption behavior. Research participants (N = 4,980), selected based on a computer-generated, randomly stratified multistage sampling process, comprised Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets in the past 12 months. They completed a questionnaire that was derived from a qualitative research process. A factor analysis extracted two factors associated with perceptions of CSR in China's sports lottery administration: Regulatory and Prevention Responsibilities and Product Development Responsibility. Logistic regression analyses revealed that these two factors were influential of consumer behavior (i.e., relative and absolute expenditure, purchasing frequency, and time commitment). This study represents an initial effort to understand the dimensions of perceived CSR associated with Chinese sports lottery. The findings signify the importance of enforcing CSR in sports lottery administration.

  14. An assessment of antimicrobial consumption in food producing animals in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitema, E.S.; Kikuvi, G.M.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2001-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are useful for control of bacterial infections in food animals and man. Their prudent use in these animals is important to control any possible development and transfer of resistance between animals and man. The objective of this study was to generate quantitative information...... to evaluate antimicrobial usage patterns by animal species, route of administration, antimicrobial class and type of use from 1995 to 1999 in Kenya. Theses data are essential for risk analysis and planning and can be helpful in interpreting resistance surveillance data, and evaluating the effectiveness...... of prudent use efforts and antimicrobial resistance mitigation strategies. Data on quantities of active substance classes were collected from the official records of the Pharmacy and Poisons Board of the Ministry of Health and analysed in MS Excel 2000 program. The mean antimicrobial consumption for the 5...

  15. Key figures for joint assessment of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and energy consumption in modern buildings – a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tisov, Ana; Siroky, Jan; Kolarik, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    of energy and IEQ performance. The aim of this paper was to review relevant literature to form a scientific background for development of key figures enabling the joint assessment of energy and IEQ. The review resulted in forty cited publications. Majority of them focused explicitly on energy performance......’s energy management and operational diagnostics focus mostly on energy consumption. Consequently also present key figures comprise performance indicators related to energy use. The fact that modern buildings are not spared from IEQ related problems indicates that there is a need for joint assessment...... and indoor environment was mentioned only marginally or was not mentioned at all. We can also conclude that energy related key figures are well established and used for standard energy management as well as in different optimization algorithms involving analysis of measurements and calibrated simulations...

  16. Assessing Nutritional Differences in Household Level Production and Consumption in African Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, K.; Palm, C.; Wood, S.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of agriculture often focus on yields and calories, but overlook the production of diverse nutrients needed for human health. Nutritional production is particularly important in low-income countries, where foods produced correspond largely to those consumed. Through an analysis of crops, livestock, and animal products, this study aims to quantify the nutritional differences between household-level production and consumption in the Millennium Village at Bonsaaso, Ghana. By converting food items into their nutritional components it became clear that certain nutritional disparities existed between the two categories. In Bonsasso, 64-78% of households exhibited deficiencies in the consumption of Calcium, Fat, and/or Vitamin A despite less than 30% of households showing deficiencies on the production side. To better understand these differences, k-means clustering analysis was performed, placing households into groups characterized by nutritional means. By comparing the households in these groupings, it was clear that clusters formed around certain nutritional deficiencies. The socioeconomic characteristics of these groupings were then studied for correlations, concentrating on number of people at the household, sex and age of household head, and dependency ratio. It was found that clusters with high dependency ratios (the number of working persons in the household to non-working persons) exhibited a large variety of, and often drastic, nutritional deficiencies. In fact, the cluster with the highest average dependency ratio exhibited deficiencies in every nutrient. In light of these findings, regional policies may look to target households with a large number of dependents, and package nutrients for household distribution based on the characteristics of these clusters.

  17. Seafood consumption among Chinese coastal residents and health risk assessment of heavy metals in seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Yan, Shuangshuang; Liu, Min; Wang, Bi; Hu, Dong; Guo, Dongbei; Wang, Juan; Xu, Wanting; Fan, Chun

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to obtain the seafood dietary patterns of coastal residents, to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, and to evaluate the possible health risks caused by seafood intake. The daily food intakes of 24 types of seafood were collected from 738 participants from Xiamen, a southern Chinese coastal city, using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and dietary history method. One hundred and fifty-six samples of 14 types of highest intake seafood were collected from local markets for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) determination. Health risks via seafood consumption were evaluated by calculating the target hazard quotient (THQ) and the total hazard index (HI) for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the seafood daily intake of Xiamen residents was 61.5 (2.14, 115) g/day. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in seafood were ND-0.45 mg/kg, ND-0.19 mg/kg, ND-0.80 mg/kg, ND-0.70 mg/kg, and 0.32-16.9 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of Cd and As in some samples were higher than national limitation standards. Consumption of 14 common types of seafood would not pose non-carcinogenic risk. However, some types, such as sparuslatus, oyster, and porphyra tenera, would form a carcinogenic risk. Regardless of a carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic risk, As posed the highest risk on humans. The observed HI value for non-carcinogenic effect of all metals in all seafood reached 0.69-2.20, and the metal orders of risk can be listed as As > Hg > Cr > Cd > Pb, reiterating the risk of As is a matter of concern in seafood from Xiamen markets.

  18. Do Sources of Cigarettes among Adolescents Vary by Age over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Shi, Qun; Erickson, Darin J.; Forster, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Trends in sources of cigarettes among adolescents were assessed using data from a teen cohort (2000-2006). Five sources--bought from store, got from other teen, stole from others, bought from others, and got from an adult--were measured over time by age. The most common source among all ages was other teens. Fewer teens bought cigarettes from…

  19. Cigarette smoking and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymour Mostafa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have identified specific body systems affected by the hazardous effects of the cigarette smoking particularly the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The effect of smoking on male reproduction has also been studied where semen quality was investigated in different cross-sectional studies including infertile patients with conflicting results. This article aimed to assess the relationship between smoking and male infertility. A review of published articles was carried out, using PubMed, medical subject heading (MSH databases and Scopus engine excluding the effects of smoking outside male infertility. Key words used to assess exposure, outcome, and estimates for the concerned associations were: smoking, semen, male infertility, sperm, humans, and fertility. Most of the reports showed that smoking reduces sperm production, sperm motility, sperm normal forms and sperm fertilising capacity through increased seminal oxidative stress and DNA damage. Few papers reported nonsignificant differences in semen parameters between smokers or non-smokers. It is concluded that although some smokers may not experience reduced fertility, men with marginal semen quality can benefit from quitting smoking.

  20. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be p...

  1. Poor smokers, poor quitters, and cigarette tax regressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remler, Dahlia K

    2004-02-01

    The traditional view that excise taxes are regressive has been challenged. I document the history of the term regressive tax, show that traditional definitions have always found cigarette taxes to be regressive, and illustrate the implications of the greater price responsiveness observed among the poor. I explain the different definitions of tax burden: accounting, welfare-based willingness to pay, and welfare-based time inconsistent. Progressivity (equity across income groups) is sensitive to the way in which tax burden is assessed. Analysis of horizontal equity (fairness within a given income group) shows that cigarette taxes heavily burden poor smokers who do not quit, no matter how tax burden is assessed.

  2. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Ahmed; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J; Whitmill, Jennifer; Babb, Stephen D; Graffunder, Corinne M

    2016-11-11

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults (1,2). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU1.1),* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 15.1% in 2015, and the proportion of daily smokers declined from 16.9% to 11.4%. However, disparities in cigarette smoking persist. In 2015, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male; were aged 25-44 years; were American Indian/Alaska Native; had a General Education Development certificate (GED); lived below the federal poverty level; lived in the Midwest; were insured through Medicaid or were uninsured; had a disability/limitation; were lesbian, gay, or bisexual; or who had serious psychological distress. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to tobacco cessation counseling and medications, are critical to reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (3).

  3. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  4. Assessment of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid exposure through fish consumption in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barbarossa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs are pollutants of anthropic origin with possible side effects on human health. Diet, and in particular fish and seafood, is considered the major intake pathway for humans. The present study investigated the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA contamination in twenty-five samples of fresh fillet of five widely consumed fish species purchased from large retailers in Italy, to be used for an estimation of the Italian population exposure to these contaminants. PFOS and PFOA were found in all samples, at concentrations up to 1896 (mean=627 ng/kg and 487 ng/kg (mean=75 ng/kg, respectively, confirming the role of fish as high contributor to human exposure. However, a remarkable inter-species variability was observed, and multiple factors were suggested as potentially responsible for such differences, suggesting that the preferential consumption of certain species could likely increase the intake, and thus the exposure. The exposure estimates for both average and high fish consumers resulted far below the tolerable daily intakes for PFOS and PFOA in all age groups, confirming the outcomes of EFSA’s scientific report. In particular, the calculated total dietary exposure for the 95th percentile consumers belonging to the toddler age class, the most exposed group, resulted equal to 9.72 ng/kg body weight (BW/day for PFOS and 8.39 ng/kg BW/day for PFOA.

  5. Caffeine consumption and self-assessed stress, anxiety, and depression in secondary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Previous research suggests that effects of caffeine on behaviour are positive unless one is investigating sensitive groups or ingestion of large amounts. Children are a potentially sensitive subgroup, and especially so considering the high levels of caffeine currently found in energy drinks. The present study used data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate associations between caffeine (both its total consumption, and that derived separately from energy drinks, cola, tea, and coffee) and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression, in a large cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. After adjusting for additional dietary, demographic, and lifestyle covariates, positive associations between total weekly caffeine intake and anxiety and depression remained significant, and the effects differed between males and females. Initially, effects were also observed in relation to caffeine consumed specifically from coffee. However, coffee was found to be the major contributor to high overall caffeine intake, providing explanation as to why effects relating to this source were also apparent. Findings from the current study increase our knowledge regarding associations between caffeine intake and stress, anxiety, and depression in secondary school children, though the cross-sectional nature of the research made it impossible to infer causality.

  6. Impact of cigarette smoke on the human and mouse lungs: a gene-expression comparison study.

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    Mathieu C Morissette

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains difficult. In the present study, we aimed at comparing the gene expression signature between the lungs of human smokers and mice exposed to cigarette smoke to identify the similarities and differences. Using human and mouse whole-genome gene expression arrays, changes in gene expression, signaling pathways and biological functions were assessed. We found that genes significantly modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were enriched for genes modulated by cigarette smoke in mice, suggesting a similar response of both species. Sixteen smoking-induced genes were in common between humans and mice including six newly reported to be modulated by cigarette smoke. In addition, we identified a new conserved pulmonary response to cigarette smoke in the induction of phospholipid metabolism/degradation pathways. Finally, the majority of biological functions modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were also affected in mice. Altogether, the present study provides information on similarities and differences in lung gene expression response to cigarette smoke that exist between human and mouse. Our results foster the idea that animal models should be used to study the involvement of pathways rather than single genes in human diseases.

  7. Use of Interrupted Time-Series Method to Evaluate the Impact of Cigarette Excise Tax Increases in Pennsylvania, 2000–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Lewis H.; Fisher, Monica A.; Ostroff, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Scientific evidence shows that cigarette price increases can significantly reduce smoking prevalence and smoking initiation among adolescents and young adults. However, data are lacking regarding the effectiveness of increasing Pennsylvania’s cigarette tax to reduce smoking and/or adverse health effects of smoking. The objective of our study was to assess the impact of cigarette tax increases and resulting price increases on smoking prevalence, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and asthma hospitalization rates, and sudden cardiac death (SCD) rates in Pennsylvania. Methods We used segmented regression analyses of interrupted time series to evaluate the level and trend changes in Pennsylvania adults’ current smoking prevalence, age-adjusted AMI and asthma hospitalization rates, age-specific asthma hospitalization rates, and age-adjusted SCD rates following 2 cigarette excise tax increases. Results After the first excise tax increase, no beneficial effects were noted on the outcomes of interest. The second tax increase was associated with significant declines in smoking prevalence for people aged 18 to 39, age-adjusted AMI hospitalization rates for men, age-adjusted asthma hospitalizations rates, and SCD rates among men. Overall smoking prevalence declined by 5.2% (P = .01), with a quarterly decrease of 1.4% (P = .01) for people aged 18 to 39 years. The age-adjusted AMI hospitalization rate for men showed a decline of 3.87/100,000 population (P = .04). The rate of age-adjusted asthma hospitalizations decreased by 10.05/100,000 population (P rates for men decreased by 1.34/100,000 population (P rates. Further research and policy development regarding the effect of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption should be cognizant of the psychological tipping points at which overall price affects smoking patterns. PMID:24135393

  8. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy in two regions:cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcel Leppe; Josip Culig; Mirela Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Smoking in pregnancy is associated with the risk of congenital malformations and functional disorders.The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in pregnancy, and the rate of congenital malformations in children at in utero exposure.Methods:The trial was designed as a cross-sectional study to measure exposure of pregnant women to adverse influence of smoking and their health status.The study consists of two arms: one was conducted at fourZagreb maternity hospitals(Croatia) and the other at the same hospitals inNovi Sad(Serbia).Results:Data analysis revealed the habit of cigarette smoking during pregnancy in829(11.9%) of6992(6099+893) women.Malformations were found in105(1.5%) fetuses and newborns.Major congenital malformations were present in four(0.6%), minor malformations in73 (10.5%) andLBW in12(1.7%) newborns.In all these cases pregnant women smoked until becoming aware of pregnancy or during pregnancy.Tobacco smoking and congenital abnormalities that define the contingency table are not significantly related inZagreb(P=0.385), as well as in NoviSad(P=0.345).Conclusions:The rate of congenital malformations is higher in fetuses and newborns at in utero exposure to maternal cigarette smoking as well as to alcohol consumption and drug abuse than in the general population.The results of the present study did not identify the exact cause of these malformations because of fetal concurrent exposure to multiple teratogenic factors.

  9. Belgian and Spanish consumption data and consumer handling practices for fresh fruits and vegetables useful for further microbiological and chemical exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Ibañez, I Castro; Gómez-López, V M; Fernandes, J Araujo; Allende, A; Uyttendaele, M; Huybrechts, I

    2015-04-01

    A consumer survey was organized in Spain and Belgium to obtain consumption data and to gain insight into consumer handling practices for fresh vegetables consumed raw or minimally processed (i.e., heads of leafy greens, bell peppers, tomatoes, fresh herbs, and precut and packed leafy greens) and fruits to be consumed without peeling (i.e., apples, grapes, strawberries, raspberries, other berries, fresh juices, and precut mixed fruit). This information can be used for microbiological and/or chemical food safety research. After extensive cleanup of rough databases for missing and extreme values and age correction, information from 583 respondents from Spain and 1,605 respondents from Belgium (18 to 65 years of age) was retained. Daily intake (grams per day) was calculated taking into account frequency and seasonality of consumption, and distributions were obtained that can be used in quantitative risk assessment for chemical hazards with chronic effects on human health. Data also were recalculated to obtain discrete distributions of consumption per portion and the corresponding frequency of consumption, which can be used in acute microbiological risk assessment or outbreak investigations. The ranked median daily consumption of fruits and vegetables was similar in Spain and Belgium: apple > strawberry > grapes > strawberries and raspberries; and tomatoes > leafy greens > bell peppers > fresh herbs. However, vegetable consumption was higher (in terms of both portion and frequency of consumption) in Spain than in Belgium, whereas the opposite was found for fruit consumption. Regarding consumer handling practices related to storage time and method, Belgian consumers less frequently stored their fresh produce in a refrigerator and did so for shorter times compared with Spanish consumers. Washing practices for lettuce heads and packed leafy greens also were different. The survey revealed differences between these two countries in consumption and consumer handling practices

  10. Reliability and relative validity of fish consumption data obtained in an exposure assessment study among Montreal-area sportfishers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatenstein, B. [Sante au Travail et Environnementale, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Regie Regionale de la Sante et des Services Sociaux de Montreal-Centre]|[Univ. de Montreal, Quebec (Canada) Dept. de Nutrition; Kosatsky, T.; Nadon, S. [Sante au Travail et Environnementale, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Regie Regionale de la Sante et des Services Sociaux de Montreal-Centre; Lussier-Cacan, S. [Inst. de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Weber, J.P. [Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec, Ste. Foy, Quebec (Canada)

    1999-02-01

    A two-season exercise was undertaken in 29 high-level sportfish consumers to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of study instruments. Fishers were invited to participate after completing the main study interview (Time 1) in fall 1995 or winter 1996. Over a 4-week period, they provided a nonconsecutive 7-day weighed food record, kept a fish consumption calendar, and responded to a shortened version of the Time 1 instrument at the end of this period (Time 2). A second blood sample (at Time 2) was analyzed for whole blood mercury (Hg) and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma and erythrocytes. Identical questions were compared in the Time 1 and Time 2 instruments. Reported sportfish consumption assessed by the different instruments was subjected to nutrient analysis. Three estimates of exposure to the target substances were derived from the dietary intake estimates and correlated with their respective Time 2 plasma (EPA, DHA) or blood (Hg) values, and with a kinetically derived interval-specific plasma/blood uptake value. Remarkable similarities were observed for the data derived from like questions in the Time 1 and 2 questionnaires in both seasons. However, frank discrepancies between some portion size estimates and measured values may signal cause for concern.

  11. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Guan, D. B.; Davis, S. J.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input-output model framework. Trade relative emissions for four key air pollutants (primary fine particle matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds) were assessed for 2007 in each Chinese province. We found that emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces owing to interprovincial trade. Large amounts of emissions were embodied in the imports of eastern regions from northern and central regions, and these were determined by differences in regional economic status and environmental policy. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers and producers within national agreements to encourage efficiency improvement in the supply chain and optimize consumption structure internationally. The consumption-based air pollutant emission inventory developed in this work can be further used to attribute pollution to various economic activities and final demand types with the aid of air quality models.

  12. Observed sex differences in fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Kristin L; Driskell, Judy A

    2009-03-01

    Americans frequently eat fast foods, but do college students? The objective was to determine the influence of sex on fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of a group of college students. The hypothesis was that some sex differences would be observed. Volunteers, 101 men and 158 women, 19 to 24 years of age, enrolled at a Midwestern university served as subjects. The subjects completed a 12-item written questionnaire. Five and seven percent of the students typically ate lunch and dinner, respectively, at a fast-food restaurant. The predominant reasons given for eating at fast-food restaurants were "limited time," "enjoy taste," "eat with family/friends," and "inexpensive and economical." A larger (P = .0592) percentage of men than women reported eating at fast-food restaurants because they thought these restaurants were "inexpensive and economical." Most of the subjects reported eating at fast-food restaurants 1 to 3 times weekly. The frequency of eating at fast-food restaurants was significantly different for men than for women (P food menu when making their selections (P food is important to me." Several sex differences were observed in the fast-food consumption and nutrition beliefs of these college students.

  13. Lung cancer risks in relation to vegetable and fruit consumption and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Ragnar; Axelsson, Gösta

    2006-02-01

    In a case-control study on lung cancer, risk was analysed in relation to smoking habits and frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption. Lung cancer cases in West Sweden and population controls were interviewed using a questionnaire where the frequency of consumption of dietary items and smoking habits were assessed. The material presented comprises 177 female and 359 male confirmed cases of lung cancer and 916 population controls. There was a dose-response relationship in regard to the number of cigarettes smoked and the number of years smoked, the latter factor being more important. After adjustment for number of cigarettes smoked/day and number of years smoked, the risk for those who seldom consumed vegetables was about twice of that among those who consumed vegetables frequently, both among nonsmokers, smokers and former smokers. This risk increase in relation to vegetable consumption also was present for different smoking categories. A similar tendency, although less pronounced, was found for fruit consumption. The results demonstrate that dietary factors are related to the risk for lung cancer, although smoking is the dominant risk factor.

  14. Knowledge of General Nutrition, Soy Nutrition, and Consumption of Soy Products: Assessment of a Sample Adult Population in Montgomery County, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL NUTRITION, SOY NUTRITION, AND CONSUMPTION OF SOY PRODUCTS: ASSESSMENT OF A SAMPLE ADULT POPULATION IN MONTGOMERY COUNTY, VIRGINIA Lida Catherine Johnson (ABSTRACT) Nutrition education programs in the prevention of chronic diseases has flourished over the last 15 years. Investigators continue to demonstrate that soy consumption plays a role in decreasing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis and problems regarding menopause....

  15. Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Caponnetto

    2013-01-01

    schizophrenia levels were measured at each visit. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events were also reviewed. Results: Sustained 50% reduction in the number of cig/day at week-52 was shown in 7/14 (50% participants; their median of 30 cig/day decreasing significantly to 15 cig/day (p = 0.018. Sustained smoking abstinence at week-52 was observed in 2/14 (14.3% participants. Combined sustained 50% reduction and smoking abstinence was shown in 9/14 (64.3% participants. Nausea was observed in 2/14 (14.4% of participants, throat irritation in 2/14 (14.4% of participants, headache in 2/14 (14.4% of participants , and dry cough in 4/14 (28.6% of participants. However, these adverse events diminished substantially by week-24. Overall, one to two cartridges/day were used throughout the study. Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia are not increased after smoking reduction/cessation in patients using e-cigarettes. Conclusions: We have shown for the first time that the use of e-cigarette substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in chronic schizophrenic patients who smoke not intending to quit. This was achieved without negative impacts on the symptoms of schizophrenia as assessed by SAPS and SANS symptoms scales.

  16. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rising Joshua

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers.

  17. Evaluation of the Relative Validity of the Short Diet Questionnaire for Assessing Usual Consumption Frequencies of Selected Nutrients and Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatenstein, Bryna; Payette, Hélène

    2015-08-04

    A 36-item Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ) was developed to assess usual consumption frequencies of foods providing fats, fibre, calcium, vitamin D, in addition to fruits and vegetables. It was pretested among 30 community-dwelling participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging, "NuAge" (n = 1793, 52.4% women), recruited in three age groups (70 ± 2 years; 75 ± 2 years; 80 ± 2 years). Following revision, the SDQ was administered to 527 NuAge participants (55% female), distributed among the three age groups, both sexes and languages (French, English) prior to the second of three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls (24HR) and validated relative to the mean of three 24HR. Full data were available for 396 participants. Most SDQ nutrients and fruit and vegetable servings were lower than 24HR estimates (p nutrients and foods. Further testing is needed in a broader age range.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK OF RAW MILK CONSUMPTION RELATED TO STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOOD POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Helena Walter Santana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the risks of staphylococcal food poisoning due to the consumption of raw milk. Fifty-one farms in Londrina (PR and 50 in Pelotas (RS were analyzed, to determinethe population of coagulase-positive staphylococci (UFC/ mL, as well as to verify the ability of producing Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A (SEA by immunodifusion (OSP, the presence of the gene for the production of SEA (PCR in the cultures, and the research of enterotoxin (SEA to SEE in milk samples using ELISA commercial kit. Considering the 101 farms analyzed, 19 (18.8% presented coagulase-positive staphylococci count above 105 UFC/mL. For the evaluation of the enterotoxigenic ability (SEA by the OSP technique, six cultures coagulase-positive (5.5% were positive to the test and identified as S. aureus. From the coagualse-negative sample, one (5.5% was OSP positive. For the evaluation of the presence of the gene for EEA synthesis, 51 cultures of staphylococci were tested. From this total, 14 (27.45% presented the gene, and from that, only 5 (9.81% cultures were capable of expressing it in the technique of the OSP. The morphologiccharacteristic of the evaluated cultures that had enterotoxigenic capacity, from the 14 (33,3% cultures that presented the gene for EEA production, 05 (11.9% were characterized as typical cultures of S.aureus in Baird Parker agar. All the 12 milk samples studied for the presence of EEA to EEE in milk were negative. Thus, it can be concluded that there is extensive contamination of raw milk for staphylococci coagulase, however, most of the isolated strains were not enterotoxigenic or did not express such a characteristic. Only 9.81% of the tested colonies expressed the gene and effectivelyproduced SEA. None of the samples had sufficient counts to produce detectable amounts of SEA. The milk samples did not present risk to cause staphylococcal food poisoning if consumed in natura until the collection moment.

  19. Exposure assessment to ochratoxin A in Catalonia (Spain) based on the consumption of cereals, nuts, coffee, wine, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, M B; Marín, S; Cano-Sancho, G; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) was analysed in composite samples of cereal-based baby foods, beer, breakfast cereals (corn- and rice and wheat-based), loaf bread, peanuts and pistachios. Foodstuffs were collected in hypermarkets and supermarkets from 12 cities in the Spanish region of Catalonia, and composite samples were prepared for analysis involving liquid-liquid extraction, followed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC with fluorescence detection. Consumption data for the selected foodstuffs were collected by means of a food-frequency questionnaire. The studied population was grouped by age in infants, children, adolescents and adults; and exposure to OTA through the specified foodstuffs, and through wine and coffee, was assessed. Exposure assessment was done through deterministic and probabilistic modelling of the contamination and consumption data. OTA occurrence and mean of positive samples (ng g(-1) or ng ml(-1), for beer) were the following: 8.7% and 0.233 in baby foods; 88.7% and 0.022 in beer; 2.8% and 0.728 in corn-based breakfast cereals; 25% and 0.293 in wheat-based breakfast cereals; 12.9% and 0.283 in loaf bread; 41.7% and 0.241 in peanuts; and 2.9% and 0.228 in pistachios. The median estimated daily intake of OTA through the foodstuffs by each age group were below the latest provisional tolerable daily intakes (PTDIs) of 17 and 14 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2006 and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 2007, respectively, ranging from 1% and 2% of those values in adolescents and children, to 3% and 11% in adults and infants.

  20. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  1. Development of Benchmarks for Operating Costs and Resources Consumption to be Used in Healthcare Building Sustainability Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the last decade of the twentieth century, the healthcare industry is paying attention to the environmental impact of their buildings and therefore new regulations, policy goals, and Building Sustainability Assessment (HBSA methods are being developed and implemented. At the present, healthcare is one of the most regulated industries and it is also one of the largest consumers of energy per net floor area. To assess the sustainability of healthcare buildings it is necessary to establish a set of benchmarks related with their life-cycle performance. They are both essential to rate the sustainability of a project and to support designers and other stakeholders in the process of designing and operating a sustainable building, by allowing the comparison to be made between a project and the conventional and best market practices. This research is focused on the methodology to set the benchmarks for resources consumption, waste production, operation costs and potential environmental impacts related to the operational phase of healthcare buildings. It aims at contributing to the reduction of the subjectivity found in the definition of the benchmarks used in Building Sustainability Assessment (BSA methods, and it is applied in the Portuguese context. These benchmarks will be used in the development of a Portuguese HBSA method.

  2. Methodological Aspects of Analyzing and Assessing the Per Capita Consumption of Fish and Seafood in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mikhailovich Selin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of the economy and increased competition leads to the need to strengthen the functions of the Russian government to ensure food security of the country and, accordingly, the consolidation of mechanisms of state regulation of agricultural economy and food markets. The importance of solving the problems of information security, a high degree of reliability of the information provided by the Government of the relevant statistical authorities is growing. The relevance of obtaining high-quality statistical information for the adoption of timely and informed decisions by the government on the management of the national economy has increased significantly during the period of political and economic confrontation between Russia and the West in terms of sanctions and counter-sanctions. Taking fishing industry and its product – the water biological resources – as an example, the author of the present study carried out a structural analysis of the methodology for composing the balance of fish and fish products to determine the per capita level of consumption, described the different approaches to assessing the level of consumption of water biological resources, structured export indicators of water biological resources gathered from various official sources, on the basis of which the author revealed significant differences in the assessment of the situation. The subject of statistics as the problem was raised at the Presidium of the State Council from October 19, 2015 devoted to the development of the fishing industry of the Russian Federation and was reflected as a separate item in the Order of the President following the results of the State Council. Established by the Order of the Federal State Statistics Service dated October 21, 2013 No. 419, the new method of determining the level of per capita consumption of fish and fish products, based on the compilation of the balance of water biological resources, and composed after the

  3. CDC Vital Signs: E-cigarette Ads and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... students were current (past 30-day) users of electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, in 2014. Most e-cigarettes ... Related Pages Vital Signs Issue details: Exposure to Electronic Cigarette Advertising Among Middle School and High School Students ...

  4. Doctors Divided on Safety, Use of Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cigarettes When patients ask about safety and using e-cigarettes to stop smoking, doctors' advice differs To use ... of the devices -- specifically, about the safety of e-cigarettes compared to traditional cigarettes, according to the Stanford ...

  5. Assessing irrigated agriculture's surface water and groundwater consumption by combining satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L; Mainuddin, Mohammed; Kirby, John M; Chiew, Francis H S; McVicar, Tim R; Vaze, Jai

    2016-01-15

    Globally, irrigation accounts for more than two thirds of freshwater demand. Recent regional and global assessments indicate that groundwater extraction (GWE) for irrigation has increased more rapidly than surface water extraction (SWE), potentially resulting in groundwater depletion. Irrigated agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions is usually from a combination of stored surface water and groundwater. This paper assesses the usefulness of remotely-sensed (RS) derived information on both irrigation dynamics and rates of actual evapotranspiration which are both input to a river-reach water balance model in order to quantify irrigation water use and water provenance (either surface water or groundwater). The assessment is implemented for the water-years 2004/05-2010/11 in five reaches of the Murray-Darling Basin (Australia); a heavily regulated basin with large irrigated areas and periodic droughts and floods. Irrigated area and water use are identified each water-year (from July to June) through a Random Forest model which uses RS vegetation phenology and actual evapotranspiration as predicting variables. Both irrigated areas and actual evapotranspiration from irrigated areas were compared against published estimates of irrigated areas and total water extraction (SWE+GWE).The river-reach model determines the irrigated area that can be serviced with stored surface water (SWE), and the remainder area (as determined by the Random Forest Model) is assumed to be supplemented by groundwater (GWE). Model results were evaluated against observed SWE and GWE. The modelled SWE generally captures the observed interannual patterns and to some extent the magnitudes, with Pearson's correlation coefficients >0.8 and normalised root-mean-square-errormodelling. The RS irrigated areas and actual evapotranspiration can be used to: (i) understand irrigation dynamics, (ii) constrain irrigation models in data scarce regions, as well as (iii) pinpointing areas that require better ground

  6. A New Area to Fight: Electronic Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şermin Börekçi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette is spreading like an epidemic that threatens the public health. Last one year, e-cigarette use increased by 2 times in both adults and children, and just as the cigarette ads of 1950s and 1960s, e-cigarette ads are taking place in the television, radio, internet, magazines and in the all kinds of advertising media. E-sigara should be recognized as a serious health threat, and should be fought against it. The aim of this review is to show the effects of e-cigarette on health by the scientific evidences.

  7. Ever-Use and Curiosity About Cigarettes, Cigars, Smokeless Tobacco, and Electronic Cigarettes Among US Middle and High School Students, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A.; King, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among young people, curiosity about tobacco products is a primary reason for tobacco experimentation and is a risk factor for future use. We examined whether curiosity about and ever-use of tobacco products among US middle and high school students changed from 2012 to 2014. Methods Data came from the 2012 and 2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys, nationally representative surveys of US students in grades 6 through 12. For cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes (2014 only), students were classified as ever-users or never-users of each product. Among never-users, curiosity about using each product was assessed by asking participants if they had “definitely,” “probably,” “probably not,” or “definitely not” been curious about using the product. Results From 2012 to 2014, there were declines in ever-use of cigarettes (26% to 22%; P = .005) and cigars (21% to 18%; P = .003) overall and among students who were Hispanic (cigarettes, P = .001; cigars, P = .001) or black (cigarettes, P = .004; cigars, P = .01). The proportion of never-users reporting they were “definitely not” curious increased for cigarettes (51% to 54%; P = .01) and cigars (60% to 63%; P = .03). Ever-use and curiosity about smokeless tobacco did not change significantly from 2012 to 2014. In 2014, the proportion of young people who were “definitely” or “probably” curious never-users of each product was as follows: cigarettes, 11.4%; e-cigarettes, 10.8%; cigars, 10.3%; and smokeless tobacco, 4.4%. Conclusion The proportion of US students who are never users and are not curious about cigarettes and cigars increased. However, many young people remain curious about tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. Understanding factors driving curiosity can inform tobacco use prevention for youth. PMID:27657506

  8. Assessment of Vehicle Sizing, Energy Consumption and Cost Through Large Scale Simulation of Advanced Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moawad, Ayman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kim, Namdoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shidore, Neeraj [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rousseau, Aymeric [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) has been developing more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will enable America to use less petroleum. The long-term aim is to develop "leapfrog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment. This report reviews the results of the DOE VTO. It gives an assessment of the fuel and light-duty vehicle technologies that are most likely to be established, developed, and eventually commercialized during the next 30 years (up to 2045). Because of the rapid evolution of component technologies, this study is performed every two years to continuously update the results based on the latest state-of-the-art technologies.

  9. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 – 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement

  10. Cohort analysis of fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer mortality in European men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, M C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Räsänen, L; Fidanza, F; Nissinen, A M; Menotti, A; Kok, F J; Kromhout, D

    2001-06-15

    Our aim was to examine the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer mortality in a cohort of European males. Around 1970, dietary intake of Finnish, Italian and Dutch middle-aged men was assessed using a cross-check dietary history. Complete baseline information was available for 3,108 men, of whom 1,578 were baseline smokers. We used Cox proportional hazard analyses to calculate risk estimates for the consumption in country-specific tertiles on lung cancer in smokers. During 25 years of follow-up, 149 lung cancer deaths occurred in the smokers. Fruit consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer mortality among smokers; compared with the lowest, adjusted RRs for the intermediate and highest tertiles were 0.56 (0.37-0.84) and 0.69 (0.46-1.02), p-trend 0.05. Only in the Dutch cohort was this association statistically significant [adjusted relative risks (RRs) 1.00, 0.33 (0.16-0.70) and 0.35 (0.16-0.74), p-trend 0.004]. In Finland lung cancer risk was lower with higher fruit intake but not significantly, whereas in Italy no association was observed. Stratifying on cigarette smoking intensity (non, light and heavy) revealed an inverse association in the heavy smokers only [adjusted RRs (95% confidence intervals [CI]) 1; 0.47 (0.26-0.84); 0.40 (0.20-0.78)). Vegetable consumption was not related to lung cancer risk in smokers. However, analyses stratified on cigarette smoking intensity gave some indication for a lower lung cancer risk with higher intake. In conclusion, in this prospective analysis among European smoking men, fruit intake was inversely related to lung cancer mortality. This association was confined to heavy cigarette smokers.

  11. Labelling of electronic cigarettes: regulations and current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Federico; Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Barton, Stephen J; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2017-01-01

    Background Over the past decade e-cigarettes have established themselves in the global market. E-cigarettes triggered much interest in relation to their content and efficacy as smoking cessation tools, but less attention has been paid to users and environmental safety warnings and guidance. Several regulations have been introduced to promote their safe handling and disposal. From May 2016, liquids and cartridges will be regulated by European Community Directives (ECDs) 2001/83/EC and 93/42/EEC, or 2014/40/EU if marketed as tobacco-related products. Currently, manufacturers and distributors must abide by the Chemical (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2009 (CHIP) or Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulations (CLP), the latter replacing CHIP in June 2015. Objective In this work, the compliance of marketed e-liquids and e-cigarettes with current European Union and UK legislations is assessed. Results E-liquids and e-cigarettes (21 and 9 brands, respectively) were evaluated. Evidence of non-compliance was found in relation to the CHIP/CLP toxic (13%) and environmental (37%) pictograms, tactile warning (23%), nominal amount of solution (30%), supplier contact telephone number and address (40%). None of the evaluated e-cigarettes displayed information on the correct disposal/recycling of batteries in line with the ECD 2006/66/EC. Conclusions More stringent enforcement of regulations is needed to ensure not only the user's safety and awareness, but also the safeguarding of the environment. PMID:26790924

  12. Cigarette smoking and genetic alterations in sporadic colon carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Vrieling, A.; Kraats, van A.A.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been inconsistently associated with colon cancer risk. To evaluate the hypothesis that smoking is primarily linked to a specific colon tumor subgroup(s), we assessed associations between smoking and the occurrence of mutations in the APC, K-ras and p53 genes, p53 overexpression

  13. Consumption of Combustible and Smokeless Tobacco - United States, 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teresa W; Kenemer, Brandon; Tynan, Michael A; Singh, Tushar; King, Brian

    2016-12-09

    Combustible and smokeless tobacco use causes adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease and multiple types of cancer (1,2). Standard approaches for measuring tobacco use include self-reported surveys of use and consumption estimates based on tobacco excise tax data (3,4). To provide the most recently available tobacco consumption estimates in the United States, CDC used federal excise tax data to estimate total and per capita consumption during 2000-2015 for combustible tobacco (cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, pipe tobacco, small cigars, and large cigars) and smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco and dry snuff). During this period, total combustible tobacco consumption decreased 33.5%, or 43.7% per capita. Although total cigarette consumption decreased 38.7%, cigarettes remained the most commonly used combustible tobacco product. Total noncigarette combustible tobacco (i.e., cigars, roll-your-own, and pipe tobacco) consumption increased 117.1%, or 83.8% per capita during 2000-2015. Total consumption of smokeless tobacco increased 23.1%, or 4.2% per capita. Notably, total cigarette consumption was 267.0 billion cigarettes in 2015 compared with 262.7 billion in 2014. These findings indicate that although cigarette smoking declined overall during 2000-2015, and each year from 2000 to 2014, the number of cigarettes consumed in 2015 was higher than in 2014, and the first time annual cigarette consumption was higher than the previous year since 1973. Moreover, the consumption of other combustible and smokeless tobacco products remains substantial. Implementation of proven tobacco prevention interventions (5) is warranted to further reduce tobacco use in the United States.

  14. Sustainability Assessment of a Self-Consumption Wood-Energy Chain on Small Scale for Heat Generation in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Verani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of a small-scale self-consumption wood-energy chain for heat generation in central Italy was analyzed from a technical, economic and energetic point of view. A micro-chain was developed within the CRA-ING farm at Monterotondo (Rome, Italy: The purpose of this system was to produce biomass for supplying a heating plant within the CRA-ING property as a substitute for diesel fuel. A poplar short rotation coppice, established with clones AF2, AF6 and Monviso, fed the micro-chain. The rotation was biennial. The average plantation production (Mgd.m.·ha−1·year−1 was 10.2, with a maximum of 13.53 for the twin-rows AF2 and a minimum of 8.00 for the single-row Monviso. The economic assessment was based on the Net Present Value (NPV method and the equivalent annuity cost, and found an average saving of 15.60 €·GJ−1 of heat generated by the wood chips heating system in comparison with the diesel heating system over a 10 year lifetime of the thermal power plant. The energy assessment of the poplar plantation, carried out using the Gross Energy Requirements method, reported an energy output/input ratio of 12.3. The energy output/input ratio of the whole micro-chain was 4.5.

  15. Assessment of the Sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet Combined with Organic Food Consumption: An Individual Behaviour Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seconda, Louise; Baudry, Julia; Allès, Benjamin; Hamza, Oualid; Boizot-Szantai, Christine; Soler, Louis-Georges; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-12

    Mediterranean diets are promising sustainable food models and the organic food system may provide health and environmental benefits. Combining the two models could therefore be a favourable approach for food sustainability. The aim of this study was to draw up a comparative description of four diets differing in the level of organic foods consumption and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, using multidisciplinary indicators to assess the sustainability of these diets. Four groups of participants were defined and compared, combining the proportion of organic food in their diet (Org versus Conv) and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Med versus NoMed). Conv-NoMed: Conventional consumers and non-Mediterranean diet followers; Conv-Med: Conventional consumers and Mediterranean diet followers; Org-NoMed: Organic consumers and non-Mediterranean diet followers; Org-Med: Organic consumers and Mediterranean diet followers. The adherence to nutritional recommendations was higher among the Org-Med and Conv-Med groups compared to the Conv-NoMed group (using the mPNNS-GS (modified-Programme National nutrition santé guidelines score/13.5 points): 9.29 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.23-9.36) and 9.30 (95% CI = 9.24-9.35) versus 8.19 (95% CI = 8.17-8.22)) respectively. The mean plant/animal protein intake ratio was 1.38 (95% CI = 1.01-1.74) for the Org-Med group versus 0.44 (95% CI = 0.28-0.60) for the Conv-NoMed group. The average cost of the diet of Org-Med participants was the highest: 11.43 €/day (95% CI = 11.34-11.52). This study highlighted the importance of promoting the Mediterranean diet combined with organic food consumption for individual health and environmental aspects but challenges with regard to the cost remain.

  16. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi; Khoramivafa, Mahmud

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ(-1), respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO2, 31.58 kg N2O and 3.82 kg CH4 per hectare. Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co2eq ha(-1) in corn production systems. In terms of CO2 equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO2, 76% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg Cha(-1). Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg Cha(-1) and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems.

  17. Patient–physician communication regarding electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Steinberg

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: Physician communication about e-cigarettes may shape patients' perceptions about the products. More research is needed to explore the type of information that physicians share with their patients regarding e-cigarettes and harm reduction.

  18. Menthol cigarettes and the cardiovascular risks of people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Burbano, María José; Vargas, Mayra; Quiros, Clery; Lewis, John E; Espinoza, Luis; Deshratan, Asthana

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that menthol cigarettes add to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of smoking has been barely discussed. Although cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are at the forefront of medical concerns of people living with HIV (PLWH), an important, yet unknown, issue for clinicians and public health authorities is whether use of menthol-flavored cigarettes heightens CVD risk factors. Our study aims to assess traditional (10-year risk using the Framingham Risk Model) and nontraditional CVD risk factors and to contrast the effects of menthol-flavored versus non-menthol-flavored cigarettes on these risk factors. Compared to controls, menthol smokers were twice as likely to have hypertension. Users of menthol-flavored cigarettes had higher body mass index values, and increased risk of abdominal obesity. Multivariate analyses indicated that menthol smokers doubled the odds of having moderate to high CVD risk. This finding is highly significant given the widespread use of menthol-flavored cigarettes, particularly among women, minorities, and PLWH.

  19. "Cigarettes Are Priority": A Qualitative Study of How Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers Respond to Rising Cigarette Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial modelling research assessing the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking rates across income groups, few studies have examined the broader financial effects and unintended consequences on very low-income smokers. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers in a high-income country manage smoking costs on…

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Common Plastic Packaging for Reducing Environmental Impact and Material Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visvaldas Varžinskas

    2009-12-01

    the Faculty of Design and Technologies, Kaunas University of Technology, together with packaging and environmental protection specialists of the University, and in cooperation with the Department of Printed Publications and Packaging of the Ukrainian Print Academy. The present paper analyses certain basic findings of the study on the possibilities of improving the ecological level of packaging within the framework of the project. It is stated that appropriate investigation of packaging, its production and application has to be performed in order to prove that the packaging was produced in compliance with preventive and other principles; this investigation is related to a wide variety of package testing, some of which has not yet got methodology acknowledged at a sufficient level (the EU or groups of countries. Therefore, one of the research directions in the above mentioned project, discussed in the present paper, is related to developing a single system, recognized throughout the EU, which would enable researchers to perform the required tests confirming the packaging quality compliance with the environmental requirements. The paper analyzes the EU prevention regulations for reducing the amount of raw material and the system of checking the realization of the requirements based on identification of critical areas, aimed at reaching the lowest possible package weight and/or volume, consequently, the minimum waste amount, without increasing the amount of faulty products and product waste. The paper presents the findings of the research obtained in assessing the life cycle, when applying the Ecoindicator'99 qualitative analysis, concerning the impact of common plastic packages and processes on the environment during manufacturing, usage and disposal. Compression test results of common type plastic packaging construction are presented, which allow us to assess the impact of the package shape and construction upon the packaging reliability and minimization of its mass.

  1. Will any future increase in cigarette price reduce smoking in Saudi Arabia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Al-Mohrej

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In Saudi Arabia, no studies have been conducted on the correlation between any possible cigarette′s price increase and its effects on cigarette consumption. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Saudi Arabia and to predict the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in April and May 2013. Methods: We developed an Arabic questionnaire with information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, smoking history, and personal opinion on the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. The questionnaire was distributed in public places such as malls and posted on famous Saudi athlete media′s twitter accounts. Results: Among the 2057 included responses, 802 (39% were current smokers. The smokers′ population constituted of 746 (92% males, of which 546 (68% had a monthly income equal or greater to 800 US dollars, and 446 (55% were aged between 21 and 30 years. Multivariate analyses of the risk factors for smoking showed that male gender and older age were associated with greater risk. Despite the current low prices of 2.67 US dollars, 454 smokers (56% thought that cigarette prices are expensive. When asked about the price of cigarettes that will lead to smoking cessation, 443 smokers (55% expected that a price of 8.27 US dollars and more per pack will make them quit. Conclusions: Increasing the price of popular cigarettes pack from 2.67 US dollars to 8.27 US dollars is expected to lead to smoking cessation in a large number of smokers in the Saudi population.

  2. E-cigarettes also contain detrimental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews studies dealing with the content of electronic (e-) cigarettes. Based on measurements of the e-juice, the inhaled and the exhaled vapour, it is sound to assume that smoking e-cigarettes might have much less detrimental health effects than smoking conventional cigarettes....... However, propylene glycol and glycerine are abundant in e-cigarettes and although they are generally perceived as relatively harmless, the long-term effects of heavy exposure to these substances are unknown....

  3. E-cigarettes also contain detrimental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer;

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews studies dealing with the content of electronic (e-) cigarettes. Based on measurements of the e-juice, the inhaled and the exhaled vapour, it is sound to assume that smoking e-cigarettes might have much less detrimental health effects than smoking conventional cigarettes. Howe....... However, propylene glycol and glycerine are abundant in e-cigarettes and although they are generally perceived as relatively harmless, the long-term effects of heavy exposure to these substances are unknown....

  4. Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Peyton A; Karpinski, Clarissa D; Brown, Jessica E; Luo, Wentai; Pankow, James F

    2015-01-01

    Background Most e-cigarette liquids contain flavour chemicals. Flavour chemicals certified as safe for ingestion by the Flavor Extracts Manufacturers Association may not be safe for use in e-cigarettes. This study identified and measured flavour chemicals in 30 e-cigarette fluids. Methods Two brands of single-use e-cigarettes were selected and their fluids in multiple flavour types analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the same flavour types, and for selected confectionary fla...

  5. A community-based assessment of seafood consumption along the lower James River, Virginia, USA: potential sources of dietary mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloman, Erica L; Newman, Michael C

    2010-04-01

    The use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods to conduct environmental exposure assessments provides valuable insight about disparities in seafood consumption and contaminant exposure. Ninety-five community-specific seafood consumption surveys were administered to low-income African-American women (ages 16-49) residing in the Southeast community of Newport News, VA, USA, for the purpose of assessing potential dietary mercury exposure. Only the results of the seafood consumption surveys are presented in this manuscript. Approximately 65% of the women surveyed do not fish; however, 83% had consumed seafood within the last 7 days. Whiting, shrimp, and canned tuna were the three items most frequently consumed. Ninety-three percent of the women surveyed stated that grocery/seafood markets were the main sources of the seafood items generally consumed. The mean seafood consumption rate for the women surveyed was 147.8 g/day (95% CI: 117.6-185.8), a rate substantially higher than the mean seafood consumption rate reported for US women (1.8 g/day 95% CI: 1.51-2.04). Shrimp, croaker, and blue crab were the top three seafood items with the highest summed amount (g/day) consumed. There was no significant association between demographic variables (age, income, education, and weight) and total number of seafood items listed, ingestion rate (g/meal), exposure frequency (meals/year), and seafood consumption rate (g/day). By using CBPR to assess seafood consumption in this community, we learned that even though women in Southeast Newport News, Virginia are not subsistence fishers, they consume seafood at a subsistence fisher rate. Of the three seafood items most frequently consumed, canned tuna potentially plays a significant role in dietary mercury exposure for women in this community. Future work includes determining mercury concentrations in seafood items consumed and generating community-specific statements of dietary mercury risks.

  6. Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papale Gabriella

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. Therefore, improved approaches to smoking cessation are necessary. The electronic-cigarette (e-Cigarette, a battery-powered electronic nicotine delivery device (ENDD resembling a cigarette, may help smokers to remain abstinent during their quit attempt or to reduce cigarette consumption. Efficacy and safety of these devices in long-term smoking cessation and/or smoking reduction studies have never been investigated. Methods In this prospective proof-of-concept study we monitored possible modifications in smoking habits of 40 regular smokers (unwilling to quit experimenting the 'Categoria' e-Cigarette with a focus on smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. Study participants were invited to attend a total of five study visits: at baseline, week-4, week-8, week-12 and week-24. Product use, number of cigarettes smoked, and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO levels were measured at each visit. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events and product preferences were also reviewed. Results Sustained 50% reduction in the number of cig/day at week-24 was shown in 13/40(32.5% participants; their median of 25 cigs/day decreasing to 6 cigs/day (p Conclusion The use of e-Cigarette substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in smokers not intending to quit (http://ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01195597.

  7. The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century?*

    OpenAIRE

    Marli Maria Knorst; Igor Gorski Benedetto; Mariana Costa Hoffmeister; Marcelo Basso Gazzana

    2014-01-01

    The electronic nicotine delivery system, also known as the electronic cigarette, is generating considerable controversy, not only in the general population but also among health professionals. Smokers the world over have been increasingly using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation and as a substitute for conventional cigarettes. There are few available data regarding the safety of electronic cigarettes. There is as yet no evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective in tr...

  8. E-cigarettes and E-hookahs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000761.htm E-cigarettes and E-hookahs To use the sharing features on this ... cigarettes because they believe these devices are safe. E-cigarettes and Children Many experts also have concerns ...

  9. Feasibility of dietary assessment methods, other tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocké, Marga; Brants, Henny; Dofkova, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods. Methods Two pilot studies including 378 children were conducted in Belgium and the Czech Republic in the Pilot...... studies for Assessment of Nutrient intake and food Consumption among Kids in Europe. One protocol included a 3-day food diary which was checked with a parent, and data were entered afterwards using EPIC-Soft. The alternative protocol consisted of two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries followed by EPIC...... in children 0-10 years. The positive evaluation of feasibility of tools and materials is an important step towards harmonised food consumption data at European level among the younger age groups. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg....

  10. Perceived Relative Harm of Selected Cigarettes and Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products—A Study of Young People from a Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Area in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The perceived health risk of recently introduced nicotine and tobacco products may influence both their uptake and continued use. The aim of the study was to assess how adolescents rate relative harmfulness of slim and menthol cigarettes, water pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco compared to regular cigarettes. Cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13–19 years from Piotrkowski district, Poland were analyzed. Among the sample of 4050 students, 3552 respondents completed anonymous, confidential, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. The study results indicate that the students perceived slim cigarettes and menthol cigarettes as less harmful, which is in line with the message created by tobacco companies. On the other hand, less popular products such as water pipes and smokeless tobacco were considered as more harmful. The current study indicates insufficient and misleading perception of harmfulness of different tobacco/nicotine products available on the Polish market. Simultaneously, there is insufficient countrywide public health education in this matter. Preventive measures are necessary to discourage young people from smoking uptake and to ensure that potential consumers can, based on objective data, make informed decisions about cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products.

  11. Perceived Relative Harm of Selected Cigarettes and Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products-A Study of Young People from a Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Area in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polanska, Kinga; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Wojtysiak, Piotr

    2016-09-06

    The perceived health risk of recently introduced nicotine and tobacco products may influence both their uptake and continued use. The aim of the study was to assess how adolescents rate relative harmfulness of slim and menthol cigarettes, water pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco compared to regular cigarettes. Cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13-19 years from Piotrkowski district, Poland were analyzed. Among the sample of 4050 students, 3552 respondents completed anonymous, confidential, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). The study results indicate that the students perceived slim cigarettes and menthol cigarettes as less harmful, which is in line with the message created by tobacco companies. On the other hand, less popular products such as water pipes and smokeless tobacco were considered as more harmful. The current study indicates insufficient and misleading perception of harmfulness of different tobacco/nicotine products available on the Polish market. Simultaneously, there is insufficient countrywide public health education in this matter. Preventive measures are necessary to discourage young people from smoking uptake and to ensure that potential consumers can, based on objective data, make informed decisions about cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products.

  12. Perceived Relative Harm of Selected Cigarettes and Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products—A Study of Young People from a Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Area in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polanska, Kinga; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Wojtysiak, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The perceived health risk of recently introduced nicotine and tobacco products may influence both their uptake and continued use. The aim of the study was to assess how adolescents rate relative harmfulness of slim and menthol cigarettes, water pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco compared to regular cigarettes. Cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13–19 years from Piotrkowski district, Poland were analyzed. Among the sample of 4050 students, 3552 respondents completed anonymous, confidential, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). The study results indicate that the students perceived slim cigarettes and menthol cigarettes as less harmful, which is in line with the message created by tobacco companies. On the other hand, less popular products such as water pipes and smokeless tobacco were considered as more harmful. The current study indicates insufficient and misleading perception of harmfulness of different tobacco/nicotine products available on the Polish market. Simultaneously, there is insufficient countrywide public health education in this matter. Preventive measures are necessary to discourage young people from smoking uptake and to ensure that potential consumers can, based on objective data, make informed decisions about cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products. PMID:27608034

  13. Validation of Methods for Determining Consumer Smoked Cigarette Yields from Cigarette Filter Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepperd CJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods based on the analyses of cigarette filters have been used to estimate ‘tar’ and nicotine yields to smokers. These methods rely on the measurement of filtration efficiencies (FEs. However FEs may be influenced by both cigarette design features e.g., type of filter and levels of filter ventilation, and human smoking behaviour factors such as puff flow-rates and cigarette butt lengths. Two filter analysis methods are considered in our study. One is based on the analysis of whole filters using average values of FEs obtained from a range of machine smoking regimes. The other, a ‘part filter’ method, analyses a 10 mm section from the mouth end of the filter where the FE remains relatively constant irrespective of puff flow rates and butt lengths. Human puffing behaviour records were obtained from 10 smokers, each smoking six commercial cigarettes ranging from 1 mg to 12 mg ‘tar’ yields [International Standard (ISO values]. These records were used to drive a human smoke duplicator and the resulting ‘tar’ and nicotine yields obtained from duplication were compared with the estimates obtained from ‘whole’ and ‘part filter’ analysis. The results indicated that whilst both filter methods gave good correlations with nicotine and ‘tar’ yields obtained from smoke duplication, the ‘part filter’ method was less susceptible to the effect of nicotine condensation and changes in FEs and hence gave a more accurate assessment of yields than the ‘whole filter’ method.

  14. Are all cigarettes just the same? Female's perceptions of slim, coloured, aromatized and capsule cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Ford, Allison; Mackintosh, Anne; Purves, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Twelve focus groups in Glasgow (Scotland) were conducted with female non-smokers and occasional smokers aged 12-24 years (N = 75), with each group shown 11 cigarettes: two (standard) cigarettes with cork filters; two coloured cigarettes (pink or brown); four slim cigarettes; an aromatized black cigarette; a menthol cigarette and a cigarette with a flavour-changing rupturable capsule in the filter. Participants were asked to rank the cigarettes by appeal, taste and harm. The capsule cigarette was then discussed in depth. The pink coloured cigarette and slim cigarettes created significant interest and were generally perceived as most appealing and pleasant tasting, and least harmful. The black aromatized cigarette received a mixed response, with some disliking the dark colour and associating it with low appeal, strong taste and increased harm, whereas for others the smell helped to enhance appeal and taste perceptions and lower perceptions of harm. The novel capsule cigarette, when discussed in-depth, was viewed very positively. Just as research shows that cigarette packs can influence perceptions of appeal, harm and taste, this study suggests that the actual cigarettes can do likewise. The findings have implications for tobacco education and policy.

  15. Blood Pressure Control in Smokers with Arterial Hypertension Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (ECs are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine, which may help smokers with quitting or reducing their tobacco consumption. No data is available regarding the health effects of ECs use among smokers with arterial hypertension and whether regular use results in blood pressure (BP changes. We investigated long-term changes in resting BP and level of BP control in hypertensive smokers who quit or reduced substantially their tobacco consumption by switching to ECs. A medical records review of patients with hypertension was conducted to identify patients reporting regular daily use of ECs on at least two consecutive follow-up visits. Regularly smoking hypertensive patients were included as a reference group. A marked reduction in cigarette consumption was observed in ECs users (n = 43 though consumption remained unchanged in the control group (n = 46. Compared to baseline, at 12 months (follow-up visit 2 decline in cigarette consumption was associated with significant reductions in median (25th-, 75th-centile systolic BP (140 (134.5, 144 to 130 (123.5, 138.5 mmHg; p < 0.001 and diastolic BP (86 (78, 90 to 80 (74.5, 90 mmHg; p = 0.006. No significant changes were observed in the control group. As expected, decline in cigarette consumption in the ECs users was also associated with improved BP control. The study concludes that regular ECs use may aid smokers with arterial hypertension reduce or abstain from cigarette smoking, with only trivial post-cessation weight gain. This resulted in improvements in systolic and diastolic BP as well as better BP control.

  16. Blood Pressure Control in Smokers with Arterial Hypertension Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosa, Riccardo; Morjaria, Jaymin B.; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Battaglia, Eliana; Russo, Cristina; Ciampi, Claudio; Adams, George; Bruno, Cosimo M.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine, which may help smokers with quitting or reducing their tobacco consumption. No data is available regarding the health effects of ECs use among smokers with arterial hypertension and whether regular use results in blood pressure (BP) changes. We investigated long-term changes in resting BP and level of BP control in hypertensive smokers who quit or reduced substantially their tobacco consumption by switching to ECs. A medical records review of patients with hypertension was conducted to identify patients reporting regular daily use of ECs on at least two consecutive follow-up visits. Regularly smoking hypertensive patients were included as a reference group. A marked reduction in cigarette consumption was observed in ECs users (n = 43) though consumption remained unchanged in the control group (n = 46). Compared to baseline, at 12 months (follow-up visit 2) decline in cigarette consumption was associated with significant reductions in median (25th-, 75th-centile) systolic BP (140 (134.5, 144) to 130 (123.5, 138.5) mmHg; p < 0.001) and diastolic BP (86 (78, 90) to 80 (74.5, 90) mmHg; p = 0.006). No significant changes were observed in the control group. As expected, decline in cigarette consumption in the ECs users was also associated with improved BP control. The study concludes that regular ECs use may aid smokers with arterial hypertension reduce or abstain from cigarette smoking, with only trivial post-cessation weight gain. This resulted in improvements in systolic and diastolic BP as well as better BP control. PMID:27845734

  17. IEA implementing agreement for hybrid and electric vehicle technologies and programmes, Annex VII hybrid vehicles : Topic 13, assessment of the energy consumption of hybrid trucks using ADVISOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, J.; Winkel, R.G.; Geraets, R.; Verbakel, M.J.L.

    2002-01-01

    This topic report focuses on the possible benefits of the application of a hybrid powertrain in heavy-duty vehicles. The main objective is to assess whether a significant reduction in fuel consumption is feasible. An average Dutch distribution truck with a conventional driveline will be compared to

  18. Comparison of two food record-based dietary assessment methods for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers, and children using data quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freisling, Heinz; C. Ocké, Marga; Casagrande, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed (1) to describe and evaluate the "EPIC-Soft DataEntry" application developed as a user-friendly data entry tool for pan-European and national food consumption surveys among infants and children, and (2) to compare two food record-based dietary assessment methods in terms of food...

  19. An assessment of health risks associated with arsenic exposure via consumption of homegrown vegetables near contaminated glassworks sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E; Gunnarsson, Sara J; Hogmalm, K Johan; Lindegård, M I Boel G; Augustsson, Anna L M

    2015-12-01

    The health risk posed by arsenic in vegetables grown in private gardens near 22 contaminated glassworks sites was investigated in this study. Firstly, vegetable (lettuce and potato) and soil samples were collected and arsenic concentrations measured to characterize the arsenic uptake in the selected crops. Secondly, a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the average daily intake (ADIveg), which was then evaluated against toxicological reference values by the calculation of hazard quotients (HQs) and cancer risks (CRs). The results show that elevated arsenic concentrations in residential garden soils are mirrored by elevated concentrations in vegetables, and that consumption of these vegetables alone may result in an unacceptable cancer risk; the calculated reasonable maximum exposure, for example, corresponded to a cancer incidence 20 times higher than the stated tolerance limit. However, the characterization of risk depends to a great extent on which toxicological reference value is used for comparison, as well as how the exposure is determined. Based on the assumptions made in the present study, the threshold levels for chronic non-carcinogenic or acute effects were not exceeded, but the cancer risks indicated highlight the need for further exposure studies, as dietary intake involves more than just homegrown vegetables and total exposure is a function of more than just one exposure pathway. In addition, glassworks sites--and contaminated sites in general--contain multiple contaminants, affecting the final and total risk.

  20. Evaluation of the Relative Validity of the Short Diet Questionnaire for Assessing Usual Consumption Frequencies of Selected Nutrients and Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryna Shatenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 36-item Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ was developed to assess usual consumption frequencies of foods providing fats, fibre, calcium, vitamin D, in addition to fruits and vegetables. It was pretested among 30 community-dwelling participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging, “NuAge” (n = 1793, 52.4% women, recruited in three age groups (70 ± 2 years; 75 ± 2 years; 80 ± 2 years. Following revision, the SDQ was administered to 527 NuAge participants (55% female, distributed among the three age groups, both sexes and languages (French, English prior to the second of three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls (24HR and validated relative to the mean of three 24HR. Full data were available for 396 participants. Most SDQ nutrients and fruit and vegetable servings were lower than 24HR estimates (p < 0.05 except calcium, vitamin D, and saturated and trans fats. Spearman correlations between the SDQ and 24HR were modest and significant (p < 0.01, ranging from 0.19 (cholesterol to 0.45 (fruits and vegetables. Cross-classification into quartiles showed 33% of items were jointly classified into identical quartiles of the distribution, 73% into identical and contiguous quartiles, and only 7% were frankly misclassified. The SDQ is a reasonably accurate, rapid approach for ranking usual frequencies of selected nutrients and foods. Further testing is needed in a broader age range.

  1. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    given birth twice or more previously had increased odds ratio (OR), 1.78 (1.27-2.49), whereas women who were students had decreased OR, 0.55 (0.34-0.91) for having spontaneous abortions. Regarding lifestyle factors, the adjusted ORs among women who consumed 5 units or more alcohol per week or 375 mg...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  2. The Importance of Conditioned Stimuli in Cigarette and E-Cigarette Craving Reduction by E-Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Van Heel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of four variables pertaining to the use of e-cigarettes (e-cigs on cravings for tobacco cigarettes and for e-cigs after an overnight abstinence period. The four variables were the nicotine level, the sensorimotor component, the visual aspect, and the aroma of the e-cig. In an experimental study, 81 participants without prior vaping experience first got acquainted with using e-cigs in a one-week tryout period, after which they participated in a lab session assessing the effect of five minutes of vaping following an abstinence period of 12 h. A mixed-effects model clearly showed the importance of nicotine in craving reduction. However, also non-nicotine factors, in particular the sensorimotor component, were shown to contribute to craving reduction. Handling cues interacted with the level (presence/absence of nicotine: it was only when the standard hand-to-mouth action cues were omitted that the craving reducing effects of nicotine were observed. Effects of aroma or visual cues were not observed, or weak and difficult to interpret, respectively.

  3. The Importance of Conditioned Stimuli in Cigarette and E-Cigarette Craving Reduction by E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heel, Martijn; Van Gucht, Dinska; Vanbrabant, Koen; Baeyens, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of four variables pertaining to the use of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) on cravings for tobacco cigarettes and for e-cigs after an overnight abstinence period. The four variables were the nicotine level, the sensorimotor component, the visual aspect, and the aroma of the e-cig. In an experimental study, 81 participants without prior vaping experience first got acquainted with using e-cigs in a one-week tryout period, after which they participated in a lab session assessing the effect of five minutes of vaping following an abstinence period of 12 h. A mixed-effects model clearly showed the importance of nicotine in craving reduction. However, also non-nicotine factors, in particular the sensorimotor component, were shown to contribute to craving reduction. Handling cues interacted with the level (presence/absence) of nicotine: it was only when the standard hand-to-mouth action cues were omitted that the craving reducing effects of nicotine were observed. Effects of aroma or visual cues were not observed, or weak and difficult to interpret, respectively. PMID:28212302

  4. Carbon Footprint of Inbound Tourism to Iceland: A Consumption-Based Life-Cycle Assessment including Direct and Indirect Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Sharp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse gas (GHG emissions caused by tourism have been studied from several perspectives, but few studies exist that include all direct and indirect emissions, particularly those from aviation. In this study, an input/output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA method is developed to assess the consumption-based carbon footprint of the average tourist including direct and indirect emissions. The total inbound tourism-related GHG emissions are also calculated within a certain region. As a demonstration of the method, the full carbon footprint of an average tourist is assessed as well as the total GHG emissions induced by tourism to Iceland over the period of 2010–2015, with the presented approach applicable in other contexts as well. Iceland provides an interesting case due to three features: (1 the tourism sector in Iceland is the fastest-growing industry in the country with an annual growth rate of over 20% over the past five years; (2 almost all tourists arrive by air; and (3 the country has an almost emissions-free energy industry and an import-dominated economy, which emphasise the role of the indirect emissions. According to the assessment, the carbon footprint for the average tourist is 1.35 tons of CO2-eq, but ranges from 1.1 to 3.2 tons of CO2-eq depending on the distance travelled by air. Furthermore, this footprint is increasing due to the rise in average flight distances travelled to reach the country. The total GHG emissions caused by tourism in Iceland have tripled from approximately 600,000 tons of CO2-eq in 2010 to 1,800,000 tons in 2015. Aviation accounts for 50%–82% of this impact (depending on the flight distance underlining the importance of air travel, especially as tourism-related aviation is forecasted to grow significantly in the near future. From a method perspective, the carbon footprinting application presented in the study would seem to provide an efficient way to study both the direct and indirect

  5. Evaluating effectiveness and safety toward electronic cigarette among Malaysian vapers: One-month observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: A month follow-up showed a good smoking cessation rate among Malaysian vapers mainly in single users, whereas less number of quitters but the high reduction in tobacco cigarette consumption observed in dual users without any harmful effects. Furthermore, extended period studies are warranted to confirm its long-term safety and effectiveness among different Malaysian population.

  6. Quantitative risk assessment of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and Campylobacter jejuni related to consumption of raw milk in a province in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, F; Serraino, A; Bonilauri, P; Ostanello, F; Daminelli, P; Finazzi, G; Losio, M N; Marchetti, G; Liuzzo, G; Zanoni, R G; Rosmini, R

    2012-11-01

    A quantitative risk assessment was developed to describe the risk of campylobacteriosis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Northern Italy. Exposure assessment considered the microbiological status of dairy farms, expected milk contamination, storage conditions from bulk tank to home storage, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, age of consumers, serving size, and consumption preference. The differential risk between milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst field handling conditions was considered. The probability of Campylobacter jejuni infection was modeled with a single-hit dose-response beta-Poisson model, whereas for HUS an exponential dose-response model was chosen and two probabilities were used to model the higher susceptibility of children younger than 5 years old. For every 10,000 to 20,000 consumers each year, the models predicted for the best and worst storage conditions, respectively, 2.12 and 1.14 campylobacteriosis cases and 0.02 and 0.09 HUS cases in the 0- to 5-year age group and 0.1 and 0.5 HUS cases in the >5-year age group. The expected pediatric HUS cases do not differ considerably from those reported in Italy by the Minister of Health. The model developed may be a useful tool for extending the assessment of the risk of campylobacteriosis and HUS due to raw milk consumption at the national level in Italy. Considering the epidemiological implications of this study, the risk of illness linked to raw milk consumption should not be ignored and could be reduced by the use of simple measures. Boiling milk before consumption and strict control of temperatures by farmers during raw milk distribution have significant effects on campylobacteriosis and HUS and are essential measures for risk management.

  7. Assessment of the Sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet Combined with Organic Food Consumption: An Individual Behaviour Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Seconda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean diets are promising sustainable food models and the organic food system may provide health and environmental benefits. Combining the two models could therefore be a favourable approach for food sustainability. The aim of this study was to draw up a comparative description of four diets differing in the level of organic foods consumption and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, using multidisciplinary indicators to assess the sustainability of these diets. Four groups of participants were defined and compared, combining the proportion of organic food in their diet (Org versus Conv and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Med versus NoMed. Conv–NoMed: Conventional consumers and non-Mediterranean diet followers; Conv–Med: Conventional consumers and Mediterranean diet followers; Org–NoMed: Organic consumers and non-Mediterranean diet followers; Org–Med: Organic consumers and Mediterranean diet followers. The adherence to nutritional recommendations was higher among the Org–Med and Conv–Med groups compared to the Conv–NoMed group (using the mPNNS-GS (modified-Programme National nutrition santé guidelines score/13.5 points: 9.29 (95% confidence intervals (CI = 9.23–9.36 and 9.30 (95% CI = 9.24–9.35 versus 8.19 (95% CI = 8.17–8.22 respectively. The mean plant/animal protein intake ratio was 1.38 (95% CI = 1.01–1.74 for the Org–Med group versus 0.44 (95% CI = 0.28–0.60 for the Conv–NoMed group. The average cost of the diet of Org–Med participants was the highest: 11.43 €/day (95% CI = 11.34–11.52. This study highlighted the importance of promoting the Mediterranean diet combined with organic food consumption for individual health and environmental aspects but challenges with regard to the cost remain.

  8. Carbonyl compounds generated from electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-10-28

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  9. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Bekki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  10. The lingering question of menthol in cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Tommasi, Stella

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco use is the single most important preventable cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA and many parts of the world. There is growing evidence that menthol cigarettes are starter tobacco products for children, adolescents, and young adults. Accumulating research also suggests that smoking menthol cigarettes reinforces nicotine dependence, impedes cessation, and promotes relapse. However, menthol cigarettes are exempt from the US Food and Drug Administration ban on flavored cigarettes due, in part, to the lack of empirical evidence describing the health consequences of smoking menthol cigarettes relative to regular cigarettes. Determining the biological effects of menthol cigarette smoke relative to regular cigarette smoke can clarify the health risks associated with the use of respective products and assist regulatory agencies in making scientifically based decisions on the development and evaluation of regulations on tobacco products to protect public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors. We highlight the inherent shortcomings of the conventional epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory research on menthol cigarettes that have contributed to the ongoing debate on the public health impact of menthol in cigarettes. In addition, we provide perspectives on how future investigations exploiting state-of-the-art biomarkers of exposure and disease states can help answer the lingering question of menthol in cigarettes.

  11. Teens and E-cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Age Adults in 2015 Teens and E-cigarettes Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Substance Use in Women and Men View All NIDA's Publication Series Brain Power DrugFacts Mind Over Matter Research Reports NIDA Home ...

  12. The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Maria Knorst

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The electronic nicotine delivery system, also known as the electronic cigarette, is generating considerable controversy, not only in the general population but also among health professionals. Smokers the world over have been increasingly using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation and as a substitute for conventional cigarettes. There are few available data regarding the safety of electronic cigarettes. There is as yet no evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective in treating nicotine addiction. Some smokers have reported using electronic cigarettes for over a year, often combined with conventional cigarettes, thus prolonging nicotine addiction. In addition, the increasing use of electronic cigarettes by adolescents is a cause for concern. The objective of this study was to describe electronic cigarettes and their components, as well as to review the literature regarding their safety; their impact on smoking initiation and smoking cessation; and regulatory issues related to their use.

  13. In vitro toxicity testing of cigarette smoke based on the air-liquid interface exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex aerosol comprising particulate phase and gaseous vapour phase. The air-liquid interface exposure provides a possible technical means to implement whole smoke exposure for the assessment of tobacco products. In this review, the research progress in the in vitro toxicity testing of cigarette smoke based on the air-liquid interface exposure is summarized. The contents presented involve mainly cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, systems toxicology, 3D culture and cigarette smoke dosimetry related to cigarette smoke, as well as the assessment of electronic cigarette aerosol. Prospect of the application of the air-liquid interface exposure method in assessing the biological effects of tobacco smoke is discussed.

  14. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; David Hammond; O’Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Par...

  15. Public Awareness of Mercury in Fish: Analysis of Public Awareness and Assessment of Fish Consumption in Vermont

    OpenAIRE

    Damsky, William E.; Duncan, Elizabeth; Flanagan, Noreen; Fromhold, Karen; Dung, Hyunh; Meyer, Russell; Sax, Jordan; Delaney, Thomas; Bress, William; Hoffman-Contois, Razelle; Carney, Jan K.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to mercury from environmental sources, such as fish consumption, poses potential health risks to the public. The state of Vermont has developed educational brochures and posters displaying safe fish consumption guidelines in order to educate the public regarding mercury exposure through fish. In this study, a group of medical students from the University of Vermont College of Medicine, in partnership with the Vermont Department of Health, conducted a study in Chittenden County, Vermo...

  16. Lethal impacts of cigarette smoke in cultured tobacco cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawano Tomonori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand and generalize the toxic mechanism of cigarette smoke in living cells, comparison of the data between animal systems and other biological system such as microbial and plant systems is highly beneficial. Objective By employing the tobacco cells as model materials for cigarette smoke toxicity assay, the impacts of the combustion by-products such as nitrogen oxides could be highlighted as the toxic impacts of the plant-derived endogenous chemicals could be excluded in the plant cells. Methods Cigarette smoke-induced cell death was assessed in tobacco cell suspension cultures in the presence and absence of pharmacological inhibitors. Results Cigarette smoke was effective in induction of cell death. The smoke-induced cell death could be partially prevented by addition of nitric oxide (NO scavenger, suggesting the role for NO as the cell death mediator. Addition of NO donor to tobacco cells also resulted in development of partial cell death further confirming the role of NO as cell death mediator. Members of reactive oxygen species and calcium ion were shown to be protecting the cells from the toxic action of smoke-derived NO.

  17. Adolescent Light Cigarette Smoking Patterns and Adult Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Constance Wiener

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Light cigarette smoking has had limited research. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between light smoking in adolescence with smoking in adulthood. Methods. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, Waves I and IV, were analyzed. Previous month adolescent smoking of 1–5 cigarettes/day (cpd (light smoking; 6–16 cpd (average smoking; 17 or more cpd (heavy smoking; and nonsmoking were compared with the outcome of adult smoking. Results. At baseline, 15.9% of adolescents were light smokers, 6.8% were average smokers, and 3.6% were heavy smokers. The smoking patterns were significantly related to adult smoking. In logistic regression analyses, adolescent light smokers had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR of 2.45 (95% CI: 2.00, 3.00 of adult smoking; adolescent average or heavy smokers had AOR of 5.57 (95% CI: 4.17, 7.43 and 5.23 (95% CI: 3.29, 8.31, respectively. Conclusion. Individuals who initiate light cigarette smoking during adolescence are more likely to smoke as young adults. Practical Implications. When screening for tobacco use by adolescents, there is a need to verify that the adolescents understand that light smoking constitutes smoking. There is a need for healthcare providers to initiate interventions for adolescent light smoking.

  18. Perceptions of Menthol Cigarettes Among Twitter Users: Content and Sentiment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Catherine L; Binns, Steven; Buenger, Melissa; Emery, Sherry; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-01-01

    Background Menthol cigarettes are used disproportionately by African American, female, and adolescent smokers. Twitter is also used disproportionately by minority and younger populations, providing a unique window into conversations reflecting social norms, behavioral intentions, and sentiment toward menthol cigarettes. Objective Our purpose was to identify the content and frequency of conversations about menthol cigarettes, including themes, populations, user smoking status, other tobacco or substances, tweet characteristics, and sentiment. We also examined differences in menthol cigarette sentiment by prevalent categories, which allowed us to assess potential perceptions, misperceptions, and social norms about menthol cigarettes on Twitter. This approach can inform communication about these products, particularly to subgroups who are at risk for menthol cigarette use. Methods Through a combination of human and machine classification, we identified 94,627 menthol cigarette-relevant tweets from February 1, 2012 to January 31, 2013 (1 year) from over 47 million tobacco-related messages gathered prospectively from the Twitter Firehose of all public tweets and metadata. Then, 4 human coders evaluated a random sample of 7000 tweets for categories, including sentiment toward menthol cigarettes. Results We found that 47.98% (3194/6657) of tweets expressed positive sentiment, while 40.26% (2680/6657) were negative toward menthol cigarettes. The majority of tweets by likely smokers (2653/4038, 65.70%) expressed positive sentiment, while 91.2% (320/351) of nonsmokers and 71.7% (91/127) of former smokers indicated negative views. Positive views toward menthol cigarettes were predominant in tweets that discussed addiction or craving, marijuana, smoking, taste or sensation, song lyrics, and tobacco industry or marketing or tweets that were commercial in nature. Negative views toward menthol were more common in tweets about smoking cessation, health, African Americans, women

  19. Vam3, a derivative of resveratrol, attenuates cigarette smoke-induced autophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji SHI; Ning YIN; Ling-ling XUAN; Chun-suo YAO; Ai-min MENG; Qi HOU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To appraise the efficacy of Vam3 (Amurensis H),a dimeric derivative of resveratrol,at inhibiting cigarette smoke-induced autophagy.Methods:Human bronchial epithelial cells were treated with cigarette smoke condensates,and a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) model was established by exposing male BALB/c mice to cigarette smoke.The protein levels of the autophagic marker microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3),Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1),and foxhead box O 3a (FoxO3a) were examined using Western blotting and Immunohistochemistry.LC3 punctae were detected by immunofluorescence.The levels of FoxO3a acetylation were examined by immunoprecipitation.The level of intracellular oxidation was assessed by detecting ROS and GSH-Px.Results:Vam3 attenuated cigarette smoke condensate-induced autophagy in human bronchial epithelial cells,and restored the expression levels of Sift1 and FoxO3a that had been reduced by cigarette smoke condensates.Similar protective effects of Vam3,reducing autophagy and restoring the levels of Sirt1 and FoxO3a,were observed in the COPD animal model.Additionally,Vam3 also diminished the oxidative stress that was induced by the cigarette smoke condensates.Conclusion:Vam3 decreases cigarette smoke-induced autophagy via up-regulating/restoring the levels of Sirt1 and FoxO3a and inhibiting the induced oxidative stress.

  20. Creatine kinase isoenzyme patterns upon chronic exposure to cigarette smoke: protective effect of Bacoside A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, K; Vani, G; Balakrishna, K; Devi, C S Shyamala

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is implicated as a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Creatine kinase (CK) and its isoforms (CK-MM, MB, BB) have been advocated as sensitive markers in the assessment of cardiac and cerebral damage. Therefore, in the present study, we report the isoenzyme patterns of CK in rats upon exposure to cigarette smoke and the protective effect of Bacoside A against chronic smoking induced toxicity. Adult male albino rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and simultaneously administered with Bacoside A, the active constituent from the plant Bacopa monniera, for a period of 12 weeks. The activity of CK was assayed in serum, heart and brain, and its isoenzymes in serum were separated electrophoretically. Rats exposed to cigarette smoke showed significant increase in serum CK activity with concomitant decrease in heart and brain. Also cigarette smoke exposure resulted in a marked increase in all the three isoforms in serum. Administration of Bacoside A prevented these alterations induced by cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is known to cause free radical mediated lipid peroxidation leading to increased membrane permeability and cellular damage in the heart and brain resulting in the release of CK into the circulation. The protective effect of Bacoside A on the structural and functional integrity of the membrane prevented the leakage of CK from the respective tissues, which could be attributed to its free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidative effect.

  1. The cessation and detoxification effect of tea filters on cigarette smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To treat tobacco addiction,a tea filter was developed and studied for smoking cessation.This work reports the smoking cessation effect of tea when it was used as a component of cigarette filters.In one trial it was found that after using the tea filters for 2 months,the volunteer smokers decreased their cigarette consumption by 56.5%,and 31.7% of them stopped smoking.This work identified a new method and material,tea filter and theanine,which inhibit tobacco and nicotine addiction and provide an effective strategy for treating tobacco addiction.

  2. Smaller Cigarette Pack as a Commitment to Smoke Less? Insights from Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Marti; Jody Sindelar

    2015-01-01

    Cigarettes are commonly sold in packs of 20 units and therefore little is known about the potential impact of pack size on consumption. Using insights from behavioral economics, we suggest that cigarette packs smaller than the standard size may help some smokers cut back and/or quit, consistent with their long-term goals. Results from an online hypothetical purchase experiment conducted in a sample of US smokers reveal that over a third of smokers are willing to pay a price premium to purchas...

  3. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartjes, Frank A., E-mail: frank.swartjes@rivm.nl; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable-group-consumption

  4. Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes.

  5. Immediate response to cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, P.J.; Chowienczyk, P.J.; Clark, T.J.

    1982-06-01

    Using an automated method of calculating airways resistance in the body plethysmograph, we have investigated changes occurring immediately after inhalation of cigarette smoke. Decreases in specific conductance occurred by the time of the first measurement seven or eight seconds after exposure to single inhalations of cigarette smoke in 12 smokers and 12 non-smokers. Less than half of the initial change was present 40 seconds after the inhalation. Initial responses were greater in the non-smokers. Responses recurred with repeated inhalations in smokers and non-smokers. Prior administration of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide significantly inhibited the response and this inhibition appeared to be greater in non-smokers. Sodium cromoglycate inhaled as a dry powder had no effect on the response.

  6. Thermal injury patterns associated with electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwani, Alisha Z; Williams, James F; Rizzo, Julie A; Chung, Kevin K; King, Booker T; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarettes are typically lithium-ion battery-operated devices that simulate smoking by heating a nicotine-solution into a vapor that the user inhales. E-cigarette use is becoming rapidly popular as an alternative to traditional cigarette smoking. This report describes an emerging problem associated with e-cigarettes, consisting of 10 thermally injured patients seen at a single burn center over a 2-year period from 2014 to 2016. Our cohort was comprised mainly of young adults who sustained mixed partial and full thickness burns as a result of e-cigarette-related explosions. In many documented scenarios, a malfunctioning or over-heated battery is the cause. Our data support the need for increased awareness among healthcare providers and the general public of the potential harms of e-cigarette use, modification, storage, and charging. PMID:28123861

  7. Joint hypermobility, fears, and chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailhez, Guillem; Rosado, Silvia; Bulbena Cabré, Andrea; Bulbena, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate joint hypermobility, an inherited disorder of the connective tissue significantly associated with anxiety disorders, in a sample of nonclinical students in relation to the frequency of severe fears and consumption of chocolate, coffee, cigarettes, and alcohol. One hundred fifty students completed the Hakim and Grahame Simple Questionnaire to detect hypermobility and the self-administered modified Wolpe Fear Scale (100 items). Severe fears and daily consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, coffee, and chocolate were compared with the hypermobility scores. We found significant differences when comparing severe fears between the groups with and without hypermobility (7.6 vs. 11; p = 0.001), reinforcing the hypothesis that the intensity of fears is greater in subjects with hypermobility. Only the frequency of chocolate intake was significantly higher among subjects with hypermobility (31.2% vs. 51.2%; p = 0.038) and may correspond to attempts of self-treatment of the collagen condition.

  8. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  9. Carbonyl compounds in gas and particle phases of mainstream cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Lewis, Alastair C

    2011-11-01

    Carbonyl compounds (carbonyls) are important constituents of cigarette smoke and some are toxic and may be carcinogenic or mutagenic to humans. In this study carbonyl emissions in the gas and particle phases of mainstream cigarette smoke were assessed by GC-MS with pentafluorophenyl hydrazine (PFPH) derivatization. Seven brands of cigarettes and one brand of cigar common in the UK market and having differing nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide yields were investigated. Sixteen carbonyl components were identified in gaseous emissions and twenty in the particle phase. In the gaseous emissions, acetaldehyde presented as the predominant species, followed by formaldehyde, 2-propenal, and pentanal. In the particulate emissions, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone was the most abundant followed by formaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde. Significant differences were found in carbonyl emissions among the brands of cigarettes. The gaseous carbonyl emissions varied in the range of 216-405 μg cigarette(-1) (μg cig(-1)) and the particulate carbonyl emissions varied in the range of 23-127 μg cig(-1). Positive correlations were found between the total emission of carbonyls, tar yield and carbon monoxide yield. Similar gas/particle (G/P) partitioning ratios of carbonyls were found among all cigarettes, which implies that G/P partitions of carbonyls in smoke mainly depend on the physical properties of the carbonyls. The gaseous carbonyl emissions were enhanced by 40% to 130% when some of the water, accounting for 8-12% of cigarettes in mass, was removed from the tobacco. Non-filtered cigarettes showed significantly higher carbonyl emissions compared to their filtered equivalents. Carbonyl particulate accounted for 11-19% by mass of total particulate matter from tobacco smoke. The cigar generated 806 μg cig(-1) gaseous and 141 μg cig(-1) particulate carbonyls, which is 2-4 times greater than the cigarettes.

  10. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...... tobacco consumption was associated with high body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio. In multivariable adjusted models a 1-cigarette/day higher tobacco consumption was associated with 0.05 kg (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) higher body weight, 0.02 kg...

  11. E-cigarette curiosity among U.S. middle and high school students: Findings from the 2014 national youth tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Katherine A; Nguyen, Anh B; Slavit, Wendy I; King, Brian A

    2016-08-01

    Curiosity is a potential risk factor for electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, which has increased considerably among US youth in recent years. We examined the relationship between curiosity about e-cigarettes and perceived harm, comparative addictiveness, and e-cigarette advertisement exposure. Data came from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of U.S. middle and high school students. In 2014, 2.5% of middle school and 9.2% of high school students currently used cigarettes, while 3.9% of middle school and 13.4% of high school students reported current e-cigarette use. Among never e-cigarette users (n=17,286), descriptive statistics assessed curiosity about e-cigarettes by combustible tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, and school level. Associations between curiosity and perceived harm (absolute and comparative to cigarettes), comparative addictiveness, and e-cigarette advertising exposure were explored using multivariate models in 2015. Among youth who never used e-cigarettes, 25.8% reported curiosity about e-cigarettes. Higher levels of perceived absolute harm and comparative harm were associated with lower levels of curiosity, while no association was observed between comparative addictiveness and curiosity. Among never combustible tobacco users, the odds of high curiosity were greater among non-Hispanic blacks (odds ratio (OR): 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.02-1.88), Hispanics (OR=1.79; 95% CI:1.48-2.16), and non-Hispanic 'Other' (OR=1.47; 95% CI:1.15-1.89) race/ethnicities than non-Hispanic whites. One-quarter of middle and high school students who have never used e-cigarettes are curious about the products, with greater curiosity among those with lower perceptions of harm from these products. These findings may help inform future strategies aimed at reducing curiosity about e-cigarettes among youth.

  12. Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

  13. An Analysis of Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Advertising in US Women's Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Mongiovi, Jennifer; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ethan, Danna; Hammond, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional cigarette advertising has existed in the US for over 200 years. Studies suggest that advertising has an impact on the initiation and maintenance of smoking behaviors. In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) emerged on the market as an alternative to the traditional tobacco cigarette. The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements in popular US magazines marketed to women for cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Methods: This study involved analyzing 99 issues of 14 popular US magazines marketed to women. Results: Compared to advertisements for traditional cigarettes, advertisements for e-cigarettes were more often found in magazines geared toward the 31–40-year-old audience (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P = 0.011) whereas traditional cigarette advertisements were nearly equally distributed among women 31–40 and ≥40 years. More than three-quarters of the e-cigarette advertisements presented in magazines aimed at the higher median income households compared to a balanced distribution by income for traditional cigarettes (P = 0.033). Conclusions: Future studies should focus on specific marketing tactics used to promote e-cigarette use as this product increases in popularity, especially among young women smokers. PMID:27688867

  14. Maternal Fish Consumption and Infant Birth Size and Gestation: New York State Angler Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner John M

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scientific literature poses a perplexing dilemma for pregnant women with respect to the consumption of fish from natural bodies of water. On one hand, fish is a good source of protein, low in fat and a rich source of other nutrients all of which have presumably beneficial effects on developing embryos and fetuses. On the other hand, consumption of fish contaminated with environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has been associated with decrements in gestation and birth size. Methods 2,716 infants born between 1986–1991 to participants of the New York State Angler Cohort Study were studied with respect to duration of maternal consumption of contaminated fish from Lake Ontario and its tributaries and gestation and birth size. Hospital delivery records (maternal and newborn were obtained for 92% of infants for the ascertainment of gestation (weeks, birth size (weight, length, chest, and head circumference and other known determinants of fetal growth (i.e., maternal parity, history of placental infarction, uterine bleeding, pregnancy loss or cigarette smoking and infant's race, sex and presence of birth defect. Duration of maternal fish consumption prior to the index infant's birth was categorized as: none; 1–2, 3–7, 8+ years, while birth weight (in grams, birth length (in centimeters, and head and chest circumference (in centimeters were left as continuous variables in multiple linear regression models. Birth size percentiles, ponderal indices and head to chest circumference ratios were computed to further assess proportionality and birth size in relation to gestational age. Results Analysis of variance failed to identify significant mean differences in gestation or any measure of birth size in relation to duration of maternal lifetime fish consumption. Multiple linear regressions identified gestational age, male sex, number of daily cigarettes, parity and placental infarction, as significant

  15. Wastewater-based assessment of regional and temporal consumption patterns of illicit drugs and therapeutic opioids in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizman, Ivona; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study of spatial and temporal consumption patterns of the selected illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, cannabis) and therapeutic opioids (codeine, methadone) has been performed in six Croatian cities by applying wastewater-based epidemiology. The investigated cities (Bjelovar, Vinkovci, Varazdin, Karlovac, Zadar and Zagreb) varied widely in the population size (27,000-688,000 inhabitants) as well as in the number of registered drug consumers included in compulsory and voluntary medical treatment and rehabilitation programs (30-513 persons/100,000 inhabitants of age 15-64). The most consumed illicit drugs were cannabis (10-70doses/day/1000 inhabitants), heroin (consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (consumption of illegal drugs was generally associated with larger urban centers (Zagreb and Zadar) however comparatively high consumption rate of cocaine, MDMA and methadone was determined in some smaller cities as well. The overall average dose number of 3 major illegal stimulants (cocaine, MDMA, amphetamine) was rather similar to the number of corresponding heroin doses, which is in disagreement with a comparatively much higher proportion of heroin users in the total number of registered drug users in Croatia. Furthermore, the illicit drug consumption pattern in the large continental city (Zagreb) was characterized by a significant enhancement of the consumption of all stimulants during the weekend, which could not be confirmed neither for the coastal city of Zadar nor for the remaining small continental cities. On the other hand, the city of Zadar exhibited a significant increase of stimulant drug usage during summer vacation period, as a result of pronounced seasonal changes of the population composition and lifestyle in coastal tourist centers. The obtained results represent a valuable complementary data source for the optimisation and implementation of strategies to combat drug abuse in Croatia.

  16. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R......, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were caused by cigarette smoking. In the method proposed by Peto et al, 35% of deaths among men and 25% of deaths among women from these causes were estimated to be attributable to cigarette smoking. The differences between the two methods...

  17. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  18. Cigarette smoking: knowledge and attitudes among Mexican physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAPIA-CONYER ROBERTO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. Material and methods. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3 568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993 was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. Results. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98% surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily, 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p< 0.05. Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. Conclusions. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.

  19. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Bover Manderski, Michelle T.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests, or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Methods: Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Results: Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarette...

  20. 75 FR 75936 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Research Report AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... warnings and accompanying graphics to be displayed on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements... health warning statements appear on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. Section 201...

  1. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Corrie E. [Environmental Science Division; Harto, Christopher B. [Environmental Science Division; Schroeder, Jenna N. [Environmental Science Division; Martino, Louis E. [Environmental Science Division; Horner, Robert M. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-11-05

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2

  2. Human campylobacteriosis related to the consumption of raw milk sold by vending machines in Italy: Quantitative risk assessment based on official controls over four years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Losio, Marina Nadia; Bilei, Stefano; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Mioni, Renzo; Peli, Angelo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (RA) model was developed to describe the risk of campylobacteriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment was based on the official microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers. The differential risk considered milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst time-temperature field handling conditions detected. Two separate RA models were developed, one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk, and two different dose-response (D-R) relationships were considered. The RA model predicted no human campylobacteriosis cases per year either in the best (4°C) storage conditions or in the case of thermal abuse in case of boiling raw milk, whereas in case of raw milk consumption the annual estimated campylobacteriosis cases depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model (D-R I or D-R II), the milk time-temperature storage conditions, consumer behaviour and age of consumers, namely young (with two cut-off values of ≤5 or ≤6 years old for the sensitive population) versus adult consumers. The annual estimated cases for young consumers using D-R II for the sensitive population (≤5 years old) ranged between 1013.7/100,000 population and 8110.3/100,000 population and for adult consumers using D-R I between 79.4/100,000 population and 333.1/100,000 population. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective and the proposed RA model represents a useful and flexible tool to perform future RAs based on local consumer habits to support decision-making on safety policies. Further educational programmes for raw milk

  3. Long-term effects of varying consumption of ω3 fatty acids in ear, nose and throat cancer patients: assessment 1 year after radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Rodríguez, María Del Mar; García-Almeida, Jose Manuel; Ruiz-Nava, Josefina; Alcaide, Juan; Lupiañez-Pérez, Yolanda; Rico-Pérez, Jose Manuel; Toledo-Serrano, María Dolores; Cardona, Fernando; Medina-Carmona, Jose Antonio; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2015-02-01

    A prospective 1-year follow-up study in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) cancer patients was carried out one year after radiotherapy to assess the effect of varying consumption of ω3 fatty acid according to whether they consumed more or less than the 50th percentile of ω3 fatty acids. Clinical, analytical, inflammatory (CRP and IL-6), and oxidative variables (TAC, GPx, GST, and SOD) were evaluated. The study comprised 31 patients (87.1% men), with a mean age of 61.3 ± 9.1 years. Hematological variables showed significant differences in the patients with a lower consumption of ω3 fatty acids. A lower mortality and longer survival were found in the group with ω3 fatty acid consumption ≥50th percentile but the differences were not significant. No significant difference was reached in toxicity, inflammation, and oxidative stress markers. The group with ω3 fatty acid consumption <50th percentile significantly experienced more hematological and immune changes.

  4. Exposure assessment of PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of municipal waste incinerator: Additional exposure via local vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Yujie; Li, Tong; Wan, Yi; Dong, Zhaomin; Hu, Jianying

    2017-05-01

    While the exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) for people living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) has been investigated, indirect exposure to MSWI-emitted PCDD/Fs via consumption of local foods has not been well assessed. In this study, the PCDD/F concentration in the local vegetables grown near a MSWI located in Shenzhen, South China, was determined to be 0.92 ± 0.59 pg/g wet weight (ww), significantly higher than that (0.25 ± 0.35 pg/g ww) in commercial vegetables (p Ficus microcarpa) samples collected from 5 sampling sites at 1 km intervals from the MSWI were found to be significantly decreased with increasing distance, suggesting that the local plants would be impacted by emissions from the MSWI. The exposure assessment of PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of MSWI was carried out by simultaneously analyzing PCDD/Fs in other food groups that were commonly consumed by the residents. If only the local vegetables were consumed and other foods were acquired commercially, the total dietary intake for a general adult was 0.94 ± 0.41 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, of which consumption of local vegetables accounted for 52.3%. If all foods consumed including vegetables were from a commercial source, the total dietary intake was 0.56 ± 0.30 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, of which consumption of commercial vegetables accounted for 20.1%. The present study for the first time reported the additional human exposure to PCDD/Fs via consumption of local vegetables impacted by emissions from MSWI.

  5. Bioenergetics assessment of fish and crayfish consumption by river otter (Lontra canadensis): integrating prey availability, diet, and field metabolic rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekar, Matthew P.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Beringer, J.

    2010-01-01

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ·day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35 079 to 52 653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

  6. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects...

  7. Behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. METHODS: Two groups of Wistar rats were studied as follows: control group (C, comprising 28 animals; and smoking group (S, comprising 23 animals exposed to cigarette smoke for 30 days. Left ventricular cardiac function was assessed in vivo with transthoracic echocardiography, and myocardial performance was analyzed in vitro in preparations of isolated left ventricular papillary muscle. The cardiac muscle was assessed in isometric contractions with an extracellular calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L. RESULTS: No statistical difference was observed in the values of the body variables of the rats and in the mechanical data obtained from the papillary muscle between the control and smoking groups. The values of left ventricular systolic diameter were significantly greater in the smoking animals than in the control animals (C= 3.39 ± 0.4 mm and S= 3.71 ± 0.51 mm, P=0.02. A significant reduction was observed in systolic shortening fraction (C= 56.7 ± 4.2% and S= 53.5 ± 5.3%, P=0.02 and in ejection fraction (C= 0.92 ± 0.02 and S= 0.89 ± 0.04, P=0.01. CONCLUSION: The rats exposed to cigarette smoke had a reduction in left ventricular systolic function, although their myocardial function was preserved.

  8. Glaucoma and cigarette smoking: a review of narrative reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Di Murro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy associated with visual field changes for which high intra-ocular pressure is a major risk factor. Emerging research indicates that modifiable factors, among which the cigarette smoke, besides IOP may be associated with the presence of glaucoma. Objective: The objective of the study was to perform a review of narrative reviews to examine on the relationship between cigarette smoking and glaucoma. Methods: The results of all narrative reviews in the scientific literature about glaucoma and tobacco smoking were analyzed. A quality assessment was performed according to an easy and convenient tool for the quality assessment of narrative reviews for systematic reviews (International Narrative Systematic assessment the INSA tool. Literature searches were performed using PubMed. Results: 20 studies about relation between glaucoma and smoke were collected, no restriction language was applied. 15 of these studies have been excluded. We selected among them 5 reviews. With the INSA tool we measured the quality of the 5 selected narrative reviews. Studies that had a highest score with the INSA tool were two: A. Coleman et al. “Risk Factors for Glaucoma Needing More Attention” and R. Salowe et al. “Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Individuals of African Descent: A Review of Risk Factors”. Conclusion: The narrative reviews analyzed underline that there is no definitive association between cigarette smoking.

  9. Electronic cigarettes induce DNA strand breaks and cell death independently of nicotine in cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vicky; Rahimy, Mehran; Korrapati, Avinaash; Xuan, Yinan; Zou, Angela E.; Krishnan, Aswini R.; Tsui, Tzuhan; Aguilera, Joseph A.; Advani, Sunil; Crotty Alexander, Laura E.; Brumund, Kevin T.; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of short- and long-term e-cigarette vapor exposure on a panel of normal epithelial and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. Materials and Methods HaCaT, UMSCC10B, and HN30 were treated with nicotine-containing and nicotine-free vapor extract from two popular e-cigarette brands for periods ranging from 48 hours to 8 weeks. Cytotoxicity was assessed using Annexin V flow cytometric analysis, trypan blue exclusion, and clonogenic assays. Genotoxicity in the form of DNA strand breaks was quantified using the neutral comet assay and γ-H2AX immunostaining. Results E-cigarette-exposed cells showed significantly reduced cell viability and clonogenic survival, along with increased rates of apoptosis and necrosis, regardless of e-cigarette vapor nicotine content. They also exhibited significantly increased comet tail length and accumulation of γ-H2AX foci, demonstrating increased DNA strand breaks. Conclusion E-cigarette vapor, both with and without nicotine, is cytotoxic to epithelial cell lines and is a DNA strand break-inducing agent. Further assessment of the potential carcinogenic effects of e-cigarette vapor is urgently needed. PMID:26547127

  10. 生态系统服务消耗及其影响%Consumption of Ecosystem Goods and Services and Its Impact Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄霖; 闫慧敏; 胡云锋; 吴睿子; 曹晓昌; 杜秉贞; 龙鑫; 李芬; 刘雪林

    2012-01-01

    ,cultural services,etc.At the household level,the scope and intensity of consumption is very much affected by internal factors,apart from government policies.Semi-structured household questionnaire surveys,Participatory Rural Appraisal,Focus Group Discussion,and Framework for Participatory Impact Assessment are useful methods for collecting first hand data for such analysis.Analysis on impact of consumption shows that EGS’s consumption will have liner and/or non-liner relations with ecosystem’s provision of those services,however,it has been proved very clearly through several case studies,that the consumption will bring impact on ecosystem services like biodiversity,water and soil conservation,etc.The paper also discusses the transformation of household level analysis to regional level analysis,and considers Agent Based Modeling(ABM)approach is very useful for establishing the most reasonable patterns of EGS consumption at the regional level on the basis of households’first hand data.Characteristic,paths,quantity,as well as mechanism of EGS transformation between the regions are discussed,and future research agenda is identified.This study will contribute to regional ecological security and establishing payment scheme by providing scientific bases and suggestions for optimizing structure of EGS consumption,by taking into consideration of regional production capacity and cross region impact of consumption patterns.The study will also be useful for solving the conflicts between ecosystem protection and human well-being.

  11. Economic gains and health benefits from a new cigarette tax scheme in Taiwan: a simulation using the CGE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jie-Min

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates the impact of an increase in cigarette tax in Taiwan in terms of the effects it has on the overall economy and the health benefits that it brings. Methods The multisector computable general equilibrium (CGE model was used to simulate the impact of reduced cigarette consumption resulting from a new tax scheme on the entire economy gains and on health benefits. Results The results predict that because of the new tax scheme, there should be a marked reduction in cigarette consumption but a notable increase in health benefits that include saving between 28,125 and 56,250 lives. This could save NT$1.222~2.445 billion (where US$1 = NT$34.6 annually in life-threatening, cigarette-related health insurance expenses which exceeds the projected decrease of NT$1.275 billion in Gross Domestic Product (GDP because of reduced consumption and therefore tax revenue. Conclusion Overall, the increased cigarette excise tax will be beneficial in terms of both the health of the general public and the economy as a whole.

  12. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly.

  13. Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Cartwright

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000 were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05. The majority (74.1% of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7% reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66 and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32. Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94. Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic

  14. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G., E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  15. Electronic Cigarette and Electronic Hookah: A Pilot Study Comparing Two Vaping Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta R. Dube

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of e-cigarettes into the U.S. market, the number and variety of vaping products have proliferated. E-hookahs are long, pen-like vaping devices that debuted in U.S. markets in 2014. By applying the Host, Agent, Vector, Environment (HAVE model, the objective of this exploratory study was to assess differences between e-cigarettes and e-hookahs to help inform tobacco regulatory science and practice. In June–August 2014, a total of 54 unique manufactured e-cigarette and e-hookah products were identified at point of sales (POS around three college campuses in Southeast U.S. Documented characteristics included brand name, disposable, rechargeable, nicotine containing, packaging, and flavor type. Descriptive analyses were conducted October to November 2014 to assess frequency and percent of product type across POS and specific characteristics. Among 54 products, 70.4% was e-cigarettes and 29.6% was e-hookahs. Across POS, drug stores and grocery stores carried e-cigarettes exclusively, while gas stations carried the greatest proportion of e-hookahs. Compared to e-hookahs, a greater proportion of e-cigarettes were non-disposable and contained nicotine; a greater proportion of e-hookahs came in fruit and other types of flavors compared to e-cigarettes. The present study suggests that e-cigarettes and e-hookahs differ by specific product characteristics and by places where they are sold. Despite these differences, the products are used for similar purposes warranting careful monitoring of industry manufacturing and marketing, because the safety of both products is still undetermined. Additional research is needed to understand the uptake and continued use of these products.

  16. 新改进的水电厂耗水率考核方法%Improved Assessment Method of Water Consumption Rate for Hydropower Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂启玉; 蔡建章

    2013-01-01

    The Water Consumption Rate is a important index of appraisal to the hydropower plant. The general calculation method is very difficult to evaluate electricity generating benefit of the different hydropower plants or the only station during different periods. So, this paper introduces the assessment method of standard water consumption rate and a-doptes new long-term average water consumption rate calculation method based on water power formula to assess the generating capacity of cascade reservoirs, which avoids the drawbacks of conventional metod.%耗水率是考核水电厂发电能力的重要指标,一般计算方法很难评价水电厂之间及同一水电厂不同时段的发电效益,因此引入标准耗水率的考核方法,并基于水能计算公式的梯级长期平均耗水率计算新方法考核整个梯级水电站的发电能力,避免了常规梯级耗水率计算方法的弊端.

  17. Energy consumption assessment by indirect calorimetry in critically ill children%危重症患儿能量代谢评估研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施惠宣(综述); 陆国平(审校)

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional and metabolic disorders are the common problems in PICU. They often lead to deterioration in child nutrition and vice versa. Reasonable assessment of the energy consumption can provide theoretical basis for proper nutrition support in critically ill children. In this review, the methods of evaluating the energy consumption which included energy metabolism measurement and prediction equations were introduced, and the importance of indirect calorimetry was emphasized. Meanwhile, the research situation of energy consumption assessment at home and abroad and the current status of its clinical application were also reviewed.%营养代谢紊乱是儿科重症监护病房中的常见问题,疾病常导致患儿营养状况恶化,而营养不良则不利于疾病预后。合理的能量消耗评估可为危重症患儿合理的营养支持提供理论依据。文章介绍相关的能量代谢评估方法,包括能量代谢测得法及公式预测法,并强调间接能量测定法的重要性;同时综述国内外研究情况及其临床应用现状。

  18. Assessment of Intakes and Patterns of Cooked Oatmeal Consumption in the U.S. Using Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Musa-Veloso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S. and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI. To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES. We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003–2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight and NHANES cycle (2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, 2009–2010, 2011–2012, age category (3–11 years, 12–18 years, 19–44 years, 45 years+, gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese, using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3% and older female adults (11.1%. Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies.

  19. Assessment of Intakes and Patterns of Cooked Oatmeal Consumption in the U.S. Using Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Fallah, Shafagh; O'Shea, Marianne; Chu, YiFang

    2016-08-17

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S.) and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI). To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003-2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight) and NHANES cycle (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012), age category (3-11 years, 12-18 years, 19-44 years, 45 years+), gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese), using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3%) and older female adults (11.1%). Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies.

  20. Overview of existing European food consumption databases: critical aspects in relation to their use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Leclercq, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    A critical analysis of existing food consumption databases was performed with particular regard for their current and potential use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials. Within the European Food Consumption Validation project (EFCOVAL), a questionnaire on critical aspects of such datasets was developed and administered to researchers responsible for the collection/analysis of national food consumption data in European countries. Information collected was complemented through a review of the literature and of grey publications in order to provide an inventory of the main food consumption surveys performed in Europe from 1994 to 2007, for a total of 23 countries and 37 surveys. It appeared that existing European food consumption surveys have as a main objective the assessment of nutrient intake in the population. On the other hand, most of the databases were shown to be used also for the purpose of dietary exposure assessment.

  1. Relations Among Caffeine Consumption, Smoking, Smoking Urge, and Subjective Smoking Reinforcement in Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Hayley R; Piasecki, Thomas M; McCarthy, Danielle E; Baker, Timothy B

    2014-09-01

    Caffeine consumption and cigarette smoking tend to occur within the same individuals and at the same time. One potential explanation for this co-use is that caffeine consumption increases subjective smoking reinforcement. Electronic diaries were used to collect momentary reports of smoking, caffeine consumption, temptation/urge to smoke, and subjective smoking reinforcement in 74 prequit smokers. Momentary reports of caffeine consumption and smoking were associated, replicating previous findings. These results remained significant when contextual factors (time of day, weekday/weekend, presence of others, presence of others smoking, location, and past hour alcohol consumption) were covaried. Caffeine consumption was also associated with positive cigarette appraisals and reports of strong temptation/urge to smoke and urge reduction from the prior cigarette. Under the conditions of caffeine consumption versus at other times, smokers were significantly more likely to report their last cigarette as producing a rush/buzz, being pleasant, relaxing, and tasting good. The effects for temptation/urge to smoke and rush/buzz varied as a function of latency since smoking. Caffeine consumption increased reports of urge to smoke and rush/buzz only when smoking occurred more than 15 minutes prior to the diary entry. Findings suggest that caffeine consumption influences some aspects of smoking motivation or affects memorial processing of smoking reinforcement.

  2. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  3. A Mathematical Model of Cigarette Smoldering Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for a smoldering cigarette has been proposed. In the analysis of the cigarette combustion and pyrolysis processes, a receding burning front is defined, which has a constant temperature (~450 °C and divides the cigarette into two zones, the burning zone and the pyrolysis zone. The char combustion processes in the burning zone and the pyrolysis of virgin tobacco and evaporation of water in the pyrolysis zone are included in the model. The hot gases flow from the burning zone, are assumed to go out as sidestream smoke during smoldering. The internal heat transport is characterized by effective thermal conductivities in each zone. Thermal conduction of cigarette paper and convective and radiative heat transfer at the outer surface were also considered. The governing partial differential equations were solved using an integral method. Model predictions of smoldering speed as well as temperature and density profiles in the pyrolysis zone for different kinds of cigarettes were found to agree with the experimental data. The model also predicts the coal length and the maximum coal temperatures during smoldering conditions. The model provides a relatively fast and efficient way to simulate the cigarette burning processes. It offers a practical tool for exploring important parameters for cigarette smoldering processes, such as tobacco components, properties of cigarette paper, and heat generation in the burning zone and its dependence on the mass burn rate.

  4. Effect of cigarette smoke on seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, R E

    2001-02-21

    The effect of cigarette smoke was studied on the germination of radish, kale, lettuce, amaranth, wheat, rice, barley and rye seeds. It was found that such smoke markedly retarded, in all cases, the rate of germination. Furthermore, cigarette smoke caused a retardation of the levels of certain enzymes (alpha-amylase or lysozyme) known to be significant in the germination of these seeds.

  5. Cigarette Smoking and Urinary Organic Sulfides 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANLE; CAOWEN-JUN

    2000-01-01

    In order to observe how cigarette smoking influences levels of thio-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid(TTCA),high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used to detect TTCA in urine from 18 healthy male volunteers.At the sme time,the total amout of urinary organic sulfides was determined by the iodine azide test(IAT).Nine of the volunteers had smoking higtories(5 to 10 cigarettes per day,as the smoking group),and the rest only occasionally smoke (1 to 2 cigarettes per month,as the control group).Samples were collected in the early morning (limosis)and 90 minutes after smoking a cigarette.Results showed that smoking a single cigaretter could elevate the level of urinary organic sulfides both in the smoking and control groups,while a smoking habit appeared to have no significant influence on the urinary organic sulfide level.No significant cumulative effect of cigarette smoking on urinary organic sulfides was found,The influence of cigarette on uinary organic sulfides was temporary.The results suggest that cigaretter smoking might be a confounding factor in biomontoring the levels of carbon disulfide in exposed workers.

  6. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  7. Debate, Research on E-Cigarettes Continues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since they first began to be sold in North America in the mid-2000s, electronic cigarettes have been the subject of intense debate. NCI's Dr. Michele Bloch recently presented an update on some of the issues surrounding e-cigarettes.

  8. Differential Effects between Cigarette Total Particulate Matter and Cigarette Smoke Extract on Blood and Blood Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Chang, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Kwang-Hoon; Choi, Seong-Jin; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Jin-Yong; Satoh, Masahiko; Song, Seong-Yu; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    The generation and collection of cigarette smoke (CS) is a prerequisite for any toxicology study on smoking, especially an in vitro CS exposure study. In this study, the effects on blood and vascular function were tested with two widely used CS preparations to compare the biological effects of CS with respect to the CS preparation used. CS was prepared in the form of total particulate matter (TPM), which is CS trapped in a Cambridge filter pad, and cigarette smoke extract (CSE), which is CS trapped in phosphate-buffered saline. TPM potentiated platelet reactivity to thrombin and thus increased aggregation at a concentration of 25~100 μg/mL, whereas 2.5~10% CSE decreased platelet aggregation by thrombin. Both TPM and CSE inhibited vascular contraction by phenylephrine at 50~100 μg/mL and 10%, respectively. TPM inhibited acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation at 10~100 μg/mL, but CSE exhibited a minimal effect on relaxation at the concentration that affects vasoconstriction. Neither TPM nor CSE induced hemolysis of erythrocytes or influenced plasma coagulation, as assessed by prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Taken together, CS affects platelet activity and deteriorates vasomotor functions in vitro. However, the effect on blood and blood vessels may vary depending on the CS preparation. Therefore, the results of experiments conducted with CS preparations should be interpreted with caution.

  9. Cigarette Smoking-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy, Vascular Inflammation and Injury are Attenuated by Antioxidant Supplementation in An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Al Hariri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cigarette smoking remains a global health epidemic with associated detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. In this work, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on cardiovascular system in an animal model. The study then evaluated the effects of antioxidants (AO, represented by pomegranate juice, on cigarette smoke induced cardiovascular injury. This study aims at evaluating the effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on the cardiovascular system of an experimental rat model of smoke exposure.Methods Adult rats were divided into four different groups: Control, Cigarette smoking (CS, AO, and CS + AO. Cigarette smoke exposure was for 4 weeks (5 days of exposure/week and AO group received pomegranate juice while other groups received placebo. Assessment of cardiovascular injury was documented by assessing different parameters of cardiovascular injury mediators including: 1 cardiac hypertrophy, 2 oxidative stress (OS, 3 expression of inflammatory markers, 3 expression of Bradykinin receptor 1 (Bdkrb1, Bradykinin receptor 2 (Bdkrb2, and 4 altered expression expression of fibrotic/atherogenic markers [(Fibronectin (Fn1 and leptin receptor (ObR].ResultsData from this work demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure induced cardiac hypertrophy, which was reduced upon administration of pomegranate in CS + AO group. Cigarette smoke exposure was associated with elevation in oxidative stress, significant increase in the expression of IL-1β, TNFα, Fn1 and ObR in rat’s aorta. In addition, an increase in aortic calcification was observed after one month of Cigarette smoke exposure. Furthermore, Cigarette smoke induced a significant up regulation in Bdkrb1 and Bdkrb2 expression levels. Finally, pomegranate supplementation exhibited cardiovascular protection assessed by the above findings and partly contributed to ameliorating cardiac

  10. Intraindividual covariation between e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use in Korean American emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Critical gaps exist in understanding the patterns and correlates of dual use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) and combustible cigarettes (CCs), particularly in ethnic minority populations. In this study, we assessed CC and EC use in the naturalistic environment using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that within-subject variation in EC use (yes/no each day) would be inversely associated with within-subject variation in number of CCs consumed and craving during that same day. We also examined gender and nicotine dependence as moderators of the EC-CC and EC-craving covariations. Korean American emerging adult (KAEA; 18-25 years old) smokers (N = 78) completed 7 days of EMA. Participants completed EMA surveys throughout the day, which assessed CC craving, and end-of-day surveys, which assessed EC use and the number of CCs smoked that day. Generalized linear mixed models were used to predict day-level EC use, with number of CCs smoked and craving during that same day, gender, and nicotine dependence as predictors (n = 501). We found that within-subject variation in CC use was not associated with same-day EC use; neither was within-subject variation in craving (ps > .27). Gender moderated the relationship between craving and EC use on a given day (p = .03); only for females, on the days with higher craving, the likelihood of their EC use that day was significantly heightened. This study does not suggest that EC use is linked with lower CC smoking quantity, at least at the day level and among KAEA smokers. CC craving may play a role in dual EC-CC use for KAEA female smokers.

  11. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  12. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, A.S. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI); Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  13. Electronic cigarettes: ambiguity and controversies of usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, Suyog; Shetty, Deeksha; Phansopkar, Sushil; Jamkhande, Amol

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (EC), a proxy to conventional cigarettes, gained popularity on the basis of its own advocacy, marketing and large scale publicity. Sometimes marketed as an adjunct to quitting or a substitute for cigarettes, its popularity rose. However, its sale in the global markets was subjected to prejudice. Reasons cited by the regulatory bodies for its ouster were the toxic contents it contained. Some countries preferred to ban them while some have legalised them. However, the manufacturers have claimed that it does have the potential to help smokers quit or at least replace the conventional cigarettes which cause millions of death globally. Research is hence needed to prove the efficacy and utility of this device for welfare of people who are looking for better options than puffing cigarettes.

  14. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction.

  15. Effects of cigarette smoking and nicotine metabolite ratio on leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Zoraida; Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Chicharro, Luis; Garatachea, Nuria; Resano, Pilar; Sánchez-Hernández, Ignacio; Rodríguez González-Moro, Jose Miguel; Bandrés, Fernando; Santiago, Catalina; Gómez-Gallego, Félix

    2015-07-01

    Studies of the effects of smoking on leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using cigarettes smoked per day or pack years smoked (PYS) present limitations. Reported high levels of smoking may not increase toxin exposure levels proportionally. Nicotine metabolism ratio (NMR) predicts total cigarette puff volume and overall exposure based on total N-nitrosamines, is highly reproducible and independent of time since the last cigarette. We hypothesized that smokers with higher NMRs will exhibit increased total puff volume, reflecting efforts to extract more nicotine from their cigarettes and increasing toxin exposure. In addition, higher levels of smoking could cause a gross damage in LTL. The urinary cotinine, 3-OH cotinine and nicotine levels of 147 smokers were analyzed using a LC/MS system Triple-Q6410. LTL and CYP2A6 genotype was determined by PCR in blood samples. We found a significant association between NMR and CYP2A6 genotype. Reduction in LTL was seen in relation to accumulated tobacco consumption and years smoking when we adjusted for age and gender. However, there were no significant differences between NMR values and LTL. In our study the higher exposure was associated with lower number of PYS. Smokers with reduced cigarette consumption may exhibit compensatory smoking behavior that results in no reduced tobacco toxin exposure. Our results suggest that lifetime accumulated smoking exposure could cause a gross damage in LTL rather than NMR or PYS. Nevertheless, a combination of smoking topography (NMR) and consumption (PYS) measures may provide useful information about smoking effects on health outcomes.

  16. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...

  17. Conspicuous Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China validated a new consumption tax policy on April 1 that levies higher taxes on luxury goods such as yachts and limousines, as well as wooden disposable chopsticks and wooden flooring. This marked the most profound change in the consumption tax since 1994 and is thought to be the first step in an overall tax reform in the country. Consumer tariffs, which are handed over to state coffers, consist of excise taxes and the taxes on imported goods collected by customs agencies.

  18. Does High Tobacco Consumption Cause Psychological Distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise S; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Petersen, Christina B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that smoking influences mental health negatively. This study investigated whether high tobacco consumption is causally related to psychological distress in a Mendelian randomization design, using a variant in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene CHRNA3......-known to influence individual tobacco consumption-as instrumental variable for tobacco consumption. METHODS: Data from 90 108 participants in the Copenhagen General Population Study was used. Exposures included self-reported cigarettes/day and pack years and the CHRNA3 rs1051730 genotype as instrumental...... variable for tobacco consumption. Three dimensions of psychological distress were studied: Stress, fatigue, and hopelessness. Analyses with the CHRNA3 genotype were stratified by smoking status. RESULTS: Self-reported amount of smoking was associated with all three dimensions of psychological distress...

  19. Comparison of Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure with Water pipe and Cigarette Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Peyton; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking tobacco preparations in a water pipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world and is perceived by many as relatively safe. We investigated biomarkers of toxicant exposure with water pipe compared to cigarette smoking. Methods We conducted a cross-over study to assess daily nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking in 13 people who were experienced in using both products. Results While smoking an average of 3 water pipe sessions compared to smoking 11 cigarettes per day, water pipe use was associated with a significantly lower intake of nicotine, greater exposure to carbon monoxide and a different pattern of carcinogen exposure compared to cigarette smoking, with greater exposure to benzene and high molecular weight PAHs, but less exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines, 1,3-butadiene and acrolein, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, ethylene oxide, and low molecular weight PAHs. Conclusions A different pattern of carcinogen exposure might result in a different cancer risk profile between cigarette and water pipe smoking. Of particular concern is the risk of leukemia related to high levels of benzene exposure with water pipe use. Impact Smoking tobacco in water pipes has gained popularity in the United States and around the world. Many believe that water pipe smoking is not addictive and less harmful than cigarette smoking. We provide data on toxicant exposure that will help guide regulation and public education regarding water pipe health risk. PMID:23462922

  20. Cigarette and waterpipe smoking among Lebanese adolescents, a cross-sectional study, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Roueiheb, Zana; Tamim, Hala; Kanj, Mayada; Jabbour, Samer; Alayan, Iman; Musharrafieh, Umayya

    2008-02-01

    Waterpipe or "argileh" is a form of smoking other than cigarettes that is currently spreading among people of all ages. The objective of the present study was to assess tobacco smoking practices (waterpipe and/or cigarette) among public and private adolescent school students in Beirut, Lebanon. A sample of 2,443 students selected from 10 private and 3 public schools with intermediate/secondary classes filled out a self-administered anonymous questionnaire that inquired about sociodemographic characteristics, and behavior about tobacco smoking. Binary analysis was performed as well as three regression models for the relationship between exclusive cigarettes smoking, exclusive waterpipe smoking and both cigarettes and waterpipe as the dependent variables and gender, type of school, and class as the independent variables. The current prevalence of cigarettes smoking was 11.4%, and that of waterpipe smoking was 29.6%. Gender was significantly associated with cigarettes (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.6) but not waterpipe smoking. Public school students were, respectively, 3.2 (95% CI 1.8-5.6) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4-2.1) times more likely to be exclusive cigarettes smokers, and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Class was not significantly associated with exclusive cigarette smoking; however, students attending secondary classes were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.6) times more likely to be exclusive waterpipe smokers. The reasons behind the high prevalence of both types of smoking are presented and discussed. The present study calls for school-based prevention programs and other types of interventions such as tax increases, and age-restrictions on tobacco sales. More aggressive interventions to disseminate education and awareness among parents and students altogether are warranted.

  1. EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT as tobacco cigarettes substitute: a prospective 12-month randomized control design study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Caponnetto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. Users report buying them to help quit smoking, to reduce cigarette consumption, to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and to continue having a 'smoking' experience, but with reduced health risks. Research on e-cigarettes is urgently needed in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, healthcare providers and consumers are based on science. Methods ECLAT is a prospective 12-month randomized, controlled trial that evaluates smoking reduction/abstinence in 300 smokers not intending to quit experimenting two different nicotine strengths of a popular e-cigarette model ('Categoria'; Arbi Group Srl, Italy compared to its non-nicotine choice. GroupA (n = 100 received 7.2 mg nicotine cartridges for 12 weeks; GroupB (n = 100, a 6-week 7.2 mg nicotine cartridges followed by a further 6-week 5.4 mg nicotine cartridges; GroupC (n = 100 received no-nicotine cartridges for 12 weeks. The study consisted of nine visits during which cig/day use and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO levels were measured. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events and product preferences were also reviewed. RESULTS: Declines in cig/day use and eCO levels were observed at each study visits in all three study groups (p<0.001 vs baseline, with no consistent differences among study groups. Smoking reduction was documented in 22.3% and 10.3% at week-12 and week-52 respectively. Complete abstinence from tobacco smoking was documented in 10.7% and 8.7% at week-12 and week-52 respectively. A substantial decrease in adverse events from baseline was observed and withdrawal symptoms were infrequently reported during the study. Participants' perception and acceptance of the product under investigation was satisfactory. CONCLUSION: In smokers not intending to quit, the use of e-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, decreased cigarette consumption

  2. [Preliminary influence of 2015 cigarette excise tax up-regulation on cigarette retail price].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G Z; Wang, C X; Yang, J Q; Jiang, Y

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of cigarette excise tax up-regulation on the retail price of cigarettes in 2015. Methods: Nominal and real price of selected cigarette varieties were calculated with data from Tobacco Retail Price Monitoring Project, which was conducted in 10 cities of China from 2013 to 2015. The trend of the cigarette prices changing was analyzed with annual data. Results: A total of 352 varieties of cigarettes were surveyed during the three years. The nominal price of these cigarettes did not change significantly from 2013 to 2014. Compared with nominal price of 2014, the price of 286 varieties increased and the price of 10 most popular varieties increased from 0.6% to 7.4% after cigarette excise tax increased, but the actual prices had both rise and fall compared with 2013. Conclusions: Cigarette excise tax raise in 2015 had influence on the retail price of cigarettes. But the increase in retail price was very limited, if factors including inflation and purchasing power are taken into consideration. Therefore, the influence of 2015 cigarette excise tax raise on tobacco control needs further evaluation.

  3. What Types of Pornography Do People Use and Do They Cluster? Assessing Types and Categories of Pornography Consumption in a Large-Scale Online Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2016-09-01

    Previous research on exposure to different types of pornography has primarily relied on analyses of millions of search terms and histories or on user exposure patterns within a given time period rather than the self-reported frequency of consumption. Further, previous research has almost exclusively relied on theoretical or ad hoc overarching categorizations of different types of pornography, when investigating patterns of pornography exposure, rather than latent structure analyses of these exposure patterns. In contrast, using a large sample of 18- to 40-year-old heterosexual and nonheterosexual Croatian men and women, this study investigated the self-reported frequency of using 27 different types of pornography and statistically explored their latent structures. The results showed substantial differences in consumption patterns across gender and sexual orientation. However, latent structure analyses of the 27 different types of pornography assessed suggested that although several categories of consumption were gender and sexual orientation specific, common categories across the different types of pornography could be established. Based on this finding, a five-item scale was proposed to indicate the use of nonmainstream (paraphilic) pornographic content, as this type of pornography has often been targeted in previous research. To the best of our knowledge, no similar measurement tool has been proposed before.

  4. Assessment of Aspartame Exposure Due to Consumption of Some Imported Chewing Gums by Microwave Digestion and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rasouli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a widely used artificial sweetener, the long-term safety of which has been controversial ever since it was accepted for human consumption. The main aim of this research is assessment of aspartame exposure due to consumption of some imported chewing gums during summer 2015 to Iran by microwave digestion and HPLC analysis. Thirty chewing gums from highly consumed imported ones were collected from retail market in Tehran. Closed vessel microwave digestion was employed for sample preparation using a three phase temperature program. An aliquot of 20 μL of prepared samples was injected into the HPLC column and the aspartame was detected at 254 nm with an on-line detector. Concentration of aspartame in chewing gum samples was between 1.9 and 30.5 μg/g with an average of 11.1 μg/g. In conclusion, despite of existing aspartame in 76.6 percent of samples, however the effective amount of this artificial sweetener is not as high as the levels that international legislations recommended for exposing due to chewing gum consumption.

  5. Earth Observation Based Assessment of the Water Production and Water Consumption of Nile Basin Agro-Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim G.M. Bastiaanssen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing competition for water resources requires a better understanding of flows, fluxes, stocks, and the services and benefits related to water consumption. This paper explains how public domain Earth Observation data based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Second Generation Meteosat (MSG, Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM and various altimeter measurements can be used to estimate net water production (rainfall (P > evapotranspiration (ET and net water consumption (ET > P of Nile Basin agro-ecosystems. Rainfall data from TRMM and the Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS-NET RainFall Estimates (RFE products were used in conjunction with actual evapotranspiration from the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop and ETLook models. Water flows laterally between net water production and net water consumption areas as a result of runoff and withdrawals. This lateral flow between the 15 sub-basins of the Nile was estimated, and partitioned into stream flow and non-stream flow using the discharge data. A series of essential water metrics necessary for successful integrated water management are explained and computed. Net water withdrawal estimates (natural and humanly instigated were assumed to be the difference between net rainfall (Pnet and actual evapotranspiration (ET and some first estimates of withdrawals—without flow meters—are provided. Groundwater-dependent ecosystems withdraw large volumes of groundwater, which exceed water withdrawals for the irrigation sector. There is a strong need for the development of more open-access Earth Observation databases, especially for information related to actual ET. The fluxes, flows and storage changes presented form the basis for a global framework to describe monthly and annual water accounts in ungauged river basins.

  6. 76 FR 36627 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... 1141 Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Cigarette Packages and Advertisements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... display of health warnings on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. This rule implements...

  7. Assessment of Current Energy Consumption Practices, Carbon Emissions and Indoor Air Pollution in Samagaun, Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Suwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nepal is one of the lowest energy consuming countries in the world. More than 85 percent of its total energy comes from traditional biomass energy such as forests, agricultural residues and by-products from crops. Due to increasing per capita energy consumption, natural resources are being depleted with heavy emissions of GHGs in the atmosphere, which causes global warming. The main objective of the study was to investigate current energy consumption practices, to estimate particulate matter and carbon emissions from current practices and to recommend the most suitable alternative energy technologies. The fieldwork was based on primary and secondary data with a design methodology. Firewood burning was found to be the major source of energy used for cooking purposes in Samagaun. The use of this traditional fuel has negative environmental implications, such as deforestation, indoor air pollution and it ultimately affects human health. The results show that traditional cooking stoves (TCS are used more than improved cooking stoves (ICS. The total amount of firewood used per day by TCS is 2135 kg/day, and by ICS it is 349 kg/day. The average amount of firewood consumed by traditional and improved cooking stoves per day is 62.79 kg and 43.63 kg, respectively. The annual per capita firewood consumption of TCS and ICS is 4401.9 kg and 3266.7 kg, respectively. The calculation shows that per capita firewood consumption by TCS users is 1.3 times higher than that of ICS users. The annual per capita carbon emissions from TCS and ICS is 8055.47 kg CO2e and 5978.15 kg CO2e, respectively. This calculation shows that ICS emits 1.3 times less CO2 into the atmosphere than the TCS. The average mean particulate concentration at normal atmospheric conditions for a traditional cooking stove was found to be 2866 μg/Nm3 and for an improved cooking stove 1333 μg/Nm3, both of which far exceed the national standard of 230 μg/m3 TSP. Based on the study results, metallic

  8. Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage young adults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Methods. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., “young adult”) were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Results. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among young adults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where young adults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Conclusions. Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:908–916) PMID:12036776

  9. A study of trace metals in some edible fishes and food risk assessment of its consumption in the Hormozgan province, Iran of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser koosej

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in marine systems are a global problem, since continuous exposure of marine organisms to their low concentrations may result in bioaccumulation, and subsequent transfer to man through the food web. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn and Fe in edible part of three benthic and pelagic fish species Fish (SilagoSihama, Crab (portunussegnis and Shrimp (Metapenaeusaffinis collected from three areas (Qeshm, Khamir port and Laft port in the Persian Gulf. The fish samples were collected during 2015. The analytical determination of Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn and Fe were performed by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion procedure, and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. The results showed that metal concentrations in the muscle of all fish species were significantly lower than the proposed limits. Heavy metal concentrations were found to be substantially higher in benthic fish than in pelagic fish. Hazard index values based on four metals (not including Pb for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. In general, the THQ measured in this study was <1, indicating no food risk in present consumption rate (21 g/day of these fish. Food risk assessment of case study species indicates that the consumption of Metapenaeusaffinis, portunussegnis and SilagoSihama with the current consumption rate causes no danger to consumers from the viewpoint of zinc, nickel, lead, copper and iron.

  10. The Readability of Electronic Cigarette Health Information and Advice: A Quantitative Analysis of Web-Based Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Conway, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Background The popularity and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has increased across all demographic groups in recent years. However, little is currently known about the readability of health information and advice aimed at the general public regarding the use of e-cigarettes. Objective The objective of our study was to examine the readability of publicly available health information as well as advice on e-cigarettes. We compared information and advice available from US government agencies, nongovernment organizations, English speaking government agencies outside the United States, and for-profit entities. Methods A systematic search for health information and advice on e-cigarettes was conducted using search engines. We manually verified search results and converted to plain text for analysis. We then assessed readability of the collected documents using 4 readability metrics followed by pairwise comparisons of groups with adjustment for multiple comparisons. Results A total of 54 documents were collected for this study. All 4 readability metrics indicate that all information and advice on e-cigarette use is written at a level higher than that recommended for the general public by National Institutes of Health (NIH) communication guidelines. However, health information and advice written by for-profit entities, many of which were promoting e-cigarettes, were significantly easier to read. Conclusions A substantial proportion of potential and current e-cigarette users are likely to have difficulty in fully comprehending Web-based health information regarding e-cigarettes, potentially hindering effective health-seeking behaviors. To comply with NIH communication guidelines, government entities and nongovernment organizations would benefit from improving the readability of e-cigarettes information and advice. PMID:28062390

  11. Microbial community assessment of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) sold for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, J; Crauwels, S; Waud, M; Claes, J; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2016-02-01

    In Western countries, the popularity of edible insects as an alternative animal protein source is increasing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of profound insight into the microbial safety and shelf life of living insects sold for human consumption. The purpose of this study was to characterise the microflora of fresh edible mealworm larvae and grasshoppers in a quantitative and qualitative way. Therefore, culture-dependent analyses (the total viable aerobic count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and bacterial endospores) and next-generation sequencing (454amplicon pyrosequencing) were performed. High microbial counts were obtained for both insect species. Different insect batches resulted in quite similar microbial numbers, except for bacterial endospores. However, the bacterial community composition differed between both insect species. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in mealworm larvae was Propionibacterium. Also members of the genera Haemophilus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium were found. Grasshoppers were mainly dominated by Weissella, Lactococcus and Yersinia/Rahnella. Overall, a variety of potential spoilage bacteria and food pathogens were characterised. The results of this study suggest that a processing step with a microbiocidal effect is required to avoid or minimize risks involved with the consumption of edible insects.

  12. Validation of measurement protocols to assess oxygen consumption and blood flow in the human forearm by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beekvelt, Mireille C. P.; Colier, Willy N.; van Engelen, Baziel G. M.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Wevers, Ron A.; Oeseburg, Berend

    1998-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to monitor oxygenation changes in muscle. Quantitative values for O2 consumption, blood flow and venous saturation have been reported by several investigators. The amount of these measurements is, however, still limited and complete validation has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the different NIRS methods to calculate O2 consumption (VO2) and forearm blood flow (FBF) and to validate the data with the accepted method of strain-gauge plethysmography and blood sampling. Thirteen subjects were tested in rest and during static isometric handgrip exercise at 10% MVC. The NIRS optodes were positioned on the flexor region of the arm. A significant correlation was found between plethysmograph data and NIRS [tHb] during venous occlusion in rest (r EQ 0.925 - 0.994, P exercise (r equals 0.895 - 0.990, P exercise. It seems that although NIRS is a good qualitative monitoring technique, quantification is difficult due to the great variability that is found between the subjects.

  13. Characteristics, Perceived Side Effects and Benefits of Electronic Cigarette Use: A Worldwide Survey of More than 19,000 Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic cigarette (EC use has grown exponentially over the past few years. The purpose of this survey was to assess the characteristics and experiences of a large sample of EC users and examine the differences between those who partially and completely substituted smoking with EC use. Methods: A questionnaire was prepared, translated into 10 different languages and uploaded in an online survey tool. EC users were asked to participate irrespective of their current smoking status. Participants were divided according to their smoking status at the time of participation in two subgroups: former smokers and current smokers. Results: In total, 19,414 participants were included in the analysis, with 88 of them (0.5% reported not being smokers at the time of EC use initiation. Complete substitution of smoking was reported by 81.0% of participants (former smokers while current smokers had reduced smoking consumption from 20 to 4 cigarettes per day. They were using ECs for a median of 10 months. They initiated EC use with a median of 18 mg/mL nicotine-concentration liquids; 21.5% used higher than 20 mg/mL. Only 3.5% of participants were using 0-nicotine liquids at the time of the survey. Former smokers were highly dependent (Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence = 7 and were heavier smokers (21 cigarettes per day when smoking compared to current smokers. The most important reasons for initiating EC use for both subgroups was to reduce the harm associated with smoking and to reduce exposure of family members to second-hand smoking. Most considered ECs as less harmful than tobacco cigarettes, while 11.0% considered them absolutely harmless. Side effects were reported by more than half of the participants (59.8%, with the most common being sore/dry mouth and throat; side effects were mild and in most cases were subsequently resolved (partially or completely. Participants experienced significant benefits in physical status and improvements

  14. Objective View of Electronic Cigarette Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Koseoglu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Electronic cigarette is a device designed for helping the people who want to quit tobacco smoking. In the recent few years, its use has been spreading in a great deal. Its properties, the effects on human health and its potential for helping to quit smoking attract attention all over the world. In this review, it is aimed to have the readers an objective point of view by through consideration of the publications. Materials and Methods: In accordance to the aim, the general knowledge about electronic cigarette device and its use and; the studies performed on the subject, evaluated as in the forms of surveys, clinical observations and clinical interventional studies examining its potential harmful effects, have been considered in a detailed way Results: In general, the interpretations are made as electronic cigarette can supply some of the effects of nicotine, taken from tobacco cigarette and; hence, it is an important potential tool for quitting tobacco cigarette. However, it is indicated to have some threats to health and more research about its health effects should be accomplished; even if it is not so harmful as tobacco cigarette. Additionally, the studies, finding its harm potentials being related to its quality and production design, are drawing attention. Conclusion: The studies about electronic cigarette, which is found a place of use and spreading all over the world for quitting or lowering the harmful effects of tobacco cigarette, are not yet enough, in respect to its potential using purposes. Uncertainity exists about the place of electronic cigarettes in tobacco control. More research on the subject is urgently needed at both individual and population levels. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 572-580

  15. Marketing of Menthol Cigarettes and Consumer Perceptions: A White Paper

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Publicly available internal tobacco industry documents were analyzed to answer the following questions regarding menthol cigarette marketing and consumer perception: 1) Are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? 2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? 3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? 4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? More than 800 relevant documents were identified on 1) marketing menthol with health...

  16. Chinese green tea ameliorates lung injury in cigarette smoke-exposed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, MWL; Ip, MSM; Man, RYK; Mak, JCW; Chan, KH; Ho, SP; Yeung, SC; So, WHL; Cho, CH; Lam, WK

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which has been shown to have potent antioxidant effect, comprises 80% of catechins in Chinese green tea. This study was to investigate whether cigarette smoke (CS) exposure would induce lung morphological changes and oxidative stress in the CS-exposed rat model, and whether Chinese green tea (Lung Chen tea with EGCG as its main active ingredient) consumption would alter oxidative stress in sera and lung leading to protection of CS-induced lung da...

  17. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking (CS is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke.

  18. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, G; Anbarasi, K; Shyamaladevi, C S

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA) on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke.

  19. Developmental toxicity of cigarette butts - An underdeveloped issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wenjau; Lee, Chih Chun

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette butts (CBs) littering is not just an unsightly nuisance but also a public health problem, because chemicals contained in cigarettes can leach into aquatic environments and pose a risk to the health of humans and wildlife. However, this risk is largely unrecognized or ignored by the public, and toxicological evidence of CBs is scarce. Therefore, we used medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes) to explore developmental toxicity of CBs. The embryos were exposed to various concentrations of leachates from smoked and unsmoked cigarette tobacco (ST and UST) and filters (SF and USF), and observed from 1 to 3 days post-fertilization. The images were recorded and several developmental endpoints analyzed. The values from these endpoints were then used to calculate the Integrated Biomarker Response and evaluate overall effects of the leachates. Some of the embryos were allowed to hatch, and the hatchlings were tested for anxiety-like behavior. Our results showed that low concentrations of the leachates from ST, UST, and SF raised the heart rate, accelerated development, and changed behavior, while high concentrations lowered the heart rate, suppressed development, and increased mortality. The lowest observed effect concentration for the leachates was ≤0.2piece (pc)/L. The USF leachate had no effect at the concentration of 20pc/L. Developmental toxicity of the leachates was ranked as: ST>UST>SF>USF. This study has demonstrated for the first time that CB leachates affect fish development, and provided toxicological evidence to better assess ecological impacts of CBs.

  20. Compaction cigarette end position correlation with the quality of the cigarette rolling%烟支压实端位置与卷烟卷制质量的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江; 陈智鸣

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the production of cigarette rolling process quality .The Article for cigarettes and cigarette ends compaction end position tribal wire volume, affect the relationship with the end of the pick-up rate and the volume of short rejection rate and other indicators of research. The results show that in the test range compaction cigarette ends and cigarette end position offset amount and volume pick tribal bear rejection rate has a strong positive correlation .Its impact on the amount of cigarette ends and roll pick tribal rejection rate was significantly short. Cigarette end position offset compaction control in the range of ± 3mm.To quality control for cigarette rolling, consumption and production equipment more appropriate.%为提高烟支卷制生产过程质量,文章针对烟支压实端位置与卷烟端部落丝量、含末率及卷接机空头剔除率等指标的影响关系进行研究。结果表明,在试验范围内,烟支压实端位置偏移量与卷烟端部落量及卷接机空头剔除率有较强的正相关关系,其对卷烟端部落量及卷接机空头剔除率的影响显著;烟支压实端位置偏移量控制在±3mm范围内,对卷烟卷制质量控制,消耗及设备生产较为适宜。

  1. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Our dominant way of living is not sustainable and our activities as private individuals and households directly and indirectly account for a large and increasing share of total environmental impacts. These impacts are related to the structure as well as the level of consumption. In this article......, research on the root causes of environmentally harmful human behavior is reviewed. Why is there no satiation of consumption in sight, even in the most affluent countries, and why do people continue to make choices that are known to be environmentally harmful? While potentially catastrophic, the harms from...... unsustainable consumption are mostly unintentional, which means that informational and educational means are not sufficient to produce the needed changes. They need to be implemented in concert with pervasive structural changes to make the right choice the easy choice....

  2. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool.

  3. An interdisciplinary scenario analysis to assess the water availability and water consumption in the Upper Ouémé catchment in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Giertz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interdisciplinary scenario analysis to assess the influence of global and regional change on future water availability and water consumption in the Upper Ouémé catchment in central Benin. For the region three development scenarios were evolved. These scenarios are combined with climate change scenarios based on the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In the mo-delling approach the quantification of the land use/land cover change is performed by the cellular automata model CLUE-S. The future climate scenarios are computed with the regional climate model REMO driven by the global ECHAM model. Using this data different land use and climate change scenarios can be calculated with the conceptual hydrological model UHP-HRU to assess the effects of global changes on the future water availability in Benin. To analyse the future water availability also the water consumption has to be taken into account. Due to high population growth an increase in water need in the future is expected for the region. To calculate the future household water consumption data from a regional survey and demographic projections are used. Development of the water need for animal husbandry is also considered. The first test run of the modelling approach was performed for the development scenario 'business as usual' combined with the IPCC scenario B2 for the year 2025. This test demonstrates the applicability of the approach for an interdisciplinary scenario analysis. A continuous run from 2000–2025 will be simulated for different scenarios as soon as the input data concerning land use/land cover and climate are available.

  4. Vaporous Marketing: Uncovering Pervasive Electronic Cigarette Advertisements on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Clark

    Full Text Available Twitter has become the "wild-west" of marketing and promotional strategies for advertisement agencies. Electronic cigarettes have been heavily marketed across Twitter feeds, offering discounts, "kid-friendly" flavors, algorithmically generated false testimonials, and free samples.All electronic cigarette keyword related tweets from a 10% sample of Twitter spanning January 2012 through December 2014 (approximately 850,000 total tweets were identified and categorized as Automated or Organic by combining a keyword classification and a machine trained Human Detection algorithm. A sentiment analysis using Hedonometrics was performed on Organic tweets to quantify the change in consumer sentiments over time. Commercialized tweets were topically categorized with key phrasal pattern matching.The overwhelming majority (80% of tweets were classified as automated or promotional in nature. The majority of these tweets were coded as commercialized (83.65% in 2013, up to 33% of which offered discounts or free samples and appeared on over a billion twitter feeds as impressions. The positivity of Organic (human classified tweets has decreased over time (5.84 in 2013 to 5.77 in 2014 due to a relative increase in the negative words 'ban', 'tobacco', 'doesn't', 'drug', 'against', 'poison', 'tax' and a relative decrease in the positive words like 'haha', 'good', 'cool'. Automated tweets are more positive than organic (6.17 versus 5.84 due to a relative increase in the marketing words like 'best', 'win', 'buy', 'sale', 'health', 'discount' and a relative decrease in negative words like 'bad', 'hate', 'stupid', 'don't'.Due to the youth presence on Twitter and the clinical uncertainty of the long term health complications of electronic cigarette consumption, the protection of public health warrants scrutiny and potential regulation of social media marketing.

  5. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  6. New cigarette brands with flavors that appeal to youth: tobacco marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Carrie M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Pauly, John L; Koh, Howard K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco manufacturers have recently introduced a proliferation of exotic brands featuring candylike flavors. We reviewed internal tobacco industry documents and patents to assess the role of flavored cigarettes in the targeting of young smokers. This research revealed the development of flavor delivery technologies hidden from consumers and public health professionals, including the use of a plastic pellet placed in the cigarette filter. These findings raise concerns as to the potential added health risks associated with using new flavored tobacco products, and they underscore the need for effective assessment and monitoring of tobacco products.

  7. Postsurgical food and water consumption, fecal corticosterone metabolites, and behavior assessment as noninvasive measures of pain in vasectomized BALB/c mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Kalliokoski, Otto; Teilmann, Anne C

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of pain and stress is a common challenge when working with laboratory mice. The aim of the current study was to identify noninvasive parameters to assess the severity and duration of possible pain and stress after vasectomy in BALB/c mice. Mice underwent isoflurane anesthesia...... with or without vasectomy. Body weight, food and water intake, and fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) were measured 3 d before and 3 d after the procedure. Behavior was recorded 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after the procedure. Food and water consumption and defecation were reduced postoperatively in the vasectomized......-related behaviors, but not FCM, may be useful as noninvasive parameters to assess postoperative pain and stress in vasectomized mice....

  8. Ingestion of cigarettes and cigarette butts by children--Rhode Island, January 1994-July 1996 .

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-14

    During 1995, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) received 7917 reports of potentially toxic exposures to tobacco products among children aged cigars. Acute nicotine poisoning is characterized by rapid onset of symptoms that may be severe when large amounts have been ingested. During January 1994-July 1996, the Rhode Island Poison Control Center (RIPCC) received 146 reports of ingestion of products containing nicotine by children aged cigarette butts among children aged cigarette butts by children aged < or = 6 years resulted in minor toxic effects and occurred more frequently in households where smoking was permitted in the presence of children and where cigarettes and cigarette wastes were accessible to children.

  9. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Corrie E. [Environmental Science Division; Harto, Christopher B. [Environmental Science Division; Schroeder, Jenna N. [Environmental Science Division; Martino, Louis E. [Environmental Science Division; Horner, Robert M. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-11-05

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2

  10. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLellan Deborah L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758 were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy.

  11. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-Il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathleen F.

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N = 944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous six...

  12. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Electronic Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use among Current and Former Smokers: Findings from a Community-Based Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Webb Hooper

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. African Americans/Blacks were significantly less likely to report ever-use compared to Whites and Hispanics (50% vs. 71% and 71%, respectively; p < 0.001. However, African American/Black ever users were more likely to report plans to continue using e-cigarettes compared to Whites and Hispanics (72% vs. 53% and 47%, respectively, p = 0.01. African American/Black participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes as a cessation aid compared to both Whites (p = 0.03 and Hispanics (p = 0.48. White participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes to save money compared to Hispanics (p = 0.02. In conclusion, racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette use, intentions, and reasons for use emerged in our study. African American ever users may be particularly vulnerable to maintaining their use, particularly to try to quit smoking. These findings have implications for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette dual use, continued e-cigarette use, and potentially for smoking-related disparities.

  13. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Electronic Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use among Current and Former Smokers: Findings from a Community-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic) were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. African Americans/Blacks were significantly less likely to report ever-use compared to Whites and Hispanics (50% vs. 71% and 71%, respectively; p e-cigarettes compared to Whites and Hispanics (72% vs. 53% and 47%, respectively, p = 0.01). African American/Black participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes as a cessation aid compared to both Whites (p = 0.03) and Hispanics (p = 0.48). White participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes to save money compared to Hispanics (p = 0.02). In conclusion, racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette use, intentions, and reasons for use emerged in our study. African American ever users may be particularly vulnerable to maintaining their use, particularly to try to quit smoking. These findings have implications for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette dual use, continued e-cigarette use, and potentially for smoking-related disparities. PMID:27754449

  14. Meanings of Consumption and Abandonment: Understanding Smoking Cessation Symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Carvalho Suarez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In consumption studies, very little attention has been focused on investigating abandonment and, more specifically, its symbolic dimension. The present study aims to investigate how meanings are created and negotiated through the abandonment of cigarettes. This study used a qualitative methodology to collect and analyze the data generated by one-on-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 Brazilian ex-smokers. Results suggest that abandonment of cigarettes can be offered as a connection, gift, or sacrifice that makes relations special and even magical. As regards abandonment, the present study evidences the interactions and movements of positive and negative meanings related to the consumption and non-consumption of a category. The study proposes a framework that highlights the cooling, decontamination, reinforcement and defensive symbolical movements, thus constructing a tool for analyzing abandonment, offering possible paths of intervention for organizations that are interested in this issue.

  15. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  16. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R....... Peto et al (Lancet 1992;339:1268-1278), requires data on mortality from lung cancer among people who have never smoked and among smokers, but it does not require data on the prevalence of smoking. In the Prevent model, 33% of deaths among men and 23% of those among women in 1993 from lung cancer......, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were caused by cigarette smoking. In the method proposed by Peto et al, 35% of deaths among men and 25% of deaths among women from these causes were estimated to be attributable to cigarette smoking. The differences between the two methods...

  17. Why Teens Choose E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigarettes in this young age group." States could tax the devices, hiking their prices, she suggested. Federal ... professor, psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn.; Krysten Bold, Ph.D., postdoctoral fellow in ...

  18. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-03-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking.

  19. 100 Million Views of Electronic Cigarette YouTube Videos and Counting: Quantification, Content Evaluation, and Engagement Levels of Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The video-sharing website, YouTube, has become an important avenue for product marketing, including tobacco products. It may also serve as an important medium for promoting electronic cigarettes, which have rapidly increased in popularity and are heavily marketed online. While a few studies have examined a limited subset of tobacco-related videos on YouTube, none has explored e-cigarette videos’ overall presence on the platform. Objective To quantify e-cigarette-related videos on YouTube, assess their content, and characterize levels of engagement with those videos. Understanding promotion and discussion of e-cigarettes on YouTube may help clarify the platform’s impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors and inform regulations. Methods Using an automated crawling procedure and keyword rules, e-cigarette-related videos posted on YouTube and their associated metadata were collected between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. Metadata were analyzed to describe posting and viewing time trends, number of views, comments, and ratings. Metadata were content coded for mentions of health, safety, smoking cessation, promotional offers, Web addresses, product types, top-selling brands, or names of celebrity endorsers. Results As of June 30, 2013, approximately 28,000 videos related to e-cigarettes were captured. Videos were posted by approximately 10,000 unique YouTube accounts, viewed more than 100 million times, rated over 380,000 times, and commented on more than 280,000 times. More than 2200 new videos were being uploaded every month by June 2013. The top 1% of most-viewed videos accounted for 44% of total views. Text fields for the majority of videos mentioned websites (70.11%); many referenced health (13.63%), safety (10.12%), smoking cessation (9.22%), or top e-cigarette brands (33.39%). The number of e-cigarette-related YouTube videos was projected to exceed 65,000 by the end of 2014, with approximately 190 million views. Conclusions YouTube is a major

  20. Littered cigarette butts as a source of nicotine in urban waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder Green, Amy L.; Putschew, Anke; Nehls, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    precipitation events (each 1.4 mm) was 3.8 mg g-1, with 47% during the first event. According to these results, one cigarette butt may contaminate an amount of 1000 L water to concentrations above the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) of only 2.4 × 10-3 mg L-1 (Valcárcel et al., 2011). Given the continuous littering of cigarette butts, and the rapid release of nicotine, cigarette butts are assessed to be a relevant threat to the quality of urban waters and consequently to drinking water.

  1. Assessment of the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria: I. Nutrient intake and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabayek, Magda M

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria city, on the basis of nutrient intake and food consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics and dietary data were determined in a sample of 231 disabled children chosen randomly from five specialized day care centers. Results showed that the age of the sample ranged from less than 7 to 24 years with a mean age of 12.6 +/- 4.7 years. Mental retardation represents the highest proportion of subjects followed by Down's syndrome and then Autism Male subjects were found to consume higher nutrients than females at all ages except age under seven years. The intake of both gender was less than the recommended for energy, calcium, vitamin A, niacin and zinc. While the intake of protein and vitamin C was more than the RDA Iron intake was below the recommended for females at all ages and within the acceptable level for male. The results also showed that there is a relationship between nutrient intake and disability type. Down syndrome children were found to consume more nutrients than mentally retarded and autistic subjects.

  2. Effectiveness of state and federal government agreements with major credit card and shipping companies to block illegal Internet cigarette sales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt M Ribisl

    Full Text Available Most Internet vendors offer tax-free cigarettes making them cheaper than those sold at stores. This undermines the impact that higher prices have upon reducing consumption. Most Internet tobacco sales have violated taxation and youth access laws, which led to landmark voluntary agreements in 2005 with the major credit card companies and major private shippers to ban payment transactions and shipments for all Internet cigarette sales.To assess whether these bans increased the rate of Internet Cigarette Vendors (ICVs ceasing online sales, decreased the proportion of vendors offering banned payment and shipping options, and decreased consumer traffic to the most popular ICVs.Websites in a longitudinal study of ICVs were visited in 2003 (n = 338, 2004 (n = 775, 2005 (n = 664, 2006 (n = 762, and 2007 (n = 497 to assess whether they were in business and monitor their advertised sales practices. The number of unique monthly visitors to the 50 most popular ICVs at baseline was examined for the period one year before and two years after the bans to determine whether the bans altered traffic.Following the bans, the rate of ICVs ceasing online sales year to year increased, but due to an influx of new vendors, there was a net increase in ICVs. The proportion of vendors accepting banned payment options dropped from 99.2% to 37.4% after the bans, and the proportion offering banned shipping options dropped from 32.2% to 5.6%, but there was a corresponding increase in vendors offering non-banned payment options (e.g., personal checks and shipping options (e.g., US Postal Service. Following the bans, there was a 3.5 fold decline in traffic to the most popular ICV websites.This promising approach to controlling the sale of restricted goods online has implications for regulating other products such as alcohol, firearms, quack cures, and medicines sold without a prescription.

  3. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Electronic Cigarettes: Comparison between Liquid and Aerosol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although electronic cigarette (EC liquids contain low levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs, studies evaluating the levels emitted to the aerosol are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of TSNAs between liquids and generated aerosol. Methods: Three EC liquids were obtained from the market. An additional (spiked sample was prepared by adding known amounts of standard TSNAs solutions to one of the obtained liquids. N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB and 4-(methylnitrosamino1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK were measured. Three 100-puff sets from each liquid were trapped in filter pads and were subsequently analyzed for the presence of TSNAs. The expected levels of TSNAs (calculated based on the liquid consumption were compared with the measured levels in the aerosol. Results: Only NAB was found at trace levels in two commercial liquids (1.2 and 2.3 ng/g, while the third contained 1.5 ng/g NAB and 7.7 ng/g NNN. The 100-puff sets resulted in 336–515 mg liquid consumption, with no TSNAs being detected in the aerosol. The spiked sample contained 42.0–53.9 ng/g of each of the TSNAs. All TSNAs were detected in the aerosol with the measured levels being statistically similar to the expected amounts. A significant correlation between expected and measured levels of TSNAs in the aerosol was found (r = 0.83, p < 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that exposure of EC users to TSNAs can be accurately assessed based on the levels present in the liquid, without the need to analyze the aerosol.

  4. A Comparison of Students and Non-Students with Respect to Orientation Toward E-cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig W.; Harper, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    We examine differences between college students and non-students with respect to orientation toward e-cigarettes. Participants were U.S. adults 18-24 (465 students, 409 non-students). Data collection employed an online survey by GfK Custom Research. Smoking, vaping, and use of alternate tobacco were assessed, as were variables from the Theory of Reasoned Action and Diffusion of Innovations. This study showed that smoking status largely explains use and orientation toward electronic cigarettes among both students and non-students, with differences attributable to higher smoking rates among non-students. Results also showed that among student smokers there was a greater level of information exposure concerning electronic cigarettes, and more prevalence in the use of alternate tobacco. Hookah use in that group was significantly greater than for non-student smokers. Together these findings suggest that students may be more vulnerable to electronic cigarette use due to higher related information exposure and the integration of vaping into hookah culture. Significance for public health This is the first study that we are aware of that looks specifically at the differences between college students’ and non-students’ behaviours and attitudes toward electronic cigarettes. A critical concern for young adults is whether adoption of electronic cigarettes will eventually lead to adoption of tobacco use. In this study we find that differences between student and non-student groups can be largely accounted for by smoking status. However, students may be more vulnerable to electronic cigarette use due to higher related-information exposure and the integration of vaping into hookah culture. PMID:27747198

  5. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  6. Carcinogenic and Non-Carcinogenic Assessment of Phthalates Exposure Through Consumption of Bottled Water During the Storage Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zare Jeddi

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: The research showed that the concentration of phthalates in PET-bottled water was extremely low. Consequently, based on the risk assessment results, bottled waters regarding existence of safe for consumers and they phthalates are not considered as public health issue for consumers as phthalates does not have any risk exposure for the consumers.

  7. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media...... discourse, practitioners attempt to maintain their self-positioning of competence when performing. This leads us, as researchers, to caution against any a priori anticipation of the anchoring power of media discourses within everyday activities....

  8. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new......, clothes-sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings – It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allowing people to experiment with styles without having to pay the full cost and becoming a meeting place for young designers...... and end consumers. However, at present fashion libraries remain a small-scale phenomenon with difficulties reaching the mainstream market, not least due to limited financial and human resources as well as conventional fashion consumption patterns. Research limitations/implications – The study is limited...

  9. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new......, clothes-­‐‑sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings: It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allowing people to experiment with styles without having to pay the full cost and becoming a meeting place for young designers...... and end consumers. However, at present fashion libraries remain a small-­‐‑scale phenomenon with difficulties reaching the mainstream market, not least due to limited financial and human resources as well as conventional fashion consumption patterns. Research limitations/implications: The study is limited...

  10. Transdisciplinary Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue L.T. McGregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 100 years, research about consumption has stemmed from two main disciplines: (a consumer studies/consumer sciences (including consumer policy and education (a spin off from home economics and (b consumer behaviour research (a spin off from marketing. This paper focuses on these two disciplines because the results of their respective research are used to shape consumer policy and consumer protection legislation and regulations, marketplace competition policy and regulations, consumer product and service information, media coverage of consumer issues, consumer education curricula and pedagogy, and insights into an evolving consumer culture. This paper asks consumer studies/sciences and consumer behaviour scholars to embrace the transdisciplinary methodology in addition to the traditional empirical, interpretive and critical methodologies. It provides an overview of the four axioms of transdisciplinary methodology with examples to illustrate how consumer-related research would change to address the complex reality of 21st century consumption.

  11. Fewer Cancer-Causing Chemicals in E-Cigs Than Regular Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study suggests that smokers who completely switch to e-cigarettes and stop smoking tobacco cigarettes may significantly reduce ... of 12 years. For two weeks, they used e-cigarettes instead of tobacco cigarettes. During that time, their ...

  12. An Assessment of the Consumption of Energy and Selected Minerals and Their Content in the Hair of Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek, Katarzyna; Wójciak, Rafał Wojciech; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Stanisławska-Kubiak, Maia

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the consumption of energy and selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu) and their content in the hair of children aged 1-4 years. Seventy-five children were divided into three age subgroups: 12-24-month-olds, 25-36-month-olds and 37-48-month-olds. The data on energy intake and consumption of nutrients were obtained by means of a nutritional interview. The content of elements in the hair was measured by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with an AAS-3 spectrophotometer (Zeiss). The daily food rations of children aged 12-36 months were characterised by adequate energy value, but the values of Ca and K were too low, whereas the content of Mg, Zn and Cu was high. On the other hand, the daily food rations of children aged 37-48 months provided sufficient amounts of Mg and Zn, but the value of Cu was too high, whereas energy, Ca, K and Fe were too low. About 42.7% of the children under study were characterised by an abnormal state of nutrition. An inadequately balanced diet needs to be corrected by educating parents or guardians in appropriate nutrition. There are significant correlations (r > 0.9) between the supply of Ca in the diet of children aged 1-4 years and the content of this element in their hair.

  13. Exposure Assessment of Infants to Aflatoxin M1 through Consumption of Breast Milk and Infant Powdered Milk in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Angélica T.; Takabayashi-Yamashita, Cássia R.; Ono, Elisabete Y. S.; Bagatin, Artur K.; Rigobello, Fabiana F.; Kawamura, Osamu; Hirooka, Elisa Y.; Itano, Eiko N.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an important biomarker that can be used to evaluate aflatoxin exposure in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure degree of infants to AFM1 through consumption of breast milk and infant powdered milk in Brazil. For this purpose, the estimated daily intake (EDI) for infants was calculated based on the AFM1 levels analyzed in 94 breast milk (BM) samples collected in Southern Brazil, and 16 infant powdered milk (IPM) samples commonly commercialized in Brazil. AFM1 was detected in 5.3% (n = 5) and 43.8% (n = 7) of BM and IPM samples, with mean levels of 0.003 ng/g and 0.011 ng/g, respectively. All the IPM samples showed AFM1 levels lower than those established by the Brazilian guidelines (5 ng/g), and in most of the samples (81.25%) levels were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission (0.025 ng/g). The EDI of AFM1 for infants aged zero to 12 months old showed values from 0.018 to 0.069 ng/kg body weight/day for BM, and 0.078 to 0.306 ng/kg body weight/day for IPM. Hazard index (HI) values for BM and IPM were less than one, except for IPM intended for infants up to one month. In conclusion, the exposure of infants to AFM1 was low, but continuous monitoring of mycotoxin levels is essential to minimize infant health risk. PMID:27589799

  14. Social Influences on Use of Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Hookah by College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Melody; Ickes, Melinda J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Butler, Karen; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) Compare social norms and perceived peer use between college student cigarette, e-cigarette, and/or hookah users and nonusers; and (2) determine variables associated with social influences. Participants: Undergraduate students attending a large university in the Southeast United States (N = 511). Methods: An April 2013 online survey…

  15. Familiarity, perception, and reasons for electronic-cigarette experimentation among the general public in Malaysia: Preliminary insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Mohamed Elkalmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the general public views and familiarity toward electronic cigarette (e-cigarette in Kuantan, Malaysia. Methodology: A total of 277 Kuantan people were involved in this study. The questionnaire was distributed at random in shops, businesses, and public places in Kuantan. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 17.0. Results: From 400 participants, a total number of 277 (160, 57.7% men and 117, 42.4% women respondents completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 26.89 ± 9.8 years old. The majority of the study participants were male (57.7%, Malay (83.8%, Muslims (83.8%, singles (69%, and employed (75.8%, with about 83 (29.9% of the respondents were smokers. The prevalence of e-cigarettes smokers was found to be only 1.4% (n = 4. About one-third of the respondents (n = 72, 26% have tried e-cigarette before. Job status was significantly associated with smoking e-cigarette among the population (P = 0.02. Main factors for a person to start e-cigarette smoking were curiosity (37.5% and cheaper price (40.8%. Majority of respondents agreed that e-cigarette would not affect health as normal cigarette, and that variety of flavors contribute to better enjoyment (51.6% and 66.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the current study demonstrate that the prevalence of e-cigarettes smoking and its popularity, familiarity, and knowledge are still insufficient among Kuantan population. Further studies should be done to tackle this problem before it getting worse.

  16. Familiarity, perception, and reasons for electronic-cigarette experimentation among the general public in Malaysia: Preliminary insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkalmi, Ramadan Mohamed; Bhagavathul, Akshaya Srikanth; Ya’u, Adamu; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Elsayed, Tarek M.; Ahmad, Akram; Mohamed, Wael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the general public views and familiarity toward electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) in Kuantan, Malaysia. Methodology: A total of 277 Kuantan people were involved in this study. The questionnaire was distributed at random in shops, businesses, and public places in Kuantan. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 17.0). Results: From 400 participants, a total number of 277 (160, 57.7% men and 117, 42.4% women) respondents completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 26.89 ± 9.8 years old. The majority of the study participants were male (57.7%), Malay (83.8%), Muslims (83.8%), singles (69%), and employed (75.8%), with about 83 (29.9%) of the respondents were smokers. The prevalence of e-cigarettes smokers was found to be only 1.4% (n = 4). About one-third of the respondents (n = 72, 26%) have tried e-cigarette before. Job status was significantly associated with smoking e-cigarette among the population (P = 0.02). Main factors for a person to start e-cigarette smoking were curiosity (37.5%) and cheaper price (40.8%). Majority of respondents agreed that e-cigarette would not affect health as normal cigarette, and that variety of flavors contribute to better enjoyment (51.6% and 66.7%, respectively). Conclusion: The results of the current study demonstrate that the prevalence of e-cigarettes smoking and its popularity, familiarity, and knowledge are still insufficient among Kuantan population. Further studies should be done to tackle this problem before it getting worse. PMID:27413354

  17. "Key to the future": British American tobacco and cigarette smuggling in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Lee

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling.

  18. [Health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes are poorly described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.

  19. How hearing about harmful chemicals affects smokers' interest in dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Byron, M Justin; Ribisl, Kurt M; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-03-01

    Substantial harm could result from concurrent cigarette and e-cigarette use (i.e., dual use) were it to undermine smoking cessation. Perceptions of chemical exposure and resulting harms may influence dual use. We conducted a probability-based phone survey of 1164 U.S. adult cigarette smokers in 2014-2015 and analyzed results in 2016. In a between-subjects experiment, smokers heard a hypothetical scenario in which cigarettes and e-cigarettes had the same amount of harmful chemicals or cigarettes had more chemicals than e-cigarettes (10× more, 100× more, or chemicals were present only in cigarettes). Smokers indicated how the scenario would change their interest in dual use and perceived health harms. Few smokers (7%) who heard that the products have the same amount of chemicals were interested in initiating or increasing dual use. However, more smokers were interested when told that cigarettes have 10× more chemicals than e-cigarettes (31%), 100× more chemicals than e-cigarettes (32%), or chemicals were present only in cigarettes (43%) (all pe-cigarettes (79% vs. 41%, OR=5.41, 95% CI=4.08-7.17). These harm perceptions partially explained the relationship between chemical scenario and dual use interest. Smokers associated higher chemical amounts in cigarettes versus e-cigarettes with greater health harms from cigarettes and thus expressed increased interest in dual use. The findings suggest that disclosing amounts of chemicals in cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol could unintentionally encourage dual use.

  20. Assessment of vitamin D and vitamin A intake by female students at the United Arab Emirates University based on self-reported dietary and selected fortified food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laleye, Louis C; Kerkadi, Abdel Hamid; Wasesa, Abdulkadar Ah; Rao, Madduri V; Aboubacar, Adam

    2011-06-01

    In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), many adolescent girls and women (especially the UAE citizens) are not adequately exposed to sunlight and their dietary intake of vitamin D is insufficient to fulfill the required recommended daily allowance of the vitamin. In the present study, the problem of vitamin D and vitamin A insufficiency in female students of UAE University was investigated through a dietary intake assessment of the vitamins. Results indicated that over 70% of female students constituting the survey population did not consume enough milk and other vitamin-D-rich foods, and many showed poor food habits. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among the population studied indicated that 37% of the total population was considered vitamin D insufficient and 40% of the female students residing in the hostels also had vitamin D insufficiency ( food consumption.

  1. Water Footprint and Life Cycle Assessment as approaches to assess potential impacts of products on water consumption: Key learning points from pilot studies on tea and margarine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jefferies, D.; Muñoz, I.; Hodges, J.; King, V.J.; Aldaya, M.M.; Ercin, A.E.; Milá i Canals, L.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Water accounting and environmental impact assessment across the product's life cycle is gaining prominence. This paper presents two case studies of applying the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Water Footprint (WF) approaches to tea and margarine. The WF, excluding grey water, of a carton of 50 g tea

  2. Quantitative assessment of possible human health risk associated with consumption of arsenic contaminated groundwater and wheat grains from Ropar Wetand and its environs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sakshi; Kaur, Jagdeep; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic (As) is a carcinogenic metalloid that enters food chain through food and water and poses health risk to living beings. It is important to assess the As status in the environment and risks associated with it. Hence, a risk assessment study was conducted across Ropar wetland, Punjab, India and its environs in pre-monsoon season of 2013, to estimate the risk posed to adults and children via daily consumption of As contaminated groundwater and wheat grains. Arsenic concentrations determined in groundwater, soil and wheat grain samples using atomic absorption spectrometer ranged from 2.90 to 10.56 μg L(-1), 0.06 to 0.12 mg kg(-1) and 0.03 to 0.21 mg kg(-1), respectively. Arsenic in wheat grains showed significant negative correlation with phosphate content in soil indicating a competitive uptake of arsenate and phosphate ions by plants. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis suggested that both natural and anthropogenic factors contribute to variation in As content and other variables studied in soil and groundwater samples. Total cancer risk and hazard index were higher than the USEPA safety limits of 1.00 × 10(-6) and 1, respectively, for both adults and children indicating a high risk of cancer and other health disorders. Consumption of As contaminated wheat grains was found to pose higher risk of cancer and non-cancer health disorders as compared to intake of As contaminated groundwater by both adults and children. Moreover, children were found to be more prone to cancer and other heath disorders due to As exposure via wheat grains and groundwater as compared to adults.

  3. 卷烟批发环节纳税问题教学探讨%Teaching Research of Cigarette in Wholesale Tax Question

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蕙璇

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette consumption tax is the emphasis and difficulty in the teaching,the implementation of cigarette wholesale tax Since May 1,2009.Cigarette wholesale tax has become the difficult point of teaching.This paper focuses on designing the cigarette tax teaching content,the students can easily understand the policy.%卷烟消费税是教学中的重点和难点,自2009年5月1日开始执行卷烟批发环节加征一道从价税,卷烟批发环节纳税成为了教学的难点。本文对卷烟纳税教学内容进行设计,加强学生对此政策的深入理解。

  4. Electronic Cigarettes and Indoor Air Quality: A Simple Approach to Modeling Potential Bystander Exposures to Nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Colard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes (“vaping” in Europe, North America and elsewhere. With such increased prevalence, there is currently a debate on whether the aerosol exhaled following the use of e-cigarettes has implications for the quality of air breathed by bystanders. Conducting chemical analysis of the indoor environment can be costly and resource intensive, limiting the number of studies which can be conducted. However, this can be modelled reasonably accurately based on empirical emissions data and using some basic assumptions. Here, we present a simplified model, based on physical principles, which considers aerosol propagation, dilution and extraction to determine the potential contribution of a single puff from an e-cigarette to indoor air. From this, it was then possible to simulate the cumulative effect of vaping over time. The model was applied to a virtual, but plausible, scenario considering an e-cigarette user and a non-user working in the same office space. The model was also used to reproduce published experimental studies and showed good agreement with the published values of indoor air nicotine concentration. With some additional refinements, such an approach may be a cost-effective and rapid way of assessing the potential exposure of bystanders to exhaled e-cigarette aerosol constituents.

  5. Big five personality factors and cigarette smoking: a 10-year study among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Taha, Farah; Bono, Amanda; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between the big five personality traits and any lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence among adults in the United States (US) over a ten-year period. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS) I and II (N = 2101). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between continuously measured personality factors and any lifetime cigarette use, smoking progression, and smoking persistence at baseline (1995-1996) and at follow-up (2004-2006). The results revealed that higher levels of openness to experience and neuroticism were each significantly associated with increased risk of any lifetime cigarette use. Neuroticism also was associated with increased risk of progression from ever smoking to daily smoking and persistent daily smoking over a ten-year period. In contrast, conscientiousness was associated with decreased risk of lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence. Most, but not all, associations between smoking and personality persisted after adjusting for demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use problems. The findings suggest that openness to experience and neuroticism may be involved in any lifetime cigarette use and smoking progression, and that conscientiousness appears to protect against smoking progression and persistence. These data add to a growing literature suggesting that certain personality factors--most consistently neuroticism--are important to assess and perhaps target during intervention programs for smoking behavior.

  6. Electronic cigarettes and indoor air quality: a simple approach to modeling potential bystander exposures to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colard, Stéphane; O'Connell, Grant; Verron, Thomas; Cahours, Xavier; Pritchard, John D

    2014-12-24

    There has been rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes ("vaping") in Europe, North America and elsewhere. With such increased prevalence, there is currently a debate on whether the aerosol exhaled following the use of e-cigarettes has implications for the quality of air breathed by bystanders. Conducting chemical analysis of the indoor environment can be costly and resource intensive, limiting the number of studies which can be conducted. However, this can be modelled reasonably accurately based on empirical emissions data and using some basic assumptions. Here, we present a simplified model, based on physical principles, which considers aerosol propagation, dilution and extraction to determine the potential contribution of a single puff from an e-cigarette to indoor air. From this, it was then possible to simulate the cumulative effect of vaping over time. The model was applied to a virtual, but plausible, scenario considering an e-cigarette user and a non-user working in the same office space. The model was also used to reproduce published experimental studies and showed good agreement with the published values of indoor air nicotine concentration. With some additional refinements, such an approach may be a cost-effective and rapid way of assessing the potential exposure of bystanders to exhaled e-cigarette aerosol constituents.

  7. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ah Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%, followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%, the desire to quit smoking (13.1%, and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%. Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and

  8. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette

  9. Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent electronic and conventional cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Sussman, Steve; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of electronic (e-) cigarettes has greatly increased recently, particularly in adolescents. However, the extent of psychiatric comorbidity with adolescent e-cigarette use and dual use of conventional (combustible) and e-cigarettes is unknown. This study characterized psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent conventional and e-cigarette use. Ninth grade students attending high schools in Los Angeles, CA (M age = 14) completed self-report measures of conventional/e-cigarette use, emotional disorders, substance use/problems, and transdiagnostic psychiatric phenotypes consistent with the NIMH-Research Domain Criteria Initiative. Outcomes were compared by lifetime use of: (1) neither conventional nor e-cigarettes (non-use; N = 2557, 77.3%); (2) e-cigarettes only (N = 412, 12.4%); (3) conventional cigarettes only (N = 152, 4.6%); and (4) conventional and e-cigarettes (dual use; N = 189, 5.6%). In comparison to adolescents who used conventional cigarettes only, e-cigarette only users reported lower levels of internalizing syndromes (depression, generalized anxiety, panic, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) and transdiagnostic phenotypes (i.e., distress intolerance, anxiety sensitivity, rash action during negative affect). Depression, panic disorder, and anhedonia were higher in e-cigarette only vs. non-users. For several externalizing outcomes (mania, rash action during positive affect, alcohol drug use/abuse) and anhedonia, an ordered pattern was observed, whereby comorbidity was lowest in non-users, moderate in single product users (conventional or e-cigarette), and highest in dual users. These findings: (1) raise question of whether emotionally-healthier ('lower-risk') adolescents who are not interested in conventional cigarettes are being attracted to e-cigarettes; (2) indicate that research, intervention, and policy dedicated to adolescent tobacco-psychiatric comorbidity should distinguish conventional cigarette, e-cigarette, and dual use.

  10. A review of the current geographic distribution of and debate surrounding electronic cigarette clean air regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Joy; Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a systematic review of state, county, and municipal restrictions on the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in public spaces within the United States, alongside an overview of the current legal landscape. The lack of federal guidance leaves lower-level jurisdictions to debate the merits of restrictions on use in public spaces without sufficient scientific research. As we show through a geographic assessment of restrictions, this has resulted in an inconsistent patchwork of e-cigarette use bans across the United States of varying degrees of coverage. Bans have emerged over time in a manner that suggests a "bottom up" diffusion of e-cigarette clean air policies. Ultimately, the lack of clinical and scientific knowledge on the risks and potential harm reduction benefits has led to precautionary policymaking, which often lacks grounding in empirical evidence and results in spatially uneven diffusion of policy.

  11. Effects of Initial Abstinence and Programmed Lapses on the Relative Reinforcing Effects of Cigarette Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Laura L.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Heil, Sarah H.; Proskin, Rebecca W.; Thomas, Colleen S.

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-eight smokers received abstinence-contingent monetary payments for 1 (n = 15) or 14 (n = 43) days. Those who received contingent payments for 14 days also received 0, 1, or 8 experimenter-delivered cigarette puffs on 5 evenings. The relative reinforcing effects of smoking were assessed in a 3-hr session on the final study day, when…

  12. Defining Cigarette Smoking Status in Young Adults: A Comparison of Adolescent vs Adult Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D.; Lewis, M. Jane; Kaufman, Ira; Abatemarco, Diane J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among young adults. Methods: We examined data from 1007 young adults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The kappa…

  13. Dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking among pregnant Puerto Rican women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few studies have examined predictors of meeting health guidelines in pregnancy among Latina women. We assessed dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking in the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective cohort of 1231 prenatal care patients. Self-reported information...

  14. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Adolescents and Young Adults with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Burgess Dowdell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common, serious chronic diseases in pediatric and young adult populations. Health-risk behaviors, including cigarette smoking and alcohol use, may exacerbate chronic diseases and complicate their management. The aim of this study was to longitudinally analyze rates of cigarette smoking and alcohol use in adolescents and young adults who have asthma and those who do not have asthma. A secondary analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was undertaken. Individuals with asthma were found to exhibit increasing rates of cigarette smoking and alcohol use as they aged. When an adolescent with a chronic health issue begins health-risk-taking behaviors, behavior change interventions must be planned. Pediatric nurses, practitioners, and clinicians are uniquely positioned to assess for health-risk behaviors in youth with asthma and to intervene with plans of care that are tailored for the needs of this vulnerable population.

  15. Empirical Analysis of Influence Factors for Cigarette Demands in China%我国卷烟需求影响因素的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高福宏; 李卫; 孔宁川

    2012-01-01

    The long-term equilibrium model and dynamic adjustment model for total demand quantity of cigarette in china were established according to the annual data to analyze relation between total sales volume of cigarette and its corresponding economic indicators. The demand of cigarette is mainly decided by GDP, cigarette prices, population and consumption level. The speed of adjusting total sales volume to demand quantity of cigarette is 0.42, namely 42% of the gap between annual cigarette demand quantity and sales volume has been adjusted within the year. It is illustrated that cigarette sales volume in China still has some growth potential to meet the increasing demand of cigarette consumption of residents.%根据年度数据建立我国卷烟需求总量的长期均衡和动态调整模型,对我国卷烟销售总量与相应经济指标之间的影响关系进行实证分析.我国卷烟需求量主要由国内生产总值、卷烟价格、人口总数和居民消费水平四个因素所决定,卷烟销售总量向需求量进行调整的速度为0.42,即卷烟需求量与该年度卷烟销售量之间的缺口有42%的部分在年度内得到调整,说明我国卷烟销售量还有一定的增长空间可以满足居民卷烟消费稳步提高.

  16. Mapping Cigarettes Similarities using Cluster Analysis Methods

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    Lorentz Jäntschi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the relationship and/or occurrences in and between chemical composition information (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, market information (brand, manufacturer, price, and public health information (class, health warning as well as clustering of a sample of cigarette data. A number of thirty cigarette brands have been analyzed. Six categorical (cigarette brand, manufacturer, health warnings, class and four continuous (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide concentrations and package price variables were collected for investigation of chemical composition, market information and public health information. Multiple linear regression and two clusterization techniques have been applied. The study revealed interesting remarks. The carbon monoxide concentration proved to be linked with tar and nicotine concentration. The applied clusterization methods identified groups of cigarette brands that shown similar characteristics. The tar and carbon monoxide concentrations were the main criteria used in clusterization. An analysis of a largest sample could reveal more relevant and useful information regarding the similarities between cigarette brands.

  17. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  18. Electronic Cigarette and Traditional Cigarette Use among Middle and High School Students in Florida, 2011-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Porter

    Full Text Available Recent youth trends in the prevalence of e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use in Florida were examined in a cross-sectional, representative state sample from 2011 to 2014. Traditional cigarette use among youth declined during the study period. Experimentation with and past 30-day use of e-cigarettes among Florida youth tripled over 4 years. Past 30-day e-cigarette use exceeded traditional cigarette use in 2014; 10.8% of high school and 4.0% of middle school students reported recent e-cigarette use, compared with 8.7% of high school and 2.9% of middle school students for traditional cigarettes (P<0.001. By 2014, 20.5% of high school and 8.5% of middle school students reported ever use of e-cigarettes. Among ever e-cigarette users in 2014, 30.3% of high school and 42.2% of middle school students had never smoked traditional cigarettes. Given the concern that significant rates of e-cigarette use by U.S. adolescents may have a negative effect on public health, further review of e-cigarette advertising, marketing, sales, and use among U.S. youth is warranted.

  19. Electronic Cigarette and Traditional Cigarette Use among Middle and High School Students in Florida, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lauren; Duke, Jennifer; Hennon, Meredith; Dekevich, David; Crankshaw, Erik; Homsi, Ghada; Farrelly, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Recent youth trends in the prevalence of e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use in Florida were examined in a cross-sectional, representative state sample from 2011 to 2014. Traditional cigarette use among youth declined during the study period. Experimentation with and past 30-day use of e-cigarettes among Florida youth tripled over 4 years. Past 30-day e-cigarette use exceeded traditional cigarette use in 2014; 10.8% of high school and 4.0% of middle school students reported recent e-cigarette use, compared with 8.7% of high school and 2.9% of middle school students for traditional cigarettes (P4, 20.5% of high school and 8.5% of middle school students reported ever use of e-cigarettes. Among ever e-cigarette users in 2014, 30.3% of high school and 42.2% of middle school students had never smoked traditional cigarettes. Given the concern that significant rates of e-cigarette use by U.S. adolescents may have a negative effect on public health, further review of e-cigarette advertising, marketing, sales, and use among U.S. youth is warranted.

  20. Toxic Metals Found in E-Cigarette Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163492.html Toxic Metals Found in E-Cigarette Liquid Their presence in 5 brands studied is ... the metals end up in the aerosol that e-cigarette users inhale," said study leader Ana Maria Rule, ...

  1. FDA to Weigh Dangers of Exploding E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162849.html FDA to Weigh Dangers of Exploding E-Cigarettes Agency ... The Associated Press reported last month that the FDA had identified 66 instances of e-cigarette explosions ...

  2. E-Cigarettes Not Good to Gums, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162118.html E-Cigarettes Not Good to Gums, Study Finds Nicotine, ... in New York exposed nonsmokers' gum tissue to e-cigarette vapors. Their findings appear to counter arguments ...

  3. Progressions of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, S C; Duncan, T E; Hops, H

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the progressive relations among adolescent use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana using latent growth curve analyses. Specifically, the present study examined three models to determine (1) the effect of prior cigarette use on alcohol use and development and the relationship between change in cigarette use and the development of alcohol use (N = 115), (2) the effect of prior alcohol use on cigarette use and development and the relationship between change in alcohol use and the development of cigarette use (N = 199); and (3) the effect of prior alcohol and cigarette use on marijuana use and development, and the relationship between change in alcohol use and cigarette use and the development, of marijuana use (N = 287). Support was found for the relation between prior levels of substance use and involvement in other substances. Cigarette use, in particular, was particularly important in the subsequent involvement of alcohol and marijuana.

  4. E-Cigarettes Not a Smoking Deterrent for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163191.html E-Cigarettes Not a Smoking Deterrent for Kids Study ... 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There's no evidence that e-cigarettes are driving down teen smoking -- and, in ...

  5. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related

    Science.gov (United States)

    That specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking have yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure and retention of particles...

  6. Quantitative assessment of the microbial risk of leafy greens from farm to consumption: preliminary framework, data, and risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-05-01

    This project was undertaken to relate what is known about the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 under laboratory conditions and integrate this information to what is known regarding the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak in the context of a quantitative microbial risk assessment. The risk model explicitly assumes that all contamination arises from exposure in the field. Extracted data, models, and user inputs were entered into an Excel spreadsheet, and the modeling software @RISK was used to perform Monte Carlo simulations. The model predicts that cut leafy greens that are temperature abused will support the growth of E. coli O157:H7, and populations of the organism may increase by as much a 1 log CFU/day under optimal temperature conditions. When the risk model used a starting level of -1 log CFU/g, with 0.1% of incoming servings contaminated, the predicted numbers of cells per serving were within the range of best available estimates of pathogen levels during the outbreak. The model predicts that levels in the field of -1 log CFU/g and 0.1% prevalence could have resulted in an outbreak approximately the size of the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 outbreak. This quantitative microbial risk assessment model represents a preliminary framework that identifies available data and provides initial risk estimates for pathogenic E. coli in leafy greens. Data gaps include retail storage times, correlations between storage time and temperature, determining the importance of E. coli O157:H7 in leafy greens lag time models, and validation of the importance of cross-contamination during the washing process.

  7. Racial differences in cigarette brand recognition and impact on youth smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauphinee Amanda L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans are disproportionately exposed to cigarette advertisements, particularly for menthol brands. Tobacco industry documents outline strategic efforts to promote menthol cigarettes to African Americans at the point of sale, and studies have observed more outdoor and retail menthol advertisements in neighborhoods with more African-American residents. Little research has been conducted to examine the effect of this target marketing on adolescents’ recognition of cigarette brand advertising and on smoking uptake. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine racial differences in brand recognition and to assess the prospective relationship between brand recognition and smoking uptake. Methods School-based surveys assessing tobacco use and environmental and social influences to smoke were administered to 6th through 9th grad