WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing chemical protective

  1. Layer of protection analysis for reactive chemical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chunyang; Rogers, William J; Mannan, M Sam

    2008-11-15

    Reactive chemical hazards have been a significant concern for the chemical process industries (CPI). Without sufficient control and mitigation of chemical reaction hazards, reactive incidents have led to severe consequences, such as release of flammable and toxic materials, fires and explosions, and threats to human lives, properties, and the environment. Consequence of reactive hazards can be well understood through calorimetric testing and computational techniques. However, risks of incidents caused by reactive chemicals have not been well addressed due partly to sparse failure frequency data. In this paper, the semi-quantitative layer of protection analysis (LOPA) approach is used to estimate reactive chemical risk, and the probabilities or frequencies of failure scenarios are addressed. Using LOPA, reactive risks can be evaluated with respect to predefined criteria, and the effectiveness of risk reduction measures can be assessed. The hydroxylamine (HA) production system is employed as a case study to demonstrate the application of LOPA to reactive chemical risk assessment.

  2. Security risk assessment and protection in the chemical and process industry

    OpenAIRE

    Reniers, Genserik; van Lerberghe, Paul; van Gulijk, Coen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a security risk assessment and protection methodology that was developed for use in the chemical- and process industry in Belgium. The approach of the method follows a risk-based approach that follows desing principles for chemical safety. That approach is beneficial for workers in the chemical industry because they recognize the steps in this model from familiar safety models .The model combines the rings-of-protection approach with generic security practices including...

  3. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  4. Potential application of ecological models in the European environmental risk assessment of chemicals: I. review of protection goals of EU directives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommen, U.; Baveco, J.M.; Galic, N.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Several European directives and regulations address the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. We used the protection of freshwater ecosystems against plant protection products, biocidal products, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals and priority substances under the Water

  5. Potential application of population models in the European ecological risk assessment of chemicals: II review of models and whether they can address the protection aims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galic, N.G.; Hommen, U.; Baveco, J.M.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas current chemical risk assessment (RA) schemes within the European Union (EU) focus mainly on toxicity and bioaccumulation of chemicals in individual organisms, most protection goals aim at preserving populations of nontarget organisms rather than individuals. Ecological models are tools

  6. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  7. 75 FR 4833 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Assessment Questionnaire-Voluntary Chemical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Directorate (NPPD), which supports the automation of sector-approved risk and vulnerability assessment... following information collection request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and...-day public comment period. No comments were received by DHS. The purpose of this notice is to allow an...

  8. Latin American protected areas: Protected from chemical pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A; Siroski, Pablo; Espejo, Winfred; Nimptsch, Jorge; Choueri, Paloma Gusso; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Moraga, Claudio A; Mora, Miguel; Toor, Gurpal S

    2017-03-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are critically important means to preserve species and maintain natural ecosystems. However, the potential impacts of chemical pollution on PAs are seldom mentioned in the scientific literature. Research on the extent of the occurrence of chemical pollution inside PAs and in-depth assessments of how chemical contaminants may adversely affect the maintenance of species abundance, species survival, and ecosystem functions are scarce to nonexistent. We investigated 1) the occurrence of chemical contaminants inside 119 PAs in Latin America from publically available databases, and 2) reviewed case studies of chemical contaminants and pollution in 4 Latin American PAs. Cases of chemical pollution and contamination inside Latin American PAs mostly originated from sources such as mining, oil, and gas extraction. To date, the focus of the research on chemical pollution research inside Latin American PAs has been primarily on the detection of contamination, typically limited to trace metals. Where management actions have occurred, they have been reactive rather than proactive. Protected areas established in wetlands are the most affected by chemical pollution. Based on the information from the pollution and/or contamination occurrence and the case studies analyzed, Latin American PAs are not well safeguarded from chemical pollution, resulting in both challenges and opportunities to conserve biodiversity and ecosystems. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:360-370. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Toward the definition of specific protection goals for the environmental risk assessment of chemicals: A perspective on environmental regulation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A Ross; Whale, Graham; Jackson, Mathew; Marshall, Stuart; Hamer, Mick; Solga, Andreas; Kabouw, Patrick; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Woods, Richard; Nadzialek, Stephanie; Maltby, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This critical review examines the definition and implementation of environmental protection goals for chemicals in current European Union (EU) legislation, guidelines, and international agreements to which EU countries are party. The European chemical industry is highly regulated, and prospective environmental risk assessments (ERAs) are tailored for different classes of chemical, according to their specific hazards, uses, and environmental exposure profiles. However, environmental protection goals are often highly generic, requiring the prevention of "unacceptable" or "adverse" impacts on "biodiversity" and "ecosystems" or the "environment as a whole." This review aims to highlight working examples, challenges, solutions, and best practices for defining specific protection goals (SPGs), which are seen to be essential for refining and improving ERA. Specific protection goals hinge on discerning acceptable versus unacceptable adverse effects on the key attributes of relevant, sensitive ecological entities (ranging from organisms to ecosystems). Some isolated examples of SPGs for terrestrial and aquatic biota can be found in prospective ERA guidance for plant protection products (PPPs). However, SPGs are generally limited to environmental or nature legislation that requires environmental monitoring and retrospective ERA. This limitation is due mainly to the availability of baselines, which define acceptable versus unacceptable environmental effects on the key attributes of sentinel species, populations and/or communities, such as reproductive status, abundance, or diversity. Nevertheless, very few regulatory case examples exist in which SPGs incorporate effect magnitude, spatial extent, and temporal duration. We conclude that more holistic approaches are needed for defining SPGs, particularly with respect to protecting population sustainability, ecosystem function, and integrity, which are implicit in generic protection goals and explicit in the International

  10. How EPA Assesses Chemical Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  11. Reducing toxicity chemicals plant protection products

    OpenAIRE

    Litvishko, Valery; Myaskovskaya, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The samples of microencapsulated pesticide have been investigated in acute experiments on laboratory animals. The results of the research have determined that microencapsulation can reduce toxicity of plant protection chemicals.

  12. Chemical Risk Assessment: Traditional vs Public Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments

  13. Toxic hazard assessment of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Retrieval of data; Verification of data; Interpretation of data; Risk assessment and case histories; and Legislation on chemicals. This work is to provide basic guidance on means of retrieving, validating, and interpreting data in order to make a toxicological hazard assessment upon a chemical.

  14. A Survey of Wood Protection Chemicals, Tree Killers and Sprayers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemicals used in wood protection (preservation) within Makurdi metropolis. A purposive, non-random sampling was undertaken in Makurdi metropolis to identify wood protection chemicals/tree-killers available in agrochemical stores, ...

  15. Chemical Solutions of Fire Protection Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhitova, L.M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern approaches to the creation of fire protective coatings by modifying intumescent systems by nanomaterials with study of the chemical reaction mechanisms under the high temperatures influence were considered. A systematic study of the interactions of components of polyphosphate type intumescent blend were carried out, a well-defined correlations between the directions of chemical processes and fire retardant properties of intumescent coatings were found. Efficient ways to simultaneous increase of fireprotective efficiency and performance characteristics of intumescent coatings (operatin life, resistance to environmental factors and bioсontamination were proposed. The results of fundamental research allowed to develop new formulations of flame retardant compositions, whose properties have been confirmed by tests in accordance with existing standardized methods, these results were introduced into production.

  16. 46 CFR 153.933 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical protective clothing. 153.933 Section 153.933... § 153.933 Chemical protective clothing. When table 1 refers to this section, the following apply: (a) The master shall ensure that the following chemical protective clothing constructed of materials...

  17. Pregnant Employee Protection Program in a Large Chemical Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Gunild; Schuster, Michael; Oberlinner, Christoph; Queier-Wahrendorf, Annette; Lang, Stefan; Yong, Mei

    2015-09-01

    To assess whether a structured employee protection program for pregnant workers at a chemical company has an impact on pregnancy outcomes. Reported pregnancies (n = 1402) between 2003 and 2010 and their outcomes were documented using questionnaires at the time of pregnancy report, end of pregnancy, and 1 year later. Potential maternal exposures were assessed using job histories, workplace inspections, and questionnaires. Participation was 86% overall and was consistently high across subgroups.Pregnancy losses (10.9%), pregnancy complications, and preterm births (8.1%) were in agreement with rates in the general population and were independent of type of work and maternal exposure category. Pregnancy complication rates in this chemical company are not statistically elevated than that in the general population, as suggested in a previous study. The protection program may play a role in preventing complications that may have occurred.

  18. 46 CFR 151.50-73 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical protective clothing. 151.50-73 Section 151.50... protective clothing. When table 151.05 refers to this section, the following apply: (a) The person in charge of cargo handling operations shall ensure that the following chemical protective clothing constructed...

  19. Heat stress in chemical protective clothing: Porosity and vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Hartog, E.A. den; Martini, S.

    2011-01-01

    Heat strain in chemical protective clothing is an important factor in industrial and military practice. Various improvements to the clothing to alleviate strain while maintaining protection have been attempted. More recently, selectively permeable membranes have been introduced to improve

  20. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

    1984-08-01

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.

  1. Chemical facility vulnerability assessment project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Calvin D

    2003-11-14

    Sandia National Laboratories, under the direction of the Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, conducted the chemical facility vulnerability assessment (CFVA) project. The primary objective of this project was to develop, test and validate a vulnerability assessment methodology (VAM) for determining the security of chemical facilities against terrorist or criminal attacks (VAM-CF). The project also included a report to the Department of Justice for Congress that in addition to describing the VAM-CF also addressed general observations related to security practices, threats and risks at chemical facilities and chemical transport. In the development of the VAM-CF Sandia leveraged the experience gained from the use and development of VAs in other areas and the input from the chemical industry and Federal agencies. The VAM-CF is a systematic, risk-based approach where risk is a function of the severity of consequences of an undesired event, the attack potential, and the likelihood of adversary success in causing the undesired event. For the purpose of the VAM-CF analyses Risk is a function of S, L(A), and L(AS), where S is the severity of consequence of an event, L(A) is the attack potential and L(AS) likelihood of adversary success in causing a catastrophic event. The VAM-CF consists of 13 basic steps. It involves an initial screening step, which helps to identify and prioritize facilities for further analysis. This step is similar to the prioritization approach developed by the American Chemistry Council (ACC). Other steps help to determine the components of the risk equation and ultimately the risk. The VAM-CF process involves identifying the hazardous chemicals and processes at a chemical facility. It helps chemical facilities to focus their attention on the most critical areas. The VAM-CF is not a quantitative analysis but, rather, compares relative security risks. If the risks are deemed too high, recommendations are developed for

  2. Assessment of chemicals in construction products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Hanne; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2000-01-01

    in the project Assessment of Chemicals in Construction Products decided to adapt an existing score method for assessing the chemicals. As the European countries had agreed on a score Method for Risk Ranking chemicals (EURAM), it was decided to use this method to assess chemicals in construction products for two...

  3. Chemicals for crop protection and pest control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Maurice B; Hartley, Gilbert Spencer; West, Trustham Frederick

    1977-01-01

    .... For the most part, the conventional classification into insecticides, herbicides and fungicides has been followed and some more specialized chemicals are also classified according to their biological...

  4. LIMITED-USE CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING FOR EPA SUPERFUND ACTIVITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because contractor field personnel complained about the poor durability and fit of limited-use chemical protective clothing (CPC) most commonly used at hazardous waste site operations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a study to • characterize use of CPC...

  5. Protecting chemical plants against terrorist attacks: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Protection of hazardous establishments such as chemical plants intentional incidents has drawn attention from safety and security experts since 9/11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. Although major steps have been taken since, the recent intentional incidents in two chemical plants in France in June and

  6. Application of mechano-chemical synthesis for protective coating on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 30; Issue 2. Application of mechano-chemical synthesis for protective coating on steel grinding media prior to ball milling of copper. Indranil Lahiri K Balasubramanian. Mechno-chemical Synthesis Volume 30 Issue 2 April 2007 pp 157-161 ...

  7. Proceedings of a Symposium - Consequences of Wearing the Chemical Protective Ensemble: Illustrative Assessment Approaches (33rd) Held in San Antonio, Texas on October 31, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    over-the-counter dose of caffeine (200 mg, equivalent to about 2 cups of coffee ) improves sentry duty performance (detection of targets). 19 12...residual agent at station 6, the vehicle is recycled through the line. The line can process about six vehicles per hour. We were 25 tasked by the Chemical...temperature relies on an ingestible telemetry capsule . Rectal or tympanic data could be obtained on one of the other channels with little difficulty. This

  8. 78 FR 67141 - Antimony Trioxide (ATO) TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Antimony Trioxide (ATO) TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity To Comment AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On September 27...

  9. Radiation Protection Research: Radiological Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's research in the field of radiological impact assessment are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations. Main achievements in these areas for 2000 are summarised.

  10. Chemical Risk Assessment: Traditional vs Public Health Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Maureen R; Axelrad, Daniel A; Bahadori, Tina; Bussard, David; Cascio, Wayne E; Deener, Kacee; Dix, David; Thomas, Russell S; Kavlock, Robert J; Burke, Thomas A

    2017-07-01

    Preventing adverse health effects of environmental chemical exposure is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and effects of environmentally induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Considering these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease.

  11. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in ...

  12. Cutaneous chemical burns: assessment and early management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Perera, Eshini; Perera, Marlon; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-03-01

    Chemical burns are common and may cause significant physical, psychological, social and economic burden. Despite a wide variety of potentially harmful chemicals, important general principals may be drawn in the assessment and initial management of such injuries. Early treatment of chemical burns is crucial and may reduce the period of resulting morbidity. This article reviews the assessment and management of cutaneous chemical burns. Assessment of the patient should be rapid and occur in conjunction with early emergency management. Rapid history and pri-mary and secondary survey may be required to exclude systemic side effects of the injury. Depth of wound assessment is difficult given that necrosis caused by various chemicals can continue despite cessation of exposure. Early management should be conducted with consideration of clinician's safety, and appropriate precautions should be taken. Excluding specific situations and chemical exposure, copious irrigation with water remains the mainstay of early management. Referral to a centre of higher acuity may be required for expert evaluation.

  13. Protective effect of alcohol extract of Yulangsan leaf on chemically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In treatment groups with D-GalN, GSH content was significantly increased (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05), while GSH-Px activity decreased (p <0.01). Conclusion: YLSL has protective effect against chemically-induced liver injury in mice. The mechanism may be related to attenuation of free radical-induced lipid peroxidation.

  14. 75 FR 68370 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Chemical Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Infrastructure Protection; Chemical Security Awareness Training Program AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... currently approved information collection request (ICR) for the Chemical Security Awareness Training Program... Management Office. ] Title: Chemical Security Awareness Training Program. OMB Number: 1670-0009. CSATP...

  15. Exposure Assessment of Chemicals from Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poças, Maria De Fátima; Hogg, Timothy

    A variety of chemicals may enter our food supply, by means of intentional or unintentional addition, at different stages of the food chain. These chemicals include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotox-ins, flavoring substances, and micronutrients. Packaging systems and other food-contact materials are also a source of chemicals contaminating food products and beverages. Monitoring exposure to these chemicals has become an integral part of ensuring the safety of the food supply. Within the context of the risk analysis approach and more specifically as an integral part of risk assessment procedures, the exercise known as exposure assessment is crucial in providing data to allow sound judgments concerning risks to human health. The exercise of obtaining this data is part of the process of revealing sources of contamination and assessing the effectiveness of strategies for minimizing the risk from chemical contamination in the food supply (Lambe, 2002).

  16. Differences in Assessing Chemical vs. Nonchemical Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) addresses the impacts of multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors on real world individuals and communities, resulting in complex exposures for individuals and populations with a variety of vulnerabilities, in applications that range from envir...

  17. Assessing ecorelevance of emerging chemicals in sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Great Lakes and elsewhere has detected the presence of a wide variety of chemicals which has raised concern that these chemicals pose risks to resident species. Sediments are of particular interest due to their tendency to accumulate hydrophobic and persistent...... chemicals and because less is known about toxic effects of chemicals to sediment-feeding organisms than to pelagic species. Data collected on the polycyclic musks provides available evidence relevant to assessing exposure and effects in Great Lakes' sediments. Studies at Roskilde University demonstrate how...

  18. Life Cycle assessment of basic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    chemicals. A survey of the use of LCA in the European chemical industry has been conducted and is reported in appendix 1. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool/process to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a system (most often a product) through its whole life cycle by collecting input......The present report results as part of a ph.d. project aiming at developing general rules for LCA of basic chemicals. Part 1 reviews the state of the art framework for life-cycle assessment and part 2 relates that framework to the chemical industry and gives some proposals for LCAs of basic...... provided a good, although at times somewhat conservative estimate of the emissions. A special problem occurs when there are two or more product produced in the same process, a situation frequently encountered in chemical manufacturing. In such cases the environmental interventions of the process have...

  19. Protective effect of silymarin against chemical-induced cardiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Marjan Razavi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac disorders remain one of the most important causes of death in the world. Oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the molecular mechanisms involved in drug-induced cardiac toxicity. Recently, several natural products have been utilized in different studies with the aim to protect the progression of oxidative stress-induced cardiac disorders. There is a large body of evidence that administration of antioxidants may be useful in ameliorating cardiac toxicity. Silymarin, a polyphenolic flavonoid has been shown to have utility in several cardiovascular disorders. In this review, various studies in scientific databases regarding the preventive effects of silymarin against cardiotoxicity induced by chemicals were introduced. Although there are many studies representing the valuable effects of silymarin in different diseases, the number of researches relating to the possible cardiac protective effects of silymarin against drugs induced toxicity is rather limited. Results of these studies show that silymarin has a broad spectrum of cardiac protective activity against toxicity induced by some chemicals including metals, environmental pollutants, oxidative agents and anticancer drugs. Further studies are needed to establish the utility of silymarin in protection against cardiac toxicity.

  20. Assessing the protection of the nanomaterial workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul A; Iavicoli, Ivo; Rantanen, Jorma H; Dahmann, Dirk; Iavicoli, Sergio; Pipke, Rüdiger; Guseva Canu, Irina; Boccuni, Fabio; Ricci, Maximo; Polci, Maria Letizia; Sabbioni, Enrico; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Mantovani, Elvio

    2016-09-01

    Responsible development of any technology, including nanotechnology, requires protecting workers, the first people to be exposed to the products of the technology. In the case of nanotechnology, this is difficult to achieve because in spite of early evidence raising health and safety concerns, there are uncertainties about hazards and risks. The global response to these concerns has been the issuance by authoritative agencies of precautionary guidance to strictly control exposures to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). This commentary summarizes discussions at the "Symposium on the Health Protection of Nanomaterial Workers" held in Rome (25 and 26 February 2015). There scientists and practitioners from 11 countries took stock of what is known about hazards and risks resulting from exposure to ENMs, confirmed that uncertainties still exist, and deliberated on what it would take to conduct a global assessment of how well workers are being protected from potentially harmful exposures.

  1. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengqiu; Chen, Bin; Reniers, Genserik; Zhang, Laobing; Qiu, Sihang; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2017-09-29

    The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP) to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans) for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents.

  2. Integrating Exposure into Chemical Alternatives Assessment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that is more sustainable, other attributes beyond hazard are also important, including exposure, risk, life-cycle impacts, performance, cost, and social responsibility. Building on the 2014 recommendations by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to improve AA decisions by including comparative exposure assessment, the HESISustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher exposure potential, which could trigger a higher-tiered, more quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical- and product-related exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four chemical-product application scenarios were examined to test the concept, to understand the effort required, and to determine the value of exposure data in AA decision-making. The group has developed a classification approach for ingredient and product parameters to support compariso

  3. Development and Assessment of Frying Characteristics, Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subjected to solar tunnel dryer (Hoenheim,. Innotech, Germany) until ... Peeling. Cutting. Grating. Solar drying. Dried chips. Milling. Flour. Packing and storage. 131. Dev. & Assessment of Frying Characteristics, Chemical, Sensory & Preference of bun .... by a trained sensory panel of 10 assessors, comprising of four males ...

  4. 78 FR 14299 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Chemical Assessment Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Chemical Assessment Advisory... Protection Agency (EPA or agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the SAB Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) to receive a briefing about the Integrated Risk...

  5. Structure activity relationships to assess new chemicals under TSCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auletta, A.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), manufacturers must notify the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 90 days before manufacturing, processing, or importing a new chemical substance. This is referred to as a premanufacture notice (PMN). The PMN must contain certain information including chemical identity, production volume, proposed uses, estimates of exposure and release, and any health or environmental test data that are available to the submitter. Because there is no explicit statutory authority that requires testing of new chemicals prior to their entry into the market, most PMNs are submitted with little or no data. As a result, EPA has developed special techniques for hazard assessment of PMN chemicals. These include (1) evaluation of available data on the chemical itself, (2) evaluation of data on analogues of the PMN, or evaluation of data on metabolites or analogues of metabolites of the PMN, (3) use of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), and (4) knowledge and judgement of scientific assessors in the interpretation and integration of the information developed in the course of the assessment. This approach to evaluating potential hazards of new chemicals is used to identify those that are most in need of addition review of further testing. It should not be viewed as a replacement for testing. 4 tabs.

  6. Chemical concentrations, exposures, health risks by census tract from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical concentrations, exposures, health risks by census tract for the United States from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). This dataset is associated...

  7. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  8. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.

    1990-08-01

    This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

  9. Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Holford, D.J.

    1992-02-01

    Radioactive waste exists at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in a variety of locations, including subsurface grout and tank farms, solid waste burial grounds, and contaminated soil sites. Some of these waste sites may need to be isolated from percolating water to minimize the potential for transport of the waste to the ground water, which eventually discharges to the Columbia River. Multilayer protective barriers have been proposed as a means of limiting the flow of water through the waste sites (DOE 1987). A multiyear research program (managed jointly by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE) is aimed at assessing the performance of these barriers. One aspect of this program involves the use of computer models to predict barrier performance. Three modeling studies have already been conducted and a test plan was produced. The simulation work reported here was conducted by PNL and extends the previous modeling work. The purpose of this report are to understand phenomena that have been observed in the field and to provide information that can be used to improve hydrologic modeling of the protective barrier. An improved modeling capability results in better estimates of barrier performance. Better estimates can be used to improve the design of barriers and the assessment of their long-term performance.

  10. Risk Assessment of Micro Energy Grid Protection Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Micro energy grids (MEGs are used extensively to meet the combined electricity, heating, and cooling energy demands for all types of customers. This paper develops a hazard matrix for a MEG and utilizes two advanced risk modeling approaches (fault tree and layer of protection analysis (LOPA for MEGs’ risk analysis. A number of independent protection layers (IPLs have been proposed to achieve a resilient MEG, hence increasing its safety integrity level (SIL. IPLs are applied using co-generators and thermal energy storage (TES techniques to minimize the hazards of system failure, increase efficiency, and minimize greenhouse gas emissions. The proposed modeling and risk assessment approach aims to design a resilient MEG, which can utilize those potentials efficiently. In addition, an energy risk analysis has been applied on each MEGs’ physical domains such as electrical, thermal, mechanical and chemical. The concurrent objectives achieve an increased resiliency, reduced emissions, and sustained economy.

  11. Animal-Free Chemical Safety Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D Loizou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of the Internet of Things and the global popularity and remarkable decline in cost of the mobile phone is driving the digital transformation of medical practice. The rapidly maturing digital, nonmedical world of mobile (wireless devices, cloud computing and social networking is coalescing with the emerging digital medical world of omics data, biosensors and advanced imaging which offers the increasingly realistic prospect of personalized medicine. Described as a potential seismic shift from the current healthcare model to a wellness paradigm that is predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory, this change is based on the development of increasingly sophisticated biosensors which can track and measure key biochemical variables in people. Additional key drivers in this shift are metabolomic and proteomic signatures, which are increasingly being reported as pre-symptomatic, diagnostic and prognostic of toxicity and disease. These advancements also have profound implications for toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. An approach based primarily on human in vivo and high-throughput in vitro human cell-line data is a distinct possibility. This would transform current chemical safety assessment practise which operates in a human data poor to a human data rich environment. This could also lead to a seismic shift from the current animal-based to an animal-free chemical safety assessment paradigm.

  12. Assessing protective factors for sexually violent offending with the SAPROF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries Robbé, M.; de Vogel, V.; Koster, K.; Bogaerts, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for violence risk (SAPROF) has recently been developed as a risk assessment tool to focus solely on protective factors for (sexual) violence risk. Research on protective factors for sexual offending is very limited and most risk assessment tools for

  13. TSCA Work Plan Chemical Risk Assessment: 1 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1-Bromopropane (CASRN 106-94-5): or 1-BP is a volatile organic chemical that is considered moderately persistent in the environment but does not have the potential to bioaccumulate in fish or other animals. The majority of the 1-BP production volume (~ 47%) is used as a vapor degreaser for optics electronics, plastics, and metals. 1-BP also is used as an aerosol solvent in cleaning products, as a spray fixative in arts and crafts, and as a spot cleaner in various industrial/commercial/consumer sectors. Focus of the Risk Assessment: The assessment will focus on uses of 1-BP in commercial (i.e., vapor degreasing, spray adhesives, and dry cleaning) and consumer applications (i.e., aerosol solvent cleaners and spray adhesives). Given the range of endpoints (i.e., cancer, non-cancer; the latter includes potential effects on the developing fetus), susceptible populations are expected to include adults (including pregnant women) in commercial uses and children (as bystanders) and adults of all ages (including pregnant women) for consumer uses. Thus, the assessment will focus on all humans/lifestages. EPA anticipates issuing draft risk assessments for public review and comment as they are completed. At the conclusion of the review process, if an assessment of specific uses indicates significant risk, EPA will evaluate and pursue appropriate risk reduction actions, as warranted. If an assessment indicates no significant risk, EPA will conclude its work on the a

  14. Technology Survey for Enhancement of Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear Respiratory Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, Aaron W; Hofacre, Kent C; Gardner, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    A technology survey was conducted to identify enhancement technologies that offer the most promise for significant advancements in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear individual respiratory protection...

  15. Possibility of the development of a Serbian protection system against chemical accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan R. Inđić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a draft of a system model for responding in case of chemical accidents in accordance with the current legislation regarding the environment protection, the structure and elements of the existing response system in case of chemical accidents, other works dealing with the issue as well as the prospects planned by those responsible for the environmental protection. The paper discuss the possibilities of different institutions and agencies of the Republic of Serbia to engage in specialized methods of cooperation and protection against chemical hazards in accordance with Article X of the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.

  16. Next Generation of Electrospun Textiles for Chemical and Biological Protection and Air Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    electrospun fiber-based protective fabrics and filters for both chemical and biological protection. Reactive polyanion, polyhydroxamic acid, which can decompose...General description .................................... 27 1.2.5.2 Potential application in protection clothing and filters .......................... 30...Pro fabric system, consists of five alternating layers of fluoropolymers, nonwoven aramid fiber layers and a conductive layer. This multilayered system

  17. 75 FR 18850 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel... commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), Sensitive Security... Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS), 6 CFR part 27, require high-risk chemical facilities to submit...

  18. Current global standards for chemical protective clothing: how to choose the right protection for the right job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Wely, Eric

    2017-12-07

    The first standards for chemical protective clothing (CPC) emerged mid to late 1980's and have evolved since as most standards are revisited every 5 yr. Over the past years, we have also seen a strengthening of the chemical and worker protection legislation around the globe (various forms of REACH) but also protection of workers. The most prevalent standards originate under the auspices of the International Standards Organisation (ISO), European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) or under various US standards organisations (e.g. NFPA, ASTM). Protective clothing against hazardous materials is required in many of the professional and non-professional activities of everyday life. Effective and adequate protection is important in many scenarios from household (e.g. cleaning agents, peroxides, acids and bases, paints), to agricultural (e.g. fuel, pesticides), to medical (e.g. pharmaceuticals and active ingredients), to industrial production (e.g. petro-chemicals, chemicals, paints, adhesive and coatings) but also manufacturing of many products (e.g. light bulbs, cars, semi-conductors), during various emergency activities (e.g. boat, rail or road accidents as well as fire-fighting in an urban and industrial setting), and finally, military operations or response to incidents of terrorism. Nevertheless, CPC must remain the last line of defence whenever possible through a preference for less hazardous chemicals, less dangerous processes and handling operations, and by engineering controls to reduce and minimise human contact with the chemicals. This article provides information about the selection, use, care and maintenance (SUCAM) of protective clothing against chemical and microbiological hazards.

  19. Chemical Mixtures Health Risk Assessment: Overview of Exposure Assessment, Whole Mixtures Assessments; Basic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This problems-based, half-day, introductory workshop focuses on methods to assess health risks posed by exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment. Chemical mixtures health risk assessment methods continue to be developed and evolve to address concerns over health risks f...

  20. Rapid Assessment of Protected area Pressures and Threats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular evaluation of protected area operations can enable policy makers develop strategic responses to pervasive management problems. Pressures and threats in seven National Parks of the National Park Service (NPS) were therefore assessed using the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area ...

  1. 2006 Chemical Biological Individual Protection (CBIP) Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-09

    Edgewood Chemical Biological Center GEN Richard A. Cody Vice CoS, US Army GEN James Cartwright CMD , USSTRATCOM Dr Pete Nanos MG Jeffrey Sorenson Deputy...D Canada - Suffield Preventive Medicine Group Molecular Biology Group Biological Detect/Ident Group Medical Therapy Group Chemical Synthesis and...Type-IA IHADSS – Non- oxygen – AH-64A/D only • Type I – Non- oxygen (HOS capable) – Rotary Wing (exc. Apache) 26 Dominant Air Power: Design For Tomorrow

  2. Performance Assessment of Active Hearing Protection Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-08

    anechoic chamber . The subject stood on a platform in the center of this sphere. The location of the platform has the potential to distort the signals from...of the study was specifically built for the measurement of the sound attenuation properties of passive hearing protection devices. The chamber

  3. Chemical conversion coating for protecting magnesium alloys from corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Gaurang; Allen, Fred M.; Skandan, Ganesh; Hornish, Peter; Jain, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A chromate-free, self-healing conversion coating solution for magnesium alloy substrates, composed of 10-20 wt. % Mg(NO.sub.3).sub.2.6H.sub.2O, 1-5 wt. % Al(NO.sub.3).sub.3.9H.sub.2O, and less than 1 wt. % of [V.sub.10O.sub.28].sup.6- or VO.sub.3.sup.- dissolved in water. The corrosion resistance offered by the resulting coating is in several hundreds of hours in salt-spray testing. This prolonged corrosion protection is attributed to the creation of a unique structure and morphology of the conversion coating that serves as a barrier coating with self-healing properties. Hydroxoaluminates form the backbone of the barrier protection offered while the magnesium hydroxide domains facilitate the "slow release" of vanadium compounds as self-healing moieties to defect sites, thus providing active corrosion protection.

  4. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and public health protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Brown, T R; Doan, L L

    2012-01-01

    exposures to have potent and irreversible effects. Finally, with regard to the current program designed to detect putative EDC, namely, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program, we offer recommendations for strengthening this program through the incorporation of basic endocrine principles to promote......An endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) is an exogenous chemical, or mixture of chemicals, that can interfere with any aspect of hormone action. The potential for deleterious effects of EDC must be considered relative to the regulation of hormone synthesis, secretion, and actions and the variability...... in regulation of these events across the life cycle. The developmental age at which EDC exposures occur is a critical consideration in understanding their effects. Because endocrine systems exhibit tissue-, cell-, and receptor-specific actions during the life cycle, EDC can produce complex, mosaic effects...

  5. Social Assessment of Specially Protected Natural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Viktorovna Mikhailova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to the consideration of functions of specially protected natural areas (SPNA in the development of society seek to determine the size of the territory withdrawn from agricultural use for the purposes of nature conservation; these approaches also aim to evaluate money revenue gained from these territories. However, the influence of SPNA on public life is not reduced to the “monetization” of the territory. People who live near conservation areas and experience the advantages (disadvantages of such neighbourhood should be the focus of the study of the social role of protected areas. The social role of SPNA in the life of local communities in the Arkhangelsk Oblast and the Karelia Republic was identified with the help of public opinion survey. In total 575 people participated in the survey. The research was carried out in the settlements located within the boundaries of Kenozersky and Vodlozersky national parks, and near Shilovsky Nature Reserve. When measuring the impact of conservation areas on the society of the neighbouring settlements, the authors define the axiological, emotional-and-psychological, activityand-regulatory, economic, forecasting and integrated components. The research findings show that the residents acknowledge the conservation value of protected areas; many of the inhabitants of adjacent territories do not experience inconveniences in connection with the special environmental regime, they earn income connected to the operation of SPNA; there is a positive attitude towards the activity of SPNA. If these areas cease functioning, then one third of the respondents expect negative changes in their life. Specially protected natural areas contribute to the socio-cultural and spiritual development of the local community to a greater extent in comparison with its socio-economic development. The presence of SPNA on the territory of the municipality opens up opportunities for new types of economic activities, provides

  6. Application of mechano-chemical synthesis for protective coating on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    study that the change in reaction rate is controlled by strain accumulation in the material during mechanical alloying. In the present study, the feasibility of engineering the surfaces of the balls and vials has been explored using mechano-chemical synthesis. Specifically, a coating of Cu is produced on the balls and vials, ...

  7. TEST KIT FOR FIELD EVALUATION OF THE CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personnel involved in emergency response and hazardous waste site activities often have the need to reach on-scene decisions regarding the effectiveness and limitations of chemical protective clothing. Three gravimetric techniques were evaluated as means for providing essential i...

  8. Cloudy apple juice protects against chemical-induced oxidative stress in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Małgorzata; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Markowski, Jarosław; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2011-02-01

    Apples abundant in phenolic compounds show a variety of biological activities that may contribute to beneficial effects against some chronic diseases. The aim of our study was to assess the protective effect of cloudy apple juice against chemical-induced oxidative stress in rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with apple juice per os, 10 mL/kg/day for 28 days and with a single dose of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), 150 mg/kg or carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), 2 mL/kg, 24 h before killing. Two groups of rats not pretreated with juice were administered each of the xenobiotics alone. Microsomal lipid peroxidation in the liver was decreased in rats pretreated with juice by 52-87% when compared to animals given NDEA or CCl(4) alone. Pretreatment with juice protected antioxidant enzymes: catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase but not superoxide dismutase. Their activity was recovered by 49-173% when compared to that in rats given either toxicant alone. The plasma activity of paraoxonase 1 was reduced by both toxicants and was increased by 23% in the apple/CCl(4) group. A rise in plasma protein carbonyls caused by the xenobiotics was reduced by 20% only in apple/NDEA-treated rats. Also, in this group of animals, a 9% decrease in DNA damage in blood leukocytes was observed. Phytochemicals in commonly consumed apple juice may protect some macromolecules against oxidative insult induced by xenobiotics.

  9. The applicability of chemical alternatives assessment for engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case for alternat......The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case...... for alternatives assessment approaches as they can be considered both emerging “chemicals” of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomaterials to traditional chemicals or to other nanomaterials is challenging and critical elements...... in chemical hazard and exposure assessment may have to be fundamentally altered to sufficiently address nanomaterials. The aim of this paper is to assess the overall applicability of alternatives assessment methods for nanomaterials and outline recommendations to enhance their use in this context. This paper...

  10. Tools and perspectives for assessing chemical mixtures and multiple stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Ragas, Ad M. J.; Holmstrup, Martin

    2013-01-01

    moments in time. Within a novel framework for risk assessment of chemical mixtures, the importance of environmental factors on toxicokinetic processes is highlighted. A new paradigm for applying personal characteristics that determine individual exposure and sensitivity in human risk assessment...

  11. Application of graph theory to cost-effective fire protection of chemical plants during domino effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.; Landucci, G; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have introduced a methodology based on graph theory and multicriteria decision analysis for cost-effective fire protection of chemical plants subject to fire-induced domino effects. By modeling domino effects in chemical plants as a directed graph, the graph centrality

  12. 78 FR 53144 - Request for Nominations of Experts To Augment the Science Advisory Board Chemical Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... AGENCY Request for Nominations of Experts To Augment the Science Advisory Board Chemical Assessment... Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office requests...) skills working in committees, subcommittees and advisory panels; and, (f) for the panel as a whole...

  13. An assessment of radiation protection practices in radiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiation protection practices are essential in ensuring that the detrimental effects of exposure to ionising radiation are minimised. Equipment quality assurance, personnel training and staff dose monitoring have been highlighted as important practices in medical radiation protection. The study was aimed at assessing ...

  14. Ecological risk assessment of chemicals migrated from a recycled plastic product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Hyuck; Kim, Woo Il; Kang, Young-Yeul; Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Jong-Guk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Potential environmental risks caused by chemicals that could be released from a recycled plastic product were assessed using a screening risk assessment procedure for chemicals in recycled products. Plastic slope protection blocks manufactured from recycled plastics were chosen as model recycled products. Ecological risks caused by four model chemicals -di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb)- were assessed. Two exposure models were built for soil below the block and a hypothetic stream receiving runoff water. Based on the predicted no-effect concentrations for the selected chemicals and exposure scenarios, the allowable leaching rates from and the allowable contents in the recycled plastic blocks were also derived. Environmental risks posed by slope protection blocks were much higher in the soil compartment than in the hypothetic stream. The allowable concentrations in leachate were 1.0×10(-4), 1.2×10(-5), 9.5×10(-3), and 5.3×10(-3) mg/L for DEHP, DINP, Cd, and Pb, respectively. The allowable contents in the recycled products were 5.2×10(-3), 6.0×10(-4), 5.0×10(-1), and 2.7×10(-1) mg/kg for DEHP, DINP, Cd, and Pb, respectively. A systematic ecological risk assessment approach for slope protection blocks would be useful for regulatory decisions for setting the allowable emission rates of chemical contaminants, although the method needs refinement.

  15. Technical effect and scope of patent protection of chemical and biotech innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlašković Božin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas that sequences and parts of gene sequences by their nature are chemical substances, and not only holders of specific information, with the Directive no. 98/44 are actualizing, in a new light and in full measure, and are opening the issues about scope of patent protection for inventions chemical matters in general. Directive not given a direct answer to the question of the scope of their patent protection. However, the European Court of Justice decided that in the case of inventions sequences and parts of gene sequences that their protection limited with function which exercised.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    except electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total alkalinity, calcium ion, sulphate ion, and total phosphorus ... physico-chemical parameters of the river such as temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity ..... hospital other human activities like washing of different vehicle at and around the river [35].

  17. A Framework for Assessing Chemical/Nonchemical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and nonchemical stressors may contribute to negative health consequences in certain individuals. Nonchemical stressors include poverty, crowding, noise, and exposure to violence. Research has suggested that some nonchemical stressors may alter chemical toxicity. We propose a framework to explore the evidence for the interaction of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Specifically, the framework is used to evaluate the potential interaction of lead exposure and psychosocial stress associated with low-socioeconomic status. We conducted a literature review and analyzed NHANES data to answer the following questions: 1) Does lead exposure occur disproportionately in low-SES groups that typically may also face higher levels of psychosocial stress? 2) Do lead and stress result in similar neurodevelopmental outcomes via similar pathways, particularly, affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA)? 3) Do studies demonstrate that stress alters the dose response for lead neurotoxicity? We found, that although overall blood lead levels continue to decline, lower-SES individuals are still disproportionately exposed to lead and that both lead exposure and stress result in cognitive impairments through their interaction with the HPA axis. We note that many human and animal studies demonstrate that psychosocial stress increases lead-toxicity. Currently, many data gaps exist regarding interactions of other chemical and nonchemical stressors. This framework may be u

  18. Chemical composition and mutagenic assessment of petrochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    was first introduced by Levan (1938) and later was proposed as a standard method for the testing of chemicals, in environmental monitoring and in toxicity screening of wastewater and river water (Fiskesjö,. 1985a; 1985b; 1993). The Allium genetic material has been widely exploited for such purpose because of its excellent ...

  19. Chemical equivalence assessment of three brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assay for content of active ingredients is a critical test of drug quality; failure to meet up the standard for content of active ingredients will result to sub therapeutic quantities. Three brands (A, B and C) of carbamazepine were assayed to determine their chemical equivalence as well as their anticonvulsant activities. This was ...

  20. ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    approximately the sources of the river; Site 2, a market place near to the river; Site 3, a place where the river receives a liquid waste from Ayder Referral Hospital and Site 4, place where the river leaves the city. Instruments and chemicals. A drying oven with forced air and timer, HQ40d Multimeter (HACH LANGE, NV),.

  1. Space, time, and chemical risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to manufactured chemicals is a fact of contemporary life for both humans and wildlife. In many cases, these exposures occur at safe environmental concentrations. However, spectacular exceptions have occurred (e.g., DDT and eggshell thinning, monocrotophos and Swainson&r...

  2. Is Cl- protection against silver toxicity due to chemical speciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmyer, G K; Brix, K V; Grosell, M

    2008-04-28

    In freshwater teleosts, the primary mechanism of acute silver toxicity is inhibition of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and carbonic anhydrase at the gill, leading to net Na(+) and Cl(-) loss due to the continued diffusion of these ions into the hypoosmotic external environment. External Cl(-) has been shown to protect rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss) against silver toxicity presumably by complexation to form AgCl. However, Cl(-) does not appear to greatly influence silver toxicity to at least two other species, the European eel (Anguilla Anguilla) and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). We hypothesized that differences in protective effects of Cl(-) at the gill were due to differing requirements or mechanisms for Cl(-) uptake among fish species. To test this hypothesis, we exposed Fundulus heteroclitus, which does not take up Cl(-) across the gills, and Danio rerio and P. promelas, which do rely on Cl(-) uptake across the gills, to Ag(+) in waters of varying Cl(-) concentration. The 96-h LC50s of F. heteroclitus exposed to Ag(+) in soft water with 10 microM Cl(-), 1mM KCl, and 0.5mM MgCl(2) were 3.88, 1.20, and 3.20 microg/L, respectively, and not significantly different. The 96-h LC50s for D. rerio exposed to Ag(+) in soft water with 10 microM Cl(-) and 1mM KCl were 10.3 and 11.3 microg/L, respectively and P. promelas exposed under the same conditions were 2.32 and 2.67 microg/L, respectively. Based on these results, increasing external Cl(-) concentration by as much as 1mM (35.5mg/L) did not offer protection against Ag(+) toxicity to any fish species tested. Although previous results in our laboratory have demonstrated that P. promelas do take up Cl(-) at the gill, a mechanism of uptake has not been identified. Additional experiments, investigating the mechanisms of Na(+) and Cl(-) influx at the gill of P. promelas and the influence of silver, demonstrated that Cl(-) uptake in P. promelas acclimated to soft water occurs through both a Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) co

  3. Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaseshan, Ramakrishnan [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576, Singapore (Singapore); Sundarrajan, Subramanian [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576, Singapore (Singapore); Liu, Yingjun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576, Singapore (Singapore); Barhate, R S [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576, Singapore (Singapore); Lala, Neeta L [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576, Singapore (Singapore); Ramakrishna, S [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576, Singapore (Singapore)

    2006-06-28

    A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with {beta}-CD, IBA, a blend of {beta}-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets hydrolysed. The kinetics of hydrolysis is investigated using UV spectroscopy. The rates of hydrolysis for different organophosphate hydrolyzing agents are compared. The reactivity and amount of adsorption of these catalysts are of higher capacity than the conventionally used activated charcoal. A new design for protective wear is proposed based on the functionalized nanofibre membrane.

  4. Attracting predators without falling prey: chemical camouflage protects honeydew-producing treehoppers from ant predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Henrique C P; Oliveira, Paulo S; Trigo, José R

    2010-02-01

    Predaceous ants are dominant organisms on foliage and represent a constant threat to herbivorous insects. The honeydew of sap-feeding hemipterans has been suggested to appease aggressive ants, which then begin tending activities. Here, we manipulated the cuticular chemical profiles of freeze-dried insect prey to show that chemical background matching with the host plant protects Guayaquila xiphias treehoppers against predaceous Camponotus crassus ants, regardless of honeydew supply. Ant predation is increased when treehoppers are transferred to a nonhost plant with which they have low chemical similarity. Palatable moth larvae manipulated to match the chemical background of Guayaquila's host plant attracted lower numbers of predatory ants than unchanged controls. Although aggressive tending ants can protect honeydew-producing hemipterans from natural enemies, they may prey on the trophobionts under shortage of alternative food resources. Thus chemical camouflage in G. xiphias allows the trophobiont to attract predaceous bodyguards at reduced risk of falling prey itself.

  5. Some recent data on chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatome, M.; Laval, J. D.; Roman, V.

    Once introduced in the organism, the radioprotectors are fastly degraded and that increases their toxicity, shortens their duration of action and renders them inactive after oral delivery. So, it was tried to protect them by their incorporation in vectors. When a cysteamine-liposomal suspension was orally delivered, it showed a radioprotective activity for about 4 hours. By using 35 S cysteamine, it was noted that its plasmatic concentration was increased. Freeze-drying of these preparations was a good mean of conservation if the samples were stored at 4°C. A good and sustained activity was also obtained after oral delivery of WR-2721 entrapped in microspheres. Otherwise, it was shown that after interacting with the polar heads of phospholipids, under determined conditions of pH and in fluid phase, aminothiols can penetrate inside the membrane and be entrapped in the internal medium of liposomes and as they penetrate, they can lessen the diffusion of oxygen in the lipidic bilayers.

  6. Exposure Assessment Tools by Chemical Classes - Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  7. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation. PMID:24665152

  8. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops.

  9. Influence of Chemical Surface Modification of Woven Fabrics on Ballistic and Stab Protection of Multilayer Packets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GRINEVIČIŪTĖ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve enhanced protective and wear (flexibility, less bulkiness properties of ballistic and stab protecting panels the investigation of chemical surface modification of woven p-aramid fabrics was performed applying different chemical composition shear thickening fluid (STF which improves friction inside fabric structure. For the chemical treatment silicic acid and acrylic dispersion water solutions were used and influence of their different concentrations on panels’ protective properties were investigated. Results of ballistic tests of multilayer protective panel have revealed that shear thickening effect was negligible when shooting at high energy range (E > 440 J. Determination of stab resistance of p-aramid panels has shown that different chemical composition of STFs had different influence on protective properties of the panels. Application of low concentrations of silicic acid determined higher stab resistance values comparing to higher concentrations of acrylic dispersion water solutions. At this stage of research stab tests results as ballistic ones determined that STF application for multilayer p-aramid fabrics protective panels is more efficient at low strike energy levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.3138

  10. Integratively Assessing Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly reviews key issues in adolescent suicide risk assessment and proposes that assessing risk and protective factors in combination has the best probability of informing the field's understanding of this complex problem. Several newer measures are described along with summaries of their psychometric properties. A recommended…

  11. From incremental to fundamental substitution in chemical alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Weber, Roland; Scheringer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals in consumer products are subject to binding or voluntary phase-out agreements that are based on international treaties such as the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants or on regulatory frameworks such as the European Union's Registration, Evaluation, Authorization...... alkyl substances (PFASs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well-known cases of chemicals where substitution processes can be studied. Currently, there are various challenges in assessing, evaluating and effectively introducing chemical alternatives. These challenges are mainly related...

  12. Biochemically-resistant carbon compounds in physically- and chemically-protected soil C pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, R. T.; Haddix, M. L.; Magrini-Baer, K.; Follett, R. F.; Paul, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    Soil organic matter can be protected from decomposition through physical protection within soil aggregates, chemical protection through association with mineral particles, and biochemical stabilization through biotic or abiotic creation of decay-resistant compounds. However, the methods most often used to differentiate soil organic matter usually lead to composite fractions in which one or more of the mechanisms of protection contribute to stabilization. We developed a new approach to isolate and quantify biochemically-protected carbon within physically- and chemically-protected soil organic matter fractions. Blending physiochemical isolation of soil carbon fractions with subsequent biochemical characterization enabled us to investigate the ways that biochemical stabilization complements physical and chemical stabilization. We applied this approach for soil samples from three cultivated fields and used plant-derived shifts in 13C signatures to understand how biochemically-protected carbon contributes to overall resistance of that fraction. Results show that a variety of biochemically resistant compounds are found in all of the physical fractions isolated. Isotopic analyses indicate that these compounds are significantly older than average soil C in these fractions and that they contribute a great deal to the 14C age of these fractions.

  13. Assessment of Physico-chemical and Microbiological qualities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Physico-chemical and Microbiological qualities of Abattoir Wastewater in Sokoto, Nigeria. AB Rabah, UJJ Ijah, SB Manga, ML Ibrahim. Abstract. Wastewater samples were collected from three different points in Sokoto (Nigeria) abattoir and the physico-chemical and the microbiological qualities were ...

  14. Preliminary assessment of some physico-chemical parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary assessment of some physico-chemical parameters of Hanyin Danmani stream, Kaduna State, Nigeria. M.M. Babatunde, M.M. Sulaiman. Abstract. Preliminary determination of physico-chemical properties of Hayin Danmani stream, Igabi Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria was conducted in order to ...

  15. Using chemical categories to fill data gaps in hazard assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, K. van; Schultz, T.W.; Henry, T.; Diderich, B.; Veith, G.D.

    2009-01-01

    Hazard assessments of chemicals have been limited by the availability of test data and the time needed to evaluate the test data. While available data may be inadequate for the majority of industrial chemicals, the body of existing knowledge for most hazards is large enough to permit reliable

  16. Chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study are to assess, ascertain and evaluate the level, degree and type of pollution that characterize the surface water resources of Enugu area of southeastern Nigeria in terms of physico-chemical and bacterialogical constituents. Field measurements of physical parameters were preceded by chemical ...

  17. Chemical and bacteriological assessment of Kindirmo (local yoghurt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical and bacterial analysis of 120 Kindirmo samples collected from the three senatorial zones of Niger state were carried out with the aim of assessing their chemical and bacterial qualities. Bacteria species identified were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ...

  18. Microbiological and chemical assessment of spring water from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-06-20

    Jun 20, 2013 ... Assessment of spring water from Ikare-Akoko, a rural setting in southwest, Nigeria for microbial and chemical contaminants ... Key words: Rural setting, spring water, heterotrophic bacteria, coliform bacteria, physico-chemical properties, ..... logical quality of spring water depends on the source rock and how ...

  19. REACTION OF THE FEMALE BODY TO STRESS IN A CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří SLABOTINSKÝ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the reaction of the female body to the use of an insulation chemical protective clothing combined with working – thermal and mental stress to which the female is exposed. The article provides a concise overview of protective chemical clothings and factors affecting their comfort; it describes the regularities corresponding to the physiological reaction, important for the body’s reaction to the use of a chemical protective clothing. Further, the article contains a description of the measurement and evaluation of physiological parameters of non-acclimated women during testing of these clothings and, finally, comparison with the results for males under the same stress which is unfavourable for women.

  20. The Applicability of Chemical Alternatives Assessment for Engineered Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly; Tickner, Joel; Ellenbecker, Michael; Baun, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case for alternatives assessment approaches as they can be considered both emerging “chemicals” of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomater...

  1. The applicability of chemical alternatives assessment for engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly; Tickner, Joel; Ellenbecker, Michael; Baun, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case for alternatives assessment approaches, because they can be considered both emerging "chemicals" of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomaterials to traditional chemicals or to other nanomaterials is challenging, and critical elements in chemical hazard and exposure assessment may have to be fundamentally altered to sufficiently address nanomaterials. The aim of this paper is to assess the overall applicability of alternatives assessment methods for nanomaterials and to outline recommendations to enhance their use in this context. The present paper focuses on the adaptability of existing hazard and exposure assessment approaches to engineered nanomaterials as well as strategies to design inherently safer nanomaterials. We argue that alternatives assessment for nanomaterials is complicated by the sheer number of nanomaterials possible. As a result, the inclusion of new data tools that can efficiently and effectively evaluate nanomaterials as substitutes is needed to strengthen the alternatives assessment process. However, we conclude that with additional tools to enhance traditional hazard and exposure assessment modules of alternatives assessment, such as the use of mechanistic toxicity screens and control banding tools, alternatives assessment can be adapted to evaluate engineered nanomaterials as potential substitutes for chemicals of concern and to ensure safer nanomaterials are incorporated in the design of new products. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:177-187. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The methods for the dermal exposure assessment vary in their complexity and are in some sense complementary to each other. The most easy-to-use methods involve a pseudo-skin-approach, such as gloves and removal by washing. In some cases generic modelling appears to be possible. The experimental

  3. Application of Graph Theory to Cost-Effective Fire Protection of Chemical Plants During Domino Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Landucci, Gabriele; Reniers, Genserik

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we have introduced a methodology based on graph theory and multicriteria decision analysis for cost-effective fire protection of chemical plants subject to fire-induced domino effects. By modeling domino effects in chemical plants as a directed graph, the graph centrality measures such as out-closeness and betweenness scores can be used to identify the installations playing a key role in initiating and propagating potential domino effects. It is demonstrated that active fire protection of installations with the highest out-closeness score and passive fire protection of installations with the highest betweenness score are the most effective strategies for reducing the vulnerability of chemical plants to fire-induced domino effects. We have employed a dynamic graph analysis to investigate the impact of both the availability and the degradation of fire protection measures over time on the vulnerability of chemical plants. The results obtained from the graph analysis can further be prioritized using multicriteria decision analysis techniques such as the method of reference point to find the most cost-effective fire protection strategy. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Integrating exposure into chemical alternatives assessment using a qualitative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher exposure potential, which......Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that is more sustainable...... could trigger a higher-tiered, more quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical- and product-related exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four chemical...

  5. Chemical and radiological vulnerability assessment in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities and towns are faced with various types of threat from the extraordinary events involving chemical and radiological materials as exemplified by major chemical accidents, radiological incidents, fires, explosions, traffic accidents, terrorist attacks, etc. On the other hand, many sensitive or vulnerable assets exist within cities, such as: settlements, infrastructures, hospitals, schools, churches, businesses, government, and others. Besides emergency planning, the land use planning also represents an important tool for prevention or reduction of damages on people and other assets due to unwanted events. This paper considers development of method for inclusion vulnerability assessment in land use planning with objective to assess and limit the consequences in cities of likely accidents involving hazardous materials. We made preliminary assessment of criticality and vulnerability of the assets within Belgrade city area in respect to chemical sites and transportation roads that can be exposed to chemical accidents, or terrorist attacks.

  6. Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

  7. The effect of air permeability of chemical protective clothing material on clothing vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Vuister, R.; Wammes, L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems associated with Chemical Warfare Protective Clothing (CW) is the additional heat load created by the garments. For CW-overgarments, research in the direction of reducing material thickness and thus heat and vapour resistance have not resulted in major improvements. The

  8. Integrating Exposure into Chemical Alternatives Assessment Using a Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that i...

  9. Assessment of the protective effect of male circumcision from HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concludes that male circumcision provides a strong protection against acquisition of HIV infection. Hence, it can be considered as a possible way of reducing the spread of HIV infection in areas where the practice is rare. A comprehensive study to assess the association between circumcision and different types ...

  10. Towards a Life Cycle Based Chemical Alternative Assessment (LCAA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, O.; Huang, L.; Overcash, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ingredient in the product, first-order inter-compartmental transfer fractions and a matrix approach to determine Product Intake Fractions, and c) toxicity-related outcomes are compared with other life cycle impacts to evaluate the relevance of different impact categories for different consumer product...... demonstrates the feasibility of combining chemical specific Life Cycle Inventory from manufacturing database with near-field exposure assessment during product use and to compare the interest of various chemical alternatives. Considering consumer exposure during use phase is essential for both LCA and ACC......There is a need for an operational quantitative screening-level assessment of alternatives, that is life-cycle based and able to serve both Life cycle Assessment (LCA and chemical alternatives assessment (CAA). This presentation therefore aims to develop and illustrate a new approach called “Life...

  11. Practicing chemical process safety: a look at the layers of protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Roy E

    2004-11-11

    This presentation will review a few public perceptions of safety in chemical plants and refineries, and will compare these plant workplace risks to some of the more traditional occupations. The central theme of this paper is to provide a "within-the-fence" view of many of the process safety practices that world class plants perform to pro-actively protect people, property, profits as well as the environment. It behooves each chemical plant and refinery to have their story on an image-rich presentation to stress stewardship and process safety. Such a program can assure the company's employees and help convince the community that many layers of safety protection within our plants are effective, and protect all from harm.

  12. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  13. Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

    2010-01-01

    The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

  14. Chemical footprint: a methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Serenella; Goralczyk, Malgorzata

    2013-10-01

    The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 1990s, several other footprints were defined, e.g., carbon and water footprint. These footprints-even though based on a different meaning of "footprint"-integrate life cycle thinking, and focus on some challenging environmental impacts including resource consumption, CO2 emission leading to climate change, and water consumption. However, they usually neglect relevant sources of impacts, as those related to the production and use of chemicals. This article presents and discusses the need and relevance of developing a methodology for assessing the chemical footprint, coupling a life cycle-based approach with methodologies developed in other contexts, such as ERA and sustainability science. Furthermore, different concepts underpin existing footprint and this could be the case also of chemical footprint. At least 2 different approaches and steps to chemical footprint could be envisaged, applicable at the micro- as well as at the meso- and macroscale. The first step (step 1) is related to the account of chemicals use and emissions along the life cycle of a product, sector, or entire economy, to assess potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. The second step (step 2) aims at assessing to which extent actual emission of chemicals harm the ecosystems above their capability to recover (carrying capacity of the system). The latter step might contribute to the wide discussion on planetary boundaries for chemical pollution: the thresholds that should not be surpassed to guarantee a sustainable use of chemicals from an environmental safety perspective. The definition of what the planetary boundaries for chemical pollution are and how the boundaries should be identified is an on-going scientific challenge for ecotoxicology and ecology. In

  15. A robustness screen for the rapid assessment of chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karl D; Glorius, Frank

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to the rapidity with which scientific information is published, the application of new knowledge often remains slow, and we believe this to be particularly true of newly developed synthetic organic chemistry methodology. Consequently, methods to assess and identify robust chemical reactions are desirable, and would directly facilitate the application of newly reported synthetic methodology to complex synthetic problems. Here, we describe a simple process for assessing the likely scope and limitations of a chemical reaction beyond the idealized reaction conditions initially reported. Using simple methods and common analytical techniques we demonstrate a rapid assessment of an established chemical reaction, and also propose a simplified analysis that may be reported alongside new synthetic methodology.

  16. Integrating exposure into chemical alternatives assessment using a qualitative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, T. E.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher human or environmental......Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that is more sustainable...... exposure potential, which could trigger a higher-tiered, more quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered, minimizing the likelihood of regrettable substitution. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical- and product-related exposure information...

  17. Hazard assessment of hydraulic fracturing chemicals using an indexing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Liu, Tianyi; Hager, James; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-11-14

    The rapid expansion of unconventional natural gas production has triggered considerable public concerns, particularly regarding environmental and human health (EHH) risks posed by various chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. There is a need to assess the potential EHH hazards of additives used in real-world HF operations. In this study, HF additive and fracturing fluid data was acquired, and EHH hazards were assessed using an indexing approach. The indexing system analyzed chemical toxicological data of different ingredients contained within additives and produced an aggregated EHH safety index for each additive, along with an indicator describing the completeness of the chemical toxicological data. The results show that commonly used additives are generally associated with medium-level EHH hazards. In each additive category, ingredients of high EHH concern were identified, and the high hazard designation was primarily attributed to ingredients' high aquatic toxicity and carcinogenic effects. Among all assessed additive categories, iron control agents were identified as the greatest EHH hazards. Lack of information, such as undisclosed ingredients and chemical toxicological data gaps, has resulted in different levels of assessment uncertainties. In particular, friction reducers show the highest data incompleteness with regards to EHH hazards. This study reveals the potential EHH hazards associated with chemicals used in current HF field operations and can provide decision makers with valuable information to facilitate sustainable and responsible unconventional gas production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Advantages and challenges associated with implementing an ecosystem services approach to ecological risk assessment for chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Lorraine; van den Brink, Paul J; Faber, Jack H; Marshall, Stuart

    2017-10-17

    The ecosystem services (ES) approach is gaining broad interest in regulatory and policy arenas for use in landscape management and ecological risk assessment. It has the potential to bring greater ecological relevance to the setting of environmental protection goals and to the assessment of the ecological risk posed by chemicals. A workshop, organised under the auspices of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Europe, brought together scientific experts from European regulatory authorities, the chemical industry and academia to discuss and evaluate the challenges associated with implementing an ES approach to chemical ecological risk assessment (ERA). Clear advantages of using an ES approach in prospective and retrospective ERA were identified, including: making ERA spatially explicit and of relevance to management decisions (i.e. indicating what ES to protect and where); improving transparency in communicating risks and trade-offs; integrating across multiple stressors, scales, habitats and policies. A number of challenges were also identified including: the potential for increased complexity in assessments; greater data requirements; limitations in linking endpoints derived from current ecotoxicity tests to impacts on ES. In principle, the approach was applicable to all chemical sectors, but the scale of the challenge of applying an ES approach to general chemicals with widespread and dispersive uses leading to broad environmental exposure, was highlighted. There was agreement that ES-based risk assessment should be based on the magnitude of impact rather than on toxicity thresholds. The need for more bioassays/tests with functional endpoints was recognized, as was the role of modelling and the need for ecological production functions to link measurement endpoints to assessment endpoints. Finally, the value of developing environmental scenarios that can be combined with spatial information on exposure, ES delivery and service provider

  19. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

    2004-12-14

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical

  20. Retrospective exposure assessment in a chemical research and development facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this exposure assessment was to reconstruct cumulative historical exposures for workers who have been exposed to multiple chemicals and chemical groups to better understand a cluster of brain cancers within a research and development lab. Chemicals of interest, including acrylates, bis-chloromethyl ether (BCME), chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME), isothiazolones and nitrosoamines, were selected on the basis of the plausibility of penetrating the blood-brain barrier and the uniqueness of the chemical's biological activity. In a complicated exposure setting such as a chemical R&D facility, multiple exposure estimation methods were needed. First, similarly exposure groups (SEGs) were created for these materials based on department group, time period of the department's existence and function associated with job titles. A probabilistic framework for assessing exposures was developed using Bayesian analysis of historical monitoring data, mathematical exposure modeling and professional judgments of current and former industrial hygienists at the facility were used to reconstruct the exposure history for acrylates, BCME and CMME for each SEG over the time period of interest. Since sufficient measurement data for isothiazolones and nitrosoamines were not available, the exposure histories for each SEG for these chemicals were estimated. This was done using objective formaldehyde levels and subjective employee interviews. The interviews assessed workplace determinants of exposure as distinct surrogates for estimating inhalation and dermal exposures. The exposure assessments by these methods were compared against each other to estimate the potential for exposure misclassification. A job exposure matrix (JEM) was constructed that contained the exposures obtained from above multiple approaches for each of these chemical groups for each SEG for each year of interest. The combination of methods used in this work is a unique and potentially helpful framework that

  1. An intelligent data collection tool for chemical safety/risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, Frederik A M; Van Sprang, Patrick A; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2008-02-01

    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the new European chemical legislation which aims to assess risk or safety of tens of thousands of chemicals to improve the protection of human health and the environment. The chemical safety assessment process is of an iterative nature. First, an initial, worst-case assessment is conducted after which refinements are made until no risk has been estimated or the risk is adequately controlled. Wasting time and resources on additional testing and implementing risk management measures with low effect on risk conclusions should be avoided as much as possible. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of an intelligent data collection strategy based on a sensitivity (and uncertainty) analysis on the risk assessment model EUSES to identify and order the most important "within-EU-TGD-reducible" input parameters influencing the local and regional risk characterisation ratios. The ordering can be adjusted for the costs involved in additional testing (e.g. ecotoxicity, physico-chemical properties, emission estimates, etc.). The risk refinement tool therefore reduces the resources needed to obtain a realistic risk estimate (both less conservative and less uncertain) as efficient as possible.

  2. Common vole (Microtus arvalis) ecology and management: implications for risk assessment of plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jens; Manson, Phil; Barfknecht, Ralf; Fredricks, Timothy

    2014-06-01

    Common voles (Microtus arvalis) are common small mammals in some European landscapes. They can be a major rodent pest in European agriculture and they are also a representative generic focal small herbivorous mammal species used in risk assessment for plant protection products. In this paper, common vole population dynamics, habitat and food preferences, pest potential and use of the common vole as a model small wild mammal species in the risk assessment process are reviewed. Common voles are a component of agroecosystems in many parts of Europe, inhabiting agricultural areas (secondary habitats) when the carrying capacity of primary grassland habitats is exceeded. Colonisation of secondary habitats occurs during multiannual outbreaks, when population sizes can exceed 1000 individuals ha(-1) . In such cases, in-crop common vole population control management has been practised to avoid significant crop damage. The species' status as a crop pest, high fecundity, resilience to disturbance and intermittent colonisation of crop habitats are important characteristics that should be reflected in risk assessment. Based on the information provided in the scientific literature, it seems justified to modify elements of the current risk assessment scheme for plant protection products, including the use of realistic food intake rates, reduced assessment factors or the use of alternativee focal rodent species in particular European regions. Some of these adjustments are already being applied in some EU member states. Therefore, it seems reasonable consistently to apply such pragmatic and realistic approaches in risk assessments for plant protection products across the EU. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of Chemical Environment and pH on AC Corrosion of Cathodically Protected Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker-Holst, Andreas; Vendelbo Nielsen, Lars; Møller, Per

    2017-01-01

    AC corrosion of structures under cathodic protection (CP) is a major concern for pipelines in case of even minor AC perturbations. There are indications that the specific chemical environment has a large influence on the AC mitigation current density criteria outlined in EN 15280:2013 [1...... are observed as well as calcium hydroxides at high cathodic protection levels. This indicates a highly alkaline (pH > 11) environment locally. Corrosion rates at different cathodic potentials are measured using electrical resistance (ER) probes and a chemical and phase analysis of the calcareous deposits...... and corrosion products is made using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The findings suggest an AC corrosion mechanism highly dependent on the build-up and break-down of calcareous deposits at high CP, which is clearly reflected...

  4. Assessment of chemical properties of tropical peatland soil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical assessment of the peatland in oil palm plantation in South Selangor Peatland Swamp in Malaysia were evaluated in this study. Soil samples were obtained from fifteen (15) different locations within the study area at three different depths of 0.5m, 1.5 m, and 2.5 m in three replicates at each depth, using peat ...

  5. chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    are to assess, ascertain and evaluate the level, degree and type of pollution that characterize the surface water resources of Enugu area of southeastern Nigeria in terms of physico-chemical and bacterialogical constituents. Field measurements of ... suggest possible solutions to the problems of water supply. THE STUDY ...

  6. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...

  7. An assessment of the concentration levels of toxic chemicals within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ingestion of crop produce from the dumpsite area and its vicinity is likely to put lives at risk. This paper assesses the concentration levels of toxic chemicals lead (pb), cadmium (cd) and sulphides (so2) within and around Gweru dumpsite. Sampling points for soil were randomly selected using Arcview GIS along each transect ...

  8. Assessment of physico-chemical parameters of Tsaeda Agam River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work was conducted to assess the physico-chemical parameters of Tsada Agam River found in Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia and determine its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes. Water samples were collected monthly for two consecutive months (February to March, 2013) at four sampling sites and ...

  9. Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    2005-03-20

    Mar 20, 2005 ... Changes in chemical composition upon processing and bioassay assessment of nutritional potentials of almond fruit waste as an alternative feedstuff were conducted using day-old- cockerels. Proximate analyses revealed that AFW contained valuable nutrients, carbohydrate/dry matter, protein, fat, fiber, ...

  10. Nitroxide free radicals protect macular carotenoids against chemical destruction (bleaching) during lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, M; Widomska, J; Burke, J M; Subczynski, W K

    2016-12-01

    Macular xanthophylls (MXs) lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids that are selectively concentrated in the human eye retina, where they are thought to protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by multiple mechanisms, including filtration of phototoxic blue light and quenching of singlet oxygen and triplet states of photosensitizers. These physical protective mechanisms require that MXs be in their intact structure. Here, we investigated the protection of the intact structure of zeaxanthin incorporated into model membranes subjected to oxidative modification by water- and/or membrane-soluble small nitroxide free radicals. Model membranes were formed from saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines (PCs). Oxidative modification involved autoxidation, iron-mediated, and singlet oxygen-mediated lipid peroxidation. The extent of chemical destruction (bleaching) of zeaxanthin was evaluated from its absorption spectra and compared with the extent of lipid peroxidation evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid assay. Nitroxide free radicals with different polarity (membrane/water partition coefficients) were used. The extent of zeaxanthin bleaching increased with membrane unsaturation and correlated with the rate of PC oxidation. Protection of the intact structure of zeaxanthin by membrane-soluble nitroxides was much stronger than that by water-soluble nitroxides. The combination of zeaxanthin and lipid-soluble nitroxides exerted strong synergistic protection against singlet oxygen-induced lipid peroxidation. The synergistic effect may be explained in terms of protection of the intact zeaxanthin structure by effective scavenging of free radicals by nitroxides, therefore allowing zeaxanthin to quench the primary oxidant, singlet oxygen, effectively by the physical protective mechanism. The redox state of nitroxides was monitored using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both nitroxide free radicals and their reduced form

  11. Specialized Bees Fail to Develop on Non-Host Pollen : Do Plants Chemically Protect Their Pollen ?

    OpenAIRE

    Praz, Christophe J.; Müller, Andreas; Dorn, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Bees require large amounts of pollen for their own reproduction. While several morphological flower traits are known to have evolved to protect plants against excessive pollen harvesting by bees, little is known on how selection to minimize pollen loss acts on the chemical composition of pollen. In this study, we traced the larval development of four solitary bee species, each specialized on a different pollen source, when reared on non-host pollen by transferring unhatched eggs of one specie...

  12. Effects of Chemical Protective Clothing and Masks, and Two Drinking Water Delivery Systems on Voluntary Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-07

    antecubital vein by trained phlebotomists. - After the sixth walk (6hr) or final walk if earlier, the subjects remained standing to obtain an intermediate...environments is primarily determined by the shift of plasma from intra- to extra-vascular space due to increased perfusion pressure and by water loss via... Space Environ. Med. 56:765-770, 1985. 3. Avellini BA. Physiological evaluation of chemical protective clothing. Natick, MA: Navy Clothing and Textile

  13. Automatized Assessment of Protective Group Reactivity: A Step Toward Big Reaction Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Arkadii I; Madzhidov, Timur I; Klimchuk, Olga; Nugmanov, Ramil I; Antipin, Igor S; Varnek, Alexandre

    2016-11-28

    We report a new method to assess protective groups (PGs) reactivity as a function of reaction conditions (catalyst, solvent) using raw reaction data. It is based on an intuitive similarity principle for chemical reactions: similar reactions proceed under similar conditions. Technically, reaction similarity can be assessed using the Condensed Graph of Reaction (CGR) approach representing an ensemble of reactants and products as a single molecular graph, i.e., as a pseudomolecule for which molecular descriptors or fingerprints can be calculated. CGR-based in-house tools were used to process data for 142,111 catalytic hydrogenation reactions extracted from the Reaxys database. Our results reveal some contradictions with famous Greene's Reactivity Charts based on manual expert analysis. Models developed in this study show high accuracy (ca. 90%) for predicting optimal experimental conditions of protective group deprotection.

  14. Protective role of food supplement Spirulina fusiformis in chemical induced hepatotoxicity: A Bromobenzene model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Prince Sabina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the efficacy of Spirulina fusiformis in protecting against chemical induced hepatotoxicity in rats using Bromobenzene as the candidate toxin. A single oral dose of bromobenzene (BB (10mmol/kg b.w. resulted in significant (p< 0.05 decrease in antioxidant levels (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidese, total reduced glutathione and total protein, and significant (p< 0.05 increase in the levels of serum bilirubin, liver enzymes (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicating the induction of hepatotoxicity. Spirulina fusiformis (400 mg/kg b.w was orally administered for 8 days prior to the administration of BB and was seen to protect the above parameters from significant changes upon challenge with bromobenzene. This was also confirmed by the histological examination of liver tissues after sacrifice. The protective effect of Spirulina fusiformis was comparable to that of the standard hepatoprotective drug sylimarin.

  15. Chemical plant protection outlays in vast areas farming at the beginning of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Golinowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, several investigations were conducted in the area of chemical plant protection outlays in two vast area farms where simplified system of farming was applied. Analysed outlays consisted of: use of pesticides in kilograms of active substance per 1 ha and real costs of plant protection procedures. Profitability of the outlay was identified with approximate indicator of outlay E1 and E2. The research showed that farm during plant production use from 1 to 10.28 kg AS/ha. Costs of these procedures ranged from 100.50 to 1253.84 PLN/ha depending on the cultivated plant. Profitability of plant protection procedures in wheat and rape cultivation was at the same level in both farms. The highest profitability was reached by maize cultivation.

  16. [DIFFERENT APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL RISK ASSESSMENT IN LABORATORIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporossi, Lidia; Papaleo, Bruno; Capanna, Silvia; Calicchia, Sara; Marcellini, Laura; De Rosa, Mariangela; Castellano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the different approaches used for chemical risk assessment, in relation to the perception of riskfor operators, in some research laboratories of a hospital in Rome. All information regarding the chemicals used for the application of three algorithmic models for chemical risk assessment ("Movarisch", "Inforisk", "Archimede") were collected. An environmental and biological monitoring and a study on the combined exposure to multiple chemicals using the World Health Organization proposed steps were carried out. A questionnaire was prepared for the identification of risk perception. An estimation of chemical risk with algorithms was compared with data from monitoring: findings showed that estimated risk was higher than those identified with airborne or urine concentrations, always under their limit values. The study of multiple exposure showed a possible cumulative risk, in some cases, but the conditions of use (volume and time) often bring to a reduced one. The perception of risk attributed to the monitored hazardous substances showed a correct perception in all laboratories and for all workers, with regard to the substances manipulated.

  17. Health risk assessment of chemical pollutants in a petrochemical complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Golbabaie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: workers in petrochemical industries are exposed to various contaminants and are facing to serious hazards, therefore a comprehensive risk assessment program for identification of hazardous chemicals that affect human health and also determination of hazardous tasks and processes is necessary.     Methods : This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in three stages. First stage consisted of identifying hazardous chemicals and determination of chemicals risk ratio, the second stage included the evaluation of worker's exposure to hazardous chemicals, and the third stage was estimating the relative risk of blood cancer caused by exposure to benzene through epidemiological studies.     Results: With regard to risk assessment method, 40 chemicals were identified in this Petrochemical Company. Among them, Benzene introduced as the most hazardous chemical. The results of the second stage showed that site man workers in noon shift work and in aromatic site with mean exposure 4.29 ppm had the highest exposure to benzene. The results of estimated leukemia relative risk stage in benzene exposure, the highest relative risk in workers related to site man workers in aromatic units with cumulative benzene exposure of 4.149 ppm. Years that obtained the relative risk of 2.3. The statistical test results showed that the relationship between worker's exposure to benzene and their job was significant(p<0/001     Conclusion : This study showed that benzene with a risk ratio of 4.5 -5 have 5th rank in risk levels and this indicates that preventative actions regarding to this hazardous and carcinogenic chemical must be started as soon as possible.

  18. Assessment of Elementary School Students’ Sun Protection Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Seft; Wells, Kristen J.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Boulware, David; Love-Jackson, Kymia; Abdulla, Rania; Roetzheim, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Emerging studies suggest that excessive sun exposure in childhood contributes to the development of skin cancer later in life. Children rarely wear a wide-brimmed hat when outside although these hats offer the best protection to the areas on the face where children are most likely to be sunburned. The current study explores 4th grade student assessment of their sun protection behaviors outside at school and at times other than when they are at school. Method This study utilized baseline data collected in the Fall of 2006 for the Sun Protection for Florida’s Children (SPF) project. In brief, the SPF project is a group randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a school based intervention promoting sun protection in general, and hat use in particular. The project targets all 4th grade students in Hillsborough County Schools, FL. The data reported in this study were collected at baseline before any intervention activities was initiated. Approximately 2,086 4th grade students completed self-report surveys evaluating sun protection behaviors. Trained research assistants carried out 99 direct observations of physical education classes over a five week period during Fall 2006 in Tampa, Florida. Results In general, the self-reported use of various methods of sun protection was low. Approximately one third of students reported that they wore sunscreen (32.8%) or sunglasses (32.3%) before leaving home for school. Only a small percentage of students wore long sleeves (15.0%) or a hat with a brim (16.4%) before leaving for school. In addition, few students wore a hat with a wide brim when outside but not at school (16.4%). Students spent an average of 59.1 minutes per week outdoors while attending school and 35.5 minutes during peak sun exposure. In general, female students and Hispanic, African American, and students of other racial and ethnic groups were more likely to practice sun protection behaviors at school than white or male students. Students who

  19. Effectively protecting cyber infrastructure and assessing security needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, J.; Starman, R. [EWA Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation addressed some of the requirements for effectively protecting cyber infrastructure and assessing security needs. The paper discussed the hype regarding cyber attacks, and presented the Canadian reality (as viewed by CanCERT). An assessment of security concerns was also presented. Recent cyber attacks on computer networks have raised fears of unsafe energy networks. Some experts claim the attacks are linked to terrorism, others blame industrial spying and mischief. Others dismiss the notion that somebody could bring down a power grid with a laptop as being far-fetched. It was noted that the cyber security threat is real, and that attacks are becoming more sophisticated as we live in a target rich environment. The issue of assessing vulnerabilities was discussed along with the selection of safeguards such as improving SCADA systems and the latest encryption methods to prevent hackers from bringing down computer networks. 3 tabs., 23 figs.

  20. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. Intubation performance using different laryngoscopes while wearing chemical protective equipment: a manikin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H; Zoremba, N; Rossaint, R; Deusser, K; Stoppe, C; Coburn, M; Rieg, A; Schälte, G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to compare visualisation of the vocal cords and performance of intubation by anaesthetists using four different laryngoscopes while wearing full chemical protective equipment. Setting Medical simulation center of a university hospital, department of anaesthesiology. Participants 42 anaesthetists (15 females and 27 males) completed the trial. The participants were grouped according to their professional education as anaesthesiology residents with experience of 5 years. Interventions In a manikin scenario, participants performed endotracheal intubations with four different direct and indirect laryngoscopes (Macintosh (MAC), Airtraq (ATQ), Glidescope (GLS) and AP Advance (APA)), while wearing chemical protective gear, including a body suit, rubber gloves, a fire helmet and breathing apparatus. Primary and secondary outcome measures With respect to the manikin, setting time to complete ‘endotracheal intubation’ was defined as primary end point. Glottis visualisation (according to the Cormack-Lehane score (CLS) and impairments caused by the protective equipment, were defined as secondary outcome measures. Results The times to tracheal intubation were calculated using the MAC (31.4 s; 95% CI 26.6 to 36.8), ATQ (37.1 s; 95% CI 28.3 to 45.9), GLS (35.4 s; 95% CI 28.7 to 42.1) and APA (23.6 s; 95% CI 19.1 to 28.1), respectively. Intubation with the APA was significantly faster than with all the other devices examined among the total study population (pvisualisation of the vocal cords was reported for the APA compared with the GLS. Conclusions Despite the restrictions caused by the equipment, the anaesthetists intubated the manikin successfully within adequate time. The APA outperformed the other devices in the time to intubation, and it has been evaluated as an easily manageable device for anaesthetists with varying degrees of experience (low to high), providing good visualisation in scenarios that require the use of chemical

  2. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of

  3. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  4. Major national human biomonitoring programs in chemical exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human biomonitoring (HBM programs have been established in several countries around the world in order to monitor the levels of chemical exposures in the general population and qualify health risk assessment of national and international interest. Study design, population, sample collection, and chemical analysis must be considered when comparing and interpreting the results. In this review, the objectives and brief descriptions of the major national HBM programs in North America, Europe, and Asia are provided. Similarities and differences observed from a comparative analysis among these programs, including the stratification of data according to age, sex, socioeconomic background, etc. as well as the identification of chemical exposure associated with food intake, are discussed. Overall, although there are some discrepancies in the study designs among the reviewed national HBM programs, results from the programs can provide useful information such as chemical levels found within the general population of a country that can be compared. Furthermore, the results can be used by regulatory authorities or the government to enforce legislations in order to reduce the exposure of chemicals into the human body.

  5. Ecotoxicological assessments and the setting of limit values for chemicals in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Committee on the Setting of Limit Values for Chemicals held its first open conference in Denmark in March 1992 at Mogenstrup Kro, Zealand. The conference proceedings were entitled `Risk Management and Risk Assessment in Different Sectors in Denmark`. The conference focused on risk assessment and the setting of limit values for chemicals in connection with human exposure to chemicals. The conference held in January 1996, which is covered by the present proceedings, dealt with the exposure of the environment to chemicals and the state-of-the-art as well as perspectives of ecotoxicological research. Special emphasis was placed on the illustration and discussion of the problems that have to be solved in order to secure satisfactory levels of protection of soil and aquatic environments in connection with exposure to chemicals. Also, problems connected with exposure through the atmosphere were discussed and exemplified by the work on the setting of limit values for tropospheric ozone. Furthermore, the global problems pertaining to what is believed to be the greenhouse effect and the degradation of the stratospheric ozone layer as well as the damage to crops caused by ozone were mentioned. (au)

  6. [Guides to chemical risk assessment in the construction industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Scapellato, M L; Butera, R; Bartolucci, G B

    2012-01-01

    The presence of chemical agents in construction is certainly relevant in terms of quality, quantity and toxicity. Their manipulation can result in potential exposure as inhaled and/or through the skin. It is therefore possible and necessary to identify a list of substances to be considered relevant for the risk assessment and the possible environmental monitoring to verify the adequacy of the estimate made. The many variables inherent in construction make it extremely difficult to apply the usual methods of the industrial hygiene because it would not very significant conclusions in terms of space-time representation. SIMLII in one of its guidelines have proposed a "indexes" method that can provide useful information to the figures of prevention for the actions of their competence. The subsequent introduction of the REACH Regulation and exposure scenarios may help to further sharpening the assessment of chemical hazards in construction.

  7. Merging Applicability Domains for in Silico Assessment of Chemical Mutagenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    strains of Salmonella cannot survive . However, when placed in a medium with mutagens, reverse mutations that restore the functional capability of the...or toxicant exposures. A common assay for gauging mutagenicity is the Ames test.1 This test uses several strains of genetically modified Salmonella ... Salmonella system.2 To date, thousands of chemicals have been evaluated using the Ames test, and it has become a standard assay for safety assessment of

  8. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  9. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  10. [The document of chemical risk assessment: experiences in small companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, G; Aprea, M C; Cardelli, D; Giglioli, S; Luni, S; Nanni, C; Ridoni, M; Lucietto, L; Giomarelli, A; Fantacci, M; Marianelli, E

    2010-01-01

    Were examined 60 documents of chemical risk assessment of companies from 19 municipalities in the provinces of Siena and Grosseto. The review of evaluations was conducted initially by checking the internal coherence of the documents. What emerged was subsequently analyzed together with the staff who performed the inspection. Although in 12 companies has been declared the presence of carcinogens, in only 5 the evaluation of exposure have been done using measures, others have used models or other techniques. Overall assessment showed that only 8 out of 60 (13.3%) were wrote correctly.

  11. Complex method to calculate objective assessments of information systems protection to improve expert assessments reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdenov, A. Zh; Trushin, V. A.; Abdenova, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper considers the questions of filling the relevant SIEM nodes based on calculations of objective assessments in order to improve the reliability of subjective expert assessments. The proposed methodology is necessary for the most accurate security risk assessment of information systems. This technique is also intended for the purpose of establishing real-time operational information protection in the enterprise information systems. Risk calculations are based on objective estimates of the adverse events implementation probabilities, predictions of the damage magnitude from information security violations. Calculations of objective assessments are necessary to increase the reliability of the proposed expert assessments.

  12. Soil structural quality assessment for soil protection regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Boivin, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality assessment is rapidly developing worldwide, though mostly focused on the monitoring of arable land and soil fertility. Soil protection regulations assess soil quality differently, focusing on priority pollutants and threshold values. The soil physical properties are weakly considered, due to lack of consensus and experimental difficulties faced with characterization. Non-disputable, easy to perform and inexpensive methods should be available for environmental regulation to be applied, which is unfortunately not the case. As a consequence, quantitative soil physical protection regulation is not applied, and inexpensive soil physical quality indicators for arable soil management are not available. Overcoming these limitations was the objective of a research project funded by the Swiss federal office for environment (FOEN). The main results and the perspectives of application are given in this presentation. A first step of the research was to characterize soils in a good structural state (reference soils) under different land use. The structural quality was assessed with field expertise and Visual Evaluation of the Soil Structure (VESS), and the physical properties were assessed with Shrinkage analysis. The relationships between the physical properties and the soil constituents were linear and highly determined. They represent the reference properties of the corresponding soils. In a second step, the properties of physically degraded soils were analysed and compared to the reference properties. This allowed defining the most discriminant parameters departing the different structure qualities and their threshold limits. Equivalent properties corresponding to these parameters but inexpensive and easy to determine were defined and tested. More than 90% of the samples were correctly classed with this method, which meets, therefore, the requirements for practical application in regulation. Moreover, result-oriented agri-environmental schemes for soil quality

  13. Biological and chemical studies on soluble protective antigen (SPA) from culture supernatant fluids of Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiya, K; Sugihara, H

    1990-07-01

    The chemical and biological characteristics of Soluble Protective Antigen (SPA) separated from culture fluids of Salmonella enteritidis strain 2547 were analysed. It was shown that SPA has 3-hydroxy, nonpolar fatty acids by thin-layer chromatography. The fatty acids were identified as lauric, myristic, palmitic and 3-hydroxymyristic acid using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and mass chromatography. These fatty acids are common constituents of the lipid A obtained from S. enteritidis. SPA was found to enhance the plaque-forming cell (PFC)-response to sheep erythrocytes in the recipients' spleen. In addition, SPA enhanced the clotting activity of Limulus amebocyte lysate. These results show that SPA possesses the properties of lipopolysaccharides isolated from strain 2547 by chemical procedures.

  14. EPA Proposes Revisions to its Risk Management Program to Improve Chemical Process Safety and Further Protect Communities and First Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to revise its Risk Management Program (RMP) regulations to improve chemical process safety, assist local emergency authorities in planning for and responding to accidents, and

  15. Assessment of physico-chemical characteristics of water in Tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udhayakumar, R; Manivannan, P; Raghu, K; Vaideki, S

    2016-12-01

    Water is an important component to human life. The major aims of the present work are to assess the quality of the ground water and its impact in Villupuram District of Tamilnadu. The present study focus to bring an awareness among the people about the quality of ground water by taking water samples from various locations for Physico - Chemical analysis of the ground water. This analysis result was compared with the WHO, ICMR, USPH and European standards of drinking water quality parameters with the following water quality parameters namely pH, Electrical conductivity, Cl, , Na, K, Ca , Mg, Total dissolved solids, Total hardness, Dissolved oxygen, Fluoride etc. Various chemical methods have been employed to investigate the extent level of pollution in ground water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cumulative effects of antiandrogenic chemical mixtures and their relevance to human health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicological studies of defined chemical mixtures assist human health risk assessment by establishing the manner by which chemicals interact with one another to induce an effect. This paper reviews how antiandrogenic chemical mixtures can alter reproductive tract development in ...

  17. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    A study analyzed the occupational structure and qualifications associated with the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the United Kingdom. The analysis included nine case studies based on interviews with firms in the chemicals and metals sectors. Information was gathered within an analytical framework that…

  18. Methodological approaches to climate change vulnerability assessment of Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana N. Lipka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts in Russia's territory make species and ecosystems conservation in Protected Areas a more difficult challenge. Additional adaptation measures are required. Before they are developed, it is important to assess the vulnerability of a territory: what exactly, and to which extent, is exposed to adverse climate impacts? The accomplished research will help develop an action plan consistent with the current unstable climate and extreme weather events, as well as with projections by the leading research institutions of Roshydromet and the Russian Academy of Science. Today, methodologies have been developed and successfully tested for some natural zones. The conservation science is now facing a new challenge: how to combine collected information with climate projections and identify development perspectives for concrete territories.

  19. Pollution exposure on marine protected areas: A global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partelow, Stefan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Horn, Olga

    2015-11-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) face many challenges in their aim to effectively conserve marine ecosystems. In this study we analyze the extent of pollution exposure on the global fleet of MPAs. This includes indicators for current and future pollution and the implications for regionally clustered groups of MPAs with similar biophysical characteristics. To cluster MPAs into characteristic signature groups, their bathymetry, baseline biodiversity, distance from shore, mean sea surface temperature and mean sea surface salinity were used. We assess the extent at which each signature group is facing exposure from multiple pollution types. MPA groups experience similar pollution exposure on a regional level. We highlight how the challenges that MPAs face can be addressed through governance at the appropriate scale and design considerations for integrated terrestrial and marine management approaches within regional level networks. Furthermore, we present diagnostic social-ecological indicators for addressing the challenges facing unsuccessful MPAs with practical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Life quality parameters in prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, V L; Nechaeva, E N

    2014-01-01

    The article presents results of life quality assessment and subjective evaluation data on health state, used for prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons. Considering specific features of residence near potentially dangerous objects, the authors conducted qualitative evaluation of satisfaction with various life facets, with taking into account the objects specificity, established correlation between life quality and self-evaluation of health with factors influencing public health state.

  1. Chemical Profiles and Protective Effect of Hedyotis diffusa Willd in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Inflammation Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian-Hong; Liu, Meng-Hua; Zhang, Xu-Lin; He, Jing-Yu

    2015-11-13

    Protective effect of Hedyotis diffusa (H. diffusa) Willd against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by the productions of cytokines and chemokine, and the bioactive constituents of H. diffusa were detected by the ultra-fast liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method. As the results showed, water extract of H. diffusa (equal to 5.0 g/kg body weight) obviously protected renal tissues, significantly suppressed the productions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as significantly promoted the production of IL-10 in serum and renal tissues. According the chemical profiles of H. diffusa, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones were greatly detected in serum from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. Two main chemotypes, including eight flavonoids and four iridoid glycosides were found in renal tissues from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. The results demonstrated that water extract of H. diffusa had protective effect on renal inflammation, which possibly resulted from the bioactive constituents consisting of flavonoids, iridoids and anthraquinones.

  2. Chemical Profiles and Protective Effect of Hedyotis diffusa Willd in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Inflammation Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hong Ye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Protective effect of Hedyotis diffusa (H. diffusa Willd against lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by the productions of cytokines and chemokine, and the bioactive constituents of H. diffusa were detected by the ultra-fast liquid chromatography -diode array detector-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS method. As the results showed, water extract of H. diffusa (equal to 5.0 g/kg body weight obviously protected renal tissues, significantly suppressed the productions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, as well as significantly promoted the production of IL-10 in serum and renal tissues. According the chemical profiles of H. diffusa, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones were greatly detected in serum from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. Two main chemotypes, including eight flavonoids and four iridoid glycosides were found in renal tissues from H. diffusa extract treatment mice. The results demonstrated that water extract of H. diffusa had protective effect on renal inflammation, which possibly resulted from the bioactive constituents consisting of flavonoids, iridoids and anthraquinones.

  3. [Data protection, radiation protection and copyright: Problems of transferring results in assessment practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, H-T

    2015-06-01

    In Germany, the medical assessor is subject to the law on contracts for work and services ("Werksvertragsrecht"). When a medical expert assesses a subject on behalf of a third party, there is no contractual relationship between them. In the field of private insurance law and in social insurance law, the medical expert is faced with various procedural requirements. Failing to meet these legal requirements often makes the assessment difficult or even impossible. The transfer of radiographs to the medical assessor is dealt with in the German X-ray regulations ("Röntgenverordnung"). The assessor, who is without doubt an examining doctor, has the right to have the radiographs temporarily made available (§ 28 et al.). Passing on the radiographs is all the more appropriate if by doing so additional X-ray examinations can be avoided. The right of access to medical data in the social security law, apart from X-ray regulations, is regulated by German Civil Code (BGB) § 810 and German Basic Law section 1 paragraph 1 in connection with section 2 paragraph 1 ("§ 810 BGB; Art. 1 Abs. 1, Art. 2 Abs. 1 GG"). In the absence of third party interest worthy of protection, the right of access to assessment records has to be granted to the subject, who will then authorize the examining medical expert to exercise this right. In private insurance law, only the private health insurance has its regulation concerning obtaining information about treatment or the access to medical assessments. In other types of insurance the medical assessor's right of access to medical examination data and/or the basis for medical findings can only be derived from secondary obligations as part of the insurance contract or directly from general constitutional personal rights.

  4. A Review of Non-Chemical Stressors and Their Importance in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative exposure/risk assessments need to include non-chemical stressors as well as human activities and chemical data. Multiple stressor research can offer information on the interactions between chemical and non-chemical stressors needed for cumulative risk assessment resea...

  5. Comprehensive multipathway risk assessment of chemicals associated with recycled ("crumb") rubber in synthetic turf fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael K; Lemay, Julie C; Pacheco Shubin, Sara; Prueitt, Robyn L

    2018-01-01

    Thousands of synthetic turf fields in the US are regularly used by millions of individuals (particularly children and adolescents). Although many safety assessments have concluded that there are low or negligible risks related to exposure to chemicals found in the recycled rubber used to make these fields, concerns remain about the safety of this product. Existing studies of recycled rubber's potential health risks have limitations such as small sample sizes and limited evaluation of relevant exposure pathways and scenarios. Conduct a comprehensive multipathway human health risk assessment (HHRA) of exposure to chemicals found in recycled rubber. All available North American data on the chemical composition of recycled rubber, as well as air sampling data collected on or near synthetic turf fields, were identified via a literature search. Ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation pathways were evaluated according to US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) guidance, and exposure scenarios for adults, adolescents, and children were considered. Estimated non-cancer hazards and cancer risks for all the evaluated scenarios were within US EPA guidelines. In addition, cancer risk levels for users of synthetic turf field were comparable to or lower than those associated with natural soil fields. This HHRA's results add to the growing body of literature that suggests recycled rubber infill in synthetic turf poses negligible risks to human health. This comprehensive assessment provides data that allow stakeholders to make informed decisions about installing and using these fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brief communication: the ecosystem perspective in ecotoxicology as a way forward for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laender, Frederik; Janssen, Colin R

    2013-07-01

    One of the objectives of the European Union (EU) ecological risk assessment of chemicals (ERA) is to derive maximum environmental concentrations that are not expected to cause adverse ecological effects. To this end, related EU directives list protection goals as well as guidelines that should be used to reach these goals. It is generally accepted that the individual-level endpoints on which these guidelines are based do not correspond to the listed population- and ecosystem-level protection goals. In this article, we identify 5 research topics that are key to bridging this gap: 1) the refinement of population-level effects and recovery rates by explicitly taking into account competition and 2) predation, 3) the assessment of chemical effects on biodiversity, 4) the assessment of chemical stress on ecosystem functions and services, and 5) the quantification of the effects of chemical mixtures. In addition, we illustrate why an ecosystem perspective is needed to address these topics and to inform the risk assessment process. We propose the use of existing ecotoxicological community, food web, and ecosystem models to tackle these issues and discuss why new models are needed to predict chemical effects on biodiversity. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  7. Chemical and fatty acids composition of rump cap from young bulls fed protected or unprotected oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Almeida de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to improve the nutritional aspects of beef, mainly the fatty acids composition, have become an important goal to the scientific community. The use of different oils sources could be an interesting device due its polyunsaturated fatty acids composition. The chemical and fatty acid composition of rump cap (Biceps femoris from 35 Nellore young bulls finished at feedlot (96 days were analyzed. These animals were fed a control diet with sugar cane and concentrate without oil or diets containing sugar cane and concentrate with different sources of oil (soybean or linseed, protected or not from ruminal degradation. A randomized block design was adopted with five treatments and seven replications. The means were compared using orthogonal contrasts at 0.05 significance level. Animals fed diets with oil showed higher levels (P<0.05 of protein and lower levels (P<0.05 of ash than control diet. Lower cholesterol (P<0.05 levels resulted from linseed oil added treatment compared to soybean oil (37.70 and 43.80 mg/100 g, respectively; on the other hand, cholesterol levels increased (P<0.05 for protected oils compared to non-protected (44.53 and 33.97 mg/100 g. Oil added diets resulted in higher (P<0.05 linolenic acid levels. Linseed oil increased (P<0.05 the levels of the fatty acids C14:1, C16:1 and C18:1 n9. Addition of linseed oil, whether protected or not, to the animal diets improves the fatty acid composition of the rump cap by increasing the amount of omega-3 fatty acids and improving the omega-6:omega-3 ratio.

  8. Assessment of Light Pollution Impact on Protected Areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W.; He, G.; Ni, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The Protected Areas (PAs) with natural, ecological and cultural value play important role in biological processes, biodiversity and ecosystem service. During the past years of rapid urban expansion in China, the spatial range and intensity of light pollution unprecedented increase. Historically, optical remote sensing and field survey data had been used to reveal that human activities impacted on PAs for individual areas and few papers documented the issue of light pollution impact on PAs at national scale. Here, time series night-time light satellite images of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) were selected to assess the light pollution impacted on PAs in China. The method we proposed can be effectively applied to assess the impact of light pollution on PAs and the percent of dark PAs decreased by 35.38 % from 1992 to 2012 at nationwide. The trend of light pollution of most PAs in stable, however, light pollution of the local area is increase significantly, especially in northern Xinjiang, Gansu, Xizang, Yunnan, Jiangsu and Shandong. Considering the current status of light pollution encroach into PAs, two strategies of appropriate buffer zone and wide measured for light pollution are also recommend.

  9. Transformation products in the life cycle impact assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A J; van de Meent, Dik

    2010-02-01

    The current life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of chemicals focuses only on the fate and effects of the parent compound, neglecting the potential impact of transformation products. Here, we assess the importance of including the potential impact of transformation products in the calculation of characterization factors (CF). The developed method is applied to freshwater ecotoxicity for 15 pesticides and perchloroethylene, which are all known to have potentially persistent transformation products. The inclusion of transformation products resulted in a median increase in CF that varied from negligible to more than 5 orders of magnitude. This increase, however, can be highly uncertain, particularly due to a lack of toxicity data for transformation products and a lack of mode of action-specific data. We show in a case study that replacement of atrazine with other pesticides for application on corn results in a median impact score of 2 orders of magnitude lower when the fate and effects of only the parent compounds are included. When transformation products are included, the reduction in median impact score would likely be lower (less than 1 order of magnitude). An uncertainty analysis showed that the difference in impact scores of atrazine and the atrazine replacements was not statistically significant when only the parent chemical was considered. When transformation products were included, the uncertainty in impact scores was even greater.

  10. Sustainability Assessment of Plant Protection Strategies in Swiss Winter Wheat and Potato Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Mouron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of arable crops in Switzerland is subsidized for services performed within the Proof of Ecological Performance (PEP program, the crop protection part of which is based on IPM principles. Within PEP, chemical insect control must rely on those approved insecticides that are deemed harmless for beneficial arthropods. Approved insecticides potentially impacting beneficial arthropods may also be applied, but only if unavoidable and with an official permit. In order to assess the ecological and economic sustainability of this PEP program, a reference insecticide strategy illustrating the current PEP requirements was compared with other strategies. For this purpose, a sustainability assessment taking account of ecotoxicological risks and economic viability in addition to the preservation of beneficial arthropods was performed according to the SustainOS methodology. The results show that the one-off use of Audienz (spinosad to control cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus—a key pest in winter wheat—would significantly improve sustainability vis-à-vis the reference (Nomolt (teflubenzuron plus Biscaya (thiacloprid. However, in the case of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in potato crops, where Audienz is considered the reference, no alternative would exhibit better sustainability. Moreover, the study shows that strategies using Novodor (Bacillus thuringiensis protect beneficial species well but have the drawbacks of increased yield risk and higher costs. The conclusions drawn from these analyses allow recommendations for modifications of the PEP requirements for these two pest insects. The SustainOS methodology, a multi-step process combining expert knowledge with quantitative assessments including a sensitivity analysis of key target parameters and a rule-based aggregation of assessment results, yielded valuable insights into the sustainability of different crop protection strategies.

  11. Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J William

    2007-04-11

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors: Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing

  12. [ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT OF THE CHEMICAL RISK AND ITS PREVENTION IN MANUFACTURE OF REFRACTORIES USING ORGANIC BINDER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugova, O G; Roslyĭ, O F; Ust'iantsev, S B

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the occupational chemical risk of new industries and the development of measures for its mitigation is a priority task to ensure chemical safety in Russia. There was performed the assessment of the chemical risk in the manufacture of new types of refractories--periclase-carbon refractories, using organic binder) on the base of data of hygiene studies, indices of morbidity rates in workers and also of the investigation of the impact of such refractory dust on laboratory animals (intratracheal introduction). The main factors for chemical risk to the workers' health are magnesium oxide, volatile products of phenol-formaldehyde resins, silicon-containing dust, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and in the use of a binder "Carbores"--benzo (a) pyrene and pitch cokes of the carbon dust. In employees of such industry there is recorded the elevated morbidity rate of diseases of upper respiratory rates. Dust of this type has on the body of animals general toxic and mild fibrogenic effect. According to the results of the assessment of the chemical risk measures have been developed for its mitigation in the workplace.

  13. 78 FR 34377 - Trichloroethylene TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Risk Assessment for Trichloroethylene: Degreaser and Arts/Crafts Uses.'' EPA will hold three peer..., including one entitled, ``TSCA Workplan Chemical Risk Assessment for Trichloroethylene: Degreaser and Arts...

  14. Hemijski udesi i procena rizika / Chemical accidents and hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Biočanin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Brojni su udesi vezani za transport i upotrebu hemijskih materija. Ova činjenica je važna i zbog toga što se naša zemlja nalazi na raskrsnici značajnih svetskih komunikacija kojima se ovakvi tereti prevoze. Veliki broj vrsta hemijskih materija može znatno da naruši životnu sredinu za duži period. Ovaj rad, kroz različite parametre, nastoji da prouči takvu mogućnost i ukaže na načine za prevenciju sličnih događaja i zaštitu stanovništva u miru i tokom ratnih dejstava. Ostvarenje projekta jedinstvenog sistema ABHO daje mogućnost da se, korišćenjem savremene opreme za komunikaciju i efikasnih jedinica za brzo reagovanje u realnom vremenu, uspešno obavi monitoring opasnosti, uzbunjivanje, zaštita i dekontaminacija. / There is a growing number of accidents involving hazardous chemical substances during transportation. Serbia and Montenegro are at the crossroads of numerous important European transport links where a lot of such transports pass through. A great number of such substances can considerably damage environment for a very long period of time. This paper studies such events applying different parameters; it tries to point at successful prevention and protection from this threat at peace, as well as during war operations. The realization of the universal and united system of the NBCD of the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, together with modern communication equipment and very effective mobile units, enables on - time reaction and successful monitoring, alarming, protection and decontamination.

  15. Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application

  16. Report: Source Water Assessment and Protection Programs Show Initial Promise, But Obstacles Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2005-P-00013, March 28, 2005. Source water assessments are being used by (1) some States to improve the overall drinking water protection program by prioritizing protection efforts and program resources.

  17. 78 FR 29375 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... SECURITY Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self- Assessment Questionnaire AGENCY... Information Collection Division (IICD), Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program will...: The PCII Program was created by Congress under the Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002...

  18. Protective Action Evaluator for Chemical Emergencies: A user's manual (MS-DOS reg sign Version 1. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, G.O.; Sharp, R.D.

    1990-10-01

    The protective action evaluator for chemical emergencies (PAECE) is a package of computer programs developed to simulate an emergency response to airborne release of chemical agents. This user's manual documents the use of PAECE in the evaluation of chemical agent emergencies in areas potentially affected by the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Planning Program (CSEPP). This research documents the development and use of a method for the evaluation of protective action alternatives in conjunction with potential chemical agent emergencies. The user's manual highlights the development of the PAECE model, the selection of appropriate parameters to represent various scenarios, generate results and interpret them in the analysis of protective action alternatives during the planning and preparedness phases of the CSEPP. The PAECE model is designed to evaluate protective actions in the context of potential accidents, the emergency management systems required to implement protective actions, and the anticipated consequences for human receptors. The implications and uncertainties of the model are discussed to provide potential users with insight into the use, limitations, and uncertainties associated with evaluating the effectiveness of protective action alternatives. While PAECE represents a unique and powerful tool to evaluate protective actions, the user must exercise caution when interpreting the results to avoid misrepresentation. The expected value interpretation of the PAECE results biases the results toward extreme values. Hence, the PAECE results have to be interpreted in the context exposures similar to those represented by the unprotected exposure and the protection capacity that tend to be associated with people completing the implementation of the required actions later than and earlier than average, respectively. 16 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab. (JF)

  19. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: comparative aspects and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorne, J L C M; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Specialized bees fail to develop on non-host pollen: do plants chemically protect their pollen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praz, Christophe J; Müller, Andreas; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    Bees require large amounts of pollen for their own reproduction. While several morphological flower traits are known to have evolved to protect plants against excessive pollen harvesting by bees, little is known on how selection to minimize pollen loss acts on the chemical composition of pollen. In this study, we traced the larval development of four solitary bee species, each specialized on a different pollen source, when reared on non-host pollen by transferring unhatched eggs of one species onto the pollen provisions of another species. Pollen diets of Asteraceae and Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae) proved to be inadequate for all bee species tested except those specialized on these plants. Further, pollen of Sinapis (Brassicaceae) and Echium (Boraginaceae) failed to support larval development in one bee species specialized on Campanula (Campanulaceae). Our results strongly suggest that pollen of these four taxonomic groups possess protective properties that hamper digestion and thus challenge the general view of pollen as an easy-to-use protein source for flower visitors.

  1. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tranquilli

    Full Text Available Numerous protected areas (PAs have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  2. Assessing protection against radiation exposure after prostate (125)I brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Takashi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Kikumura, Riki; Ohashi, Toshio; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    To expand the radiation dose rate measurement data set by measuring radiation under various prostate (125)I brachytherapy situations. Measurements were obtained from 63 consecutive unselected patients at Tokyo Medical Center, Japan. Differences in factors during measurements, such as body postures, distances from the skin surface, and measurement directions were considered. Furthermore, shielding effects of lead-lined underwear, consisting mainly of 0.1-mm thickness of lead, were also assessed. Radiation exposure varies according to the patient's body posture, with results differing as much as approximately 40.0% in measured radiation dose rates at 30cm from the anterior skin surface. Weight, body mass index, and tissue thickness showed good correlations with measured radiation dose rates. The magnitude of radiation exposure attenuation by shielding was approximately 95.8%, similar to the attenuation ratio based on tissue measurements made in the lateral direction. The respective mean times required to reach 1mSv were 1.2, 7.6, and 65.4 days in the standing position and 0.6, 4.6, and 40.4 days in the supine position at the site of contact, and at 30 and 100cm from the anterior skin surface. This study obtained supplemental information pertaining to radiological protection and confirmed that shielding can be an effective tool for reducing exposures. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical hazards in health care: high hazard, high risk, but low protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, Melissa A

    2006-09-01

    It is counter-intuitive that the healthcare industry, whose mission is the care of the sick, is itself a "high-hazard" industry for the workers it employs. Possessing every hazard class, with chemical agents in the form of pharmaceuticals, sterilants, and germicidals in frequent use, this industry sector consistently demonstrates poor injury and illness statistics, among the highest in the United States, and in the European Union (EU), 34% higher than the average work-related accident rate. In both the United States and the EU, about 10% of all workers are employed in the healthcare sector, and in developing countries as well, forecasts for the increasing need of healthcare workers (HCW) suggests a large population at potential risk of health harm. The explosion of technology growth in the healthcare sector, most obvious in pharmaceutical applications, has not been accompanied by a stepped up safety program in hospitals. Where there is hazard recognition, the remedies are often voluntary, and often poorly enforced. The wrong assumption that this industry would police itself, given its presumed knowledge base, has also been found wanting. The healthcare industry is also a significant waste generator threatening the natural environment with chemical and infectious waste and products of incineration. The ILO has recommended that occupational health goals for industrial nations focus on the hazards of new technology of which pharma and biopharma products are the leaders. This unchecked growth cannot continue without a parallel commitment to the health and safety of workers encountering these "high tech" hazards. Simple strategies to improve the present state include: (a) recognizing healthcare as a "high-hazard" employment sector; (b) fortifying voluntary safety guidelines to the level of enforceable regulation; (c) "potent" inspections; (d) treating hazardous pharmaceuticals like the chemical toxicants they are; and (e) protecting HCWs at least as well as workers in

  4. Use of the ecosystem services concept in ecological risk assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Valery E; Calow, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The reason for expressing ecological protection goals in terms of ecosystem services is to make a connection between ecosystems and what people get out of them in terms of marketed goods and nonmarketed welfare. Here our focus will be on how the ecosystem services framework is and can be applied to the ecological risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals. We provide 2 contrasting examples of how the ecosystem services framework is currently being applied in regulatory risk assessment, and we discuss the challenges and knowledge gaps that need to be addressed if such a framework is to substantially improve ERAs and their ability to inform management decisions. We make the point that formulating protection goals in terms of ecosystem services only makes sense if they can be used in managing environmental impacts and if they are useful in informing the risk assessments behind these. Ecosystem services can make a contribution to management by connecting ecosystem structure and process to what is valued, and analyzing risk in this context is a way of making risk assessment more policy- and value-relevant. Using an ecosystem services framework to its fullest potential to support ERA will require the successful development of a suite of coupled Valuation Methods, Ecological Production Functions, and Mechanistic Effect Models that will require the establishment of strong multidisciplinary collaborations among ecologists, computer scientists, social scientists, and possibly others. In addition, buy-in from environmental decision makers and other stakeholders will be crucial. Some progress is being made on the research front, and the implementation of new legislation is providing incentives for developing risk assessment outputs that are much more directly related to environmental protection goals than those used currently. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  5. Vulnerability assessment of chemical industry facilities in South Korea based on the chemical accident history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, S.; Lee, W. K.; Jong-Ryeul, S.; Kim, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The use of chemical compounds are keep increasing because of their use in manufacturing industry. Chemical accident is growing as the consequence of the chemical use increment. Devastating damages from chemical accidents are far enough to aware people's cautious about the risk of the chemical accident. In South Korea, Gumi Hydrofluoric acid leaking accident triggered the importance of risk management and emphasized the preventing the accident over the damage reducing process after the accident occurs. Gumi accident encouraged the government data base construction relate to the chemical accident. As the result of this effort Chemical Safety-Clearing-house (CSC) have started to record the chemical accident information and damages according to the Harmful Chemical Substance Control Act (HCSC). CSC provide details information about the chemical accidents from 2002 to present. The detail informations are including title of company, address, business type, accident dates, accident types, accident chemical compounds, human damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, human damage outside of the chemical industry facilities, financial damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, and financial damages outside of the chemical industry facilities, environmental damages and response to the chemical accident. Collected the chemical accident history of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and provide the spatial information to the each accident records based on their address. With the spatial information, compute the data on ArcGIS for the spatial-temporal analysis. The spatial-temporal information of chemical accident is organized by the chemical accident types, damages, and damages on environment and conduct the spatial proximity with local community and environmental receptors. Find the chemical accident vulnerable area of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and add the vulnerable area of total period to examine the historically vulnerable area from the chemical accident in

  6. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  7. A novel approach: chemical relational databases, and the role of the ISSCAN database on assessing chemical carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Richard, Ann M; Yang, Chihae

    2008-01-01

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did not contain chemical structures. Concepts and technologies originated from the structure-activity relationships science have provided powerful tools to create new types of databases, where the effective linkage of chemical toxicity with chemical structure can facilitate and greatly enhance data gathering and hypothesis generation, by permitting: a) exploration across both chemical and biological domains; and b) structure-searchability through the data. This paper reviews the main public databases, together with the progress in the field of chemical relational databases, and presents the ISSCAN database on experimental chemical carcinogens.

  8. Field tests for assessing electrical protection performance regarding electromechanical protection relays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo Esteves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes designing and using a series of field tests (such as pick-up test and operating characteristics aimed at ascertaining the correct operation of relays’ electromechanical protection. The characteristic elements involved in adjusting electromechanical protection relays are presented.

  9. A Novel Approach: Chemical Relational Databases, and the Role of the ISSCAN Database on Assessing Chemical Carcinogenity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did no...

  10. Potential for MERLIN-Expo, an advanced tool for higher tier exposure assessment, within the EU chemical legislative frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suciu, Nicoleta, E-mail: nicoleta.suciu@unicatt.it [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza (Italy); Tediosi, Alice [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Ciffroy, Philippe [Electricité de France (EDF) R& D, National Hydraulic and Environment Laboratory, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France); Altenpohl, Annette [Österreichisches Normungsinstitut/Austrian Standards Institute, Heinestraße 38, 1020 Wien (Austria); Brochot, Céline [INERIS, Parc ALATA, BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Verdonck, Frederik [ARCHE cvba, Liefkensstraat 35d, 9032 Gent-Wondelgem (Belgium); Ferrari, Federico [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Giubilato, Elisa [University Ca Foscari Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre-Venice (Italy); Capri, Ettore [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza (Italy); Fait, Gabriella [EFSA, via Carlo Magno 1/a, 43126 Parma (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    MERLIN-Expo merges and integrates advanced exposure assessment methodologies, allowing the building of complex scenarios involving several pollution sources and targets. The assessment of exposure and risks to human health from chemicals is of major concern for policy and ultimately benefits all citizens. The development and operational fusion of the advanced exposure assessment methodologies envisaged in the MERLIN-Expo tool will have a significant impact in the long term on several policies dealing with chemical safety management. There are more than 30 agencies in Europe related to exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals, which have an important role in implementing EU policies, having especially tasks of technical, scientific, operational and/or regulatory nature. The main purpose of the present paper is to introduce MERLIN-Expo and to highlight its potential for being effectively integrated within the group of tools available to assess the risk and exposure of chemicals for EU policy. The main results show that the tool is highly suitable for use in site-specific or local impact assessment, with minor modifications it can also be used for Plant Protection Products (PPPs), biocides and REACH, while major additions would be required for a comprehensive application in the field of consumer and worker exposure assessment. - Highlights: • Exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals • Coupling environmental exposure and pharmacokinetic models • MERLIN-expo as a higher tier exposure tool • MERLIN-expo potential application in EU chemical regulations • EU legislations and policies related to risk assessment and management of chemicals.

  11. Can water quality of tubewells be assessed without chemical testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad A.; Butler, Adrian P.

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic is one of the major pollutants found in aquifers on a global scale. The screening of tubewells for arsenic has helped many people to avoid drinking from highly polluted wells in the Bengal Delta (West Bengal and Bangladesh). However, there are still many millions of tubewells in Bangladesh yet to be tested, and a substantial proportion of these are likely to contain excessive arsenic. Due to the level of poverty and lack of infrastructure, it is unlikely that the rest of the tubewells will be tested quickly. However, water quality assessment without needing a chemical testing may be helpful in this case. Studies have found that qualitative factors, such as staining in the tubewell basement and/or on utensils, can indicate subsurface geology and water quality. The science behind this staining is well established, red staining is associated with iron reduction leading to release of arsenic whilst black staining is associated with manganese reduction (any release of arsenic due to manganese reduction is sorbed back on the, yet to be reduced, iron), whereas mixed staining may indicate overlapping manganese and iron reduction at the tubewell screen. Reduction is not uniform everywhere and hence chemical water quality including dissolved arsenic varies from place to place. This is why coupling existing tubewell arsenic information with user derived staining data could be useful in predicting the arsenic status at a particular site. Using well location, depth, along with colour of staining, an assessment of both good (nutrients) and bad (toxins and pathogens) substances in the tubewell could be provided. Social-network technology, combined with increasing use of smartphones, provides a powerful opportunity for both sharing and providing feedback to the user. Here we outline how a simple digital application can couple the reception both qualitative and quantitative tubewell data into a centralised interactive database and provide manipulated feedback to an

  12. Evaluation of a chemical risk assessment method of South Korea for chemicals classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic or reprotoxic (CMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Uk; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2017-12-12

    Chemicals were used in various fields by the development of industry and science and technology. The Chemical Hazard Risk Management (CHARM) was developed to assess the risk of chemicals in South Korea. In this study, we were to evaluate the CHARM model developed for the effective management of workplace chemicals. We used 59 carcinogenic, mutagenic or reprotoxic (CMR) materials, which are both the work environment measurement result and the usage information among the manufacturer data. The CHARM model determines the risk to human health using the exposure level (based on working environment measurements or a combination of the quantity used and chemical physical properties (e.g., fugacity and volatility)), hazard (using occupational exposure limit (OEL) or Risk phrases (R-phrases)/Hazard statements (H-statements) from the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)). The risk level was lower when using the results of the work environment measurement than when applying the chemical quantity and physical properties in the exposure level evaluation method. It was evaluated as grade 4 for the CMR material in the hazard class determination. The risk assessment method by R-phrases was evaluated more conservatively than the risk assessment method by OEL. And the risk assessment method by H-statements was evaluated more conservatively than the risk assessment method by R-phrases. The CHARM model was gradually conservatively assessed as it proceeded in the next step without quantitative information for individual workplaces. The CHARM is expected to help identify the risk if the hazards and exposure levels of chemicals were identified in individual workplaces. For CMR substances, although CHARM is highly evaluated for hazards, the risk is assessed to be low if exposure levels are assessed low. When evaluating the risk of highly hazardous chemicals such as CMR substances, we believe the model should be adapted to be more conservative and classify these as higher risk.

  13. Broad target chemical screening approach used as tool for rapid assessment of groundwater quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laak, T.L.; Puijker, L.M.; van Leerdam, J.A.; Raat, K.J.; Kolkman, A.; de Voogt, P.; van Wezel, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The chemical water quality is often assessed by screening for a limited set of target chemicals. This ‘conventional’ target analysis approach inevitably misses chemicals present in the samples. In this study a ‘broad’ target screening approach for water quality assessment using high resolution and

  14. Radiological and chemical assessment of phosphate rocks in some countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, U., E-mail: ugurc@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, Trabzon (Turkey); Baltas, H. [Rize University, Department of Physics, Rize (Turkey); Tabak, A. [Rize University, Department of Chemistry, Rize (Turkey); Damla, N. [Batman University, Department of Physics, Batman (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, the radiological, structural and chemical characterizations of Mardin-Mazidagi phosphate rock, which is an important phosphate fertilizer source in Turkey were investigated and compared to those of several different phosphate rocks of Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria and Syria using gamma spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement techniques. Elemental analysis results of phosphate samples showed that they were mainly composed of CaO, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SO{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Elemental concentrations of U and Th were calculated using {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th activity concentrations, respectively. As a result of XRD analysis, the main peaks of the samples were found to be Fluorapatite (Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F). The radioactivity concentration levels for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in all phosphate samples ranged from 250 to 1029 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean of 535 Bq kg{sup -1}, from 5 to 50 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean of 20 Bq kg{sup -1} and from 117 to 186 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean of 148 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The computed values of annual effective doses ranged from 0.17 to 0.59 mSv, with a mean value of 0.33 mSv, which is lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  15. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  16. Assessment of Hazardous Chemicals Risk in Fur Industry in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Birutė Vaitelytė; Jolanta Dvarionienė

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the research on the possibilities of hazardous chemicals replacement with less hazardous substances. This issue has become of special importance to industrial companies after the adoption of the REACH Regulation. The article examines fur industry and traditional chemicals used in it, namely, sodium dichromate, formaldehyde, and naphthalene. Because of their properties these chemicals are pretending to be included in the REACH Regulation lists of the authorised chemicals....

  17. Assessing preferential flow by simultaneously injecting nanoparticle and chemical tracers

    KAUST Repository

    Subramanian, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    The exact manner in which preferential (e.g., much faster than average) flow occurs in the subsurface through small fractures or permeable connected pathways of other kinds is important to many processes but is difficult to determine, because most chemical tracers diffuse quickly enough from small flow channels that they appear to move more uniformly through the rock than they actually do. We show how preferential flow can be assessed by injecting 2 to 5 nm carbon particles (C-Dots) and an inert KBr chemical tracer at different flow rates into a permeable core channel that is surrounded by a less permeable matrix in laboratory apparatus of three different designs. When the KBr tracer has a long enough transit through the system to diffuse into the matrix, but the C-Dot tracer does not, the C-Dot tracer arrives first and the KBr tracer later, and the separation measures the degree of preferential flow. Tracer sequestration in the matrix can be estimated with a Peclet number, and this is useful for experiment design. A model is used to determine the best fitting core and matrix dispersion parameters and refine estimates of the core and matrix porosities. Almost the same parameter values explain all experiments. The methods demonstrated in the laboratory can be applied to field tests. If nanoparticles can be designed that do not stick while flowing through the subsurface, the methods presented here could be used to determine the degree of fracture control in natural environments, and this capability would have very wide ranging value and applicability.

  18. 77 FR 74678 - Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Collection Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP/ISCD Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Program... include trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability... to the DHS/NPPD/IP/ISCD Chemical Facility Anti- Terrorism Standards Program Manager at the Department...

  19. 78 FR 16694 - Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), Sensitive Security Information (SSI), or... of high-risk chemical facilities. On April 9, 2007, the Department issued an Interim Final Rule (IFR... 2007 requires a risk-based approach to security. The Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS...

  20. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Black

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10−6 range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children’s beach play habits, which are

  1. Assessment of protection and comparative advantage in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    added rice as well as analyze the comparative advantage and competitiveness of rice processing in Nigeria. The extent of policy distortion and agricultural protection was also determined by the study. The data were collected from Ebonyi State, ...

  2. Risk Assessment of Micro Energy Grid Protection Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Hossam A. Gabbar; Yahya Koraz

    2017-01-01

    Micro energy grids (MEGs) are used extensively to meet the combined electricity, heating, and cooling energy demands for all types of customers. This paper develops a hazard matrix for a MEG and utilizes two advanced risk modeling approaches (fault tree and layer of protection analysis (LOPA)) for MEGs’ risk analysis. A number of independent protection layers (IPLs) have been proposed to achieve a resilient MEG, hence increasing its safety integrity level (SIL). IPLs are applied using co-gene...

  3. Resistance of Type 5 chemical protective clothing against nanometric airborne particles: behaviour of seams and zipper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinches, Ludwig; Hallé, Stéphane

    2017-08-21

    In the field of dermal protection, the use of chemical protective clothing (CPC) (including coveralls) are considered as the last barrier against airborne engineered nanomaterials (ENM). In the majority of cases, type 5 CPC, used against solid particles (ISO 13982-1), perform well against ENM. But in a recent study, a penetration level (PL) of up to 8.5% of polydisperse sodium chloride airborne nanoparticles has been measured. Moreover, in all the previous studies, tests were performed on a sample of protective clothing material without seams or zippers. Thus, the potential for permeation through a zipper or seams has not yet been determined, even though these areas would be privileged entry points for airborne ENM. This work was designed to evaluate the PL of airborne ENM through coveralls and specifically the PL through the seams on different parts of the CPC and the zipper. Eight current models of CPC (type 5) were selected. The samples were taken from places with and without seams and with a zipper. In some cases, a cover strip can be added to the zipper to enhance its sealing. Polydisperse nanoparticles were generated by nebulization of a sodium chloride solution. A penetration cell was developed to expose the sample to airborne nanometric particles. The NaCl particle concentration in number was measured with an ultrafine particle counter and the PL was defined as the downstream concentration divided by the upstream concentration. The results obtained show that the PL increased significantly in the presence of seams and could reach up to 90% depending on the seam's design. Moreover, this study classifies the different types of seams by their resistance against airborne ENM. As for the penetration of airborne NaCl particles through the zipper, the PL was greatly attenuated by the presence of a cover strip, but only for certain models of coveralls. Finally, the values of the pressure drop were directly linked to the type of seam. All of these conclusions provide

  4. Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM: Groundwater Risk Assessment Model for Wellfield Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A groundwater risk assessment was carried out for 30 potable water supply systems under a framework of protecting drinking water quality across South Australia. A semi-quantitative Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM was developed based on a “multi-barrier” approach using likelihood of release, contaminant pathway and consequence equation. Groundwater vulnerability and well integrity have been incorporated to the pathway component of the risk equation. The land use of the study basins varies from protected water reserves to heavily stocked grazing lands. Based on the risk assessment, 15 systems were considered as low risk, four as medium and 11 systems as at high risk. The GRAM risk levels were comparable with indicator bacteria—total coliform—detection. Most high risk systems were the result of poor well construction and casing corrosion rather than the land use. We carried out risk management actions, including changes to well designs and well operational practices, design to increase time of residence and setting the production zone below identified low permeable zones to provide additional barriers to contaminants. The highlight of the risk management element is the well integrity testing using down hole geophysical methods and camera views of the casing condition.

  5. Power supply risk assessment method for relay protection system faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuyou Si

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence and the potential risk due to hidden faults of a relay protection system on power supply in distribution systems are paid more and more attention to. A probability analysis method is used to analyse fault characteristics and action mechanism of dominant faults, hidden misoperation and non-operation of the relay protection systems, and failure probability model of relay protection system is constructed and simplified. The effects of dominant faults, hidden misoperation and non-operation of the relay protection systems on the reduced power supply load power are analysed, and a probabilistic model for reduced power supply load power is constructed by three parts corresponding to dominant faults, hidden misoperation and non-operation. A probability calculation method of power supply risk occurrence due to hidden faults of relay protecttion system is proposed considering the fault probability of the relay protection systems, the frequency of the hidden faults occurring in operation period, the reduced power supply load power or load power outage, and the connection mode of the in-lines, out-lines and transformers in a substation. The feasibility and applicability of the proposed method for estimation of risk value probability of the relay protection systems is verified by two studied examples.

  6. Toxico-Cheminformatics: New and Expanding Public Resources to Support Chemical Toxicity Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput screening (HTS) technologies, along with efforts to improve public access to chemical toxicity information resources and to systematize older toxicity studies, have the potential to significantly improve information gathering efforts for chemical assessments and p...

  7. Assessing Protective Factors for Violence Risk in U.K. General Mental Health Services Using the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Alina; Brown, Andrew; Javaid, Syed Fahad; Khan, Fayyaz; Noblett, Steve; Omodunbi, Oladipupo; Sadiq, Khurram; Zaman, Wahid; Whittington, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Violence risk assessment and management are key tasks in mental health services and should be guided by validated instruments covering both risk and protective factors. This article is part of an international effort to validate the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors (SAPROF) for violence. The SAPROF, Historical, Clinical, Risk Management-20 (HCR-20) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Screening Version (PCL-SV) were administered in a sample of 261 patients in U.K. forensic, general inpatient, and community mental health settings. There was significant variation between these groups on SAPROF scores with fewer protective factors in the forensic group. The prospective validity of the SAPROF for nonviolence in the general inpatient and community samples was moderate (area under the curve [AUC] = .60). Adoption of the SAPROF or similar instruments as a supplement to risk-focused assessments has the potential to improve awareness of protective factors and enhance therapeutic engagement in a range of mental health services.

  8. Contact lens wear with the USAF protective integrated hood/mask chemical defense ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, R.J.; Miller, R.E. II; Peterson, R.D.; Jackson, W.G. Jr. (USAF, Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX (United States))

    1992-07-01

    The Protective Integrated Hood/Mask (PIHM) chemical defense aircrew ensemble blows air from the mask's plenum across the visor at a rate of approximately 15 L/min in order to prevent fogging of the visor and to cool the aircrew member's face. This study was designed to determine the effect of the PIHM airflow on soft contact lens (SCL) dehydration, contact lens comfort, and corneal integrity. There were 26 subjects who participated in this study: 15 SCL wearers, six rigid gas-permeable (RGP) wearers, and five nonspectacle wearing controls. Contrast acuity with the three Regan charts, subjective comfort, and relative humidity (RH) and temperature readings under the PIHM mask were monitored every 0.5 h during 6-h laboratory rides. Slit-lamp examinations and SCL water content measurements with a hand-held Abbe refractometer were made before and after the rides. High RH under the mask may have accounted for the moderate SCL dehydration (8.3 percent), no decrease in contrast acuity for any group, and lack of corneal stress. Although all groups experienced some inferior, epithelial, punctate keratopathy, RGP wearers had the most significant effects. SCLs performed relatively well in the PIHM mask environment. Testing with other parameter designs is necessary before recommending RGPs with the PIHM system. 19 refs.

  9. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzani, Claudio

    This report provides an initial analysis of the occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the Italian metal and chemical industries. The first two chapters review the legislative background, situation in industry, and provision of environmental education and training. The third chapter presents results…

  10. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  11. A review of explosion prevention and protection systems suitable as ultimate layer of protection in chemical process installations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pekalski, A.A.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Lemkowitz, S.M.; Pasman, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Ideally, explosion risk is identified and prevented at an early stage of process design, forming a key part of the inherently safer design (ISD) approach. However, in practice, explosion risk often cannot be eliminated completely. Reliable preventive and protective systems must therefore be applied,

  12. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Office of pesticides programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner-Crisp, P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs is trying to develop a complete picture of a chemical`s toxicity and exposure profile. It is also important to share information in the office`s files because of pesticides, particularly as a consequence of agricultural use, find their way into places not necessarily intended.

  13. Chemical Analysis, Distributed Modelling and Risk Indices. Three Fundamental Pillars in Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Benfenati

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Risk Assessment (RA of pollutants from contaminated sites and landfills is a major environmental issue in Europe, due to the large number of sites and to the importance of groundwater protection. The high number of contaminants and the lack of knowledge of their environmental properties and their ecotoxicological and toxicological characteristics complicate the problem. Furthermore, this information about the chemicals has to be combined with the data relative to the territory and to the targets. We will describe the problems relative to each topic involved in the process, and we will propose an integrated methodology for coping with these problems, using state-of-the-art approaches in each part of the protocol. This methodology has been applied in several real cases.

  14. Endocrine disrupting chemicals research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: summary of a peer-review report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Anna K.; Daston, George P.; Boyd, Glen R.; Lucier, George W.; Safe, Stephen H.; Stewart, Juarine; Tillitt, Donald E.; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2006-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development, a subcommittee of the Board of Scientific Counselors Executive Committee conducted an independent and open peer review of the Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Research Program (EDC Research Program) of the U.S. EPA. The subcommittee was charged with reviewing the design, relevance, progress, scientific leadership, and resources of the program. The subcommittee found that the long-term goals and science questions in the EDC Program are appropriate and represent an understandable and solid framework for setting research priorities, representing a combination of problem-driven and core research. Long-term goal (LTG) 1, dealing with the underlying science surrounding endocrine disruptors, provides a solid scientific foundation for conducting risk assessments and making risk management decisions. LTG 2, dealing with defining the extent of the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has shown greater progress on ecologic effects of EDCs compared with that on human health effects. LTG 3, which involves support of the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program of the U.S. EPA, has two mammalian tests already through a validation program and soon available for use. Despite good progress, we recommend that the U.S. EPA a) strengthen their expertise in wildlife toxicology, b) expedite validation of the Endocrine Disruptors Screening and Testing Advisory Committee tests, c) continue dependable funding for the EDC Research Program, d) take a leadership role in the application of “omics” technologies to address many of the science questions critical for evaluating environmental and human health effects of EDCs, and e) continue to sponsor multidisciplinary intramural research and interagency collaborations.

  15. Environmental effect assessment for sexual endocrine-disrupting chemicals: Fish testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knacker, Thomas; Boettcher, Melanie; Frische, Tobias; Rufli, Hans; Stolzenberg, Hans-Christian; Teigeler, Matthias; Zok, Sabine; Braunbeck, Thomas; Schäfers, Christoph

    2010-10-01

    Current standard testing and assessment tools are not designed to identify specific and biologically highly sensitive modes of action of chemicals, such as endocrine disruption. This information, however, can be important to define the relevant endpoints for an assessment and to characterize thresholds of their sublethal, population-relevant effects. Starting a decade ago, compound-specific risk assessment procedures were amended by specifically addressing endocrine-disrupting properties of substances. In 2002, the Conceptual Framework, agreed upon by OECD's Task Force on Endocrine Disrupters Testing and Assessment, did not propose specific testing strategies, and appropriate testing methods had not yet been developed and approved. In the meantime, the OECD Test Guidelines Programme has undertaken important steps to revise established and to develop new test methods, which can be used to identify and quantify effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on mammals, birds, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates. For fish testing of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, the first Test Guidelines have recently been adopted by the OECD and validation of further test systems is under progress. Based on these test systems and the experience gained during their validation procedures, we propose a 3-step fish testing strategy: 1) Weight-of-evidence approach for identifying potential sexual endocrine-disrupting chemicals; even after advanced specification of systematic criteria, this step of establishing initial suspicion will still require expert judgment; 2) in vivo evaluation of sexual endocrine-disrupting activity in fish by applying in vivo fish screening assays; sufficient data are available to diagnose the aromatase-inhibition and estrogen-receptor agonist mechanisms of action by indicative endpoints (biomarkers), whereas the ability of the respective biomarkers in the screening assay to identify the estrogen-receptor antagonists and androgen-receptor agonists and antagonists

  16. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  17. Assessment of Infrared Remote Chemical Sensing Systems with Numeric Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, H.; McVey, B.; Schmitt, M.

    1998-11-01

    A general approach to the evaluation of remote chemical sensors is described that can be used to provide evaluation of the chemical detection in a particular chemical scenario. It will be used to make comparisons of a CO{sub 2} laser differential absorption lidar sensor and a passive thermal FTIR sensor. The focus of the study will be to evaluate the advantage of the FTIR sensor's increased spectral coverage and number of frequency channels.

  18. 78 FR 64936 - Dichloromethane and N-Methylpyrrolidone TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Rescheduled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... AGENCY Dichloromethane and N-Methylpyrrolidone TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Rescheduled... Risk Assessment for Dichloromethane and N-Methylpyrrolidone.'' The first meeting was held as scheduled... Workplan Chemical Risk Assessment for Dichloromethane and N-Methylpyrrolidone,'' please see the notice that...

  19. Revealing ecological risks of priority endocrine disrupting chemicals in four marine protected areas in Hong Kong through an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis Genbo; Ho, Philip Wing-Lok; Tse, Zero; Ho, Shu-Leong; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2016-08-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Hong Kong are situated in close proximity to urbanized areas, and inevitably influenced by wastewater discharges and antifouling biocides leached from vessels. Hence, marine organisms inhabiting these MPAs are probably at risk. Here an integrative approach was employed to comprehensively assess ecological risks of eight priority endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in four MPAs of Hong Kong. We quantified their concentrations in environmental and biota samples collected in different seasons during 2013-2014, while mussels (Septifer virgatus) and semi-permeable membrane devices were deployed to determine the extent of accumulation of the EDCs. Extracts from the environmental samples were subjected to the yeast estrogen screen and a novel human cell-based catechol-O-methyltransferase ELISA to evaluate their estrogenic activities. The results indicated ecological risks of EDCs in the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve. This integrated approach can effectively evaluate ecological risks of EDCs through linking their concentrations to biological effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Targeted expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL in skin protects mice against chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronemeyer Hinrich

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene ablation studies have revealed that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, Apo2L, TNFSF10 plays a crucial role in tumor surveillance, as TRAIL-deficient mice exhibit an increased sensitivity to different types of tumorigenesis. In contrast, possible tumor-protective effect of increased levels of endogenous TRAIL expression in vivo has not been assessed yet. Such models will provide important information about the efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies and potential toxicity in specific tissues. Methods To this aim, we engineered transgenic mice selectively expressing TRAIL in the skin and subjected these mice to a two-step chemical carcinogenesis protocol that generated benign and preneoplastic lesions. We were therefore able to study the effect of increased TRAIL expression at the early steps of skin tumorigenesis. Results Our results showed a delay of tumor appearance in TRAIL expressing mice compared to their wild-type littermates. More importantly, the number of tumors observed in transgenic animals was significantly lower than in the control animals, and the lesions observed were mostly benign. Interestingly, Wnt/β-catenin signaling differed between tumors of wild-type and TRAIL transgenics. Conclusion Altogether, these data reveal that, at least in this model, TRAIL is able on its own to act on pre-transformed cells, and reduce their tumorigenic potential.

  1. Assessing the impacts of distributed generation on the protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection scheme of a radial network fails incoordination when additional powersource is provided to the network via distributed generator other than a single source of power. Trans Amadi, 33 kV radial distribution network in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, has manually operated isolators backing up circuit breakers at substation.

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of protected area management in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite expected benefits such as conservation, recreation or sustainable development, most protected areas (PAs) have serious problems in implementing basic management functions such as planning, organizing, coordination or control. In order to maximize management effectiveness, the World Wide Fund for Nature ...

  3. A review of human biomonitoring data used in regulatory risk assessment under Canada's Chemicals Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidek, Angelika; Macey, Kristin; MacKinnon, Leona; Patel, Mikin; Poddalgoda, Devika; Zhang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    As a part of the Chemicals Management Plan launched in 2006, the Government of Canada is assessing and managing, where appropriate, the potential health and ecological risks associated with approximately 4300 substances under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999). Since that time, nearly 3000 substances have been assessed, with human biomonitoring (HBM) data playing an increasingly important role for some substances. Case studies are presented, including both inorganic and organic substances (i.e., selenium, triclosan, phthalates), which highlight the impact and overall role HBM has had in regulatory decision making in Canada for these three substances as well as criteria used in the application of HBM data in human health risk assessment. An overview of its limitations in terms of how and when HBM data can be applied, when assessing human health in a regulatory setting, is discussed as well as the role HBM data can play in priority setting. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Models for risk assessment of reactive chemicals in aquatic toxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freidig, Andreas Peter

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for a,b-unsaturated carboxylates (mainly acrylates and methacrylates) was established in chapter 2. Chemical reaction rate constants were measured for 12 different chemicals with three different nucleophiles, namely H 2 O, OH - and glutathione

  5. Health risk assessment for chemical exposures of military interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Polhuijs, M.; Sijbranda, T.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in military operations is accompanied by health hazards resulting from exposure to chemical substances from natural and anthropogenic sources. Historically, focus on toxicological risks has been on the health effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents (CW A). In recent years the

  6. Heat exchange during encapsulation in a chemical warfare agent protective patient wrap in four hot environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, L.A.; Kolka, M.A.; Allan, A.E.; Santee, W.R.

    1988-04-01

    Tolerable encapsulation time in a Chemical Warfare Agent Protective Patient Wrap (dry insulative value = 1.44 clo; permeability index = 0.25) was determined in four hot environments including a simulated solar heat load (1152 W.m-2) for eight males. Mean body temperature (Tb), evaporative heat loss (EHL), dry heat gain (R + C), metabolic rate (M), and net heat flow (Msk) were measured or calculated from the heat balance equation. The ambient temperature (Ta) ranged from 54.7 degrees C (I) to 35.7 degrees C (IV) and the relative humidity ranged from 17% (I) to 63% (IV). EHL ranged from 173.5 W.m-2 (IV) to 277.8 W.m-2 (I) at min 30 of encapsulation. R + C ranged from -129 W.m-2 (IV) to -230 W.m-2 (I) at that time and Tb averaged 37.6(+/- 0.3) degrees C (IV) and 38.1(+/- 0.2) degrees C (I). The average time of encapsulation ranged from 61.8(+/- 0.2) degrees C (I). The average time of encapsulation ranged from 61.8(+/- 13.2) min (IV) to 38.4(+/- 5.0) min (I). A multiple linear regression equation to predict tolerable encapsulation was developed. These data show that tolerable encapsulation is severely limited in hot environments which have a marked solar heat load. A preliminary study (n = 2) indicated that encapsulation time in 54.7 degrees C/17%rh could be extended by some 23 min by covering the WRAP with wetted towels, thereby decreasing body heat storage by enhancing EHL from the surface of the WRAP.

  7. Chemical analysis and in vitro UV-protection characteristics of clays traditionally used for sun protection in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlova, Ncoza C; Nevondo, Funanani T; Mwangi, Elizabeth M; Summers, Beverley; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce; Martincigh, Bice S; Mulholland, Dulcie A

    2013-06-01

    Clays have been used in southern Africa as photoprotectants by the indigenous people. Typically, two types of clay are used: one white in colour and the other red. In this work, the two clays were identified and characterized, and their in vitro SPF values measured. The clays afford a low SPF but offer broad-spectrum protection. No cutaneous side effects from the use of these clays are known. Further consideration should be given to the potential use of clays in sunscreen preparations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Using ecological null models to assess the potential for marine protected area networks to protect biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice X Semmens

    Full Text Available Marine protected area (MPA networks have been proposed as a principal method for conserving biological diversity, yet patterns of diversity may ultimately complicate or compromise the development of such networks. We show how a series of ecological null models can be applied to assemblage data across sites in order to identify non-random biological patterns likely to influence the effectiveness of MPA network design. We use fish census data from Caribbean fore-reefs as a test system and demonstrate that: 1 site assemblages were nested, such that species found on sites with relatively few species were subsets of those found on sites with relatively many species, 2 species co-occurred across sites more than expected by chance once species-habitat associations were accounted for, and 3 guilds were most evenly represented at the richest sites and richness among all guilds was correlated (i.e., species and trophic diversity were closely linked. These results suggest that the emerging Caribbean marine protected area network will likely be successful at protecting regional diversity even if planning is largely constrained by insular, inventory-based design efforts. By recasting ecological null models as tests of assemblage patterns likely to influence management action, we demonstrate how these classic tools of ecological theory can be brought to bear in applied conservation problems.

  9. Ergonomic assessment of future methods of ballistic neck protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Clasper, Jon C

    2013-08-01

    Neck injuries from explosively propelled fragments are present in 11% of injured U.K. soldiers and result in significant mortality and long-term morbidity. U.S. forces in contrast sustain only neck wounds in 3 to 4% of those injured, which is believed to be because of their greater acceptance in the wearing of issued neck protection. A three-piece neck collar, two-piece neck collar, a nape pad, a ballistic scarf, and an enhanced protection under body armor shirt (EP-UBACS) reinforced at the collar were objectively compared during a treadmill test using physiological measurements. Designs were subjectively compared regarding their effect on soldier performance using representative military tasks. Both neck collars and the EP-UBACS prototype demonstrated 90% acceptability in terms of military task performance. No statistical difference in tympanic temperature and heart rate was found between prototypes. The statistically significant higher skin temperatures found for prototypes lying close to the skin (EP-UBACS and ballistic scarf) were unrelated to perceived comfort. Neck collars remain the most successful design in terms of military performance, comfort, and potential levels of ballistic protection. However the EP-UBACS concept should also be developed further, with future iterations potentially removing the zip and increasing skin standoff. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last...

  11. Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: A role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into regulatory assessments of chemical risk and injury requires an integrated examination of both chemical and non-chemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC, such as temperature, precipitation, salinity and pH...

  12. Assessment of health risks resulting from early-life exposures: Are current chemical toxicity testing protocols and risk assessment methods adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felter, Susan P; Daston, George P; Euling, Susan Y; Piersma, Aldert H; Tassinari, Melissa S

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Over the last couple of decades, the awareness of the potential health impacts associated with early-life exposures has increased. Global regulatory approaches to chemical risk assessment are intended to be protective for the diverse human population including all life stages. However, questions persist as to whether the current testing approaches and risk assessment methodologies are adequately protective for infants and children. Here, we review physiological and developmental differences that may result in differential sensitivity associated with early-life exposures. It is clear that sensitivity to chemical exposures during early-life can be similar, higher, or lower than that of adults, and can change quickly within a short developmental timeframe. Moreover, age-related exposure differences provide an important consideration for overall susceptibility. Differential sensitivity associated with a life stage can reflect the toxicokinetic handling of a xenobiotic exposure, the toxicodynamic response, or both. Each of these is illustrated with chemical-specific examples. The adequacy of current testing protocols, proposed new tools, and risk assessment methods for systemic noncancer endpoints are reviewed in light of the potential for differential risk to infants and young children.

  13. Chemical and radiological vulnerability assessment in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Božidar; Jovašević-Stojanović Milena

    2006-01-01

    Cities and towns are faced with various types of threat from the extraordinary events involving chemical and radiological materials as exemplified by major chemical accidents, radiological incidents, fires, explosions, traffic accidents, terrorist attacks, etc. On the other hand, many sensitive or vulnerable assets exist within cities, such as: settlements, infrastructures, hospitals, schools, churches, businesses, government, and others. Besides emergency planning, the land use planning also...

  14. Chemical and radiological vulnerability assessment in urban areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stojanović Božidar; Jovašević-Stojanović Milena

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper considers development of method for inclusion vulnerability assessment in land use planning with objective to assess and limit the consequences in cities of likely accidents involving...

  15. Are we going about chemical risk assessment for the aquatic environment the wrong way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C; Sumpter, John P

    2016-07-01

    The goal of protecting the aquatic environment through testing thousands of chemicals against hundreds of aquatic species with thousands of endpoints while also considering mixtures is impossible given the present resources. Much of the impetus for studies on micropollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, came from the topic of endocrine disruption in wild fish. But despite concern over reductions in fish fertility, there is little evidence that fish populations are in peril. Indeed, fish biologists suggest that many cyprinid populations have been recovering for the past 30 to 40 yr. The central assumption, key to current risk assessment, that effects observed in the laboratory or predicted by models are readily transferrable to the population level, is therefore questionable. The neglect in monitoring wildlife populations is the key weakness in environmental protection strategies. If we do not know whether aquatic wildlife species are declining or increasing, how valuable are our other ecotoxicological activities? Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1609-1616. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. Hematological, antioxidant and protective performance of Usnea longissima on chemical induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritt Verma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigated the hematological, antioxidant and protective performance of Usnea longissima (U. longissima on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals. Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced by CCl4 (1 mL/kg body weigt 1:1 CCl4 i.p., ethanolic U. longissima extracts at a doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weigt were administered to and compared with Silymarin (25 mg/kg body weigt and hematological, antioxidant and enzymatic, non-enzymatic parameters were assessed through the liver functions test. All the observation was also supplemented with histopathological examination of liver sections. Results: Phytochemical investigation showed that ethanolic extract contains poly phenolic compounds tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins and acute toxicity study shows that ethanolic extract was safe up to 2 000 mg/kg body weight. The toxicant induced a rise in the plasma enzyme levels of ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin level. This increased level was significantly decreased by the extract at 400 mg/kg body weight than 200 mg/kg body weight. The animals were prevented (partly or fully which was showed in the histopathological changes using ethonolic U. longissima extract. Conclusions: The outcome of this study reveals that, there is a powerful antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of U. longissima. It is believed that the present constituents are responsible for courting the hepatic disease and alternative components have the power to act as free radical scavenging properties.

  17. Chemical Mixtures Health Risk Assessment of Environmental Contaminants: Concepts, Methods, Applications: Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    This problems-based, half-day, introductory workshop focuses on methods to assess health risks posed by exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment. Chemical mixtures health risk assessment methods continue to be developed and evolve to address concerns over health risks f...

  18. Risk Assessment and Hierarchical Risk Management of Enterprises in Chemical Industrial Parks Based on Catastrophe Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenyu Liu; Yun Zhang; Shushen Zhang; Fenglin Yang; Guobao Song; Yu Chen

    2012-01-01

    According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP...

  19. Economic assessment of utilizing protective properties of level coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, A.F.; Batmanov, Yu.K.; Gainutdinov, I.A.

    1982-12-01

    Increasing mining depth negatively influences mining efficiency and safety. At depths to 600 m 10% of coal comes from seams prone to rock bursts. At depths exceeding 600 m proportion of coal from seams prone to rock bursts increases to 40%. Investigations carried out in Ukrainian coal mines show that coal losses (due to rock burst hazard) in level seams mined by a longwall system amount to 4.6 Mt per year. Cost of rock burst prevention and repairs after rock bursts amounts to 12 million rubles per year. About 68% of coal from level coal seams comes from long coal pillars mined by a longwall system. In level coal seams prone to rock bursts this proportion is 40% lower (proportion of longwall mining is reduced due to increased rock burst hazards). Only 10% of coal seams prone to rock bursts are mined using a system of stress relaxation by cutting another overlying or underlying coal seam (utilizing protective properties of a coal seam). A method for economic analysis of protective properties of coal seams in seam groups is described. Using the method the optimum order of mining coal seams in a seam group is determined. Examples of the method's use are analyzed. (3 refs.) (In Russian)

  20. Method of assessment quality protective and decorative coating concrete cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganina Valentina Ivanovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The technique of assessing the quality of the painted surface of cement concrete. The technique is based on acceptance sampling quality and is to determine the average and standard deviation (SD of quantitative assessments of various quality parameters and calculating the real defect level (percentage of defective surface of the total area for each indicator. The formulas for calculating the defect level. The critical fraction nonconforming surface area coverage for individual properties.

  1. Including exposure variability in the life cycle impact assessment of indoor chemical emissions: the case of metal degreasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsteijn, Laura; Huizer, Daan; Hauck, Mara; van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-10-01

    The present paper describes a method that accounts for variation in indoor chemical exposure settings and accompanying human toxicity in life cycle assessment (LCA). Metal degreasing with dichloromethane was used as a case study to show method in practice. We compared the human toxicity related to the degreasing of 1m(2) of metal surface in different exposure scenarios for industrial workers, professional users outside industrial settings, and home consumers. The fraction of the chemical emission that is taken in by exposed individuals (i.e. the intake fraction) was estimated on the basis of operational conditions (e.g. exposure duration), and protective measures (e.g. local exhaust ventilation). The introduction of a time-dependency and a correction for protective measures resulted in reductions in the intake fraction of up to 1.5 orders of magnitude, compared to application of existing, less advanced models. In every exposure scenario, the life cycle impacts for human toxicity were mainly caused by indoor exposure to metal degreaser (>60%). Emissions released outdoors contributed up to 22% of the life cycle impacts for human toxicity, and the production of metal degreaser contributed up to 19%. These findings illustrate that human toxicity from indoor chemical exposure should not be disregarded in LCA case studies. Particularly when protective measures are taken or in the case of a short duration (1h or less), we recommend the use of our exposure scenario-specific approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heme oxygenase-1 protects endothelial cells from the toxicity of air pollutant chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Akeem O.; Zhang, Min; Dittmar, Michael [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lulla, Aaron [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Toxicology Interdepartmental Program, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Araujo, Jesus A., E-mail: JAraujo@mednet.ucla.edu [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Toxicology Interdepartmental Program, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEPs on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with an organic extract of DEPs from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4 h. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and unfolded protein respone (UPR) gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25 μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but to a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMECs from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM. - Highlights: • We examined the role of HO-1 expression on diesel exhaust particle (DEP) in endothelial cells. • DEPs exert cytotoxic and inflammatory effects on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). • DEPs induce HO-1 expression in HMECs. • HO-1 protects against the oxidative stress induced by DEps. • HO-1 attenuates the proinflammatory effects

  3. Decay accelerating factor (CD55 protects neuronal cells from chemical hypoxia-induced injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokos George C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated complement system is known to mediate neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration following exposure to hypoxic-ischemic insults. Therefore, inhibition of the complement activation cascade may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for the management of ischemic brain injury. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF, also known as CD55 inhibits complement activation by suppressing the function of C3/C5 convertases, thereby limiting local generation or deposition of C3a/C5a and membrane attack complex (MAC or C5b-9 production. The present study investigates the ability of DAF to protect primary cultured neuronal cells subjected to sodium cyanide (NaCN-induced hypoxia from degeneration and apoptosis. Methods Cultured primary cortical neurons from embryonic Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned one of four groups: control, DAF treatment alone, hypoxic, or hypoxic treated with DAF. Hypoxic cultures were exposed to NaCN for 1 hour, rinsed, followed by 24 hour exposure to 200 ng/ml of recombinant human DAF in normal medium. Human DAF was used in the present study and it has been shown to effectively regulate complement activation in rats. Neuronal cell function, morphology and viability were investigated by measuring plateau depolarization potential, counting the number dendritic spines, and observing TUNEL and MTT assays. Complement C3, C3a, C3a receptor (R production, C3a-C3aR interaction and MAC formation were assessed along with the generation of activated caspase-9, activated caspase-3, and activated Src. Results When compared to controls, hypoxic cells had fewer dendritic spines, reduced plateau depolarization accompanied by increased apoptotic activity and accumulation of MAC, as well as up-regulation of C3, C3a and C3aR, enhancement of C3a-C3aR engagement, and elevated caspase and Src activity. Treatment of hypoxic cells with 200 ng/ml of recombinant human DAF resulted in attenuation of neuronal apoptosis and exerted

  4. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  5. Assessment of Superstructure Ice Protection as Applied to Offshore Oil Operations Safety: Ice Protection Technologies, Safety Enhancements, and Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    away from the surface. Frost forms in two circumstances. On wind- less nights with clear skies frost often forms on surfaces facing the sky. On...Cable icing is also a problem for communication tower operators on guy wires, ski lift operators on lift cables, and catenary wires of bridges and...on northern New England mountains. U.S A. Arctic and Alpine Research 22(13:90-97. Ryerson, C. C. 2008. Assessment of superstructure ice protection

  6. In vitro assessments of UVA protection by popular sunscreens available in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Steven Q; Stanfield, Joseph W; Osterwalder, Uli

    2008-12-01

    The importance of adequate ultraviolet A (UVA) protection has become apparent with improved understanding of the mechanism of UVA-induced damage to tissues. Currently in the United States, there is no regulation on testing and labeling of sunscreens for UVA protection. In August 2007, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) addressed this issue in a proposed rule. We sought to assess in vitro the degree of UVA protection provided by 13 popular sunscreen products that are commercially available in the United States. Thirteen sunscreen products were purchased. UVA protection of each product was measured and assessed with 3 in vitro UVA labeling indices: (1) the FDA Proposed Amendment of Final Monograph, August 27, 2007; (2) European Commission Recommendation--the Colipa and critical wavelength methods; (3) and United Kingdom's Boots star rating system. Based on the new FDA-proposed guidelines, 8 products achieved the medium protection category, and 5 products achieved high protection. The latter 5 products also fulfilled the UVA protection based on the Colipa guideline desired by the European Commission Recommendation. Nine products achieved the desired critical wavelength value of 370 or higher. Based on the United Kingdom's Boots star rating system, 6 products achieved a rating of 3 stars, and the remaining 7 products achieved no star rating. The study only evaluated a small number of sunscreen products, and only in vitro methods were used to assess the degree of UVA protection. The majority of the tested sunscreens in this study offered a medium degree of UVA protection. Compared with the sunscreens in the past, this study shows that UVA protection of sunscreens has improved. Sunscreens with avobenzone and octocrylene provided a higher degree of UVA protection. Globally, there is no uniform standard on testing and labeling sunscreens for UVA protection. In the United States, the FDA has just started to create a much-needed standard. This effort is necessary to

  7. Immunogenicity of acrylate chemicals as assessed by antibody induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J E; Henderson, D C; Turk, J L

    1987-01-01

    The immunogenicities of two acrylate chemicals, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and methyl acrylate (MeAc), and one related vinyl compound, 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP), were investigated by determining the in vivo induction of IgG antibodies in guinea pigs. The injection of the chemicals emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant resulted in the induction of serum antibody responses against MeAc and 4VP but not TMPTA. However, antibody with anti-TMPTA activity was produced following immunization of guinea pigs with TMPTA conjugated to protein, which allowed comparisons to be made of the immunogenic structural features of the compounds.

  8. Managing the Process of Protection Level Assessment of the Complex Organization and Technical Industrial Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlov, A. P.; Averchenkov, V. I.; Rytov, M. Yu; Eryomenko, V. T.

    2017-01-01

    The article is concerned with mathematical simulation of protection level assessment of complex organizational and technical systems of industrial enterprises by creating automated system, which main functions are: information security (IS) audit, forming of the enterprise threats model, recommendations concerning creation of the information protection system, a set of organizational-administrative documentation.

  9. Assessing impacts of intensified biomass production and biodiversity protection on ecosystem services provided by European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P.J.; Mavsar, R.; Giergiczny, M.; Lindner, M.; Edwards, D.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    To develop viable strategies for intensifying the use of forest biomass and for increasing forest protection, impacts on ecosystem services need to be assessed. We investigated the biophysical and economic impacts of increased forest biomass production and biodiversity protection on forest ecosystem

  10. 78 FR 52909 - Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Impact (FONSI) for Renovation and Modernization of the organization headquarters building located at 1700... of No Significant Impact (FONSI) based on the Final Environmental Assessment (FINAL EA) for the... PROTECTION BUREAU Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Notice of Availability of Final Environmental...

  11. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...In a final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse protection regulations to require horse industry organizations or associations that license Designated Qualified Persons to assess and enforce minimum penalties for violations of the Horse Protection Act. This document corrects an error in that final rule.

  12. an assessment of the physico-chemical parameters of kontagora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria. *Correspondence author. ABSTRACT. The seasonal variations in the physicochemical parameters of water reservoir in Kontagora, Nigeria were studied from ... The general desire to protect fresh water fisheries has led to an ...

  13. On-Orbit Health Monitoring and Repair Assessment of Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers On-orbit health MoNItoring and repair assessment of THERMal protection systems (OMNI_THERM). OMNI_THERM features impedance-based...

  14. Protected Plasmonic Nanostructures for High Resolution Chemical Imaging using Tip Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Rebecca; Barrios, Carlos; Malkovskiy, Andrey; Kisliuk, Alexander; Sokolov, Alexei; Foster, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), an emerging technique that combines optical microscopy and scanning probe microscopy, provides the sensitivity and selectivity necessary for high-resolution chemical imaging of polymer surfaces. An unprecedented 20 nm lateral resolution for the chemical imaging has been achieved. Unfortunately, the fragile plasmonic structures used to enhance the electric field are prone to mechanical, chemical, and thermal degradation. Developing robust noble metal nanostructures with stable plasmonic resonance is essential to reliable high resolution chemical imaging. Covering the metal layer with organic and inorganic ultrathin coatings is being investigated to extend the plasmonic activity of the engineered nanostructures. Addition of an ultrathin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) coating to a silver-coated scanning probe microscopy tip for TERS significantly improves plasmonic structure stability without sacrificing the initial TERS efficiency. This ultrathin coating provides wear resistance and stops chemical degradation responsible for the loss of signal enhancement.

  15. Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: a role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J; Ankley, Gerald T; Cristol, Daniel A; Maryoung, Lindley A; Noyes, Pamela D; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2013-01-01

    Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between chemicals and target molecules. In addition, GCC challenges processes critical for coping with the external environment (water balance, thermoregulation, nutrition, and the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems), leaving organisms sensitive to even slight perturbations by chemicals when pushed to the limits of their physiological tolerance range. In simplest terms, GCC can make organisms more sensitive to chemical stressors, while alternatively, exposure to chemicals can make organisms more sensitive to GCC stressors. One challenge is to identify potential interactions between nonchemical and chemical stressors affecting key physiological processes in an organism. We employed adverse outcome pathways, constructs depicting linkages between mechanism-based molecular initiating events and impacts on individuals or populations, to assess how chemical- and climate-specific variables interact to lead to adverse outcomes. Case examples are presented for prospective scenarios, hypothesizing potential chemical-GCC interactions, and retrospective scenarios, proposing mechanisms for demonstrated chemical-climate interactions in natural populations. Understanding GCC interactions along adverse outcome pathways facilitates extrapolation between species or other levels of organization, development of hypotheses and focal areas for further research, and improved inputs for risk and resource injury assessments. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  16. assessment of perception and knowledge of occupational chemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The health implications of workers' exposure in this industry are ... uting factors of the occupational chemical hazard exposure in the paint spraying industry. Man- .... perhaps would ensure that workplaces and wo-. Adei et al. Age. Sex. Males. Females. Totals. No. %. No. %. No. %. 16 -20. 5. 3.8. 1. 5.6. 6. 4.0. 21 - 25. 2. 1.5.

  17. Microbiological and chemical assessment of spring water from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties of the spring waters were mostly within the WHO benchmark for potable water. Arae had the highest total dissolved solids (TDS) value of 969 mgL-1 (benchmark, 500 mg/L), total hardness values were normal except at Arae (260 mg/L). Heavy metals levels in the spring water were generally low ...

  18. Assessment and management of chemical coping in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Egidio

    2014-06-01

    Chemical coping is a working definition that describes patients' intake of opioids on a scale that spans the range between normal nonaddictive opioid use for pain all the way to opioid addiction. Most patients will fall somewhere between the two extremes in using opioid analgesics to cope with their psychological or spiritual distress. The degree to which patients use their medications in a maladaptive manner will determine their susceptibility to drug toxicity and harm. When there are no obvious cancer-related causes for increased pain intensity, chemical coping and other patient-related factors such as delirium, somatization, and depression should be considered. As part of the initial evaluation of patients with cancer-related pain, a brief screening tool such as the CAGE questionnaire should be used to identify patients who may be at risk for chemical coping. Identifying patients at risk will allow clinicians to avoid unnecessary opioid toxicity, control pain, and improve quality of life. A structured approach for managing opioid use should be adopted, including standardized documentation, opioid treatment agreements, urine drug screens, frequent visits, and restricted quantities of breakthrough opioids. All patients at risk should receive brief motivational interviewing with an objective, nonjudgmental, and empathic style that includes personalized feedback, particularly about markers of risk or harm. For chemical copers approaching the addiction end of the spectrum, with evidence of compulsive use and destructive behavior, referral should be made to substance abuse specialists. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. A Risk Assessment Methodology for Toxic Chemicals Evaporation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents a method for determining the mass transfer coefficient for the toxic chemicals evaporation from circular pools formed due to the failure of plant integrity or escape from valves. The approach used in this present research work is to develop a correlation by a robust optimization technique known as Genetic ...

  20. Assessment of microbial population and physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was conducted in order to determine the effect of abattoir effluent on the microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics of the receiving soils in Ikpoba Hill and Oluku located in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbial analysis was carried out using standard microbiological techniques. The microorganisms isolated ...

  1. A comparative assessment of chemical contaminant removal by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at modifying the design of, constructing, evaluating and comparing chemical contaminant removal efficiency by, 3 household water treatment filters. The filters were: 1) biosand filter (BSF); 2) the ceramic candle filter (CCF); 3) bucket filter (BF). The filters were evaluated for their efficiency in removal of ...

  2. Assessment of physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality is a critical factor affecting human health and welfare. This study aimed at examining the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water in Adama town. A total of 107 triplicate water samples were examined; 1 from inlet point (raw water), 1 from outlet (the water after treatment, 1 from reservoir ...

  3. Probabilistic vulnerability assessment of chemical clusters subjected to external Acts of Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Argenti, F.; Landucci, G; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Acts of interference against chemical facilities or chemical clusters might result in severe consequences incase of a successful attack (major explosions, fires, toxic dispersions or environmental contamination).Although process facilities implement multiple safety barriers to control process hazards that may result inmajor accidents and plants are mostly well equipped from a safety point of view, the security attention andresources dedicated to the protection of assets against external adver...

  4. Probabilistic vulnerability assessment of chemical clusters subjected to external acts of interference

    OpenAIRE

    Argenti, F.; Landucci, G.; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Acts of interference against chemical facilities or chemical clusters might result in severe consequences incase of a successful attack (major explosions, fires, toxic dispersions or environmental contamination).Although process facilities implement multiple safety barriers to control process hazards that may result inmajor accidents and plants are mostly well equipped from a safety point of view, the security attention andresources dedicated to the protection of assets against external adver...

  5. The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects database (CAFE), a tool that supports assessments of chemical spills in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Farr, James K; Jenne, Polly; Chu, Valerie; Hielscher, Al

    2016-06-01

    The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database is a centralized repository that allows for rapid and unrestricted access to data. Information in CAFE is integrated into a user-friendly tool with modules containing fate and effects data for 32 377 and 4498 chemicals, respectively. Toxicity data are summarized in the form of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) with associated 1st and 5th percentile hazard concentrations (HCs). An assessment of data availability relative to reported chemical incidents showed that CAFE had fate and toxicity data for 32 and 20 chemicals, respectively, of 55 chemicals reported in the US National Response Center database (2000-2014), and fate and toxicity data for 86 and 103, respectively, of 205 chemicals reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2003-2014). Modeled environmental concentrations of 2 hypothetical spills (acrylonitrile, 625 barrels; and denatured ethanol, 857 barrels) were used to demonstrate CAFE's practical application. Most species in the 24-h SSD could be potentially impacted by acrylonitrile and denatured ethanol during the first 35 min and 15 h post spill, respectively, with concentrations falling below their HC5s (17 mg/L and 2676 mg/L) at 45 min and 60 h post spill, respectively. Comparisons of CAFE-based versus published HC5 values for 100 chemicals showed that nearly half of values were within a 2-fold difference, with a relatively small number of comparisons exceeding a 10-fold difference. The development of CAFE facilitates access to relevant environmental information, with potential uses likely expanding beyond those related to assessment of spills in aquatic environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1576-1586. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Jankowska; Sławomir Czerczak; Małgorzata Kupczewska-Dobecka

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the princip...

  7. Risk Communication Emergency Response Preparedness: Contextual Assessment of the Protective Action Decision Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub; Palenchar, Michael J; Lemon, Laura L

    2017-06-14

    Studies are continuously performed to improve risk communication campaign designs to better prepare residents to act in the safest manner during an emergency. To that end, this article investigates the predictive ability of the protective action decision model (PADM), which links environmental and social cues, predecision processes (attention, exposure, and comprehension), and risk decision perceptions (threat, alternative protective actions, and stakeholder norms) with protective action decision making. This current quasi-longitudinal study of residents (N = 400 for each year) in a high-risk (chemical release) petrochemical manufacturing community investigated whether PADM core risk perceptions predict protective action decision making. Telephone survey data collected at four intervals (1995, 1998, 2002, 2012) reveal that perceptions of protective actions and stakeholder norms, but not of threat, currently predict protective action decision making (intention to shelter in place). Of significance, rather than threat perceptions, perception of Wally Wise Guy (a spokes-character who advocates shelter in place) correlates with perceptions of protective action, stakeholder norms, and protective action decision making. Wally's response-efficacy advice predicts residents' behavioral intentions to shelter in place, thereby offering contextually sensitive support and refinement for PADM. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Probabilistic safety assessment in the chemical and nuclear industries

    CERN Document Server

    Fullwood, Ralph R

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) determines the probability and consequences of accidents, hence, the risk. This subject concerns policy makers, regulators, designers, educators and engineers working to achieve maximum safety with operational efficiency. Risk is analyzed using methods for achieving reliability in the space program. The first major application was to the nuclear power industry, followed by applications to the chemical industry. It has also been applied to space, aviation, defense, ground, and water transportation. This book is unique in its treatment of chemical and nuclear risk. Problems are included at the end of many chapters, and answers are in the back of the book. Computer files are provided (via the internet), containing reliability data, a calculator that determines failure rate and uncertainty based on field experience, pipe break calculator, event tree calculator, FTAP and associated programs for fault tree analysis, and a units conversion code. It contains 540 references and many...

  9. An assessment of nondestructive testing technologies for chemical weapons monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, T.T.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), with the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), completed testing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology on live agent systems. The tests were conducted at Tooele Army Depot during August 1992. The Nondestructive Evaluation systems were tested for potential use in verifying chemical treaty requirements. Five technologies, two neutron and three acoustic, were developed at DOE laboratories. Two systems from the United Kingdom (one neutron and one acoustic) were also included in the field trials. All systems tested showed the ability to distinguish among the VX, GB, and Mustard. Three of the systems (two acoustic and one neutron) were used by On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) personnel.

  10. Topical antioxidants protect the skin from chemical-induced irritation in the repetitive washing test: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schempp, Christoph M; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen; Ferrari, Yvonne; Brecht, Thomas; Gehring, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that reactive oxygen species play an important role in the development of both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. To assess the potential of topical antioxidants to prevent the development of experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis. We evaluated the effect of a cream containing a combination of antioxidants on sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritant contact dermatitis in the repetitive washing test. As readout parameters for skin barrier function and cutaneous inflammation stratum corneum hydration, cutaneous blood flow and transepidermal water loss were assessed in 25 volunteers with bioengineering methods. In comparison with the cream base and a frequently used barrier cream, the antioxidant cream had high radical scavenging activity and effectively protected the skin from chemical-induced irritation. The superiority of the cream with antioxidants to the cream base suggests that reactive oxygen species, at least in part, play a role in the development of irritant contact dermatitis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Health Risk Assessment of Harmful Chemicals: Case Study in a Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motovagheh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims In the most chemical process industries, workers are exposed to various chemicals and working with these chemicals without considering safety and health considerations can lead to different harmful symptoms. For deciding about control measures and reducing risk to acceptable level , it is necessary to assess the health risk of exposing to harmful chemicals by aid of specific risk assessment techniques in the process industries. The purpose of this study was to assess the health risks arising from the exposures to chemicals in a petrochemical industry.  methods A simple and applied method was used for health risk assessment of chemicals in a petrochemical industry. Firstly job tasks and work process were determined and then different chemicals in each tasks identified and risk ranking was calculated in each job task by aid of hazard and exposure rate.   Results The result showed that workers are exposed to 10 chemicals including Methyl ethyl ketone, Epichlorohydrin, Sulfuric acid, Phenol, Chlorobenzene, Toluene, Isopropanol, Methylene chloride, Chlorideric Acid and Acetone during their work in plant. From these chemicals, the highest risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in the jobs of tank and utility operations and maintenance workers. The next high risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in technical inspecting and Methyl ethyl ketone in Tank and utility operations operator.     Conclusion Hazard information and monitoring data of chemical agents in the chemical industries can be used for assessing health risks from exposures to chemicals and ranking jobs by their risk level. These data can be used for resource allocation for control measures and reducing risk level to acceptable level.    

  12. Assessing pollution in marine protected areas: the role of a multi-biomarker and multi-organ approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; de Araújo, Giuliana Seraphim; Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Stremel, Tatiana; Campos, Sandro; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Sousa; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to many pressures, including pollution. However, environmental quality monitoring in these areas traditionally relies on only water chemistry and microbiological parameters. The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of a set of biomarkers in different target organs (liver, kidney, and gills) of fish in order to assess the environmental quality of an MPA (MTs, GPx, GST, GSH, DNA damage, LPO, AChE, and condition index). Chemical analyses were also performed on liver and muscle tissues to evaluate metal body burdens, and PAHs were identified in bile. A demersal fish (Cathorops spixii) that is widely consumed by the local population was used as bioindicator species, and the results were integrated using multivariate analysis. The use of the biomarker approach allowed for the identification of both seasonal and spatial variations in pollution sources around the Environmental Protected Area of Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (APA-CIP). Higher metal body burdens associated with biological responses were found in the sites under the influence of urban areas during the dry season, and they were found in the sites under the influence of the Ribeira de Iguape River (RIR) during the rainy season. The liver was found to be more responsive in terms of its antioxidant responses, whereas gills were found to be more responsive to biomarkers of effect. These results show that this set of biomarker analyses in different organs of fish is a useful tool for assessing chemical pollution in an MPA.

  13. Preparation and performance features of wristband samplers and considerations for chemical exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kim A; Points, Gary L; Donald, Carey E; Dixon, Holly M; Scott, Richard P; Wilson, Glenn; Tidwell, Lane G; Hoffman, Peter D; Herbstman, Julie B; O'Connell, Steven G

    2017-01-01

    Wristbands are increasingly used for assessing personal chemical exposures. Unlike some exposure assessment tools, guidelines for wristbands, such as preparation, applicable chemicals, and transport and storage logistics, are lacking. We tested the wristband’s capacity to capture and retain 148 chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). The chemicals span a wide range of physical–chemical properties, with log octanol–air partitioning coefficients from 2.1 to 13.7. All chemicals were quantitatively and precisely recovered from initial exposures, averaging 102% recovery with relative SD ≤21%. In simulated transport conditions at +30 °C, SVOCs were stable up to 1 month (average: 104%) and VOC levels were unchanged (average: 99%) for 7 days. During long-term storage at −20 °C up to 3 (VOCs) or 6 months (SVOCs), all chemical levels were stable from chemical degradation or diffusional losses, averaging 110%. Applying a paired wristband/active sampler study with human participants, the first estimates of wristband–air partitioning coefficients for PAHs are presented to aid in environmental air concentration estimates. Extrapolation of these stability results to other chemicals within the same physical–chemical parameters is expected to yield similar results. As we better define wristband characteristics, wristbands can be better integrated in exposure science and epidemiological studies. PMID:28745305

  14. Exposure Assessment Tools by Chemical Classes - Inorganics and Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  15. Chemical assessment state of the science: Evaluation of 32 decision-support tools used to screen and prioritize chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Alison M; Fung, Mai; Panko, Julie; Kingsbury, Tony; Perez, Angela L; Hitchcock, Kristen; Ferracini, Tyler; Sahmel, Jennifer; Banducci, Amber; Jacobsen, Megan; Abelmann, Anders; Shay, Erin

    2015-04-01

    The last decade has seen an increased focus on evaluating the safety and sustainability of chemicals in consumer and industrial products. In order to effectively and accurately evaluate safety and sustainability, tools are needed to characterize hazard, exposure, and risk pertaining to products and processes. Because many of these tools will be used to identify problematic chemistries, and because many have potential applications in various steps of an alternatives analysis, the limitations and capabilities of available tools should be understood by users so that, ultimately, potential chemical risk is accurately reflected. In our study, we examined 32 chemical characterization tools from government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The tools we studied were diverse, and varied widely in their scope and assessment. As such, they were separated into five categories for comparison: 1) Screening and Prioritization; 2) Database Utilization; 3) Hazard Assessment; 4) Exposure and Risk Assessment; and 5) Certification and Labeling. Each tool was scored based on our weighted set of criteria, and then compared to other tools in the same category. Ten tools received a high score in one or more categories; 24 tools received a medium score in one or more categories, and five tools received a low score in one or more categories. Although some tools were placed into more than one category, no tool encompassed all five of the assessment categories. Though many of the tools evaluated may be useful for providing guidance for hazards - and, in some cases, exposure - few tools characterize risk. To our knowledge, this study is the first to critically evaluate a large set of chemical assessment tools and provide an understanding of their strengths and limitations. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. The potential role of Life Cycle Assessment in regulation of chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frans Møller; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2003-01-01

    uses of LCA could be in overall priority setting (including non-chemical products) of environmental product policy and in standardisation work related to products/processes releasing chemicals to the environment. A number of methodological interactions between regulatory risk assessment and LCA as well...... for data and assessment procedures on dangerous chemicals. One change is the inclusion of socio-economic assessments as decision support to regulation of substances, which are undesirable from a risk assessment point of view. Comparative LCA’s have similarities with and may serve as good input to socio......-economic analyses, because LCA’s attempt to: 1. cover all emissions (including intermediates), 2. assess all potential environmental impacts, 3. assess the average situation (including uncertainty analyses). Contrary, risk assessments are based on substance approaches and conservative assumptions. Other potential...

  17. Assessment of chemically separated carbon nanotubes for nanoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zaric, Sasa; Tu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xinran; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Hongjie

    2008-02-27

    It remains an elusive goal to obtain high performance single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT) electronics such as field effect transistors (FETs) composed of single- or few-chirality SWNTs, due to broad distributions in as-grown materials. Much progress has been made by various separation approaches to obtain materials enriched in metal or semiconducting nanotubes or even in single chiralties. However, research in validating SWNT separations by electrical transport measurements and building functional electronic devices has been scarce. Here, we performed length, diameter, and chirality separation of DNA functionalized HiPco SWNTs by chromatography methods, and we characterized the chiralities by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. The use of these combined methods provided deeper insight to the degree of separation than either technique alone. Separation of SWNTs by chirality and diameter occurred at varying degrees that decreased with increasing tube diameter. This calls for new separation methods capable of metallicity or chirality separation of large diameter SWNTs (in the approximately 1.5 nm range) needed for high performance nanoelectronics. With most of the separated fractions enriched in semiconducting SWNTs, nanotubes placed in parallel in short-channel (approximately 200 nm) electrical devices fail to produce FETs with high on/off switching, indicating incomplete elimination of metallic species. In rare cases with a certain separated SWNT fraction, we were able to fabricate FET devices composed of small-diameter, chemically separated SWNTs in parallel, with high on-/off-current (I(on)/I(off)) ratios up to 105 owing to semiconducting SWNTs with only a few (n,m) chiralities in the fraction. This was the first time that chemically separated SWNTs were used for short channel, all-semiconducting SWNT electronics dominant by just a few (n,m)'s. Nevertheless, the results suggest that

  18. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) as an antidote or a protective agent against natural or chemical toxicities: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorri, Mahyar; Hashemitabar, Shirin; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2018-01-10

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Lauraceae) is a food additive greatly used for its taste. However, recently this medicinal plant has been brought to attention due to its medical effects. Cinnamon has constituents such as cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid that offers some health benefits including antioxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, lowering of blood glucose, anti-cholesterolemic, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-yeast, anti-secretagogue, and anti-gastric ulcer effects. This review summarizes various in vitro and animal studies on the protective effects of cinnamon against natural and chemical toxins. These studies consider the antidotal and/or protective effects of cinnamon and its major constituents against natural toxins and chemical-induced toxicities. It has been mentioned that cinnamon and its main constituents can ameliorate the toxicity of chemical toxins in liver, kidney, blood, brain, embryo, reproductive system, heart, spleen in part through antioxidant effect, radical scavenging, reducing lipid peroxidation, anti-inflammatory, fungistatic and fungicidal activities, modulation of CK-MB, LDH, TNF-α, IL-6, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-ĸB) signaling pathways.

  19. Chemical Assessment of White Wine during Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated chemical properties of indigenous white wine varieties (Fetească albă, Fetească regală and Galbenă de Odobeşti during fermentation. The white wine making process took place at Wine Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. We aimed to monitorize the evolution of fermentation process parameters (temperature, alcohol content, and real extract and the quality of the bottled white wine (total acidity, alcohol content, total sulfur dioxide, total dry extract. The results obtained were in accordance to Romanian Legislation.

  20. A new technique to assess dermal absorption of chemical vapor in vitro by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

    OpenAIRE

    Rauma, Matias

    2008-01-01

    There is a huge lack of dermal uptake data for chemicals, and it is frequent with large variations in reported permeability coefficients for chemicals with more than one data set, showing the need for a new and standardized in vitro method. The overall aim of this thesis was to develop the new method of measuring dermal absorption of chemical vapor using the TGA method. Assessment of dermal absorption by TGA (Study I) Round pieces (ø8 mm) of pig epidermis were placed on ...

  1. Assessment of genetic and chemical variability in Thymus caramanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadian, Javad; Bigdeloo, Mahdi; Nazeri, Vahideh; Khadivi-Khub, Abdollah

    2014-05-01

    Thymus caramanicus is an endemic species grown in Iran with interesting pharmacological and biological properties. In the present work, essential oil compositions and inter-simple sequences repeat (ISSR) markers were used to estimate the relationships among and within seven populations of T. caramanicus, belonging to three provinces in Iran. The studied individuals were distinguished on the basis of ISSR markers and constituents of essential oil. A total of 127 band positions were produced by 12 ISSR primers, of which 105 were found polymorphic with 82.68% polymorphism. Genetic similarity values among individuals ranged between 0.15 and 0.82 which was indicative of a high level of genetic variation. On the basis of their genetic similarities, ISSR analysis allowed to group the samples into two main clusters. One of these included populations originated from Kerman and Isfahan provinces, and the other cluster consists of populations from Semnan province. Chemical compounds of essential oils were found variable in the various individuals and all samples were principally composed of phenolic constituents (carvacrol and/or thymol). As a consequence, the plants were classified into two major chemotypes including carvacrol and thymol/carvacrol. A relationship between genetic and chemical variability and geographic distribution has been observed in studied populations of T. caramanicus.

  2. Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: A role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Maryoung, Lindley A.; Noyes, Pamela D.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between chemicals and target molecules. In addition, GCC challenges processes critical for coping with the external environment (water balance, thermoregulation, nutrition, and the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems), leaving organisms sensitive to even slight perturbations by chemicals when pushed to the limits of their physiological tolerance range. In simplest terms, GCC can make organisms more sensitive to chemical stressors, while alternatively, exposure to chemicals can make organisms more sensitive to GCC stressors. One challenge is to identify potential interactions between nonchemical and chemical stressors affecting key physiological processes in an organism. We employed adverse outcome pathways, constructs depicting linkages between mechanism-based molecular initiating events and impacts on individuals or populations, to assess how chemical- and climate-specific variables interact to lead to adverse outcomes. Case examples are presented for prospective scenarios, hypothesizing potential chemical–GCC interactions, and retrospective scenarios, proposing mechanisms for demonstrated chemical–climate interactions in natural populations. Understanding GCC interactions along adverse outcome pathways facilitates extrapolation between species or other levels of organization, development of hypotheses and focal areas for further research, and improved inputs for risk and resource injury assessments.

  3. Chemical characterization of a commercial Commiphora wightii resin sample and chemical profiling to assess for authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rida; Ali, Zulfiqar; Wu, Yunshan; Kulkarni, Swapnil; Avery, Mitchell A; Choudhary, Muhammed Iqbal; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2011-06-01

    The gum resin of Commiphora wightii [(Hook. ex Stocks) Engl.] is an ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of arthritis, inflammation, obesity, lipid disorders, and cardiovascular diseases and is known as guggul. Morphologically, it is not easy to distinguish guggul from closely related gum resins of other plants. Reliability of the commercially available guggul is critical due to the high risk of adulteration. To check authenticity, a commercial guggul sample was investigated for its chemical markers and 17 metabolites were identified, including three new, 20(S),21-epoxy-3-oxocholest-4-ene (1), 8 β-hydroxy-3,20-dioxopregn-4,6-diene (2), and 5-(13' Z-nonadecenyl)resorcinol (17) from the ethyl acetate soluble part. During the current study, compounds 14- 17 were identified as constituents of Mangifera indica gum, as an adulterant in the commercial guggul sample. This discovery highlighted the common malpractices in the trade of medicinal raw material in the developing world. The structures of the compounds were deduced by the spectroscopic technique and chemical methods, as well as by comparison with the reported data. The structure of 20(S),21-epoxy-3-oxocholest-4-ene (1) was also unambiguously deduced by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Physico-chemical assessment of borehole water used by schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samie.amidou

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... In the present study, the physical and chemical quality of several borehole water sources, used by rural schools in Greater Giyani Municipality, were assessed to determine their safety for human consumption. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion chromatography were used to determine the chemical ...

  5. Regulation and practice of workers' protection from chemical exposures during container handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Fløe Pedersen, Randi; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Ádám, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fumigation of freight containers to prevent spread of pests and off-gassing of freight are sources of volatile chemicals that may constitute significant health risks when released. The aim of the study was to investigate the regulation and practice of container handling in Denmark...... with focus on preventive measures to reduce risk of chemical exposure. Methods: A comprehensive systematic search of scientific literature, legislation and recommendations related to safe work with transport containers from international and Danish regulatory bodies was performed. The practice of handling...... on risk management are needed for safe handling of transport containers....

  6. Cumulative risk assessment of chemical exposures in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragas, Ad M J; Oldenkamp, R; Preeker, N L; Wernicke, J; Schlink, U

    2011-07-01

    We performed a cumulative risk assessment for people living in a hypothetical urban environment, called Urbania. The main aims of the study were to demonstrate how a cumulative risk assessment for a middle-sized European city can be performed and to identify the bottlenecks in terms of data availability and knowledge gaps. The assessment focused on five air pollutants (i.e., PM₁₀, benzene, toluene, nonane and naphthalene) and six food pesticides (i.e., acetamiprid, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, imidacloprid and permethrin). Exposure predictions showed that PM₁₀, benzene and naphthalene exposure frequently exceeded the standards, and that the indoor environment contributed more than the outdoor environment. Effect predictions showed that mixture and interaction effects were generally limited. However, model calculations indicated potential synergistic effects between naphthalene and benzene and between chlorpyrifos, diazinon and toluene. PM₁₀ dominated the health impact expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We conclude that measures to reduce the health impact of environmental pollution should focus on the improvement of indoor air quality and the reduction of PM₁₀ emissions. Cumulative risk assessment can be improved by (1) the development of person-oriented exposure models that can simulate the cumulative exposure history of individuals, (2) a better mechanistic understanding of the effects of cumulative stressors, and (3) the development of instruments to prioritize stressors for inclusion in cumulative risk assessments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of supercritical water oxidation system testing for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Army Science and Technology; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

    2013-01-01

    "Assessment of Supercritical Water Oxidation System Testing for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant reviews and evaluates the results of the tests conducted on one of the SCWO units...

  8. Male Fathead Minnow Urine-Based Metabolomics for Assessing Impacts of Chemical Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed the potential for profiling metabolites in urine from male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to assess chemical exposures, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy was us...

  9. Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview and Implications for Risk Assessment (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview and Implications for Risk Assessment . This report provides an overview of the types of mechanisms underlying the lymphohematopoietic cancers induc...

  10. RESEARCH OF UV-PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF FERULIC ACID AS PART OF OINTMENT COMPOSITIONS WITH DIFFERENT PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Abisalova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics with the ability to neutralize harmful influence of ultraviolet rays on skin are quite in demand. UV filters in creams composition are divided into two groups: physical and chemical. Antioxidants are used as chemical UV filters. The article presents the results of ferulic acid testing as UV filter in ointment bases with lipophile, hydrophile and lipophilic and hydrophilic properties. The dependence of ferulic acid efficiency from the base type where it was applied was established. The results received are correlated with data about release rate of ferulic acid received in vitro. Ointment bases with such emulsifiers as cetyl alcohol, base emulsifier and Olivem 1000 have the most signified UV protective effect of ferulic acid.

  11. Co3O4 protective coatings prepared by Pulsed Injection Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burriel, M.; Garcia, G.; Santiso, J.

    2005-01-01

    of deposition temperature. Pure Co3O4 spinel structure was found for deposition temperatures ranging from 360 to 540 degreesC. The optimum experimental parameters to prepare dense layers with a high growth rate were determined and used to prepare corrosion protective coatings for Fe-22Cr metallic interconnects...

  12. Efficiency of five chemical protective clothing materials against nano and submicron aerosols when submitted to mechanical deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, Mehdi; Hallé, Stéphane; Tuduri, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Due to their potential toxicity, the use of nanoparticles in the workplace is a growing concern. Some studies indicate that nanoparticles can penetrate the skin and lead to adverse health effects. Since chemical protective clothing is the last barrier to protect the skin, this study aims to better understand nanoparticle penetration behaviour in dermal protective clothing under mechanical deformation. For this purpose, five of the most common types of fabrics used in protective clothing, one woven and four nonwoven, were chosen and submitted to different simulated exposure conditions. They were tested against polydispersed NaCl aerosols having an electrical-mobility diameter between 14 and 400 nm. A bench-scale exposure setup and a sampling protocol was developed to measure the level of penetration of the aerosols through the material samples of disposable coveralls and lab coat, while subjecting them to mechanical deformations to simulate the conditions of usage in the workplace. Particle size distribution of the aerosol was determined upstream and downstream using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The measured efficiencies demonstrated that the performances of nonwoven materials were similar. Three nonwovens had efficiencies above 99%, while the woven fabric was by far, the least effective. Moreover, the results established that mechanical deformations, as simulated for this study, did not have a significant effect on the fabrics' efficiencies.

  13. Milk Chemical Composition of Dairy Cows Fed Rations Containing Protected Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fermented Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the effect of ration containing protected omega-3 and fermented rice bran on chemical composition of dairy milk. The research employed 10 female PFH dairy cows of 2-4 years old with body weight 300-375 kg. The research was assigned in randomized complete block design. The treatment consisted of P0= control ration, P1= P0 + 20% fermented rice bran, P2= P1 + 4% soya bean oil, P3= P1 + 4% protected tuna fish oil and P4= P1 + 4% protected lemuru fish oil. The results showed that the effects of fish oil supplementation in the rations significantly (P<0.01 decreased feed consumption, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, lipids, and saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it increased milk production, content of high density lipoprotein, omega-3, omega-6 and unsaturated fatty acids in the dairy cows milk. It is concluded that the inclusion of 4% protected fish oil in the rations can produce healthy milk by decreasing milk cholesterol and increasing omega-3 fatty acids content.

  14. 2-nitroveratryl as a photocleavable thiol-protecting group for directed disulfide bond formation in the chemical synthesis of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, John A; Scanlon, Denis B; Forbes, Briony E; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J; Gardiner, James; Separovic, Frances; Wade, John D; Hossain, Mohammed A

    2014-07-28

    Chemical synthesis of peptides can allow the option of sequential formation of multiple cysteines through exploitation of judiciously chosen regioselective thiol-protecting groups. We report the use of 2-nitroveratryl (oNv) as a new orthogonal group that can be cleaved by photolysis under ambient conditions. In combination with complementary S-pyridinesulfenyl activation, disulfide bonds are formed rapidly in situ. The preparation of Fmoc-Cys(oNv)-OH is described together with its use for the solid-phase synthesis of complex cystine-rich peptides, such as insulin. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Heat exchange during encapsulation in a Chemical-Warfare Agent Protective Patient Wrap in four hot environments. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, L.A.; Kolka, M.A.; Allan, A.E.; Santee, W.R.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine safe encapsulation time limits in four hot environments including a simulated solar heat load and thereby generate an equation predicting safe time limits for hot environments. Eight male subjects were studied during encapsulation in a Chemical Warfare Agent Protective Patient Wrap in each of four environments. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature air temperature and dew point temperature within the wrap and wrap temperature were measured every minute. Metabolic rate was measured during encapsulation by partitional calorimetry. The data shows that safe encapsulation time is severely limited in Hot/Dry and Hot/Wet environments when a solar heat load is included.

  16. The Role of Riparian Vegetation in Protecting and Improving Chemical Water Quality in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Dosskey; Philippe Vidon; Noel P. Gurwick; Craig J. Allan; Tim P. Duval; Richard Lowrance

    2010-01-01

    We review the research literature and summarize the major processes by which riparian vegetation influences chemical water quality in streams, as well as how these processes vary among vegetation types, and discuss how these processes respond to removal and restoration of riparian vegetation and thereby determine the timing and level of response in stream water quality...

  17. Semiochemical sabotage: behavioral chemicals for protection of western conifers from bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy. E. Gillette; A. Steve Munson

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and elucidation of volatile behavioral chemicals used by bark beetles to locate hosts and mates has revealed a rich potential for humans to sabotage beetle host-finding and reproduction. Here, we present a description of currently available semiochemical methods for use in monitoring and controlling bark beetle pests in western conifer forests. Delivery...

  18. Seven chemicals fail to protect Ponderosa pine from Armillaria root disease in central Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory M. Filip; Lewis F. Roth

    1987-01-01

    Chemicals were applied once to the root collars of small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) to prevent mortality caused by Armillaria obscura (Pers.) Herink Roll-Harisen (A. meilea sensu lato). After 10 years, none of the 15 treatments appeared to reduce mortality in treated trees vs. untreated trees....

  19. Biophysical Characteristics of Chemical Protective Ensemble With and Without Body Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT NO. T15-8 DATE July 2015 ADA BIOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHEMICAL...organizations. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T15-8 BIOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF...Timothy P. Rioux William R. Santee Biophysics and Biomedical Modeling Division July 2015 U.S. Army Research Institute of

  20. A general strategy for the chemical aspects of the safety assessment of extractables and leachables in pharmaceutical drug products: the chemical assessment triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    During the course of their manufacturing, storage, and administration, pharmaceutical drug products come in contact with materials, components, and systems. Such contact may result in an interaction between the drug product and these entities. One such interaction is the migration of substances from these entities and into the drug product, which is of concern due to the potential toxicity of the migrating substances. In order to properly assess the risk and manage the hazard posed by migratory substances, it is necessary to establish the identities of the migratory substances and the levels to which they will accumulate in the finished drug product, as these two pieces of information establish the hazard posed by an individual substance and the magnitude of the patient exposure (dose). The process by which migrating compounds are discovered and identified, and by which their accumulation levels in a finished drug product are established, is termed chemical assessment. Because the development of a finished drug product is a long and complicated process, chemical assessment is most typically not a single action but rather a series of actions that together establish a process of risk management. It is the purpose of this manuscript to establish a high-level strategy, illustrated in the chemical assessment triad, which can be applied to such a risk management process. During the course of their manufacturing, storage, and administration, pharmaceutical drug products come in contact with materials, components, and systems. Such contact may result in an interaction between the drug product and these entities. One such interaction is the migration of substances from these entities and into the drug product, which is of concern due to the potential toxicity of the migrating substances. It is the purpose of this manuscript to outline a high-level strategy, illustrated in the chemical assessment triad, to chemically establish the safety risk related to the migrating

  1. Assessment of physico-chemical parameters of River Kaduna and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River Kaduna is one of the major sources of water to the inhabitants of the communities around the river and also to fish farmers while College of Agriculture and Animal Science Dam (CAAS) is used for fish farming and also for domestic purpose. The study was carried out to assess Physicochemical Parameters of River ...

  2. IMPIPS: the immune protection-inducing protein structure concept in the search for steric-electron and topochemical principles for complete fully-protective chemically synthesised vaccine development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Elkin Patarroyo

    Full Text Available Determining immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS involves defining the stereo-electron and topochemical characteristics which are essential in MHC-p-TCR complex formation. Modified high activity binding peptides (mHABP were thus synthesised to produce a large panel of IMPIPS measuring 26.5 ±3.5Å between the farthest atoms fitting into Pockets 1 to 9 of HLA-DRβ1* structures. They displayed a polyproline II-like (PPIIL structure with their backbone O and N atoms orientated to establish H-bonds with specific residues from HLA-DRβ1*-peptide binding regions (PBR. Residues having specific charge and gauche+ orientation regarding p3χ1, p5χ2, and p7χ1 angles determined appropriate rotamer orientation for perfectly fitting into the TCR to induce an appropriate immune response. Immunological assays in Aotus monkeys involving IMPIPS mixtures led to promising results; taken together with the aforementioned physicochemical principles, non-interfering, long-lasting, protection-inducing, multi-epitope, multistage, minimal subunit-based chemically-synthesised peptides can be designed against diseases scourging humankind.

  3. The use of environmental impact assessment in protecting the built cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Errol David

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the application of the environmental impact assessment as a means of protecting the built and cultural heritage during and after the construction of the new national opera house in the Holmen area of Copenhagen. It assesses the affect the new building has had...... on the surrounding built and cultural heritage and examines how the environmental impact assessment was used during the development process....

  4. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  5. Physical-Chemical Basis of the Protection of Slowly Frozen Human Erythrocytes by Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, W. F.; Mazur, Peter; Souzu, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    One theory of freezing damage suggests that slowly cooled cells are killed by being exposed to increasing concentrations of electrolytes as the suspending medium freezes. A corollary to this view is that protective additives such as glycerol protect cells by acting colligatively to reduce the electrolyte concentration at any subzero temperature. Recently published phase-diagram data for the ternary system glycerol-NaCl-water by M. L. Shepard et al. (Cryobiology, 13:9-23, 1976), in combination with the data on human red cell survival vs. subzero temperature presented here and in the companion study of Souzu and Mazur (Biophys. J., 23:89-100), permit a precise test of this theory. Appropriate liquidus phase-diagram information for the solutions used in the red cell freezing experiments was obtained by interpolation of the liquidus data of Shepard and his co-workers. The results of phase-diagram analysis of red cell survival indicate that the correlation between the temperature that yields 50% hemolysis (LT50) and the electrolyte concentration attained at that temperature in various concentrations of glycerol is poor. With increasing concentrations of glycerol, the cells were killed at progressively lower concentrations of NaCl. For example, the LT50 for cells frozen in the absence of glycerol corresponds to a NaCl concentration of 12 weight percent (2.4 molal), while for cells frozen in 1.75 M glycerol in buffered saline the LT50 corresponds to 3.0 weight percent NaCl (1.3 molal). The data, in combination with other findings, lead to two conclusions: (a) The protection from glycerol is due to its colligative ability to reduce the concentration of sodium chloride in the external medium, but (b) the protection is less than that expected from colligative effects; apparently glycerol itself can also be a source of damage, probably because it renders the red cells susceptible to osmotic shock during thawing. PMID:667300

  6. Physical-chemical basis of the protection of slowly frozen human erythrocytes by glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rall, W.F.; Mazur, P.; Souzu, H.

    1978-07-01

    One theory of freezing damage suggests that slowly cooled cells are killed by being exposed to increasing concentrations of electrolytes as the suspending medium freezes. A corollary to this view is that protective additives such as glycerol protect cells by acting colligatively to reduce the electrolyte concentration at any subzero temperature. Recently published phase-diagram data for the ternary system glycerol-NaCl-water by M.L. Shepard et al. (Cryobiology, 13: 9-23, 1976), in combination with the data on human red cell survival vs. subzero temperature presented here and in the companion study of Souzu and Mazur (Biophys. J., 23: 89-100), permit a precise test of this theory. Appropriate liquidus phase-diagram information for the solutions used in the red cell freezing experiments was obtained by interpolation of liquidus data of Shepard and his co-workers. The results of phase-diagram analysis of red cell survival indicate that the correlation between the temperature that yields 50% hemolysis (LT/sub 50/) and the electrolyte concentration attained at that temperature in various concentrations of glycerol is poor. With increasing concentrations of glycerol, the cells were killed at progressively lower concentrations of NaCl. For example, the LT/sub 50/ for cells frozen in the absence of glycerol corresponds to a NaCl concentration of 12 weight percent (2.4 molal), while for cells frozen in 1.75 M glycerol in buffered saline the LT/sub 50/ corresponds to 3.0 weight percent NaCl (1.3 molal). The data, in combination with other findings, lead to two conclusions: (a) The protection from glycerol is due to its colligative ability to reduce the concentration of sodium chloride in the external medium, but (b) the protection is less than that expected from colligative effects; apparently glycerol itself can also be a source of damage, probably because it renders the red cells susceptible to osmotic shock during thawing.

  7. Influence of environmental protection measures on the design of chemical engineering plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitt, J.S. (Badger Ltd., Brentford (UK))

    1979-11-01

    The interactions among public opinion, government, and industry are described with respect to matters of environmental protection. A breakdown is given of emission problems and, in special processes, of those associated with the sulfur content of crude oil, aromatic amines, plants for chlorinated hydrocarbons and alkylation plants, impurities in rain water, priority and cost problems, and investment problems connected with expenditures serving to create a cleaner environment.

  8. The development of chemically vapor deposited mullite coatings for the corrosion protection of SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, M.; Hou, P.; Sengupta, A.; Basu, S.; Sarin, V. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Crystalline mullite coatings have been chemically vapor deposited onto SiC substrates to enhance the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the substrate. Current research has been divided into three distinct areas: (1) Development of the deposition processing conditions for increased control over coating`s growth rate, microstructure, and morphology; (2) Analysis of the coating`s crystal structure and stability; (3) The corrosion resistance of the CVD mullite coating on SiC.

  9. A new index to assess chemicals increasing the greenhouse effect based on their toxicity to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Tian, Dayong; Gao, Ya; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingyun

    2015-11-01

    CO2, as the typical greenhouse gas causing the greenhouse effect, is a major global environmental problem and has attracted increasing attention from governments. Using algae to eliminate CO2, which has been proposed as an effective way to reduce the greenhouse effect in the past decades, can be disturbed by a growing number of artificial chemicals. Thus, seven types of chemicals and Selenastrum capricornutum (algae) were examined in this study, and the good consistency between the toxicity of artificial chemicals to algae and the disturbance of carbon fixation by the chemicals was revealed. This consistency showed that the disturbance of an increasing number of artificial chemicals to the carbon fixation of algae might be a "malware" worsening the global greenhouse effect. Therefore, this study proposes an original, promising index to assess the risk of deepening the greenhouse effect by artificial chemicals before they are produced and marketed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tools to prevent process safety events at university research facility - chemical risk assessment and experimental set-up risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the two forms developed to examine the hazards of the chemicals to be used in the experiments in the experimental setup in the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark. A system for the safety assessment of new experimental...... setups in university research and teaching laboratories is presented. The significance of the forms for the effort of researchers in improving work with significant hazards is described....

  11. STATISTICAL ASSESSMENT OF QUANTITATIVE QUALITY PERFORMANCE OF BUILDING PRODUCTS DURING CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT AND CERTIFICATION IN THE FIRE PROTECTION FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes statistical methods for evaluation of quantitative performance of building products determined by tests for objective decision during conformity assessment/certification in the fire protection field. The procedure is applicable even for other types of products, and for research / development of new material products.

  12. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at selected protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.

  13. Climate-based archetypes for the environmental fate assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffo, Biagio; Sala, Serenella

    2013-11-15

    Emissions of chemicals have been on the rise for years, and their impacts are greatly influenced by spatial differentiation. Chemicals are usually emitted locally but their impact can be felt both locally and globally, due to their chemical properties and persistence. The variability of environmental parameters in the emission compartment may affect the chemicals' fate and the exposure at different orders of magnitude. The assessment of the environmental fate of chemicals and the inherent spatial differentiation requires the use of multimedia models at various levels of complexity (from a simple box model to complex computational and high-spatial-resolution models). The objective of these models is to support ecological and human health risk assessment, by reducing the uncertainty of chemical impact assessments. The parameterisation of spatially resolved multimedia models is usually based on scenarios of evaluative environments, or on geographical resolutions related to administrative boundaries (e.g. countries/continents) or landscape areas (e.g. watersheds, eco-regions). The choice of the most appropriate scale and scenario is important from a management perspective, as a balance should be reached between a simplified approach and computationally intensive multimedia models. In this paper, which aims to go beyond the more traditional approach based on scale/resolution (cell, country, and basin), we propose and assess climate-based archetypes for the impact assessment of chemicals released in air. We define the archetypes based on the main drivers of spatial variability, which we systematically identify by adopting global sensitivity analysis techniques. A case study that uses the high resolution multimedia model MAPPE (Multimedia Assessment of Pollutant Pathways in the Environment) is presented. Results of the analysis showed that suitable archetypes should be both climate- and chemical-specific, as different chemicals (or groups of them) have different traits

  14. Effects of Pluronic F-68 on Tetrahymena cells: protection against chemical and physical stress and prolongation of survival under toxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellung-Larsen, P; Assaad, F; Pankratova, Stanislava

    2000-01-01

    The effects of the non-ionic surfactant Pluronic F-68 (0.01% w/v) on Tetrahymena cells have been studied. A marked protection against chemical and physical stress was observed. The chemical stress effects were studied in cells suspended in buffer (starvation) or in buffers with added ingredients ...

  15. Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure, COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method, Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment, MEASE (Metal’s EASE, PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database, DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4:557–569

  16. [Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, Sławomir; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata

    2017-06-27

    Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU) countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure), COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations), DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method), Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment), MEASE (Metal's EASE), PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database), DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method) and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals) were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4):557-569. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  17. [Plant growth promoting microorganisms as alternative to chemical protection from pathogens (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, I V; Abizgil'dina, R R; Pusenkova, L I

    2011-01-01

    The review analyses data on physiological and biochemical influence of rhizospheric and endophytic microorganisms promoting plant growth (PGPR-plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) on induced resistance of plants and the possibility of its use in plant cultivation to protect crops from pathogens and phytophages. Resistance of plants provided by PGPR due to their endosymbiotic interrelationships is directly achieved because they produce peptide antibiotics and hydrolases ofchitin and glucan and also because plants form their own system of induced resistance, followed by changes in the balance of defensive proteins, phytohormones, and pro-/antioxidant status.

  18. Advantages and challenges associated with implementing an ecosystem services approach to ecological risk assessment for chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, Lorraine; Brink, van den Paul J.; Faber, Jack H.; Marshall, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    The ecosystem services (ES) approach is gaining broad interest in regulatory and policy arenas for use in landscape management and ecological risk assessment. It has the potential to bring greater ecological relevance to the setting of environmental protection goals and to the assessment of the

  19. Toxicity assessment of chemical contaminants;transition from in vitromethods to novel in vitro methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Farshad

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there areapproximately 80, 000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from ethical, economical and scientific perspectives. Therefore, increasing the number of available industrial chemicals andnew products has created a demand for alternatives to animal methods for better safety evaluation. Recent toxicity studies have demonstrated that in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemical contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of  more recent test methods developed for toxicity testing of chemical contaminants are discussed. Although  to be considered more broadly for risk assessment of human chemical exposures. In vitro methods,in vitro toxicology methods cannot exactly mimic the biodynamics of the whole body, in vitro  relationships (QSARs and physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK models have a potentialtest systems in combination with the knowledge of quantitative structure activity.

  20. New Thiophene Monolayer-Protected Copper Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Chemical-Physical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Foresti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time copper 3-(6-mercaptohexylthiophene-protected nanoparticles (Cu T6SH have been synthesized by a one-phase system, utilizing an NaBH4/LiCl mixture in diglyme as the reducing reagent and avoiding water medium dissolving copper salts. The prepared nanoclusters, characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, have shown a constant spherical morphology with a size dimension of 5-6 nm in diameter. After their synthesis, no morphological evolution and irreversible aggregation process has been observed after a storage in CH2Cl2 at low temperature for a period up to six months long. Cu T6SH nanoparticles have been investigated by UV-Visible (UV-Vis and Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR spectroscopes to characterize the alkylthiophenes monolayer conformations and the particles optoelectronic properties. The UV-Vis reveals the lack of the surface plasmonic band, previously observed in Cu-nanosized clusters at about 556–570 nm, and shows a wide-band centered at 293 nm, probably due to the high-conformational surface ordering of thiophene rings on the Cu core. The results highlight the importance of the modifications ported to the well-known one-phase synthetic reactions to obtain a clear lack, even after a storage of six months, of any irreversible aggregation that has always characterized chain thiophene-protected metallic nanoparticles.

  1. Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances: System Realisation and Validation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet C; de Nijs ACM; Vermeire TG; van der Poel P; Tuinstra J

    1991-01-01

    In the project "Evaluation System new substances", methods are developed to systematically predict and assess the hazards for man and environment related to the production and use of new chemical substances. Part of the project is the realisation of a Risk Assessment System for New

  2. Assessment of the atmospheric hazards and risks of new chemicals: procedures to estimate "hazard potentials"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw FAAM

    1993-01-01

    In this report a procedure for the assessment of atmospheric hazards and risks of newly introduced chemicals is discussed. However, an assessment of direct effects caused by exposure to expected ambient concentrations or by deposition is not discussed ; here emphasis is on the role which new

  3. Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances. Applicability of EXAMS II as an advanced Water Quality Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs ACM; Burns LA

    1990-01-01

    In the cluster project "Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances methods are developed to systematically predict and assess the hazards for man and environment. After the basic screening of a substance has been carried out, a more extensive study can be performed using models adhered to the

  4. Designing SQCRA as a Software to Semi-quantitative Chemical Risk Assessment in Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : The aim of chemical risk assessment is to identify and evaluate risks originated from chemicals usages. This study aims to design a practical tool for facilitating chemical risk assessment. Methods: The proposed software was derived from chemical risk assessment method which was recommended by Ministry of Human Resources of Malaysia. All of the processes in question are designed in operating system software. Based on some revisions, this software was developed using Visual Basic (VB titled as SQCRA. The developed software was used for chemical risk assessment in Narges Vegetale Oil Company in Shiraz (center of Iran. Result: The output of software showed that the level of risk derived from sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, aluminum sulphate, nickel catalyst, acetic acid used as a raw material were 2.4, 2.84, 2.3, 3.5 and 2.66, respectively. Moreover, risk rank and proposed control methods for each of these materials were determined. Conclusions : The developed software calculates the health risk level based on the degree of hazard and exposure in shorttime and without using risk matrix and chemical formula. After determining the risk rank, the software proposes the control procedures to reduce occupational exposure.

  5. Diesel exhaust pollution: chemical monitoring and cytotoxicity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Joeng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines are a significant source of nitrogen oxides (NOx and particulate matter (PM which may cause adverse health effects on the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. There is little consistency between many studies to establish which engine parameter is a key factor to determine the toxicity of diesel exhaust. The aim of this study was to correlate engine operating systems with cytotoxicity using human cells. A dynamic direct exposure system containing human cells grown at the air liquid interface (ALI was employed to expose human derived cells to diesel exhaust emitted under a range of engine loads. To determine correlation between engine load and cytotoxicity, concentrations of NOx and carbon (organic and elemental were measured. Comparison between filtered and unfiltered exhaust was also made. To assess cytotoxicity and determine mechanisms responsible for toxic effects, various bioassays measuring a range of endpoints were used including: cell metabolism (MTS, cell energy production (ATP and cell lysosome integrity (NRU. The human cells selected in this study were lung (A549 and liver (HepG2 derived cells to detect if observed cytotoxicity was basal (i.e. affect all cell types or organ-specific. Results showed that NOx gas concentrations increased as engine load increased which resulted in significant cytotoxicity to both A549 and HepG2 cells. In contrast carbon measurements remained relatively constant across loads with no observable significant difference in cytotoxicity by filtering diesel exhaust. This result suggests that the gaseous component of diesel exhaust may contribute higher cytotoxicity than the particulate component. Post exposure incubation was an important factor to consider as only gaseous components of diesel exhaust exhibited observable immediate effects. Our findings suggest engine torque as a reliable indicator of cytotoxicity on human cells. The advantages of the dynamic direct exposure method include a more

  6. Biological efficacy of the chemical chrysanthemums protection with the use of fine and coarse droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw PARAFINIUK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of three years (2007-2009 were conducted at Czesławice in south- east of Poland .The objects of research were the plants of the one cultivar of chrysanthemum: Dark Tripoli. The following agents were used for protection: Dithane NeoTec 75 WG, Sumilex 500 SC, Amistar 250 SC. The treatment was carried out with the use of two types of nozzles: standard RS-MM 110 03 and ejector type ID 120 03 C. Observation was carried out once a year: in October. The number and health status of plants were determined and diseased plants were collected for analysis. The percentage of plants with disease symptoms was estimated for each plot. The best health status and yield were noticed for Amistar 250 SC.

  7. Cocktail of chemical compounds robustly promoting cell reprogramming protects liver against acute injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuewen Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tissue damage induces cells into reprogramming-like cellular state, which contributes to tissue regeneration. However, whether factors promoting the cell reprogramming favor tissue regeneration remains elusive. Here we identified combination of small chemical compounds including drug cocktails robustly promoting in vitro cell reprogramming. We then administrated the drug cocktails to mice with acute liver injuries induced by partial hepatectomy or toxic treatment. Our results demonstrated that the drug cocktails which promoted cell reprogramming in vitro improved liver regeneration and hepatic function in vivo after acute injuries. The underlying mechanism could be that expression of pluripotent genes activated after injury is further upregulated by drug cocktails. Thus our study offers proof-of-concept evidence that cocktail of clinical compounds improving cell reprogramming favors tissue recovery after acute damages, which is an attractive strategy for regenerative purpose.

  8. PROCESSES PROCEEDING ON CONCRETE COATING SURFACES IN CASE OF THEIR CHEMICAL PROTECTION AGAINST WINTER SLIPPERINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete coatings of road traffic highways along with operational loadings caused by flow of traffic are subjected to weather and climate impacts. These are the following impacts: changes in temperature and air humidity, solar radiation,surface wind speed which is participating in formation of active heat-and-mass transfer in a surface layer of the concrete coating. One of the most complicated and important periods in the road traffic highway operation is so called transitional nature period (from Summer to Autumn and from Winter to Spring. These periods are accompanied by intensive rain and snow fall and possible formation of ice loading on the surface of cement and concrete coatings. These impacts significantly deteriorate friction properties of road pavement (friction factor φ is decreased up to 0.4 and less that can be a prerequisite to creation of various accident situations due to sharp increase in braking distance. For example, while having dry pavement the friction factor φ is equal to 0.80–0.85, and during icy condition of the road the factor φ constitutes 0.08–0.15 that consequently entails an increase in braking distance from 7.5 up to 20.0 m and more. It is quite possible that ice layer appears on the surface of concrete coatings when road traffic highways are used in winter season. Various methods are applicable to remove ice from the surface they can include also ice-melting chemicals and sodium chloride NaCl in particular. The chemical decreases freezing temperature of the formed brine and causes ice melting at negative temperature. Processes of NaCl dissolution and ice melting have an endothermic character, in other words these processes are accompanied by heat ingress and due to it temperature is sharply decreasing in the surface layer of the concrete coating which is under the melting ice and in this case phenomenon of thermal shock is observed.

  9. Technical guide for applications of gene expression profiling in human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie A; Moffat, Ivy D; Deveau, Michelle; Husain, Mainul; Auerbach, Scott; Krewski, Daniel; Thomas, Russell S; Bushel, Pierre R; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-07-01

    Toxicogenomics promises to be an important part of future human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals. The application of gene expression profiles (e.g., for hazard identification, chemical prioritization, chemical grouping, mode of action discovery, and quantitative analysis of response) is growing in the literature, but their use in formal risk assessment by regulatory agencies is relatively infrequent. Although additional validations for specific applications are required, gene expression data can be of immediate use for increasing confidence in chemical evaluations. We believe that a primary reason for the current lack of integration is the limited practical guidance available for risk assessment specialists with limited experience in genomics. The present manuscript provides basic information on gene expression profiling, along with guidance on evaluating the quality of genomic experiments and data, and interpretation of results presented in the form of heat maps, pathway analyses and other common approaches. Moreover, potential ways to integrate information from gene expression experiments into current risk assessment are presented using published studies as examples. The primary objective of this work is to facilitate integration of gene expression data into human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Attitudes Toward Wildlife Species Protection: Assessing Moderating and Mediating Effects in the Value-Attitude Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; Alan D. Bright; H. Ken Cordell

    1997-01-01

    Framed in the cognitive hierarchy approach, we examine (1) the mediating effect of general environmental atritudes and (2) the moderating effect of factual wildlife knowledge on the relationship berween values and specific wildlife attitudes (wildlife species protection). These relationships are assessed across four wildlife constituent groups: (I) consumptive users...

  11. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  12. Aquatic effect and risk assessment for plant protection products : evaluation of the Dutch 2011 proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.E.; Arts, G.H.P.; Brock, T.C.M.; Hulscher, ten T.E.M.; Luttik, R.; Vliet, van P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this report the proposals for the prospective (underlying Regulation 1107/2009/EC) and the retrospective (underlying the Water Framework Directive) aquatic effect assessment for plant protection products (pesticides) as described in Alterra Report 2235 are evaluated by applying the proposed

  13. Assessing and Promoting Spiritual Wellness as a Protective Factor in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michele Kielty; Akos, Patrick; Czyszczon, Greg; Eldridge, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Spiritual wellness, much like resilience, is a multidimensional protective factor for students. This article reviews the relevant literature linking spiritual wellness and thriving in the adolescent population. Assessment and intervention methods that can be used in secondary school settings to promote spiritual wellness are provided.

  14. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  15. 76 FR 58807 - An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... AGENCY An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can.../Document The report, An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection...). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: EPA is releasing a final report entitled An Assessment of...

  16. Chemical transformation of chiral monolayer-protected gold clusters: observation of ligand size effects on optical and chiroptical responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Kitaoka, Noriyuki; Sasaki, Akito

    2012-01-01

    Versatile functionalization of metal clusters is a key step in understanding the reactivity of protective monolayers. We here demonstrate that reaction of the outermost amino groups on (S)-/(R)-penicillamine-protected gold clusters with ethyl isocyanate readily modifies the chiral surface structure through carbamoylation. Interestingly, the clusters are electrophoretically separated by the size of the surface ligand, not by the size of the gold core, which is revealed by UV-vis, IR, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as SAXS measurements. The ligand size (or length) is extended through additional reactions of the carbamoylated amino groups with isocyanate, while the chemical similarity in ligand structures is realized by their IR spectral similarity. Optical and chiroptical responses of the separated cluster compounds are thus overall similar to each other, but a close inspection reveals that the ligand size has a small but distinct influence on the chiroptical response of the gold clusters.Versatile functionalization of metal clusters is a key step in understanding the reactivity of protective monolayers. We here demonstrate that reaction of the outermost amino groups on (S)-/(R)-penicillamine-protected gold clusters with ethyl isocyanate readily modifies the chiral surface structure through carbamoylation. Interestingly, the clusters are electrophoretically separated by the size of the surface ligand, not by the size of the gold core, which is revealed by UV-vis, IR, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as SAXS measurements. The ligand size (or length) is extended through additional reactions of the carbamoylated amino groups with isocyanate, while the chemical similarity in ligand structures is realized by their IR spectral similarity. Optical and chiroptical responses of the separated cluster compounds are thus overall similar to each other, but a close inspection reveals that the ligand size has a small but distinct

  17. Chemical and biological assessment of Ziziphus jujuba fruits from China: different geographical sources and developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Li, Zhonggui; Maiwulanjiang, Maitinuer; Zhang, Wendy L; Zhan, Janis Y X; Lam, Candy T W; Zhu, Kevin Y; Yao, Ping; Choi, Roy C Y; Lau, David T W; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2013-07-31

    Chinese date, the fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill., has thousands of years cultivation history, and about 700 cultivars of dates in China. Two types of dates are commonly found in the market: (i) fresh immature dates consumed as fruits, and (ii) dried mature dates used as Chinese medicines. Here, chemical and biological properties of these dates were revealed. Different sources of dates showed similar chemical profiles; however, the amounts of identified chemicals showed a great variation. The amount of nucleotides, flavonoids and polysaccharides in dates could be affected by its maturity and drying process. In parallel, the antioxidative functions of their extracts were compared. The date extracts protected PC12 cells against tBHP-induced cytotoxicity, and which also stimulated the transcriptional activity of antioxidant response element. The antioxidative effects were varied among different dates. The current results suggested the optimization of sources and specific usage of different maturity dates.

  18. Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 4, Status of FY 1992 work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.

    1993-03-01

    Protective barriers are being considered for use at the Hanford Site to enhance the isolation of radioactive wastes from water, plant, and animal intrusion. This study is part of an ongoing effort to assess the effectiveness of protective barriers for isolation of wastes from water. Part I of this study was the original modeling assessment by Pacific Northwest Laboratory of various protective barrier designs (e.g., soil type, vegetation). In Part 11 of this study, additional barrier designs were reviewed and several barrier modeling assumptions were tested. A test plan was then produced that detailed the requirement for hydrologic modeling of protective barriers. Part III of this study summarized the status of work in FY 1990 dealing with two-dimensional flow beneath the barrier and with validation testing using lysimeter data. This report (Part IV) addresses the application of a calibrated model to a much longer data set, the application of the calibrated model to a lysimeter that received a different treatment, and the effect of hysteresis on the behavior of water in the protective barrier.

  19. Protective effect of apocynin in a mouse model of chemically-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Marta; Giner, Rosa María; Ríos, José-Luis; Recio, María del Carmen

    2013-10-01

    Apocynin, a constituent of Picrorhiza kurroa, successfully inhibits NADPH oxidase and shows promise as an anti-inflammatory drug. Now, we report anti-inflammatory effects of apocynin in an experimental colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium as well as the effects on the mediators involved in this process. Apocynin reduced the colitis induced in mice by administration of 5 % dextran sulfate sodium during 7 days. Mice were fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with 2 % of apocynin or 2 % of rutin. Sulfasalazine (50 mg/kg, p. o.) was used as a positive control. Treatment with apocynin and rutin ameliorated the course of colonic inflammation with results similar to those of the reference drug, as could be seen by reductions in the disease activity index scores and colon length. NO and PGE2 production as well as the iNOS and COX-2 expression were reduced by apocynin and rutin. Moreover, the activation of NF-κB p65 as well as STAT3 in dextran sulfate sodium-treated colon tissues was significantly reduced by apocynin. These results are promising for further experimental studies on treating gastrointestinal diseases and on the potential protective effects of apocynin. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Heparanase Overexpression Induces Glucagon Resistance and Protects Animals From Chemically Induced Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dahai; Wang, Fulong; Lal, Nathaniel; Chiu, Amy Pei-Ling; Wan, Andrea; Jia, Jocelyn; Bierende, Denise; Flibotte, Stephane; Sinha, Sunita; Asadi, Ali; Hu, Xiaoke; Taghizadeh, Farnaz; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Nislow, Corey; Vlodavsky, Israel; Johnson, James D; Kieffer, Timothy J; Hussein, Bahira; Rodrigues, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Heparanase, a protein with enzymatic and nonenzymatic properties, contributes toward disease progression and prevention. In the current study, a fortuitous observation in transgenic mice globally overexpressing heparanase (hep-tg) was the discovery of improved glucose homeostasis. We examined the mechanisms that contribute toward this improved glucose metabolism. Heparanase overexpression was associated with enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hyperglucagonemia, in addition to changes in islet composition and structure. Strikingly, the pancreatic islet transcriptome was greatly altered in hep-tg mice, with >2,000 genes differentially expressed versus control. The upregulated genes were enriched for diverse functions including cell death regulation, extracellular matrix component synthesis, and pancreatic hormone production. The downregulated genes were tightly linked to regulation of the cell cycle. In response to multiple low-dose streptozotocin (STZ), hep-tg animals developed less severe hyperglycemia compared with wild-type, an effect likely related to their β-cells being more functionally efficient. In animals given a single high dose of STZ causing severe and rapid development of hyperglycemia related to the catastrophic loss of insulin, hep-tg mice continued to have significantly lower blood glucose. In these mice, protective pathways were uncovered for managing hyperglycemia and include augmentation of fibroblast growth factor 21 and glucagon-like peptide 1. This study uncovers the opportunity to use properties of heparanase in management of diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Apelin Protects Primary Rat Retinal Pericytes from Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericytes are a population of cells that participate in normal vessel architecture and regulate permeability. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor APJ, participates in a number of physiological and pathological processes. To date, the effect of apelin on pericyte is not clear. Our study aimed to investigate the potential protection mechanisms of apelin, with regard to primary rat retinal pericytes under hypoxia. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that pericytes colocalized with APJ in the fibrovascular membranes dissected from proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients. In the in vitro studies, we first demonstrated that the expression of apelin/APJ was upregulated in pericytes under hypoxia, and apelin increased pericytes proliferation and migration. Moreover, knockdown of apelin in pericyte was achieved via lentivirus-mediated RNA interference. After the inhibition of apelin, pericytes proliferation was inhibited significantly in hypoxia culture condition. Furthermore, exogenous recombinant apelin effectively prevented hypoxia-induced apoptosis through downregulating active-caspase 3 expression and increasing the ratio of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2/Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax in pericytes. These results suggest that apelin suppressed hypoxia-induced pericytes injury, which indicated that apelin could be a potential therapeutic target for retinal angiogenic diseases.

  2. Protecting buildings from a biological or chemical attack: Actions to take before or during a release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Delp, William W.; Lorenzetti, David M.; Finlayson, Elizabeth U.; Thatcher, Tracy L.; Sextro, Richard G.; Derby, Elisabeth A.; Jarvis, Sondra A.

    2003-01-29

    This report presents advice on how to operate a building to reduce casualties from a biological or chemical attack, as well as potential changes to the building (e.g. the design of the ventilation system) that could make it more secure. It also documents the assumptions and reasoning behind the advice. The particular circumstances of any attack, such as the ventilation system design, building occupancy, agent type, source strength and location, and so on, may differ from the assumptions made here, in which case actions other than our recommendations may be required; we hope that by understanding the rationale behind the advice, building operators can modify it as required for their circumstances. The advice was prepared by members of the Airflow and Pollutant Transport Group, which is part of the Indoor Environment Department at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The group's expertise in this area includes: tracer-gas measurements of airflows in buildings (Sextro, Thatcher); design and operation of commercial building ventilation systems (Delp); modeling and analysis of airflow and tracer gas transport in large indoor spaces (Finlayson, Gadgil, Price); modeling of gas releases in multi-zone buildings (Sohn, Lorenzetti, Finlayson, Sextro); and occupational health and safety experience related to building design and operation (Sextro, Delp). This report is concerned only with building design and operation; it is not a how-to manual for emergency response. Many important emergency response topics are not covered here, including crowd control, medical treatment, evidence gathering, decontamination methods, and rescue gear.

  3. Silver nanoparticles prepared by chemical reduction-protection method, and their application in electrically conductive silver nanopaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jianguo, E-mail: ljg712@yahoo.com.c [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Li Xiangyou; Zeng Xiaoyan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2010-04-02

    Ag nanoparticles were prepared in a water-phase system with a mixture of silver-ammonia complex, sodium borohydride, and lauric acid according to molar feed ratio of approximately 6:3:1. The mechanism of preparation and separation by chemical reduction-protection method was explored. The as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. It was found that the size of high purity Ag particles was ranging from 30 to 50 nm with slight agglomeration. In addition, the as-synthesized wet Ag nanoparticles were dispersed stably in organic vehicle to formulate electrically conductive nanopaste. Upon direct-written and sintered, the array pattern of the nanopaste with the resolution of about 30 {mu}m was achieved with the electrical resistivity in the order of magnitude of 10{sup -5} {Omega} cm.

  4. Cultural landscapes and attributes of "culturalness" in protected areas: An exploratory assessment in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlami, Vassiliki; Kokkoris, Ioannis P; Zogaris, Stamatis; Cartalis, Constantinos; Kehayias, George; Dimopoulos, Panayotis

    2017-10-01

    Cultural landscapes are poorly inventoried and evaluated in protected natural areas. This study presents a novel procedure to assess cultural landscape features and their cultural values in the major protected areas of Greece. After identifying a set of culturally modified land cover types and habitat types the GIS-based survey of the entire Natura 2000 protected area network in Greece (419 sites) shows that roughly 67% of protected area land cover consists of cultural landscape features. This was corroborated by the distribution of culturally modified habitat types which take up approximately 50% of the areal cover in a subset of the nation's Natura 2000 network (241 Special Areas for Conservation). Moreover, a set of 12 cultural attributes involving cultural heritage values, traditional land uses and aesthetic quality indicators were scored to assess these "cultural values" in each site. Gradient maps were produced to express an initial nation-wide site ranking profile. Heatmaps help link instead of solely rank culturally valuable sites that are in proximity to each other, showcasing site clusters of outstanding value. These analyses help define the level of "culturalness" of each site based on human-modified landscape and habitat types and provide a baseline review of cultural values in protected natural areas. This screening-level survey identifies the protected areas that may require special attention for managing cultural elements-of-diversity. Difficulties with data availability and uncertainties are reviewed. This procedure supports a paradigm shift that promotes a more holistic evaluation and management of biodiversity-centered protected areas, where until recently cultural landscapes were rarely appreciated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrating process safety with molecular modeling-based risk assessment of chemicals within the REACH regulatory framework: benefits and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amanda; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Fishtik, Ilie; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2007-04-11

    Registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH) represents a recent regulatory initiative by the European union commission to protect human health and the environment from potentially hazardous chemicals. Under REACH, all stakeholders must submit (thermo)physical, thermochemical, and toxicological data for certain chemicals. The commission's impact assessment studies estimate that the costs of REACH will be approximately 3-5 billion Euros. The present study advocates the systematic incorporation of computational chemistry and computer-assisted chemical risk assessment methods into REACH to reduce regulatory compliance costs. Currently powerful computer-aided ab initio techniques can be used to generate predictions of key properties of broad classes of chemicals, without resorting to costly experimentation and potentially hazardous testing. These data could be integrated into a centralized IT decision and compliance support system, and stored in a retrievable, easily communicable manner should new regulatory and/or production requirements necessitate the introduction of different uses of chemicals under different conditions. For illustration purposes, ab initio calculations are performed on heterocyclic nitrogen-containing compounds which currently serve as high energy density materials in the chemical industry. Since investigations of these compounds are still in their infancy, stability studies are imperative regarding their safe handling and storage, as well as registration under REACH.

  6. Knockout of the 15 kDa selenoprotein protects against chemically-induced aberrant crypt formation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra A Tsuji

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that selenium has cancer preventive properties that are largely mediated through selenoproteins. Our previous observations demonstrated that targeted down-regulation of the 15 kDa selenoprotein (Sep15 in murine colon cancer cells resulted in the reversal of the cancer phenotype. The present study investigated the effect of Sep15 knockout in mice using a chemically-induced colon cancer model. Homozygous Sep15 knockout mice, and wild type littermate controls were given four weekly subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (10 mg/kg. Sep15 knockout mice developed significantly (p<0.001 fewer aberrant crypt foci than controls demonstrating that loss of Sep15 protects against aberrant crypt foci formation. Dietary selenium above adequate levels did not significantly affect aberrant crypt foci formation in Sep15 knockout mice. To investigate molecular targets affected by loss of Sep15, gene expression patterns in colonic mucosal cells of knockout and wild type mice were examined using microarray analysis. Subsequent analyses verified that guanylate binding protein-1 (GBP-1 mRNA and protein expression were strongly upregulated in Sep15 knockout mice. GBP-1, which is expressed in response to interferon-γ, is considered to be an activation marker during inflammatory diseases, and up-regulation of GBP-1 in humans has been associated with a highly significant, increased five-year survival rate in colorectal cancer patients. In agreement with these studies, we observed a higher level of interferon-γ in plasma of Sep15 knockout mice. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time, that Sep15 knockout mice are protected against chemically-induced aberrant crypt foci formation and that Sep15 appears to have oncogenic properties in colon carcinogenesis in vivo.

  7. Chemical extraction to assess the bioavailability of chlorobenzenes in soil with different aging periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yang; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xinglun; Liu, Cuiying; Jin, Xin; Jiang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Kengara, Fredrick Orori [Maseno Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-12-15

    Bioavailability is mainly influenced by aging and desorption of contaminants in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the desorption kinetics of chlorobenzenes (CBs) in soil and to investigate whether chemical extractions are suitable for the bioavailability assessment of CBs in soil. A soil spiked with CBs and aged for different periods was extracted with Tenax, hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD), and butanol to assess the bioavailability of CBs in soil, respectively. Earthworm (Eisenia foetida) accumulation was used as bioassay in parallel experiments to evaluate the chemical extractions. The results showed that desorption of CBs from soil with consecutive Tenax extraction fitted into triphasic kinetics model. Different chemical methods extracted different amounts of CBs over different aging periods. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the extraction efficiency was in the order of butanol > Tenax-6h > HPCD extraction, while the order of butanol > HPCD > Tenax-6h extraction for pentachlorobenzene (PeCB). The bioaccumulation by earthworm decreased with increasing aging period and was significantly higher for HCB than for PeCB (p < 0.05). Earthworm accumulated CBs correlated well with all the three chemical extracted CBs. However, HPCD extraction showed the converse extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs. Chemical extraction could be used to assess the bioavailability of contaminants in soil; however, they were method and compound specific. Tenax and butanol extractions were more reliable than HPCD extraction for bioavailability assessment of the tested CBs and the soil used since they showed the consistent extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs.

  8. Mobile detection assessment and response systems (MDARS): a force protection physical security operational success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Brian; Johnston, Michael; Goehring, Richard; Moneyhun, Jon; Skibba, Brian

    2006-05-01

    MDARS is a Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle with intrusion detection & assessment, product & barrier assessment payloads. Its functions include surveillance, security, early warning, incident first response and product and barrier status primarily focused on a depot/munitions security mission at structured/semi-structured facilities. MDARS is in Systems Development and Demonstration (SDD) under the Product Manager for Force Protection Systems (PM-FPS). MDARS capabilities include semi-autonomous navigation, obstacle avoidance, motion detection, day and night imagers, radio frequency tag inventory/barrier assessment and audio challenge and response. Four SDD MDARS Patrol Vehicles have been undergoing operational evaluation at Hawthorne Army Depot, NV (HWAD) since October 2004. Hawthorne personnel were trained to administer, operate and maintain the system in accordance with the US Army Military Police School (USAMPS) Concept of Employment and the PM-FPS MDARS Integrated Logistic Support Plan. The system was subjected to intensive periods of evaluation under the guidance and control of the Army Test and Evaluation Center (ATEC) and PM-FPS. Significantly, in terms of User acceptance, the system has been under the "operational control" of the installation performing security and force protection missions in support of daily operations. This evaluation is intended to assess MDARS operational effectiveness in an operational environment. Initial observations show that MDARS provides enhanced force protection, can potentially reduce manpower requirements by conducting routine tasks within its design capabilities and reduces Soldier exposure in the initial response to emerging incidents and situations. Success of the MDARS program has been instrumental in the design and development of two additional robotic force protection programs. The first was the USAF Force Protection Battle Lab sponsored Remote Detection Challenge & Response (REDCAR) concept demonstration

  9. Commercial Nuclear Power Industry: Assessing and Meeting the Radiation Protection Workforce Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Jerry W

    2017-02-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the process used by the commercial nuclear power industry in assessing the status of existing industry staffing and projecting future supply demand needs. The most recent Nuclear Energy Institute-developed "Pipeline Survey Results" will be reviewed with specific emphasis on the radiation protection specialty. Both radiation protection technician and health physicist specialties will be discussed. The industry-initiated Nuclear Uniform Curriculum Program will be reviewed as an example of how the industry has addressed the need for developing additional resources. Furthermore, the reality of challenges encountered in maintaining the needed number of health physicists will also be discussed.

  10. A Detailed Impact Risk Assessment of Possible Protection Enhancements to two LEO Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, H.; Cougnet, C.; David, M.; Gelhaus, J.; Rothlingshofer, M.

    2013-08-01

    The SHIELD3 impact risk analysis tool has been used to compute the impact-induced probability of no failure (PNF) of two different spacecraft - a radar satellite and an optical satellite - operating in the 2020-2030 low Earth orbit debris environment. Based on this assessment, potential vulnerabilities were identified in the spacecraft designs, and several solutions were proposed for enhancing protection. The effectiveness of each shielding solution was determined by recalculating the spacecraft PNFs. Significant improvements in PNF were achieved, indicating that effective levels of extra protection can be implemented in spacecraft designs within constraints such as cost, mass and volume.

  11. Protective effect of Picroliv, the active constituent of Picrorhiza kurroa, against chemical carcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshkumar, N V; Kuttan, R

    2001-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention of chemically induced tumours by Picroliv, an iridoid glycoside mixture purified from Picrorhiza kurroa, was studied on 20-methylcholanthrene (20-MC)-induced sarcoma model and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated papilloma formation in BALB/c mice. Administration of Picroliv (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o) inhibited the sarcoma development by 47 and 53% as estimated on day 200 after 20-MC administration. Control animals started dying of tumour burden 76 days after 20-MC administration and all animals were dead by day 170, while 60 and 66% of the animals survived in the Picroliv treated group, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Picroliv exhibited anti-tumour-promoting activity on a two-stage carcinogenesis test on mouse skin using DMBA as an initiator and croton oil as a promoter. Topical application of Picroliv (1 and 5 mg/mouse) 30 minutes prior to that of croton oil application resulted in a 50 and 60% reduction in the number of animals that developed papillomas, and 48 and 64% reduction in the number of papillomas per mouse. There was also a delay in the onset of first skin tumour in the group of animals treated with Picroliv. Oral administration of Picroliv (150 mg/kg, p.o.) prior to DMBA application delayed the onset of papillomas and the percent of mice (60%) with tumours indicates that Picroliv inhibited the tumour initiation induced by DMBA. Picroliv administration was also found to increase the life span of transplanted Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) harboring mice and reduced the volume of transplanted solid tumours. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Chemical Biology of Hydropersulfides and Related Species: Possible Roles in Cellular Protection and Redox Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Lucía; Bianco, Christopher L; Toscano, John P; Lin, Joseph; Akaike, Takaaki; Fukuto, Jon M

    2017-10-01

    For >20 years, physiological signaling associated with the endogenous generation of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been of significant interest. Despite its presumed importance, the biochemical mechanisms associated with its actions have not been elucidated. Recent Advances: Recently it has been found that H 2 S-related or derived species are highly prevalent in mammalian systems and that these species may be responsible for some, if not the majority, of the biological actions attributed to H 2 S. One of the most prevalent and intriguing species are hydropersulfides (RSSH), which can be present at significant levels. Indeed, it appears that H 2 S and RSSH are intimately linked in biological systems and likely to be mutually inclusive. The fact that H 2 S and polysulfides such as RSSH are present simultaneously means that the biological actions previously assigned to H 2 S can be instead because of the presence of RSSH (or other polysulfides). Thus, it remains possible that hydropersulfides are the biological effectors, and H 2 S serves, to a certain extent, as a marker for persulfides and polysulfides. Addressing this possibility will to a large extent be based on the chemistry of these species. Currently, it is known that persulfides possess unique and novel chemical properties that may explain their biological prevalence. However, significantly more work will be required to establish the possible physiological roles of these species. Moreover, an understanding of the regulation of their biosynthesis and degradation will become important topics in piecing together their biology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  13. Getting the chemicals right: addressing inorganics in sustainability assessments of technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Nienke; Fantke, Peter

    A main goal of sustainability research is to enable a technological development in industry and elsewhere that ensures that what is produced and how it is produced today does not harm the quality of human or environmental health for present and future generations. As part of current environmental...... sustainability assessments, the toxicity potential of several thousand organic chemicals is included in characterization models within life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). However, many economic production processes involve the use of inorganic chemicals to a large extent, while the related pressure on human...

  14. Assessment of chemical mixtures and groundwater effects on Daphnia magna transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Escalon, B Lynn; Loh, Po Ru; Laird, Jennifer G; Kennedy, Alan J; Berger, Bonnie; Perkins, Edward J

    2012-01-03

    Small organisms can be used as biomonitoring tools to assess chemicals in the environment. Chemical stressors are especially hard to assess and monitor when present as complex mixtures. Here, fifteen polymerase chain reaction assays targeting Daphnia magna genes were calibrated to responses elicited in D. magna exposed for 24 h to five different doses each of the munitions constituents 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, trinitrobenzene, dinitrobenzene, or 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane. A piecewise-linear model for log-fold expression changes in gene assays was used to predict response to munitions mixtures and contaminated groundwater under the assumption that chemical effects were additive. The correlations of model predictions with actual expression changes ranged from 0.12 to 0.78 with an average of 0.5. To better understand possible mixture effects, gene expression changes from all treatments were compared using high-density microarrays. Whereas mixtures and groundwater exposures had genes and gene functions in common with single chemical exposures, unique functions were also affected, which was consistent with the nonadditivity of chemical effects in these mixtures. These results suggest that, while gene behavior in response to chemical exposure can be partially predicted based on chemical exposure, estimation of the composition of mixtures from chemical responses is difficult without further understanding of gene behavior in mixtures. Future work will need to examine additive and nonadditive mixture effects using a much greater range of different chemical classes in order to clarify the behavior and predictability of complex mixtures.

  15. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, DNA Damage Protective, Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities of Cyperus rotundus Rhizomes Essential Oil against Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-Ping; Cao, Xin-Ming; Hao, Dong-Lin; Zhang, Liang-Liang

    2017-03-24

    Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat various clinical conditions at home. In this study, chemical composition of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes essential oil, and in vitro antioxidant, DNA damage protective and cytotoxic activities as well as antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens were investigated. Results showed that α-cyperone (38.46%), cyperene (12.84%) and α-selinene (11.66%) were the major components of the essential oil. The essential oil had an excellent antioxidant activity, the protective effect against DNA damage, and cytotoxic effects on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell, as well as antibacterial activity against several foodborne pathogens. These biological activities were dose-dependent, increasing with higher dosage in a certain concentration range. The antibacterial effects of essential oil were greater against Gram-positive bacteria as compared to Gram-negative bacteria, and the antibacterial effects were significantly influenced by incubation time and concentration. These results may provide biological evidence for the practical application of the C. rotundus rhizomes essential oil in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Protective effect of conditioning agents on Afro-ethnic hair chemically treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tania Cristina de Sá; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

    2008-06-01

    Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, products are formulated as emulsions with high pH value (9.0-12.0), which, after applied on hair, cause considerable damage, making it dry and fragile. This research work evaluated the protective effect of lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone, cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer, jojoba oil, and aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol, as conditioning agents, on Afro-ethnic hair locks treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsions by protein loss, combability, and traction to rupture. Standard Afro-ethnic hair locks were prepared following a protocol for straightening emulsion application. Considering the assays performed, the addition of conditioning agents to the straightening emulsion with ammonium thioglycolate benefited the hair fiber, thus diminishing protein loss, protecting the hair thread, and improving resistance to breakage. Jojoba oil and lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone were the conditioning agents that presented the best results. Straightening emulsions with ammonium thioglycolate containing aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol and cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer were the ones that provided higher breakage resistance of the thread.

  17. Towards quantitative condition assessment of biodiversity outcomes: Insights from Australian marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Prue F E; Flander, Louisa B; Cook, Carly N

    2017-08-01

    Protected area management effectiveness (PAME) evaluation is increasingly undertaken to evaluate governance, assess conservation outcomes and inform evidence-based management of protected areas (PAs). Within PAME, quantitative approaches to assess biodiversity outcomes are now emerging, where biological monitoring data are directly assessed against quantitative (numerically defined) condition categories (termed quantitative condition assessments). However, more commonly qualitative condition assessments are employed in PAME, which use descriptive condition categories and are evaluated largely with expert judgement that can be subject to a range of biases, such as linguistic uncertainty and overconfidence. Despite the benefits of increased transparency and repeatability of evaluations, quantitative condition assessments are rarely used in PAME. To understand why, we interviewed practitioners from all Australian marine protected area (MPA) networks, which have access to long-term biological monitoring data and are developing or conducting PAME evaluations. Our research revealed that there is a desire within management agencies to implement quantitative condition assessment of biodiversity outcomes in Australian MPAs. However, practitioners report many challenges in transitioning from undertaking qualitative to quantitative condition assessments of biodiversity outcomes, which are hampering progress. Challenges include a lack of agency capacity (staff numbers and money), knowledge gaps, and diminishing public and political support for PAs. We point to opportunities to target strategies that will assist agencies overcome these challenges, including new decision support tools, approaches to better finance conservation efforts, and to promote more management relevant science. While a single solution is unlikely to achieve full evidence-based conservation, we suggest ways for agencies to target strategies and advance PAME evaluations toward best practice. Copyright

  18. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework Directive: Recommendations for more efficient assessment and management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Werner; Dulio, Valeria; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Allan, Ian; Altenburger, Rolf; Brinkmann, Markus; Bunke, Dirk; Burgess, Robert M; Cousins, Ian; Escher, Beate I; Hernández, Félix J; Hewitt, L Mark; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Klauer, Bernd; Lindim, Claudia; Herráez, David López; Miège, Cécil; Munthe, John; O'Toole, Simon; Posthuma, Leo; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfer, Ralf B; Sengl, Manfred; Smedes, Foppe; van de Meent, Dik; van den Brink, Paul J; van Gils, Jos; van Wezel, Annemarie P; Vethaak, A Dick; Vermeirssen, Etienne; von der Ohe, Peter C; Vrana, Branislav

    2017-01-15

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of European freshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has faced some challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the European monitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science and suggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensive prioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters. The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integrated strategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approaches to advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic "chemical status" assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historical burdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessment of contamination. Solution-oriented management should apply a tiered approach in investigative monitoring to identify toxicity drivers, strengthen consistent legislative frameworks and apply solutions-oriented approaches that explore risk reduction scenarios before and along with risk assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Application of PETROTOX in chemical risk assessments of petroleum stream substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.; McWhinney, R.; Stieglitz, T. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The toxicity of complex petroleum mixtures to various aquatic organisms has been estimated using a tool developed by Conservation of Clean Air and Water in Europe (CONCAWE). The PETROTOX spreadsheet uses the Target Lipid Model (TLM) and toxic unit theory to provide acute or chronic toxic loadings or dose response data. The model chooses the appropriate chemical composition and corresponding physical/chemical data from a database to match an input of the boiling range of each distillation fraction and the hydrocarbon class. A user-defined version (PETROTOX-UDM) requires the physical/chemical properties to be input by the user for each chemical component of the petroleum mixture. This newly developed model can be readily used for fuel oils and other heavy petroleum streams. However, limitations of the chemical database make the PETROTOX-UDM model best suited for naphthas, gasolines and other light petroleum streams. The feasibility of using PETROTOX models for chemical risk assessments of petroleum stream substances is currently under investigation by Environment Canada. Preliminary results suggest that the model can reasonably predict toxic loadings of fuels in the order of magnitude range for species of interest. As such, it may be useful for assessment processes as a predictor for petroleum mixtures that lack data on aquatic toxicity.

  20. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Modular Clothing Protecting Against the Cold Based on Physiological Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszałek, Anna; Bartkowiak, Grażyna; Dąbrowska, Anna

    2017-09-19

    At many work stations under cold environment, protective clothing, which is provided for the workers is characterized by an inadequate thermal insulation, which results in an adverse impact of cold environment on a worker's body. The purpose of this paper is to present a developed new ergonomic modular cold protective clothing, which allows for easy adaptation of the thermal insulation of clothing to worker's individual needs. This clothing was compared in a laboratory study with the clothing having been used so far by workers of cold environment using physiological and physical measurements, subjective ratings of thermal state as well a questionnaire of subjective assessment of used clothing. These measurements and ratings confirmed that the modular cold protective clothing is more effective in the process of ensuring thermal comfort to the wearer during work in a cold environment than the clothing having been used so far.

  1. Assessment of Awareness of Connectedness as a Culturally-based Protective Factor for Alaska Native Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Nathaniel V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Burket, Rebekah; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2011-01-01

    Research with Native Americans has identified connectedness as a culturally-based protective factor against substance abuse and suicide. Connectedness refers to the interrelated welfare of the individual, one’s family, one’s community, and the natural environment. We developed an 18-item quantitative assessment of awareness of connectedness and tested it with 284 Alaska Native youth. Evaluation with confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory identified a 12-item subset that functions satisfactorily in a second-order, four-factor model. The proposed Awareness of Connectedness Scale displays good convergent and discriminant validity and correlates positively with hypothesized protective factors such as reasons for living and communal mastery. The measure has utility in the study of culture-specific protective factors and as an outcomes measure for behavioral health programs with Native American youth. PMID:21988583

  2. Assessment of municipal environmental protection expenditure: Case study in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Soukopová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local authorities need simple economic tools and methodology how to evaluate public expenditure efficiency. There are a lot of ways for measuring efficiency of public expenditure however methods or economic tools which get actual information about efficiency of current public spending are rare. The paper presents new methodology for evaluating current municipal environmental protection expenditures based on a weighted assessment of multiple economic, social and environmental criteria. This methodology has issued from OECD methodology however it is a more complex tool and addresses the three pillars of sustainable development and following interdisciplinary approaches of Environmental Mainstreaming. The paper presents also case study, where is investigated environmental protection expenditure evaluation in the city of Brno, the second largest city in the Czech Republic. The results of this case study show the correct state of expenditure efficiency in the city of Brno and indicate possible improvements applicable for new investment to environmental protection and sustainable development.

  3. Utilizing toxicogenomic data to understand chemical mechanism of action in risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Vickie S., E-mail: wilson.vickie@epa.gov [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Keshava, Nagalakshmi [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Hester, Susan [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Segal, Deborah; Chiu, Weihsueh [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The predominant role of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment, thus far, has been one of augmentation of more traditional in vitro and in vivo toxicology data. This article focuses on the current available examples of instances where toxicogenomic data has been evaluated in human health risk assessment (e.g., acetochlor and arsenicals) which have been limited to the application of toxicogenomic data to inform mechanism of action. This article reviews the regulatory policy backdrop and highlights important efforts to ultimately achieve regulatory acceptance. A number of research efforts on specific chemicals that were designed for risk assessment purposes have employed mechanism or mode of action hypothesis testing and generating strategies. The strides made by large scale efforts to utilize toxicogenomic data in screening, testing, and risk assessment are also discussed. These efforts include both the refinement of methodologies for performing toxicogenomics studies and analysis of the resultant data sets. The current issues limiting the application of toxicogenomics to define mode or mechanism of action in risk assessment are discussed together with interrelated research needs. In summary, as chemical risk assessment moves away from a single mechanism of action approach toward a toxicity pathway-based paradigm, we envision that toxicogenomic data from multiple technologies (e.g., proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, supportive RT-PCR studies) can be used in conjunction with one another to understand the complexities of multiple, and possibly interacting, pathways affected by chemicals which will impact human health risk assessment.

  4. Assessment of uncertainties in risk analysis of chemical establishments. The ASSURANCE project. Final summary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, K.; Kozine, Igor; Markert, Frank

    2002-01-01

    This report summarises the results obtained in the ASSURANCE project (EU contract number ENV4-CT97-0627). Seven teams have performed risk analyses for the same chemical facility, an ammonia storage. The EC's Joint Research Centre at Ispra and RisøNational Laboratory co-ordinated the exercise...... the frequency assessments and in the assessment ofconsequences. The report gives a qualitative assessment of the importance to the final calculated risk of uncertainties in assumptions made, in the data and the calculation methods used. This assessment can serve as a guide to areas where, in particular...

  5. Getting the chemicals right: Gaps and opportunities in addressing inorganics in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Kirchhübel, Nienke

    2017-01-01

    chemicals in LCIA toxicity characterization. The analysis of existing LCIA approaches of specific organic and inorganic chemical groups including PFASs, nanoparticles, salts causing salinization, and common ionic liquids show that the fate, exposure and effect modeling have to be adapted at various levels...... substances without further modification towards including specific reaction- and process-kinetics. Possibly relevant chemical reaction pathways will be outlined as a necessary step toward improving the environmental fate and (human and ecosystem) exposure assessment of various inorganic substances. Also, we...... technology containing any of these substances can be drawn. We provide an overview of different substance groups already incorporated in LCIA toxicity characterization modeling, the economic and environmental relevance of inorganic chemicals, and an outline of possible ways towards incorporating inorganic...

  6. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for Hawaii 2002: Water Quality, Fish Taxon, Sediment Chemistry Data (NODC Accession 0061250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), in conjunction with...

  7. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E; Vethaak, A Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and endpoints (chemical analyses, biological effects). ICON has demonstrated the use of a framework for integrated contaminant assessment on European coastal and offshore areas. The assessment showed that chemical contamination did not always correspond with biological effects, indicating that both are required. The framework can be used to develop assessments for EU directives. If a 95% target were to be used as a regional indicator of MSFD GES, Iceland and offshore North Sea would achieve the target using the ICON dataset, but inshore North Sea, Baltic and Spanish Mediterranean regions would fail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Chemical risks. From the risk assessment to the sanitary surveillance: evolution of the instruments of the occupational health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelormini, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Following the development of Legislation, the Occupational Health activities become more articulated and complex from both a formal and essential point of view and they are becoming an ever increasing part of the Health and Safety preventative strategy at the workplace and in its surrounding environment. In this context Health Surveillance, including its risk assessment aspect, is not any more only the straightforward application of medical methods aimed at identifying work related pathologies, but it assumes a preventative role in the evaluation of the individual exposure to the work environment i.e. to chemical and biological substances. To carry out such activities, in addition to the ones normally used, new instruments of information are available, provided by recent legislation, that regulates in a coordinated way the worker's health protection at the workplace, in particular the Regulation n. 1907/2006 (REACH) and the Regulation n.1272/2008 (CLP).

  9. High production volume chemical Amine Oxide [C8-C20] category environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Greggs, William

    2009-01-01

    States from manufacturing facilities and from municipal facilities resulting from consumer product uses. Reasonable worst-case ratios of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) range from 0.04 to 0.003, demonstrating that these chemicals are a low risk......An environmental assessment of amine oxides has been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Amine Oxides Consortium. Amine oxides are primarily used in conjunction with surfactants in cleaning...... and personal care products. Given the lack of persistence or bioaccumulation, and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil, the focus of the environmental assessment is on the aquatic environment. In the United States, the E-FAST model is used to estimate effluent concentrations in the United...

  10. Integrated assessment of chemical stressors and ecological impact in mixed land use stream systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne Thobo

    activities, including contaminated sites. To determine potential impacts, the chemical quality of both organic (i.e. pharmaceuticals, gasoline constituents, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides) and inorganic (i.e. metals, general water chemistry and macroions) compounds was assessed in all three stream...... stream compartments revealed a substantial influence on both stream water and hyporheic zone from the diffuse metal sources (aluminum, barium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc) of both geogenic and anthropogenic origin in the catchment. The release of metals (particularly copper, nickel, zinc) was additionally...... their mutual importance and to reveal “new” sources. It further demonstrated the importance of contaminated sites as a potential noteworthy source to continuously impact the chemical stream quality (> ½ tonne per year of organic xenobiotics). An assessment of the chemical patterns (similarities) along...

  11. A weighted fuzzy Petri-net based approach for security risk assessment in the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Reniers, Genserik; Zhang, Laobing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: As large amounts of hazardous chemicals are handled in the petrochemical industries, the plants in these industries are attractive for terrorists because they can cause great losses and have important social impact. Security risk assessment is important to determine the risk level of a plant in order to take targeted measures to reduce the security risk. Based on Security Risk Factor Table (SRFT) which covers the essential elements for the security risk assessment, a weighted fuzzy ...

  12. Clinical application of music therapy assessment within the field of child protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl; Killén, Kari

    2015-01-01

    and challenges of a nonverbal and emotional interactional medium such as music in assessing parent–child interaction and parental capacity are presented and discussed. The assessment model relates to theories of attunement, autonomy, and attachment, and clinical relevance for practice within the field of child...... protection is addressed according to clinical application of the tool. How can the scores of APC be interpreted and how are they clinically relevant? With the combination of a playful and rigorous approach, APC can provide useful information to families, family therapists, and other social......-service professions within the field of child protection, including level of mutual attunement, nonverbal communication skills, emotional parental response, and possibly indications of attachment behavior in the child. APC can thereby help indicate the severity of the situation and the possible therapeutic direction...

  13. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  14. Effect of Continuous Assessment on Learning Outcomes on Two Chemical Engineering Courses: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning…

  15. Developing Computer Model-Based Assessment of Chemical Reasoning: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Waight, Noemi; Gregorius, Roberto; Smith, Erica; Park, Mihwa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study on developing computer model-based assessments of chemical reasoning at the high school level. Computer models are flash and NetLogo environments to make simultaneously available three domains in chemistry: macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic. Students interact with computer models to answer assessment…

  16. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and

  17. Techno-economic assessment of the production of bio-based chemicals from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Gangarapu, S.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, possible process steps for the production of bio-based industrial chemicals from glutamic acid are described, including a techno-economic assessment of all processes. The products under investigation were those that were shown to be synthesized from glutamic acid on lab-scale, namely

  18. Building a model based on scientific consensus for Life Cycle Impact Assessment of chemicals:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Huijbregts, Mark; Jolliet, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Achieving consensus among scientists is often a challenge - particularly in model development. In this article we describe a recent scientific consensus-building process for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) models applied to chemical emissions - including the strategy, execution, and results...

  19. Susceptibility based upon Chemical Interaction with Disease Processes: Potential Implications for Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the challenges facing toxicology and risk assessment is that numerous host and environmental factors may modulate vulnerability and risk. An area of increasing interest is the potential for chemicals to interact with background aging and disease processes, an interaction...

  20. REMOTE SENSING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES FOLLOWING HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...

  1. A method to determine the protection zone of chemical industrial park considering air quality, health risk and environmental risk: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingang; Zhang, Mingbo; Li, Dong; Liu, Jia

    2017-10-04

    In China, chemical enterprises are required to cluster into a large number of chemical industrial parks (CIPs), which increase risks and threats to the environment and human being's health due to aggregation of the complicated chemical process and huge unit scale. Setting a scientific and reasonable protection zone around CIP is a very efficient way to protect surrounding people's health. A method was designed to determine the comprehensive protection zone of CIP, taking into account multiple factors: air quality, health risk and environmental risk. By establishing a comprehensive and multi-levels index system, the protection zone and the corresponding environmental risk management countermeasures can be proposed hierarchically, which are very important to the development and environmental risk management of CIP. A CIP located in coastal area of Shandong Province was studied, and it is turned out that the method to determine the protection zone of chemical industrial park considering air quality, health risk and environmental risk has great advantages compared with other methods.

  2. Risk Assessment of Ammonia Tanks Using Fuzzy Layer of Protection Analysis (FLOPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Omidvar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk assessment of hazardous processes is the priority of risk management. Layer of protection analysis (LOPA is one of the most popular methods used for risk assessment. Due to the insufficient information or uncertainty in failure rates (PFD of protective layers, risk assessment based on the conventional LOPA can result in error in calculations. In this study, we tried to use the fuzzy set theory to evaluate the ammonia receiving tank safety, using the LOPA method. Methods: Initially, the fuzzy failure rate of protective layers were calculated using the subjective opinions of professionals. Then, by applying the fuzzy operators, fuzzy possibilities transformed to fuzzy probabilities and subsequently they were deffuzified to crisp failure rate. Afterwards, using the severity fuzzy logic, severity of the outcome event was calculated in the fuzzy form, and subsequently, fuzzy risk index was calculated using the fuzzy matrix. Results: In the ammonia release scenario, calculated severity, probability and risk levels were determined as P: Low, S: High, and R: TNA, and PF = -2.66, SF = 3.99, RF = 3.79 (0.2 TNA, 0.8 NA for classic and fuzzy LOPA methods, respectively. In addition, after inserting additional layers of protection, the fuzzy risk index reduced from 3.79 (0.2 TNA, 0.8 NA to 1.92 (0.1 A, 0.8 TA, 0.1 TNA. Conclusions: In the condition of uncertainty and lack of information relating to probability and severity of risk scenarios, the experts’ opinions can be used in forms of linguistic variables and fuzzy relations to reduce calculation errors in risk assessment as much as possible

  3. Framework for Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection for Nonproliferation Impact Assessments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari,R.

    2008-03-01

    This report describes a framework for proliferation resistance and physical protection evaluation for the fuel cycle systems envisioned in the expansion of nuclear power for electricity generation. The methodology is based on an approach developed as part of the Generation IV technical evaluation framework and on a qualitative evaluation approach to policy factors similar to those that were introduced in previous Nonproliferation Impact Assessments performed by DOE.

  4. Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svancara, Leona K.; Scott, J.M.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Pidgorna, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10 km of both parks and refuges and those within 10 km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10 km of just refuges and counties greater than 10 km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged protection by at least two times (Conservation Risk Index > 2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding

  5. Assessment of the Ecosystem Services Capacity in Natural Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Silvia; Salata, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Recently, in Italy, a legislative proposal has been set to reform the role and the functions of natural protected areas promoting their aggregation (or the abolition) pursuing a better efficiency for their administration and economic saving. The system of natural protected areas is composed of different conservation levels: there are the Natural parks, established in the ‘80 by national or regional institution for the safeguard of natural elements, the Natura 2000 -Habitat 92/43/CEE promoted by European Union, with conservation measures for maintaining or restoring habitats and species of Communitarian interest, and the local parks of supra-municipal interest (namely PLIS) created by single municipalities or their aggregation aimed at limiting the soil sealing process. The hierarchical level of protection has determined differences in the management of the areas which leads to various approaches and strategies for biodiversity conservation and integrity. In order to assess strengths and weaknesses of the legislative initiative, the new management framework should be designed, considering the ecosystem characteristics of each natural protected area to define the future opportunities and critics, rather than, in the extreme case, remove the level of protection due to the absence of valuable ecosystem conditions. The paper provides an operative support to better apply the legislative proposal investigating the dynamics that affect all protected areas using the land take process as a major threat to biodiversity conservation in natural zones. The land take process is explored using the Land Use Change analysis (LUCa) as a possible way to determine the impact and the environmental effects of land transitions. LUCa is also useful to determine the loss of protected zones capacity to support Ecosystem Services. Finally, the assessment of the Ecosystem Services Capacity (ESC) index expresses the ability of each LULC to provide ES and, in particular, the Ecological

  6. LCA of Chemicals and Chemical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance of chemicals as well as of products and processes where chemicals play a key role. The life cycle stages of chemical products, such as pharmaceuticals drugs or plant protection products......, are discussed and differentiated into extraction of abiotic and biotic raw materials, chemical synthesis and processing, material processing, product manufacturing, professional or consumer product use, and finally end-of-life . LCA is discussed in relation to other chemicals management frameworks and concepts...... of potential environmental impacts occurs during the early product life cycle stages, potential impacts related to chemicals that are found as ingredients or residues directly in products can be dominated by the product use stage. Finally, methodological challenges in LCA studies in relation to chemicals...

  7. Problem formulation for risk assessment of combined exposures to chemicals and other stressors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Wilks, Martin F; Bachman, Ammie; Boobis, Alan; Moretto, Angelo; Pastoor, Timothy P; Phillips, Richard; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-11-01

    When the human health risk assessment/risk management paradigm was developed, it did not explicitly include a "problem formulation" phase. The concept of problem formulation was first introduced in the context of ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the pragmatic reason to constrain and focus ERAs on the key questions. However, this need also exists for human health risk assessment, particularly for cumulative risk assessment (CRA), because of its complexity. CRA encompasses the combined threats to health from exposure via all relevant routes to multiple stressors, including biological, chemical, physical and psychosocial stressors. As part of the HESI Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) Project, a framework for CRA was developed in which problem formulation plays a critical role. The focus of this effort is primarily on a chemical CRA (i.e., two or more chemicals) with subsequent consideration of non-chemical stressors, defined as "modulating factors" (ModFs). Problem formulation is a systematic approach that identifies all factors critical to a specific risk assessment and considers the purpose of the assessment, scope and depth of the necessary analysis, analytical approach, available resources and outcomes, and overall risk management goal. There are numerous considerations that are specific to multiple stressors, and proper problem formulation can help to focus a CRA to the key factors in order to optimize resources. As part of the problem formulation, conceptual models for exposures and responses can be developed that address these factors, such as temporal relationships between stressors and consideration of the appropriate ModFs.

  8. Towards 'ecological coherence': Assessing larval dispersal within a network of existing Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Rebecca E.; Nimmo-Smith, W. Alex M.; Howell, Kerry L.

    2017-08-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity mandates the establishment of Marine Protected Area (MPA) networks worldwide, with recommendations stating the importance of 'ecological coherence,' a responsibility to support and perpetuate the existing ecosystem, implying the need to sustain population connectivity. While recommendations exist for integrating connectivity data into MPA planning, little advice exists on how to assess the connectivity of existing networks. This study makes use of recently observed larval characteristics and freely available models to demonstrate how such an assessment could be undertaken. The cold water coral (CWC) Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758) is used as a model species, as much of the NE Atlantic MPA network has been designated for CWC reef protection, but the ecological coherence of the network has yet to be assessed. Simulations are run for different behavioural null models allowing a comparison of 'passive' (current driven) and 'active' (currents + vertical migration) dispersal, while an average prediction is used for MPA assessment. This model suggests that the network may support widespread larval exchange and has good local retention rates but still has room for improvement. The best performing MPAs were large and central to the network facilitating transport across local dispersal barriers. On average, passive and active dispersal simulations gave statistically similar results, providing encouragement to future local dispersal assessments where active characteristics are unknown.

  9. Probabilistic Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures: Importance of Travel Times and Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Christopher V.; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; de Barros, Felipe P. J.

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface contamination cases giving rise to groundwater pollutions are extensively found in all industrialized countries. Under this pressure, risk assessment methods play an important role in population protection by (1) quantifying the potential impact on human health of an aquifer contamination and (2) helping and driving decisions of groundwater-resource managers. Many reactive components such as chlorinated solvents or nitrates potentially experience attenuation processes under common geochemical conditions. This represents an attractive and extensively used remediation solution but leads often to the production of by-products before to reach a harmless chemical form. This renders mixtures of contaminants a common issue for groundwater resources managers. In this case, the threat posed by these contaminants to human health at a given sensitive location greatly depends on the competition between reactive and advective-dispersive characteristic times. However, hydraulic properties of the aquifer are known to be spatially variable, which can lead to the formation of preferential flow channels and fast contamination pathways. Therefore, the uncertainty on the spatial distribution of the aquifer properties controlling the plume travel time may then play a particular role in the human health risk assessment of chemical mixtures. We investigate here the risk related to a multispecies system in response to different degrees of heterogeneity of the hydraulic conductivity (K or Y =ln(K)). This work focuses on a Perchloroethylene (PCE) contamination problem followed by the sequential first-order production/biodegradation of its daughter species Trichloroethylene (TCE), Dichloroethylene (DCE) and Vinyl Chlorine (VC). For this specific case, VC is known to be a highly toxic contaminant. By performing numerical experiments, we evaluate transport through three-dimensional mildly (σY 2=1.0) and highly (σY 2=4.0) heterogeneous aquifers. Uncertainty on the hydraulic

  10. Assessment of Soil Protection to Support Forest Planning: an Experience in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ferretti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: to support landscape planning when soil-erosion control and water cycle regulation represent relevant issues for forest management. A methodological approach - based on simplified index – is proposed in order to assess the protective efficacy of forests on soils (indirect protection. This method is aimed at supporting technicians who are requested to define the most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural treatments.Area of study: Southern Apennines (Alto Agri district – Basilicata Region - Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. Material and Methods: The data to estimate the parameters used for the simplified index calculation are retrieved from a non aligned systematic forest inventory. The method considers: 1 the tendency towards instability, 2 the protective action of forest cover and 3 different silvicultural options.Main results: For the analysed forest categories, the results indicate the situations in which hydrogeological hazard is high. The cross-reading of these data with the values based on years of partial and total uncovering of the ground according to different silvicultural options (for each forest category in the reference period of 100 years has supported the definition of silviculture treatments and management options suitable for the considered forest formations.Research highlights: The proposed method can effectively support technicians in the field by highlighting situations of major hazard risk. Thanks to the joined assessment of different silvicultural options for each forest category, a series of silvicultural treatments, capable of better protecting the soil, can be already defined in the field survey phase.Key words: Alto Agri district (Italy; Forest Landscape Management Planning (FLMP; management; silvicultural treatment; protective function and soil erosion.

  11. Assessment of Soil Protection to Support Forest Planning: an Experience in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreti, F.; Cantiani, P.; Meo, I. de; Paletto, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: To support landscape planning when soil-erosion control and water cycle regulation represent relevant issues for forest management. A methodological approach -based on simplified index- is proposed in order to assess the protective efficacy of forests on soils (indirect protection). This method is aimed at supporting technicians who are requested to define the most suitable management guidelines and silviculture treatments. Area of study: Southern Apennines (Alto Agri district -Basilicata Region- Italy), where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. Material and methods: The data to estimate the parameters used for the simplified index calculation are retrieved from a non aligned systematic forest inventory. The method considers: 1) the tendency towards instability, 2) the protective action of forest cover and 3) different silviculture options. Main results: For the analysed forest categories, the results indicate the situations in which hydrogeological hazard is high. The cross-reading of these data with the values based on years of partial and total uncovering of the ground according to different silviculture options (for each forest category in the reference period of 100 years) has supported the definition of silviculture treatments and management options suitable for the considered forest formations. Research highlights The proposed method can effectively support technicians in the field by highlighting situations of major hazard risk. Thanks to the joined assessment of different silviculture options for each forest category, a series of silviculture treatments, capable of better protecting the soil, can be already defined in the field survey phase. Key words: Alto Agri district (Italy); Forest Landscape Management Planning (FLMP); management; silviculture treatment; protective function e soil erosion. (Author)

  12. Aquatic exposures of chemical mixtures in urban environments: Approaches to impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zwart, Dick; Adams, William; Galay Burgos, Malyka; Hollender, Juliane; Junghans, Marion; Merrington, Graham; Muir, Derek; Parkerton, Thomas; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Whale, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Urban regions of the world are expanding rapidly, placing additional stress on water resources. Urban water bodies serve many purposes, from washing and sources of drinking water to transport and conduits for storm drainage and effluent discharge. These water bodies receive chemical emissions arising from either single or multiple point sources, diffuse sources which can be continuous, intermittent, or seasonal. Thus, aquatic organisms in these water bodies are exposed to temporally and compositionally variable mixtures. We have delineated source-specific signatures of these mixtures for diffuse urban runoff and urban point source exposure scenarios to support risk assessment and management of these mixtures. The first step in a tiered approach to assessing chemical exposure has been developed based on the event mean concentration concept, with chemical concentrations in runoff defined by volumes of water leaving each surface and the chemical exposure mixture profiles for different urban scenarios. Although generalizations can be made about the chemical composition of urban sources and event mean exposure predictions for initial prioritization, such modeling needs to be complemented with biological monitoring data. It is highly unlikely that the current paradigm of routine regulatory chemical monitoring alone will provide a realistic appraisal of urban aquatic chemical mixture exposures. Future consideration is also needed of the role of nonchemical stressors in such highly modified urban water bodies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-12. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  13. Study of the influence of physical, chemical and biological conditions that influence the deterioration and protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethencourt, Manuel; Fernández-Montblanc, Tomás; Izquierdo, Alfredo; González-Duarte, Manuel María; Muñoz-Mas, Cristian

    2018-02-01

    Two wrecks related to the Battle of Trafalgar (1805) were studied. Following the guidelines of the UNESCO-2001 Convention for the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, a holistic and interdisciplinary approach based on the development of four of the thirty-six Rules of this international agreement was applied. A non-destructive survey technique was developed to obtain information from the scattered cannons and anchors without altering their condition (Rule 4). The work performed provided information about the origin of both wrecks, the Fougueux and the Bucentaure, two ships of the line of the French Navy, and allowed to characterize the state of conservation at each site without jeopardizing their future conservation in the marine environment. In addition, measurements of the main physical, chemical and biological variables allowed correlating the conservation status at each site with the marine environmental conditions (Rule 15). Thus, in Fougueux shipwreck large iron objects are corroding at a higher rate (between 0.180 and 0.246mmpy) due to high sediment remobilization and transport induced by waves at this site, causing damage by direct mechanical effect on metallic material and by removing the layer of corrosion products developed on the artefacts. Meanwhile artillery on Bucentaure site, covered with thick layers of biological concretion, is well preserved, with lower corrosion rates (0.073 to 0.126mmpy), and archaeological information is guaranteed. Finally, the effectiveness of the cathodic protection as a temporary measure for in situ conservation (Rule 1) was evaluated on a cannon. The use of a sacrificial anode after 9months reduced the average corrosion rate (from 0.103 to 0.064mmpy) and the percent of corrosion rate in 37.9%. These results are very useful for developing a decision making system of the Site Management Program, based on predictive models of artefacts permanence and risk factors in the marine environment (Rule 25). Copyright

  14. A thermodynamic approach for assessing the environmental exposure of chemicals absorbed to microplastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Todd; Roche, Nicola; Lohmann, Rainer; Hodges, Geoff

    2011-02-15

    The environmental distribution and fate of microplastic in the marine environment represents a potential cause of concern. One aspect is the influence that microplastic may have on enhancing the transport and bioavailability of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances (PBT). In this study we assess these potential risks using a thermodynamic approach, aiming to prioritize the physicochemical properties of chemicals that are most likely absorbed by microplastic and therefore ingested by biota. Using a multimedia modeling approach, we define a chemical space aimed at improving our understanding of how chemicals partition in the marine environment with varying volume ratios of air/water/organic carbon/polyethylene, where polyethylene represents a main group of microplastic. Results suggest that chemicals with log KOW > 5 have the potential to partition >1% to polyethylene. Food-web model results suggest that reductions in body burden concentrations for nonpolar organic chemicals are likely to occur for chemicals with log KOW between 5.5 and 6.5. Thus the relative importance of microplastic as a vector of PBT substances to biological organisms is likely of limited importance, relative to other exposure pathways. Nevertheless, a number of data-gaps are identified, largely associated with improving our understanding of the physical fate of microplastic in the environment.

  15. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Gon [Hanwha Chemical Ulsan Site, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hun Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks.

  16. Risk Assessment and Hierarchical Risk Management of Enterprises in Chemical Industrial Parks Based on Catastrophe Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe, 0.8 (safe, 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS, 0.4 (unsafe, 0.2 (very unsafe. The results revealed five enterprises (50% with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50% at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs.

  17. Risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in chemical industrial parks based on catastrophe theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

    2012-12-03

    According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs.

  18. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Ahumada, Jorge A; O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R; Willig, Michael R; Winarni, Nurul L; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify

  19. Assessment and control of chemical risk from organic vapors for attendants in a gas station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ehmig Santillán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research comprises monitoring, assessment and recommendations for chemical risk originating from organic vapors (benzene, toluene and xylene of fuel (super and extra gasoline to which attendants at a gas station are exposed. Given the concentration measured of organic vapors (benzene, toluene and xylene the chemical risk to which attendants are exposed in the supply area is acceptable. Control measures are recommended to ensure healthy working conditions for gas station attendants and also to avoid occurrence of occupational diseases in the medium or long term

  20. Using Dynamic Risk and Protective Factors to Predict Inpatient Aggression: Reliability and Validity of START Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Wilson, Catherine M.; Brink, Johann

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) is a relatively new structured professional judgment guide for the assessment and management of short-term risks associated with mental, substance use, and personality disorders. The scheme may be distinguished from other violence risk instruments because of its inclusion of 20 dynamic factors that are rated in terms of both vulnerability and strength. This study examined the reliability and validity of START assessments in predicting inpatient aggression. Research assistants completed START assessments for 120 male forensic psychiatric patients through review of hospital files. They additionally completed Historical-Clinical-Risk Management – 20 (HCR-20) and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) assessments. Outcome data was coded from hospital files for a 12-month follow-up period using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). START assessments evidenced excellent interrater reliability and demonstrated both predictive and incremental validity over the HCR-20 Historical subscale scores and PCL:SV total scores. Overall, results support the reliability and validity of START assessments, and use of the structured professional judgment approach more broadly, as well as the value of using dynamic risk and protective factors to assess violence risk. PMID:22250595

  1. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  2. Narratives from parents in England and Norway: Power and emotions in child protection assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Samsonsen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The framework for assessment in child protection, as well as the context of the welfare state, differs between England and Norway. Assessments in England are structured in terms of a set model (the triangle and procedures to be followed, whereas in Norway there are few national guidelines and not a set model for assessments. This underpins professional judgement as the most important component in Norway. This is a study of parents` experiences from assessment in these two contexts, and patterns and themes of assessment experiences have been identified in the two countries through a narrative analysis of in-depth interviews with parents. When asked about their opinions of the current assessment framework, parents in both countries talk more about feelings than about framework and procedures, as their experiences of assessment are similar in both countries. First and foremost, they experience strong emotions in a stressful situation, including anxiety, frustration and powerlessness, but also relief. These cross-national emotions might provide information about how assessment is a stressful situation for the parents involved. However, we find some differences in the way social work is acted out according to the national assessment framework and policy context. In England, the framework and procedures seem to provide clarity with regard to process and power within the system. In Norway, the assessment is characterized by a professional judgement accompanied by more resources, which we find enables helpful decisions from a family perspective. However, this heavy reliance on relationships using professional judgement might also be viewed as a source of informal power. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of emotions and the concept of power. Regarding implications for practice, we would recommend a more explicit awareness of help and control in assessment among social workers involved, together with a clear communication on the topic

  3. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children. Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule. Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection. Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies. The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The

  4. Assessing bioavailability of complex chemical mixtures in contaminated soils: Progress made and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipullo, S; Prpich, G; Campo, P; Coulon, F

    2018-02-15

    Understanding the distribution, behaviour and interactions of complex chemical mixtures is key for providing the evidence necessary to make informed decisions and implement robust remediation strategies. Much of the current risk assessment frameworks applied to manage land contamination are based on total contaminant concentrations and the exposure assessments embedded within them do not explicitly address the partitioning and bioavailability of chemical mixtures. These oversights may contribute to an overestimation of both the eco-toxicological effects of the fractions and the mobility of contaminants. In turn, this may limit the efficacy of risk frameworks to inform targeted and proportionate remediation strategies. In this review we analyse the science surrounding bioavailability, its regulatory inclusion and the challenges of incorporating bioavailability in decision making process. While a number of physical and chemical techniques have proven to be valuable tools for estimating bioavailability of organic and inorganic contaminants in soils, doubts have been cast on its implementation into risk management soil frameworks mainly due to a general disagreement on the interchangeable use of bioavailability and bioaccessibility, and the associated methods which are still not standardised. This review focuses on the role of biotic and abiotic factors affecting bioavailability along with soil physicochemical properties and contaminant composition. We also included advantages and disadvantages of different extraction techniques and their implications for bioavailability quantitative estimation. In order to move forward the integration of bioavailability into site-specific risk assessments we should (1) account for soil and contaminant physicochemical characteristics and their effect on bioavailability; (2) evaluate receptor's potential exposure and uptake based on mild-extraction; (3) adopt a combined approach where chemical-techniques are used along with biological

  5. A global assessment of the social and conservation outcomes of protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldekop, J A; Holmes, G; Harris, W E; Evans, K L

    2016-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are a key strategy for protecting biological resources, but they vary considerably in their effectiveness and are frequently reported as having negative impacts on local people. This has contributed to a divisive and unresolved debate concerning the compatibility of environmental and socioeconomic development goals. Elucidating the relationship between positive and negative social impacts and conservation outcomes of PAs is key for the development of more effective and socially just conservation. We conducted a global meta-analysis on 165 PAs using data from 171 published studies. We assessed how PAs affect the well-being of local people, the factors associated with these impacts, and crucially the relationship between PAs' conservation and socioeconomic outcomes. Protected areas associated with positive socioeconomic outcomes were more likely to report positive conservation outcomes. Positive conservation and socioeconomic outcomes were more likely to occur when PAs adopted comanagement regimes, empowered local people, reduced economic inequalities, and maintained cultural and livelihood benefits. Whereas the strictest regimes of PA management attempted to exclude anthropogenic influences to achieve biological conservation objectives, PAs that explicitly integrated local people as stakeholders tended to be more effective at achieving joint biological conservation and socioeconomic development outcomes. Strict protection may be needed in some circumstances, yet our results demonstrate that conservation and development objectives can be synergistic and highlight management strategies that increase the probability of maximizing both conservation performance and development outcomes of PAs. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Influence of dust and mud on the optical, chemical, and mechanical properties of a pv protective glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Ali, Haider; Khaled, Mazen M; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser; Abu-Dheir, Numan; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2015-10-30

    Recent developments in climate change have increased the frequency of dust storms in the Middle East. Dust storms significantly influence the performances of solar energy harvesting systems, particularly (photovoltaic) PV systems. The characteristics of the dust and the mud formed from this dust are examined using various analytical tools, including optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, energy spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adhesion, cohesion and frictional forces present during the removal of dry mud from the glass surface are determined using a microtribometer. Alkali and alkaline earth metal compounds in the dust dissolve in water to form a chemically active solution at the glass surface. This solution modifies the texture of the glass surface, thereby increasing the microhardness and decreasing the transmittance of the incident optical radiation. The force required to remove the dry mud from the glass surface is high due to the cohesive forces that result from the dried mud solution at the interface between the mud and the glass. The ability altering the characteristics of the glass surface could address the dust/mud-related limitations of protective surfaces and has implications for efficiency enhancements in solar energy systems.

  7. Adsorption and chemical precipitation of lead and zinc from contaminated solutions in porous rocks: Possible application in environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Gabriella; Mlinárik, Lilla; Török, Ákos

    2016-10-01

    Natural porous rocks, like limestone and rhyolite tuff are able to reduce heavy metal pollution by adsorbing or precipitating them from heavy metal containing solutions due to the favourable physical and chemical properties of these rocks. In our experiment, two porous rocks, a porous limestone and rhyolite tuff were used. Petrophysical parameters namely apparent density, real density, capillary water absorption, ultrasonic pulse velocity, total porosity and open porosity of the two porous rocks were determined in water-saturated and dried conditions. Powdered rock samples and cylindrical specimens were placed in lead-nitrate and zinc-sulphate solutions (initial concentration: 1000 ppm) and the amount of lead (II) and zinc (II) ions were identified by titration (chelatometry) of the residual solution. According to the experiments, powdered rocks and rock specimens of limestone and rhyolite tuff reduced the lead (II) and zinc (II) ion concentrations in aqueous solution. The results were cross-checked by ICP-MS. Heavy metal removal capacity was relatively high, 92-99% in each case. The treated powdered rocks and rock specimens were also studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS) and new heavy metal precipitates were identified. According to the tests result, it could be confirmed that these types of lithologies are capable of removing heavy metals and can be used in environmental protection technologies in a form of permeable reactive barrier.

  8. Survival after planting without soil preparation for pine and spruce seedlings protected from Hylobius abietis by physical and chemical shelters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, M.; Jonsson, Christina [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    1995-11-01

    In a series of 21 field experiments, established during 3 yrs between latitudes 56 deg and 64 deg N, seedlings without shelter and with four different types of shelters (one chemical, Permethrin, and three physical, Strumpan, Bema and Struten) were compared. These seedlings (Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst.) were planted in the first spring after clear cutting without prior removal of the humus layer. The seedlings were observed continuously during one to four growing seasons after planting. It was shown that the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) was the major cause of mortality during the first two growing seasons within the whole area. In all but one experiment the sheltered seedlings survived much better than the unsheltered ones. With a model based on the field observations, the survival for unsheltered and sheltered seedlings was predicted to 28% and 77%, respectively, at the end of the fourth growing season. From a practical point of view, all the shelters gave satisfactory protection and there were no significant differences between them. The silvicultural method used in these experiments shortened the rotation age and it was simple because planting was done directly after logging and heavy equipment for soil preparation was not used. In areas where nature conservation and multiple use of forests is important, such a regeneration method could be of great value. 26 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Prioritising chemicals used in personal care products in China for environmental risk assessment: application of the RAIDAR model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Todd; van Egmond, Roger; Price, Oliver R; Hodges, Juliet E N

    2012-06-01

    China represents a significant market for the sale of personal care products (PCPs). Given the continuous emission of hundreds of chemicals used in PCPs to waste water and the aquatic environment after regular use, methods for prioritising the environmental risk assessment for China are needed. In an effort to assess the prioritisation of chemicals used in PCPs in China, we have identified the chemical ingredients used in 2500 PCPs released to the Chinese market in 2009, and estimated the annual emission of these chemicals. The physical-chemical property data for these substances have been estimated and used as model inputs in the RAIDAR model. In general, the RAIDAR model provides an overall assessment of the multimedia fate of chemicals, and provides a holistic approach for prioritising chemical ingredients. The prioritisation exercise conducted in this study is shown to be strongly influenced by loss processes, such as the removal efficiencies of WWT plants and biotransformation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and testing of a new framework for rapidly assessing legal and managerial protection afforded by marine protected areas: Mediterranean Sea case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D; Rodríguez, J; Abdul Malak, D

    2016-02-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) states the need to effectively conserve at least 10% of coastal and marine areas of particular importance for biodiversity by 2020. Here, a new indicator-based methodological framework to assess biodiversity protection afforded by marine protected areas' (MPA) was developed as a quick surrogate for MPAs' potential conservation effectiveness: the Marine Protected Area Protection Assessment Framework (MaPAF). The MaPAF consists of a limited number of headline indicators that are integrated in two indexes: Legal protection and Management effort, which eventually integrate in the overall MPA Protection super-index. The MaPAF was then tested in the Mediterranean MPA network as a case study. Spatial analyses were performed at three meaningful scales: the whole Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean ecoregions and countries. The results of this study suggest that: 1) The MaPAF can serve as a useful tool for consistent, adaptive, quick and cost-effective MPA effectiveness assessments of MPAs and MPA networks in virtually any marine region, as the headline indicators used are commonly compiled and easy to retrieve; 2) The MaPAF proved usable and potentially relevant in the Mediterranean Sea where most indicators in the framework can be publicly accessed through the MAPAMED database and are planned to be regularly updated; 3) Protection afforded by MPAs is low across the whole Mediterranean, with only few MPAs having relatively high legal and managerial protection; and 4) Most Mediterranean countries need to devote substantially more work to improve MPA effectiveness mainly through increased management effort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Building a Robust 21st Century Chemical Testing Program at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Recommendations for Strengthening Scientific Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzker, Heather C.; Portier, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biological pathway-based chemical testing approaches are central to the National Research Council’s vision for 21st century toxicity testing. Approaches such as high-throughput in vitro screening offer the potential to evaluate thousands of chemicals faster and cheaper than ever before and to reduce testing on laboratory animals. Collaborative scientific engagement is important in addressing scientific issues arising in new federal chemical testing programs and for achieving stakeholder support of their use. Objectives: We present two recommendations specifically focused on increasing scientific engagement in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast™ initiative. Through these recommendations we seek to bolster the scientific foundation of federal chemical testing efforts such as ToxCast™ and the public health decisions that rely upon them. Discussion: Environmental Defense Fund works across disciplines and with diverse groups to improve the science underlying environmental health decisions. We propose that the U.S. EPA can strengthen the scientific foundation of its new chemical testing efforts and increase support for them in the scientific research community by a) expanding and diversifying scientific input into the development and application of new chemical testing methods through collaborative workshops, and b) seeking out mutually beneficial research partnerships. Conclusions: Our recommendations provide concrete actions for the U.S. EPA to increase and diversify engagement with the scientific research community in its ToxCast™ initiative. We believe that such engagement will help ensure that new chemical testing data are scientifically robust and that the U.S. EPA gains the support and acceptance needed to sustain new testing efforts to protect public health. Citation: McPartland J, Dantzker HC, Portier CJ. 2015. Building a robust 21st century chemical testing program at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  12. Global regulatory requirements for mutagenicity assessment in the registration of industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhiying; Ball, Nicholas S; LeBaron, Matthew J

    2017-06-01

    Mutagenicity is an important toxicological endpoint that requires thorough evaluation during the industrial chemical registration process. Regulatory requirements for mutagenicity assessment in registration of industrial chemicals vary in geographic regions (and in some cases by intended application). Here we compile the mutagenicity testing requirements for registration of industrial chemicals from representative geographic regions (in alphabetical order), that is Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, European Union (EU), India, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and United States (US). We further discuss the challenges that industry is facing to meet global regulations, for example, different testing requirements among geographic regions, different strategies in follow-up tests to in vitro positive findings, no-observed-adverse-effect-levels in genetic toxicity testing, and human relevance of mutagenicity. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:345-353, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Assessment of Law Enforcement Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Personal Protective Equipment Audible Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    enough room for a volunteer to perform simple movements without being obstructed by the anechoic chamber walls and conformed to the recommended...in detail by Eshbaugh et al. (2010). 4 This test system was designed to comply with MIL-STD-1474D. 5 The system included an anechoic (echo-free...software (National Instruments; Austin, TX), and an intercom to allow communication between the test operator and volunteer. The anechoic chamber was

  14. Implementation and student perceptions of e-assessment in a Chemical Engineering module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Eva

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes work carried out at the Department of Chemical Engineering at UCL into the use of e-assessment in a second year module and, in particular, the student perceptions of this mode of assessment. Three quizzes were implemented in Moodle, the first two as formative assessment and the final quiz as summative assessment. The results were very encouraging and practically all students engaged with the process. An online survey was delivered to all students after the module, which showed that the students felt that e-assessment added value to their learning and they would like to see it implemented in other modules. The quizzes were intended to be mainly beneficial to the weaker students as it gave them an opportunity to go over key aspects of the material in their own time. Interestingly, the stronger students were even more in favour of e-learning than the weaker students, for whom the quizzes were originally designed.

  15. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  16. Assessment of the application of bioanalytical tools as surrogate measure of chemical contaminants in recycled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leusch, Frederic D L; Khan, Stuart J; Laingam, Somprasong; Prochazka, Erik; Froscio, Suzanne; Trinh, Trang; Chapman, Heather F; Humpage, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    The growing use of recycled water in large urban centres requires comprehensive public health risk assessment and management, an important aspect of which is the assessment and management of residual trace chemical substances. Bioanalytical methods such as in vitro bioassays may be ideal screening tools that can detect a wide range of contaminants based on their biological effect. In this study, we applied thirteen in vitro assays selected explicitly for their ability to detect molecular and cellular effects relevant to potential chemical exposure via drinking water as a means of screening for chemical contaminants from recycled water at 9 Australian water reclamation plants, in parallel to more targeted direct chemical analysis of 39 priority compounds. The selected assays provided measures of primary non-specific (cytotoxicity to various cell types), specific (inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and endocrine receptor-mediated effects) and reactive toxicity (mutagenicity and genotoxicity), as well as markers of adaptive stress response (modulation of cytokine production) and xenobiotic metabolism (liver enzyme induction). Chemical and bioassay analyses were in agreement and complementary to each other: the results show that source water (treated wastewater) contained high levels of biologically active compounds, with positive results in almost all bioassays. The quality of the product water (reclaimed water) was only marginally better after ultrafiltration or dissolved air floatation/filtration, but greatly improved after reverse osmosis often reducing biological activity to below detection limit. The bioassays were able to detect activity at concentrations below current chemical method detection limits and provided a sum measure of all biologically active compounds for that bioassay, thus providing an additional degree of confidence in water quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Janeen Denise [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF THE SOIL, GROUND AND BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AT KLEN GOLD AND SILVER DEPOSIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan' Fedor Fedorovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, prospecting and design-related works are performed prior to the upcoming launch of mining operations at Klen gold and silver deposit in Chukot Autonomous District. The anthropogenic impact of the geological exploration in this intact territory has been produced since 1984. A considerable amount of borehole drilling, prospecting, road building, and temporary housing development has been performed. The engineering research, including ecological surveys, has been completed to assess the ecological impact of upcoming exploratory and mining operations at the deposit. Assessment of the geochemical condition of the landscape constituents, including the soil, ground and bottom sediments is of special importance in terms of their engineering protection and rational management of the natural environment. The above assessments were based on the field sampling made by «Sibgeoconsulting», CJSC (Krasnoyarsk and the laboratory research made by accredited laboratories of Federal State Unitary Geological Enterprise «Urangeolograzvedka» (Irkutsk and «Krasnoyarskgeologiya» (Krasnoyarsk. The analysis of the chemical pollution of soils, ground and bottom sediments is based on the examination of 30 samples. Peculiarities of the chemical composition of samples extracted at the deposit were identified. It has been discovered that pH values of the soil vary from 5.1 to 7.3. The concentration of metal in bottom sediments exceeds its concentration in the soil by far. Almost all irregular features of the sample water in the whole territory of the deposit are caused by the anthropogenic impact. In general, the metal content in soils, ground and bottom sediments within the territory of the deposit is slightly different from the regular clarke.

  19. Assessment of radiological protection systems among diagnostic radiology facilities in North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Thokchom Dewan; Jayaraman, T; Arunkumar Sharma, B

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to assess the adequacy level of radiological protection systems available in the diagnostic radiology facilities located in three capital cities of North East (NE) India. It further attempts to understand, using a multi-disciplinary approach, how the safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology framed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to achieve adequate radiological protection in facilities, have been perceived, conceptualized, and applied accordingly in these facilities. About 30 diagnostic radiology facilities were randomly selected from three capitals of states in NE India; namely Imphal (Manipur), Shillong (Meghalaya) and Guwahati (Assam). A semi-structured questionnaire developed based on a multi-disciplinary approach was used for this study. It was observed that radiological practices undertaken in these facilities were not exactly in line with safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology of the AERB and the IAEA. About 50% of the facilities had registered/licensed x-ray equipment with the AERB. More than 80% of the workers did not use radiation protective devices, although these devices were available in the facilities. About 85% of facilities had no institutional risk management system. About 70% of the facilities did not carry out periodic quality assurance testing of their x-ray equipment or surveys of radiation leakage around the x-ray room, and did not display radiation safety indicators in the x-ray rooms. Workers in these facilities exhibited low risk perception about the risks associated with these practices. The majority of diagnostic radiology facilities in NE India did not comply with the radiological safety codes/standards framed by the AERB and IAEA. The study found inadequate levels of radiological protection systems in the majority of facilities. This study suggests a need to establish firm measures that comply with the radiological safety codes/standards of the

  20. Ergonomic assessment of enhanced protection under body armour combat shirt neck collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Granger, C J; Pearkes, T D; Clasper, J C

    2014-03-01

    Combat neck injury due to explosively propelled fragments is a significant cause of mortality and long-term morbidity in UK soldiers deployed on current operations. Reinforcing the collar of the existing under body armour combat shirt (UBACS) has been suggested as a potential method for reducing the incidence of combat neck injury. 20 soldiers serving in Afghanistan objectively compared three designs of enhanced protection UBACS (EP-UBACS) using 10 representative military tasks against a baseline of a standard UBACS. Each EP-UBACS design was trialled using three constituent materials: two layers of para-aramid felt, one layer of ultra high molecule weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) felt or two layers of a silk fabric. Subjective assessment of these nine configurations in terms of comfort, heat dissipation and overall acceptability were compared with the standard UBACS using a χ² test. All military tasks could be performed with all nine configurations of EP-UBACS. Although silk was the most comfortable material, it was not functionally practical in any of the three designs. Crossover collars incorporating UHMWPE or para-aramid were the only two of the nine configurations to demonstrate similar user acceptability to a standard UBACS. The EP-UBACS has the potential to provide neck protection without reducing performance incorporating materials analogous to either of the felts assessed in this study. The collar should provide stand-off from the skin to improve heat dissipation and comfort, which can be maximised by changing the current UBACS collar shape to one that crosses over at the front. Should a zip be desired, it should be moved to one side of the midline to reduce rubbing on the chin and be covered with ballistic protective material. Additional semi-circles of silk beneath the collar at the front and back would improve protection without affecting comfort.

  1. Complementary use of life cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: Lessons learned from chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Successful strategies to handle the potential health and environmental risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) often rely upon the well-established frameworks of life cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA). However, current research and specific guidance on how to actually apply these two......, and hence, there does not appear to be much progress made specifically for ENM. We therefore provide specific recommendations for applying LCA and RA to ENM, for which the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods is identified as an important requirement....

  2. An academic researcher's guide to increased impact on regulatory assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågerstrand, Marlene; Sobek, Anna; Lilja, Karl; Linderoth, Maria; Wendt-Rasch, Lina; Wernersson, Ann-Sofie; Rudén, Christina

    2017-05-24

    The interactions between academic research and regulatory assessment of chemicals may in theory seem straightforward: researchers perform studies, and these studies are used by regulators for decision-making. However, in practice the situation is more complex, and many factors decide a research study's regulatory use. According to several EU chemical legislations, all available and relevant studies can be used in hazard and risk assessment of chemicals. However, in practice, standard tests conducted under GLP and sponsored and provided by industry are predominantly used. Peer-reviewed studies from independent sources are often disregarded or disputed since they often do not comply with regulatory data requirements and quality criteria. To help bridge such a gap, the aim of this paper is to give an overview of the general workings of legislation of chemicals and propose a set of actions to increase the usability of research data. In the end, this may increase the use of academic research for decision-making and ultimately result in more science-based policies. From a policy perspective, useful scientific evidence comprises those studies that are sufficiently reliable and relevant. This is not in contradiction to the aims of research and generally accepted scientific standards.

  3. Applicability of concentrations obtained by working environment measurement to assessment of personal exposure concentrations of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinobu; Natsumeda, Shuichiro; Hara, Kunio; Yoshida, Satoru; Sakurai, Haruhiko; Ichiba, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the applicability of Japanese working environment measurements to assessment of personal exposure concentrations of chemicals by comparing both levels of concentrations. The chemicals measured in this study comprised eight kinds of vaporous chemicals as well as two kinds of chemicals in dust. Personal exposure measurements, Japanese working environment measurements and spot sampling measurements were undertaken in 70 companies. Personal exposure concentrations and the arithmetic mean value (EA2) of the working environment measurement concentrations obtained according to the Japanese working environment control system had statistically positive correlations (r=0.732-0.893, pworking environment control system, which is almost the same as the spot measurement concentration in this study, is supposed to be substituted for the EA2 value. Ten times the EA2 of the working environment measurement concentrations, or ten times the B-value, obtained according to the Japanese working environment control system can be used to conservatively estimate the personal exposure concentrations in EU workplaces as well as in occupational exposure scenarios of the Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals.

  4. Risk assessment for complex chemical exposure in aquatic systems: the problem of estimating interactive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.S. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Biological Inst.

    1998-12-31

    The traditional, but little used, way of assessing effects of the interaction between known chemicals is to use factorial experimental designs. Such designs allow one to test for less than additive (antagonistic) and greater than additive (synergistic) effects. Whilst synergism can be demonstrated in such experiments the concentrations at which synergistic effects occur are extremely high and are unlikely to occur in nature. Recently developed techniques allow one to measure directly the effects of combined stressors in the field. These biological effect techniques range from tests on individual organisms to tests on communities. At the biochemical level the tests can indicate that the organism has been exposed to certain groups of chemicals (for example cytochrome P-450 enzymes responding to PAHs or metallothioneins responding to heavy metals). At the community level of organisation there are highly sensitive statistical techniques that indicate clearly the combined effect of stressors. The effects of oil exploration and production on benthic communities in the North Sea can be linked to concentrations of chemicals. However, such relationships are correlative and do not necessarily indicate cause and effect. Experiments are needed to test the hypotheses generated concerning the interactive effects of chemicals on the benthic species. The statistical analyses do, however, show which species have been affected and their relative sensitivity to chemical and physical disturbances. Such species are preferable to the traditional `laboratory weeds` usually utilised. (orig.)

  5. The origin and evolution of assessment criteria for persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Michael; Solomon, Keith; Vighi, Marco; Gilman, Andy; Tarazona, Jose V

    2016-09-14

    General public concern over the effects of persistent chemicals began in the early 1960s. Since then, significant scientific advances have increased our understanding of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals and the properties and processes that influence their fates in, and adverse effects on, human health and the environment. In addition to the scientific advances, a number of legislations and agreements for national, international, and global identification and control of PBT chemicals have been adopted. However, some of the rationales and thoughts that were relied upon when the first criteria were developed to identify and categorize PBT chemicals and then POPs (persistent organic pollutants) have not been carried forward. Criteria have been based upon available data of neutral hydrophobic substances as reference chemicals, derived under laboratory conditions. They evolved over the last decades due to the diversification of the protection aims under various national regulatory frameworks and international agreements, advances in methods for estimation of physical/chemical properties, and the identification of chemicals which are non-traditional POPs. Criteria are not defined purely by science; they also are subject to the aims of policy. This paper offers a historical perspective on the development of criteria for PBT chemicals and POPs. It also offers suggestions for rationalization of protection goals, describes some emerging procedures for identification of compounds of concern, and proposes information that needs to be considered when applying criteria to screening and/or evaluation of new chemicals.

  6. Application of Biosphere Compatibility Indicator for Assessment of the Effectiveness of Environmental Protection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, N. V.; Vorobyov, S. A.; Chernyaeva, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the issue of using the biosphere compatibility indicator to assess the effectiveness of environmental protection methods. The indicator biosphere compatibility was proposed by the vice-president of RAASN (Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences), Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor V.I. Ilyichev. This indicator allows one to assess not only qualitatively but also quantitatively the degree of urban areas development from the standpoint of preserving the biosphere in urban ecosystems while performing the city’s main functions. The integral biosphere compatibility indicator allows us to assess not only the current ecological situation in the territory under consideration but also to plan the forecast of its changes for the new construction projects implementation or for the reconstruction of the existing ones. The biosphere compatibility indicator, which is a mathematical expression of the tripartite balance (technosphere, biosphere and population of this area), allows us to quantify the effectiveness degree of different methods for environment protection to choose the most effective one under these conditions.

  7. Hiking trails and tourism impact assessment in protected area: Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Ge, Xiaodong; Liu, Chunyan

    2005-09-01

    More and more visitors are attracted to protected areas nowadays, which not only bring about economic increase but also seriously adverse impacts on the ecological environment. In protected areas, trails are linkage between visitors and natural ecosystem, so they concentrate most of the adverse impacts caused by visitors. The trampling problems on the trails have been received attentions in the tremendous researches. However, few of them have correlated the environmental impacts to trail spatial patterns. In this project, the trails were selected as assessment objective, the trampling problems trail widening, multiple trail, and root exposure were taken as assessment indicators to assess ecological impacts in the case study area Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, and two spatial index, connectivity and circularity, were taken to indicate the trail network spatial patterns. The research results showed that the appearing frequency of the trampling problems had inverse correlation with the circularity and connectivity of the trail network, while the problem extent had no correlation with the spatial pattern. Comparing with the pristine trails, the artificial maintenance for the trails such as wooden trails and flagstone trails could prohibit vegetation root from exposure effectively. The research finds will be useful for the future trail design and tourism management.

  8. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 2. Air assessment: indicator chemicals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area (EDA) surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. An air assessment was conducted for Love Canal Indicator Chemicals. Homes throughout the EDA were sampled using the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer Model 6000E.

  9. The Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures Risk Assessment for Human and Ecological Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    formula. Environ. Health Perspect. 111:1020-1036. Borgert, C. J., Price, B., Wells, C. S., and Simon , G. S. 2001. Evaluating chemical interaction studies...Dressier, V., Muller, G., and Suhnel , J. 1999. CombiTool - A new computer program for analyzing combination experiments with biologically active agents...profiles for simple mixtures. Chemosphere. 53:183-197. Price, B., Borgert, C. J., Wells, C. S., and Simon , G. S. 2002. Assessing toxicity of mixtures: The

  10. Radiation protection, radiation safety and radiation shielding assessment of HIE-ISOLDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanets, Y; Bernardes, A P; Dorsival, A; Gonçalves, I F; Kadi, Y; di Maria, S; Vaz, P; Vlachoudis, V; Vollaire, J

    2013-07-01

    The high intensity and energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project is an upgrade to the existing ISOLDE facility at CERN. The foreseen increase in the nominal intensity and the energy of the primary proton beam of the existing ISOLDE facility aims at increasing the intensity of the produced radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The currently existing ISOLDE facility uses the proton beam from the proton-synchrotron booster with an energy of 1.4 GeV and an intensity up to 2 μA. After upgrade (final stage), the HIE-ISOLDE facility is supposed to run at an energy up to 2 GeV and an intensity up to 4 μA. The foreseen upgrade imposes constrains, from the radiation protection and the radiation safety point of view, to the existing experimental and supply areas. Taking into account the upgraded energy and intensity of the primary proton beam, a new assessment of the radiation protection and radiation safety of the HIE-ISOLDE facility is necessary. Special attention must be devoted to the shielding assessment of the beam dumps and of the experimental areas. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo particle transport simulation program FLUKA was used to perform the computation of the ambient dose equivalent rate distribution and of the particle fluxes in the projected HIE-ISOLDE facility (taking into account the upgrade nominal primary proton beam energy and intensity) and the shielding assessment of the facility, with the aim of identifying in the existing facility (ISOLDE) the critical areas and locations where new or reinforced shielding may be necessary. The consequences of the upgraded proton beam parameters on the operational radiation protection of the facility were studied.

  11. Assessment of Integrated Pedestrian Protection Systems with Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) and Passive Safety Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mervyn; Nathanson, Andrew; Carroll, Jolyon; Wisch, Marcus; Zander, Oliver; Lubbe, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems fitted to cars for pedestrians have been predicted to offer substantial benefit. On this basis, consumer rating programs-for example, the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP)-are developing rating schemes to encourage fitment of these systems. One of the questions that needs to be answered to do this fully is how the assessment of the speed reduction offered by the AEB is integrated with the current assessment of the passive safety for mitigation of pedestrian injury. Ideally, this should be done on a benefit-related basis. The objective of this research was to develop a benefit-based methodology for assessment of integrated pedestrian protection systems with AEB and passive safety components. The method should include weighting procedures to ensure that it represents injury patterns from accident data and replicates an independently estimated benefit of AEB. A methodology has been developed to calculate the expected societal cost of pedestrian injuries, assuming that all pedestrians in the target population (i.e., pedestrians impacted by the front of a passenger car) are impacted by the car being assessed, taking into account the impact speed reduction offered by the car's AEB (if fitted) and the passive safety protection offered by the car's frontal structure. For rating purposes, the cost for the assessed car is normalized by comparing it to the cost calculated for a reference car. The speed reductions measured in AEB tests are used to determine the speed at which each pedestrian in the target population will be impacted. Injury probabilities for each impact are then calculated using the results from Euro NCAP pedestrian impactor tests and injury risk curves. These injury probabilities are converted into cost using "harm"-type costs for the body regions tested. These costs are weighted and summed. Weighting factors were determined using accident data from Germany and Great Britain and an independently

  12. Recalibration of the earthworm tier 1 risk assessment of plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christl, Heino; Bendall, Julie; Bergtold, Matthias; Coulson, Mike; Dinter, Axel; Garlej, Barbara; Hammel, Klaus; Kabouw, Patrick; Sharples, Amanda; von Mérey, Georg; Vrbka, Silvie; Ernst, Gregor

    2016-10-01

    In the first step of earthworm risk assessment for plant protection products (PPPs), the risk is assessed by comparing the no-observed effect levels (NOELs) from laboratory reproduction tests with the predicted exposure of the PPP in soil, while applying a trigger value (assessment factor [AF]) to cover uncertainties. If this step indicates a potential risk, field studies are conducted. However, the predicted environmental concentration in soil, which can be calculated, for example, for different soil layers (ranging from 0-1 cm to 0-20 cm), and the AF determine the conservatism that is applied in this first step. In this review paper, the tier 1 earthworm risk assessment for PPPs is calibrated by comparing the NOEL in earthworm reproduction tests with effect levels on earthworm populations under realistic field conditions. A data set of 54 pairs of studies conducted in the laboratory and in the field with the same PPP was compiled, allowing a direct comparison of relevant endpoints. The results indicate that a tier 1 AF of 5 combined with a regulatory relevant soil layer of 0 to 5 cm provides a conservative tier 1 risk assessment. A risk was identified by the tier 1 risk assessment in the majority of the cases at application rates that were of low risk for natural earthworm populations under field conditions. Increasing the conservatism in the tier 1 risk assessment by reducing the depth of the regulatory relevant soil layer or by increasing the tier 1 AF would increase the number of false positives and trigger a large number of additional field studies. This increased conservatism, however, would not increase the margin of safety for earthworm populations. The analysis revealed that the risk assessment is conservative if an AF of 5 and a regulatory relevant soil layer of 0 to 5 cm is used. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:643-650. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  13. Environmental Chemical Assessment in Clinical Practice: Unveiling the Elephant in the Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bijlsma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests chemicals present in air, water, soil, food, building materials and household products are toxicants that contribute to the many chronic diseases typically seen in routine medical practice. Yet, despite calls from numerous organisations to provide clinicians with more training and awareness in environmental health, there are multiple barriers to the clinical assessment of toxic environmental exposures. Recent developments in the fields of systems biology, innovative breakthroughs in biomedical research encompassing the “-omics” fields, and advances in mobile sensing, peer-to-peer networks and big data, provide tools that future clinicians can use to assess environmental chemical exposures in their patients. There is also a need for concerted action at all levels, including actions by individual patients, clinicians, medical educators, regulators, government and non-government organisations, corporations and the wider civil society, to understand the “exposome” and minimise the extent of toxic exposures on current and future generations. Clinical environmental chemical risk assessment may provide a bridge between multiple disciplines that uses new technologies to herald in a new era in personalised medicine that unites clinicians, patients and civil society in the quest to understand and master the links between the environment and human health.

  14. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  15. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases (OSDs, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals.

  16. Taking Multiple Exposure Into Account Can Improve Assessment of Chemical Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Frédéric; Bertrand, Nicolas Jean Hyacinthe; La Rocca, Bénédicte

    2017-12-15

    During work, operators may be exposed to several chemicals simultaneously. Most exposure assessment approaches only determine exposure levels for each substance individually. However, such individual-substance approaches may not correctly estimate the toxicity of 'cocktails' of chemicals, as the toxicity of a cocktail may differ from the toxicity of substances on their own. This study presents an approach that can better take into account multiple exposure when assessing chemical risks. Almost 30000 work situations, monitored between 2005 and 2014 and recorded in two French databases, were analysed using MiXie software. The algorithms employed in MiXie can identify toxicological classes associated with several substances, based on the additivity of the selected effects of each substance. The results of our retrospective analysis show that MiXie was able to identify almost 20% more potentially hazardous situations than identified using a single-substance approach. It therefore appears essential to review the ways in which multiple exposure is taken into account during risk assessment. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  17. Is the tier-1 effect assessment for herbicides protective for aquatic algae and vascular plant communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, René P A; Arts, Gertie H P

    2018-01-01

    In the aquatic tier-1 effect assessment for plant protection products with an herbicidal mode of action in Europe, it is usually algae and/or vascular plants that determine the environmental risks. This tier includes tests with at least 2 algae and 1 macrophyte (Lemna). Although such tests are considered to be of a chronic nature (based on the duration of the test in relation to the life cycle of the organism), the measurement endpoints derived from the laboratory tests with plants (including algae) and used in the first-tier effect assessment for herbicides are acute effect concentrations affecting 50% of the test organisms (EC50 values) and not no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) or effect concentrations affecting 10% of the test organisms (EC10) values. Other European legislative frameworks (e.g., the Water Framework Directive) use EC10 values. The present study contributes to a validation of the tiered herbicide risk assessment approach by comparing the standard first-tier effect assessment with results of microcosm and mesocosm studies. We evaluated EC50 and EC10 values for standard test algae and macrophytes based on either the growth rate endpoint (Er C50) or the lowest available endpoint for growth rate or biomass/yield (Er /Ey C50). These values were compared with the regulatory acceptable concentrations for the threshold option as derived from microcosm and mesocosm studies. For these studies, protection is maintained if growth rate is taken as the regulatory endpoint instead of the lowest value of either growth rate or biomass/yield in conjunction with the standard assessment factor of 10. Based on a limited data set of 14 herbicides, we did not identify a need to change the current practice. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:175-183. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. A quantitative screening-level approach to incorporate chemical exposure and risk into alternative assessment evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Greggs, Bill; Goyak, Katy O; Landenberger, Bryce D; Mason, Ann M; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2017-11-01

    As the general public and retailers ask for disclosure of chemical ingredients in the marketplace, a number of hazard screening tools were developed to evaluate the so-called "greenness" of individual chemical ingredients and/or formulations. The majority of these tools focus only on hazard, often using chemical lists, ignoring the other part of the risk equation: exposure. Using a hazard-only focus can result in regrettable substitutions, changing 1 chemical ingredient for another that turns out to be more hazardous or shifts the toxicity burden to others. To minimize the incidents of regrettable substitutions, BizNGO describes "Common Principles" to frame a process for informed substitution. Two of these 6 principles are: "reduce hazard" and "minimize exposure." A number of frameworks have emerged to evaluate and assess alternatives. One framework developed by leading experts under the auspices of the US National Academy of Sciences recommended that hazard and exposure be specifically addressed in the same step when assessing candidate alternatives. For the alternative assessment community, this article serves as an informational resource for considering exposure in an alternatives assessment using elements of problem formulation; product identity, use, and composition; hazard analysis; exposure analysis; and risk characterization. These conceptual elements build on practices from government, academia, and industry and are exemplified through 2 hypothetical case studies demonstrating the questions asked and decisions faced in new product development. These 2 case studies-inhalation exposure to a generic paint product and environmental exposure to a shampoo rinsed down the drain-demonstrate the criteria, considerations, and methods required to combine exposure models addressing human health and environmental impacts to provide a screening level hazard and exposure (risk) analysis. This article informs practices for these elements within a comparative risk context

  19. Assessment on the Impact of Arable Land Protection Policies in a Rapidly Developing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of arable land protection policies in China, a practical framework that integrates geographic information systems (GIS, soil quality assessment and landscape metrics analysis was employed to track and analyze arable land transformations and landscape changes in response to rampant urbanization within the Ningbo region (China from 2005 to 2013. The results showed that arable land loss and degradation have continued, despite the development of a comprehensive legal framework for arable land protection. The implementation of arable land protection policies is judged to be effective, but not entirely successful, because it guarantees the overall amount of arable land but does not consider soil quality and spatial distribution. In addition, there are distinct variations in arable land change dynamics between two temporal intervals. From 2005–2009, the transformation of arable land was diversified, with intensified conversion among arable land, built-up land, water and orchards. Moreover, many new arable land parcels were adjacent to built-up land, and are in danger of being occupied again through urban sprawl. By 2009–2013, most of the arable land was occupied by urban expansion, whereas a majority of newly increased arable land was reclaimed from coastal tideland. Although the newly increased arable land was contiguous and far from the urban area, it is of poor quality and has limited use. The permanent loss of high-quality arable land due to intensified urban sprawl may threaten sustainable development and food security on a larger scale.

  20. A quantitative assessment of facial protection systems in elective hip arthroplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hirpara, Kieran Michael

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to assess the risk to surgeons of blood splatter during total hip arthroplasty. Hoods from personal protection systems used in 34 consecutive total hip replacements were collected and the area of blood splatter was measured and compared to goggles and visors. Thirty one primary THA\\'s (13 cemented, 4 hybrid, 14 uncemented) and 3 revisions (1 hybrid, 2 uncemented) were collected. Splashes were detected on all of the masks with a mean of 034% cover. Splatter was greatest for the operating surgeon, followed by the first assistant, though the difference was not statistically significant. Operating personnel were at greater risk of contamination during uncemented arthroplasty (p < 0.0001; 95% CI). On average 50.60% and 45.40% of blood cover was outside the area protected by goggles and visors respectively. There was a significant difference between the Personal Protection Systems (PPS) and goggles (p = 0.0231; 95% CI) as well as between the PPS and visors (p = 0.0293; 95% CI).

  1. An assessment of Idaho's wildlife management areas for the protection of wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J.W.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2005-01-01

    Since 1940, Idaho Department of Fish and Game has developed a network of 31 Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) across the state. This program has been focused mostly on conservation of game species and their habitats. We assessed the contribution of Idaho's WMAs to conservation of all Idaho's wildlife and other aspects of ecological diversity. Predicted occurrences of species' breeding habitats and other data were used to evaluate the representation of wildlife habitat and other ecological conditions. We found 33 of 39 natural land cover types were mapped as occurring in WMAs. WMAs occurred in 10 of 15 of Bailey's ecoregion sections, absent only from two sections that occupy greater than 1% of Idaho. Percent area of WMAs by elevation followed a pattern similar to percent area of Idaho; however, mean elevation for WMAs was lower than for the state and other protected areas in Idaho. We predicted breeding habitat for 98.4% of Idaho's wildlife and all federal and state listed threatened, endangered, or candidate terrestrial vertebrates to occur in at least one WMA. We predicted habitat for 39 species to occur on five or fewer WMAs, and predicted no habitat on WMAs for five species. We found that a system of WMAs established mainly to protect game species potentially conserves many other aspects of Idaho's ecological diversity, may provide habitat for more than 98% of Idaho's wildlife, and complements other protected areas in the state.

  2. Assessing the benefits of Transboundary Protected Areas: a questionnaire survey in the Americas and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Jamie W; Vasilijević, Maja; Cuthill, Innes

    2015-02-01

    There are more than 3000 protected areas (PAs) situated on or near international boundaries, and amongst them there is an increasing trend towards the establishment of transboundary cooperation initiatives. Proponents of Transboundary PAs (TBPAs) highlight the potential for biodiversity protection through spatial, management and socio-economic benefits. However, there have been few formal studies that assess these benefits. It is possible that the relaxation of boundary controls to optimise transboundary connectivity may increase the risk of impacts from invasive species or illegal human incursion. We sought to investigate the validity of these proposed benefits and potential risks through a questionnaire survey of 113 PAs, of which 39 responded and met our inclusion criteria. 82% felt that transboundary cooperation has benefits for biodiversity and, across PAs, the self-reported level of transboundary communication was positively associated with some improved spatial, management and socio-economic benefits. However, 26% of PAs reported that they never communicated with their internationally adjoining protected area, indicating unrealised potential for greater gains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information. This report is a review of decision-making processes of selected land protection prog...

  4. Coupling a 3D patch model and a rockfall module to assess rockfall protection in mountain forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltjer, M.; Rammer, W.; Brauner, M.; Seidl, R.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Lexer, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Many forests in the Alps are acknowledged for protecting objects, such as (rail) roads, against rockfall. However, there is a lack of knowledge on efficient silvicultural strategies and interventions to maintain these forests at optimal protection level. Therefore, assessment tools are required that

  5. The Development and Validation of the Inventory of Family Protective Factors: A Brief Assessment for Family Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Deborah L.; Huber, Charles H.; Steiner, Robert; Vazquez, Luis A.; Savage, Todd A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the three-stage protocol employed in development and validation of the Inventory of Family Protective Factors (IFPF), a brief-form formal instrument intended to assess the primary protective factors that contribute to family resilience. Following construction of the instrument, data collections and analyses of a total sample…

  6. Weed infestation of crops of winter spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta cultivars grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in the years 2008-2010 on rendzina soil. The aim of the study was to evaluate weed infestation of winter spelt cultivars (‘Schwabenkorn’ and ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’ grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection. In the experiment, two levels of mineral fertilization were compared (kg × ha-1: I. N 60; P 26.2; K 83; and II. N 80; P 34.9; K 99.6. The che- mical protection levels were as follows: A. Control treatment; B. Mustang 306 SE, Stabilan 750 SL; C. Mustang 306 SE, At- tribut 70 WG, Stabilan 750 SL; D. Mustang 306 SE, Attribut 70 WG, Alert 375 SC, Stabilan 750 SL. Apera spica-venti, Setaria pumila, and Galium aparine occurred in greatest numbers in the spelt wheat crop. The cultivar ‘Schwabenkorn’ was more competitive against weeds. The number of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous weeds, their total number, and air-dry weight of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were significantly lower compared to cv. ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’. Chemical protection of spelt wheat decreased weed dry weight compared to the control treatment without chemical protection. The application of higher rates of mineral fertilizers slightly increased the number of weeds but did not influence their dry weight and number of weed species.

  7. Environmental assessment of plant protection strategies using scenarios for pig feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Christel; Wivstad, Maria; Bergkvist, Peter; Mattsson, Berit; Ivarsson, Kjell

    2005-06-01

    Two scenarios for future pig meat production were constructed. The first was a "business as usual" scenario, where the pig feed was based on domestic grain and imported soy-meal, and no efforts were made to reduce pesticide use. The second scenario had a strong environmental focus, and both peas and rapeseed were grown at pig-farm level to produce grain and protein feed. Preventive measures, such as a more diverse crop rotation and mechanical weed control, were combined to reduce pesticide use. The two scenarios were environmentally assessed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and a pesticide risk indicator model (PRI-Farm). The results showed environmentally sound possibilities to reduce pesticide dependency and risks by using altered plant protection strategies in pig-feed production. Organizing on-farm feed production so that protein feed crops are integrated with grain crops contributes to a more diverse crop rotation.

  8. In situ combined chemical and biological assessment of estrogenic pollution in a water recycling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yulang; Huang, Qiansheng; Zhang, Huanteng; Chen, Yajie; Dong, Sijun

    2016-05-01

    Estrogenic pollution and its control in aquatic systems have drawn substantial attention around the world. The chemical and biological assessment approaches currently utilized in the laboratory or field cannot give an integrated assessment of the pollution when used separately. In this study, in situ chemical and biological methods were combined to detect pollution in a water recycling system. Data for the water quality index (WQI) demonstrated that the water treatment resulted in the decline of pollution from upstream to downstream. Wild male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was sampled in June and September. The concentrations of four common endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were determined in the tilapia liver by chromatographic analysis methods. The level of 17β-estradiol (E2) declined from upstream to downstream in both months. In contrast, the levels of bisphenol A (BPA), di-(2-ethylhcxyl) phthalate (DEHP), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) did not display this declining tendency. The highest relative expression of vitellogenin 1 (VTG1) was observed in tilapia from upstream, then the level significantly decreased along the water system. The relative expression levels of CYP1A1 in the water system were also significantly higher than that of the control. However, no declining trend could be observed along the water system. The change of VTG1 expression corresponded well with that of E2 levels in the tilapia liver. Overall, our study assessed the pollution by endocrine disruptors using chemical and biological data with good correspondence. This study also demonstrated the effectiveness of the water recycling system in eliminating estrogen pollution in municipal sewage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Environmental Assessment for the Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to review the possible environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of a Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The proposed replacement calibration facility would be located in B Area of SRS and would replace an inadequate existing facility currently located within A Area of SRS (Building 736-A). The new facility would provide laboratories, offices, test equipment and the support space necessary for the SRS Radiation Monitoring Instrument Calibration Program to comply with DOE Orders 5480.4 (Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards) and 5480.11 (Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers). The proposed facility would serve as the central site source for the evaluation, selection, inspection, testing, calibration, and maintenance of all SRS radiation monitoring instrumentation. The proposed facility would be constructed on a currently undeveloped portion in B Area of SRS. The exact plot associated with the proposed action is a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tract of land located on the west side of SRS Road No. 2. The proposed facility would lie approximately 4.4 km (2.75 mi) from the nearest SRS site boundary. The proposed facility would also lie within the confines of the existing B Area, and SRS safeguards and security systems. Archaeological, ecological, and land use reviews have been conducted in connection with the use of this proposed plot of land, and a detailed discussion of these reviews is contained herein. Socioeconomic, operational, and accident analyses were also examined in relation to the proposed project and the findings from these reviews are also contained in this EA.

  10. Flame burn protection: assessment of a new, air-cooled fireproof garment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldad, Arieh; Salmon, Ashi Y; Breiterman, Semion; Chaouat, Malka; BenBassat, Hannah

    2003-08-01

    A new, air-cooled fireproof garment for tank crewmen was assessed regarding its efficacy for burn protection. A pig model was developed with a flame infliction instrument specially designed for this experiment. This pneumatic tool can initiate eight simultaneous flame injuries where the distance of skin from burn source and exposure time are adjustable. In the study, 1,000 degrees C, 5-second exposure flame burns were inflicted upon anesthetized pigs. Full-thickness injuries were caused to exposed animals or to animals that were protected by the single layer of old type Nomex protective garments. On day 21, the original burn size diminished to 42.3% +/- 6.3% and 41.2% +/- 7.9%, respectively. When the animals were dressed with the new type of air-cooled Nomex, only small and superficial burns could be detected when the air compressor was operating, and moderate burns were demonstrated when the compressor was not working. On day 21, postburn original burn size was diminished to 1.9% +/- 1.9% and to 17% +/- 6.5%, respectively. Quantitative burn wound histology followed the same trends with almost normal skin architecture after 7 days in the air-inflated new garments, moderate pathology, and an advanced wound healing process in the affected area when the compressor was not working and severe damage with only initial wound healing in the exposed skin or the areas that were protected by old type, single-layered fireproof garments. This new type of air-cooled fireproof garment was significantly better than the old garment under the experiment condition and seems to be very promising in burn prevention among tank crewmen.

  11. Studies on chemical protectors against radiation, 33; Protective mechanisms of various compounds against skin injury induced by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yushi; Kumazawa, Noriko; Suzuki, Makoto; Wang Cheng-Ming; Ohta, Setsuko; Shinoda, Masato (Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    The radiation protective mechanisms on skin injury induced by soft X-irradiation were investigated by use of various radiation protective agents such as sulfur compounds (MEA, MEG, thiourea), nucleic acid constitutional compounds (adenosine, inosine), antioxidative compounds (sesamol, ferulic acid, ascorbic acid), crude drugs (Rosae Fructus, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Trapae Fructus, Forsythiae Fructus, Aloe arborescens). Scavenge action of activated oxygen, inhibitory effect of lipid peroxidation, induction of antioxidative protein and protective effect against damage of deoxyribonucleic acid and superoxide dismutase by X-irradiation were evaluated as the radiation protective mechanisms, and relationship between these results and protective effect of skin injury induced by radiation was studied. (author).

  12. Inequalities in financial risk protection in Bangladesh: an assessment of universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Rashedul; Rahman, Md Shafiur; Islam, Zobida; Nurs, Cherri Zhang B; Sultana, Papia; Rahman, Md Mizanur

    2017-04-04

    Financial risk protection and equity are major components of universal health coverage (UHC), which is defined as ensuring access to health services for all citizens without any undue financial burden. We investigated progress towards UHC financial risk indicators and assessed variability of inequalities in financial risk protection indicators by wealth quintile. We further examined the determinants of different financial hardship indicators related to healthcare costs. A cross-sectional, three-stage probability survey was conducted in Bangladesh, which collected information from 1600 households from August to November 2011. Catastrophic health payments, impoverishment, and distress financing (borrowing or selling assets) were treated as financial hardship indicators in UHC. Poisson regression models were used to identify the determinants of catastrophic payment, impoverishment and distress financing separately. Slope, relative and concentration indices of inequalities were used to assess wealth-based inequalities in financial hardship indicators. The study found that around 9% of households incurred catastrophic payments, 7% faced distress financing, and 6% experienced impoverishing health payments in Bangladesh. Slope index of inequality indicated that the incidence of catastrophic health payment and distress financing among the richest households were 12 and 9 percentage points lower than the poorest households respectively. Multivariable Poisson regression models revealed that all UHC financial hardship indicators were significantly higher among household that had members who received inpatient care or were in the poorest quintile. The presence of a member with chronic illness in a household increased the risk of impoverishment by nearly double. This study identified a greater inequality in UHC financial hardship indicators. Rich households in Bangladesh were facing disproportionately less financial hardship than the poor ones. Households can be protected from

  13. Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Guidetti

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS and thermophilic species (ThS is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1 MPAs are numerous, 2 fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3 the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP, partially-protected MPAs (IP and fished areas (F at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators, but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide.

  14. Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide.

  15. Assessing the Effect of Disturbances on the Functionality of Direct Protection Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Vacchiano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forests provide direct protection to human settlements from hydrogeomorphic hazards. This paper proposes a method for assessing the effect of natural disturbances on the functionality of direct protection forests (DPFs in order to prioritize management interventions. We georeferenced disturbance data for wildfires, wind and snow damage, avalanches, and insects and overlaid them to a region-wide DPF map. Within each disturbance polygon, we used a Landsat-5 TM image to identify DPFs with insufficient vegetation cover, by using a maximum likelihood classifier of 6 spectral bands plus 5 vegetation indices. For each disturbance agent, we fitted a generalized linear model of the probability of finding a forested pixel, as a function of topography, time since disturbance, distance from disturbance edge, summer precipitation, and drought in the disturbance year. DPFs covered almost half of total forest area in the study region. Disturbance by insects occurred in more than one sixth of all forests. Avalanche and wildfire occurred each in about one tenth of total forest area, and wind and snow disturbance in only 1%. In the last 50 years, disturbances had a recurrence rate of 3% every 10 years. Almost one sixth of DPFs are currently lacking sufficient forest cover. Wildfires resulted in the highest rate of nonforested pixels (42% of all DPFs, followed by avalanches (21%. Forest recovery was explained by time elapsed, distance from edge (for conifers, and aspect. Summer precipitation and drought had a mixed influence. Our approach to assessing the effect of disturbances on the functionality of DPFs is reproducible in all mountain regions using institutional or open-access geographic data and provides a tool to prioritize DPF management by indicating where restoration of protection is most urgent.

  16. Development of computer-based analytical tool for assessing physical protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardhi, Alim, E-mail: alim-m@batan.go.id [National Nuclear Energy Agency Indonesia, (BATAN), PUSPIPTEK area, Building 80, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Banten (Indonesia); Chulalongkorn University, Faculty of Engineering, Nuclear Engineering Department, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok Thailand. 10330 (Thailand); Pengvanich, Phongphaeth, E-mail: ppengvan@gmail.com [Chulalongkorn University, Faculty of Engineering, Nuclear Engineering Department, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok Thailand. 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-22

    Assessment of physical protection system effectiveness is the priority for ensuring the optimum protection caused by unlawful acts against a nuclear facility, such as unauthorized removal of nuclear materials and sabotage of the facility itself. Since an assessment based on real exercise scenarios is costly and time-consuming, the computer-based analytical tool can offer the solution for approaching the likelihood threat scenario. There are several currently available tools that can be used instantly such as EASI and SAPE, however for our research purpose it is more suitable to have the tool that can be customized and enhanced further. In this work, we have developed a computer–based analytical tool by utilizing the network methodological approach for modelling the adversary paths. The inputs are multi-elements in security used for evaluate the effectiveness of the system’s detection, delay, and response. The tool has capability to analyze the most critical path and quantify the probability of effectiveness of the system as performance measure.

  17. Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 3. Status of FY 1990 work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Holford, D.J.

    1992-02-01

    Radioactive waste exists at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in a variety of locations, including subsurface grout and tank farms, solid waste burial grounds, and contaminated soil sites. Some of these waste sites may need to be isolated from percolating water to minimize the potential for transport of the waste to the ground water, which eventually discharges to the Columbia River. Multilayer protective barriers have been proposed as a means of limiting the flow of water through the waste sites (DOE 1987). A multiyear research program [managed jointly by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE] is aimed at assessing the performance of these barriers. One aspect of this program involves the use of computer models to predict barrier performance. Three modeling studies have already been conducted and a test plan was produced. The simulation work reported here was conducted by PNL and extends the previous modeling work. The purpose of this report are to understand phenomena that have been observed in the field and to provide information that can be used to improve hydrologic modeling of the protective barrier. An improved modeling capability results in better estimates of barrier performance. Better estimates can be used to improve the design of barriers and the assessment of their long-term performance.

  18. Efficacy of visor and helmet for blast protection assessed using a computational head model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Cronin, D. S.

    2017-11-01

    Head injury resulting from blast exposure has been identified as a challenge that may be addressed, in part, through improved protective systems. Existing detailed head models validated for blast loading were applied to investigate the influence of helmet visor configuration, liner properties, and shell material stiffness. Response metrics including head acceleration and intracranial pressures (ICPs) generated in brain tissue during primary blast exposure were used to assess and compare helmet configurations. The addition of a visor was found to reduce peak head acceleration and positive ICPs. However, negative ICPs associated with a potential for injury were increased when a visor and a foam liner were present. In general, the foam liner material was found to be more significant in affecting the negative ICP response than positive ICP or acceleration. Shell stiffness was found to have relatively small effects on either metric. A strap suspension system, modeled as an air gap between the head and helmet, was more effective in reducing response metrics compared to a foam liner. In cases with a foam liner, lower-density foam offered a greater reduction of negative ICPs. The models demonstrated the "underwash" effect in cases where no foam liner was present; however, the reflected pressures generated between the helmet and head did not translate to significant ICPs in adjacent tissue, when compared to peak ICPs from initial blast wave interaction. This study demonstrated that the efficacy of head protection can be expressed in terms of load transmission pathways when assessed with a detailed computational model.

  19. Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for non-target arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Topping, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Food Safety Authority, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for non-target arthropods. The current risk assessment sch...... of the currently used vegetation distribution factor was investigated. It is proposed that new tests be included in order to address exposure via oral uptake of residues and uncertainties related to differences in species sensitivity....

  20. Preliminary Chemical Aging and Lifetime Assessment for High Density S5370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R S; Chinn, S

    2003-11-24

    A preliminary lifetime assessment of S5370 stress cushions has been performed. Data from three sources were obtained and reviewed to perform this assessment. The sources were the following: (1) the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Honeywell FM&T Kansas City Plant's 2-year and 9-year accelerated aging studies; (2) a large selection of weapon surveillance return data; (3) laboratory experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Honeywell FM&T Kansas City Plant on artificially aged material. The general conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) There is an inherently large degree of structural and chemical heterogeneity in S5370 cushions that complicates lifetime assessments; (2) Current surveillance testing procedures are inadequate for providing insight into aging trends; (3) LANL PMAP data suggests a 60 year load retention of greater than 40%; however, this is for low density versions and extrapolation to high density must be performed with caution and a new set of testing is recommended; (4) Results of chemical aging assessments suggest that radiation damage is minimal at stockpile relevant doses, thermal degradation leads to compression set due to disentanglement of the network structure over time and a negligible amount of chain scissioning at relevant temperatures. The compression set is accelerated by exposure to radiation; (5) In the absence of further testing, a 60-year load retention of greater than 40% is estimated.

  1. Assessment of acid sulfate soil mapping utilizing chemical indicators in recipient waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beucher, A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Finland, poor water quality and associated ecological damage in the coastal streams related to land use on acid sulfate (a.s. soils has been drawing a considerable amount of attention since the 1950’s. These soils originate from sulfide-bearing marine sediments mostly occurring in the coastal areas located below the highest shoreline of the former Litorina Sea. Of the many previous studies carried out on soil or water data, quite few gathered both and their geographic extent was relatively limited. This study aimed at assessing a.s. soil probability maps using two chemical indicators measured in the recipient waters (i.e. sulfate content and sulfate/chloride ratio for 24 catchments along the Finnish coast. All the available data was compiled for these catchments, which were surveyed using different methods (i.e. conventional mapping and two spatial modeling techniques: fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks. High sulfate contents and sulfate/ chloride ratios measured in these rivers were controlled by a.s. soils in the corresponding catchments. The extent of the most probable areas for a.s. soils in the surveyed catchments correlated with the two chemical indicators measured in the recipient waters, suggesting that the probability maps created with different methods are reliable and comparable. The use of a.s. soil related chemical indicators in water, thus, constitutes a complementary, independent and straightforward tool to assess a.s. soil probability maps.

  2. 77 FR 68795 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0046] Protected Critical Infrastructure...), Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program will submit the following Information... of critical infrastructure and protected systems. IICD administers the PCII Program. The PCII Program...

  3. A multimethodology contractor assessment model for facilitating green innovation: the view of energy and environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Sung-Lin; Yan, Min-Ren

    2013-01-01

    The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and utility theory focus on the customer's attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  4. A Multimethodology Contractor Assessment Model for Facilitating Green Innovation: The View of Energy and Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lin Hsueh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP and utility theory focus on the customer’s attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  5. Rethinking the area of protection "natural resources" in life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, Jo; Benini, Lorenzo; Mancini, Lucia; Sala, Serenella; Blengini, Gian Andrea; Ardente, Fulvio; Recchioni, Marco; Maes, Joachim; Pant, Rana; Pennington, David

    2015-05-05

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in classical life cycle assessment (LCA) aims at analyzing potential impacts of products and services typically on three so-called areas of protection (AoPs): Natural Environment, Human Health, and Natural Resources. This paper proposes an elaboration of the AoP Natural Resources. It starts with analyzing different perspectives on Natural Resources as they are somehow sandwiched in between the Natural Environment (their cradle) and the human-industrial environment (their application). Reflecting different viewpoints, five perspectives are developed with the suggestion to select three in function of classical LCA. They result in three safeguard subjects: the Asset of Natural Resources, their Provisioning Capacity, and their role in Global Functions. Whereas the Provisioning Capacity is fully in function of humans, the global functions go beyond provisioning as they include nonprovisioning functions for humans and regulating and maintenance services for the globe as a whole, following the ecosystem services framework. A fourth and fifth safeguard subject has been identified: recognizing the role Natural Resources for human welfare, either specifically as building block in supply chains of products and services as such, either with or without their functions beyond provisioning. But as these are far broader as they in principle should include characterization of mechanisms within the human industrial society, they are considered as subjects for an integrated sustainability assessment (LCSA: life cycle sustainability assessment), that is, incorporating social, economic and environmental issues.

  6. Advances in environmental radiation protection: re-thinking animal-environment interaction modelling for wildlife dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Beresford, Nicholas A. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare [Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gashchak, Sergey [Chornobyl Centre for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Hinton, Thomas G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Centre de Cadarache, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-07-01

    Current wildlife dose assessment models adopt simplistic approaches to the representation of animal-environment interaction. The simplest approaches are to assume either that environmental media (e.g. soil, sediment or water) are uniformly contaminated or relating organism exposure to activity concentrations in media collected at the point of sampling of the animal. The external exposure of a reference organism is then estimated by defining the geometric relationship between the organism and the medium. For example, a reference organism within the soil would have a 4p exposure geometry and a reference organism on the soil would have a 2p exposure geometry. At best, the current modelling approaches recognise differences in media activity concentrations by calculating exposure for different areas of contamination and then estimating the fraction of time that an organism spends in each area. In other fields of pollution ecology, for example wildlife risk assessment for chemical pollution, more advanced approaches are being implemented to model animal-environment interaction and estimate exposure. These approaches include individual-based movement modelling and random walk modelling and a variety of software tools have been developed to facilitate the implementation of these models. Although there are more advanced animal-environment interaction modelling approaches that are available, it is questionable whether these should be adopted for use in environmental radiation protection. Would their adoption significantly reduce uncertainty within the assessment process and, if so, by how much? These questions are being addressed within the new TREE (TRansfer - Exposure - Effects) research programme funded by the United Kingdom Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and within Working Group (WG) 8 of the International Atomic Energy Agency's MODARIA programme. MODARIA WG8 is reviewing some of the alternative approaches that have been developed for animal

  7. Impacts of a clay plaster on indoor air quality assessed using chemical and sensory measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darling, Erin K.; Cros, Clement J.; Wargocki, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Passive removal materials (PRMs) are building materials or furnishings that effectively control indoor pollution without substantial formation of chemical byproducts and without an energy penalty. Recent studies have suggested that clay might be an effective PRM for ozone. To assess clay wall...... plaster as a PRM for improving air quality by controlling ozone, perceived air quality (PAQ) was determined in the presence of eight combinations of an emitting and reactive pollutant source (new carpet), clay plaster applied to gypsum wallboard, and chamber air with and without ozone. A panel of 24 human...... subjects assessed air quality in twin 30m3 chambers using a continuous acceptability scale. Air samples were collected immediately prior to panel assessment to quantify concentrations of C5–C10 saturated n-aldehydes and two aromatic aldehydes that are commonly produced by reaction of ozone with carpet...

  8. Correlation Study on Physico-Chemical Parameters and Quality Assessment of Kosi River Water, Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Singh Bhandari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work deals with the assessment of physico-chemical parameters of water samples of Kosi river at Kosi sampling station during 2004 and 2005 in pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons. Statistical studies have been carried out by calculating correlation coefficients between different pairs of parameters and t- test applied for checking significance. The observed values of various physico-chemical parameters of water samples were compared with standard values recommended by WHO. It is found that an appreciable significant positive correlation holds for chloride with pH, Mg, Na, hardness and total suspended solid; and sodium with hardness, EC and sulphate. A significant negative correlation was found between potassium with turbidity, Cl-, EC and hardness. All the physicochemical parameters of Kosi water are within the highest desirable limit or maximum permissible limit set by WHO except turbidity and BOD which recorded a high value.

  9. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 3. Soil assessment: indicator chemicals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area (EDA) surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. The soil assessment compared concentrations of the Love Canal Indicator Chemicals found in the EDA to concentrations found in similar western New York communities. An analytical technique was developed to detect the indicator chemicals at very low levels, i.e. 1.0 ppb. The analytical technique utilized a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. The analytical results were statistically compared between the EDA and the comparison areas using a modified Wilcoxon rank sum test.

  10. Risk assessment and economic appraisal of protection methods for the Tarascon-Arles railway embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheetham Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination of flood management practices and the reduction of flood risk as proposed under the Plan Rhône project has led to a vast program of flood defence modernization and construction in the lower Rhône valley. One key element of the project involves the construction of a new 9km levee structure parallel to an existing railway line between the towns of Tarascon and Arles (Bouches-du-Rhône, France on the left bank of the Rhône, which has historically been an obstacle to the propagation of flood flows. The new levee is designed to protect the towns of Arles and Tarascon up to the 10−2 annual probability flood event, after which floodwater will flow over a 5km spillway which will be integrated into the structure. In case of overtopping of the spillway via a spillway structure, floodwater is collected in the space between the two embankments and will subsequently flow towards one of ten newly constructed flood discharge structures, spaced at regular intervals in the railway embankment. The levee will form part of a global system of defence which is designed against flooding on the Rhône with an annual probability of occurrence of 10−3. In the event of overtopping of the levee, the railway embankment will be subjected to hydraulic loading and is at risk of damage from flood flows. During the detailed design phase of the project, options were explored for optimizing the permanent protection for the railway embankment. Using results from 2D and 3D hydraulic numerical modelling, a detailed risk assessment of the railway embankment was undertaken to evaluate its vulnerability under different hydraulic loading conditions and for different failure mechanisms using various parameters including water depth, hydraulic load, the duration of flood exposure and flow velocity. A comprehensive understanding of the main mechanisms of embankment damage under hydraulic loading (internal/ external erosion, overtopping, rotational failure etc

  11. Life cycle assessment (LCA of lead-free solders from the environmental protection aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitovski Aleksandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle assessment (LCA presents a relatively new approach, which allows comprehensive environmental consequences analysis of a product system over its entire life. This analysis is increasingly being used in the industry, as a tool for investigation of the influence of the product system on the environment, and serves as a protection and prevention tool in ecological management. This method is used to predict possible influences of a certain material to the environment through different development stages of the material. In LCA, the product systems are evaluated on a functionally equivalent basis, which, in this case, was 1000 cubic centimeters of an alloy. Two of the LCA phases, life-cycle inventory (LCA and life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA, are needed to calculate the environmental impacts. Methodology of LCIA applied in this analysis aligns every input and output influence into 16 different categories, divided in two subcategories. The life-cycle assessment reaserch review of the leadfree solders Sn-Cu, SAC (Sn-Ag-Cu, BSA (Bi-Sb-Ag and SABC (Sn-Ag-Bi-Cu respectively, is given in this paper, from the environmental protection aspect starting from production, through application process and finally, reclamation at the end-of-life, i.e. recycling. There are several opportunities for reducing the overall environmental and human health impacts of solder used in electronics manufacturing based on the results of the LCA, such as: using secondary metals reclaimed through post-industrial recycling; power consumption reducing by replacing older, less efficient reflow assembly equipment, or by optimizing the current equipment to perform at the elevated temperatures required for lead-free soldering, etc. The LCA analysis was done comparatively in relation to widely used Sn-Pb solder material. Additionally, the impact factors of material consumption, energy use, water and air reserves, human health and ecotoxicity have been ALSO considered including

  12. Pred-Skin: A Fast and Reliable Web Application to Assess Skin Sensitization Effect of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodolpho C; Alves, Vinicius M; Muratov, Eugene N; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Trospsha, Alexander; Andrade, Carolina Horta

    2017-05-22

    Chemically induced skin sensitization is a complex immunological disease with a profound impact on quality of life and working ability. Despite some progress in developing alternative methods for assessing the skin sensitization potential of chemical substances, there is no in vitro test that correlates well with human data. Computational QSAR models provide a rapid screening approach and contribute valuable information for the assessment of chemical toxicity. We describe the development of a freely accessible web-based and mobile application for the identification of potential skin sensitizers. The application is based on previously developed binary QSAR models of skin sensitization potential from human (109 compounds) and murine local lymph node assay (LLNA, 515 compounds) data with good external correct classification rate (0.70-0.81 and 0.72-0.84, respectively). We also included a multiclass skin sensitization potency model based on LLNA data (accuracy ranging between 0.73 and 0.76). When a user evaluates a compound in the web app, the outputs are (i) binary predictions of human and murine skin sensitization potential; (ii) multiclass prediction of murine skin sensitization; and (iii) probability maps illustrating the predicted contribution of chemical fragments. The app is the first tool available that incorporates quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models based on human data as well as multiclass models for LLNA. The Pred-Skin web app version 1.0 is freely available for the web, iOS, and Android (in development) at the LabMol web portal ( http://labmol.com.br/predskin/ ), in the Apple Store, and on Google Play, respectively. We will continuously update the app as new skin sensitization data and respective models become available.

  13. Prioritizing Chemicals for Risk Assessment Using Chemoinformatics: Examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Neela; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Loomis, Dana; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Identifying cancer hazards is the first step towards cancer prevention. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme, which has evaluated nearly 1,000 agents for their carcinogenic potential since 1971, typically selects agents for hazard identification on the basis of public nominations, expert advice, published data on carcinogenicity, and public health importance. Here, we present a novel and complementary strategy for identifying agents for hazard evaluation using chemoinformatics, database integration, and automated text mining. To inform selection among a broad range of pesticides nominated for evaluation, we identified and screened nearly 6,000 relevant chemical structures, after which we systematically compiled information on 980 pesticides, creating network maps that allowed cluster visualization by chemical similarity, pesticide class, and publicly available information concerning cancer epidemiology, cancer bioassays, and carcinogenic mechanisms. For the IARC Monograph meetings that took place in March and June 2015, this approach supported high-priority evaluation of glyphosate, malathion, parathion, tetrachlorvinphos, diazinon, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). This systematic approach, accounting for chemical similarity and overlaying multiple data sources, can be used by risk assessors as well as by researchers to systematize, inform, and increase efficiency in selecting and prioritizing agents for hazard identification, risk assessment, regulation, or further investigation. This approach could be extended to an array of outcomes and agents, including occupational carcinogens, drugs, and foods. Citation: Guha N, Guyton KZ, Loomis D, Barupal DK. 2016. Prioritizing chemicals for risk assessment using chemoinformatics: examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 124:1823-1829; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP186.

  14. Prioritizing Chemicals for Risk Assessment Using Chemoinformatics: Examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Neela; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Loomis, Dana; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identifying cancer hazards is the first step towards cancer prevention. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme, which has evaluated nearly 1,000 agents for their carcinogenic potential since 1971, typically selects agents for hazard identification on the basis of public nominations, expert advice, published data on carcinogenicity, and public health importance. Objectives: Here, we present a novel and complementary strategy for identifying agents for hazard evaluation using chemoinformatics, database integration, and automated text mining. Discussion: To inform selection among a broad range of pesticides nominated for evaluation, we identified and screened nearly 6,000 relevant chemical structures, after which we systematically compiled information on 980 pesticides, creating network maps that allowed cluster visualization by chemical similarity, pesticide class, and publicly available information concerning cancer epidemiology, cancer bioassays, and carcinogenic mechanisms. For the IARC Monograph meetings that took place in March and June 2015, this approach supported high-priority evaluation of glyphosate, malathion, parathion, tetrachlorvinphos, diazinon, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Conclusions: This systematic approach, accounting for chemical similarity and overlaying multiple data sources, can be used by risk assessors as well as by researchers to systematize, inform, and increase efficiency in selecting and prioritizing agents for hazard identification, risk assessment, regulation, or further investigation. This approach could be extended to an array of outcomes and agents, including occupational carcinogens, drugs, and foods. Citation: Guha N, Guyton KZ, Loomis D, Barupal DK. 2016. Prioritizing chemicals for risk assessment using chemoinformatics: examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 124:1823–1829;

  15. Chemical stimulation in unconventional hydrocarbons extraction in the USA: a preliminary environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutra, Emilie; Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-04-01

    While the exploitation of unconventional resources recently shows an extensive development, the stimulation techniques in use in this domain arouse growing public concerns. Often in the shadow of the disputed hydraulic fracturing process, the matrix acidizing is however a complementary or alternative procedure to enhance the reservoir connectivity. Although acidizing processes are widespread within the traditional hydrocarbons sources exploration, the matrix acidizing does not appear to be commonly used in unconventional hydrocarbons formations due to their low permeability. Nonetheless, this process has been recently applied to the Monterey formation, a shale oil play in California. These stimulation fluids are composed by various chemicals, what represents a matter of concern for public as well as for authorities. As a consequence, a risk assessment implying an exposure and toxicity analysis is needed. Focusing on site surface accidents, e.g., leak of a chemical from a storage tank, we develop in this study concentration scenarios for different exposure pathways to estimate the potential environmental risk associated with the use of specific hazardous substances in the matrix acidizing process for unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in the USA. Primary, information about the usage of different hazardous substances have been collected in order to extract the most frequently used chemicals. Afterwards, a probabilistic estimation of the environmental risk associated with the use of these chemicals is carried out by comparing the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) distribution with the Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) value. The latter is collected from a literature review, whereas the PEC is estimated as probability distribution concentrations in different environmental compartments (e.g., soil) built upon various predefined accident scenarios. By applying a probabilistic methodology for the concentrations, the level at which the used chemicals

  16. Assessment of changes of some functions of Ukrainian acid soils after chemical amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapko Yurij

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to determine the effectiveness of lime of different origin for chemical amelioration of soils and examine its impact on soil functions such as productivity, habitat, regulation of water quality, and the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen. Limy ameliorants were applied in small local field experiment on Luvic Chernozem, and experiment with lysimeter columns was carried out on Albic Luvisol. The number of the main groups of microflora and enzymatic activity of soil was determined in soil samples taken for the analysis from the root zone. Research concerning the influence of natural and industrial origin ameliorants on soil as habitat showed the correlation of sugar beets productivity with soil biogenic. The increase of biomultiplicity of soil microbiota after addition of a cement dust and negative influence of red sludge on soil as habitat for living organisms was observed. Research involving the influence of ameliorants on soil by lime as the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen was carried out using lysimeter columns. It was stated that the addition of limy ameliorants reduces mobility of heavy metals.

  17. Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Norm [Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

    2009-02-18

    The overarching goals of the 'Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation' Project (BPA Project No.2002-011-00) are to: (1) assess abiotic and biotic factors (i.e., geomorphologic, hydrological, aquatic and riparian/floodplain communities) in determining a definitive composition of ecological integrity, (2) develop strategies to assess and mitigate losses of ecosystem functions, and (3) produce a regional operational loss assessment framework. To produce a scientifically defensible, repeatable, and complete assessment tool, KTOI assembled a team of top scientists in the fields of hydrology, hydraulics, ornithology, entomology, statistics, and river ecology, among other expertise. This advisory team is known as the Research Design and Review Team (RDRT). The RDRT scientists drive the review, selection, and adaptive management of the research designs to evaluate the ecologic functions lost due to the operation of federal hydropower facilities. The unique nature of this project (scientific team, newest/best science, adaptive management, assessment of ecological functions, etc.) has been to work in a dynamic RDRT process. In addition to being multidisciplinary, this model KTOI project provides a stark contrast to the sometimes inflexible process (review, re-review, budgets, etc.) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The project RDRT is assembled annually, with subgroups meeting as needed throughout the year to address project issues, analyses, review, and interpretation. Activities of RDRT coordinated and directed the selection of research and assessment methodologies appropriate for the Kootenai River Watershed and potential for regional application in the Columbia River Basin. The entire RDRT continues to meet annually to update and discuss project progress. RDRT Subcontractors work in smaller groups throughout the year to meet project objectives. Determining the extent to

  18. Integrated assessment of sources, chemical stressors and stream quality along a groundwater fed stream system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Sonne, Anne T.; Rønde, Vinni; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2016-04-01

    Streams are impacted by significant contamination at the catchment scale, as they are often locations of multiple chemical stressor inputs. The European Water Framework Directive requires EU member states to ensure good chemical and ecological status of surface water bodies by 2027. This requires monitoring of stream water quality, comparison with environmental quality standards (EQS) and assessment of ecological status. However, the achievement of good status of stream water also requires a strong focus on contaminant sources, pathways and links to stream water impacts, so source management and remedial measures can be implemented. Fate and impacts of different contaminant groups are governed by different processes and are dependent on the origin (geogenic, anthropogenic), source type (point or diffuse) and pathway of the contaminant. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors on a groundwater-fed stream to quantify the contaminant discharges, link the chemical impact and stream water quality and assess the main chemical risk drivers in the stream system potentially driving ecological impact. The study was conducted in the 8 m wide Grindsted stream (Denmark) along a 16 km stream stretch that is potentially impacted by two contaminated sites (Grindsted Factory site, Grindsted Landfill), fish farms, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Water samples from the stream and the hyporheic zone as well as bed sediment samples were collected during three campaigns in 2012 and 2014. Data for xenobiotic organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow were collected. The measured chemical concentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on the 48h acute toxicity tests with D. magna. The results show a substantial impact of the Grindsted Factory site at a specific stretch of the stream. The groundwater plume caused

  19. Methods to assess RAST results in patients exposed to chemical allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, M H; Kramarik, J A; Ferguson, J

    1995-01-01

    RAST is routinely used to assess the presence of IgE antibodies against environmental allergens in the sera of symptomatic patients. With exposure to low-mol.-mass (chemical) allergens, RAST is also done, but the interpretation of results is more difficult. A study was undertaken to assess methods which have been employed to determine the positivity of sera and to develop an objective, statistically based procedure for determination of RAST positivity to chemical allergens. Sera were obtained from 14 nonsensitized (control) subjects and examined for total IgE by radioimmunoassay, and for cyanuric chloride (CyCl)-specific IgE by RAST. Linear regression analysis revealed the correlation between the tests to be 0.94. Equations for the 95% and 99% predicted intervals were obtained. Sera from 19 cyanuric chloride workers were tested for total and specific IgE. Positivity of RAST results was determined by three methods: RAST inhibition, RAST ratio (binding to CyCl-human serum albumin (HSA) disks/HSA disks), and the regression equation where values outside the 99% predicted interval were considered to be positive and those > 95% RAST positivity by the regression method gave results comparable to those obtained from RAST inhibition, whereas the RAST ratio resulted in many more false positive conclusions. This statistical approach to RAST analysis was also used to assess sera from patients exposed to the unrelated chemical allergens, toluene diisocyanate and formaldehyde. Conclusions based on the regression method were in good agreement with those from RAST inhibition assay. Moreover, use of one standard curve may be sufficient for interpretation of RAST results for diverse haptenic allergens. These results indicate that the regression method provides a statistical basis from which to determine positivity of RAST analyses while eliminating the need for RAST inhibition assays.

  20. Assessment of Protective and Antioxidant Properties of Tribulus Terrestris Fruits against Testicular Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to assess the protective and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT against sodium valproate (SVP-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Material and methods: Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10. Group 1 was used normal (negative control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg-1, orally during the last week of experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive control and groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pretreated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg-1 for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels, semen picture, testicular antioxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Results: Oral pretreatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular antioxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. Conclusion: The pretreatment with METT has protective and antioxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue antioxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of Tribulus terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that Tribulus terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 113-118

  1. Assessment of Water and Sediment Physical-Chemical Composition in the West Coast of Maracaibo Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Moronta-Riera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to determine the physical and chemical composition of the water streams and sediments of the Maracaibo Lake in three sampling areas located in Tía Juana, Lagunillas and Ceuta in order to know the level of contamination and assess water quality based on permissible values established by the 883 Decree. The results indicate that the overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the water and sediments are above permissible levels. It is concluded that petroleum prospection is the root cause of the lake contamination.

  2. Assessment of fires in chemical warehouses. An overview of the TOXFIRE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The report summarises the scientific outcome of the CEC Environment project "TOXFIRE. Guidelines for Management of Fires in Chemical Warehouses". The project was performed in the period 1994 - 1996 in a multi-national co-operation between partners fromUnited Kingdom, Sweden, Finland and Denmark...... performed. Also included were items as fire modelling, risk assessment to human health and the environment. Finally, the basis of guidelines for safetyengineers and fire brigades were established. The report describes the work done by each partner and the main results achieved. The references of all reports...

  3. A Generic Life Cycle Assessment Tool for Chemical-biochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Malakul, Pomthong; Siemanond, Kitipat

    2013-01-01

    As environmental impacts and resource depletion are serious concerns for the modern society, they also provide the motivation and need to design processes that are not only economically and operationally feasible, but also environmentally friendly. In this respect, life cycle assessment (LCA......) is a tool for quantifying potential environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of the product or process. It can be used in conjunction with an economic tool to evaluate the design of any existing and/or new chemical-biochemical process and create improvement options in order to arrive at the best...

  4. Alternative methods to safety studies in experimental animals: role in the risk assessment of chemicals under the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienblum, W; Dekant, W; Foth, H; Gebel, T; Hengstler, J G; Kahl, R; Kramer, P-J; Schweinfurth, H; Wollin, K-M

    2008-04-01

    During the last two decades, substantial efforts have been made towards the development and international acceptance of alternative methods to safety studies using laboratory animals. In the EU, challenging timelines for phasing out of many standard tests using laboratory animals were established in the seventh Amending Directive 2003/15/EC to Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC. In continuation of this policy, the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACH) favours alternative methods to conventional in vivo testing, if validated and appropriate. Even alternative methods in the status of prevalidation or validation, but without scientific or regulatory acceptance may be used under certain conditions. Considerable progress in the establishment of alternative methods has been made in some fields, in particular with respect to methods predicting local toxic effects and genotoxicity. In more complex important fields of safety and risk assessment such as systemic single and repeated dose toxicity, toxicokinetics, sensitisation, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity, it is expected that the development and validation of in silico methods, testing batteries (in vitro and in silico) and tiered testing systems will have to overcome many scientific and regulatory obstacles which makes it extremely difficult to predict the outcome and the time needed. The main reasons are the complexity and limited knowledge of the biological processes involved on one hand and the long time frame until validation and regulatory acceptance of an alternative method on the other. New approaches in safety testing and evaluation using "Integrated Testing Strategies" (ITS) (including combinations of existing data, the use of chemical categories/grouping, in vitro tests and QSAR) that have not been validated or not gained wide acceptance in the scientific community and by regulatory authorities will need a thorough justification of their appropriateness for a given purpose. This requires the

  5. RADIATION PROTECTION CABIN FOR CATHETER-DIRECTED LIVER INTERVENTIONS: OPERATOR DOSE ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleux, Geert; Bergans, Niki; Bosmans, Hilde; Bogaerts, Ria

    2016-09-01

    The number and complexity of interventional radiological procedures and in particular catheter-directed liver interventions have increased substantially. The current study investigates the reduction of personal doses when using a dedicated radiation protection cabin (RPC) for these procedures. Operator and assistant doses were assessed for 3 series of 20 chemoinfusion/chemoembolisation interventions, including an equal number of procedures with and without RPC. Whole body doses, finger doses and doses at the level of knees and eyes were evaluated with different types of TLD-100 Harshaw dosemeters. Dosemeters were also attached on the three walls of the RPC. The operator doses were significantly reduced by the RPC, but also without RPC, the doses appear to be limited as a result of thorough optimisation with existing radiation protection tools. The added value of the RPC should thus be determined by the outcome of balancing dose reduction and other aspects such as ergonomic benefits. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. NASA Space Radiation Protection Strategies: Risk Assessment and Permissible Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) for short-term and career astronaut exposures to space radiation have been set and approved by NASA with the goal of protecting astronauts against health risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Short term PELs are intended to prevent clinically significant deterministic health effects, including performance decrements, which could threaten astronaut health and jeopardize mission success. Career PELs are implemented to control late occurring health effects, including a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) from cancer, and dose limits are used to prevent cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. For radiation protection, meeting the cancer PEL is currently the design driver for galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event shielding, mission duration, and crew certification (e.g., 1-year ISS missions). The risk of cancer development is the largest known long-term health consequence following radiation exposure, and current estimates for long-term health risks due to cardiovascular diseases are approximately 30% to 40% of the cancer risk for exposures above an estimated threshold (Deep Space one-year and Mars missions). Large uncertainties currently exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation exposure. Improved understanding through radiobiology and physics research allows increased accuracy in risk estimation and is essential for ensuring astronaut health as well as for controlling mission costs, optimization of mission operations, vehicle design, and countermeasure assessment. We will review the Space Radiation Program Element's research strategies to increase accuracy in risk models and to inform development and validation of the permissible exposure limits.

  7. Lightning Protection Performance Assessment of Transmission Line Based on ATP model Automatic Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Hanwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the initial lightning breakdown current by combing ATP and MATLAB simulation software effectively, with the aims to evaluate the lightning protection performance of transmission line. Firstly, the executable ATP simulation model is generated automatically according to the required information such as power source parameters, tower parameters, overhead line parameters, grounding resistance and lightning current parameters, etc. through an interface program coded by MATLAB. Then, the data are extracted from the generated LIS files which can be obtained by executing the ATP simulation model, the occurrence of transmission lie breakdown can be determined by the relative data in LIS file. The lightning current amplitude should be reduced when the breakdown occurs, and vice the verse. Thus the initial lightning breakdown current of a transmission line with given parameters can be determined accurately by continuously changing the lightning current amplitude, which is realized by a loop computing algorithm that is coded by MATLAB software. The method proposed in this paper can generate the ATP simulation program automatically, and facilitates the lightning protection performance assessment of transmission line.

  8. Application of the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept to the safety assessment of chemically complex food matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, M.A.J.; Koster, S.; Krul, C.A.M.; Houben, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of chemically complex food matrices (CCFM) usually is very time consuming, expensive and uses many animal studies. Improvements to obtain a more efficient assessment process remain limited as long as we retain traditional approaches to toxicological risk assessment. New

  9. Default values for assessment of potential dermal exposure of the hands to industrial chemicals in the scope of regulatory risk assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Warren, N.D.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Dermal exposure needs to be addressed in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals. The models used so far are based on very limited data. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a large number of new measurements on dermal exposure to industrial chemicals in various work situations, together with

  10. A framework for an alternatives assessment dashboard for evaluating chemical alternatives applied to flame retardants for electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of alternatives assessment (AA) is to facilitate a comparison of alternatives to a chemical of concern, resulting in the identification of safer alternatives. A two-stage methodology for comparing chemical alternatives was developed. In the first stage, alternatives are ...

  11. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  12. Describing the chemical singularity of the Spanish protected designations of origin for virgin olive oils in relation to oils from neighbouring areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, D. L.; Tena, N.; Aparicio, R.

    2012-11-01

    The protected designations of origin (PDOs) have proven to be a successful regulatory framework to protect singular virgin olive oils that have distinctive properties. However, sometimes the registration of new PDOs and the demarcation of the geographical areas associated to them are based on administrative issues rather than objective chemical data. In this work, the chemical compositions of fatty acids, hydrocarbons, alcohols, sterols and methyl sterols have been used to prove the differences between a PDO virgin olive oil and the oils produced in the surrounding areas. Three cases were studied (PDO Estepa, PDO Montoro-Adamuz, and Campina de Jaen) which actually mean three different situations that combine variations in cultivar and pedoclimatic characteristics. The chemical compounds that showed a better ability to classify samples were selected by the Brown- Forsythe test, a particular modification of ANOVA, and this ability was later visualized in a principal component analysis. The oils from PDOs Estepa and Montoro-Adamuz showed clear differences in their chemical compositions, while the oils from Campina de Jaen formed a group of samples which greatly overlapped with the oils from surrounding areas, probably due to the lack of variation in cultivar (Picual) throughout the province of Jaen. (Author) 32 refs.

  13. Occupational heat stress assessment and protective strategies in the context of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Östergren, Per-Olof; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2017-04-01

    Global warming will unquestionably increase the impact of heat on individuals who work in already hot workplaces in hot climate areas. The increasing prevalence of this environmental health risk requires the improvement of assessment methods linked to meteorological data. Such new methods will help to reveal the size of the problem and design appropriate interventions at individual, workplace and societal level. The evaluation of occupational heat stress requires measurement of four thermal climate factors (air temperature, humidity, air velocity and heat radiation); available weather station data may serve this purpose. However, the use of meteorological data for occupational heat stress assessment is limited because weather stations do not traditionally and directly measure some important climate factors, e.g. solar radiation. In addition, local workplace environmental conditions such as local heat sources, metabolic heat production within the human body, and clothing properties, all affect the exchange of heat between the body and the environment. A robust occupational heat stress index should properly address all these factors. This article reviews and highlights a number of selected heat stress indices, indicating their advantages and disadvantages in relation to meteorological data, local workplace environments, body heat production and the use of protective clothing. These heat stress and heat strain indices include Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, Discomfort Index, Predicted Heat Strain index, and Universal Thermal Climate Index. In some cases, individuals may be monitored for heat strain through physiological measurements and medical supervision prior to and during exposure. Relevant protective and preventive strategies for alleviating heat strain are also reviewed and proposed.

  14. Chemical contamination assessment of Gulf of Mexico oysters in response to hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W E; Kimbrough, K L; Lauenstein, G G; Christensen, J

    2009-03-01

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall on August 29, 2005 and caused widespread devastation along the central Gulf Coast states. Less than a month later Hurricane Rita followed a similar track slightly west of Katrina's. A coordinated multi-agency response followed to collect water, sediment and tissue samples for a variety of chemical, biological and toxicological indicators. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Status and Trends Program (NS&T) participated in this effort by measuring chemical contamination in sediment and oyster tissue as part of the Mussel Watch Program, a long-term monitoring program to assess spatial and temporal trends in a wide range of coastal pollutants. This paper describes results for contaminants measured in oyster tissue collected between September 29 and October 10, 2005 and discusses the results in the context of Mussel Watch and its 20-year record of chemical contamination in the region and the nation. In general, levels of metals in oyster tissue were higher then pre- hurricane levels while organic contaminants were at or near record lows. No contaminant reported here exceeded the FDA action level for food safety.

  15. Integrative sediment assessment at Atlantic Spanish harbours by means of chemical and ecotoxicological tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, N; Belzunce-Segarra, M J; Menchaca, I; Garmendia, J M; Franco, J; Nieto, O; Etxebarria, N

    2013-02-01

    This study refers to the integrative assessment of sediment quality in three harbour areas at the Spanish Atlantic Coast: Vigo (Northwestern Spain), Bilbao and Pasajes (Northern Spain). At each site, two lines of evidence have been considered: chemical analyses (metal, PAH and PCB concentrations in sediments and ammonia concentration in bioassays) and toxicity tests (Microtox®, Corophium sp. marine amphipod and Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin larvae). Chemical and ecotoxicological results have been integrated by means of a tabular matrix and a multivariate factorial analysis (FA). Highly toxic samples have been characterised in Vigo and Pasajes harbours while Bilbao samples present toxicity levels ranging from non-toxic to moderately toxic. High toxicity is associated with high levels of contaminants whereas confounding factors (ammonia, organic matter and mud) have been identified to be the main cause of low to moderate toxicity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that deriving potential toxicity of sediments based on comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) is in agreement to toxicity results in areas presenting high levels of contaminants. However, at lower levels of toxicity (low to moderate), the mismatch between the potential toxicity (SQG approach) and the toxicity measured by bioassays is greater, as the former only accounts for chemical concentrations, without considering the interaction between contaminants and the effect of confounding factors. Contrarily, the multivariate analysis seems to be a robust tool for the integration and interpretation of different lines of evidence in areas affected by different sources of contamination.

  16. Minimised bioconcentration tests: a useful tool for assessing chemical uptake into terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Laura J; Ashauer, Roman; Ryan, Jim J; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2014-11-18

    Current guidelines for determining bioconcentration factors (BCF) and uptake and depuration rate constants require labor intensive studies with large numbers of organisms. A minimized approach has recently been proposed for fish BCF studies but its applicability to other taxonomic groups is unknown. In this study, we therefore evaluate the use of the minimized approach for estimating BCF and uptake and depuration rate constants for chemicals in aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. Data from a range of previous BCF studies were resampled to calculate BCFs and rate constants using the minimized method. The resulting values were then compared to values obtained using full study designs. Results demonstrated a good correlation for uptake rate constants, a poor correlation for depuration rate constants and a very good correlation between the BCFs obtained using the traditional and minimized approach for a variety of organic compounds. The minimized approach therefore has merit in deriving bioconcentration factors and uptake rate constants but may not be appropriate for deriving depuration rate constants for use in, for example, toxico-kinetic toxico-dynamic modeling. The approach uses up to 70% fewer organisms, requires less labor and has lower analytical costs. The minimized design therefore could be a valuable approach for running large multifactorial studies to assess bioconcentration of the plethora of chemicals that occur in the environment into the many taxonomic groups that occur in the environment. The approach should therefore help in accelerating the development of our understanding of factors and processes affecting uptake of chemicals into organisms in the environment.

  17. Risk assessment for complex chemical exposure in aquatic systems: the problem of estimating interactive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J S

    1998-01-01

    The traditional, but little used, way of assessing effects of the interaction between known chemicals is to use factorial experimental designs. Such designs allow one to test for less than additive (antagonistic) and greater than additive (synergistic) effects. Whilst synergism can be demonstrated in such experiments the concentrations at which synergistic effects occur are extremely high and are unlikely to occur in nature. Recently developed techniques allow one to measure directly the effects of combined stressors in the field. These biological effect techniques range from tests on individual organisms to tests on communities. At the biochemical level the tests can indicate that the organism has been exposed to certain groups of chemicals (for example cytochrome P-450 enzymes responding to PAHs or metallothioneins responding to heavy metals). At the community level of organisation there are highly sensitive statistical techniques that indicate clearly the combined effect of stressors. The effects of oil exploration and production on benthic communities in the North Sea can be linked to concentrations of chemicals. However, such relationships are correlative and do not necessarily indicate cause and effect. Experiments are needed to test the hypotheses generated concerning the interactive effects of chemicals on the benthic species. The statistical analyses do, however, show which species have been affected and their relative sensitivity to chemical and physical disturbances. Such species are preferable to the traditional "laboratory weeds" usually utilised. A strategy for risk assessment is needed that combines an experimental protocol for making predictions, from laboratory experiments, of likely effects to be found in the field. This should be combined with field monitoring that allows one to detect changes that were not predicted. At present most monitoring designs cannot adequately detect trends. This is due to concentration on Type-I statistical errors

  18. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  19. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  20. Grouping chemicals for health risk assessment: A text mining-based case study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna

    2016-01-22

    As many chemicals act as carcinogens, chemical health risk assessment is critically important. A notoriously time consuming process, risk assessment could be greatly supported by classifying chemicals with similar toxicological profiles so that they can be assessed in groups rather than individually. We have previously developed a text mining (TM)-based tool that can automatically identify the mode of action (MOA) of a carcinogen based on the scientific evidence in literature, and it can measure the MOA similarity between chemicals on the basis of their literature profiles (Korhonen et al., 2009, 2012). A new version of the tool (2.0) was recently released and here we apply this tool for the first time to investigate and identify meaningful groups of chemicals for risk assessment. We used published literature on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-persistent, widely spread toxic organic compounds comprising of 209 different congeners. Although chemically similar, these compounds are heterogeneous in terms of MOA. We show that our TM tool, when applied to 1648 PubMed abstracts, produces a MOA profile for a subgroup of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) which differs clearly from that for the rest of PCBs. This suggests that the tool could be used to effectively identify homogenous groups of chemicals and, when integrated in real-life risk assessment, could help and significantly improve the efficiency of the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.