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Sample records for assessing chemical protective

  1. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  2. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  3. Toward the definition of specific protection goals for the environmental risk assessment of chemicals: A perspective on environmental regulation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A Ross; Whale, Graham; Jackson, Mathew; Marshall, Stuart; Hamer, Mick; Solga, Andreas; Kabouw, Patrick; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Woods, Richard; Nadzialek, Stephanie; Maltby, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This critical review examines the definition and implementation of environmental protection goals for chemicals in current European Union (EU) legislation, guidelines, and international agreements to which EU countries are party. The European chemical industry is highly regulated, and prospective environmental risk assessments (ERAs) are tailored for different classes of chemical, according to their specific hazards, uses, and environmental exposure profiles. However, environmental protection goals are often highly generic, requiring the prevention of "unacceptable" or "adverse" impacts on "biodiversity" and "ecosystems" or the "environment as a whole." This review aims to highlight working examples, challenges, solutions, and best practices for defining specific protection goals (SPGs), which are seen to be essential for refining and improving ERA. Specific protection goals hinge on discerning acceptable versus unacceptable adverse effects on the key attributes of relevant, sensitive ecological entities (ranging from organisms to ecosystems). Some isolated examples of SPGs for terrestrial and aquatic biota can be found in prospective ERA guidance for plant protection products (PPPs). However, SPGs are generally limited to environmental or nature legislation that requires environmental monitoring and retrospective ERA. This limitation is due mainly to the availability of baselines, which define acceptable versus unacceptable environmental effects on the key attributes of sentinel species, populations and/or communities, such as reproductive status, abundance, or diversity. Nevertheless, very few regulatory case examples exist in which SPGs incorporate effect magnitude, spatial extent, and temporal duration. We conclude that more holistic approaches are needed for defining SPGs, particularly with respect to protecting population sustainability, ecosystem function, and integrity, which are implicit in generic protection goals and explicit in the International

  4. Latin American protected areas: Protected from chemical pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A; Siroski, Pablo; Espejo, Winfred; Nimptsch, Jorge; Choueri, Paloma Gusso; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Moraga, Claudio A; Mora, Miguel; Toor, Gurpal S

    2017-03-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are critically important means to preserve species and maintain natural ecosystems. However, the potential impacts of chemical pollution on PAs are seldom mentioned in the scientific literature. Research on the extent of the occurrence of chemical pollution inside PAs and in-depth assessments of how chemical contaminants may adversely affect the maintenance of species abundance, species survival, and ecosystem functions are scarce to nonexistent. We investigated 1) the occurrence of chemical contaminants inside 119 PAs in Latin America from publically available databases, and 2) reviewed case studies of chemical contaminants and pollution in 4 Latin American PAs. Cases of chemical pollution and contamination inside Latin American PAs mostly originated from sources such as mining, oil, and gas extraction. To date, the focus of the research on chemical pollution research inside Latin American PAs has been primarily on the detection of contamination, typically limited to trace metals. Where management actions have occurred, they have been reactive rather than proactive. Protected areas established in wetlands are the most affected by chemical pollution. Based on the information from the pollution and/or contamination occurrence and the case studies analyzed, Latin American PAs are not well safeguarded from chemical pollution, resulting in both challenges and opportunities to conserve biodiversity and ecosystems. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:360-370. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Mozambique social protection assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Silverio Marques, Jose

    2012-01-01

    This assessment shows that Mozambique social protection system is developing. While programs to address most of the risks identified exist, there are still major gaps. Poor families with children are not adequately supported, there is no significant youth program, and subsistence farmers and other workers are not properly protected against recurrent shocks. The government spends a consider...

  6. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  7. How to Protect Yourself from Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yourself from chemicals How to protect yourself from chemicals It may seem kind of scary when you ... glass containers. Staying safe from pesticides, poisons, and chemicals Prevent pesticide poisonings in your house. Have an ...

  8. [Risk assessment of chemical agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2011-01-01

    The risk assessment of chemical agents is a well known and applied process carried out by Industrial Hygienists and Occupational Physicians based on exposure evaluation. The application of REACH (CE 1907/2006), CLP (CE 1272/2008) and SDS (UE 453/2010) introduces some changes and instruments to carry out the occupational exposure assessment, like new classification of substances, Exposure Scenario, suggested control measures that the Industrial Hygienist and the Occupational Physician must evaluate. If there is not a similar Exposure Scenario to apply a new risk assessment must carried out also by recommended software (ECETOC Targeted Risk Assessment; Easy to use workplace EMKG; Stoffenmanager). Looking at the relevance of the control measures and evaluation of Exposure Scenario we report the flowchart of risk assessment and management by the Method of Organisational Congruencies carried out with the Prevention and Protection Service and Occupational Physician Office of the Health Service of the Azienda Provinciale of Trento.

  9. Chemical Protection Against Ionizing Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    experimentally obtained. SPONSOR: Div of Cancer Treatment, NIH /A TOPICS: 2D PI/ORG: Moss, Alfred J; Veterans Administration Ned Ctr, Little Rock AR TITLE...Robert C; Dartmouth- Hitchcock Ned Ctr, Hanover NH TITLE: Radiation-chemical induction of mutagenesis. SUMMARY: Effects of sensitizers on radiation

  10. Chemical mixtures: considering the evolution of toxicology and chemical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monosson, Emily

    2005-04-01

    The assessment of chemical mixtures is a complex topic for toxicologists, regulators, and the public. In this article the linkage between the science of toxicology and the needs of governmental regulatory agencies in the United States is explored through an overview of environmental regulations enacted over the past century and a brief history of modern toxicology. One of the goals of this overview is to encourage both regulators and scientists to consider the benefits and limitations of this science-regulatory relationship as they tackle existing issues such as chemical mixtures. It is clear that a) over the past 100 years chemical regulation and toxicologic research, have in large part, shared a common emphasis on characterization and regulation of individual chemicals. But chemical mixtures have been, and continue to be, evaluated at hazardous waste sites around the United States. For this reason the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for chemical mixtures assessment are also reviewed. These guidelines highlight the current practice of mixtures assessment, which relies primarily on the existing single-chemical database. It is also clear that b) the science and assessment of chemical mixtures are moving forward through the combined efforts of regulatory agencies and scientists from a broad range of disciplines, including toxicology. Because toxicology is at this exciting crossroads, particular attention should be paid to the forces (e.g., public demands, regulatory needs, funding, academic interests) that both promote and limit the growth of this expanding discipline.

  11. Assessing ecorelevance of emerging chemicals in sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, D.

    2007-01-01

    effects measured on individuals can be extrapolated to the population level. The consequences of these studies and their impact on the assessment of risk will be discussed. An important message is that not all organismal or sub-organismal responses that are currently measured are relevant for protecting......Environmental monitoring of the Great Lakes and elsewhere has detected the presence of a wide variety of chemicals which has raised concern that these chemicals pose risks to resident species. Sediments are of particular interest due to their tendency to accumulate hydrophobic and persistent...

  12. Chemical Solutions of Fire Protection Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhitova, L.M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern approaches to the creation of fire protective coatings by modifying intumescent systems by nanomaterials with study of the chemical reaction mechanisms under the high temperatures influence were considered. A systematic study of the interactions of components of polyphosphate type intumescent blend were carried out, a well-defined correlations between the directions of chemical processes and fire retardant properties of intumescent coatings were found. Efficient ways to simultaneous increase of fireprotective efficiency and performance characteristics of intumescent coatings (operatin life, resistance to environmental factors and bioсontamination were proposed. The results of fundamental research allowed to develop new formulations of flame retardant compositions, whose properties have been confirmed by tests in accordance with existing standardized methods, these results were introduced into production.

  13. Heat stress in chemical protective clothing: Porosity and vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Hartog, E.A. den; Martini, S.

    2011-01-01

    Heat strain in chemical protective clothing is an important factor in industrial and military practice. Various improvements to the clothing to alleviate strain while maintaining protection have been attempted. More recently, selectively permeable membranes have been introduced to improve protection

  14. Defining food sampling strategy for chemical risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wesolek, Nathalie; Roudot, Alain-Claude

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Collection of accurate and reliable data is a prerequisite for informed risk assessment and risk management. For chemical contaminants in food, contamination assessments enable consumer protection and exposure assessments. And yet, the accuracy of a contamination assessment depends on both chemical analysis and sampling plan performance. A sampling plan is always used when the contamination level of a food lot is evaluated, due to the fact that the whole lot can not be...

  15. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

    1984-08-01

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.

  16. Assessment of chemicals in construction products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Hanne; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2000-01-01

    The building sector uses a lot of products (several thousands) and many of these contain chemicals, some of which have harmful effects on human and environmental health. Due to the restricted knowledge of data, the impacts of chemicals can be overlooked e.g. in eco-profiles of building elements....... The reasons for that are lacks of product-specific emissions by manufacturing of chemical products, e.g. waterproofing systems and sealants. Besides, most LCA-models do not include assessments of emissions in working environment, in indoor environment or from disposal processes. It was therefore...... in the project Assessment of Chemicals in Construction Products decided to adapt an existing score method for assessing the chemicals. As the European countries had agreed on a score Method for Risk Ranking chemicals (EURAM), it was decided to use this method to assess chemicals in construction products for two...

  17. [Sanitary and chemical protection during the Great Patriotic War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imangulov, R G; Grebeniuk, A N; Rybalko, V M; Nosov, A V

    2011-05-01

    During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) there was a real danger of use by German armies of the chemical weapon against staff of Red Army. However German command didn't risked to go on conducting large-scale chemical war against the USSR that rescued from painful death millions person. A principal cause of this decision was well organized and technically provided system of antigas protection in Red Army, including precisely organized actions of sanitary-chemical protection, qualitative preparation of military doctors on these questions and presence at them effective antidotes and other means of treatment of injuries by fighting poison gases.

  18. Risk assessment of plant protection products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel provides independent scientific advice in the field of risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs, pesticides. Since its establishment in 2003 under Regulation (EC No 178/2002, it has delivered a series of scientific outputs in support of evaluation of pesticide active substances, establishing scientific principles and guidance documents in the field of pesticide risk assessment and in support of decision making of European Union (EU law makers. Next to a series of scientific opinions evaluating specific adverse effects of PPPs for human health (like for instance carcinogenicity the Panel also delivered scientific opinions on general principles in the field of human health risk assessment (like reference value setting and is, in particular over the last years, very much engaged in development of methodologies to meet new challenges in regulatory risk assessments such as assessment of toxicity of pesticide metabolites and potential cumulative effects of pesticides to human health. Fate, behaviour and transformation of pesticides after their application and consequent release to the environment are a major aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The PPR Panel has achieved major accomplishments by delivering guidance and scientific opinions on degradation in soil, exposure of soil organisms and assessment of environmental risks by use of pesticides in greenhouses or grown under cover. A series of scientific opinions have been delivered also in the field of environmental risk assessment of pesticides. Scientific output covered specific issues arising in the peer review of specific active substances, revision of data requirements, development of risk assessment methodologies and the development of guidance documents. A major milestone of the PPR Panel was the development of the methodological framework for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk

  19. Biodiversity Risk Assessment of Protected Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalija Rudzkienė

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems are characterised by the most abundant biodiversity because there are the best conditions for existence of various species of plants, animals and various other organisms there. Generally, in the last decades a lot of attention is given to biodiversity, and scientific research draws attention to an increasing loss of biodiversity. Biodiversity measurements are needed in order to understand biodiversity changes and to control them. Measurements and assessments of biodiversity of ecosystems reveal the condition of an ecosystem of a certain territory as well as create the basis for a strategy of preserving separate species. A lot of indices for assessing biodiversity risk have been created in the last decades. Integrated indices are composed when joining indices, and one of them is the integrated biodiversity risk assessment index NABRAI (National Biodiversity Risk Assessment Index. This article analyses the principles of creating biodiversity risk indices, possible alternatives of components (variables of biodiversity resources, impact and response indices, and their suitability at the national level. Assessment and ranking methodology, adapted for assessment of biodiversity risk of local protected territories and for ranking of territories, is presented. Report data of directorates of Lithuanian national and regional parks are used for the analysis, as well as the data served as a basis to calculate integrated biodiversity risk indices of several protected territories of Lithuania.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.65.3.4478

  20. Assessing the protection of the nanomaterial workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul A; Iavicoli, Ivo; Rantanen, Jorma H; Dahmann, Dirk; Iavicoli, Sergio; Pipke, Rüdiger; Guseva Canu, Irina; Boccuni, Fabio; Ricci, Maximo; Polci, Maria Letizia; Sabbioni, Enrico; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Mantovani, Elvio

    2016-09-01

    Responsible development of any technology, including nanotechnology, requires protecting workers, the first people to be exposed to the products of the technology. In the case of nanotechnology, this is difficult to achieve because in spite of early evidence raising health and safety concerns, there are uncertainties about hazards and risks. The global response to these concerns has been the issuance by authoritative agencies of precautionary guidance to strictly control exposures to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). This commentary summarizes discussions at the "Symposium on the Health Protection of Nanomaterial Workers" held in Rome (25 and 26 February 2015). There scientists and practitioners from 11 countries took stock of what is known about hazards and risks resulting from exposure to ENMs, confirmed that uncertainties still exist, and deliberated on what it would take to conduct a global assessment of how well workers are being protected from potentially harmful exposures.

  1. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  2. Respiratory Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Prasad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents pose unavoidable threat, both to soldiers and civilians.Exposure to such deadly agents amidst the CBW agents contaminated environment can be avoided bytaking proper protective measures. Respiratory protection is indispensable when the soldiers or civiliansare surrounded by such deadly environment as contamination-free air is needed for respiration purposes.In this context, an attempt has been made to review the literature for the past five decades on developmentof various protective devices for respiratory protection against aerosols, gases, and vapours of CBWagents. This review covers structural, textural, and adsorption properties of materials used in gas filtersand mechanical filters for the removal of CBW agents.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.686-697, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1692

  3. Protective effect of silymarin against chemical-induced cardiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Marjan Razavi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac disorders remain one of the most important causes of death in the world. Oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the molecular mechanisms involved in drug-induced cardiac toxicity. Recently, several natural products have been utilized in different studies with the aim to protect the progression of oxidative stress-induced cardiac disorders. There is a large body of evidence that administration of antioxidants may be useful in ameliorating cardiac toxicity. Silymarin, a polyphenolic flavonoid has been shown to have utility in several cardiovascular disorders. In this review, various studies in scientific databases regarding the preventive effects of silymarin against cardiotoxicity induced by chemicals were introduced. Although there are many studies representing the valuable effects of silymarin in different diseases, the number of researches relating to the possible cardiac protective effects of silymarin against drugs induced toxicity is rather limited. Results of these studies show that silymarin has a broad spectrum of cardiac protective activity against toxicity induced by some chemicals including metals, environmental pollutants, oxidative agents and anticancer drugs. Further studies are needed to establish the utility of silymarin in protection against cardiac toxicity.

  4. Structure activity relationships to assess new chemicals under TSCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auletta, A.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), manufacturers must notify the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 90 days before manufacturing, processing, or importing a new chemical substance. This is referred to as a premanufacture notice (PMN). The PMN must contain certain information including chemical identity, production volume, proposed uses, estimates of exposure and release, and any health or environmental test data that are available to the submitter. Because there is no explicit statutory authority that requires testing of new chemicals prior to their entry into the market, most PMNs are submitted with little or no data. As a result, EPA has developed special techniques for hazard assessment of PMN chemicals. These include (1) evaluation of available data on the chemical itself, (2) evaluation of data on analogues of the PMN, or evaluation of data on metabolites or analogues of metabolites of the PMN, (3) use of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), and (4) knowledge and judgement of scientific assessors in the interpretation and integration of the information developed in the course of the assessment. This approach to evaluating potential hazards of new chemicals is used to identify those that are most in need of addition review of further testing. It should not be viewed as a replacement for testing. 4 tabs.

  5. Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Holford, D.J.

    1992-02-01

    Radioactive waste exists at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in a variety of locations, including subsurface grout and tank farms, solid waste burial grounds, and contaminated soil sites. Some of these waste sites may need to be isolated from percolating water to minimize the potential for transport of the waste to the ground water, which eventually discharges to the Columbia River. Multilayer protective barriers have been proposed as a means of limiting the flow of water through the waste sites (DOE 1987). A multiyear research program (managed jointly by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE) is aimed at assessing the performance of these barriers. One aspect of this program involves the use of computer models to predict barrier performance. Three modeling studies have already been conducted and a test plan was produced. The simulation work reported here was conducted by PNL and extends the previous modeling work. The purpose of this report are to understand phenomena that have been observed in the field and to provide information that can be used to improve hydrologic modeling of the protective barrier. An improved modeling capability results in better estimates of barrier performance. Better estimates can be used to improve the design of barriers and the assessment of their long-term performance.

  6. Orion Spacecraft MMOD Protection Design and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, William; Miller, Joshua; Deighton, Kevin; Foreman, Cory; Yasensky, John; Christiansen, Eric; Hyde, James; Nahra, Henry

    2009-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft will replace the Space Shuttle Orbiter for American and international partner access to the International Space Station by 2015 and, afterwards, for access to the moon for initial sorties and later for extend outpost visits as part of the Constellation Exploration Initiative. This work describes some of the efforts being undertaken to ensure that Orion design will meet or exceed the stringent MicroMeteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) requirements set out by NASA when exposed to the environments encountered with these missions. This paper will provide a brief overview of the approaches being used to provide MMOD protection to the Orion vehicle and to assess the spacecraft for compliance to the Constellation Program s MMOD requirements.

  7. Animal-Free Chemical Safety Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D Loizou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of the Internet of Things and the global popularity and remarkable decline in cost of the mobile phone is driving the digital transformation of medical practice. The rapidly maturing digital, nonmedical world of mobile (wireless devices, cloud computing and social networking is coalescing with the emerging digital medical world of omics data, biosensors and advanced imaging which offers the increasingly realistic prospect of personalized medicine. Described as a potential seismic shift from the current healthcare model to a wellness paradigm that is predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory, this change is based on the development of increasingly sophisticated biosensors which can track and measure key biochemical variables in people. Additional key drivers in this shift are metabolomic and proteomic signatures, which are increasingly being reported as pre-symptomatic, diagnostic and prognostic of toxicity and disease. These advancements also have profound implications for toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. An approach based primarily on human in vivo and high-throughput in vitro human cell-line data is a distinct possibility. This would transform current chemical safety assessment practise which operates in a human data poor to a human data rich environment. This could also lead to a seismic shift from the current animal-based to an animal-free chemical safety assessment paradigm.

  8. Animal-Free Chemical Safety Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, George D

    2016-01-01

    The exponential growth of the Internet of Things and the global popularity and remarkable decline in cost of the mobile phone is driving the digital transformation of medical practice. The rapidly maturing digital, non-medical world of mobile (wireless) devices, cloud computing and social networking is coalescing with the emerging digital medical world of omics data, biosensors and advanced imaging which offers the increasingly realistic prospect of personalized medicine. Described as a potential "seismic" shift from the current "healthcare" model to a "wellness" paradigm that is predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory, this change is based on the development of increasingly sophisticated biosensors which can track and measure key biochemical variables in people. Additional key drivers in this shift are metabolomic and proteomic signatures, which are increasingly being reported as pre-symptomatic, diagnostic and prognostic of toxicity and disease. These advancements also have profound implications for toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. An approach based primarily on human in vivo and high-throughput in vitro human cell-line data is a distinct possibility. This would transform current chemical safety assessment practice which operates in a human "data poor" to a human "data rich" environment. This could also lead to a seismic shift from the current animal-based to an animal-free chemical safety assessment paradigm.

  9. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-05-27

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and

  10. Chemical reactivity assessments in R&D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, David

    2004-11-11

    The evaluation of reactive chemical hazards at the pilot and manufacturing scale, using laboratory testing, is increasingly used and has been well documented. However, reactive chemical hazard evaluation at the R&D scale presents special challenges. The typical hazard testing program requires a significant amount of sample, often takes time (>3 days) to complete, and is can be quite costly. On the other hand, the synthesis of new molecules in the R&D environment often produces only a few grams, occurs quickly (R&D stage of product development to define the critical limits of temperature, pressure, concentration, and safe dosing rates of processes it is possible to identify the potential hazards of the planned synthesis. This paper describes a staged approach for chemical reactivity hazard evaluation and assessment applicable to an R&D environment. We will describe these initial phases of the R&D hazard evaluation process that rely on only data that can be obtained from the open literature. We will also indicate how the need for additional assessments can be determined from this initial hazard review.

  11. Is an ecosystem services-based approach developed for setting specific protection goals for plant protection products applicable to other chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Lorraine; Jackson, Mathew; Whale, Graham; Brown, A Ross; Hamer, Mick; Solga, Andreas; Kabouw, Patrick; Woods, Richard; Marshall, Stuart

    2017-02-15

    Clearly defined protection goals specifying what to protect, where and when, are required for designing scientifically sound risk assessments and effective risk management of chemicals. Environmental protection goals specified in EU legislation are defined in general terms, resulting in uncertainty in how to achieve them. In 2010, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a framework to identify more specific protection goals based on ecosystem services potentially affected by plant protection products. But how applicable is this framework to chemicals with different emission scenarios and receptor ecosystems? Four case studies used to address this question were: (i) oil refinery waste water exposure in estuarine environments; (ii) oil dispersant exposure in aquatic environments; (iii) down the drain chemicals exposure in a wide range of ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic); (iv) persistent organic pollutant exposure in remote (pristine) Arctic environments. A four-step process was followed to identify ecosystems and services potentially impacted by chemical emissions and to define specific protection goals. Case studies demonstrated that, in principle, the ecosystem services concept and the EFSA framework can be applied to derive specific protection goals for a broad range of chemical exposure scenarios. By identifying key habitats and ecosystem services of concern, the approach offers the potential for greater spatial and temporal resolution, together with increased environmental relevance, in chemical risk assessments. With modifications including improved clarity on terminology/definitions and further development/refinement of the key concepts, we believe the principles of the EFSA framework could provide a methodical approach to the identification and prioritization of ecosystems, ecosystem services and the service providing units that are most at risk from chemical exposure.

  12. Chemical vapor deposition coatings for oxidation protection of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnington, G. R.; Robinson, J. C.; Clark, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the oxidation protection afforded to Ti-14Al-21Nb and Ti-14Al-23Nb-2V titanium aluminides and Ti-17Mo-3Al-3Nb titanium alloy by aluminum-boron-silicon and boron-silicon coatings are presented. These coatings are applied by a combination of physical vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The former is for the application of aluminum, and the latter is for codeposition of boron and silicon. Coating thickness is in the range of 2 to 7 microns, and coating weights are 0.6 to 2.0 mg/sq cm. Oxidation testing was performed in air at temperatures to 1255 K in both static and hypersonic flow environments. The degree of oxidation protection provided by the coatings is determined from weight change measurements made during the testing and post test compositional analyses. Temperature-dependent total normal emittance data are also presented for four coating/substrate combinations. Both types of coatings provided excellent oxidation protection for the exposure conditions of this investigation. Total normal emittances were greater than 0.80 in all cases.

  13. Pesticide assessment: Protecting public health on the home turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Meg; Walker, C Robin; van der Jagt, Richard Hc; Claman, Paul

    2006-04-01

    Pesticide regulation is examined in the context of Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency's assessment of the chlorophenoxy herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for turf. 2,4-D is the most common herbicide used to kill weeds in grass.The medical literature does not uniformly indicate harms from herbicides. However, the balance of epidemiological research suggests that 2,4-D can be persuasively linked to cancers, neurological impairment and reproductive problems. These may arise from 2,4-D itself, from breakdown products or dioxin contamination, or from a combination of chemicals.Regulators rely largely on toxicology, but experiments may not replicate exposures from 2,4-D application to lawns because environmental breakdown products (eg, 2,4-dichlorophenol) may not accumulate and selected herbicides are possibly less contaminated. Dioxins are bioaccumulative chemicals that may cause cancer, harm neurological development, impair reproduction, disrupt the endocrine system and alter immune function. No dioxin analyses were submitted to the Pest Management Regulatory Agency, and the principal contaminants of 2,4-D are not among the 17 congeners covered in pesticide regulation. Independent assessment of all dioxins is needed, in tissues and in the environment.The 2,4-D assessment does not approach standards for ethics, rigour or transparency in medical research. Canada needs a stronger regulator for pesticides. Potentially toxic chemicals should not be registered when more benign solutions exist, risks are not clearly quantifiable or potential risks outweigh benefits. Until landscaping pesticides are curtailed nationally, local bylaws and Quebec's Pesticide Code are prudent measures to protect public health. Physicians have a role in public education regarding pesticides.

  14. Assessment in child protection : A comparative study Norway - England

    OpenAIRE

    Samsonsen, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the phenomenon of assessment in child protection by comparing two different assessment practices, the Norwegian and the English. Additional aims have been to generate knowledge by interpreting findings from the perspectives of professionals and parents who have experienced assessment, and to contribute to identify central aspects of the use of professional judgement in child protection assessments. The guiding research ques...

  15. Chemical vapor deposited silica coatings for solar mirror protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, Daniel A.; Dever, Therese M.; Banholzer, William F.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of techniques is available to apply protective coatings to oxidation susceptible spacecraft components, and each has associated advantages and disadvantages. Film applications by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has the advantage of being able to be applied conformally to objects of irregular shape. For this reason, a study was made of the oxygen plasma durability of thin film (less than 5000 A) silicon dioxide coatings applied by CVD. In these experiments, such coatings were applied to silver mirrors, which are strongly subject to oxidation, and which are proposed for use on the space station solar dynamic power system. Results indicate that such coatings can provide adequate protection without affecting the reflectance of the mirror. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that oxidation of the silver layer did occur at stress crack locations, but this did not affect the measured solar reflectances. Oxidation of the silver did not proceed beyond the immediate location of the crack. Such stress cracks did not occur in thinner silica films, and hence such films would be desirable for this application.

  16. Hazard assessment of chemical contaminants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poels, C L; Veerkamp, W

    1992-12-01

    Disposal practices, accidental spills, leakages and local aerial deposition occurring in the past have led to local soil pollution in many cases. Especially in situations where people live on or nearby such locations this has created concern about possible adverse effects on human health. A stepped approach to the hazard assessment of polluted soil, as developed by a Task Force from the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre (ECETOC), is described. In an early phase in the assessment process the potential exposure of humans is estimated. The Human Exposure to Soil Pollutants (HESP) model can be applied for this purpose. The model calculates the total exposure of adults and children resulting from pollutants present in soil, via 10 different exposure routes. The estimated exposure can be used to indicate the potential significant exposure routes and to carry out a preliminary hazard assessment. The model is also able to predict pollutant concentrations in soil which do not exceed accepted maximum exposure levels for humans in both standardised and site specific situations. The stepped approach is cost-effective and provides an objective basis for decisions and priority setting.

  17. Clinical Considerations in the Assessment of Adolescent Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Ken

    1990-01-01

    Discusses relevant research findings of clinical assessment of adolescent chemical dependency so that service providers can better address these concerns. Three major issues are discussed: the definition of adolescent chemical dependency, clinical domains of assessment (chemical use problem severity, precipitating and perpetuating risk factors,…

  18. Overview of international programmes on the assessment of existing chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel AP van; CSR

    1999-01-01

    This overview presents the major international programmes in which assessment of chemicals takes place. The appendix lists the chemicals assessed in the various programmes and sites the planning for the coming years. The overlap with the Dutch policy on chemicals is also overviewed.

  19. Toxicokinetic models and related tools in environmental risk assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Audrey; Brochot, Céline; Dorne, Jean-Lou; Quignot, Nadia; Bois, Frédéric Y; Beaudouin, Rémy

    2017-02-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals for the protection of ecosystems integrity is a key regulatory and scientific research field which is undergoing constant development in modelling approaches and harmonisation with human risk assessment. This review focuses on state-of-the-art toxicokinetic tools and models that have been applied to terrestrial and aquatic species relevant to environmental risk assessment of chemicals. Both empirical and mechanistic toxicokinetic models are discussed using the results of extensive literature searches together with tools and software for their calibration and an overview of applications in environmental risk assessment. These include simple tools such as one-compartment models, multi-compartment models to physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models, mostly available for aquatic species such as fish species and a number of chemical classes including plant protection products, metals, persistent organic pollutants, nanoparticles. Data gaps and further research needs are highlighted.

  20. Social Assessment of Specially Protected Natural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Viktorovna Mikhailova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to the consideration of functions of specially protected natural areas (SPNA in the development of society seek to determine the size of the territory withdrawn from agricultural use for the purposes of nature conservation; these approaches also aim to evaluate money revenue gained from these territories. However, the influence of SPNA on public life is not reduced to the “monetization” of the territory. People who live near conservation areas and experience the advantages (disadvantages of such neighbourhood should be the focus of the study of the social role of protected areas. The social role of SPNA in the life of local communities in the Arkhangelsk Oblast and the Karelia Republic was identified with the help of public opinion survey. In total 575 people participated in the survey. The research was carried out in the settlements located within the boundaries of Kenozersky and Vodlozersky national parks, and near Shilovsky Nature Reserve. When measuring the impact of conservation areas on the society of the neighbouring settlements, the authors define the axiological, emotional-and-psychological, activityand-regulatory, economic, forecasting and integrated components. The research findings show that the residents acknowledge the conservation value of protected areas; many of the inhabitants of adjacent territories do not experience inconveniences in connection with the special environmental regime, they earn income connected to the operation of SPNA; there is a positive attitude towards the activity of SPNA. If these areas cease functioning, then one third of the respondents expect negative changes in their life. Specially protected natural areas contribute to the socio-cultural and spiritual development of the local community to a greater extent in comparison with its socio-economic development. The presence of SPNA on the territory of the municipality opens up opportunities for new types of economic activities, provides

  1. The applicability of chemical alternatives assessment for engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly;

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case for alternat......The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case...... for alternatives assessment approaches as they can be considered both emerging “chemicals” of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomaterials to traditional chemicals or to other nanomaterials is challenging and critical elements...... in chemical hazard and exposure assessment may have to be fundamentally altered to sufficiently address nanomaterials. The aim of this paper is to assess the overall applicability of alternatives assessment methods for nanomaterials and outline recommendations to enhance their use in this context. This paper...

  2. Risk assessment of endocrine active chemicals: identifying chemicals of regulatory concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Remi; Fegert, Ivana; Gross, Melanie; Lewis, Dick; Weltje, Lennart; Weyers, Arnd; Wheeler, James R; Galay-Burgos, Malyka

    2012-10-01

    The European regulation on plant protection products (1107/2009) (EC, 2009a), the revisions to the biocides Directive (COM[2009]267) (EC, 2009b), and the regulation concerning chemicals (Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 'REACH') (EC.2006) only support the marketing and use of chemical products on the basis that they do not induce endocrine disruption in humans or wildlife species. In the absence of agreed guidance on how to identify and evaluate endocrine activity and disruption within these pieces of legislation a European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) task force was formed to provide scientific criteria that may be used within the context of these three legislative documents. The resulting ECETOC technical report (ECETOC, 2009a) and the associated workshop (ECETOC, 2009b) presented a science-based concept on how to identify endocrine activity and disrupting properties of chemicals for both human health and the environment. The synthesis of the technical report and the workshop report was published by the ECETOC task force (Bars et al., 2011a,b). Specific scientific criteria for the determination of endocrine activity and disrupting properties that integrate information from both regulatory (eco)toxicity studies and mechanistic/screening studies were proposed. These criteria combined the nature of the adverse effects detected in studies which give concern for endocrine toxicity with an understanding of the mode of action of toxicity so that adverse effects can be explained scientifically. A key element in the data evaluation is the consideration of all available information in a weight-of-evidence approach. However, to be able to discriminate chemicals with endocrine properties of low concern from those of higher concern (for regulatory purposes), the task force recognised that the concept needed further refinement. Following a discussion of the key factors at a second workshop of invited regulatory, academic and industry scientists

  3. Possibility of the development of a Serbian protection system against chemical accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan R. Inđić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a draft of a system model for responding in case of chemical accidents in accordance with the current legislation regarding the environment protection, the structure and elements of the existing response system in case of chemical accidents, other works dealing with the issue as well as the prospects planned by those responsible for the environmental protection. The paper discuss the possibilities of different institutions and agencies of the Republic of Serbia to engage in specialized methods of cooperation and protection against chemical hazards in accordance with Article X of the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.

  4. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency strategic plan for evaluating the toxicity of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Michael; Kavlock, Robert; Zenick, Hal; Kramer, Melissa

    2010-02-01

    In the 2007 report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences envisioned a major transition in toxicity testing from cumbersome, expensive, and lengthy in vivo testing with qualitative endpoints, to in vitro robotic high-throughput screening with mechanistic quantitative parameters. Recognizing the need for agencies to partner and collaborate to ensure global harmonization, standardization, quality control and information sharing, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is leading by example and has established an intra-agency Future of Toxicity Testing Workgroup (FTTW). This workgroup has produced an ambitious blueprint for incorporating this new scientific paradigm to change the way chemicals are screened and evaluated for toxicity. Four main components of this strategy are discussed, as follows: (1) the impact and benefits of various types of regulatory activities, (2) chemical screening and prioritization, (3) toxicity pathway-based risk assessment, and (4) institutional transition. The new paradigm is predicated on the discovery of molecular perturbation pathways at the in vitro level that predict adverse health effects from xenobiotics exposure, and then extrapolating those events to the tissue, organ, or whole organisms by computational models. Research on these pathways will be integrated and compiled using the latest technology with the cooperation of global agencies, industry, and other stakeholders. The net result will be that chemical toxicity screening will become more efficient and cost-effective, include real-world exposure assessments, and eliminate currently used uncertainty factors.

  5. Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

    1999-05-07

    Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

  6. Protecting Children from Chemical Exposure: Social Work and U.S. Social Welfare Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Mary E.; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2003-01-01

    Defines chemical contamination and reviews data regarding the ubiquity of toxic chemicals. Describes major risk pathways to fetuses and children at different developmental stages and discusses evidence regarding exposure and harm to children from chemical contamination. Reviews the roles for social workers in protecting current and future…

  7. 75 FR 18850 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel... commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), Sensitive Security... Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS), 6 CFR part 27, require high-risk chemical facilities to...

  8. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops.

  9. Risk assessment and emerging chemicals hazards in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Moscato

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The main beliefs relating to the risk assessment of chemicals in foods, new chemicals in raw material as well as in food processing are briefly presented. Evaluation reviews of representative chemicals found in traditional and novel foods are given. Old and new processes or newly recognized compounds, that require careful assessment in terms of their potential human health impact, are discussed. As example of processing-related contaminants, a risk assessment for acrylamide, is described, providing two different approaches in food safety assessment and the management of carcinogenic contaminants.

  10. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cletus Uche Eze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation.

  11. Material Development Study for a Hazardous Chemical Protective Clothing Outfit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    chemicals was technical grade or better (>90%) and were used without further purification. Specialty chemicals including formuations such as agri- cultural...polycarbon- ate. Teflon yarn is available for sewing seams. Bonding patches over the seams would be required to cover holes left from sewing. Because

  12. Tools and perspectives for assessing chemical mixtures and multiple stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Ragas, Ad M. J.; Holmstrup, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the most important insights and findings of the EU NoMiracle project with a focus on (1) risk assessment of chemical mixtures, (2) combinations of chemical and natural stressors, and (3) the receptor-oriented approach in cumulative risk assessment. The project aimed a...... is suggested. The results are discussed in the light of recent developments in risk assessment of mixtures and multiple stressors....

  13. Ecosystem services and the protection, restoration, and management of ecosystems exposed to chemical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Lorraine

    2013-04-01

    Ecosystem services-the benefits people obtain from ecosystem structures and processes-are essential for human survival and well-being. Chemicals are also an essential component of modern life; however, they may cause adverse ecological effects and reduce ecosystem service provision. Environmental policy makers are increasingly adopting the ecosystem services concept, but applying this approach to the protection, restoration, and management of ecosystems requires the development of new understanding, tools, and frameworks. There is an urgent need to understand and predict the effect of single and multiple stressors on ecosystem service delivery across different spatial scales (local to global), to develop indicators that can be used to quantify and map services and identify synergies and trade-offs between them, to establish protection goals and restoration targets defined in terms of the types and levels of service delivery required, and to develop approaches for the assessment and management of chemical risk to ecosystem services that consider the whole life cycle of products and processes. These are major research challenges for the environmental science community in general and for ecotoxicologists and risk assessors in particular.

  14. Should the scope of human mixture risk assessment span legislative/regulatory silos for chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard M; Martin, Olwenn V; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Current chemicals regulation operates almost exclusively on a chemical-by-chemical basis, however there is concern that this approach may not be sufficiently protective if two or more chemicals have the same toxic effect. Humans are indisputably exposed to more than one chemical at a time, for example to the multiple chemicals found in food, air and drinking water, and in household and consumer products, and in cosmetics. Assessment of cumulative risk to human health and/or the environment from multiple chemicals and routes can be done in a mixture risk assessment (MRA). Whilst there is a broad consensus on the basic science of mixture toxicology, the path to regulatory implementation of MRA within chemical risk assessment is less clear. In this discussion piece we pose an open question: should the scope of human MRA cross legislative remits or 'silos'? We define silos as, for instance, legislation that defines risk assessment practice for a subset of chemicals, usually on the basis of substance/product, media or process orientation. Currently any form of legal mandate for human MRA in the EU is limited to only a few pieces of legislation. We describe two lines of evidence, illustrated with selected examples, that are particularly pertinent to this question: 1) evidence that mixture effects have been shown for chemicals regulated in different silos and 2) evidence that humans are co-exposed to chemicals from different silos. We substantiate the position that, because there is no reason why chemicals allocated to specific regulatory silos would have non-overlapping risk profiles, then there is also no reason to expect that MRA limited only to chemicals within one silo can fully capture the risk that may be present to human consumers. Finally, we discuss possible options for implementation of MRA and we hope to prompt wider discussion of this issue.

  15. Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alha, Katariina

    2004-01-01

    Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

  16. Chemical conversion coating for protecting magnesium alloys from corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Gaurang; Allen, Fred M.; Skandan, Ganesh; Hornish, Peter; Jain, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A chromate-free, self-healing conversion coating solution for magnesium alloy substrates, composed of 10-20 wt. % Mg(NO.sub.3).sub.2.6H.sub.2O, 1-5 wt. % Al(NO.sub.3).sub.3.9H.sub.2O, and less than 1 wt. % of [V.sub.10O.sub.28].sup.6- or VO.sub.3.sup.- dissolved in water. The corrosion resistance offered by the resulting coating is in several hundreds of hours in salt-spray testing. This prolonged corrosion protection is attributed to the creation of a unique structure and morphology of the conversion coating that serves as a barrier coating with self-healing properties. Hydroxoaluminates form the backbone of the barrier protection offered while the magnesium hydroxide domains facilitate the "slow release" of vanadium compounds as self-healing moieties to defect sites, thus providing active corrosion protection.

  17. Life Cycle assessment of basic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    in the survey did not think LCA is sufficiently fit to support strategic decision making. Because, the chemical industry is a major supplier to other product systems the major incentive to perform LCAs has been to comply with customer requirements. An LCA may not always need to be very detailed to fulfil......, the most important application are in research and development to improve the environmental performance of processes and products, and as support for strategic decision making. However, the coherence between LCA and decision making needs to be addressed more specifically because most companies...... accordance between the potential impact predicted in the LCA and the occurrence of actual impacts. The interpretation phase of the LCA checks the completeness and consistency of the results in relation to the goal and scope. LCA is mainly applied for internal purposes in the chemical industry. Typically...

  18. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and public health protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Brown, T R; Doan, L L

    2012-01-01

    exposures to have potent and irreversible effects. Finally, with regard to the current program designed to detect putative EDC, namely, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program, we offer recommendations for strengthening this program through the incorporation of basic endocrine principles to promote......An endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) is an exogenous chemical, or mixture of chemicals, that can interfere with any aspect of hormone action. The potential for deleterious effects of EDC must be considered relative to the regulation of hormone synthesis, secretion, and actions and the variability...... in regulation of these events across the life cycle. The developmental age at which EDC exposures occur is a critical consideration in understanding their effects. Because endocrine systems exhibit tissue-, cell-, and receptor-specific actions during the life cycle, EDC can produce complex, mosaic effects...

  19. The applicability of chemical alternatives assessment for engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly; Tickner, Joel; Ellenbecker, Michael; Baun, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case for alternatives assessment approaches, because they can be considered both emerging "chemicals" of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomaterials to traditional chemicals or to other nanomaterials is challenging, and critical elements in chemical hazard and exposure assessment may have to be fundamentally altered to sufficiently address nanomaterials. The aim of this paper is to assess the overall applicability of alternatives assessment methods for nanomaterials and to outline recommendations to enhance their use in this context. The present paper focuses on the adaptability of existing hazard and exposure assessment approaches to engineered nanomaterials as well as strategies to design inherently safer nanomaterials. We argue that alternatives assessment for nanomaterials is complicated by the sheer number of nanomaterials possible. As a result, the inclusion of new data tools that can efficiently and effectively evaluate nanomaterials as substitutes is needed to strengthen the alternatives assessment process. However, we conclude that with additional tools to enhance traditional hazard and exposure assessment modules of alternatives assessment, such as the use of mechanistic toxicity screens and control banding tools, alternatives assessment can be adapted to evaluate engineered nanomaterials as potential substitutes for chemicals of concern and to ensure safer nanomaterials are incorporated in the design of new products. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:177-187. © 2016 SETAC.

  20. A Chemically Synthesized Capture Agent Enables the Selective, Sensitive, and Robust Electrochemical Detection of Anthrax Protective Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    A Chemically Synthesized Capture Agent Enables the Selective, Sensitive, and Robust Electrochemical Detection of Anthrax Protective Antigen...A Chemically Synthesized Capture Agent Enables the Selective, Sensitive, and Robust Electrochemical Detection of Anthrax Protective Antigen...AND SUBTITLE A Chemically Synthesized Capture Agent Enables the Selective, Sensitive, and Robust Electrochemical Detection of Anthrax Protective

  1. Risk assessment and management of new and existing chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C.J. van; Bro-Rasmussen, F.; Feijtel, T.C.J.; Arndt, R.; Bussian, B.M.; Calamari, D.; Glynn, P.; Grandy, N.J.; Hansen, B.; Hemmen, J.J.van; Hurst, P.; King, N.; Koch, R.; Müller, M.; Solbé, J.F.; Speijers, G.A.B.; Vermeire, T.

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the recently developed risk assessment methodologies for new and existing chemicals in the European Communities. The evaluation also included the methodologies to prioritize chemicals and procedures for risk management, i.e., the (draft) guidance document for the developmen

  2. Reusable neoprene jacket protects parts for chemical milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Reusable neoprene jacket is used to prepare metal part or panel for chemical milling. Jacket covers back and upper rim of part and is sealed before the masking solution is applied to surface to be milled. This reduces amount of masking material required for milling identical parts and increases production.

  3. Polymeric Materials for Protection Against Chemical and Biological Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-30

    the demand for a safe antimicrobial and deodorizing treatment, chemical methods have been proposed using as an antimicrobial component, halamines...in an organic solvent such as carbon disulfide, and a Friedei-Crafts acylation was performed utilizing acetyl chloride and the catalyst aluminum

  4. A data protection impact assessment methodology for cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefanatou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    We propose a data protection impact assessment (DPIA) method based on suc-cessive questionnaires for an initial screening and for a full screening for a given project. These were tailored to satisfy the needs of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) that intend to process personal data in the cloud. T

  5. Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The methods for the dermal exposure assessment vary in their complexity and are in some sense complementary to each other. The most easy-to-use methods involve a pseudo-skin-approach, such as gloves and removal by washing. In some cases generic modelling appears to be possible. The experimental meth

  6. Portfolios and Assessment of Personal Protective Devices Course Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Negar Assadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Portfolio assessment is one of the new and most accurate assessment methods. The objective of this study was to examine the introduction of portfolios in the assessment of students’ learning in a personal protective devices course. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental study that was conducted using the curriculum of the Ministry of Health for occupational health students from the school of health in Mashhad from 2013-2015. A personal protective devices course was taught and assessed with a modified essay in group A, a portfolio and a modified essay in group B and some tasks and a modified essay in group C. Each group had 35 students. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for comparison of means between groups; in addition, odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated. Results: The total grades of students in the personal protective devices course were calculated, and in group A the mean score was 18.52±2.68, in group B it was 19.71±0.36 and in group C it was 18.93±1.0 (P=0.035. There were some differences between the three groups. Specific lessons, such as those on ear protectors, respiratory protector calculation and eye protectors were promoted, and the mean grades for these lessons were higher in group B, which used portfolio assessment. Conclusion: According to the results, portfolio assessment might be useful for the evaluation of undergraduate students’ learning in practical aspects of personal protective devices.

  7. Chemical and radiological vulnerability assessment in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities and towns are faced with various types of threat from the extraordinary events involving chemical and radiological materials as exemplified by major chemical accidents, radiological incidents, fires, explosions, traffic accidents, terrorist attacks, etc. On the other hand, many sensitive or vulnerable assets exist within cities, such as: settlements, infrastructures, hospitals, schools, churches, businesses, government, and others. Besides emergency planning, the land use planning also represents an important tool for prevention or reduction of damages on people and other assets due to unwanted events. This paper considers development of method for inclusion vulnerability assessment in land use planning with objective to assess and limit the consequences in cities of likely accidents involving hazardous materials. We made preliminary assessment of criticality and vulnerability of the assets within Belgrade city area in respect to chemical sites and transportation roads that can be exposed to chemical accidents, or terrorist attacks.

  8. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of

  9. Human exposure assessment: Approaches for chemicals (REACH) and biocides (BPD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.

    2008-01-01

    The approaches that are indicated in the various guidance documents for the assessment of human exposure for chemicals and biocides are summarised. This reflects the TNsG (Technical notes for Guidance) version 2: human exposure assessment for biocidal products (1) under the BPD (Biocidal Products Di

  10. Early Development of a Hazardous Chemical Protective Ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    hydrogen chloride (or their acids) upon contact with air. Since these reaction products were already included in the listing of 199, it was concluded...exposure to fluosulfonic acid (FSA). For the remaining 37 chemicals, there was a varying level of reaction , as indicated in Table 8. 3) Seventy-one...38 IR 1.7 4-Chloro-o-Toluidine nd nd ad SC 2.0 Cumene nd ad 78 IR 11.0 Dimethylacetamide nd ad 40 GC 2.0 Di-n-Butyl Amine nd ad nd GC 1.4 o

  11. Assessment of Hazardous Chemicals Risk in Fur Industry in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Vaitelytė

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the research on the possibilities of hazardous chemicals replacement with less hazardous substances. This issue has become of special importance to industrial companies after the adoption of the REACH Regulation. The article examines fur industry and traditional chemicals used in it, namely, sodium dichromate, formaldehyde, and naphthalene. Because of their properties these chemicals are pretending to be included in the REACH Regulation lists of the authorised chemicals. The risks of quasi-materials to the workplaces and the environment have been studied. This research has also looked for the alternatives to hazardous chemicals and has conducted their risk assessment. The analyzed chemicals have been compared with their alternatives with a view of disclosing specific risk reduction.

  12. Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

    2010-01-01

    The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

  13. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  14. Chemical scaffolding: Molecular weaving and functional group protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltchenko, Svetlana

    Two new supported scaffolds have been designed and synthesized. The suggested design of scaffold for molecular weaving is based on the interlacing of long chain molecule grafted onto the surface with probe molecule. The long chain 21-N-ethyl docosenamine and its silane derivatives were synthesized and fully characterized. The silane derivatives were grafted onto mica and silica surfaces. The thiocarbamate method was successfully used for even distribution of (+) and (-) charges on the modified surface. It was found that aminoalkylsilanes self-assemble on the mica surface forming monolayer islands of variable size. It was shown that thin layer chromatography in electric field can be used as an interlacing loom for conformational changes in immobilized layer supramolecular entanglement. Seven new zinc complexes with unsubstituted and substituted triazamacrocycles have been prepared and characterized crystallographically. The formation of mixed complexes with ethanolamine has been investigated with potentiometry. It was found that the coordination environment around zinc influences its binding properties. In a tetrahedral coordination environment zinc bound water was found to be acidic and prevents ethanolamine coordination. Ethanolamine coordination to zinc occurs when coordination environment is octahedral. Protonation and stability constants were obtained for several new complexes. Zinc complex of a pentadentate, triazamacrocycle was successfully attached to chloropropyl coated silica gel forming the protective scaffold.

  15. Influence of Chemical Surface Modification of Woven Fabrics on Ballistic and Stab Protection of Multilayer Packets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GRINEVIČIŪTĖ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve enhanced protective and wear (flexibility, less bulkiness properties of ballistic and stab protecting panels the investigation of chemical surface modification of woven p-aramid fabrics was performed applying different chemical composition shear thickening fluid (STF which improves friction inside fabric structure. For the chemical treatment silicic acid and acrylic dispersion water solutions were used and influence of their different concentrations on panels’ protective properties were investigated. Results of ballistic tests of multilayer protective panel have revealed that shear thickening effect was negligible when shooting at high energy range (E > 440 J. Determination of stab resistance of p-aramid panels has shown that different chemical composition of STFs had different influence on protective properties of the panels. Application of low concentrations of silicic acid determined higher stab resistance values comparing to higher concentrations of acrylic dispersion water solutions. At this stage of research stab tests results as ballistic ones determined that STF application for multilayer p-aramid fabrics protective panels is more efficient at low strike energy levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.3138

  16. Informational uncertainties of risk assessment about accidents of chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An analysis system of informational uncertainties for accidental risk assessment of chemicals is introduced. Statistical test methods and fuzzy sets method can do the quantitative analysis of the input parameters. The uncertainties of the model can be used by quantitative compared method for the leakage accidents of chemicals. The estimation of the leaking time is important for discussing accidental source term. The uncertain analyses of the release accident for pipeline gas (CO) liquid chlorine and liquid propane gas (LPG) have been discussed.

  17. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2013-09-24

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

  18. Integrating exposure into chemical alternatives assessment using a qualitative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, T. E.

    2016-01-01

    Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that is more sustainable...... Sustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher human or environmental...... exposure potential, which could trigger a higher-tiered, more quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered, minimizing the likelihood of regrettable substitution. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical- and product-related exposure information...

  19. Risk assessment of riparian plant invasions into protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Rouget, Mathieu; Richardson, David M

    2007-04-01

    Protected areas are becoming increasingly isolated. River corridors represent crucial links to the surrounding landscape but are also major conduits for invasion of alien species. We developed a framework to assess the risk that alien plants in watersheds adjacent to a protected area will invade the protected area along rivers. The framework combines species- and landscape-level approaches and has five key components: (1) definition of the geographical area of interest, (2) delineation of the domain into ecologically meaningful zones, (3) identification of the appropriate landscape units, (4) categorization of alien species and mapping of their distribution and abundance, and (5) definition of management options. The framework guides the determination of species distribution and abundance through successive, easily followed steps, providing the means for the assessment of areas of concern. We applied the framework to Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa. We recorded 231 invasive alien plant species (of which 79 were major invaders) in the domain. The KNP is facing increasing pressure from alien species in the upper regions of the drainage areas of neighboring watersheds. On the basis of the climatic modeling, we showed that most major riparian invaders have the ability to spread across the KNP should they be transported down the rivers. With this information, KNP managers can identify areas for proactive intervention, monitoring, and resource allocation. Even for a very large protected area such as the KNP, sustainable management of biodiversity will depend heavily on the response of land managers upstream managing alien plants. We suggest that this framework is applicable to plants and other passively dispersed species that invade protected areas situated at the end of a drainage basin.

  20. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

    2004-12-14

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical

  1. Research on effectiveness assessment programs for physical protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Janghoon; Yoo, Hosik; Ham, Taekyu [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    PPS (Physical Protection System) is an integrated set of procedures, installation and human resources to protect valuable assets from physical attack of potential adversaries. Since nuclear facilities or radioactive materials can be attractive targets for terrorists, PPS should be installed and maintained throughout the entire lifecycle of nuclear energy systems. One of key ingredients for effective protection is a reliable assessment procedure of the PPS capability. Due to complexity of possible threat categories and pathways, several pathway analysis programs have been developed to ease analysis or visualization. ASSESS using ASD approach runs fast and adopts a relatively simple modeling process for facility elements. But uncertainty due to assumptions used in modeling might complicate the interpretation of results. On the other hand, 2D pathway program such as TESS can utilize more self-consistent detection probability and delay time since actual pathway on 2D map is available. Also, this pathway visualization helps users understand analysis result more intuitively. But, in general, 2D pathway programs require strong computational power and careful optimization. Another possible difference between two approaches is response force deployment and RFT.

  2. Chemical footprint: a methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Serenella; Goralczyk, Malgorzata

    2013-10-01

    The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 1990s, several other footprints were defined, e.g., carbon and water footprint. These footprints-even though based on a different meaning of "footprint"-integrate life cycle thinking, and focus on some challenging environmental impacts including resource consumption, CO2 emission leading to climate change, and water consumption. However, they usually neglect relevant sources of impacts, as those related to the production and use of chemicals. This article presents and discusses the need and relevance of developing a methodology for assessing the chemical footprint, coupling a life cycle-based approach with methodologies developed in other contexts, such as ERA and sustainability science. Furthermore, different concepts underpin existing footprint and this could be the case also of chemical footprint. At least 2 different approaches and steps to chemical footprint could be envisaged, applicable at the micro- as well as at the meso- and macroscale. The first step (step 1) is related to the account of chemicals use and emissions along the life cycle of a product, sector, or entire economy, to assess potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. The second step (step 2) aims at assessing to which extent actual emission of chemicals harm the ecosystems above their capability to recover (carrying capacity of the system). The latter step might contribute to the wide discussion on planetary boundaries for chemical pollution: the thresholds that should not be surpassed to guarantee a sustainable use of chemicals from an environmental safety perspective. The definition of what the planetary boundaries for chemical pollution are and how the boundaries should be identified is an on-going scientific challenge for ecotoxicology and ecology. In

  3. Dangerous chemical substances – Tools supporting occupational risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Dobrzyńska; Małgorzata Pośniak

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of risk associated with exposure to chemicals in the work environment is a task that still poses a lot of difficulties for the employers. At the same time the probability of adverse health effects faced by an employee as a result of such risks, and the related employer’s material losses should motivate employers to seek effective solutions aimed at assessing the risks and controling them to an acceptable level by the application of appropriate preventive measures. The paper pre...

  4. 78 FR 29375 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... critical infrastructure information not customarily in the public domain and related to the security of... SECURITY Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self- Assessment Questionnaire AGENCY... Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP),...

  5. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...

  6. Hazard and risk assessment of teratogenic chemicals under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prutner, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, a new European chemicals legislation was implemented: Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, also known as "REACH." It obliges companies to take the main responsibility for the valid information on the safe use of the chemicals they manufacture and/or place on the European market. So they must, for example, register their chemicals at the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and submit extensive substance-related registration dossiers containing information on the substances' intrinsic hazardous properties and documentation of their risk assessment. REACH regulates the registration and evaluation process as well as the authorization and restriction procedure. In addition, classification, labeling, and packaging of chemicals apply in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 ("CLP Regulation"). It implements almost completely the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS) into European legislation and will fully replace the Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC) and the Dangerous Preparations Directive (1999/45/EC) by 2015. According to both the old and the new classification system, teratogenic chemicals are classified as developmental toxicants, with developmental toxicity falling within the hazard class of reproductive toxicity. REACH as well as the CLP Regulation provide several procedures in which reproductive toxicants take a special position because their harmful effects are considered particularly serious. Teratogenic substances are not explicitly named by these legal texts but, as they constitute as developmental toxicants a hazard differentiation of reproductive toxicity, they are implicitly always included by the provisions.

  7. Calculations of protective action distance for toxic chemical spills using nomographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, L.G.; Vail, J.A.; Gibeault, G.L.

    1995-04-01

    This document was produced for emergency use following a spill of liquid gas or finely divided solid (<100 micron) toxic chemicals. The information on the next few pages was kept deliberately terse and is limited to data and graphic aids needed for calculation of plume distance (protective action distance). All supporting material is provided as Appendices.

  8. Prioritization of chemicals in the aquatic environment based on risk assessment: analytical, modeling and regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, D; Ginebreda, A; Farré, M; Darbra, R M; Petrovic, M; Gros, M; Barceló, D

    2012-12-01

    The extensive and intensive use of chemicals in our developed, highly technological society includes more than 100,000 chemical substances. Significant scientific evidence has lead to the recognition that their improper use and release may result in undesirable and harmful side-effects on both the human and ecosystem health. To cope with them, appropriate risk assessment processes and related prioritization schemes have been developed in order to provide the necessary scientific support for regulatory procedures. In the present paper, two of the elements that constitute the core of risk assessment, namely occurrence and hazard effects, have been discussed. Recent advances in analytical chemistry (sample pre-treatment and instrumental equipment, etc.) have allowed for more comprehensive monitoring of environmental pollution reaching limits of detection up to sub ng L(-1). Alternative to analytical measurements, occurrence models can provide risk managers with a very interesting approach for estimating environmental concentrations from real or hypothetical scenarios. The most representative prioritization schemes used for issuing lists of concerning chemicals have also been examined and put in the context of existing environmental policies for protection strategies and regulations. Finally, new challenges in the field of risk-assessment have been outlined, including those posed by new materials (i.e., nanomaterials), transformation products, multi-chemical exposure, or extension of the risk assessment process to the whole ecosystem.

  9. Ecological risk assessment in the function of environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an appropriate methodology for ecological risk assessment. The methodology has been applied in the region of Boka Kotorska Bay (Bay, Montenegro. The emphasis of the research is on the analysis of the impact of various stressors on the ecological components of Bay. The consequences of that impact can be seen in an increased level of eutrophication of water environment, mostly through the influence of nitrogen and its compounds. The actual research at/about the region of Boka Kotorska Bay was performed in the period of 2008. The study emphasized the importance of the acquisition, processing and analysis of various ecologically related data for more efficient monitoring and management of the environment. The suggested methodology of the ecological risk assessment is, therefore, a remarkable scientific and expert contribution in the area of environmental protection in our country and in general.

  10. Holistic Metrics for Assessment of the Greenness of Chemical Reactions in the Context of Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adelio A. S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Two new semiquantitative green chemistry metrics, the green circle and the green matrix, have been developed for quick assessment of the greenness of a chemical reaction or process, even without performing the experiment from a protocol if enough detail is provided in it. The evaluation is based on the 12 principles of green chemistry. The…

  11. Assessment of Protective Gloves for Use with Airfed Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Claire E.

    2015-01-01

    Gloves are often needed for hand protection at work, but they can impair manual dexterity, especially if they are multilayered or ill-fitting. This article describes two studies of gloves to be worn with airfed suits (AFS) for nuclear decommissioning or containment level 4 (CL4) microbiological work. Both sets of workers wear multiple layers of gloves for protection and to accommodate decontamination procedures. Nuclear workers are also often required to wear cut-resistant gloves as an extra layer of protection. A total of 15 subjects volunteered to take part in manual dexterity testing of the different gloving systems. The subjects’ hands were measured to ensure that the appropriate sized gloves were used. The gloves were tested with the subjects wearing the complete clothing ensembles appropriate to the work, using a combination of standard dexterity tests: the nine-hole peg test; a pin test adapted from the European Standard for protective gloves, the Purdue Pegboard test, and the Minnesota turning test. Specialized tests such as a hand tool test were used to test nuclear gloves, and laboratory-type manipulation tasks were used to test CL4 gloves. Subjective assessments of temperature sensation and skin wettedness were made before and after the dexterity tests of the nuclear gloves only. During all assessments, we made observations and questioned the subjects about ergonomic issues related to the clothing ensembles. Overall, the results show that the greater the thickness of the gloves and the number of layers the more the levels of manual dexterity performance are degraded. The nuclear cut-resistant gloves with the worst level of dexterity were stiff and inflexible and the subjects experienced problems picking up small items and bending their hands. The work also highlighted other factors that affect manual dexterity performance, including proper sizing, interactions with the other garments worn at the time, and the work equipment in use. In conclusion, when

  12. How developing nations can protect children from hazardous chemical exposures while sustaining economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Massey, Rachel I; DiGangi, Joseph; Geiser, Kenneth; Olanipekun, Abiola Ifueko; Gallagher, Louise

    2011-12-01

    Increasing worldwide use of chemicals, including heavy metals used in industry and pesticides used in agriculture, may produce increases in chronic diseases in children unless steps are taken to manage the production, use, trade, and disposal of chemicals. In 2020 the developing world will account for 33 percent of global chemical demand and 31 percent of production, compared with 23 percent and 21 percent, respectively, in 1995. We describe present and potential costs of environmental exposures and discuss policy options to protect future generations of children in a sustainable development context. Specifically, we describe the principles of sound chemicals management, as follows: precaution, or the use of cost-effective measures to prevent potentially hazardous exposures before scientific understanding is complete; the right to know, or informing the public--especially vulnerable groups--in a timely fashion about the safe use of chemicals and any releases of chemicals into the environment; pollution prevention, or preventing the use of hazardous chemicals and the production of pollutants, rather than focusing on managing wastes; internalization of environmental and health costs, or ensuring that the consequences of exposures are reflected in the price of chemicals through such approaches as "polluter pays"; and use of best available scientific information in making decisions such as what chemicals to allow into the market. We recommend that industrializing nations in particular employ these principles to prevent disease among their populations while at the same time minimizing the risk to their own economic development.

  13. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  14. A review of human biomonitoring data used in regulatory risk assessment under Canada's Chemicals Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidek, Angelika; Macey, Kristin; MacKinnon, Leona; Patel, Mikin; Poddalgoda, Devika; Zhang, Yi

    2016-10-21

    As a part of the Chemicals Management Plan launched in 2006, the Government of Canada is assessing and managing, where appropriate, the potential health and ecological risks associated with approximately 4300 substances under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999). Since that time, nearly 3000 substances have been assessed, with human biomonitoring (HBM) data playing an increasingly important role for some substances. Case studies are presented, including both inorganic and organic substances (i.e., selenium, triclosan, phthalates), which highlight the impact and overall role HBM has had in regulatory decision making in Canada for these three substances as well as criteria used in the application of HBM data in human health risk assessment. An overview of its limitations in terms of how and when HBM data can be applied, when assessing human health in a regulatory setting, is discussed as well as the role HBM data can play in priority setting.

  15. Integrating exposure into chemical alternatives assessment using a qualitative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, Thomas J.;

    2016-01-01

    could trigger a higher-tiered, more quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical- and product-related exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four chemical...... Sustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher exposure potential, which......-product application scenarios were examined to test the concept, to understand the effort required, and to determine the value of exposure data in AA decision-making. The group has developed a classification approach for ingredient and product parameters to support comparisons between alternatives as well...

  16. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants.

  17. Cuticle Structure in Relation to Chemical Composition: Re-assessing the Prevailing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Victoria; Guzmán-Delgado, Paula; Graça, José; Santos, Sara; Gil, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The surface of most aerial plant organs is covered with a cuticle that provides protection against multiple stress factors including dehydration. Interest on the nature of this external layer dates back to the beginning of the 19th century and since then, several studies facilitated a better understanding of cuticular chemical composition and structure. The prevailing undertanding of the cuticle as a lipidic, hydrophobic layer which is independent from the epidermal cell wall underneath stems from the concept developed by Brongniart and von Mohl during the first half of the 19th century. Such early investigations on plant cuticles attempted to link chemical composition and structure with the existing technologies, and have not been directly challenged for decades. Beginning with a historical overview about the development of cuticular studies, this review is aimed at critically assessing the information available on cuticle chemical composition and structure, considering studies performed with cuticles and isolated cuticular chemical components. The concept of the cuticle as a lipid layer independent from the cell wall is subsequently challenged, based on the existing literature, and on new findings pointing toward the cell wall nature of this layer, also providing examples of different leaf cuticle structures. Finally, the need for a re-assessment of the chemical and structural nature of the plant cuticle is highlighted, considering its cell wall nature and variability among organs, species, developmental stages, and biotic and abiotic factors during plant growth. PMID:27066059

  18. Ecotoxicological assessments and the setting of limit values for chemicals in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Committee on the Setting of Limit Values for Chemicals held its first open conference in Denmark in March 1992 at Mogenstrup Kro, Zealand. The conference proceedings were entitled `Risk Management and Risk Assessment in Different Sectors in Denmark`. The conference focused on risk assessment and the setting of limit values for chemicals in connection with human exposure to chemicals. The conference held in January 1996, which is covered by the present proceedings, dealt with the exposure of the environment to chemicals and the state-of-the-art as well as perspectives of ecotoxicological research. Special emphasis was placed on the illustration and discussion of the problems that have to be solved in order to secure satisfactory levels of protection of soil and aquatic environments in connection with exposure to chemicals. Also, problems connected with exposure through the atmosphere were discussed and exemplified by the work on the setting of limit values for tropospheric ozone. Furthermore, the global problems pertaining to what is believed to be the greenhouse effect and the degradation of the stratospheric ozone layer as well as the damage to crops caused by ozone were mentioned. (au)

  19. Cuticle structure in relation to chemical composition: re-assessing the prevailing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eFernandez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The surface of most aerial plant organs is covered with a cuticle that provides protection against multiple stress factors including dehydration. Interest on the nature of this external layer dates back to the beginning of the 19th century and since then, several studies facilitated a better understanding of cuticular chemical composition and structure. The prevailing undertanding of the cuticle as a lipidic, hydrophobic layer which is independent from the epidermal cell wall underneath stems from the concept developed by Brongniart and von Mohl during the first half of the 19th century. Such early investigations on plant cuticles attempted to link chemical composition and structure with the existing technologies, and have not been directly challenged for decades. Beginning with a historical overview about the development of cuticular studies, this review is aimed at critically assessing the information available on cuticle chemical composition and structure, considering studies performed with cuticles and isolated cuticular chemical components. The concept of the cuticle as a lipid layer independent from the cell wall is subsequently challenged, based on the existing literature, and on new findings pointing towards the cell wall nature of this layer, also providing examples of different leaf cuticle structures. Finally, the need for a re-assessment of the chemical and structural nature of the plant cuticle is highlighted, considering its cell wall nature and variability among organs, species, developmental stages, and biotic and abiotic factors during plant growth.

  20. Dangerous chemical substances – Tools supporting occupational risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Dobrzyńska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of risk associated with exposure to chemicals in the work environment is a task that still poses a lot of difficulties for the employers. At the same time the probability of adverse health effects faced by an employee as a result of such risks, and the related employer’s material losses should motivate employers to seek effective solutions aimed at assessing the risks and controling them to an acceptable level by the application of appropriate preventive measures. The paper presents examples of tools to assist the employer in the risk assessment associated with the presence of chemical agents in the workplace. Examples of guides, manuals, checklists and various interactive tools, developed in Poland and other European Union (EU countries, as well as in countries outside the EU and international organizations are described. These tools have been developed to meet the current requirements of the law and allow a rough estimation of chemical risk and based on these estimates take further steps to improve working conditions and safety. Med Pr 2014;65(5:683–692

  1. Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-01-01

    An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters.

  2. Epidemiologic Assessment of the Protective Effects of Smallpox Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite smallpox eradication, the widely discussed possibility of a bioterrorist attack using a variola virus makes it necessary to review the epidemiology of smallpox and the effects of various vaccination schemes. This paper provides a literature review concerning the epidemiologic assessment of the protective effects of smallpox vaccination, with particular emphasis on the statistical and theoretical points of view. Although smallpox vaccination has the longest history of all vaccinations, we lack precise epidemiologic estimates of its effectiveness. Vaccination practice continually evolved and many places experienced vaccinations with various strains over time. Despite the weak statistical evidence, it can be stated with certainty that smallpox vaccines prevented infection for a few decades after primary vaccination and that vaccinated individuals had the benefit of a longer lasting partial protection when they contracted the disease. Confronted with the huge uncertainties and with the necessity to rely on laboratory evidence, appropriate preparedness plans for countermeasures using vaccination must be based on the best available evidence.

  3. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  4. Nitroxide free radicals protect macular carotenoids against chemical destruction (bleaching) during lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, M; Widomska, J; Burke, J M; Subczynski, W K

    2016-12-01

    Macular xanthophylls (MXs) lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids that are selectively concentrated in the human eye retina, where they are thought to protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by multiple mechanisms, including filtration of phototoxic blue light and quenching of singlet oxygen and triplet states of photosensitizers. These physical protective mechanisms require that MXs be in their intact structure. Here, we investigated the protection of the intact structure of zeaxanthin incorporated into model membranes subjected to oxidative modification by water- and/or membrane-soluble small nitroxide free radicals. Model membranes were formed from saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines (PCs). Oxidative modification involved autoxidation, iron-mediated, and singlet oxygen-mediated lipid peroxidation. The extent of chemical destruction (bleaching) of zeaxanthin was evaluated from its absorption spectra and compared with the extent of lipid peroxidation evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid assay. Nitroxide free radicals with different polarity (membrane/water partition coefficients) were used. The extent of zeaxanthin bleaching increased with membrane unsaturation and correlated with the rate of PC oxidation. Protection of the intact structure of zeaxanthin by membrane-soluble nitroxides was much stronger than that by water-soluble nitroxides. The combination of zeaxanthin and lipid-soluble nitroxides exerted strong synergistic protection against singlet oxygen-induced lipid peroxidation. The synergistic effect may be explained in terms of protection of the intact zeaxanthin structure by effective scavenging of free radicals by nitroxides, therefore allowing zeaxanthin to quench the primary oxidant, singlet oxygen, effectively by the physical protective mechanism. The redox state of nitroxides was monitored using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both nitroxide free radicals and their reduced form

  5. 77 FR 68795 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... SECURITY Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self- Assessment Questionnaire AGENCY... Information (PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: Annually. Affected... rules and requirements, and the specific needs of their accredited programs. These assessments...

  6. Testing a combined radiation protection modality: chemical protector and local shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkova, M; Baldzhijska, M

    1989-01-01

    The impact of combined radiation protection upon damage to critical organs-spleen, small intestine, and bone marrow was studied in adult rat males 3 days after whole-body exposure to 9.5 Gy gamma-ray dose. Adeturone, the chemical radioprotector used, was administered intraperitoneally at 1/17 of its LD50 dose. Local shielding of the abdomino-lumbal region was accomplished using a lead ring providing on average 28-30% attenuation of radiation exposure. This degree of physical abdomino-lumbal protection combined with adeturone (50 mg/kg) pretreatment resulted in mutual enhancement of the components' action, expansion of the chemical agent's therapeutic range, providing a combination with improved overall antiradiation properties.

  7. [Data protection, radiation protection and copyright: Problems of transferring results in assessment practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, H-T

    2015-06-01

    In Germany, the medical assessor is subject to the law on contracts for work and services ("Werksvertragsrecht"). When a medical expert assesses a subject on behalf of a third party, there is no contractual relationship between them. In the field of private insurance law and in social insurance law, the medical expert is faced with various procedural requirements. Failing to meet these legal requirements often makes the assessment difficult or even impossible. The transfer of radiographs to the medical assessor is dealt with in the German X-ray regulations ("Röntgenverordnung"). The assessor, who is without doubt an examining doctor, has the right to have the radiographs temporarily made available (§ 28 et al.). Passing on the radiographs is all the more appropriate if by doing so additional X-ray examinations can be avoided. The right of access to medical data in the social security law, apart from X-ray regulations, is regulated by German Civil Code (BGB) § 810 and German Basic Law section 1 paragraph 1 in connection with section 2 paragraph 1 ("§ 810 BGB; Art. 1 Abs. 1, Art. 2 Abs. 1 GG"). In the absence of third party interest worthy of protection, the right of access to assessment records has to be granted to the subject, who will then authorize the examining medical expert to exercise this right. In private insurance law, only the private health insurance has its regulation concerning obtaining information about treatment or the access to medical assessments. In other types of insurance the medical assessor's right of access to medical examination data and/or the basis for medical findings can only be derived from secondary obligations as part of the insurance contract or directly from general constitutional personal rights.

  8. Protective role of food supplement Spirulina fusiformis in chemical induced hepatotoxicity: A Bromobenzene model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Prince Sabina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the efficacy of Spirulina fusiformis in protecting against chemical induced hepatotoxicity in rats using Bromobenzene as the candidate toxin. A single oral dose of bromobenzene (BB (10mmol/kg b.w. resulted in significant (p< 0.05 decrease in antioxidant levels (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidese, total reduced glutathione and total protein, and significant (p< 0.05 increase in the levels of serum bilirubin, liver enzymes (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicating the induction of hepatotoxicity. Spirulina fusiformis (400 mg/kg b.w was orally administered for 8 days prior to the administration of BB and was seen to protect the above parameters from significant changes upon challenge with bromobenzene. This was also confirmed by the histological examination of liver tissues after sacrifice. The protective effect of Spirulina fusiformis was comparable to that of the standard hepatoprotective drug sylimarin.

  9. Optimizing the Chemical Compositions of Protective Agents for Freeze-drying Bifidobacterium longum BIOMA 5920

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婵媛; 朱晓丽; 范代娣; 米钰; 骆艳娥; 惠俊峰; 苏然

    2012-01-01

    Freeze drying has a deleterious effect on the viability of microorganisms. In front of this difficulty, the present study adopts response surface methodology to optimize the chemical compositions of protective agents to seek for maximum viability of Bifidobacterium longum BIOMA 5920 during freeze-drying. Through the compara- tive analysis of single protectant, the complex protective agents show better effect on the Bifidobacterium viability. Human-like collagen (HLC), trehalose and glycerol are confirmed as significant factors by Box-Behnken Design. The optimized formula for these three variables is tested as follows: HLC 1.23%, trehalose 11.50% and glycerol 4.65%. Under this formula, the viability is 88.23%, 39.67% higher in comparison to the control. The viable count is 1.07×10 9 cfu·g-1 , greatly exceeding the minimum viable count requirement (10 6 cfu·g-1 ).

  10. Chemical plant protection outlays in vast areas farming at the beginning of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Golinowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, several investigations were conducted in the area of chemical plant protection outlays in two vast area farms where simplified system of farming was applied. Analysed outlays consisted of: use of pesticides in kilograms of active substance per 1 ha and real costs of plant protection procedures. Profitability of the outlay was identified with approximate indicator of outlay E1 and E2. The research showed that farm during plant production use from 1 to 10.28 kg AS/ha. Costs of these procedures ranged from 100.50 to 1253.84 PLN/ha depending on the cultivated plant. Profitability of plant protection procedures in wheat and rape cultivation was at the same level in both farms. The highest profitability was reached by maize cultivation.

  11. Effects of chemical protective equipment on team process performance in small unit rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugle, Nancy L; Kleiner, Brian M

    2007-09-01

    In the event of a nuclear, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against civilians, both military and civilian emergency response teams must be able to respond and operate efficiently while wearing protective equipment. Chemical protective equipment protects the user by providing a barrier between the individual and hazardous environment. Unfortunately, the same equipment that is designed to support the user can potentially cause heat stress, reduced task efficiency, and reduced range-of-motion. Targeted Acceptable Responses to Generated Events of Tasks (TARGETS), an event-based team performance measurement methodology was used to investigate the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on the behavioral processes underlying team performance during simulated rescue tasks. In addition, this study determined which team processes were related to team performance outcomes. Results of six primary analyses indicated that team process performance was not degraded by MOPP 4 on any rescue task and that the team processes critical for successful task performance are task-dependent. This article discusses the implications of these results with respect to the study design and the limitations of using an event-based team performance measurement methodology.

  12. Sustainability Assessment of Plant Protection Strategies in Swiss Winter Wheat and Potato Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Mouron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of arable crops in Switzerland is subsidized for services performed within the Proof of Ecological Performance (PEP program, the crop protection part of which is based on IPM principles. Within PEP, chemical insect control must rely on those approved insecticides that are deemed harmless for beneficial arthropods. Approved insecticides potentially impacting beneficial arthropods may also be applied, but only if unavoidable and with an official permit. In order to assess the ecological and economic sustainability of this PEP program, a reference insecticide strategy illustrating the current PEP requirements was compared with other strategies. For this purpose, a sustainability assessment taking account of ecotoxicological risks and economic viability in addition to the preservation of beneficial arthropods was performed according to the SustainOS methodology. The results show that the one-off use of Audienz (spinosad to control cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus—a key pest in winter wheat—would significantly improve sustainability vis-à-vis the reference (Nomolt (teflubenzuron plus Biscaya (thiacloprid. However, in the case of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in potato crops, where Audienz is considered the reference, no alternative would exhibit better sustainability. Moreover, the study shows that strategies using Novodor (Bacillus thuringiensis protect beneficial species well but have the drawbacks of increased yield risk and higher costs. The conclusions drawn from these analyses allow recommendations for modifications of the PEP requirements for these two pest insects. The SustainOS methodology, a multi-step process combining expert knowledge with quantitative assessments including a sensitivity analysis of key target parameters and a rule-based aggregation of assessment results, yielded valuable insights into the sustainability of different crop protection strategies.

  13. Science based guidance for the assessment of endocrine disrupting properties of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Remi; Broeckaert, Fabrice; Fegert, Ivana; Gross, Melanie; Hallmark, Nina; Kedwards, Tim; Lewis, Dick; O'Hagan, Sue; Panter, Grace H; Weltje, Lennart; Weyers, Arnd; Wheeler, James R; Galay-Burgos, Malyka

    2011-02-01

    The European legislation on plant protection products (Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009) and biocides (Directive 98/8/EC), as well as the regulation concerning chemicals (Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 'REACH') only support the marketing and use of chemical products on the basis that they do not induce endocrine disruption in humans or non-target species. However, there is currently no agreed guidance on how to identify and evaluate endocrine activity and disruption. Consequently, an ECETOC task force was formed to provide scientific criteria that may be used within the context of these three legislative documents. Specific scientific criteria for the determination of endocrine disrupting properties that integrate information from both regulatory (eco)toxicity studies and mechanistic/screening studies are proposed. These criteria combine the nature of the adverse effects detected in studies which give concern for endocrine toxicity with an understanding of the mode of action of toxicity so that adverse effects can be explained scientifically. The criteria developed are presented in the form of flow charts for assessing relevant effects for both humans and wildlife species. In addition, since not all chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties are of equal hazard, assessment of potency is also proposed to discriminate chemicals of high concern from those of lower concern. The guidance presented in this paper includes refinements made to an initial proposal following discussion of the criteria at a workshop of invited regulatory, academic and industry scientists.

  14. Ecological food web analysis for chemical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Damian V; Pastorok, Robert A

    2008-12-01

    Food web analysis can be a critical component of ecological risk assessment, yet it has received relatively little attention among risk assessors. Food web data are currently used in modeling bioaccumulation of toxic chemicals and, to a limited extent, in the determination of the ecological significance of risks. Achieving more realism in ecological risk assessments requires new analysis tools and models that incorporate accurate information on key receptors in a food web paradigm. Application of food web analysis in risk assessments demands consideration of: 1) different kinds of food webs; 2) definition of trophic guilds; 3) variation in food webs with habitat, space, and time; and 4) issues for basic sampling design and collection of dietary data. The different kinds of food webs include connectance webs, materials flow webs, and functional (or interaction) webs. These three kinds of webs play different roles throughout various phases of an ecological risk assessment, but risk assessors have failed to distinguish among web types. When modeling food webs, choices must be made regarding the level of complexity for the web, assignment of species to trophic guilds, selection of representative species for guilds, use of average diets, the characterization of variation among individuals or guild members within a web, and the spatial and temporal scales/dynamics of webs. Integrating exposure and effects data in ecological models for risk assessment of toxic chemicals relies on coupling food web analysis with bioaccumulation models (e.g., Gobas-type models for fish and their food webs), wildlife exposure models, dose-response models, and population dynamics models.

  15. Brief communication: the ecosystem perspective in ecotoxicology as a way forward for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laender, Frederik; Janssen, Colin R

    2013-07-01

    One of the objectives of the European Union (EU) ecological risk assessment of chemicals (ERA) is to derive maximum environmental concentrations that are not expected to cause adverse ecological effects. To this end, related EU directives list protection goals as well as guidelines that should be used to reach these goals. It is generally accepted that the individual-level endpoints on which these guidelines are based do not correspond to the listed population- and ecosystem-level protection goals. In this article, we identify 5 research topics that are key to bridging this gap: 1) the refinement of population-level effects and recovery rates by explicitly taking into account competition and 2) predation, 3) the assessment of chemical effects on biodiversity, 4) the assessment of chemical stress on ecosystem functions and services, and 5) the quantification of the effects of chemical mixtures. In addition, we illustrate why an ecosystem perspective is needed to address these topics and to inform the risk assessment process. We propose the use of existing ecotoxicological community, food web, and ecosystem models to tackle these issues and discuss why new models are needed to predict chemical effects on biodiversity.

  16. Intubation performance using different laryngoscopes while wearing chemical protective equipment: a manikin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H; Zoremba, N; Rossaint, R; Deusser, K; Stoppe, C; Coburn, M; Rieg, A; Schälte, G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to compare visualisation of the vocal cords and performance of intubation by anaesthetists using four different laryngoscopes while wearing full chemical protective equipment. Setting Medical simulation center of a university hospital, department of anaesthesiology. Participants 42 anaesthetists (15 females and 27 males) completed the trial. The participants were grouped according to their professional education as anaesthesiology residents with experience of 5 years. Interventions In a manikin scenario, participants performed endotracheal intubations with four different direct and indirect laryngoscopes (Macintosh (MAC), Airtraq (ATQ), Glidescope (GLS) and AP Advance (APA)), while wearing chemical protective gear, including a body suit, rubber gloves, a fire helmet and breathing apparatus. Primary and secondary outcome measures With respect to the manikin, setting time to complete ‘endotracheal intubation’ was defined as primary end point. Glottis visualisation (according to the Cormack-Lehane score (CLS) and impairments caused by the protective equipment, were defined as secondary outcome measures. Results The times to tracheal intubation were calculated using the MAC (31.4 s; 95% CI 26.6 to 36.8), ATQ (37.1 s; 95% CI 28.3 to 45.9), GLS (35.4 s; 95% CI 28.7 to 42.1) and APA (23.6 s; 95% CI 19.1 to 28.1), respectively. Intubation with the APA was significantly faster than with all the other devices examined among the total study population (pevaluated as an easily manageable device for anaesthetists with varying degrees of experience (low to high), providing good visualisation in scenarios that require the use of chemical protective equipment. PMID:27008688

  17. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  18. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  19. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  20. Saffron as an antidote or a protective agent against natural or chemical toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is an extensively used food additive for its color and taste. Since ancient times this plant has been introduced as a marvelous medicine throughout the world. The wide spectrum of saffron pharmacological activities is related to its major constituents including crocin, crocetin and safranal. Based on several studies, saffron and its active ingredients have been used as an antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antinociceptive, antidepressant, antitussive, anticonvulsant, memory enhancer, hypotensive and anticancer. According to the literatures, saffron has remarkable therapeutic effects. The protective effects of saffron and its main constituents in different tissues including brain, heart, liver, kidney and lung have been reported against some toxic materials either natural or chemical toxins in animal studies.In this review article, we have summarized different in vitro and animal studies in scientific databases which investigate the antidotal and protective effects of saffron and its major components against natural toxins and chemical-induced toxicities. Due to the lake of human studies, further investigations are required to ascertain the efficacy of saffron as an antidote or a protective agent in human intoxication.

  1. Physico-chemical modifications of conjugated linoleic acid for ruminal protection and oxidative stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Yun-Jaie

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid [linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6]. Although ruminant milk and meat products represent the largest natural source of CLA and therefore, their concentration in ruminant lipids are of interest to human health, chemical or physical modifications of CLA should be needed as a means to enhance oxidative stability, to improve post-ruminal bioavailability, and to increase the clinical application. In fact, CLA are rapidly decomposed to form furan fatty acids when its are oxidized in air, and the effectiveness of dietary supplements of CLA may be related to the extent that their metabolisms by rumen bacteria are avoided. For these reasons, many scientists have examined the effect of manufacturing and protection on the stability of CLA in ruminants and food products. In this review, physico-chemical modifications of CLA for ruminal protection such as calcium salt (Ca, formaldehyde protection (FP, lipid encapsulation (LE, and amide linkage (AL, and for oxidative stability such as green tea catechin (GTC, cyclodextrin (CD, arginine (Arg, amylase, and PEGylation are proposed.

  2. Physico-chemical modifications of conjugated linoleic acid for ruminal protection and oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Lee, Hong-Gu; Chung, Chung-Soo; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2008-06-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid [linoleic acid (LA), 18:2n-6]. Although ruminant milk and meat products represent the largest natural source of CLA and therefore, their concentration in ruminant lipids are of interest to human health, chemical or physical modifications of CLA should be needed as a means to enhance oxidative stability, to improve post-ruminal bioavailability, and to increase the clinical application. In fact, CLA are rapidly decomposed to form furan fatty acids when its are oxidized in air, and the effectiveness of dietary supplements of CLA may be related to the extent that their metabolisms by rumen bacteria are avoided. For these reasons, many scientists have examined the effect of manufacturing and protection on the stability of CLA in ruminants and food products. In this review, physico-chemical modifications of CLA for ruminal protection such as calcium salt (Ca), formaldehyde protection (FP), lipid encapsulation (LE), and amide linkage (AL), and for oxidative stability such as green tea catechin (GTC), cyclodextrin (CD), arginine (Arg), amylase, and PEGylation are proposed.

  3. Regulatory assessment of chemicals within OECD member countries, EU and in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjodorova, Natalja; Novich, Marjana; Vrachko, Marjan; Kharchevnikova, Nina; Zholdakova, Zoya; Sinitsyna, Oxana; Benfenati, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    The chemical risk assessment is essesntial part of new chemical legislation registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals (REACH). The article presents a review of chemical legislation policies in the European Union (EU) and in Russia, and changes in chemicals regulations to meet the requirement of REACH. The risk assessment paradigm, toxicological parameters, safe limits and classification criteria used by different agencies and authorities in different countries are reported. Our investigation also focuses on comparison of chemical risk assessment criteria used in OECD member countries and in Russia. Tendencies in harmonization in accordance with the globally harmonized system of classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS) are discussed.

  4. Efficiency and resistance of the artificial oxalate protection treatment on marble against chemical weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Pamplona, M. [Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica do Instituto Superior Tecnico Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Selvaggi, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Miliani, C. [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)]. E-mail: miliani@thch.unipg.it; Matteini, M. [CNR Istituto, Conservazione e Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali (ICVBC), Via Madonna del Piano, 10, Edifico C-50019, Florence (Italy); Sgamellotti, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Brunetti, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-03-15

    The artificial oxalate protection method was analyzed in laboratory experiments in order to achieve an optimum treatment application and concentration giving rise to its most effective protective nature. Spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared, Micro-Raman and UV-vis colorimetry), microscopic (scanning electron microscope) and contact-angle analyses were carried out to characterize Carrara marble samples before and after application of the treatment to validate its efficiency. The resistance effects against chemical weathering were subsequently observed in a lab-controlled weak acid rain experiment. An acid spray at pH 5.5, representative of normal rain was used to provoke degrade of natural marble, marble treated with the artificial oxalate protective at concentrations of 0.4 and 5% and marble treated with a commercial organic silicon product. Run-off solutions sampled at timely intervals were tested for any change in pH followed by ion chromatography measurements for the presence of calcium ions in solution. The chromatography results of the oxalate treatment applied at a 5% concentration are analogous to an organic commercial product indicating its validity as a method for the conservation of carbonate substrates conferring protection to stone materials against acid environments.

  5. Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM: Groundwater Risk Assessment Model for Wellfield Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A groundwater risk assessment was carried out for 30 potable water supply systems under a framework of protecting drinking water quality across South Australia. A semi-quantitative Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM was developed based on a “multi-barrier” approach using likelihood of release, contaminant pathway and consequence equation. Groundwater vulnerability and well integrity have been incorporated to the pathway component of the risk equation. The land use of the study basins varies from protected water reserves to heavily stocked grazing lands. Based on the risk assessment, 15 systems were considered as low risk, four as medium and 11 systems as at high risk. The GRAM risk levels were comparable with indicator bacteria—total coliform—detection. Most high risk systems were the result of poor well construction and casing corrosion rather than the land use. We carried out risk management actions, including changes to well designs and well operational practices, design to increase time of residence and setting the production zone below identified low permeable zones to provide additional barriers to contaminants. The highlight of the risk management element is the well integrity testing using down hole geophysical methods and camera views of the casing condition.

  6. Permanent reduction of dissipation in nanomechanical Si resonators by chemical surface protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Navaretti, P.; Hauert, R.; Grob, U.; Poggio, M.; Degen, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    We report on mechanical dissipation measurements carried out on thin (˜100 nm), single-crystal silicon cantilevers with varying chemical surface termination. We find that the 1-2 nm-thick native oxide layer of silicon contributes about 85% to the friction of the mechanical resonance. We show that the mechanical friction is proportional to the thickness of the oxide layer and that it crucially depends on oxide formation conditions. We further demonstrate that chemical surface protection by nitridation, liquid-phase hydrosilylation, or gas-phase hydrosilylation can inhibit rapid oxide formation in air and results in a permanent improvement of the mechanical quality factor between three- and five-fold. This improvement extends to cryogenic temperatures. Presented recipes can be directly integrated with standard cleanroom processes and may be especially beneficial for ultrasensitive nanomechanical force- and mass sensors, including silicon cantilevers, membranes, or nanowires.

  7. Ozonation Systems as a Non-Chemical Alternative for Stored Grain Protection

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The use of ozone as a non-chemical alternative in stored grain protection was studied by conducting scale-up demonstrations using a fixed bed ozonation system and developing a semi-continuous counterflow and a continuous flow ozonation treatment system. The objectives of this research were to determine the efficacy of ozonation to control insect pests without affecting end-use quality; to prove the concept of the semi-continuous counterflow ozonation system to ozonate grain at a faster rate a...

  8. Co3O4 protective coatings prepared by Pulsed Injection Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burriel, M.; Garcia, G.; Santiso, J.

    2005-01-01

    Cobalt oxide films were grown by Pulsed Injection Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (PI-MOCVD) using Co(acac)(3) (acac=acetylacetonate) precursor dissolved in toluene. The structure, morphology and growth rate of the layers deposited on silicon substrates were studied as a function...... of deposition temperature. Pure Co3O4 spinel structure was found for deposition temperatures ranging from 360 to 540 degreesC. The optimum experimental parameters to prepare dense layers with a high growth rate were determined and used to prepare corrosion protective coatings for Fe-22Cr metallic interconnects...

  9. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  10. Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application

  11. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  12. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  13. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  14. Toward an integrated assessment of the ecological and chemical status of European river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Ohe, Peter C; De Deckere, Eric; Prüss, Andrea; Muñoz, Isabel; Wolfram, Georg; Villagrasa, Marta; Ginebreda, Antonio; Hein, Michaela; Brack, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Here, recommendations to improve ecological and chemical status assessments in accordance with the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) are made on the basis of experience gained from the MODELKEY project database, linking existing biological and chemical monitoring data of 3 case study river basins (Elbe, Scheldt, and Llobregat). The data analysis within and across river basins revealed major obstacles to be tackled, including scarcity of matching ecological and chemical monitoring sites for cause-effect relationships as well as a general lack of stressor-specific metrics for single biological quality elements (BQE) to enable a comprehensive risk assessment of all predominant stressors, including toxicity. An example of such a metric, which is recommended for the BQE of benthic macroinvertebrates, is the trait-based species-at-risk index (SPEAR) that correlated well with a respective measure for toxic stress, referred to as toxic units, based on simple mixture toxicity concepts. Surprisingly, the assessment of chemical status of a total of 695 monitoring sites for 2000 to 2004 showed that environmental quality standards (EQSs) were exceeded for at least 1 of the currently 41 priority pollutants (PPs) in 92% to 98% of the cases in all 3 of the river basins, which, according to definition, indicates potential effects on ecological status. A comparison of compliance with EQSs for 41 PPs with a respective effect threshold (derived for benthic macroinvertebrates) revealed that the rather conservative concept of chemical status is most likely not protective in all cases. Furthermore, to account for the many other compounds that are detected frequently in European surface waters and that may also have ecotoxicological effects, we introduced a provisional predicted no-effect concentration that is in accordance with the EQS methodology and is suggested to identify potential emerging compounds for which no or insufficient toxicity data exist. In conclusion, this study

  15. Modelling the physiological strain and physical burden of chemical protective coveralls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, ShuQin; Petersen, Stewart; McQueen, Rachel; Batcheller, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the impact of selected chemical protective coveralls (CPC) on physiological responses and comfort sensations. Fifteen males exercised at approximately 6 METS in three CPC (Tyvek®, Gulf and Tychem®) and a control garment. Physiological strain was characterised by core and skin temperatures, heart rate, V̇O2, perceived exertion, hotness and wetness. Physical burden was characterised by restriction to movement, V̇O2 and RPE. The highest levels of physiological strain and physical burden were found in Tychem®, and the lowest in control. Seven statistical regression models were developed through correlation and multiple regression analyses between the human responses and the results from previously conducted fabric and garment property testing. These models showed that physical burden was increased by adding weight and/or restricting movement. Oxygen consumption was best predicted by clothing weight and fabric bending hysteresis. Fabric evaporative resistance and thickness were the two best predictors of physiological and perceptual responses. Practitioner Summary: Traditional evaluation of chemical protective coveralls (CPC) involves testing at the fabric and garment levels and rarely is based on human trials. This study integrates information from fabric, garment and human trials to better understand physiological strain and physical comfort during prolonged exercise in CPC.

  16. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    A study analyzed the occupational structure and qualifications associated with the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the United Kingdom. The analysis included nine case studies based on interviews with firms in the chemicals and metals sectors. Information was gathered within an analytical framework that…

  17. Assessing Risk in Chemical Plant with Pattern Matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses potential application of fuzzy set theory, more specifically, pattern matching, in assessing risk in chemical plants. Risk factors have been evaluated using linguistic representations of the quantity of the hazardous substance involved, its frequency of interaction with the environment, severity of its impact and the uncertainty involved in its detection in advance. For each linguistic value there is a corresponding membership function ranging over a universe of discourse. The risk scenario created by a hazard/hazardous situation having highest degree of featural value is taken as the known pattern. Each sample pattern of hazard/hazardous situation with their known featural values is then matched with the known pattern. The concept of multifeature pattern matching based on fuzzy logic is used to derive the rank ordering of process hazards. In multifeature pattern recognition/matching, a sample pattern is compared to a number of known data patterns or a known pattern is compared to a number of sample data patterns. The process assesses which known pattern resembles most closely data sample using Wang's approaching degree method. A methodology has been developed and the same has been exemplified by presenting a case example with a limited number of hazards.

  18. The chemical characterization of the gene: vicissitudes of evidential assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegenga, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The chemical characterization of the substance responsible for the phenomenon of "transformation" of pneumococci was presented in the now famous 1944 paper by Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty. Reception of this work was mixed. Although interpreting their results as evidence that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the molecule responsible for genetic changes was, at the time, controversial, this paper has been retrospectively celebrated as providing such evidence. The mixed and changing assessment of the evidence presented in the paper was due to the work's interpretive flexibility--the evidence was interpreted in various ways, and such interpretations were justified given the neophytic state of molecular biology and methodological limitations of Avery's transformation studies. I argue that the changing context in which the evidence presented by Avery's group was interpreted partly explains the vicissitudes of the assessments of the evidence. Two less compelling explanations of the reception are a myth-making account and an appeal to the wartime historical context of its publication.

  19. Passivation of the surface of aluminum nanopowders by protective coatings of the different chemical origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Soon; Gromov, Alexander A.; Strokova, Julia I.

    2007-04-01

    The results of investigation and analysis of electro-exploded aluminum nanopowders, whose surface were passivated with the following substances: liquids - nitrocellulose (NC), oleic acid (C 17H 33COOH) and stearic acid (C 17H 35COOH), suspended in kerosene and ethanol, fluoropolymer; solids - boron and nickel; gases - N 2, CO 2 and air (for a comparison) are discussed. The surface protection for the aluminum nanopowders by coatings of different chemical origins leads to the some advantages of the powders properties for an application in energetic systems, e.g. solid propellants and "green" propellants (Al-H 2O). Aluminum nanopowders with a protected surface showed the increased stability to oxidation in air during the storage period and higher reactivity by heating. The TEM-visual diagram of the formation and stabilization of the coatings on the particles has been proposed on the basis of experimental results. The kinetics of the interaction of aluminum nanopowders with air has been discussed. The recommendations concerning an efficiency of the protective "non-Al 2O 3" layers on aluminum nanoparticles were proposed.

  20. A mint purified extract protects human keratinocytes from short-term, chemically induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berselli, Patrizia Valeria Rita; Zava, Stefania; Montorfano, Gigliola; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Krzyzanowska, Justyna; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Berra, Bruno; Rizzo, Angela Maria

    2010-11-10

    Oxidative stress is strictly correlated to the pathogenesis of many diseases, and a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, or adequately integrated, is currently considered to be a protective and preventive factor. This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of a 1 h preincubation with the highest nontoxic dose of a characterized Mentha longifolia extract (80 μg/mL) in protecting human keratinocytes (NCTC2544) from chemically induced oxidative stress (500 μM H2O2 for 2, 16, and 24 h). As reference synthetic pure compounds rosmarinic acid (360.31 μg/mL), a major mint phenolic constituent, and resveratrol (31.95 mg/mL), a well-known antioxidant, were used. Cellular viability was significantly protected by mint, which limited protein and DNA damage, decreased lipid peroxidation, and preserved glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity in the shorter phases of oxidative stress induction, in extents comparable to or better than those of pure compounds. These data suggest that mint use as only a flavoring has to be revised, taking into consideration its enrichment in foodstuff and cosmetics.

  1. History of EPI Suite™ and future perspectives on chemical property estimation in US Toxic Substances Control Act new chemical risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Marcella L; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Lee, Wen-Hsiung; Lynch, David G; Orentas, Nerija S; Lee, Mari Titcombe; Wong, Edmund M; Boethling, Robert S

    2017-03-22

    Chemical property estimation is a key component in many industrial, academic, and regulatory activities, including in the risk assessment associated with the approximately 1000 new chemical pre-manufacture notices the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) receives annually. The US EPA evaluates fate, exposure and toxicity under the 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act (amended by the 2016 Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21(st) Century Act), which does not require test data with new chemical applications. Though the submission of data is not required, the US EPA has, over the past 40 years, occasionally received chemical-specific data with pre-manufacture notices. The US EPA has been actively using this and publicly available data to develop and refine predictive computerized models, most of which are housed in EPI Suite™, to estimate chemical properties used in the risk assessment of new chemicals. The US EPA develops and uses models based on (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ([Q]SARs) to estimate critical parameters. As in any evolving field, (Q)SARs have experienced successes, suffered failures, and responded to emerging trends. Correlations of a chemical structure with its properties or biological activity were first demonstrated in the late 19(th) century and today have been encapsulated in a myriad of quantitative and qualitative SARs. The development and proliferation of the personal computer in the late 20(th) century gave rise to a quickly increasing number of property estimation models, and continually improved computing power and connectivity among researchers via the internet are enabling the development of increasingly complex models.

  2. Complementary use of life cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: Lessons learned from chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Successful strategies to handle the potential health and environmental risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) often rely upon the well-established frameworks of life cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA). However, current research and specific guidance on how to actually apply these two...... scientific research efforts have taken into account some key lessons learned from past experiences with chemicals at the same time that many key challenges remain to applying these frameworks to ENM. In that setting, two main proposed approaches to use LCA and RA together for ENM are identified: i) LC...

  3. Can water quality of tubewells be assessed without chemical testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad A.; Butler, Adrian P.

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic is one of the major pollutants found in aquifers on a global scale. The screening of tubewells for arsenic has helped many people to avoid drinking from highly polluted wells in the Bengal Delta (West Bengal and Bangladesh). However, there are still many millions of tubewells in Bangladesh yet to be tested, and a substantial proportion of these are likely to contain excessive arsenic. Due to the level of poverty and lack of infrastructure, it is unlikely that the rest of the tubewells will be tested quickly. However, water quality assessment without needing a chemical testing may be helpful in this case. Studies have found that qualitative factors, such as staining in the tubewell basement and/or on utensils, can indicate subsurface geology and water quality. The science behind this staining is well established, red staining is associated with iron reduction leading to release of arsenic whilst black staining is associated with manganese reduction (any release of arsenic due to manganese reduction is sorbed back on the, yet to be reduced, iron), whereas mixed staining may indicate overlapping manganese and iron reduction at the tubewell screen. Reduction is not uniform everywhere and hence chemical water quality including dissolved arsenic varies from place to place. This is why coupling existing tubewell arsenic information with user derived staining data could be useful in predicting the arsenic status at a particular site. Using well location, depth, along with colour of staining, an assessment of both good (nutrients) and bad (toxins and pathogens) substances in the tubewell could be provided. Social-network technology, combined with increasing use of smartphones, provides a powerful opportunity for both sharing and providing feedback to the user. Here we outline how a simple digital application can couple the reception both qualitative and quantitative tubewell data into a centralised interactive database and provide manipulated feedback to an

  4. A Novel Approach: Chemical Relational Databases, and the Role of the ISSCAN Database on Assessing Chemical Carcinogenity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did no...

  5. A novel approach: chemical relational databases, and the role of the ISSCAN database on assessing chemical carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Richard, Ann M; Yang, Chihae

    2008-01-01

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did not contain chemical structures. Concepts and technologies originated from the structure-activity relationships science have provided powerful tools to create new types of databases, where the effective linkage of chemical toxicity with chemical structure can facilitate and greatly enhance data gathering and hypothesis generation, by permitting: a) exploration across both chemical and biological domains; and b) structure-searchability through the data. This paper reviews the main public databases, together with the progress in the field of chemical relational databases, and presents the ISSCAN database on experimental chemical carcinogens.

  6. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer C; Welday, Jennifer N; Buckley, Brian; Ferguson, Alesia; Gurian, Patrick L; Mena, Kristina D; Yang, Ill; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2016-08-27

    Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V) and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10(-6) range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children's beach play habits, which are necessary to more

  7. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Black

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10−6 range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children’s beach play habits, which are

  8. Assessing preferential flow by simultaneously injecting nanoparticle and chemical tracers

    KAUST Repository

    Subramanian, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    The exact manner in which preferential (e.g., much faster than average) flow occurs in the subsurface through small fractures or permeable connected pathways of other kinds is important to many processes but is difficult to determine, because most chemical tracers diffuse quickly enough from small flow channels that they appear to move more uniformly through the rock than they actually do. We show how preferential flow can be assessed by injecting 2 to 5 nm carbon particles (C-Dots) and an inert KBr chemical tracer at different flow rates into a permeable core channel that is surrounded by a less permeable matrix in laboratory apparatus of three different designs. When the KBr tracer has a long enough transit through the system to diffuse into the matrix, but the C-Dot tracer does not, the C-Dot tracer arrives first and the KBr tracer later, and the separation measures the degree of preferential flow. Tracer sequestration in the matrix can be estimated with a Peclet number, and this is useful for experiment design. A model is used to determine the best fitting core and matrix dispersion parameters and refine estimates of the core and matrix porosities. Almost the same parameter values explain all experiments. The methods demonstrated in the laboratory can be applied to field tests. If nanoparticles can be designed that do not stick while flowing through the subsurface, the methods presented here could be used to determine the degree of fracture control in natural environments, and this capability would have very wide ranging value and applicability.

  9. Evaluation of EU Risk assessments Existing Chemicals (EC Regulation 793/93)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; Berthault F; Bruijn JHM de; Leeuwen CJ van; Pronk MEJ; Vermeire TG; CSR

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation was performed on the first group (41) of completed risk assessments for chemicals of the EU priority lists (Existing Chemicals; EC Regulation 793/93). The evaluation focussed on the conclusions of the risk assessments. The EU risk assessment process detected a high number of substance

  10. Radiological and chemical assessment of phosphate rocks in some countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, U., E-mail: ugurc@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, Trabzon (Turkey); Baltas, H. [Rize University, Department of Physics, Rize (Turkey); Tabak, A. [Rize University, Department of Chemistry, Rize (Turkey); Damla, N. [Batman University, Department of Physics, Batman (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, the radiological, structural and chemical characterizations of Mardin-Mazidagi phosphate rock, which is an important phosphate fertilizer source in Turkey were investigated and compared to those of several different phosphate rocks of Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria and Syria using gamma spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement techniques. Elemental analysis results of phosphate samples showed that they were mainly composed of CaO, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SO{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Elemental concentrations of U and Th were calculated using {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th activity concentrations, respectively. As a result of XRD analysis, the main peaks of the samples were found to be Fluorapatite (Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F). The radioactivity concentration levels for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in all phosphate samples ranged from 250 to 1029 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean of 535 Bq kg{sup -1}, from 5 to 50 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean of 20 Bq kg{sup -1} and from 117 to 186 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean of 148 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The computed values of annual effective doses ranged from 0.17 to 0.59 mSv, with a mean value of 0.33 mSv, which is lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  11. Risk Assessment Methodology for Protecting Our Critical Physical Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BIRINGER,BETTY E.; DANNEELS,JEFFREY J.

    2000-12-13

    Critical infrastructures are central to our national defense and our economic well-being, but many are taken for granted. Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 63 highlights the importance of eight of our critical infrastructures and outlines a plan for action. Greatly enhanced physical security systems will be required to protect these national assets from new and emerging threats. Sandia National Laboratories has been the lead laboratory for the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and deploying physical security systems for the past twenty-five years. Many of the tools, processes, and systems employed in the protection of high consequence facilities can be adapted to the civilian infrastructure.

  12. From incremental to fundamental substitution in chemical alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Weber, Roland; Scheringer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    to similarity in chemical structures and, hence, similar hazard profiles between phase-out and substitute chemicals, leading to a rather incremental than fundamental substitution. A hampered phase-out process, the lack of implementing Green Chemistry principles in chemicals design, and lack of Sustainable...... Chemistry aspects in industrial processes design constitute additional challenges. We illustrate the various challenges in the process of phasing out and successfully substituting hazardous chemicals in consumer products and provide guiding principles for addressing these challenges. We propose...

  13. Evaluating uncertainties in an integrated approach for chemical risk assessment under REACH: more certain decisions?

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeire, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on uncertainty and variability in the risk assessment methodology for industrial chemicals as applied within the current regulatory framework for industrial chemicals in Europe, REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals). The methodological approaches discussed address the risk assessment for both humans and the environment. The aim of this thesis is to investigate in what way the scientific process of risk assessment can improve deci...

  14. Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last....../corrosive chemicals will remain serious risks also in future the development of plausible scenarios for potential emerging risks is also needed. This includes risks from new mixtures and chemicals (e.g. nanoparticles)....

  15. Integrating Multiple Spatial Datasets to Assess Protected Areas: Lessons Learnt from the Digital Observatory for Protected Area (DOPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire Dubois

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA has been developed to support the European Union’s efforts in strengthening our capacity to mobilize and use biodiversity data so that they are readily accessible to policymakers, managers, researchers and other users. Assessing protected areas for biodiversity conservation at national, regional and international scales implies that methods and tools are in place to evaluate characteristics such as the protected areas’ connectivity, their species assemblages (including the presence of threatened species, the uniqueness of their ecosystems, and the threats these areas are exposed to. Typical requirements for such analyses are data on protected areas, information on species distributions and threat status, and information on ecosystem distributions. By integrating all these global data consistently in metrics and indicators, the DOPA provides the means to allow end-users to evaluate protected areas individually but also to compare protected areas at the country and ecoregion level to, for example, identify potential priorities for further conservation research, action and funding. Since the metrics and indicators are available through web services, the DOPA further allows end-users to develop their own applications without requiring management of large databases and processing capacities. In addition to examples illustrating how the DOPA can be used as an aid to decision making, we discuss the lessons learnt in the development of this global biodiversity information system, and outline planned future developments for further supporting conservation strategies.

  16. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of Physalis peruviana root as hepato-renal protective agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hassan, Emad E; Hamed, Manal A; Zahran, Hanan G; Mohammed, Mona A

    2013-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential of Physalis peruviana root as a functional food with hepato-renal protective effects against fibrosis. The chemical composition of the plant root suggested the presence of alkaloids, withanolides and flavonoids. Five compounds were isolated and their structures elucidated by different spectral analysis techniques. One compound was isolated from the roots: cuscohygrine. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups; control rats, control treated with ethanolic root extract, CCl(4) group, CCl(4) treated with root extract, and CCl(4) treated with silymarin as a standard herbal drug. The evaluation used the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO). The liver function indices; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, and total hepatic protein were also estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers; creatinine, urea, and serum protein were also evaluated. The results suggested safe administration, and improvement of all the investigated parameters. The liver and kidney histopathological analysis confirmed the results. In conclusion, P. peruviana succeeded in protecting the liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to discern their pharmacological applications and clinical uses.

  17. Basic fibroblast growth factor protects against excitotoxicity and chemical hypoxia in both neonatal and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, P B; Henshaw, R; Weise, J; Trubetskoy, V; Finklestein, S; Schulz, J B; Beal, M F

    1995-07-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a polypeptide growth factor that promotes neuronal survival. We recently found that systemic administration of bFGF protects against both excitotoxicity and hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal animals. In the present study, we examined whether systemically administered bFGF could prevent neuronal death induced by intrastriatal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or chemical hypoxia induced by intrastriatal injection of malonate in adult rats and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in neonatal rats. Systemic administration of bFGF (100 micrograms/kg) for three doses both before and after intrastriatal injection of either NMDA or malonate in adult rats produced a significant neuroprotective effect. In neonatal rats, bFGF produced dose-dependent significant neuroprotective effects against MPP+ neurotoxicity, with a maximal protection of approximately 50% seen with either a single dose of bFGF of 300 micrograms/kg or three doses of 100 micrograms/kg. These results show that systemic administration of bFGF is effective in preventing neuronal injury under circumstances in which the blood-brain barrier may be compromised, raising the possibility that this strategy could be effective in stroke.

  18. Development and Assessment of Advanced Reactor Core Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    in, Wang-Kee; Park, Young-Ho; Baeg, Seung-Yeob

    An advanced core protection system for a pressurized water reactor, Reactor Core Protection System(RCOPS), was developed by adopting a high performance hardware platform and optimal system configuration. The functional algorithms of the core protection system were also improved to enhance the plant availability by reducing unnecessary reactor trips and increasing operational margin. The RCOPS consists of four independent safety channels providing a two-out-of-four trip logic. The reliability analysis using the reliability block diagram method showed the unavailability of the RCOPS to be lower than the conventional system. The failure mode and effects analysis demonstrated that the RCOPS does not lose its intended safety functions for most failures. New algorithms for the RCOPS functional design were implemented in order to avoid unnecessary reactor trips by providing auxiliary pre-trip alarms and signal validation logic for the control rod position. The new algorithms in the RCOPS were verified by comparing the RCOPS calculations with reference results. The new thermal margin algorithm for the RCOPS was expected to increase the operational margin to the limit for Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) by approximately 1%.

  19. Chemical photoallergy: photobiochemical mechanisms, classification, and risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Satomi; Seto, Yoshiki; Sato, Hideyuki; Nishida, Hayato; Hirota, Morihiko; Ashikaga, Takao; Api, Anne Marie; Basketter, David; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    Chemical photosensitivity can be elicited by exposure of the skin to various pharmaceutical substances, foods, cosmetics and other environmental chemicals, followed by exposure to sunlight. There are at least three types of chemical photosensitivity, i.e., photoirritancy (narrowly defined as phototoxicity), photogenotoxicity and photoallergenicity, and their clinical characteristics and mechanisms are quite different. Concerns about chemical photoallergy is increasing, and various studies have been made to clarify the photobiochemical characteristics of photoallergens and the mechanisms involved. Various methodologies, including in silico prediction models, photochemical assay systems, and in vitro phototoxicity prediction tools, have been developed to predict the photoallergenic potential of chemicals over the past few years. The aim of this manuscript is to review the clinical characteristics, pathogenetic mechanisms and photobiochemical features of photoallergens, with special emphasis on the current status about development of screening systems for predicting photoallergenic potential of chemicals.

  20. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  1. Using ecological null models to assess the potential for marine protected area networks to protect biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Brice X; Auster, Peter J; Paddack, Michelle J

    2010-01-27

    Marine protected area (MPA) networks have been proposed as a principal method for conserving biological diversity, yet patterns of diversity may ultimately complicate or compromise the development of such networks. We show how a series of ecological null models can be applied to assemblage data across sites in order to identify non-random biological patterns likely to influence the effectiveness of MPA network design. We use fish census data from Caribbean fore-reefs as a test system and demonstrate that: 1) site assemblages were nested, such that species found on sites with relatively few species were subsets of those found on sites with relatively many species, 2) species co-occurred across sites more than expected by chance once species-habitat associations were accounted for, and 3) guilds were most evenly represented at the richest sites and richness among all guilds was correlated (i.e., species and trophic diversity were closely linked). These results suggest that the emerging Caribbean marine protected area network will likely be successful at protecting regional diversity even if planning is largely constrained by insular, inventory-based design efforts. By recasting ecological null models as tests of assemblage patterns likely to influence management action, we demonstrate how these classic tools of ecological theory can be brought to bear in applied conservation problems.

  2. Using ecological null models to assess the potential for marine protected area networks to protect biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice X Semmens

    Full Text Available Marine protected area (MPA networks have been proposed as a principal method for conserving biological diversity, yet patterns of diversity may ultimately complicate or compromise the development of such networks. We show how a series of ecological null models can be applied to assemblage data across sites in order to identify non-random biological patterns likely to influence the effectiveness of MPA network design. We use fish census data from Caribbean fore-reefs as a test system and demonstrate that: 1 site assemblages were nested, such that species found on sites with relatively few species were subsets of those found on sites with relatively many species, 2 species co-occurred across sites more than expected by chance once species-habitat associations were accounted for, and 3 guilds were most evenly represented at the richest sites and richness among all guilds was correlated (i.e., species and trophic diversity were closely linked. These results suggest that the emerging Caribbean marine protected area network will likely be successful at protecting regional diversity even if planning is largely constrained by insular, inventory-based design efforts. By recasting ecological null models as tests of assemblage patterns likely to influence management action, we demonstrate how these classic tools of ecological theory can be brought to bear in applied conservation problems.

  3. Assessing the efficiency of information protection systems in the computer systems and networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nachev, Atanas; Zhelezov, Stanimir

    2015-01-01

    The specific features of the information protection systems in the computer systems and networks require the development of non-trivial methods for their analysis and assessment. Attempts for solutions in this area are given in this paper.

  4. On-Orbit Health Monitoring and Repair Assessment of Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers On-orbit health MoNItoring and repair assessment of THERMal protection systems (OMNI_THERM). OMNI_THERM features impedance-based...

  5. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Office of pesticides programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner-Crisp, P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs is trying to develop a complete picture of a chemical`s toxicity and exposure profile. It is also important to share information in the office`s files because of pesticides, particularly as a consequence of agricultural use, find their way into places not necessarily intended.

  6. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Design and Implementation of Emergy-Based Sustainability Decision Assessment System for Protected Grape Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic “high input and output” in protected production has caused some environmental and ecological issues. Hence, emergy-based sustainability assessments are necessary and valuable. However, traditional emergy analysis is time consuming, tedious, and inefficient. Such disadvantages can be addressed by the integration of emergy analysis with information technology. This paper reports the development of the emergy-based sustainability decision assessment system (ESDAS) for protecte...

  9. Assessing the effects of chemicals on aquatic microbial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha Dimitrov, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, an increasing number of synthetic chemicals are used in a vast range of applications. When reflecting about our daily activities, it is not difficult to realize how much of our life style is dependent on synthetic chemicals. From the food we eat, medicines we take to the health care produc

  10. Guidance for risk assessment of chemicals for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink G; Engelen JGM van; Raaij MTM van; SIR

    2007-01-01

    Every day humans are exposed to chemicals, either from food and/or non-food sources, such as consumer products. In regulatory toxicology, recent attention has focussed on the possible differences between children and adults with respect to susceptibility and exposure to chemicals. The present RIVM r

  11. Models for risk assessment of reactive chemicals in aquatic toxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freidig, Andreas Peter

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for a,b-unsaturated carboxylates (mainly acrylates and methacrylates) was established in chapter 2. Chemical reaction rate constants were measured for 12 different chemicals with three different nucleophiles, namely H 2 O, OH - and glutathione (G

  12. Health risk assessment for chemical exposures of military interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Polhuijs, M.; Sijbranda, T.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in military operations is accompanied by health hazards resulting from exposure to chemical substances from natural and anthropogenic sources. Historically, focus on toxicological risks has been on the health effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents (CW A). In recent years the aw

  13. SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT BASED ON CHEMICAL, ENZYMATIC AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia-Paulina BALAURE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the problem of soil pollution as the result of human activities. Soil pollutans may be either chemicals or biological in nature. microbial enzymatic activities are often proposed as indicators of environmental stress. The soil samples were submitted by chemical, microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Chemical analyses were been made for determinating the heavy metals. Heavy metals from the forest soil were represented by Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. To evaluate the concentration in heavy metals from the filtrate, we used a acetylene-nitrous oxide flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Potential dehydrogenase activity, the only indicator of the possible sources of pollution, excluded the presence of either chemical or biological pollution. The number of bacteria involved in the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in the analyzed soil indicated a high efficiency regarding the mineralization of the organic residues of plant and animal origin.

  14. Differential Chemical Protection of Mammalian Cells from the Exotoxins of ’Corynebacterium diphtheriae’ and ’Pseudomonas aeruginosa’,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many drugs or chemicals had markedly different effects on the cytotoxicity induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PE) or Corynebacterium ... diphtheriae exotoxin (DE). The glycolytic inhibitor NaF protected cells from DE but potentiated the cytotoxicity of PE. Another energy inhibitor, salicylic

  15. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzani, Claudio

    This report provides an initial analysis of the occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the Italian metal and chemical industries. The first two chapters review the legislative background, situation in industry, and provision of environmental education and training. The third chapter presents results…

  16. Effects of a Modified Through-Mask Drinking System (MDS) on Fluid Intake During Exercise in Chemical Protective Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-12

    in chemical protective gear. METHODS Test Subiects: Eighteen (18) unacclimated male volunteers were recruited from the military population at USARIEM...hydration status, a pretest urine sample was analyzed for specific gravity ( refractometry ) and no significant difference was observed between the two

  17. Late effects from whole body irradiation and protection by chemical and biological agents. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maisin, J.R. [Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Gerber, G.B.

    2000-07-01

    This review described studies attempting to reduce damage of exposure to ionizing radiation with an application of chemical or biological agents by illustrating authors' data to point out which possibilities such protectors might hold in future. Authors described their studies on mice exposed to a single or fractionated dose of X-rays at the Belgian Atomic Center at Mol. Mice were irradiated with 250 kV of X-rays at a dose rate of 1 Gy/min or underwent the fractionated irradiation of 1-week intervals with total dose of 2-25 Gy. Before irradiation, some animals were given glutathione, mercaptoethylamine, cystein, serotonine-creatine, 2{beta}-aminoethylisothiuronium, and other agents, alone or as a mixture. Results indicated that radioprotectors reduced many specific late diseases to different degrees together with protection against tumor induction which other investigators had shown. Future prospects were considered for ideal radioprotectors and searches for new radioprotectors and for combination of biological agents (e.g., cytokines with polysaccharides or prostaglandins) were described. (K.H.)

  18. AB Blanket for Cities (for continual pleasant weather and protection from chemical, biological and radioactive weapons)

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In a series of previous articles (see references) the author offered to cover a city or other important large installations or subregions by a transparent thin film supported by a small additional air overpressure under the form of an AB Dome. The building of a gigantic inflatable AB Dome over an empty flat surface is not difficult. However, if we want to cover a city, garden, forest or other obstacle course we cannot easily deploy the thin film over building or trees. In this article is suggested a new method which solves this problem. The idea is to design a double film blanket filled by light gas (for example, methane, hydrogen, or helium). Sections of this AB Blanket are lighter then air and fly in atmosphere. They can be made on a flat area (serving as an assembly area) and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to station at altitude over the city. Here they connect to the already assembled AB Blanket subassemblies, cover the city in an AB Dome and protect it from bad weather, chemical, biological and rad...

  19. Determination of solvents permeating through chemical protective clothing with a microsensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Zellers, E T

    2000-08-01

    The performance of a novel prototype instrument in determining solvents and solvent mixtures permeating through samples of chemical protective clothing (CPC) materials was evaluated. The instrument contains a mini-preconcentrator and an array of three polymer-coated surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) microsensors whose collective response patterns are used to discriminate among multiple permeants. Permeation tests were performed with a 2.54 cm diameter test cell in an open-loop configuration on samples of common glove materials challenged with four individual solvents, three binary mixtures, and two ternary mixtures. Breakthrough times, defined as the times required for the permeation rate to reach a value of 1 microg cm(-2) min(-1), determined by the instrument were within 3 min of those determined in parallel by manual sampling and gas chromatographic analysis. Permeating solvents were recognized (identified) from their response patterns in 59 out of 64 measurements (92%) and their vapor concentrations were quantified to an accuracy of +/- 31% (typically +/- 10%). These results demonstrate the potential for such instrumentation to provide semi-automated field or bench-top screening of CPC permeation resistance.

  20. Tools to prevent process safety events at university research facility - chemical risk assessment and experimental set-up risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the two forms developed to examine the hazards of the chemicals to be used in the experiments in the experimental setup in the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark. A system for the safety assessment of new experimental...

  1. Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: A new challenge for employers

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Piotr Gromiec; Małgorzata Kupczewska-Dobecka; Agnieszka Jankowska; Sławomir Czerczak

    2013-01-01

    Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation e...

  2. Retrospective assessment of exposure to chemicals for a microelectronics and business machine manufacturing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Donald A; Woskie, Susan R; Jones, James H; Silver, Sharon R; Luo, Lian; Bertke, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment was performed for use in a health outcomes study of a facility manufacturing circuit boards, business machines, and other equipment during the years 1969-2002. A matrix was developed identifying chemical use by department-year based on company-provided information. Use of six chemical agents (fiberglass, lead, methylene chloride, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene) and six chemical classes (acid-base, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, other hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, and metals), and general (including unspecified) chemicals was identified. The matrix also contained an assignment for each department-year categorizing the potential for use of chemicals as negligible, intermittent/incidental, or routine. These department-based exposure matrix data were combined with work history data to provide duration of potential chemical use for workers. Negligible, intermittent/incidental or routine extent-of-chemical-use categories comprised 42.6%, 39.4%, and 17.9%, respectively, of total person-years of employment. Cumulative exposure scores were also developed, representing a relative measure of the cumulative extent of potential exposure to the six chemical agents, six chemical classes, and general (including unspecified) chemicals. Additionally, the study period was divided into manufacturing eras showing trends in chemical use, and showing that process use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride ended in the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, respectively. This approach may be useful in other assessments addressing a variety of chemicals, and with data constraints common to retrospective chemical exposure studies.

  3. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework Directive: Recommendations for more efficient assessment and management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Werner; Dulio, Valeria; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Allan, Ian; Altenburger, Rolf; Brinkmann, Markus; Bunke, Dirk; Burgess, Robert M; Cousins, Ian; Escher, Beate I; Hernández, Félix J; Hewitt, L Mark; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Klauer, Bernd; Lindim, Claudia; Herráez, David López; Miège, Cécil; Munthe, John; O'Toole, Simon; Posthuma, Leo; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfer, Ralf B; Sengl, Manfred; Smedes, Foppe; van de Meent, Dik; van den Brink, Paul J; van Gils, Jos; van Wezel, Annemarie P; Vethaak, A Dick; Vermeirssen, Etienne; von der Ohe, Peter C; Vrana, Branislav

    2017-01-15

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of European freshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has faced some challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the European monitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science and suggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensive prioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters. The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integrated strategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approaches to advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic "chemical status" assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historical burdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessment of contamination. Solution-oriented management should apply a tiered approach in investigative monitoring to identify toxicity drivers, strengthen consistent legislative frameworks and apply solutions-oriented approaches that explore risk reduction scenarios before and along with risk assessment.

  4. The use of environmental impact assessment in protecting the built cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Errol David

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the application of the environmental impact assessment as a means of protecting the built and cultural heritage during and after the construction of the new national opera house in the Holmen area of Copenhagen. It assesses the affect the new building has had...... on the surrounding built and cultural heritage and examines how the environmental impact assessment was used during the development process....

  5. Assessment of hazards and risks for landscape protection planning in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Landscape protection planning is a complex task that requires an integrated assessment and involves heterogeneous issues. These issues include not only the management of a considerable amount of data to describe landscape features but also the choice of appropriate tools to evaluate the hazards and risks. The landscape assessment phase can provide fundamental information for the definition of a Landscape Protection Plan, in which the selection of norms for protection or rehabilitation is strictly related to hazards, values and risks that are found. This paper describes a landscape assessment methodology conducted by using GIS, concerning landscape hazards, values and risk. Four hazard categories are introduced and assessed concerning urban sprawl and erosion: landscape transformations by new planned developments, intensification of urban sprawl patterns, loss of agriculture land and erosion. Landscape value is evaluated by using different thematic layers overlaid with GIS geoprocessing. The risk of loss of landscape value is evaluated, with reference to the potential occurrence of the previously assessed hazards. The case study is the Province of Enna (Sicily), where landscape protection is a relevant issue because of the importance of cultural and natural heritage. Results show that high value landscape features have a low risk of loss of landscape value. For this reason, landscape protection policies assume a relevant role in landscapes with low-medium values and they should be addressed to control the urban sprawl processes that are beginning in the area.

  6. White paper on the promotion of an integrated risk assessment concept in European regulatory frameworks for chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, M F; Roth, N; Aicher, L; Faust, M; Papadaki, P; Marchis, A; Calliera, M; Ginebreda, A; Andres, S; Kühne, R; Schüürmann, G

    2015-07-15

    The vision of a sustainable and safe use of chemicals to protect human health, preserve the environment and maintain the ecosystem requires innovative and more holistic approaches to risk assessment (RA) in order to better inform decision making. Integrated risk assessment (IRA) has been proposed as a solution to current scientific, societal and policy needs. It is defined as the mutual exploitation of environmental risk assessment (ERA) for human health risk assessment (HHRA) and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process. Extrapolating between species which are relevant for HHRA and ERA requires a detailed understanding of pathways of toxicity/modes of action (MoA) for the various toxicological endpoints. Significant scientific advances, changes in chemical legislation, and increasing environmental consciousness have created a favourable scientific and regulatory environment to develop and promote the concept and vision of IRA. An initial proof of concept is needed to foster the incorporation of IRA approaches into different chemical sectorial regulations and demonstrate their reliability for regulatory purposes. More familiarity and confidence with IRA will ultimately contribute to an overall reduction in in vivo toxicity testing requirements. However, significant progress will only be made if long-term support for MoA-related research is secured. In the short term, further exchange and harmonization of RA terminology, models and methodologies across chemical categories and regulatory agencies will support these efforts. Since societal values, public perceptions and cultural factors are of increasing importance for the acceptance of risk analysis and successful implementation of risk mitigation measures, the integration of socio-economic analysis and socio-behavioural considerations into the risk analysis process may help to produce a more

  7. Estimation methods for bioaccumulation in risk assessment of organic chemicals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.T.; Hamers, T.

    1997-01-01

    The methodology for estimating bioaccumulation of organic chemicals is evaluated. This study is limited to three types of organisms: fish, earthworms and plants (leaf crops, root crops and grass). We propose a simple mechanistic model for estimating BCFs which performs well against measured data. To

  8. Estimation methods for bioaccumulation in risk assessment of organic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager DT; Hamers T; ECO

    1997-01-01

    The methodology for estimating bioaccumulation of organic chemicals is evaluated. This study is limited to three types of organisms: fish, earthworms and plants (leaf crops, root crops and grass). We propose a simple mechanistic model for estimating BCFs which performs well against measured data. To

  9. TSCA Work Plan Chemical Risk Assessment: 1-Bromopropane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1-Bromopropane (CASRN 106-94-5): or 1-BP is a volatile organic chemical that is considered moderately persistent in the environment but does not have the potential to bioaccumulate in fish or other animals. The majority of the 1-BP production volume (~ 47%) is used as a vapor deg...

  10. Protection of aluminium by chemical nickel plating against corrosion provoked by mercury - effect of fixing coat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fares, C.; Merati, A. [Electrochemistry and Corrosion Laboratory, EMP BP17, Bordj El Bahri. 16111 Algiers (Algeria); Belouchrani, M.A. [Engineering Materials Laboratory, EMP BP 17, Bordj El Bahri, 16111 Algiers (Algeria)

    2004-07-01

    The aluminium structures are often met in the oil installations and for certain producer countries of oil, this matter contains a certain mercury rate. Like, Aluminium in contact with this metal is degraded by amalgamation, much of efforts are provided to trap mercury upstream installations in question by the means of specific absorbers. However, this trapping is not total, and corrosion by mercury even with the state of traces always threatens. In this context, and for the intention of preserving these installations even in the presence of corrosive metal, we recommended a solution which consists in applying a metal chemical nickel coating using the sodium hypophosphite like reducer. The choice of this process is especially dictated by the complex geometry of the parts to protect. Indeed, the metallization of aluminium requires fixing coat; in our case the latter is also selected out of nickel and is deposited by 'displacement' starting from an acid bath containing of nickel sulphate in strong concentration. In experiments, it was noted that 'displacement' is not carried out instantaneously, but rather gradually according to time. So covering was followed in two manners: initially for durations of treatment ranging between 10 and 50 minutes per step of 10, then for lower durations between 2 and 8 minutes per step of 2. In the first case, the total treatment (chemical fixing coat + nickel plating) was fixed at one hour, whereas in the other case this same time was reserved only for nickel plating (external deposit). The deposits carried out were characterized by the impact of shock thermal tests for the appreciation of their adherence, and by examinations under the optic microscope and the SEM. This study was supplemented by tests of corrosion in saline medium and in the presence of mercury by using the layouts of the curves of potential according to time and the curves intensity-potential. The results obtained show that the fixing coat improves

  11. Chemical analysis and in vitro UV-protection characteristics of clays traditionally used for sun protection in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlova, Ncoza C; Nevondo, Funanani T; Mwangi, Elizabeth M; Summers, Beverley; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce; Martincigh, Bice S; Mulholland, Dulcie A

    2013-06-01

    Clays have been used in southern Africa as photoprotectants by the indigenous people. Typically, two types of clay are used: one white in colour and the other red. In this work, the two clays were identified and characterized, and their in vitro SPF values measured. The clays afford a low SPF but offer broad-spectrum protection. No cutaneous side effects from the use of these clays are known. Further consideration should be given to the potential use of clays in sunscreen preparations.

  12. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

  13. A quantitative screening-level approach to incorporate chemical exposure and risk/safety into alternative assessment evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Greggs, Bill; Goyak, Katy O; Landenberger, Bryce D; Mason, Ann M; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2017-03-10

    As the general public and retailers ask for disclosure of chemical ingredients in the marketplace, a number of hazard screening tools were developed to evaluate the so called "greenness" of individual chemical ingredients and/or formulations. The majority of these tools focus only on hazard, often using chemical lists, ignoring the other part of the risk equation: exposure. Using a hazard-only focus can result in regrettable substitutions, changing one chemical ingredient for another that turns out to be more hazardous or shifts the toxicity burden to others. To minimize the incidents of regrettable substitutions, BizNGO describes 'Common Principles' to frame a process for informed substitution. Two of the six principles state reduce hazard and minimize exposure. A number of frameworks have emerged to evaluate and assess alternatives. One framework developed by leading experts under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences recommended that hazard and exposure be specifically addressed in the same step when assessing candidate alternatives. For the alternative assessment community, this paper serves as an informational resource for considering exposure in an alternatives assessment using elements of problem formulation; product identity, use, and composition; hazard analysis; exposure analysis; and risk characterization. These conceptual elements build upon practices from government, academia, and industry and are exemplified through two hypothetical case studies demonstrating the questions asked and decisions faced in new product development. These two case studies - inhalation exposure to a generic paint product and environmental exposure to a shampoo rinsed down the drain - demonstrate the criteria, considerations, and methods required to combine exposure models addressing human health and environmental impacts to provide a screening level hazard/exposure (risk) analysis. This paper informs practices for these elements within a comparative risk

  14. Nation-wide primary healthcare research network: a privacy protection assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Etienne; Van Casteren, Viviane; Bossuyt, Nathalie; Moreels, Sarah; Goderis, Geert; Bartholomeeusen, Stefaan; Bonte, Pierre; Bangels, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency and privacy protection are essential when setting up nationwide research networks. This paper investigates the extent to which basic services developed to support the provision of care can be re-used, whilst preserving an acceptable privacy protection level, within a large Belgian primary care research network. The generic sustainable confidentiality management model used to assess the privacy protection level of the selected network architecture is described. A short analysis of the current architecture is provided. Our generic model could also be used in other countries.

  15. Oxidation Protection Systems for Carbon-Carbon Composites Formed by Chemical Vapor Deposition and Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-22

    transducer, ie. a more positive scaleI I 34 thickness of fairly continuous conversion layer carbon 10 , •O.0000 resina 0 0 Fiber O0c00.a 0 Bundlea • 06...thermal and oxidative environments. It should meet four main requirements: adequate adhesion between substrate and coating; maximum resistance to...resistance and good coating adhesion . (2) CVD Coatings I Currently, the most successful protective coating for carbon-carbon composite is CVD SiC. Coatings

  16. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at selected protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.

  17. The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects database (CAFE), a tool that supports assessments of chemical spills in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Farr, James K; Jenne, Polly; Chu, Valerie; Hielscher, Al

    2016-06-01

    The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database is a centralized repository that allows for rapid and unrestricted access to data. Information in CAFE is integrated into a user-friendly tool with modules containing fate and effects data for 32 377 and 4498 chemicals, respectively. Toxicity data are summarized in the form of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) with associated 1st and 5th percentile hazard concentrations (HCs). An assessment of data availability relative to reported chemical incidents showed that CAFE had fate and toxicity data for 32 and 20 chemicals, respectively, of 55 chemicals reported in the US National Response Center database (2000-2014), and fate and toxicity data for 86 and 103, respectively, of 205 chemicals reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2003-2014). Modeled environmental concentrations of 2 hypothetical spills (acrylonitrile, 625 barrels; and denatured ethanol, 857 barrels) were used to demonstrate CAFE's practical application. Most species in the 24-h SSD could be potentially impacted by acrylonitrile and denatured ethanol during the first 35 min and 15 h post spill, respectively, with concentrations falling below their HC5s (17 mg/L and 2676 mg/L) at 45 min and 60 h post spill, respectively. Comparisons of CAFE-based versus published HC5 values for 100 chemicals showed that nearly half of values were within a 2-fold difference, with a relatively small number of comparisons exceeding a 10-fold difference. The development of CAFE facilitates access to relevant environmental information, with potential uses likely expanding beyond those related to assessment of spills in aquatic environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1576-1586. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Probabilistic safety assessment in the chemical and nuclear industries

    CERN Document Server

    Fullwood, Ralph R

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) determines the probability and consequences of accidents, hence, the risk. This subject concerns policy makers, regulators, designers, educators and engineers working to achieve maximum safety with operational efficiency. Risk is analyzed using methods for achieving reliability in the space program. The first major application was to the nuclear power industry, followed by applications to the chemical industry. It has also been applied to space, aviation, defense, ground, and water transportation. This book is unique in its treatment of chemical and nuclear risk. Problems are included at the end of many chapters, and answers are in the back of the book. Computer files are provided (via the internet), containing reliability data, a calculator that determines failure rate and uncertainty based on field experience, pipe break calculator, event tree calculator, FTAP and associated programs for fault tree analysis, and a units conversion code. It contains 540 references and many...

  19. An assessment of nondestructive testing technologies for chemical weapons monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, T.T.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), with the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), completed testing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology on live agent systems. The tests were conducted at Tooele Army Depot during August 1992. The Nondestructive Evaluation systems were tested for potential use in verifying chemical treaty requirements. Five technologies, two neutron and three acoustic, were developed at DOE laboratories. Two systems from the United Kingdom (one neutron and one acoustic) were also included in the field trials. All systems tested showed the ability to distinguish among the VX, GB, and Mustard. Three of the systems (two acoustic and one neutron) were used by On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) personnel.

  20. Bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beronius, Anna; Hanberg, Annika; Zilliacus, Johanna; Rudén, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory risk assessment is traditionally based primarily on toxicity studies conducted according to standardized and internationally validated test guidelines. However, health risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is argued to rely on the efficient integration of findings from academic research. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of current developments to facilitate the use of academic research in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals and how certain aspects of study design and reporting are particularly important for the risk assessment process. By bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of EDCs, scientific uncertainty in risk assessment conclusions can be reduced, allowing for better targeted policy decisions for chemical risk reduction.

  1. International Frameworks Dealing with Human Risk Assessment of Combined Exposure to Multiple Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of harmonised terminology and frameworks for the human risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals (“chemical mixtures” is an important area for EFSA and a number of activities have already been undertaken, i.e. in the fields of pesticides and contaminants. The first step prior to a risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals is problem formulation defining the relevant exposure, hazard and population to be considered. In practice, risk assessment of multiple chemicals is conducted using a tiered approach for exposure assessment, hazard assessment and risk characterisation. Higher tiers require increasing knowledge about the group of chemicals under assessment and the tiers can range from tier 0 (default values, data poor situation to tier 3 (full probabilistic models. This scientific report reviews the terminology, methodologies and frameworks developed by national and international agencies for the human risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals and provides recommendations for future activities at EFSA in this area.

  2. Integration of chemical-specific exposure and pharmacokinetic information with the chemical-agnostic AOP framework to support high throughput risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework and high throughput toxicity testing in chemical-specific risk assessment requires reconciliation of chemical concentrations sufficient to trigger a molecular initiating event measured in vitro and at the relevant target ...

  3. 76 FR 77252 - Established Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... 2012'' was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 56809). That notice proposed the 2012 assessment of..., Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine for 2012 AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Department of... the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine. DATES: Effective...

  4. Male Fathead Minnow Urine-Based Metabolomics for Assessing Impacts of Chemical Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed the potential for profiling metabolites in urine from male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to assess chemical exposures, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy was us...

  5. Organism and population-level ecological models for chemical risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological risk assessment typically focuses on animal populations as endpoints for regulatory ecotoxicology. Scientists at USEPA are developing models for animal populations exposed to a wide range of chemicals from pesticides to emerging contaminants. Modeled taxa include aquat...

  6. Decay accelerating factor (CD55 protects neuronal cells from chemical hypoxia-induced injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokos George C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated complement system is known to mediate neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration following exposure to hypoxic-ischemic insults. Therefore, inhibition of the complement activation cascade may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for the management of ischemic brain injury. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF, also known as CD55 inhibits complement activation by suppressing the function of C3/C5 convertases, thereby limiting local generation or deposition of C3a/C5a and membrane attack complex (MAC or C5b-9 production. The present study investigates the ability of DAF to protect primary cultured neuronal cells subjected to sodium cyanide (NaCN-induced hypoxia from degeneration and apoptosis. Methods Cultured primary cortical neurons from embryonic Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned one of four groups: control, DAF treatment alone, hypoxic, or hypoxic treated with DAF. Hypoxic cultures were exposed to NaCN for 1 hour, rinsed, followed by 24 hour exposure to 200 ng/ml of recombinant human DAF in normal medium. Human DAF was used in the present study and it has been shown to effectively regulate complement activation in rats. Neuronal cell function, morphology and viability were investigated by measuring plateau depolarization potential, counting the number dendritic spines, and observing TUNEL and MTT assays. Complement C3, C3a, C3a receptor (R production, C3a-C3aR interaction and MAC formation were assessed along with the generation of activated caspase-9, activated caspase-3, and activated Src. Results When compared to controls, hypoxic cells had fewer dendritic spines, reduced plateau depolarization accompanied by increased apoptotic activity and accumulation of MAC, as well as up-regulation of C3, C3a and C3aR, enhancement of C3a-C3aR engagement, and elevated caspase and Src activity. Treatment of hypoxic cells with 200 ng/ml of recombinant human DAF resulted in attenuation of neuronal apoptosis and exerted

  7. Heme oxygenase-1 protects endothelial cells from the toxicity of air pollutant chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Akeem O.; Zhang, Min; Dittmar, Michael [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lulla, Aaron [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Toxicology Interdepartmental Program, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Araujo, Jesus A., E-mail: JAraujo@mednet.ucla.edu [Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 43-264, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Toxicology Interdepartmental Program, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEPs on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with an organic extract of DEPs from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4 h. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and unfolded protein respone (UPR) gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25 μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but to a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMECs from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM. - Highlights: • We examined the role of HO-1 expression on diesel exhaust particle (DEP) in endothelial cells. • DEPs exert cytotoxic and inflammatory effects on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). • DEPs induce HO-1 expression in HMECs. • HO-1 protects against the oxidative stress induced by DEps. • HO-1 attenuates the proinflammatory effects

  8. Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: A role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Maryoung, Lindley A.; Noyes, Pamela D.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between chemicals and target molecules. In addition, GCC challenges processes critical for coping with the external environment (water balance, thermoregulation, nutrition, and the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems), leaving organisms sensitive to even slight perturbations by chemicals when pushed to the limits of their physiological tolerance range. In simplest terms, GCC can make organisms more sensitive to chemical stressors, while alternatively, exposure to chemicals can make organisms more sensitive to GCC stressors. One challenge is to identify potential interactions between nonchemical and chemical stressors affecting key physiological processes in an organism. We employed adverse outcome pathways, constructs depicting linkages between mechanism-based molecular initiating events and impacts on individuals or populations, to assess how chemical- and climate-specific variables interact to lead to adverse outcomes. Case examples are presented for prospective scenarios, hypothesizing potential chemical–GCC interactions, and retrospective scenarios, proposing mechanisms for demonstrated chemical–climate interactions in natural populations. Understanding GCC interactions along adverse outcome pathways facilitates extrapolation between species or other levels of organization, development of hypotheses and focal areas for further research, and improved inputs for risk and resource injury assessments.

  9. Chemical Assessment of White Wine during Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated chemical properties of indigenous white wine varieties (Fetească albă, Fetească regală and Galbenă de Odobeşti during fermentation. The white wine making process took place at Wine Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. We aimed to monitorize the evolution of fermentation process parameters (temperature, alcohol content, and real extract and the quality of the bottled white wine (total acidity, alcohol content, total sulfur dioxide, total dry extract. The results obtained were in accordance to Romanian Legislation.

  10. Method for protecting chip corners in wet chemical etching of wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Wing C.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is a corner protection mask design that protects chip corners from undercutting during anisotropic etching of wafers. The corner protection masks abut the chip corner point and extend laterally from segments along one or both corner sides of the corner point, forming lateral extensions. The protection mask then extends from the lateral extensions, parallel to the direction of the corner side of the chip and parallel to scribe lines, thus conserving wafer space. Unmasked bomb regions strategically formed in the protection mask facilitate the break-up of the protection mask during etching. Corner protection masks are useful for chip patterns with deep grooves and either large or small chip mask areas. Auxiliary protection masks form nested concentric frames that etch from the center outward are useful for small chip mask patterns. The protection masks also form self-aligning chip mask areas. The present invention is advantageous for etching wafers with thin film windows, microfine and micromechanical structures, and for forming chip structures more elaborate than presently possible.

  11. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Sarah A; Meyer, David E; Edelen, Ashley N; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Abraham, John P; Barrett, William M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Randall, Paul M; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo; Smith, Raymond L

    2016-09-06

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfully automate the method using semantic technology. Benefits of the method are that the openly available data can be compiled in a standardized and transparent approach that supports potential automation with flexibility to incorporate new data sources as needed.

  12. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  13. Assessment of genetic and chemical variability in Thymus caramanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadian, Javad; Bigdeloo, Mahdi; Nazeri, Vahideh; Khadivi-Khub, Abdollah

    2014-05-01

    Thymus caramanicus is an endemic species grown in Iran with interesting pharmacological and biological properties. In the present work, essential oil compositions and inter-simple sequences repeat (ISSR) markers were used to estimate the relationships among and within seven populations of T. caramanicus, belonging to three provinces in Iran. The studied individuals were distinguished on the basis of ISSR markers and constituents of essential oil. A total of 127 band positions were produced by 12 ISSR primers, of which 105 were found polymorphic with 82.68% polymorphism. Genetic similarity values among individuals ranged between 0.15 and 0.82 which was indicative of a high level of genetic variation. On the basis of their genetic similarities, ISSR analysis allowed to group the samples into two main clusters. One of these included populations originated from Kerman and Isfahan provinces, and the other cluster consists of populations from Semnan province. Chemical compounds of essential oils were found variable in the various individuals and all samples were principally composed of phenolic constituents (carvacrol and/or thymol). As a consequence, the plants were classified into two major chemotypes including carvacrol and thymol/carvacrol. A relationship between genetic and chemical variability and geographic distribution has been observed in studied populations of T. caramanicus.

  14. Role of Metabolomics in Environmental Chemical Exposure and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing demand for the reduction, replacement, and refinement of the use of animal models in exposure assessments has stimulated the pursuit of alternative methods. This has included not only the use of the in vitro systems (e.g., cell cultures) in lieu of in vivo whole an...

  15. An assessment of wetland nature reserves and the protection of China’s vertebrate diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, R; Zheng, Y.; Lei, T; Cui, G.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed all 148 wetland nature reserves in China and the distribution of the four taxa of endemic and threatened terrestrial vertebrates, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. Assessment of the wetland nature reserves was combined with the governmental list of the endemic and threatened vertebrates to identify the richness of the species. Species richness was scored as high, medium or low using a factor analysis method, and 31 wetland ecosystems were marked as high protection areas. Th...

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 protects endothelial cells from the toxicity of air pollutant chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Akeem O; Zhang, Min; Dittmar, Michael; Lulla, Aaron; Araujo, Jesus A

    2015-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEPs on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with an organic extract of DEPs from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4h. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and unfolded protein respone (UPR) gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but to a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMECs from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM.

  17. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) FOR PLANNING FUTURE D&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

    2007-01-25

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed.

  18. Montmorillonite Functionalized with Pralidoxime as a Material for Chemical Protection against Organophosphorous Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    binds to organophosphate - inactivated acetylcholinesterase. It is used by the military to combat poisoning by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (nerve...montmorillonite K-10; pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide; functionalization; organophosphate hydrolysis; protective barrier Lev Bromberg, Christine M. Straut...functionalization, organophosphate hydrolysis, protective barrier 1480 dx.doi.org/10.1021/am200041e |ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2011, 3, 1479–1484 ACS

  19. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... determine whether a horse's bones show signs of stress indicative of soring. ] Several commenters opposed... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum Penalties for Violations AGENCY: Animal...

  20. Assessing and Promoting Spiritual Wellness as a Protective Factor in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michele Kielty; Akos, Patrick; Czyszczon, Greg; Eldridge, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Spiritual wellness, much like resilience, is a multidimensional protective factor for students. This article reviews the relevant literature linking spiritual wellness and thriving in the adolescent population. Assessment and intervention methods that can be used in secondary school settings to promote spiritual wellness are provided.

  1. Appilications of National Wetland Condition Assessment Data to Wetland Protection and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) was conducted in 2011 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and its federal and state partners, using a survey design allowing extrapolation of results to national and regional scales. Vegetation, algae, soil, wat...

  2. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  3. Assessment of kidney stone and prevalence of its chemical compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandeya, A; Prajapati, R; Panta, P; Regmi, A

    2010-09-01

    Kidney stone analysis is the test done on the stone which cause problems when they block the flow of urine through or out of the kidneys. The stones cause severe pain and are also associated with morbidity and renal damage. There is also no clear understanding on the relative metabolic composition of renal calculi. Hence, the study is aimed to find out the chemical composition of it which can guide treatment and give information that may prevent more stones from forming. The study was carried out on the stones that had been sent to the department of Biochemistry (n = 99; M = 61; F = 38; Mean age: 33.6 +/- 14.4 years) Approximately 98.9% of stones were composed of oxalate, 95.9% of Calcium, 85.8% of phosphate, 62.6% of Urate, 46.4% of Ammonium and very few percentages of Carbonate.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment for Chemical Agent Resistant Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The equipment uses a patented turbine technology to provide high volume low pressure air instead of the traditional method of using normal compressed...Engineer at Battelle (previously employed by Monsanto ), August 10. Nordic Council. 1992. Product Life Cycle Assessment - Principles and Methodology...February, 21 pp. Woody, G. 1995. Telephone conversation between Gene Woody, Supervisor of CARC painting operations Ft. Campbell and Kevin Taylor

  5. Merging Applicability Domains for in Silico Assessment of Chemical Mutagenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for...Human Use (ICH). M7 (2013): Assessment and Control of DNA Reactive (Mutagenic) Impurities in Pharmaceuticals to Limit Potential Carcinogenic Risk...of potentially mutagenic impurities . Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2013, 67, 39−52. (9) Netzeva, T. I.; Worth, A.; Aldenberg, T.; Benigni, R.; Cronin, M

  6. Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Nienstedt, Karin M.; Brock, T. C. M.;

    2012-01-01

    General protection goals for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of plant protection products are stated in European legislation but specific protection goals (SPGs) are often not precisely defined. These are however crucial for designing appropriate risk assessment schemes. The process...

  7. Climate-based archetypes for the environmental fate assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffo, Biagio; Sala, Serenella

    2013-11-15

    Emissions of chemicals have been on the rise for years, and their impacts are greatly influenced by spatial differentiation. Chemicals are usually emitted locally but their impact can be felt both locally and globally, due to their chemical properties and persistence. The variability of environmental parameters in the emission compartment may affect the chemicals' fate and the exposure at different orders of magnitude. The assessment of the environmental fate of chemicals and the inherent spatial differentiation requires the use of multimedia models at various levels of complexity (from a simple box model to complex computational and high-spatial-resolution models). The objective of these models is to support ecological and human health risk assessment, by reducing the uncertainty of chemical impact assessments. The parameterisation of spatially resolved multimedia models is usually based on scenarios of evaluative environments, or on geographical resolutions related to administrative boundaries (e.g. countries/continents) or landscape areas (e.g. watersheds, eco-regions). The choice of the most appropriate scale and scenario is important from a management perspective, as a balance should be reached between a simplified approach and computationally intensive multimedia models. In this paper, which aims to go beyond the more traditional approach based on scale/resolution (cell, country, and basin), we propose and assess climate-based archetypes for the impact assessment of chemicals released in air. We define the archetypes based on the main drivers of spatial variability, which we systematically identify by adopting global sensitivity analysis techniques. A case study that uses the high resolution multimedia model MAPPE (Multimedia Assessment of Pollutant Pathways in the Environment) is presented. Results of the analysis showed that suitable archetypes should be both climate- and chemical-specific, as different chemicals (or groups of them) have different traits

  8. Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances. Applicability of EXAMS II as an advanced Water Quality Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs ACM; Burns LA

    1990-01-01

    In the cluster project "Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances methods are developed to systematically predict and assess the hazards for man and environment. After the basic screening of a substance has been carried out, a more extensive study can be performed using models adhered to the

  9. 75 FR 55605 - Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... using the calculation methodology described in both the 2009 and 2010 Assessment of Annual Needs (74 FR 32954 and 74 FR 60294, respectively). These calculations take into account the criteria that DEA is... Enforcement Administration Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine,...

  10. 76 FR 56809 - Proposed Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... methodology described previously in the 2010 and 2011 assessment of annual needs (74 FR 60294 and 75 FR 79407..., Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine for 2012 AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Department of... assessment of annual needs for certain List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and...

  11. EPA Releases Final Risk Assessment for Chemical used for Paint and Coating Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - Today, the U.S. EPA released the final risk assessment for N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP), a chemical commonly used to remove paint and other coatings. The assessment identified risks to pregnant women and women of childbearing age, who have

  12. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  13. A new index to assess chemicals increasing the greenhouse effect based on their toxicity to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Tian, Dayong; Gao, Ya; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingyun

    2015-11-01

    CO2, as the typical greenhouse gas causing the greenhouse effect, is a major global environmental problem and has attracted increasing attention from governments. Using algae to eliminate CO2, which has been proposed as an effective way to reduce the greenhouse effect in the past decades, can be disturbed by a growing number of artificial chemicals. Thus, seven types of chemicals and Selenastrum capricornutum (algae) were examined in this study, and the good consistency between the toxicity of artificial chemicals to algae and the disturbance of carbon fixation by the chemicals was revealed. This consistency showed that the disturbance of an increasing number of artificial chemicals to the carbon fixation of algae might be a "malware" worsening the global greenhouse effect. Therefore, this study proposes an original, promising index to assess the risk of deepening the greenhouse effect by artificial chemicals before they are produced and marketed.

  14. Coupled near-field and far-field exposure assessment framework for chemicals in consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi; Huang, Lei;

    2016-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to chemicals in consumer products through product use and environmental emissions over the product life cycle. Exposure pathways are often complex, where chemicals can transfer directly from products to humans during use or exchange between various indoor and outdoor...... compartments until sub-fractions reach humans. To consistently evaluate exposure pathways along product life cycles, a flexible mass balance-based assessment framework is presented structuring multimedia chemical transfers in a matrix of direct inter-compartmental transfer fractions. By matrix inversion, we...... quantify cumulative multimedia transfer fractions and exposure pathway-specific product intake fractions defined as chemical mass taken in by humans per unit mass of chemical in a product. Combining product intake fractions with chemical mass in the product yields intake estimates for use in life cycle...

  15. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for Hawaii 2002: Water Quality, Fish Taxon, Sediment Chemistry Data (NODC Accession 0061250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), in conjunction with...

  16. Design and Implementation of Emergy-Based Sustainability Decision Assessment System for Protected Grape Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying Feng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic “high input and output” in protected production has caused some environmental and ecological issues. Hence, emergy-based sustainability assessments are necessary and valuable. However, traditional emergy analysis is time consuming, tedious, and inefficient. Such disadvantages can be addressed by the integration of emergy analysis with information technology. This paper reports the development of the emergy-based sustainability decision assessment system (ESDAS for protected grape cultivation systems. This system was established by first analyzing the business process, users, and requirements through survey, and the findings of which were used to design the system’s function, architecture, database, model base, and knowledge base with a combination of emergy methods. The results showed that ESDAS passed the system test and achieved the real-time calculation of emergy data and the automatization of emergy analysis. Therefore, this research is a beneficial attempt to apply information technology in improving the efficiency of sustainability assessments. The results also revealed that the protected grape cultivation system is characterized by a heavy dependence on purchased and non-renewable resource emergy, lower emergy yield ratio, higher emergy investment rate and environmental loading ratio, and lower emergy sustainability index. Some suggestions were made to improve the sustainability of the protected grape system.

  17. Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svancara, L.K.; Scott, J.M.; Loveland, T.R.; Pidgorna, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10??km of both parks and refuges and those within 10??km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10??km of just refuges and counties greater than 10??km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged 2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding protected areas provides a consistent, national level assessment

  18. Mobile detection assessment and response systems (MDARS): a force protection physical security operational success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Brian; Johnston, Michael; Goehring, Richard; Moneyhun, Jon; Skibba, Brian

    2006-05-01

    MDARS is a Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle with intrusion detection & assessment, product & barrier assessment payloads. Its functions include surveillance, security, early warning, incident first response and product and barrier status primarily focused on a depot/munitions security mission at structured/semi-structured facilities. MDARS is in Systems Development and Demonstration (SDD) under the Product Manager for Force Protection Systems (PM-FPS). MDARS capabilities include semi-autonomous navigation, obstacle avoidance, motion detection, day and night imagers, radio frequency tag inventory/barrier assessment and audio challenge and response. Four SDD MDARS Patrol Vehicles have been undergoing operational evaluation at Hawthorne Army Depot, NV (HWAD) since October 2004. Hawthorne personnel were trained to administer, operate and maintain the system in accordance with the US Army Military Police School (USAMPS) Concept of Employment and the PM-FPS MDARS Integrated Logistic Support Plan. The system was subjected to intensive periods of evaluation under the guidance and control of the Army Test and Evaluation Center (ATEC) and PM-FPS. Significantly, in terms of User acceptance, the system has been under the "operational control" of the installation performing security and force protection missions in support of daily operations. This evaluation is intended to assess MDARS operational effectiveness in an operational environment. Initial observations show that MDARS provides enhanced force protection, can potentially reduce manpower requirements by conducting routine tasks within its design capabilities and reduces Soldier exposure in the initial response to emerging incidents and situations. Success of the MDARS program has been instrumental in the design and development of two additional robotic force protection programs. The first was the USAF Force Protection Battle Lab sponsored Remote Detection Challenge & Response (REDCAR) concept demonstration

  19. A Detailed Impact Risk Assessment of Possible Protection Enhancements to two LEO Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, H.; Cougnet, C.; David, M.; Gelhaus, J.; Rothlingshofer, M.

    2013-08-01

    The SHIELD3 impact risk analysis tool has been used to compute the impact-induced probability of no failure (PNF) of two different spacecraft - a radar satellite and an optical satellite - operating in the 2020-2030 low Earth orbit debris environment. Based on this assessment, potential vulnerabilities were identified in the spacecraft designs, and several solutions were proposed for enhancing protection. The effectiveness of each shielding solution was determined by recalculating the spacecraft PNFs. Significant improvements in PNF were achieved, indicating that effective levels of extra protection can be implemented in spacecraft designs within constraints such as cost, mass and volume.

  20. 76 FR 58807 - An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... AGENCY An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can... Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning can Incorporate Climate Change... decision making. As part of a portfolio of adaptation strategies, land protection may become more...

  1. Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: walk-through survey report of Chemical Waste Management, Inc. , Emelle, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.

    1982-08-01

    A walk through survey was conducted to assess hazardous waste disposal operations at Chemical Waste Management, Incorporated (SIC-4953), Emelle, Alabama in February 1982. Hazardous waste treatment and disposal operations included landfilling, fixation, solar evaporation, and incineration. The incinerator was a liquid injection unit used for combustible liquids containing up to 10 percent chlorine. Polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorine containing wastes not treated on site were temporarily stored before shipment for at sea incineration. In-situ fixation was carried out on corrosive, acidic, and heavy metal containing liquids. Liquid wastes were removed and eventually pumped into a pit where they were mixed with cement kiln dust. Drum stored wastes intended for landfilling were transported by front end loaders to the site. Heavy equipment operators were protected from exposure to dust by environmental cabs. Air and medical monitoring were performed on landfill, laboratory, and maintenance shop workers. Hard hats, goggles, and safety shoes were required at the landfill. Respirators and other protective equipment and clothing were available. The author concludes that the company management is concerned about the health and safety of the employees. An in depth survey is recommended.

  2. The potential role of life cycle assessment in regulation of chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frans Møller; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2004-01-01

    reduction. In this process, LCA results might feed into a socio-economic analysis having similar objectives, but some methodological aspects related to system boundaries need to be sorted out. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of toxic effects has traditionally been inspired by the more regulatory......- orientated risk assessment approaches. However, the increasing need for regulatory priority setting and comparative/ cumulative assessments might in the future convey LCIA principles into the regulatory framework. The same underlying databases on inherent properties of chemicals are already applied in both...... types of assessment. Similarly, data on the use and exposure of chemicals are needed within both risk assessments and LCA, and the methodologies might therefore benefit from a joint 'inventory' database. Outlook. The final outcome of the feasibility study will be an implementation plan suggesting...

  3. Assessment of awareness of connectedness as a culturally-based protective factor for Alaska native youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Nathaniel V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Burket, Rebekah; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2011-10-01

    Research with Native Americans has identified connectedness as a culturally based protective factor against substance abuse and suicide. Connectedness refers to the interrelated welfare of the individual, one's family, one's community, and the natural environment. We developed an 18-item quantitative assessment of awareness of connectedness and tested it with 284 Alaska Native youth. Evaluation with confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory identified a 12-item subset that functions satisfactorily in a second-order four-factor model. The proposed Awareness of Connectedness Scale (ACS) displays good convergent and discriminant validity, and correlates positively with hypothesized protective factors such as reasons for living and communal mastery. The measure has utility in the study of culture-specific protective factors and as an outcomes measure for behavioral health programs with Native American youth.

  4. Risk Assessment for Natural-Hazard Impact on Hazardous Chemical Installations: Workshop Outcome Report

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The impact of natural hazards on hazardous installations can cause major chemical accidents. This so-called “Natech” risk is increasing due to industrialisation and climate change. Capacity building in EU Member States, Candidate Countries and EU Neighbourhood Countries on Natech risk required for Natech risk reduction. This report summarises the findings of a training workshop on risk assessment for natural-hazard impact on hazardous chemical installations which the JRC organised in the ...

  5. Assessment of chemical emissions in life cycle impact assessment - focus on low substance data availability and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2004-01-01

    chemical groups, high data availability combined with low data demand, data useable in characterisation, user friendliness and transparency. A mainly qualitative evaluation of the existing selection methods against these performance criteria shows that none of these score high on all criteria...... be significantly dependent on the inclusion of toxicity- or chemical-related impact categories. The two main reasons for poor coverage of potential toxic impacts from chemical emissions in LCA studies are lack of available data on upstream emissions (e.g. emissions during production of raw materials) and lack...... of substance data on known emissions. To be able to characterize the potential toxic impacts on humans and the environment of chemical emissions, substance data on fate and effect are needed. The second goal of this thesis is to investigate how to deal with low substance data availability on especially effect...

  6. Milk Chemical Composition of Dairy Cows Fed Rations Containing Protected Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fermented Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the effect of ration containing protected omega-3 and fermented rice bran on chemical composition of dairy milk. The research employed 10 female PFH dairy cows of 2-4 years old with body weight 300-375 kg. The research was assigned in randomized complete block design. The treatment consisted of P0= control ration, P1= P0 + 20% fermented rice bran, P2= P1 + 4% soya bean oil, P3= P1 + 4% protected tuna fish oil and P4= P1 + 4% protected lemuru fish oil. The results showed that the effects of fish oil supplementation in the rations significantly (P<0.01 decreased feed consumption, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, lipids, and saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it increased milk production, content of high density lipoprotein, omega-3, omega-6 and unsaturated fatty acids in the dairy cows milk. It is concluded that the inclusion of 4% protected fish oil in the rations can produce healthy milk by decreasing milk cholesterol and increasing omega-3 fatty acids content.

  7. Efficiency of five chemical protective clothing materials against nano and submicron aerosols when submitted to mechanical deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, Mehdi; Hallé, Stéphane; Tuduri, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Due to their potential toxicity, the use of nanoparticles in the workplace is a growing concern. Some studies indicate that nanoparticles can penetrate the skin and lead to adverse health effects. Since chemical protective clothing is the last barrier to protect the skin, this study aims to better understand nanoparticle penetration behaviour in dermal protective clothing under mechanical deformation. For this purpose, five of the most common types of fabrics used in protective clothing, one woven and four nonwoven, were chosen and submitted to different simulated exposure conditions. They were tested against polydispersed NaCl aerosols having an electrical-mobility diameter between 14 and 400 nm. A bench-scale exposure setup and a sampling protocol was developed to measure the level of penetration of the aerosols through the material samples of disposable coveralls and lab coat, while subjecting them to mechanical deformations to simulate the conditions of usage in the workplace. Particle size distribution of the aerosol was determined upstream and downstream using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The measured efficiencies demonstrated that the performances of nonwoven materials were similar. Three nonwovens had efficiencies above 99%, while the woven fabric was by far, the least effective. Moreover, the results established that mechanical deformations, as simulated for this study, did not have a significant effect on the fabrics' efficiencies.

  8. Regulation and practice of workers' protection from chemical exposures during container handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Fløe Pedersen, Randi; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Ádám, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fumigation of freight containers to prevent spread of pests and off-gassing of freight are sources of volatile chemicals that may constitute significant health risks when released. The aim of the study was to investigate the regulation and practice of container handling in Denmark...... with focus on preventive measures to reduce risk of chemical exposure. Methods: A comprehensive systematic search of scientific literature, legislation and recommendations related to safe work with transport containers from international and Danish regulatory bodies was performed. The practice of handling...... instructions relate to container handling, the provided information is not sufficiently detailed to conduct safe practice in many aspects. In accordance with the scientific literature, the interviewees estimate that there is a high frequency (5 to 50%) of containers with hazardous chemical exposure...

  9. Infrared thermographic assessment of materials and techniques for the protection of cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moropoulou, Antonia; Avdelidis, Nicolas P.; Koui, Maria; Delegou, Ekaterini T.; Tsiourva, Theodora

    2001-09-01

    In this work, infrared thermography was applied and investigated as a non-destructive tool in the assessment of materials and techniques for the protection of cultural heritage. Diagnostic studies on monuments and historic buildings, situated in Greece, were performed. Long wave infrared thermography was used on restoration and traditional - historic materials concerning architectural surfaces and historic structures for research purposes such as: the assessment of moisture impact to porous stone masonries and the evaluation of conservation interventions (materials and techniques) regarding, consolidation interventions on porous stone masonries, restoration of masonries by repair mortars, and cleaning of facades. The results of this work indicate that thermography can be considered as a powerful diagnostic nondestructive tool for the preservation and protection of cultural heritage.

  10. Chemical extraction to assess the bioavailability of chlorobenzenes in soil with different aging periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yang; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xinglun; Liu, Cuiying; Jin, Xin; Jiang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Kengara, Fredrick Orori [Maseno Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-12-15

    Bioavailability is mainly influenced by aging and desorption of contaminants in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the desorption kinetics of chlorobenzenes (CBs) in soil and to investigate whether chemical extractions are suitable for the bioavailability assessment of CBs in soil. A soil spiked with CBs and aged for different periods was extracted with Tenax, hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD), and butanol to assess the bioavailability of CBs in soil, respectively. Earthworm (Eisenia foetida) accumulation was used as bioassay in parallel experiments to evaluate the chemical extractions. The results showed that desorption of CBs from soil with consecutive Tenax extraction fitted into triphasic kinetics model. Different chemical methods extracted different amounts of CBs over different aging periods. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the extraction efficiency was in the order of butanol > Tenax-6h > HPCD extraction, while the order of butanol > HPCD > Tenax-6h extraction for pentachlorobenzene (PeCB). The bioaccumulation by earthworm decreased with increasing aging period and was significantly higher for HCB than for PeCB (p < 0.05). Earthworm accumulated CBs correlated well with all the three chemical extracted CBs. However, HPCD extraction showed the converse extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs. Chemical extraction could be used to assess the bioavailability of contaminants in soil; however, they were method and compound specific. Tenax and butanol extractions were more reliable than HPCD extraction for bioavailability assessment of the tested CBs and the soil used since they showed the consistent extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs.

  11. Integrated assessment of oil pollution using biological monitoring and chemical fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ceri; Guitart, Carlos; Pook, Chris; Scarlett, Alan; Readman, James W; Galloway, Tamara S

    2010-06-01

    A full assessment of the impact of oil and chemical spills at sea requires the identification of both the polluting chemicals and the biological effects they cause. Here, a combination of chemical fingerprinting of surface oils, tissue residue analysis, and biological effects measures was used to explore the relationship between spilled oil and biological impact following the grounding of the MSC Napoli container ship in Lyme Bay, England in January 2007. Initially, oil contamination remained restricted to a surface slick in the vicinity of the wreck, and there was no chemical evidence to link biological impairment of animals (the common limpet, Patella vulgata) on the shore adjacent to the oil spill. Secondary oil contamination associated with salvage activities in July 2007 was also assessed. Chemical analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons and terpanes in shell swabs taken from limpet shells provided an unequivocal match with the fuel oil carried by the ship. Corresponding chemical analysis of limpet tissues revealed increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dominated by phenanthrene and C1 to C3 phenanthrenes with smaller contributions from heavier molecular weight PAHs. Concurrent ecotoxicological tests indicated impairment of cellular viability (p oiled animals. These results illustrate the value of combining biological monitoring with chemical fingerprinting for the rapid identification of spilled oils and their sublethal impacts on biota in situ.

  12. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  13. Protective clothing for pesticide operators: part I--selection of a reference test chemical for penetration testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Anugrah; Schiffelbein, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A systematic approach was taken to develop a database for protective clothing for pesticide operators; results are reported as a two-part series. Part I describes the research studies that led to identification of a pesticide formulation that could serve as a reference test chemical for further testing. Measurement of pesticide penetration was conducted using different types of pesticide formulations. Six fabrics were tested using 10 formulations at different concentrations. Three formulations were subsequently selected for further testing. Analysis of the data indicated that, when compared with other formulations, mean percent penetration of 5% Prowl 3.3 EC [emulsifiable concentrate diluted to 5% active ingredient (pendimethalin)] is either similar to or higher than most test chemicals. Those results led to choosing 5% Prowl 3.3 EC as a reference test liquid. Part II of the study, published as a separate paper, includes data on a wide range of textile materials.

  14. RESEARCH OF UV-PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF FERULIC ACID AS PART OF OINTMENT COMPOSITIONS WITH DIFFERENT PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Abisalova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics with the ability to neutralize harmful influence of ultraviolet rays on skin are quite in demand. UV filters in creams composition are divided into two groups: physical and chemical. Antioxidants are used as chemical UV filters. The article presents the results of ferulic acid testing as UV filter in ointment bases with lipophile, hydrophile and lipophilic and hydrophilic properties. The dependence of ferulic acid efficiency from the base type where it was applied was established. The results received are correlated with data about release rate of ferulic acid received in vitro. Ointment bases with such emulsifiers as cetyl alcohol, base emulsifier and Olivem 1000 have the most signified UV protective effect of ferulic acid.

  15. Framework for Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection for Nonproliferation Impact Assessments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari,R.

    2008-03-01

    This report describes a framework for proliferation resistance and physical protection evaluation for the fuel cycle systems envisioned in the expansion of nuclear power for electricity generation. The methodology is based on an approach developed as part of the Generation IV technical evaluation framework and on a qualitative evaluation approach to policy factors similar to those that were introduced in previous Nonproliferation Impact Assessments performed by DOE.

  16. Clinical application of music therapy assessment within the field of child protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl; Killén, Kari

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this article is the theoretical understanding behind, and the clinical application of, a newly developed music-therapy assessment tool, Assessment of Parenting Competencies (APC). While the psychometric properties have been analyzed successfully in prior publications, the advantages...... and challenges of a nonverbal and emotional interactional medium such as music in assessing parent–child interaction and parental capacity are presented and discussed. The assessment model relates to theories of attunement, autonomy, and attachment, and clinical relevance for practice within the field of child......-service professions within the field of child protection, including level of mutual attunement, nonverbal communication skills, emotional parental response, and possibly indications of attachment behavior in the child. APC can thereby help indicate the severity of the situation and the possible therapeutic direction...

  17. IMPIPS: The Immune Protection-Inducing Protein Structure Concept in the Search for Steric-Electron and Topochemical Principles for Complete Fully-Protective Chemically Synthesised Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Bermúdez, Adriana; Alba, Martha Patricia; Vanegas, Magnolia; Moreno-Vranich, Armando; Poloche, Luis Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Determining immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS) involves defining the stereo-electron and topochemical characteristics which are essential in MHC-p-TCR complex formation. Modified high activity binding peptides (mHABP) were thus synthesised to produce a large panel of IMPIPS measuring 26.5 ±3.5Å between the farthest atoms fitting into Pockets 1 to 9 of HLA-DRβ1* structures. They displayed a polyproline II-like (PPIIL) structure with their backbone O and N atoms orientated to establish H-bonds with specific residues from HLA-DRβ1*-peptide binding regions (PBR). Residues having specific charge and gauche+ orientation regarding p3χ1, p5χ2, and p7χ1 angles determined appropriate rotamer orientation for perfectly fitting into the TCR to induce an appropriate immune response. Immunological assays in Aotus monkeys involving IMPIPS mixtures led to promising results; taken together with the aforementioned physicochemical principles, non-interfering, long-lasting, protection-inducing, multi-epitope, multistage, minimal subunit-based chemically-synthesised peptides can be designed against diseases scourging humankind. PMID:25879751

  18. IMPIPS: the immune protection-inducing protein structure concept in the search for steric-electron and topochemical principles for complete fully-protective chemically synthesised vaccine development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Elkin Patarroyo

    Full Text Available Determining immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS involves defining the stereo-electron and topochemical characteristics which are essential in MHC-p-TCR complex formation. Modified high activity binding peptides (mHABP were thus synthesised to produce a large panel of IMPIPS measuring 26.5 ±3.5Å between the farthest atoms fitting into Pockets 1 to 9 of HLA-DRβ1* structures. They displayed a polyproline II-like (PPIIL structure with their backbone O and N atoms orientated to establish H-bonds with specific residues from HLA-DRβ1*-peptide binding regions (PBR. Residues having specific charge and gauche+ orientation regarding p3χ1, p5χ2, and p7χ1 angles determined appropriate rotamer orientation for perfectly fitting into the TCR to induce an appropriate immune response. Immunological assays in Aotus monkeys involving IMPIPS mixtures led to promising results; taken together with the aforementioned physicochemical principles, non-interfering, long-lasting, protection-inducing, multi-epitope, multistage, minimal subunit-based chemically-synthesised peptides can be designed against diseases scourging humankind.

  19. Getting the chemicals right: addressing inorganics in sustainability assessments of technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Nienke; Fantke, Peter

    A main goal of sustainability research is to enable a technological development in industry and elsewhere that ensures that what is produced and how it is produced today does not harm the quality of human or environmental health for present and future generations. As part of current environmental...... sustainability assessments, the toxicity potential of several thousand organic chemicals is included in characterization models within life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). However, many economic production processes involve the use of inorganic chemicals to a large extent, while the related pressure on human...

  20. Integrating process safety with molecular modeling-based risk assessment of chemicals within the REACH regulatory framework: benefits and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amanda; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Fishtik, Ilie; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2007-04-11

    Registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH) represents a recent regulatory initiative by the European union commission to protect human health and the environment from potentially hazardous chemicals. Under REACH, all stakeholders must submit (thermo)physical, thermochemical, and toxicological data for certain chemicals. The commission's impact assessment studies estimate that the costs of REACH will be approximately 3-5 billion Euros. The present study advocates the systematic incorporation of computational chemistry and computer-assisted chemical risk assessment methods into REACH to reduce regulatory compliance costs. Currently powerful computer-aided ab initio techniques can be used to generate predictions of key properties of broad classes of chemicals, without resorting to costly experimentation and potentially hazardous testing. These data could be integrated into a centralized IT decision and compliance support system, and stored in a retrievable, easily communicable manner should new regulatory and/or production requirements necessitate the introduction of different uses of chemicals under different conditions. For illustration purposes, ab initio calculations are performed on heterocyclic nitrogen-containing compounds which currently serve as high energy density materials in the chemical industry. Since investigations of these compounds are still in their infancy, stability studies are imperative regarding their safe handling and storage, as well as registration under REACH.

  1. Narratives from parents in England and Norway: Power and emotions in child protection assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Samsonsen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The framework for assessment in child protection, as well as the context of the welfare state, differs between England and Norway. Assessments in England are structured in terms of a set model (the triangle and procedures to be followed, whereas in Norway there are few national guidelines and not a set model for assessments. This underpins professional judgement as the most important component in Norway. This is a study of parents` experiences from assessment in these two contexts, and patterns and themes of assessment experiences have been identified in the two countries through a narrative analysis of in-depth interviews with parents. When asked about their opinions of the current assessment framework, parents in both countries talk more about feelings than about framework and procedures, as their experiences of assessment are similar in both countries. First and foremost, they experience strong emotions in a stressful situation, including anxiety, frustration and powerlessness, but also relief. These cross-national emotions might provide information about how assessment is a stressful situation for the parents involved. However, we find some differences in the way social work is acted out according to the national assessment framework and policy context. In England, the framework and procedures seem to provide clarity with regard to process and power within the system. In Norway, the assessment is characterized by a professional judgement accompanied by more resources, which we find enables helpful decisions from a family perspective. However, this heavy reliance on relationships using professional judgement might also be viewed as a source of informal power. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of emotions and the concept of power. Regarding implications for practice, we would recommend a more explicit awareness of help and control in assessment among social workers involved, together with a clear communication on the topic

  2. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  3. Development and testing of a prototype tool for integrated assessment of chemical status in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jesper H; Murray, Ciarán; Larsen, Martin M; Green, Norman; Høgåsen, Tore; Dahlgren, Elin; Garnaga-Budrė, Galina; Gustavson, Kim; Haarich, Michael; Kallenbach, Emilie M F; Mannio, Jaakko; Strand, Jakob; Korpinen, Samuli

    2016-02-01

    We report the development and application of a prototype tool for integrated assessment of chemical status in aquatic environments based on substance- and matrix-specific environmental assessment criteria (thresholds). The Chemical Status Assessment Tool (CHASE) integrates data on hazardous substances in water, sediments and biota as well as bio-effect indicators and is based on a substance- or bio-effect-specific calculation of a 'contamination ratio' being the ratio between an observed concentration and a threshold value. Values 1.0 indicate areas potentially 'affected'. These ratios are combined within matrices, i.e. for water, sediment and biota and for biological effects. The overall assessment used a 'one out, all out principle' with regard to each matrix. The CHASE tool was tested in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in 376 assessment units. In the former, the chemical status was >1.0 in practically all areas indicating that all areas assessed were potentially affected. The North Sea included areas classified as unaffected or affected. The CHASE tool can in combination with temporal trend assessments of individual substances be advantageous for use in remedial action plans and, in particular, for the science-based evaluation of the status and for determining which specific substances are responsible for a status as potentially affected.

  4. Utilizing toxicogenomic data to understand chemical mechanism of action in risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Vickie S., E-mail: wilson.vickie@epa.gov [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Keshava, Nagalakshmi [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Hester, Susan [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Segal, Deborah; Chiu, Weihsueh [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The predominant role of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment, thus far, has been one of augmentation of more traditional in vitro and in vivo toxicology data. This article focuses on the current available examples of instances where toxicogenomic data has been evaluated in human health risk assessment (e.g., acetochlor and arsenicals) which have been limited to the application of toxicogenomic data to inform mechanism of action. This article reviews the regulatory policy backdrop and highlights important efforts to ultimately achieve regulatory acceptance. A number of research efforts on specific chemicals that were designed for risk assessment purposes have employed mechanism or mode of action hypothesis testing and generating strategies. The strides made by large scale efforts to utilize toxicogenomic data in screening, testing, and risk assessment are also discussed. These efforts include both the refinement of methodologies for performing toxicogenomics studies and analysis of the resultant data sets. The current issues limiting the application of toxicogenomics to define mode or mechanism of action in risk assessment are discussed together with interrelated research needs. In summary, as chemical risk assessment moves away from a single mechanism of action approach toward a toxicity pathway-based paradigm, we envision that toxicogenomic data from multiple technologies (e.g., proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, supportive RT-PCR studies) can be used in conjunction with one another to understand the complexities of multiple, and possibly interacting, pathways affected by chemicals which will impact human health risk assessment.

  5. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  6. Ecological Recovery Potential of Freshwater Organisms: Consequences for Environmental Risk Assessment of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergs, Andre; Classen, Silke; Strauss, Tido; Ottermanns, Richard; Brock, Theo C M; Ratte, Hans Toni; Hommen, Udo; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contaminants released into the in the environment may have adverse effects on (non-target) species, populations and communities. The return of a stressed system to its pre-disturbance or other reference state, i.e. the ecological recovery, may depend on various factors related to the affected taxon, the ecosystem of concern and the type of stressor with consequences for the assessment and management of risks associated with chemical contaminants. Whereas the effects caused by short-term exposure might be acceptable to some extent, the conditions under which ecological recovery can serve as a decision criterion in the environmental risk assessment of chemical stressors remains to be evaluated. For a generic consideration of recovery in the risk assessment of chemicals, we reviewed case studies of natural and artificial aquatic systems and evaluate five aspects that might cause variability in population recovery time: (1) taxonomic differences and life-history variability, (2) factors related to ecosystem type and community processes, (3) type of disturbance, (4) comparison of field and semi-field studies, and (5) effect magnitude, i.e., the decline in population size following disturbance. We discuss our findings with regard to both retrospective assessments and prospective risk assessment.

  7. Environmental monitoring and assessment of short-term exposures to hazardous chemicals of a sterilization process in hospital working environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koda S

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess short-term exposures to ethylene oxide, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde in a sterilization process, the authors conducted continuous environmental monitoring of these chemicals in the breathing zone of workers in 2 hospitals. The arithmetic mean of ethylene oxide was 1.2 ppm near unventilated cabinets housing sterilizing materials, and environmental concentrations of ethylene oxide could not be reduced under threshold limit values time weighted average by only managing general ventilation. Environmental concentration of formaldehyde was lower in a properly ventilated pathology division in which no large specimens were stored (0.3 ppm than in the pathology division where large specimens were stored (2.3 ppm. Although environmental concentrations of glutaraldehyde in an endoscopy unit with proper general ventilation were not detectable, environmental concentration levels in an endoscopy unit without general ventilation system were 0.2 and 0.5 ppm. According to the results of environmental monitoring in the breathing zone of workers, extremely high concentrations were observed in some work practices (ethylene oxide, 300 ppm; formaldehyde, 8.6 ppm; glutaraldehyde, 2.6 ppm. In order to avoid occupational exposures to these chemicals and prevent potential chronic and acute health hazards, good communications with these chemicals, good work practices, appropriate personal protective equipment, and engineering controls should be required.

  8. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries--Study on the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Christoph; And Others

    A study focused on new occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the Federal Republic of Germany. A total of 22 interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 firms. The public debate on occupational requirements in the field of environmental protection and on…

  9. A comparative assessment of land cover dynamics of three protected forest areas in tropical eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Tobias; Schaab, Gertrud

    2010-02-01

    Processes of deforestation, known to threaten tropical forest biodiversity, have not yet been studied sufficiently in East Africa. To shed light on the patterns and causes of human influences on protected forest ecosystems, comparisons of different study areas regarding land cover dynamics and potential drivers are needed. We analyze the development of land cover since the early 1970s for three protected East African rainforests and their surrounding farmlands and assess the relationship between the observed changes in the context of the protection status of the forests. Processing of Landsat satellite imagery of eight or seven time steps in regular intervals results in 12 land cover classes for the Kakamega-Nandi forests (Kenya) and Budongo Forest (Uganda) whereas ten are distinguished for Mabira Forest (Uganda). The overall classification accuracy assessed for the year 2001 or 2003 is similarly high for all three study areas (81% to 85%). The time series reveal that, despite their protection status, Kakamega-Nandi forests and Mabira Forest experienced major forest decrease, the first a continuous forest loss of 31% between 1972/1973 and 2001, the latter an abrupt loss of 24% in the late 1970s/early 1980s. For both forests, the temporally dense time series show short-term fluctuations in forest classes (e.g., areas of forest regrowth since the 1980s or exotic secondary bushland species from the 1990s onwards). Although selectively logged, Budongo Forest shows a much more stable forest cover extent. A visual overlay with population distribution for all three regions clearly indicates a relationship between forest loss and areas of high population density, suggesting population pressure as a main driver of deforestation. The revealed forest losses due to local and commercial exploitation further demonstrate that weak management impedes effective forest protection in East Africa.

  10. Assessment of Soil Protection to Support Forest Planning: an Experience in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreti, F.; Cantiani, P.; Meo, I. de; Paletto, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: To support landscape planning when soil-erosion control and water cycle regulation represent relevant issues for forest management. A methodological approach -based on simplified index- is proposed in order to assess the protective efficacy of forests on soils (indirect protection). This method is aimed at supporting technicians who are requested to define the most suitable management guidelines and silviculture treatments. Area of study: Southern Apennines (Alto Agri district -Basilicata Region- Italy), where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. Material and methods: The data to estimate the parameters used for the simplified index calculation are retrieved from a non aligned systematic forest inventory. The method considers: 1) the tendency towards instability, 2) the protective action of forest cover and 3) different silviculture options. Main results: For the analysed forest categories, the results indicate the situations in which hydrogeological hazard is high. The cross-reading of these data with the values based on years of partial and total uncovering of the ground according to different silviculture options (for each forest category in the reference period of 100 years) has supported the definition of silviculture treatments and management options suitable for the considered forest formations. Research highlights The proposed method can effectively support technicians in the field by highlighting situations of major hazard risk. Thanks to the joined assessment of different silviculture options for each forest category, a series of silviculture treatments, capable of better protecting the soil, can be already defined in the field survey phase. Key words: Alto Agri district (Italy); Forest Landscape Management Planning (FLMP); management; silviculture treatment; protective function e soil erosion. (Author)

  11. Assessment of Soil Protection to Support Forest Planning: an Experience in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ferretti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: to support landscape planning when soil-erosion control and water cycle regulation represent relevant issues for forest management. A methodological approach - based on simplified index – is proposed in order to assess the protective efficacy of forests on soils (indirect protection. This method is aimed at supporting technicians who are requested to define the most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural treatments.Area of study: Southern Apennines (Alto Agri district – Basilicata Region - Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. Material and Methods: The data to estimate the parameters used for the simplified index calculation are retrieved from a non aligned systematic forest inventory. The method considers: 1 the tendency towards instability, 2 the protective action of forest cover and 3 different silvicultural options.Main results: For the analysed forest categories, the results indicate the situations in which hydrogeological hazard is high. The cross-reading of these data with the values based on years of partial and total uncovering of the ground according to different silvicultural options (for each forest category in the reference period of 100 years has supported the definition of silviculture treatments and management options suitable for the considered forest formations.Research highlights: The proposed method can effectively support technicians in the field by highlighting situations of major hazard risk. Thanks to the joined assessment of different silvicultural options for each forest category, a series of silvicultural treatments, capable of better protecting the soil, can be already defined in the field survey phase.Key words: Alto Agri district (Italy; Forest Landscape Management Planning (FLMP; management; silvicultural treatment; protective function and soil erosion.

  12. Risk managment of complex aquifers contaminated by chemical mixtures : numerical tools and human health risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Henri, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Human impact on groundwater resources has led to a rapid growth of social concerns worldwide owing to an increasing presence of toxic chemicals released in the subsurface. Risk assessment provides the scientific tool needed to quantify the actual thread that these potential hazards pose to human health. Specifically, risk analysis enables decision makers to answer: What can happen? How likely is it to happen? What can be the consequences? Risk assessment is in this context essential. However,...

  13. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Ahumada, Jorge A; O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R; Willig, Michael R; Winarni, Nurul L; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify

  14. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A.; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H.; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R.; Willig, Michael R.; Winarni, Nurul L.; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J.

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world’s species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3–8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify

  15. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Beaudrot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes

  16. 食品中化学污染物风险评估研究进展%Review on the risk assessment for chemical contaminants in food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周妍; 闻胜; 刘潇; 毛燕妮; 罗苹; 李永刚; 陈明; 史廷明

    2014-01-01

    化学污染物是影响全球食品安全和危害人体健康的主要因素之一。对食品中化学污染物进行风险评估是保障食品安全、促进食品贸易和健全食品安全体系的重要手段。本文简要介绍了化学污染物风险评估的内容和基本方法,对国外化学污染物风险评估开展情况进行了概述,重点对国内开展的食品中化学污染物风险评估的研究进展进行综述,包括重金属、有机污染物、农药残留、黄曲霉毒素等,并对国内开展食品中化学污染物风险评估的方法进行了分析比较。重金属、农药残留和黄曲霉毒素方面的评估结果均表明:儿童的膳食暴露量偏高,需引起重视。此外提出目前我国食品中化学污染物风险评估中存在的主要问题和建议,为进一步开展化学污染物风险评估提供借鉴。%ABSTRACT:Chemical contaminants are of immediate and serious concern to food safety and human health. Risk assessment for chemical contaminants in food not only protects food safety and human health, but also enhances consumer protection and facilitates international trade. Conceptions, classification and methods ap-plication on chemical risk assessment were introduced in this paper. The risk assessment of chemical contami-nants in foreign countries was summarized, and progress in research of chemical contaminants risk assessment in food at home was reviewed in detail, including heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides, and aflatoxin etc. The methods of these risk assessment were analyzed and compared. The assessment results of heavy metal, pesticide residues and aflatoxin showed that:children's dietary exposure is high. Main problems in chemical risk assessment in China at present were pointed out and advices were given on further complete chemical risk assessment.

  17. Coatings for mechanical and chemical protection based on organic-inorganic sol-gel nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Kasemann, Reiner

    1993-01-01

    The sol-gel process opens the possibility of combining inorganic and organic units on a molecular or nanosized level. The flexible chemical approach of tailoring inorganic structures as well as organic polymeric structures in combination with the new concept of incorporation of nanoscaled metal oxide particles (in general boehmite) opens the possibility of achieving new multifunctional materials like extremely high scratch resistance, antisoiling properties, antifogging properties and corrosi...

  18. Toxicity of the Organophosphate Chemical Warfare Agents GA, GB, and VX: Implications for Public Protection.

    OpenAIRE

    Munro, N

    1994-01-01

    The nerve agents, GA, GB, and VX are organophosphorus esters that form a major portion of the total agent volume contained in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical munitions. Congress has mandated the destruction of these agents, which is currently slated for completion in 2004. The acute, chronic, and delayed toxicity of these agents is reviewed in this analysis. The largely negative results from studies of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, developmental, and reproductive toxicity are also pre...

  19. Acute toxicity of six freshwater mussel species (Glochidia) to six chemicals: Implications for daphnids and Utterbackia imbecillis as surrogates for protection of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, C.D.; Farris, J.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.

    2005-01-01

    Acute (24-h) toxicity tests were used in this study to compare lethality responses in early life stages (glochidia) of six freshwater mussel species, Leptodea fragilis, U. imbecillis, Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea, Megalonaias nervosa, and Ligumia subrostrata, and two standard test organisms, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna. Concentrations of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, permethrin, and 2,4-D were used in acute exposures to represent different chemical classes and modes of action. The relative sensitivities of species were evaluated by ranking their LC 50 values for each chemical. We used these ranks to determine the extent to which U. imbecillis (one of the most commonly used unionids in toxicity tests) was representative of the tolerances of other mussels. We also calculated geometric mean LC50s for the families Unionidae and Daphnidae. Rankings of these data were used to assess the extent to which Daphnidae can be used as surrogates for freshwater mussels relative to chemical sensitivity. While no single chemical elicited consistently high or low toxicity estimates, carbaryl and 2,4-D were generally the least toxic to all species tested. No species was always the most sensitive, and Daphnidae were generally protective of Unionidae. Utterbackia imbecillis, while often proposed as a standard unionid mussel test species, did not always qualify as a sufficient surrogate (i.e., a substitute organism that often elicits similar sensitivity responses to the same contaminant exposure) for other species of mussels, since it was usually one of the more tolerant species in our rankings. U. imbecillis should be used as a surrogate species only with this caution on its relative insensitivity. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  20. High production volume chemical Amine Oxide [C8-C20] category environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Greggs, William

    2009-01-01

    An environmental assessment of amine oxides has been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Amine Oxides Consortium. Amine oxides are primarily used in conjunction with surfactants in cleaning...... and personal care products. Given the lack of persistence or bioaccumulation, and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil, the focus of the environmental assessment is on the aquatic environment. In the United States, the E-FAST model is used to estimate effluent concentrations in the United...... States from manufacturing facilities and from municipal facilities resulting from consumer product uses. Reasonable worst-case ratios of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) range from 0.04 to 0.003, demonstrating that these chemicals are a low risk...

  1. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  2. Effect of Continuous Assessment on Learning Outcomes on Two Chemical Engineering Courses: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning…

  3. Techno-economic assessment of the production of bio-based chemicals from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Gangarapu, S.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, possible process steps for the production of bio-based industrial chemicals from glutamic acid are described, including a techno-economic assessment of all processes. The products under investigation were those that were shown to be synthesized from glutamic acid on lab-scale, namely

  4. 78 FR 59679 - Antimony Trioxide TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Scientific Consulting Group (SCG), Inc., has identified a panel of scientific experts to conduct a peer... Chemical Risk Assessment for Antimony Trioxide.'' EPA will hold three peer review meetings by web connect... speakers providing oral comments during any or all of the peer review meetings as discussed in this...

  5. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn

  6. Building a model based on scientific consensus for Life Cycle Impact Assessment of chemicals:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Huijbregts, Mark; Jolliet, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Achieving consensus among scientists is often a challenge - particularly in model development. In this article we describe a recent scientific consensus-building process for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) models applied to chemical emissions - including the strategy, execution, and results...

  7. Assessment of uncertainties in risk analysis of chemical establishments. The ASSURANCE project. Final summary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, K.; Kozine, Igor; Markert, Frank;

    2002-01-01

    This report summarises the results obtained in the ASSURANCE project (EU contract number ENV4-CT97-0627). Seven teams have performed risk analyses for the same chemical facility, an ammonia storage. The EC's Joint Research Centre at Ispra and RisøNational Laboratory co-ordinated the exercise...... on the ranking among the adherents of the probabilistic approach. Breaking down the modelling of both frequencyand consequence assessments into suitably small elements and conducting case studies allowed identifying root causes of uncertainty in the final risk assessments. Large differences were found in both...... the frequency assessments and in the assessment ofconsequences. The report gives a qualitative assessment of the importance to the final calculated risk of uncertainties in assumptions made, in the data and the calculation methods used. This assessment can serve as a guide to areas where, in particular...

  8. Chemically modified thermal-spray zinc anodes for galvanic cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covino, B.S. Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Holcomb, G.R.; Russell, J.H.; Cramer, S.D.; Bennett, J.E.; Laylor, H.M.

    1999-12-01

    Humectants, substances that promote the retention of moisture, were applied to new and previously aged thermal-sprayed Zn anodes to improve the performance of galvanic cathodic protection systems. Anodes on steel-reinforced concrete were treated with aqueous solutions of the humectants lithium nitrate (LiNO{sub 3}) and lithium bromide (LiBr). LiBr was the most beneficial humectant, increasing the average galvanic current density of new thermal-sprayed Zn anodes by as much as a factor of six.

  9. Assessing the effects of adsorptive polymeric resin additions on fungal secondary metabolite chemical diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Menéndez, Víctor; Asensio, Francisco; Moreno, Catalina; de Pedro, Nuria; Monteiro, Maria Candida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald F.; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Tormo, José R.

    2014-01-01

    Adsorptive polymeric resins have been occasionally described to enhance the production of specific secondary metabolites (SMs) of interest. Methods that induce the expression of new chemical entities in fungal fermentations may lead to the discovery of new bioactive molecules and should be addressed as possible tools for the creation of new microbial chemical libraries for drug lead discovery. Herein, we apply both biological activity and chemical evaluations to assess the use of adsorptive resins as tools for the differential expression of SMs in fungal strain sets. Data automation approaches were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts to evaluate the general influence in generating new chemical entities or in changing the production of specific SMs by fungi grown in the presence of resins and different base media. PMID:25379340

  10. A complete audit cycle to assess adherence to a lung protective ventilation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Joynes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is clear evidence for the use of a protective ventilation protocol in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. There is evidence to suggest that protective ventilation is beneficial in patients at risk of ARDS. A protective ventilation strategy was implemented on our intensive care unit in critical care patients who required mechanical ventilation for over 48 h, with and at risk for ARDS. A complete audit cycle was performed over 13 months to assess compliance with a safe ventilation protocol in intensive care. The ARDS network mechanical ventilation protocol was used as the standard for our protective ventilation strategy. This recommends ventilation with a tidal volume (Vt of 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight (IBW and plateau airway pressure of ≤30 cm H 2 O. The initial audit failed to meet this standard with Vt ′s of 9.5 ml/kg of IBW. Following the implementation of a ventilation strategy and an educational program, we demonstrate a significant improvement in practice with Vt ′s of 6.6 ml/kg of IBW in the re-audit. This highlights the importance of simple interventions and continuous education in maintaining high standards of care.

  11. Protection of Nuclear Plants Against Vehicular Bombs Via Full Spectrum Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campagna, M. S.; Sawruk, W.

    2003-02-25

    A more urgent need now exists since 9/11 to protect vital assets at nuclear plants from physical security threats. Any approach to successful defense must result in the best possible risk profile , while also performing this defense against credible threats within the context of limited personnel and materiel resources. Engineered solutions need to be well thought out, and take advantage of each plant's available organic strengths and opportunities. A robust, well trained/equipped highly motivated protective force will help reduce concerns where there are weaknesses making the plant vulnerable to threats. A thorough risk assessment takes into account the proper combination of both deterministic and probabilistic application of resources as a most advantageous approach; this is postulated to be development of integrated protection methods and plans, which blend solid engineering design with the highest caliber of protection forces. By setting a clear and ambitious objective to shield the nuclear assets with this type of dynamic full spectrum defense in depth, the risk of harm-breach or likelihood of any opponent's threat being realized should be reduced to the lowest practicable levels.

  12. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  13. Application of the Activity Framework for Assessing Aquatic Ecotoxicology Data for Organic Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul; Dawick, James; Lampi, Mark; Lemaire, Philippe; Presow, Shaun; van Egmond, Roger; Arnot, Jon A; Mackay, Donald; Mayer, Philipp; Galay Burgos, Malyka

    2015-10-20

    Toxicological research in the 1930s gave the first indications of the link between narcotic toxicity and the chemical activity of organic chemicals. More recently, chemical activity has been proposed as a novel exposure parameter that describes the fraction of saturation and that quantifies the potential for partitioning and diffusive uptake. In the present study, more than 2000 acute and chronic algal, aquatic invertebrates and fish toxicity data, as well as water solubility and melting point values, were collected from a series of sources. The data were critically reviewed and grouped by mode of action (MoA). We considered 660 toxicity data to be of acceptable quality. The 328 data which applied to the 72 substances identified as MoA 1 were then evaluated within the activity-toxicity framework: EC50 and LC50 values for all three taxa correlated generally well with (subcooled) liquid solubilities. Acute toxicity was typically exerted within the chemical activity range of 0.01-0.1, whereas chronic toxicity was exerted in the range of 0.001-0.01. These results confirm that chemical activity has the potential to contribute to the determination, interpretation and prediction of toxicity to aquatic organisms. It also has the potential to enhance regulation of organic chemicals by linking results from laboratory tests, monitoring and modeling programs. The framework can provide an additional line of evidence for assessing aquatic toxicity, for improving the design of toxicity tests, reducing animal usage and addressing chemical mixtures.

  14. Chemical protection of pheromones containing an internal conjugated diene system from isomerization and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideses, R; Shani, A

    1988-08-01

    Conjugated diene systems are common in natural products, including pheromones. The systems are sensitive to heat, light, and oxygen, among other things. They can be protected by antioxidants and UV absorbers, which slow downcis-trans isomerization and oxidation. Three sex pheromones (one as an analog) containingZ,E, E,Z, andE,E units were studied: (Z,E)-9,11-C14OAc, (E,Z)-7,9-C12OAc, and (E,E)-10,12-C16OAc. The UV absorber 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and the antioxidants BHT and BHA were found to be effective in solution. The protective effect of the UV absorber against photoisomerization on paper carriers was not as good as that in solution. Preliminary studies on the utilization of formulations containing these compounds and (Z,E)-9,11-C14OAc in the mass trapping of Egyptian cotton leafworm male in cotton fields showed the new combinations to be as good as a previously used formulation with UOP 688, a compound which is unpleasant to handle.

  15. Application of Direct Assessment Approaches and Methodologies to Cathodically Protected Nuclear Waste Transfer Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Megan M. [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States); Pikas, Joseph [Schiff Associates, Sugar Land TX (United States); Edgemon, Glenn L. [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States); Philo, Sarah [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 54 million gallons (204 million liters) of radioactive waste generated since the site's inception in 1943. Today, the major structures involved in waste management at Hanford include 149 carbon steel single-shell tanks, 28 carbon-steel double-shell tanks, plus a network of buried metallic transfer lines and ancillary systems (pits, vaults, catch tanks, etc.) required to store, retrieve, and transfer waste within the tank farm system. Many of the waste management systems at Hanford are still in use today. In response to uncertainties regarding the structural integrity of these systems,' an independent, comprehensive integrity assessment of the Hanford Site piping system was performed. It was found that regulators do not require the cathodically protected pipelines located within the Hanford Site to be assessed by External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) or any other method used to ensure integrity. However, a case study is presented discussing the application of the direct assessment process on pipelines in such a nuclear environment. Assessment methodology and assessment results are contained herein. An approach is described for the monitoring, integration of outside data, and analysis of this information in order to identify whether coating deterioration accompanied by external corrosion is a threat for these waste transfer lines.

  16. Using systematic reviews for hazard and risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beronius, Anna; Vandenberg, Laura N.

    2016-01-01

    The possibility that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in our environment contribute to hormonally related effects and diseases observed in human and wildlife populations has caused concern among decision makers and researchers alike. EDCs challenge principles traditionally applied in chemical risk assessment and the identification and assessment of these compounds has been a much debated topic during the last decade. State of the science reports and risk assessments of potential EDCs have been criticized for not using systematic and transparent approaches in the evaluation of evidence. In the fields of medicine and health care, systematic review methodologies have been developed and used to enable objectivity and transparency in the evaluation of scientific evidence for decision making. Lately, such approaches have also been promoted for use in the environmental health sciences and risk assessment of chemicals. Systematic review approaches could provide a tool for improving the evaluation of evidence for decision making regarding EDCs, e.g. by enabling systematic and transparent use of academic research data in this process. In this review we discuss the advantages and challenges of applying systematic review methodology in the identification and assessment of EDCs. PMID:26847432

  17. Using systematic reviews for hazard and risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beronius, Anna; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2015-12-01

    The possibility that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in our environment contribute to hormonally related effects and diseases observed in human and wildlife populations has caused concern among decision makers and researchers alike. EDCs challenge principles traditionally applied in chemical risk assessment and the identification and assessment of these compounds has been a much debated topic during the last decade. State of the science reports and risk assessments of potential EDCs have been criticized for not using systematic and transparent approaches in the evaluation of evidence. In the fields of medicine and health care, systematic review methodologies have been developed and used to enable objectivity and transparency in the evaluation of scientific evidence for decision making. Lately, such approaches have also been promoted for use in the environmental health sciences and risk assessment of chemicals. Systematic review approaches could provide a tool for improving the evaluation of evidence for decision making regarding EDCs, e.g. by enabling systematic and transparent use of academic research data in this process. In this review we discuss the advantages and challenges of applying systematic review methodology in the identification and assessment of EDCs.

  18. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study.

  19. Proposals to overcome limitations in the EU chemical risk assessment scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Schwartz, S.

    2000-01-01

    The noti®cation of new chemicals in the European Union requires a risk assessment. A Technical Guidance Document (TGD) was prepared for assistance. The TGD proposes QSARs, regressions and models from various sources. Each method has its own range of applicability and its own restrictions. Regress......The noti®cation of new chemicals in the European Union requires a risk assessment. A Technical Guidance Document (TGD) was prepared for assistance. The TGD proposes QSARs, regressions and models from various sources. Each method has its own range of applicability and its own restrictions......, it is shown that in certain cases uptake is underestimated by the model due to processes not considered. This may lead to a wrong security in risk assessment. To overcome these limitations, a set of alternative models with di€erent application ranges should be developed. When no applicable method is available...

  20. Probabilistic Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures: Importance of Travel Times and Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Christopher V.; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; de Barros, Felipe P. J.

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface contamination cases giving rise to groundwater pollutions are extensively found in all industrialized countries. Under this pressure, risk assessment methods play an important role in population protection by (1) quantifying the potential impact on human health of an aquifer contamination and (2) helping and driving decisions of groundwater-resource managers. Many reactive components such as chlorinated solvents or nitrates potentially experience attenuation processes under common geochemical conditions. This represents an attractive and extensively used remediation solution but leads often to the production of by-products before to reach a harmless chemical form. This renders mixtures of contaminants a common issue for groundwater resources managers. In this case, the threat posed by these contaminants to human health at a given sensitive location greatly depends on the competition between reactive and advective-dispersive characteristic times. However, hydraulic properties of the aquifer are known to be spatially variable, which can lead to the formation of preferential flow channels and fast contamination pathways. Therefore, the uncertainty on the spatial distribution of the aquifer properties controlling the plume travel time may then play a particular role in the human health risk assessment of chemical mixtures. We investigate here the risk related to a multispecies system in response to different degrees of heterogeneity of the hydraulic conductivity (K or Y =ln(K)). This work focuses on a Perchloroethylene (PCE) contamination problem followed by the sequential first-order production/biodegradation of its daughter species Trichloroethylene (TCE), Dichloroethylene (DCE) and Vinyl Chlorine (VC). For this specific case, VC is known to be a highly toxic contaminant. By performing numerical experiments, we evaluate transport through three-dimensional mildly (σY 2=1.0) and highly (σY 2=4.0) heterogeneous aquifers. Uncertainty on the hydraulic

  1. Biological efficacy of the chemical chrysanthemums protection with the use of fine and coarse droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw PARAFINIUK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of three years (2007-2009 were conducted at Czesławice in south- east of Poland .The objects of research were the plants of the one cultivar of chrysanthemum: Dark Tripoli. The following agents were used for protection: Dithane NeoTec 75 WG, Sumilex 500 SC, Amistar 250 SC. The treatment was carried out with the use of two types of nozzles: standard RS-MM 110 03 and ejector type ID 120 03 C. Observation was carried out once a year: in October. The number and health status of plants were determined and diseased plants were collected for analysis. The percentage of plants with disease symptoms was estimated for each plot. The best health status and yield were noticed for Amistar 250 SC.

  2. Chemical Composition and Hepato-protective activity of Imperata cylindrica Beauv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical study of the aerial parts of Imperata cylindrica Beauv. (Graminae, growing in Egypt afforded four methoxylated flavonoids 1-4 , β-sitosterol-3-0-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6 ′ -tetradecanoate 5 , 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzaldehyde 6 , together with daucosterol, β-sitosterol and α-amyrin 7-9. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first isolation of compounds 1-5 from the genus Imperata. A significant hepato-protective activity had been observed upon co-administration of the methanolic extracts of I. cylindrica with CCl 4 . The structures were determined using spectroscopic data; 1D ( 1 H and 13 C, 2D (HSQC, and HMBC NMR; MS; UV and IR.

  3. REGRESSION MODEL OF RATNIK BARLEY COMBINED PRESOWING PROCESSING BY OPTICAL RADIATION AND CHEMICAL PROTECTANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazalov V. S.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of combined electrooptical processing which allows to disclose the reasonable energy and technological conditions of seeds’ treatment and to define the main factors which influence such seeds’ sowing qualities as: germinating power, germinating ability and length of sprouts is used in this article. Besides, the procedure allows conducting the research of efficiency evaluation of some rational parameters and conditions of treatment which influence their yield characteristics in field conditions. The research task was to obtain the data about the number of spring barley called “Ratnik” shoots and their productivity depending on the number of working volume converter’s lamps (1-6 and on the protectant’ norm percent (1-100. The experiments have been carried out and the data have been obtained for this purpose and the processing of these data has given the regression equation of the second order writing the process with the volumetric graphical interpretation. The rational parameter space of presowing treatment providing maximal germination and crop capacity of barley “Warrior” has been obtained on basis of the diagrams’ analysis. As the growth of germinating ability and crop capacity is observed when the number of working lamps is increased the double spreading at 6 working lamps should be recommended. The concentration of the protectant practically ceases to influent the crop capacity. According to the results of the research there has been drawn a conclusion that preliminary seeds treatment, for the purpose of plant diseases preventing, restrains the germination processes at the initial level. It happens in connection with conditions deterioration of moisture access to seeds which are covered with protectant film. Further processing of treated seeds by optical radiation promotes the growth of germinating ability and length of sprouts compensating negative effect of treatment

  4. Assessment of radiological protection systems among diagnostic radiology facilities in North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Thokchom Dewan; Jayaraman, T; Arunkumar Sharma, B

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to assess the adequacy level of radiological protection systems available in the diagnostic radiology facilities located in three capital cities of North East (NE) India. It further attempts to understand, using a multi-disciplinary approach, how the safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology framed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to achieve adequate radiological protection in facilities, have been perceived, conceptualized, and applied accordingly in these facilities. About 30 diagnostic radiology facilities were randomly selected from three capitals of states in NE India; namely Imphal (Manipur), Shillong (Meghalaya) and Guwahati (Assam). A semi-structured questionnaire developed based on a multi-disciplinary approach was used for this study. It was observed that radiological practices undertaken in these facilities were not exactly in line with safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology of the AERB and the IAEA. About 50% of the facilities had registered/licensed x-ray equipment with the AERB. More than 80% of the workers did not use radiation protective devices, although these devices were available in the facilities. About 85% of facilities had no institutional risk management system. About 70% of the facilities did not carry out periodic quality assurance testing of their x-ray equipment or surveys of radiation leakage around the x-ray room, and did not display radiation safety indicators in the x-ray rooms. Workers in these facilities exhibited low risk perception about the risks associated with these practices. The majority of diagnostic radiology facilities in NE India did not comply with the radiological safety codes/standards framed by the AERB and IAEA. The study found inadequate levels of radiological protection systems in the majority of facilities. This study suggests a need to establish firm measures that comply with the radiological safety codes/standards of the

  5. Chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in surface water using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Perkins, S.D.; Clark, R.C.; Smith, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers. In addition to the chemical analysis, the Microtox assay for acute toxicity and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) were conducted as potential assessment tools in combination with the passive samplers. During the spring of 2004, the passive samplers were deployed for 29 to 65 d at Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Morgan Creek, MD; and DR2 Drain, WA. Chemical analysis of the sampler extracts identified the agrochemicals predominantly used in those areas, including atrazine, simazine, acetochlor, and metolachlor. Other chemicals identified included deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, trifluralin, fluoranthene, pyrene, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and pentachloroanisole. Screening using Microtox resulted in no acutely toxic samples. POCIS samples screened by the YES assay failed to elicit a positive estrogenic response. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation protection, radiation safety and radiation shielding assessment of HIE-ISOLDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanets, Y; Bernardes, A P; Dorsival, A; Gonçalves, I F; Kadi, Y; di Maria, S; Vaz, P; Vlachoudis, V; Vollaire, J

    2013-07-01

    The high intensity and energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project is an upgrade to the existing ISOLDE facility at CERN. The foreseen increase in the nominal intensity and the energy of the primary proton beam of the existing ISOLDE facility aims at increasing the intensity of the produced radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The currently existing ISOLDE facility uses the proton beam from the proton-synchrotron booster with an energy of 1.4 GeV and an intensity up to 2 μA. After upgrade (final stage), the HIE-ISOLDE facility is supposed to run at an energy up to 2 GeV and an intensity up to 4 μA. The foreseen upgrade imposes constrains, from the radiation protection and the radiation safety point of view, to the existing experimental and supply areas. Taking into account the upgraded energy and intensity of the primary proton beam, a new assessment of the radiation protection and radiation safety of the HIE-ISOLDE facility is necessary. Special attention must be devoted to the shielding assessment of the beam dumps and of the experimental areas. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo particle transport simulation program FLUKA was used to perform the computation of the ambient dose equivalent rate distribution and of the particle fluxes in the projected HIE-ISOLDE facility (taking into account the upgrade nominal primary proton beam energy and intensity) and the shielding assessment of the facility, with the aim of identifying in the existing facility (ISOLDE) the critical areas and locations where new or reinforced shielding may be necessary. The consequences of the upgraded proton beam parameters on the operational radiation protection of the facility were studied.

  7. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Gon [Hanwha Chemical Ulsan Site, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hun Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks.

  8. Risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in chemical industrial parks based on catastrophe theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

    2012-12-03

    According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs.

  9. Implementation and student perceptions of e-assessment in a Chemical Engineering module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Eva

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes work carried out at the Department of Chemical Engineering at UCL into the use of e-assessment in a second year module and, in particular, the student perceptions of this mode of assessment. Three quizzes were implemented in Moodle, the first two as formative assessment and the final quiz as summative assessment. The results were very encouraging and practically all students engaged with the process. An online survey was delivered to all students after the module, which showed that the students felt that e-assessment added value to their learning and they would like to see it implemented in other modules. The quizzes were intended to be mainly beneficial to the weaker students as it gave them an opportunity to go over key aspects of the material in their own time. Interestingly, the stronger students were even more in favour of e-learning than the weaker students, for whom the quizzes were originally designed.

  10. [Sensitivity of Pseudomonas chlororaphis to antibiotics and chemical tools of plant protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelevich, V V; Kiprianova, E A; Iaroshenko, L V; Avdeeva, L V

    2012-01-01

    Examination of sensitivity of 10 Pseudomonas chlororaphis strains belonging to different subspecies to 54 antibiotics has shown that all studied representatives of Pchlororaphis subsp. chlororaphis, P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens and Pchlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca were sensitive to aminoglycoside antibiotics and fluoroquinolones derivatives. Only part of studied strains has shown sensitivity to some beta-lactam antibiotics, imipeneme and meropeneme. In contrast to representatives of two other subspecies both strains of P. chlororaphis subsp. chlororaphis proved to be sensitive to chlortetracycline and cefepime that allows to consider this difference as the characteristic useful for differentiation. All studied P. chlororaphis strains were resistant to chemical fungicides (Scor and Svitch) and the insect growth regulators (Match, Lufox, Engio, Actellik). Resistance of bacteria to these herbicides gives evidence that their combined use is possible.

  11. Assessment of 4-nitrogenated benzyloxymethyl groups for 2'-hydroxyl protection in solid-phase RNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Jacek; Kauffman, Jon S; Kolodziejski, Michelle J; Lloyd, John R; Beaucage, Serge L

    2007-02-15

    The search for a 2'-OH protecting group that would impart ribonucleoside phosphoramidites with coupling kinetics and coupling efficiencies comparable to those of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites led to an assessment of 2'-O-(4-nitrogenated benzyloxy)methyl groups through solid-phase RNA synthesis using phosphoramidites 2a-d, 12a, and 14a. These phosphoramidites exhibited rapid and efficient coupling properties. Particularly noteworthy is the cleavage of the 2'-O-[4-(N-methylamino)benzyloxy]methyl groups in 0.1 M AcOH, which led to U19dT within 15 min at 90 degrees C. [reaction: see text

  12. Assessment and control of chemical risk from organic vapors for attendants in a gas station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ehmig Santillán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research comprises monitoring, assessment and recommendations for chemical risk originating from organic vapors (benzene, toluene and xylene of fuel (super and extra gasoline to which attendants at a gas station are exposed. Given the concentration measured of organic vapors (benzene, toluene and xylene the chemical risk to which attendants are exposed in the supply area is acceptable. Control measures are recommended to ensure healthy working conditions for gas station attendants and also to avoid occurrence of occupational diseases in the medium or long term

  13. Tallahatchie National Wildlife Refuge (Proposed) Quitman, Tallahatchie, and Grenada Counties, Mississippi, Draft Environmental Assessment and Land Protection Plan.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Draft Land Protection Plan and Environmental Assessment for Tallahatchie National Wildlife Refuge contains the necessary supporting documentation to establish...

  14. An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information. This report is a review of decision-making processes of selected land protection prog...

  15. Coupling a 3D patch model and a rockfall module to assess rockfall protection in mountain forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltjer, M.; Rammer, W.; Brauner, M.; Seidl, R.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Lexer, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Many forests in the Alps are acknowledged for protecting objects, such as (rail) roads, against rockfall. However, there is a lack of knowledge on efficient silvicultural strategies and interventions to maintain these forests at optimal protection level. Therefore, assessment tools are required that

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF THE SOIL, GROUND AND BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AT KLEN GOLD AND SILVER DEPOSIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan' Fedor Fedorovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, prospecting and design-related works are performed prior to the upcoming launch of mining operations at Klen gold and silver deposit in Chukot Autonomous District. The anthropogenic impact of the geological exploration in this intact territory has been produced since 1984. A considerable amount of borehole drilling, prospecting, road building, and temporary housing development has been performed. The engineering research, including ecological surveys, has been completed to assess the ecological impact of upcoming exploratory and mining operations at the deposit. Assessment of the geochemical condition of the landscape constituents, including the soil, ground and bottom sediments is of special importance in terms of their engineering protection and rational management of the natural environment. The above assessments were based on the field sampling made by «Sibgeoconsulting», CJSC (Krasnoyarsk and the laboratory research made by accredited laboratories of Federal State Unitary Geological Enterprise «Urangeolograzvedka» (Irkutsk and «Krasnoyarskgeologiya» (Krasnoyarsk. The analysis of the chemical pollution of soils, ground and bottom sediments is based on the examination of 30 samples. Peculiarities of the chemical composition of samples extracted at the deposit were identified. It has been discovered that pH values of the soil vary from 5.1 to 7.3. The concentration of metal in bottom sediments exceeds its concentration in the soil by far. Almost all irregular features of the sample water in the whole territory of the deposit are caused by the anthropogenic impact. In general, the metal content in soils, ground and bottom sediments within the territory of the deposit is slightly different from the regular clarke.

  17. Silver nanoparticles prepared by chemical reduction-protection method, and their application in electrically conductive silver nanopaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jianguo, E-mail: ljg712@yahoo.com.c [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Li Xiangyou; Zeng Xiaoyan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2010-04-02

    Ag nanoparticles were prepared in a water-phase system with a mixture of silver-ammonia complex, sodium borohydride, and lauric acid according to molar feed ratio of approximately 6:3:1. The mechanism of preparation and separation by chemical reduction-protection method was explored. The as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. It was found that the size of high purity Ag particles was ranging from 30 to 50 nm with slight agglomeration. In addition, the as-synthesized wet Ag nanoparticles were dispersed stably in organic vehicle to formulate electrically conductive nanopaste. Upon direct-written and sintered, the array pattern of the nanopaste with the resolution of about 30 {mu}m was achieved with the electrical resistivity in the order of magnitude of 10{sup -5} {Omega} cm.

  18. Apelin Protects Primary Rat Retinal Pericytes from Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericytes are a population of cells that participate in normal vessel architecture and regulate permeability. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor APJ, participates in a number of physiological and pathological processes. To date, the effect of apelin on pericyte is not clear. Our study aimed to investigate the potential protection mechanisms of apelin, with regard to primary rat retinal pericytes under hypoxia. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that pericytes colocalized with APJ in the fibrovascular membranes dissected from proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients. In the in vitro studies, we first demonstrated that the expression of apelin/APJ was upregulated in pericytes under hypoxia, and apelin increased pericytes proliferation and migration. Moreover, knockdown of apelin in pericyte was achieved via lentivirus-mediated RNA interference. After the inhibition of apelin, pericytes proliferation was inhibited significantly in hypoxia culture condition. Furthermore, exogenous recombinant apelin effectively prevented hypoxia-induced apoptosis through downregulating active-caspase 3 expression and increasing the ratio of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2/Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax in pericytes. These results suggest that apelin suppressed hypoxia-induced pericytes injury, which indicated that apelin could be a potential therapeutic target for retinal angiogenic diseases.

  19. An assessment of wetland nature reserves and the protection of China’s vertebrate diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun, R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We assessed all 148 wetland nature reserves in China and the distribution of the four taxa of endemic and threatened terrestrial vertebrates, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. Assessment of the wetland nature reserves was combined with the governmental list of the endemic and threatened vertebrates to identify the richness of the species. Species richness was scored as high, medium or low using a factor analysis method, and 31 wetland ecosystems were marked as high protection areas. The relationship between the threatened species and the endemic species in the reserves was also analyzed. We found that both richness patterns were similar. Based on the richness study, a nature reserve classification system with corresponding

  20. Marine protected area networks: assessing whether the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Grorud-Colvert

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic impacts are increasingly affecting the world's oceans. Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs provide an option for increasing the ecological and economic benefits often provided by single MPAs. It is vital to empirically assess the effects of MPA networks and to prioritize the monitoring data necessary to explain those effects. We summarize the types of MPA networks based on their intended management outcomes and illustrate a framework for evaluating whether a connectivity network is providing an outcome greater than the sum of individual MPA effects. We use an analysis of an MPA network in Hawai'i to compare networked MPAs to non-networked MPAs to demonstrate results consistent with a network effect. We assert that planning processes for MPA networks should identify their intended outcomes while also employing coupled field monitoring-simulation modeling approaches, a powerful way to prioritize the most relevant monitoring data for empirically assessing MPA network performance.

  1. Prioritising chemicals used in personal care products in China for environmental risk assessment: application of the RAIDAR model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Todd; van Egmond, Roger; Price, Oliver R; Hodges, Juliet E N

    2012-06-01

    China represents a significant market for the sale of personal care products (PCPs). Given the continuous emission of hundreds of chemicals used in PCPs to waste water and the aquatic environment after regular use, methods for prioritising the environmental risk assessment for China are needed. In an effort to assess the prioritisation of chemicals used in PCPs in China, we have identified the chemical ingredients used in 2500 PCPs released to the Chinese market in 2009, and estimated the annual emission of these chemicals. The physical-chemical property data for these substances have been estimated and used as model inputs in the RAIDAR model. In general, the RAIDAR model provides an overall assessment of the multimedia fate of chemicals, and provides a holistic approach for prioritising chemical ingredients. The prioritisation exercise conducted in this study is shown to be strongly influenced by loss processes, such as the removal efficiencies of WWT plants and biotransformation.

  2. Knockout of the 15 kDa selenoprotein protects against chemically-induced aberrant crypt formation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra A Tsuji

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that selenium has cancer preventive properties that are largely mediated through selenoproteins. Our previous observations demonstrated that targeted down-regulation of the 15 kDa selenoprotein (Sep15 in murine colon cancer cells resulted in the reversal of the cancer phenotype. The present study investigated the effect of Sep15 knockout in mice using a chemically-induced colon cancer model. Homozygous Sep15 knockout mice, and wild type littermate controls were given four weekly subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (10 mg/kg. Sep15 knockout mice developed significantly (p<0.001 fewer aberrant crypt foci than controls demonstrating that loss of Sep15 protects against aberrant crypt foci formation. Dietary selenium above adequate levels did not significantly affect aberrant crypt foci formation in Sep15 knockout mice. To investigate molecular targets affected by loss of Sep15, gene expression patterns in colonic mucosal cells of knockout and wild type mice were examined using microarray analysis. Subsequent analyses verified that guanylate binding protein-1 (GBP-1 mRNA and protein expression were strongly upregulated in Sep15 knockout mice. GBP-1, which is expressed in response to interferon-γ, is considered to be an activation marker during inflammatory diseases, and up-regulation of GBP-1 in humans has been associated with a highly significant, increased five-year survival rate in colorectal cancer patients. In agreement with these studies, we observed a higher level of interferon-γ in plasma of Sep15 knockout mice. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time, that Sep15 knockout mice are protected against chemically-induced aberrant crypt foci formation and that Sep15 appears to have oncogenic properties in colon carcinogenesis in vivo.

  3. Assessment on the Impact of Arable Land Protection Policies in a Rapidly Developing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of arable land protection policies in China, a practical framework that integrates geographic information systems (GIS, soil quality assessment and landscape metrics analysis was employed to track and analyze arable land transformations and landscape changes in response to rampant urbanization within the Ningbo region (China from 2005 to 2013. The results showed that arable land loss and degradation have continued, despite the development of a comprehensive legal framework for arable land protection. The implementation of arable land protection policies is judged to be effective, but not entirely successful, because it guarantees the overall amount of arable land but does not consider soil quality and spatial distribution. In addition, there are distinct variations in arable land change dynamics between two temporal intervals. From 2005–2009, the transformation of arable land was diversified, with intensified conversion among arable land, built-up land, water and orchards. Moreover, many new arable land parcels were adjacent to built-up land, and are in danger of being occupied again through urban sprawl. By 2009–2013, most of the arable land was occupied by urban expansion, whereas a majority of newly increased arable land was reclaimed from coastal tideland. Although the newly increased arable land was contiguous and far from the urban area, it is of poor quality and has limited use. The permanent loss of high-quality arable land due to intensified urban sprawl may threaten sustainable development and food security on a larger scale.

  4. Assessing the benefits of Transboundary Protected Areas: a questionnaire survey in the Americas and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Jamie W; Vasilijević, Maja; Cuthill, Innes

    2015-02-01

    There are more than 3000 protected areas (PAs) situated on or near international boundaries, and amongst them there is an increasing trend towards the establishment of transboundary cooperation initiatives. Proponents of Transboundary PAs (TBPAs) highlight the potential for biodiversity protection through spatial, management and socio-economic benefits. However, there have been few formal studies that assess these benefits. It is possible that the relaxation of boundary controls to optimise transboundary connectivity may increase the risk of impacts from invasive species or illegal human incursion. We sought to investigate the validity of these proposed benefits and potential risks through a questionnaire survey of 113 PAs, of which 39 responded and met our inclusion criteria. 82% felt that transboundary cooperation has benefits for biodiversity and, across PAs, the self-reported level of transboundary communication was positively associated with some improved spatial, management and socio-economic benefits. However, 26% of PAs reported that they never communicated with their internationally adjoining protected area, indicating unrealised potential for greater gains.

  5. A quantitative assessment of facial protection systems in elective hip arthroplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hirpara, Kieran Michael

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to assess the risk to surgeons of blood splatter during total hip arthroplasty. Hoods from personal protection systems used in 34 consecutive total hip replacements were collected and the area of blood splatter was measured and compared to goggles and visors. Thirty one primary THA\\'s (13 cemented, 4 hybrid, 14 uncemented) and 3 revisions (1 hybrid, 2 uncemented) were collected. Splashes were detected on all of the masks with a mean of 034% cover. Splatter was greatest for the operating surgeon, followed by the first assistant, though the difference was not statistically significant. Operating personnel were at greater risk of contamination during uncemented arthroplasty (p < 0.0001; 95% CI). On average 50.60% and 45.40% of blood cover was outside the area protected by goggles and visors respectively. There was a significant difference between the Personal Protection Systems (PPS) and goggles (p = 0.0231; 95% CI) as well as between the PPS and visors (p = 0.0293; 95% CI).

  6. Aqueous suspension of anise "Pimpinella anisum" protects rats against chemically induced gastric ulcers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim A Al Mofleh; Abdulqader A Alhaider; Jaber S Mossa; Mohammed O Al-Soohaibani; Syed Rafatullah

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To substantiate the claims of Unani and Arabian traditional medicine practitioners on the gastroprotective potential effect of a popular spice anise,"Pimpinella anisum L." on experimentally-induced gastric ulceration and secretion in rats.METHODS:Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by various noxious chemicals including 80% ethanol,0.2 mol/L NaOH,25% NaCl and indomethacin.Anti-secretory studies were undertaken using pylorusligated Shay rat technique.Levels of gastric non-protein sulfhydryls(NP-SH)and wall mucus were estimated and gastric tissue was also examined histologically.Anise aqueous suspension was used in two doses(250 and 500 mg/kg body weight)in all experiments.RESULTS:Anise significantly inhibited gastric mucosal damage induced by necrotizing agents and indomethacin.The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically.In pylorus-ligated Shay rats,anise suspension significantly reduced the basal gastric acid secretion,acidity and completely inhibited the rumenal ulceration.On the other hand,the suspension significantly replenished ethanol-induced depleted levels of gastric mucosal NP-SH and gastric wall mucus concentration.CONCLUSION:Anise aqueous suspension possesses significant cytoprotective and anti-ulcer activities against experimentally-induced gastric lesions.The anti-ulcer effect of anise is possibly prostaglandin-mediated and/or through its anti-secretory and antioxidative properties.

  7. Protecting buildings from a biological or chemical attack: Actions to take before or during a release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Delp, William W.; Lorenzetti, David M.; Finlayson, Elizabeth U.; Thatcher, Tracy L.; Sextro, Richard G.; Derby, Elisabeth A.; Jarvis, Sondra A.

    2003-01-29

    This report presents advice on how to operate a building to reduce casualties from a biological or chemical attack, as well as potential changes to the building (e.g. the design of the ventilation system) that could make it more secure. It also documents the assumptions and reasoning behind the advice. The particular circumstances of any attack, such as the ventilation system design, building occupancy, agent type, source strength and location, and so on, may differ from the assumptions made here, in which case actions other than our recommendations may be required; we hope that by understanding the rationale behind the advice, building operators can modify it as required for their circumstances. The advice was prepared by members of the Airflow and Pollutant Transport Group, which is part of the Indoor Environment Department at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The group's expertise in this area includes: tracer-gas measurements of airflows in buildings (Sextro, Thatcher); design and operation of commercial building ventilation systems (Delp); modeling and analysis of airflow and tracer gas transport in large indoor spaces (Finlayson, Gadgil, Price); modeling of gas releases in multi-zone buildings (Sohn, Lorenzetti, Finlayson, Sextro); and occupational health and safety experience related to building design and operation (Sextro, Delp). This report is concerned only with building design and operation; it is not a how-to manual for emergency response. Many important emergency response topics are not covered here, including crowd control, medical treatment, evidence gathering, decontamination methods, and rescue gear.

  8. Enhancing the chemical mixture methodology in emergency preparedness and consequence assessment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Glantz, Clifford S; Yao, Juan; He, Hua; Petrocchi, Achille J; Craig, Douglas K; Ciolek, John T; Booth, Alexander E

    2013-11-16

    Emergency preparedness personnel at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities use the chemical mixture methodology (CMM) to estimate the potential health impacts to workers and the public from the unintended airborne release of chemical mixtures. The CMM uses a Hazard Index (HI) for each chemical in a mixture to compare a chemical's concentration at a receptor location to an appropriate concentration limit for that chemical. This limit is typically based on Protection Action Criteria (PAC) values developed and published by the DOE. As a first cut, the CMM sums the HIs for all the chemicals in a mixture to conservatively estimate their combined health impact. A cumulative HI>1.0 represents a concentration exceeding the concentration limit and indicates the potential for adverse health effects. Next, Health Code Numbers (HCNs) are used to identify the target organ systems that may be impacted by exposure to each chemical in a mixture. The sum of the HIs for the maximally impacted target organ system is used to provide a refined, though still conservative, estimate of the potential for adverse health effects from exposure to the chemical mixture. This paper explores approaches to enhance the effectiveness of the CMM by using HCN weighting factors. A series of 24 case studies have been defined to evaluate both the existing CMM and three new approaches for improving the CMM. The first approach uses a set of HCN weighting factors that are applied based on the priority ranking of the HCNs for each chemical. The second approach uses weighting factors based on the priority rankings of the HCNs established for a given type of concentration limit. The third approach uses weighting factors that are based on the exposure route used to derive PAC values and a priority ranking of the HCNs (the same ranking as used in the second approach). Initial testing indicates that applying weighting factors increases the effectiveness of the CMM in general, though care must be taken to

  9. Protective effect of conditioning agents on Afro-ethnic hair chemically treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tania Cristina de Sá; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

    2008-06-01

    Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, products are formulated as emulsions with high pH value (9.0-12.0), which, after applied on hair, cause considerable damage, making it dry and fragile. This research work evaluated the protective effect of lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone, cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer, jojoba oil, and aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol, as conditioning agents, on Afro-ethnic hair locks treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsions by protein loss, combability, and traction to rupture. Standard Afro-ethnic hair locks were prepared following a protocol for straightening emulsion application. Considering the assays performed, the addition of conditioning agents to the straightening emulsion with ammonium thioglycolate benefited the hair fiber, thus diminishing protein loss, protecting the hair thread, and improving resistance to breakage. Jojoba oil and lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone were the conditioning agents that presented the best results. Straightening emulsions with ammonium thioglycolate containing aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol and cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer were the ones that provided higher breakage resistance of the thread.

  10. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, DNA Damage Protective, Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities of Cyperus rotundus Rhizomes Essential Oil against Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-Ping; Cao, Xin-Ming; Hao, Dong-Lin; Zhang, Liang-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat various clinical conditions at home. In this study, chemical composition of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes essential oil, and in vitro antioxidant, DNA damage protective and cytotoxic activities as well as antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens were investigated. Results showed that α-cyperone (38.46%), cyperene (12.84%) and α-selinene (11.66%) were the major components of the essential oil. The essential oil had an excellent antioxidant activity, the protective effect against DNA damage, and cytotoxic effects on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell, as well as antibacterial activity against several foodborne pathogens. These biological activities were dose-dependent, increasing with higher dosage in a certain concentration range. The antibacterial effects of essential oil were greater against Gram-positive bacteria as compared to Gram-negative bacteria, and the antibacterial effects were significantly influenced by incubation time and concentration. These results may provide biological evidence for the practical application of the C. rotundus rhizomes essential oil in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:28338066

  11. Protective Effect of Distillate and Redistillate of Cow's Urine in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Challenged With Established Genotoxic Chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. KRISHNAMURTHI; DIPANWITA DUTTA; S. D. SIVANESAN; T. CHAKRABARTI

    2004-01-01

    From the ancient period cow's urine has been used as a medicine. In Veda, cow's urine was compared to the nectar. In Susrut, several medicinal properties of cow's urine have been mentioned and are known to cause weight loss, reversal of certain cardiac and kidney problems, indigestion, stomach ache, edema, etc. However, the literature and scripture did not mention the antigenotoxic properties of cow's urine. Methods In the present investigation, the antigenotoxic/ antioxidant properties of cow's urine distillate and redistillate were studied in vitro. The antioxidant status and volatile fatty acid levels were determined. Actinomycin-D (0.1 μmol/L) and hydrogen peroxide (150 μmol/L) were used for inducing DNA strand break with 0.1% DMSO as negative control. Dose for the antigenotoxic effect of cow's urine was chosen from the dose response study carried out earlier. Results Both actinomycin-D and H2O2 caused statistically significant DNA unwinding of 80% & 75% respectively (P<0.001) as revealed by fluorimetric analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU), and the damage could be protected with the redistilled cow's urine distillate (1, 50 & 100 μL) in simultaneous treatment with genotoxic chemicals. Conclusion The redistillate of cow's urine was found to possess total antioxidant status of around 2.6 mmol, contributed mainly by volatile fatty acids (1500 mg/L) as revealed by the GC-MS studies. These fatty acids and other antioxidants might cause the observed protective effects.

  12. Development of computer-based analytical tool for assessing physical protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardhi, Alim, E-mail: alim-m@batan.go.id [National Nuclear Energy Agency Indonesia, (BATAN), PUSPIPTEK area, Building 80, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Banten (Indonesia); Chulalongkorn University, Faculty of Engineering, Nuclear Engineering Department, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok Thailand. 10330 (Thailand); Pengvanich, Phongphaeth, E-mail: ppengvan@gmail.com [Chulalongkorn University, Faculty of Engineering, Nuclear Engineering Department, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok Thailand. 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-22

    Assessment of physical protection system effectiveness is the priority for ensuring the optimum protection caused by unlawful acts against a nuclear facility, such as unauthorized removal of nuclear materials and sabotage of the facility itself. Since an assessment based on real exercise scenarios is costly and time-consuming, the computer-based analytical tool can offer the solution for approaching the likelihood threat scenario. There are several currently available tools that can be used instantly such as EASI and SAPE, however for our research purpose it is more suitable to have the tool that can be customized and enhanced further. In this work, we have developed a computer–based analytical tool by utilizing the network methodological approach for modelling the adversary paths. The inputs are multi-elements in security used for evaluate the effectiveness of the system’s detection, delay, and response. The tool has capability to analyze the most critical path and quantify the probability of effectiveness of the system as performance measure.

  13. Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 3. Status of FY 1990 work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Holford, D.J.

    1992-02-01

    Radioactive waste exists at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in a variety of locations, including subsurface grout and tank farms, solid waste burial grounds, and contaminated soil sites. Some of these waste sites may need to be isolated from percolating water to minimize the potential for transport of the waste to the ground water, which eventually discharges to the Columbia River. Multilayer protective barriers have been proposed as a means of limiting the flow of water through the waste sites (DOE 1987). A multiyear research program [managed jointly by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE] is aimed at assessing the performance of these barriers. One aspect of this program involves the use of computer models to predict barrier performance. Three modeling studies have already been conducted and a test plan was produced. The simulation work reported here was conducted by PNL and extends the previous modeling work. The purpose of this report are to understand phenomena that have been observed in the field and to provide information that can be used to improve hydrologic modeling of the protective barrier. An improved modeling capability results in better estimates of barrier performance. Better estimates can be used to improve the design of barriers and the assessment of their long-term performance.

  14. Development of computer-based analytical tool for assessing physical protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardhi, Alim; Pengvanich, Phongphaeth

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of physical protection system effectiveness is the priority for ensuring the optimum protection caused by unlawful acts against a nuclear facility, such as unauthorized removal of nuclear materials and sabotage of the facility itself. Since an assessment based on real exercise scenarios is costly and time-consuming, the computer-based analytical tool can offer the solution for approaching the likelihood threat scenario. There are several currently available tools that can be used instantly such as EASI and SAPE, however for our research purpose it is more suitable to have the tool that can be customized and enhanced further. In this work, we have developed a computer-based analytical tool by utilizing the network methodological approach for modelling the adversary paths. The inputs are multi-elements in security used for evaluate the effectiveness of the system's detection, delay, and response. The tool has capability to analyze the most critical path and quantify the probability of effectiveness of the system as performance measure.

  15. Speech intelligibility assessment of protective facemasks and air-purifying respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Andrew J; Symons, Daniel; Morgan, Judge W; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2016-12-01

    Speech Intelligibility (SI) is the perceived quality of sound transmission. In healthcare settings, the ability to communicate clearly with coworkers, patients, etc., is crucial to quality patient care and safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess the suitability of the Speech Transmission Index (STI) methods for testing reusable and disposable facial and respiratory personal protective equipment (protective facemasks [PF], N95 filtering facepiece respirators [N95 FFR], and elastomeric half-mask air-purifying respirators [EAPR]) commonly worn by healthcare workers; (2) quantify STI levels of these devices; and (3) contribute to the scientific body of knowledge in the area of SI. SI was assessed using the STI under two experimental conditions: (1) a modified version of the National Fire Protection Association 1981 Supplementary Voice Communications System Performance Test at a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of -15 (66 dBA) and (2) STI measurements utilizing a range of modified pink noise levels (52.5 dBA (-2 SNR) - 72.5 dBA (+7 SNR)) in 5.0 dBA increments. The PF models (Kimberly Clark 49214 and 3 M 1818) had the least effect on SI interference, typically deviating from the STI baseline (no-mask condition) by 3% and 4% STI, respectively. The N95FFR (3 M 1870, 3 M 1860) had more effect on SI interference, typically differing from baseline by 13% and 17%, respectively, for models tested. The EAPR models (Scott Xcel and North 5500) had the most significant impact on SI, differing from baseline by 42% for models tested. This data offers insight into the performance of these apparatus with respect to STI and may serve as a reference point for future respirator design considerations, standards development, testing and certification activities.

  16. Assessing the Effect of Disturbances on the Functionality of Direct Protection Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Vacchiano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forests provide direct protection to human settlements from hydrogeomorphic hazards. This paper proposes a method for assessing the effect of natural disturbances on the functionality of direct protection forests (DPFs in order to prioritize management interventions. We georeferenced disturbance data for wildfires, wind and snow damage, avalanches, and insects and overlaid them to a region-wide DPF map. Within each disturbance polygon, we used a Landsat-5 TM image to identify DPFs with insufficient vegetation cover, by using a maximum likelihood classifier of 6 spectral bands plus 5 vegetation indices. For each disturbance agent, we fitted a generalized linear model of the probability of finding a forested pixel, as a function of topography, time since disturbance, distance from disturbance edge, summer precipitation, and drought in the disturbance year. DPFs covered almost half of total forest area in the study region. Disturbance by insects occurred in more than one sixth of all forests. Avalanche and wildfire occurred each in about one tenth of total forest area, and wind and snow disturbance in only 1%. In the last 50 years, disturbances had a recurrence rate of 3% every 10 years. Almost one sixth of DPFs are currently lacking sufficient forest cover. Wildfires resulted in the highest rate of nonforested pixels (42% of all DPFs, followed by avalanches (21%. Forest recovery was explained by time elapsed, distance from edge (for conifers, and aspect. Summer precipitation and drought had a mixed influence. Our approach to assessing the effect of disturbances on the functionality of DPFs is reproducible in all mountain regions using institutional or open-access geographic data and provides a tool to prioritize DPF management by indicating where restoration of protection is most urgent.

  17. Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Guidetti

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS and thermophilic species (ThS is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1 MPAs are numerous, 2 fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3 the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP, partially-protected MPAs (IP and fished areas (F at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators, but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide.

  18. Environmental Assessment for the Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to review the possible environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of a Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The proposed replacement calibration facility would be located in B Area of SRS and would replace an inadequate existing facility currently located within A Area of SRS (Building 736-A). The new facility would provide laboratories, offices, test equipment and the support space necessary for the SRS Radiation Monitoring Instrument Calibration Program to comply with DOE Orders 5480.4 (Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards) and 5480.11 (Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers). The proposed facility would serve as the central site source for the evaluation, selection, inspection, testing, calibration, and maintenance of all SRS radiation monitoring instrumentation. The proposed facility would be constructed on a currently undeveloped portion in B Area of SRS. The exact plot associated with the proposed action is a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tract of land located on the west side of SRS Road No. 2. The proposed facility would lie approximately 4.4 km (2.75 mi) from the nearest SRS site boundary. The proposed facility would also lie within the confines of the existing B Area, and SRS safeguards and security systems. Archaeological, ecological, and land use reviews have been conducted in connection with the use of this proposed plot of land, and a detailed discussion of these reviews is contained herein. Socioeconomic, operational, and accident analyses were also examined in relation to the proposed project and the findings from these reviews are also contained in this EA.

  19. Rethinking the area of protection "natural resources" in life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, Jo; Benini, Lorenzo; Mancini, Lucia; Sala, Serenella; Blengini, Gian Andrea; Ardente, Fulvio; Recchioni, Marco; Maes, Joachim; Pant, Rana; Pennington, David

    2015-05-05

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in classical life cycle assessment (LCA) aims at analyzing potential impacts of products and services typically on three so-called areas of protection (AoPs): Natural Environment, Human Health, and Natural Resources. This paper proposes an elaboration of the AoP Natural Resources. It starts with analyzing different perspectives on Natural Resources as they are somehow sandwiched in between the Natural Environment (their cradle) and the human-industrial environment (their application). Reflecting different viewpoints, five perspectives are developed with the suggestion to select three in function of classical LCA. They result in three safeguard subjects: the Asset of Natural Resources, their Provisioning Capacity, and their role in Global Functions. Whereas the Provisioning Capacity is fully in function of humans, the global functions go beyond provisioning as they include nonprovisioning functions for humans and regulating and maintenance services for the globe as a whole, following the ecosystem services framework. A fourth and fifth safeguard subject has been identified: recognizing the role Natural Resources for human welfare, either specifically as building block in supply chains of products and services as such, either with or without their functions beyond provisioning. But as these are far broader as they in principle should include characterization of mechanisms within the human industrial society, they are considered as subjects for an integrated sustainability assessment (LCSA: life cycle sustainability assessment), that is, incorporating social, economic and environmental issues.

  20. A Multimethodology Contractor Assessment Model for Facilitating Green Innovation: The View of Energy and Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lin Hsueh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP and utility theory focus on the customer’s attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  1. A multimethodology contractor assessment model for facilitating green innovation: the view of energy and environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Sung-Lin; Yan, Min-Ren

    2013-01-01

    The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and utility theory focus on the customer's attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  2. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Janeen Denise [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  3. [Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: a new challenge for employers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2013-01-01

    Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs), as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users.

  4. Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: A new challenge for employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Piotr Gromiec

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs, as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users. Med Pr 2013;64(5:699–716

  5. Environmental Chemical Assessment in Clinical Practice: Unveiling the Elephant in the Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlsma, Nicole; Cohen, Marc M

    2016-02-02

    A growing body of evidence suggests chemicals present in air, water, soil, food, building materials and household products are toxicants that contribute to the many chronic diseases typically seen in routine medical practice. Yet, despite calls from numerous organisations to provide clinicians with more training and awareness in environmental health, there are multiple barriers to the clinical assessment of toxic environmental exposures. Recent developments in the fields of systems biology, innovative breakthroughs in biomedical research encompassing the "-omics" fields, and advances in mobile sensing, peer-to-peer networks and big data, provide tools that future clinicians can use to assess environmental chemical exposures in their patients. There is also a need for concerted action at all levels, including actions by individual patients, clinicians, medical educators, regulators, government and non-government organisations, corporations and the wider civil society, to understand the "exposome" and minimise the extent of toxic exposures on current and future generations. Clinical environmental chemical risk assessment may provide a bridge between multiple disciplines that uses new technologies to herald in a new era in personalised medicine that unites clinicians, patients and civil society in the quest to understand and master the links between the environment and human health.

  6. Environmental Chemical Assessment in Clinical Practice: Unveiling the Elephant in the Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bijlsma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests chemicals present in air, water, soil, food, building materials and household products are toxicants that contribute to the many chronic diseases typically seen in routine medical practice. Yet, despite calls from numerous organisations to provide clinicians with more training and awareness in environmental health, there are multiple barriers to the clinical assessment of toxic environmental exposures. Recent developments in the fields of systems biology, innovative breakthroughs in biomedical research encompassing the “-omics” fields, and advances in mobile sensing, peer-to-peer networks and big data, provide tools that future clinicians can use to assess environmental chemical exposures in their patients. There is also a need for concerted action at all levels, including actions by individual patients, clinicians, medical educators, regulators, government and non-government organisations, corporations and the wider civil society, to understand the “exposome” and minimise the extent of toxic exposures on current and future generations. Clinical environmental chemical risk assessment may provide a bridge between multiple disciplines that uses new technologies to herald in a new era in personalised medicine that unites clinicians, patients and civil society in the quest to understand and master the links between the environment and human health.

  7. Integrated environmental risk assessment and whole-process management system in chemical industry parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-04-19

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  8. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  9. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases (OSDs, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals.

  10. Advances in environmental radiation protection: re-thinking animal-environment interaction modelling for wildlife dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Beresford, Nicholas A. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare [Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gashchak, Sergey [Chornobyl Centre for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Hinton, Thomas G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Centre de Cadarache, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-07-01

    Current wildlife dose assessment models adopt simplistic approaches to the representation of animal-environment interaction. The simplest approaches are to assume either that environmental media (e.g. soil, sediment or water) are uniformly contaminated or relating organism exposure to activity concentrations in media collected at the point of sampling of the animal. The external exposure of a reference organism is then estimated by defining the geometric relationship between the organism and the medium. For example, a reference organism within the soil would have a 4p exposure geometry and a reference organism on the soil would have a 2p exposure geometry. At best, the current modelling approaches recognise differences in media activity concentrations by calculating exposure for different areas of contamination and then estimating the fraction of time that an organism spends in each area. In other fields of pollution ecology, for example wildlife risk assessment for chemical pollution, more advanced approaches are being implemented to model animal-environment interaction and estimate exposure. These approaches include individual-based movement modelling and random walk modelling and a variety of software tools have been developed to facilitate the implementation of these models. Although there are more advanced animal-environment interaction modelling approaches that are available, it is questionable whether these should be adopted for use in environmental radiation protection. Would their adoption significantly reduce uncertainty within the assessment process and, if so, by how much? These questions are being addressed within the new TREE (TRansfer - Exposure - Effects) research programme funded by the United Kingdom Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and within Working Group (WG) 8 of the International Atomic Energy Agency's MODARIA programme. MODARIA WG8 is reviewing some of the alternative approaches that have been developed for animal

  11. Life cycle assessment (LCA of lead-free solders from the environmental protection aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitovski Aleksandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle assessment (LCA presents a relatively new approach, which allows comprehensive environmental consequences analysis of a product system over its entire life. This analysis is increasingly being used in the industry, as a tool for investigation of the influence of the product system on the environment, and serves as a protection and prevention tool in ecological management. This method is used to predict possible influences of a certain material to the environment through different development stages of the material. In LCA, the product systems are evaluated on a functionally equivalent basis, which, in this case, was 1000 cubic centimeters of an alloy. Two of the LCA phases, life-cycle inventory (LCA and life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA, are needed to calculate the environmental impacts. Methodology of LCIA applied in this analysis aligns every input and output influence into 16 different categories, divided in two subcategories. The life-cycle assessment reaserch review of the leadfree solders Sn-Cu, SAC (Sn-Ag-Cu, BSA (Bi-Sb-Ag and SABC (Sn-Ag-Bi-Cu respectively, is given in this paper, from the environmental protection aspect starting from production, through application process and finally, reclamation at the end-of-life, i.e. recycling. There are several opportunities for reducing the overall environmental and human health impacts of solder used in electronics manufacturing based on the results of the LCA, such as: using secondary metals reclaimed through post-industrial recycling; power consumption reducing by replacing older, less efficient reflow assembly equipment, or by optimizing the current equipment to perform at the elevated temperatures required for lead-free soldering, etc. The LCA analysis was done comparatively in relation to widely used Sn-Pb solder material. Additionally, the impact factors of material consumption, energy use, water and air reserves, human health and ecotoxicity have been ALSO considered including

  12. A key factor in modern protection of historic buildings: the assessment of penetration of water-repellent polymers into porous stone-materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, L; Casadio, F; Cariati, F

    2001-01-01

    From the 1960s on, the conservation of monuments and stone masonry has witnessed an increasing use of polymeric products during restoration interventions. Actual penetration depths reached by different polymers within the porous stone matrix are supposed to be key factors in determining the efficacy of the treatments themselves (besides, of course, the chemical-mineralogical nature of the stone and the chemical-physical characteristics of the various polymers). This work presents some preliminary results obtained on specimens of Noto calcarenite treated with various polymeric protective products. Samples were investigated with direct analytical methods (micro-ATR spectroscopy, SEM) in order to assess penetration depths reached by polymers inside the stone while reducing to a minimum the necessary manipulation of specimens. The obtained results highlighted the following trend in penetration depths for the various products tested: siloxane product > partially fluorinated acrylic resin > acrylic resin. Moreover, data obtained allowed to establish direct correlation between long term efficacy of products and relative penetration depths.

  13. Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Norm [Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

    2009-02-18

    The overarching goals of the 'Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation' Project (BPA Project No.2002-011-00) are to: (1) assess abiotic and biotic factors (i.e., geomorphologic, hydrological, aquatic and riparian/floodplain communities) in determining a definitive composition of ecological integrity, (2) develop strategies to assess and mitigate losses of ecosystem functions, and (3) produce a regional operational loss assessment framework. To produce a scientifically defensible, repeatable, and complete assessment tool, KTOI assembled a team of top scientists in the fields of hydrology, hydraulics, ornithology, entomology, statistics, and river ecology, among other expertise. This advisory team is known as the Research Design and Review Team (RDRT). The RDRT scientists drive the review, selection, and adaptive management of the research designs to evaluate the ecologic functions lost due to the operation of federal hydropower facilities. The unique nature of this project (scientific team, newest/best science, adaptive management, assessment of ecological functions, etc.) has been to work in a dynamic RDRT process. In addition to being multidisciplinary, this model KTOI project provides a stark contrast to the sometimes inflexible process (review, re-review, budgets, etc.) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The project RDRT is assembled annually, with subgroups meeting as needed throughout the year to address project issues, analyses, review, and interpretation. Activities of RDRT coordinated and directed the selection of research and assessment methodologies appropriate for the Kootenai River Watershed and potential for regional application in the Columbia River Basin. The entire RDRT continues to meet annually to update and discuss project progress. RDRT Subcontractors work in smaller groups throughout the year to meet project objectives. Determining the extent to

  14. POSSIBILITIES FOR ASSESSMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF NPP PHYSICAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS IN UKRAINE ON THE BASIS OF NUCLEAR SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbinin, Konstantin

    2011-10-01

    The design requirements for physical protection systems currently adopted at Ukrainian NPPs were established in the middle of the nineties on the basis of deterministic analyses and expert evaluations of the vulnerabilities of reactor facilities. At the present time the in-depth assessment of the nuclear safety of Ukrainian NPPs with VVER-1000/B320 reactors has been completed using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). PSA has established and provided a qualitative assessment of the significance of the equipment for maintaining the integrity of a reactor core and preventing an abnormal radioactive release. The availability of qualitative assessments of the importance of equipment for nuclear safety allows one to assess the existing physical protection system using (1) comparative analysis: to determine whether all equipment and zones that may be affected, as established by the nuclear safety assessment, are actually included into the vital zones protected by the existing physical protection system; (2) specific analysis of dominant contributors: since nuclear safety analyses provide qualitative assessment of the equipment’s importance for safety, it is easy to select a limited group of essential equipment that makes the major contribution to safety, and (3) specific equipment analysis included in dominant emergency sets: part of the components might not be included in the essential equipment group, but it might be included in the dominant emergency sets. If some equipment is found not to be covered by the physical protection system, it is possible, using qualitative assessment of the importance of this equipment for safety, to assess the required degree of enhancement of physical protection. Such analysis will permit an assessment of the sufficiency of the existing physical protection system, to define the "tight" system areas and, therefore, to develop a justified optimization of a PPS with the objective of implementing priority upgrades to enhance safety, and

  15. Zebrafish larva as a reliable model for in vivo assessment of membrane remodeling involvement in the hepatotoxicity of chemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podechard, Normand; Chevanne, Martine; Fernier, Morgane; Tête, Arnaud; Collin, Aurore; Cassio, Doris; Kah, Olivier; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Sergent, Odile

    2016-11-28

    The easy-to-use in vivo model, zebrafish larva, is being increasingly used to screen chemical-induced hepatotoxicity, with a good predictivity for various mechanisms of liver injury. However, nothing is known about its applicability in exploring the mechanism called membrane remodeling, depicted as changes in membrane fluidity or lipid raft properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to substantiate the zebrafish larva as a suitable in vivo model in this context. Ethanol was chosen as a prototype toxicant because it is largely described, both in hepatocyte cultures and in rodents, as capable of inducing a membrane remodeling leading to hepatocyte death and liver injury. The zebrafish larva model was demonstrated to be fully relevant as membrane remodeling was maintained even after a 1-week exposure without any adaptation as usually reported in rodents and hepatocyte cultures. It was also proven to exhibit a high sensitivity as it discriminated various levels of cytotoxicity depending on the extent of changes in membrane remodeling. In this context, its sensitivity appeared higher than that of WIF-B9 hepatic cells, which is suited for analyzing this kind of hepatotoxicity. Finally, the protection afforded by a membrane stabilizer, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or by a lipid raft disrupter, pravastatin, definitely validated zebrafish larva as a reliable model to quickly assess membrane remodeling involvement in chemical-induced hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, this model, compatible with a high throughput screening, might be adapted to seek hepatotoxicants via membrane remodeling, and also drugs targeting membrane features to propose new preventive or therapeutic strategies in chemical-induced liver diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. 78 FR 52909 - Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Notice of Availability of Final Environmental... Organization Headquarters Building, Washington, DC AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection....

  17. Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Ockleford, Colin; Adriaanse, Paulien

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from EFSA, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science behind the risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms. The current risk assessment scheme is reviewed, taking into account new regulatory frameworks...... to the dispersal of the majority of in-soil organisms compared to terrestrial non-target arthropods living above soil, the Panel proposes that in-soil environmental risk assessments are made at in- and off-field scale considering field boundary levels. A new testing strategy which takes into account the relevant...

  18. Impacts of a clay plaster on indoor air quality assessed using chemical and sensory measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darling, Erin K.; Cros, Clement J.; Wargocki, Pawel;

    2012-01-01

    Passive removal materials (PRMs) are building materials or furnishings that effectively control indoor pollution without substantial formation of chemical byproducts and without an energy penalty. Recent studies have suggested that clay might be an effective PRM for ozone. To assess clay wall...... plaster as a PRM for improving air quality by controlling ozone, perceived air quality (PAQ) was determined in the presence of eight combinations of an emitting and reactive pollutant source (new carpet), clay plaster applied to gypsum wallboard, and chamber air with and without ozone. A panel of 24 human...... subjects assessed air quality in twin 30m3 chambers using a continuous acceptability scale. Air samples were collected immediately prior to panel assessment to quantify concentrations of C5–C10 saturated n-aldehydes and two aromatic aldehydes that are commonly produced by reaction of ozone with carpet...

  19. Baclofen Protects Primary Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells from Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis through the Akt and PERK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Fu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs consume large quantities of energy to convert light information into a neuronal signal, which makes them highly susceptible to hypoxic injury. This study aimed to investigate the potential protection by baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, of retinal ganglion cells against hypoxia-induced apoptosis. CoCl2 was applied to mimic hypoxia. Primary rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs were subjected to CoCl2 with or without baclofen treatment, and RNA interference techniques were used to knock down the GABAB2 gene in the primary RGCs. The viability and apoptosis of RGCs were assessed using cell viability and TUNEL assays, Hoechst staining, and flow cytometry. The expression of cleaved caspase-3, bcl-2, bax, Akt, phospho-Akt, PERK, phospho-PERK, eIF2α, phospho-eIF2α, ATF-4, and CHOP were measured using western blotting. GABAB2 mRNA expression was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis. Our study revealed that CoCl2 significantly induced RGC apoptosis and that baclofen reversed these effects. CoCl2-induced reduction of Akt activity was also reversed by baclofen. Baclofen prevented the activation of the PERK pathway and the increase in CHOP expression induced by CoCl2. Knockdown of GABAB2 and the inactivation of the Akt pathway by inhibitors reduced the protective effect of baclofen on CoCl2-treated RGCs. Taken together, these results demonstrate that baclofen protects RGCs from CoCl2-induced apoptosis by increasing Akt activity and by suppressing the PERK pathway and CHOP activation.

  20. Assessment of Self-Contamination During Removal of Personal Protective Equipment for Ebola Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Lisa M; Teal, Lisa J; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E; Anderson, Deverick J; Sexton, Daniel J; Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Ebola virus disease (EVD) places healthcare personnel (HCP) at high risk for infection during patient care, and personal protective equipment (PPE) is critical. Protocols for EVD PPE doffing have not been validated for prevention of viral self-contamination. Using surrogate viruses (non-enveloped MS2 and enveloped Φ6), we assessed self-contamination of skin and clothes when trained HCP doffed EVD PPE using a standardized protocol. METHODS A total of 15 HCP donned EVD PPE for this study. Virus was applied to PPE, and a trained monitor guided them through the doffing protocol. Of the 15 participants, 10 used alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) for glove and hand hygiene and 5 used hypochlorite for glove hygiene and ABHR for hand hygiene. Inner gloves, hands, face, and scrubs were sampled after doffing. RESULTS After doffing, MS2 virus was detected on the inner glove worn on the dominant hand for 8 of 15 participants, on the non-dominant inner glove for 6 of 15 participants, and on scrubs for 2 of 15 participants. All MS2 on inner gloves was observed when ABHR was used for glove hygiene; none was observed when hypochlorite was used. When using hypochlorite for glove hygiene, 1 participant had MS2 on hands, and 1 had MS2 on scrubs. CONCLUSIONS A structured doffing protocol using a trained monitor and ABHR protects against enveloped virus self-contamination. Non-enveloped virus (MS2) contamination was detected on inner gloves, possibly due to higher resistance to ABHR. Doffing protocols protective against all viruses need to incorporate highly effective glove and hand hygiene agents. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-6.

  1. Assessment of Protective and Antioxidant Properties of Tribulus Terrestris Fruits against Testicular Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to assess the protective and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT against sodium valproate (SVP-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Material and methods: Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10. Group 1 was used normal (negative control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg-1, orally during the last week of experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive control and groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pretreated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg-1 for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels, semen picture, testicular antioxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Results: Oral pretreatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular antioxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. Conclusion: The pretreatment with METT has protective and antioxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue antioxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of Tribulus terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that Tribulus terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 113-118

  2. NASA Space Radiation Protection Strategies: Risk Assessment and Permissible Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) for short-term and career astronaut exposures to space radiation have been set and approved by NASA with the goal of protecting astronauts against health risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Short term PELs are intended to prevent clinically significant deterministic health effects, including performance decrements, which could threaten astronaut health and jeopardize mission success. Career PELs are implemented to control late occurring health effects, including a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) from cancer, and dose limits are used to prevent cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. For radiation protection, meeting the cancer PEL is currently the design driver for galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event shielding, mission duration, and crew certification (e.g., 1-year ISS missions). The risk of cancer development is the largest known long-term health consequence following radiation exposure, and current estimates for long-term health risks due to cardiovascular diseases are approximately 30% to 40% of the cancer risk for exposures above an estimated threshold (Deep Space one-year and Mars missions). Large uncertainties currently exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation exposure. Improved understanding through radiobiology and physics research allows increased accuracy in risk estimation and is essential for ensuring astronaut health as well as for controlling mission costs, optimization of mission operations, vehicle design, and countermeasure assessment. We will review the Space Radiation Program Element's research strategies to increase accuracy in risk models and to inform development and validation of the permissible exposure limits.

  3. Lightning Protection Performance Assessment of Transmission Line Based on ATP model Automatic Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Hanwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the initial lightning breakdown current by combing ATP and MATLAB simulation software effectively, with the aims to evaluate the lightning protection performance of transmission line. Firstly, the executable ATP simulation model is generated automatically according to the required information such as power source parameters, tower parameters, overhead line parameters, grounding resistance and lightning current parameters, etc. through an interface program coded by MATLAB. Then, the data are extracted from the generated LIS files which can be obtained by executing the ATP simulation model, the occurrence of transmission lie breakdown can be determined by the relative data in LIS file. The lightning current amplitude should be reduced when the breakdown occurs, and vice the verse. Thus the initial lightning breakdown current of a transmission line with given parameters can be determined accurately by continuously changing the lightning current amplitude, which is realized by a loop computing algorithm that is coded by MATLAB software. The method proposed in this paper can generate the ATP simulation program automatically, and facilitates the lightning protection performance assessment of transmission line.

  4. Using Internet search behavior to assess public awareness of protected wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Yuno; Kim, Ji Yoon; Lineman, Maurice; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2015-02-01

    Improving public awareness of protected wetlands facilitates sustainable wetland management, which depends on public participation. One way of gauging public interest is by tracking Internet search behavior (ISB). We assessed public awareness of issues related to protected wetland areas (PWAs) in South Korea by examining the frequencies of specific queries (PWAs, Ramsar, Upo wetland, Sunchon Bay, etc.) using relative search volumes (RSVs) obtained from an Internet search engine. RSV shows how many times a search term is used relative to a second search term during a specific period. Public awareness of PWAs changed from 2007 to 2013. Initially the majority of Internet searches were related to the most well-known tidal and inland wetlands Sunchon Bay and Upo wetlands, which are the largest existing wetlands in Korea with the greatest historical exposure. Public awareness, as reflected in RSVs, of wetlands increased significantly following PWA designation for the wetlands in 2008, which followed the Ramsar 10th Conference of Contracting Parties to the Convention on Wetlands (COP10) meeting. Public interest was strongly correlated to the number of news articles in the popular media, as evidenced by the increase in Internet searches for specific wetlands and words associated with specific wetlands. Correspondingly, the number of visitors to specific wetlands increased. To increase public interest in wetlands, wetland aspects that enhance wetland conservation should be promoted by the government and enhanced via public education. Our approach can be used to gauge public awareness and participation in a wide range of conservation efforts.

  5. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Protected Areas Management in Iran: Case Study in Khojir National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F.; Koyama, Lina

    2013-08-01

    The requirement to assess the management effectiveness (ME) in protected areas (PAs) is increasing around the world to help improve management and accountability. An evaluation of ME for Khojir National Park (KNP), one of the Iran's oldest PAs, was conducted using a multi-method approach that consisted of structured interviews, open interviews, and site visits. This was the first ME evaluation in Iran. The structured interview was based on the management effectiveness tracking tool methodology. KNP received an average score of 43 %, which is lower than the global average, illustrating that its general management was in the low-intermediate level. The indices of legal status, resource inventory, planning for land and water use, regulations, and objectives received the highest average scores, whereas education and awareness, community co-management, regular work plan, boundary demarcation, visitor facilities, budget sources, staff training, protection systems, and management plan received the lowest ones. The management system of KNP was generally established, but many problems of the management still need to be resolved. To improve ME, some countermeasures should be taken, such as increasing funding, strengthening capacity building, planning, and adaptive management, and implementing community participation.

  6. The assessment of protective behavioral strategies: comparing the absolute frequency and contingent frequency response scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Benjamin A; Pearson, Matthew R; Henson, James M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of response scale on the observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies (PBS) measures and alcohol-related outcomes. We reasoned that an "absolute frequency" scale (stem: "how many times …"; response scale: 0 times to 11+ times) conflates the frequency of using PBS with the frequency of consuming alcohol; thus, we hypothesized that the use of an absolute frequency response scale would result in positive relationships between types of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Alternatively, a "contingent frequency" scale (stem: "When drinking … how often …"; response scale: never to always) does not conflate frequency of alcohol use with use of PBS; therefore, we hypothesized that use of a contingent frequency scale would result in negative relationships between use of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Two published measures of PBS were used across studies: the Protective Behavioral Strategies Survey (PBSS) and the Strategy Questionnaire (SQ). Across three studies, we demonstrate that when measured using a contingent frequency response scale, PBS measures relate negatively to alcohol-related outcomes in a theoretically consistent manner; however, when PBS measures were measured on an absolute frequency response scale, they were nonsignificantly or positively related to alcohol-related outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings for the assessment of PBS.

  7. Addressing Human Variability in Next-Generation Human Health Risk Assessments of Environmental Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Frederic Y.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Hattis, Dale; Rusyn, Ivan; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Characterizing variability in the extent and nature of responses to environmental exposures is a critical aspect of human health risk assessment. Objective: Our goal was to explore how next-generation human health risk assessments may better characterize variability in the context of the conceptual framework for the source-to-outcome continuum. Methods: This review was informed by a National Research Council workshop titled “Biological Factors that Underlie Individual Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors and Their Implications for Decision-Making.” We considered current experimental and in silico approaches, and emerging data streams (such as genetically defined human cells lines, genetically diverse rodent models, human omic profiling, and genome-wide association studies) that are providing new types of information and models relevant for assessing interindividual variability for application to human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. Discussion: One challenge for characterizing variability is the wide range of sources of inherent biological variability (e.g., genetic and epigenetic variants) among individuals. A second challenge is that each particular pair of health outcomes and chemical exposures involves combinations of these sources, which may be further compounded by extrinsic factors (e.g., diet, psychosocial stressors, other exogenous chemical exposures). A third challenge is that different decision contexts present distinct needs regarding the identification—and extent of characterization—of interindividual variability in the human population. Conclusions: Despite these inherent challenges, opportunities exist to incorporate evidence from emerging data streams for addressing interindividual variability in a range of decision-making contexts. PMID:23086705

  8. Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for non-target arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Topping, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Food Safety Authority, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for non-target arthropods. The current risk assessment sch...... of the currently used vegetation distribution factor was investigated. It is proposed that new tests be included in order to address exposure via oral uptake of residues and uncertainties related to differences in species sensitivity.......Following a request from the European Food Safety Authority, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for non-target arthropods. The current risk assessment...... dynamics, conducting a landscape-level risk assessment is suggested. A new risk assessment scheme is suggested which integrates modelling approaches. The main exposure routes for non-target arthropods are identified and proposals are made on how to integrate them in the risk assessment. The appropriateness...

  9. Assessment of exposure to chemical agents and ergonomic stressors in tanneries in Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, F G; Rahman, F U; Katagade, V; Shukla, A; Burdorf, A

    1997-10-01

    In developing countries qualitative assessment of exposure at the workplace may be an essential tool in evaluating hazardous working conditions. This survey reports on qualitative assessment of exposure to chemicals, dust, and ergonomic stressors among 298 workers in 15 tanneries in Kanpur, India. In general, chemical exposure and dermal exposure were highest among beamhouse workers, less for workers involved in dry finishing activities, and lowest for those performing the wet finishing of hides. Dermal exposure was rated as high to very high during beamhouse activities, reflecting direct contact with wet hides and manual handling of hides in soak tanks. Relevant dust exposure was observed only during dry finishing activities. Most workers experienced severe postural load due to working in trunk flexion and rotation for more than 50% of their daily work time. In addition, manual materials handling with loads over 20 kg frequently occurred. The size of the tannery, in general a reflection of state of technology, showed no systematic influence on exposure profiles. The survey suggested that mechanization of material transfer and application of trolleys reduced the work time with trunk flexion and rotation and implied less manual lifting. The presence of local exhaust ventilation in large tanneries seemed to reduce the chemical exposure. This survey has demonstrated the importance of rapid appraisal techniques for evaluating hazardous conditions at the workplace. In developing countries this approach may facilitate occupational hygiene research and practice.

  10. Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment-An evaluation of the dumped munitions problem in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowski, Jacek; Klusek, Zygmunt; Szubska, Marta; Turja, Raisa; Bulczak, Anna I.; Rak, Daniel; Brenner, Matthias; Lang, Thomas; Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Jakacki, Jaromir; Fricke, Nicolai; Östin, Anders; Olsson, Ulf; Fabisiak, Jacek; Garnaga, Galina; Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Majewski, Piotr; Broeg, Katja; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula; Popiel, Stanisław; Nawała, Jakub; Lehtonen, Kari; Berglind, Rune; Schmidt, Beata

    2016-06-01

    Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project has performed studies on chemical weapon (CW) detection, sediment pollution and spreading as well as biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea. Results suggest that munitions containing CWAs are more scattered on the seafloor than suspected, and previously undocumented dumpsite was discovered in Gdansk Deep. Pollution of sediments with CWA degradation products was local and close to the detected objects; however the pollution range was larger than predicted with theoretical models. Bottom currents observed in the dumpsites were strong enough for sediment re-suspension, and contributed to the transport of polluted sediments. Diversity and density of the faunal communities were poor at the dumping sites in comparison to the reference area, although the direct effects of CWA on benthos organisms were difficult to determine due to hypoxic or even anoxic conditions near the bottom. Equally, the low oxygen might have affected the biological effects assessed in cod and caged blue mussels. Nonetheless, both species showed significantly elevated molecular and cellular level responses at contaminated sites compared to reference sites.

  11. Biochar and hydrochar reactivity assessed by chemical, physical and biological methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naisse, Christophe; Alexis, Marie; Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; pozzi, Alessandro; Carcaillet, Christopher; Criscuoli, Irene; Miglietta, Franco; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2014-05-01

    Field application of biochar is intended to increase soil carbon (C) storage. The assessment of C storage potential of biochars lacks methods and standard materials. In this study, we compared the chemical reactivity of biochars and hydrochars and their potential mineralisation before and after physical weathering as one possibility to evaluate their environmental stability. We used biochars produced by gasification (GSs) and hydrochars produced by hydrothermal carbonisation (HTCs) produced from three different feedstocks as well as Holocene charcoals (150 and 2000 yr old). Their chemical reactivity was analysed after acid dichromate oxidation and their mineralisation potential after laboratory incubations before and after physical weathering. Our results showed that use of acid dichromate oxidation may allow for differentiation of the reactivity of modern biochars but that chemical reactivity of biochars is poorly suited to assess their environmental residence time because it may change with exposure time in soil. Physical weathering induced a carbon loss and increased biological stability of biochar, while reducing its positive priming effect on native soil organic matter. Model extrapolations based on our data showed that decadal C sequestration potential of GS and HTC is globally equivalent when all losses including those due to priming and physical weathering were taken into account. However, at century scale only GS may have the potential to increase soil C storage.

  12. Assessment of Superstructure Ice Protection as Applied to Offshore Oil Operations Safety: Ice Protection Technologies, Safety Enhancements, and Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    1999). Because it is a liquid, ethylene glycol could be used to deice cranes, lattice structures, and windlasses—although with significant wastage ...distillation or by yeast reduction of hydroxyacetone. It is widely used as a chemical intermediate, a humectant in foods , an emollient in cosmetic...fluids, a non-toxic antifreeze in breweries and dairy establish- ments, an air sterilizer in the vapor form for hospitals and public build- ings, an

  13. Chemically defined diet alters the protective properties of fructo-oligosaccharides and isomalto-oligosaccharides in HLA-B27 transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya Koleva

    Full Text Available Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO were shown to reduce inflammation in experimental colitis, but it remains unclear whether microbiota changes mediate their colitis-modulating effects. This study assessed intestinal microbiota and intestinal inflammation after feeding chemically defined AIN-76A or rat chow diets, with or without supplementation with 8 g/kg body weight of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO. The study used HLA-B27 transgenic rats, a validated model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, in a factorial design with 6 treatment groups. Intestinal inflammation and intestinal microbiota were analysed after 12 weeks of treatment. FOS and IMO reduced colitis in animals fed rat chow, but exhibited no anti-inflammatory effect when added to AIN-76A diets. Both NDO induced specific but divergent microbiota changes. Bifidobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were stimulated by FOS, whereas copy numbers of Clostridium cluster IV were decreased. In addition, higher concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA were observed in cecal contents of rats on rat chow compared to the chemically defined diet. AIN-76A increased the relative proportions of propionate, iso-butyrate, valerate and iso-valerate irrespective of the oligosaccharide treatment. The SCFA composition, particularly the relative concentration of iso-butyrate, valerate and iso-valerate, was associated (P ≤ 0.004 and r ≥ 0.4 with increased colitis and IL-1 β concentration of the cecal mucosa. This study demonstrated that the protective effects of fibres on colitis development depend on the diet. Although diets modified specific cecal microbiota, our study indicates that these changes were not associated with colitis reduction. Intestinal inflammation was positively correlated to protein fermentation and negatively correlated with carbohydrate fermentation in the large intestine.

  14. Chemically defined diet alters the protective properties of fructo-oligosaccharides and isomalto-oligosaccharides in HLA-B27 transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Petya; Ketabi, Ali; Valcheva, Rosica; Gänzle, Michael G; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2014-01-01

    Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) were shown to reduce inflammation in experimental colitis, but it remains unclear whether microbiota changes mediate their colitis-modulating effects. This study assessed intestinal microbiota and intestinal inflammation after feeding chemically defined AIN-76A or rat chow diets, with or without supplementation with 8 g/kg body weight of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO). The study used HLA-B27 transgenic rats, a validated model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in a factorial design with 6 treatment groups. Intestinal inflammation and intestinal microbiota were analysed after 12 weeks of treatment. FOS and IMO reduced colitis in animals fed rat chow, but exhibited no anti-inflammatory effect when added to AIN-76A diets. Both NDO induced specific but divergent microbiota changes. Bifidobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were stimulated by FOS, whereas copy numbers of Clostridium cluster IV were decreased. In addition, higher concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were observed in cecal contents of rats on rat chow compared to the chemically defined diet. AIN-76A increased the relative proportions of propionate, iso-butyrate, valerate and iso-valerate irrespective of the oligosaccharide treatment. The SCFA composition, particularly the relative concentration of iso-butyrate, valerate and iso-valerate, was associated (P ≤ 0.004 and r ≥ 0.4) with increased colitis and IL-1 β concentration of the cecal mucosa. This study demonstrated that the protective effects of fibres on colitis development depend on the diet. Although diets modified specific cecal microbiota, our study indicates that these changes were not associated with colitis reduction. Intestinal inflammation was positively correlated to protein fermentation and negatively correlated with carbohydrate fermentation in the large intestine.

  15. Guidance on the risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Guidance is intended to provide guidance for notifiers and authorities in the context of the review of plant protection products (PPPs and their active substances under Regulation (EC 1107/2009. The scientific opinion on the science behind the development of a risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees provided the scientific basis for the development of the Guidance. Specific Protection Goals were agreed in consultation with the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health. The Guidance suggests a tiered risk assessment scheme with a simple and cost-effective first tier to more complex higher tier studies under field conditions. Each of the tiers will have to ensure that the appropriate level of protection is achieved.

  16. Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models to Incorporate Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Pesticide Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk assessment has been proposed as an approach to evaluate the health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD models can allow for the inclusion and evaluation of multiple stressors, including non-chemical stressors, but studies have not leveraged PBPK/PD models to jointly consider these disparate exposures in a cumulative risk context. In this study, we focused on exposures to organophosphate (OP pesticides for children in urban low-income environments, where these children would be simultaneously exposed to other pesticides (including pyrethroids and non-chemical stressors that may modify the effects of these exposures (including diet. We developed a methodological framework to evaluate chemical and non-chemical stressor impacts on OPs, utilizing an existing PBPK/PD model for chlorpyrifos. We evaluated population-specific stressors that would influence OP doses or acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, the relevant PD outcome. We incorporated the impact of simultaneous exposure to pyrethroids and dietary factors on OP dose through the compartments of metabolism and PD outcome within the PBPK model, and simulated combinations of stressors across multiple exposure ranges and potential body weights. Our analyses demonstrated that both chemical and non-chemical stressors can influence the health implications of OP exposures, with up to 5-fold variability in AChE inhibition across combinations of stressor values for a given OP dose. We demonstrate an approach for modeling OP risks in the presence of other population-specific environmental stressors, providing insight about co-exposures and variability factors that most impact OP health risks and contribute to children’s cumulative health risk from pesticides. More generally, this framework can be used to inform cumulative risk assessment for any compound impacted by

  17. Chemical and biological risk assessment of chronic exposure to PAH contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Means, J.; McMillin, D.; Kondapi, N. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Chronically contaminated sediments represent a long-term source of mixtures of contaminants, exposing aquatic ecosystems to PAH through desorption and bioaccumulation. Chronic toxicity assessments must address potential of these bond contaminants. Environmental impacts and ecological health hazards of sediment-bound normal, alkylated and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are functions of their entry into aquatic food webs and are controlled by both abiotic and biotic factors. Laboratory and field microcosm exposures of fish and invertebrates were conducted followed by assessments of effects using chemical analysis and biomarkers of potential genotoxic effects. Chemical analysis of accumulated residues of 62 individual PAH were conducted in oysters, Crassostrea virginica exposed to PAH contaminated sediments in the field. The rates and equilibrium bioaccumulation constants for each were determined. Fish were exposed to the same contaminated sediments in laboratory and field exposures. Measurements of ethoxy-resorufin-o-deethylase activity induction as well as alterations in the expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene were performed on exposed fish liver samples. EROD activities were increased significantly relative to unexposed and laboratory/field control sediment-exposed fish, however, the responses of individuals were highly variable. Fundulus grandis or Gambusia affinis, exposed to contaminated sediments in the laboratory, revealed changes in the expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. The degree to which mutations within the gene occurred was assessed using PCR followed by measurement of single stranded DNA polymorphisms using gel electrophoresis chromatography.

  18. INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC GRINDING PARAMETERS ON HARDNESS, WEAR-RESISTANCE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PROTECTIVE GAS AND THERMAL COATINGS

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Spiridonov; M. V. Neroda; I. O. Sokorov

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates influence of magnetic and electric grinding parameters on formation of physical and mechanical properties of protective coatings. It has been established that it is possible to control chemical composition, properties and qualitative characteristics of hardening coatings while changing technological process parameters. 

  19. INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC GRINDING PARAMETERS ON HARDNESS, WEAR-RESISTANCE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PROTECTIVE GAS AND THERMAL COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Spiridonov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates influence of magnetic and electric grinding parameters on formation of physical and mechanical properties of protective coatings. It has been established that it is possible to control chemical composition, properties and qualitative characteristics of hardening coatings while changing technological process parameters. 

  20. Prioritizing Chemicals for Risk Assessment Using Chemoinformatics: Examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Neela; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Loomis, Dana; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identifying cancer hazards is the first step towards cancer prevention. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme, which has evaluated nearly 1,000 agents for their carcinogenic potential since 1971, typically selects agents for hazard identification on the basis of public nominations, expert advice, published data on carcinogenicity, and public health importance. Objectives: Here, we present a novel and complementary strategy for identifying agents for hazard evaluation using chemoinformatics, database integration, and automated text mining. Discussion: To inform selection among a broad range of pesticides nominated for evaluation, we identified and screened nearly 6,000 relevant chemical structures, after which we systematically compiled information on 980 pesticides, creating network maps that allowed cluster visualization by chemical similarity, pesticide class, and publicly available information concerning cancer epidemiology, cancer bioassays, and carcinogenic mechanisms. For the IARC Monograph meetings that took place in March and June 2015, this approach supported high-priority evaluation of glyphosate, malathion, parathion, tetrachlorvinphos, diazinon, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Conclusions: This systematic approach, accounting for chemical similarity and overlaying multiple data sources, can be used by risk assessors as well as by researchers to systematize, inform, and increase efficiency in selecting and prioritizing agents for hazard identification, risk assessment, regulation, or further investigation. This approach could be extended to an array of outcomes and agents, including occupational carcinogens, drugs, and foods. Citation: Guha N, Guyton KZ, Loomis D, Barupal DK. 2016. Prioritizing chemicals for risk assessment using chemoinformatics: examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 124:1823–1829;

  1. Automated high-throughput assessment of prostate biopsy tissue using infrared spectroscopic chemical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Paul; Sachdeva, Ashwin; Shanks, Jonathan H.; Brown, Mick D.; Clarke, Noel W.; Gardner, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) chemical imaging has been demonstrated as a promising technique to complement histopathological assessment of biomedical tissue samples. Current histopathology practice involves preparing thin tissue sections and staining them using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) after which a histopathologist manually assess the tissue architecture under a visible microscope. Studies have shown that there is disagreement between operators viewing the same tissue suggesting that a complementary technique for verification could improve the robustness of the evaluation, and improve patient care. FT-IR chemical imaging allows the spatial distribution of chemistry to be rapidly imaged at a high (diffraction-limited) spatial resolution where each pixel represents an area of 5.5 × 5.5 μm2 and contains a full infrared spectrum providing a chemical fingerprint which studies have shown contains the diagnostic potential to discriminate between different cell-types, and even the benign or malignant state of prostatic epithelial cells. We report a label-free (i.e. no chemical de-waxing, or staining) method of imaging large pieces of prostate tissue (typically 1 cm × 2 cm) in tens of minutes (at a rate of 0.704 × 0.704 mm2 every 14.5 s) yielding images containing millions of spectra. Due to refractive index matching between sample and surrounding paraffin, minimal signal processing is required to recover spectra with their natural profile as opposed to harsh baseline correction methods, paving the way for future quantitative analysis of biochemical signatures. The quality of the spectral information is demonstrated by building and testing an automated cell-type classifier based upon spectral features.

  2. Risk Analysis and Safety Protection of Chemical Cleaning of Boiler%锅炉化学清洗的危险性分析及安全防护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丽霞

    2015-01-01

    本文针对锅炉化学清洗中存在的危险性进行分析,讲述了化学药剂的危害,提出了组织协调与环境控制的重要性,并从锅炉化学清洗前、化学清洗过程及施工环境三个方面说明了锅炉化学清洗的安全防护措施,以有效地预防事故的发生。%This paper analyzes the existent risk in chemical cleaning of boiler, tells the hazards of chemicals, raises the importance of organizational coordination and environmental controls, and describes the safety protection measures of boiler’s chemical cleaning in terms of before the boiler chemical cleaning, chemical cleaning process and the working environment.

  3. Environmental risk assessment of chemicals and nanomaterials--The best foundation for regulatory decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syberg, Kristian; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-15

    Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is often considered as the most transparent, objective and reliable decision-making tool for informing the risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials. ERAs are based on the assumption that it is possible to provide accurate estimates of hazard and exposure and, subsequently, to quantify risk. In this paper we argue that since the quantification of risk is dominated by uncertainties, ERAs do not provide a transparent or an objective foundation for decision-making and they should therefore not be considered as a "holy grail" for informing risk management. We build this thesis on the analysis of two case studies (of nonylphenol and nanomaterials) as well as a historical analysis in which we address the scientific foundation for ERAs. The analyses show that ERAs do not properly address all aspects of actual risk, such as the mixture effect and the environmentally realistic risk from nanomaterials. Uncertainties have been recognised for decades, and assessment factors are used to compensate for the lack of realism in ERAs. The assessment factors' values were pragmatically determined, thus lowering the scientific accuracy of the ERAs. Furthermore, the default choice of standard assay for assessing a hazard might not always be the most biologically relevant, so we therefore argue that an ERA should be viewed as a pragmatic decision-making tool among several, and it should not have a special status for informing risk management. In relation to other relevant decision-making tools we discuss the use of chemical alternative assessments (CAAs) and the precautionary principle.

  4. Default values for assessment of potential dermal exposure of the hands to industrial chemicals in the scope of regulatory risk assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Warren, N.D.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Dermal exposure needs to be addressed in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals. The models used so far are based on very limited data. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a large number of new measurements on dermal exposure to industrial chemicals in various work situations, together with info

  5. Hot wire chemical vapor deposition: limits and opportunities of protecting the tungsten catalyzer from silicide with a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigeri, P.A. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona-08028 (Spain); Nos, O., E-mail: oriol_nos@ub.ed [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona-08028 (Spain); Ecotecnia (ALSTOM Group) (Spain); Bengoechea, S.; Frevert, C.; Asensi, J.M.; Bertomeu, J. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona-08028 (Spain)

    2009-04-30

    Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) is one of the most promising techniques for depositing the intrinsic microcrystalline silicon layer for the production of micro-morph solar cells. However, the silicide formation at the colder ends of the tungsten wire drastically reduces the lifetime of the catalyzer, thus limiting its industrial exploitation. A simple but interesting strategy to decrease the silicide formation is to hide the electrical contacts of the catalyzer in a long narrow cavity which reduces the probability of the silane molecules to reach the colder ends of the wire. In this paper, the working mechanism of the cavity is elucidated. Measurements of the thickness profile of the silicon deposited in the internal walls of the cavity have been compared with those predicted using a simple diffusion model based on the assumption of Knudsen flow. A lifetime study of the protected and unprotected wires has been carried out. The different mechanisms which determine the deterioration of the catalyzer have been identified and discussed.

  6. Adsorption and chemical precipitation of lead and zinc from contaminated solutions in porous rocks: Possible application in environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Gabriella; Mlinárik, Lilla; Török, Ákos

    2016-10-01

    Natural porous rocks, like limestone and rhyolite tuff are able to reduce heavy metal pollution by adsorbing or precipitating them from heavy metal containing solutions due to the favourable physical and chemical properties of these rocks. In our experiment, two porous rocks, a porous limestone and rhyolite tuff were used. Petrophysical parameters namely apparent density, real density, capillary water absorption, ultrasonic pulse velocity, total porosity and open porosity of the two porous rocks were determined in water-saturated and dried conditions. Powdered rock samples and cylindrical specimens were placed in lead-nitrate and zinc-sulphate solutions (initial concentration: 1000 ppm) and the amount of lead (II) and zinc (II) ions were identified by titration (chelatometry) of the residual solution. According to the experiments, powdered rocks and rock specimens of limestone and rhyolite tuff reduced the lead (II) and zinc (II) ion concentrations in aqueous solution. The results were cross-checked by ICP-MS. Heavy metal removal capacity was relatively high, 92-99% in each case. The treated powdered rocks and rock specimens were also studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS) and new heavy metal precipitates were identified. According to the tests result, it could be confirmed that these types of lithologies are capable of removing heavy metals and can be used in environmental protection technologies in a form of permeable reactive barrier.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF NON-CHEMICAL METHODS OF PLANT PROTECTION ON THE PRESENCE OF HERBIVOROUS BEETLES IN BROAD BEANS GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Biniaś

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the impact of accompanying plants: sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima L. and white mustard (Synapis alba L., on the incidence of pests of the broad bean (Vicia faba L. variety Bartek, in the intercropping system. The observations of the number of the beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp were made. The broad bean was grown along with two other plants in varying spacing (the distances between rows were 50, 65 and 80 cm and in homogeneous cultivation (the distances between rows were 50 cm. Broad bean in a homogeneous cultivation served as a control. In addition, the broad bean from homogeneous cultivation subjected to a standard protection by chemical insecticides was also analyzed. The measurements were carried out in field conditions, by using an entomological bucket, through the shedding of insects from randomly selected 30 plants per plot. The sweet alyssum as an accompanying plant showed no significant influence on the occurrence of herbivorous beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp., regardless of the spacing between the rows. The white mustard as a companion plant showed a significant impact on increasing the number of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. beetles in the middle row spacing (65 cm. The impact of white mustard on other beetles has not been detected.

  8. Protective effect of. cap alpha. -human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (. cap alpha. -hANP) on chemical-induced pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, T.; Ohnuma, N.; Iwasa, F.; Furuya, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Inomata, N.; Ishihara, T.; Noguchi, T.

    1988-01-01

    It has been established that ..cap alpha..-hANP, the newly discovered peptide extracted from human cardiac atria, has potent natriuretic and hypotensive actions. The authors present investigation is the first to demonstrate that ..cap alpha..-hANP is capable of protecting against pulmonary edema caused by various chemicals, using isolated perfused guinea pig lung system. Lungs were perfused via pulmonary artery with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer at 5.0 ml/min, and wet weight of lungs and perfusion pressure of pulmonary artery (Pa) were monitored. Bolus injection of Triton-X or CHAPS into cannulated pulmonary artery produced enema as indicated by a massive increase in wet weight and a slight increase in Pa. Constant infusion of ..cap alpha..-hANP through pulmonary artery at 200 ng/ml was effective in causing decrease in wet weight of lung. Perfusion of lung with paraquat or PGF/sub 2..cap alpha..'/, and repeated bolus injection of arachidonic acid or PGE/sub 2/ caused elevation in both wet weight of lung and Pa.

  9. Systems Thinking Safety Analysis: Nuclear Security Assessment of Physical Protection System in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical assessment has been performed in the aspect of the nuclear power plants (NPPs security. The physical protection system (PPS is constructed by the cyber security evaluation tool (CSET for the nuclear security assessment. The systems thinking algorithm is used for the quantifications by the Vensim software package. There is a period of 60 years which is the life time of NPPs' operation. The maximum possibility happens as 3.59 in the 30th year. The minimum value is done as 1.26 in the 55th year. The difference is about 2.85 times. The results of the case with time delay have shown that the maximum possibility of terror or sabotage incident happens as 447.42 in the 58th year and the minimum value happens as 89.77 in the 51st year. The difference is about 4.98 times. Hence, if the sabotage happens, the worst case is that the intruder can attack the target of the nuclear material in about one and a half hours. The general NPPs are modeled in the study and controlled by the systematic procedures.

  10. Zebrafish and clean water technology: assessing soil bioretention as a protective treatment for toxic urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J K; Davis, J W; Incardona, J P; Stark, J D; Anulacion, B F; Scholz, N L

    2014-12-01

    Urban stormwater contains a complex mixture of contaminants that can be acutely toxic to aquatic biota. Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is a set of evolving technologies intended to reduce impacts on natural systems by slowing and filtering runoff. The extent to which GSI methods work as intended is usually assessed in terms of water quantity (hydrology) and quality (chemistry). Biological indicators of GSI effectiveness have received less attention, despite an overarching goal of protecting the health of aquatic species. Here we use the zebrafish (Danio rerio) experimental model to evaluate bioinfiltration as a relatively inexpensive technology for treating runoff from an urban highway with dense motor vehicle traffic. Zebrafish embryos exposed to untreated runoff (48-96h; six storm events) displayed an array of developmental abnormalities, including delayed hatching, reduced growth, pericardial edema, microphthalmia (small eyes), and reduced swim bladder inflation. Three of the six storms were acutely lethal, and sublethal toxicity was evident across all storms, even when stormwater was diluted by as much as 95% in clean water. As anticipated from exposure to cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), untreated runoff also caused heart failure, as indicated by circulatory stasis, pericardial edema, and looping defects. Bioretention treatment dramatically improved stormwater quality and reversed nearly all forms of developmental toxicity. The zebrafish model therefore provides a versatile experimental platform for rapidly assessing GSI effectiveness.

  11. Computational toxicology as implemented by the U.S. EPA: providing high throughput decision support tools for screening and assessing chemical exposure, hazard and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavlock, Robert; Dix, David

    2010-02-01

    Computational toxicology is the application of mathematical and computer models to help assess chemical hazards and risks to human health and the environment. Supported by advances in informatics, high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies, and systems biology, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA is developing robust and flexible computational tools that can be applied to the thousands of chemicals in commerce, and contaminant mixtures found in air, water, and hazardous-waste sites. The Office of Research and Development (ORD) Computational Toxicology Research Program (CTRP) is composed of three main elements. The largest component is the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT), which was established in 2005 to coordinate research on chemical screening and prioritization, informatics, and systems modeling. The second element consists of related activities in the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). The third and final component consists of academic centers working on various aspects of computational toxicology and funded by the U.S. EPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR) program. Together these elements form the key components in the implementation of both the initial strategy, A Framework for a Computational Toxicology Research Program (U.S. EPA, 2003), and the newly released The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Strategic Plan for Evaluating the Toxicity of Chemicals (U.S. EPA, 2009a). Key intramural projects of the CTRP include digitizing legacy toxicity testing information toxicity reference database (ToxRefDB), predicting toxicity (ToxCast) and exposure (ExpoCast), and creating virtual liver (v-Liver) and virtual embryo (v-Embryo) systems models. U.S. EPA-funded STAR centers are also providing bioinformatics, computational toxicology data and models, and developmental toxicity data and models. The models and underlying data are being made publicly

  12. Assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals: the French Total Diet Study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulin, M; Bemrah, N; Nougadère, A; Volatier, J L; Sirot, V; Leblanc, J C

    2014-01-01

    As part of the previous French Total Diet Studies (TDS) focusing on exposure to food chemicals in the population aged 3 years and older, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) launched a specific TDS on infants to complete its overall chemical food safety programme for the general population. More than 500 chemical substances were analysed in food products consumed by children under 3 years old, including nutrients, several endocrine disruptors resulting from human activities (polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans, brominated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl acids, pesticide residues, etc.) or migrating from food contact materials such as bisphenol A or phthalates, but also natural substances such as mycotoxins, phytoestrogens and steroids. To obtain a representative and general view of infant food consumption, food items were selected based on results of a national consumption survey conducted specifically on this population. Moreover, a specific study on food was conducted on 429 households to determine which home-cooking practices are employed to prepare food consumed by infants. Overall, the targeted chemical substances were analysed in more than 450 food samples, representing the purchase and home-cooking practices of over 5500 food products. Foods included common foods such as vegetables, fruit or cakes as well as specific infant foods such as infant formula or jarred baby food. The sampling plan covered over 80% of the total diet. Specificities in infant food consumption and habits were therefore considered to define this first infant TDS. This study, conducted on a large scale and focusing on a particularly sensitive population, will provide accurate information on the dietary exposure of children under 3 years to food chemicals, especially endocrine disruptors, and will be particularly useful for risk assessment analysis under the remit of ANSES' expert committees.

  13. Chemical stimulation in unconventional hydrocarbons extraction in the USA: a preliminary environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutra, Emilie; Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-04-01

    While the exploitation of unconventional resources recently shows an extensive development, the stimulation techniques in use in this domain arouse growing public concerns. Often in the shadow of the disputed hydraulic fracturing process, the matrix acidizing is however a complementary or alternative procedure to enhance the reservoir connectivity. Although acidizing processes are widespread within the traditional hydrocarbons sources exploration, the matrix acidizing does not appear to be commonly used in unconventional hydrocarbons formations due to their low permeability. Nonetheless, this process has been recently applied to the Monterey formation, a shale oil play in California. These stimulation fluids are composed by various chemicals, what represents a matter of concern for public as well as for authorities. As a consequence, a risk assessment implying an exposure and toxicity analysis is needed. Focusing on site surface accidents, e.g., leak of a chemical from a storage tank, we develop in this study concentration scenarios for different exposure pathways to estimate the potential environmental risk associated with the use of specific hazardous substances in the matrix acidizing process for unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in the USA. Primary, information about the usage of different hazardous substances have been collected in order to extract the most frequently used chemicals. Afterwards, a probabilistic estimation of the environmental risk associated with the use of these chemicals is carried out by comparing the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) distribution with the Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) value. The latter is collected from a literature review, whereas the PEC is estimated as probability distribution concentrations in different environmental compartments (e.g., soil) built upon various predefined accident scenarios. By applying a probabilistic methodology for the concentrations, the level at which the used chemicals

  14. Assessment of the protective function of forests against debris flows in a gorge of the Slovenian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidej G

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Protection forests play an important role in mitigating the influence of natural hazards. Despite the growing need for protective functions due to aging forests and increased risk of natural disturbances, active forest management has become increasingly uncommon across the Alps. Active management of protection forests can be facilitated by state subsidies. This requires an objective delineation of forests with a direct protection function and the development of silvicultural techniques that mitigate natural hazards. A study of protection efficiency of beech-dominated forests in the Soteska gorge in NW Slovenia, where a main state road and railway are at risk from debris flows and rockfall, was performed. We assessed the starting points of debris-flow hazard based on a small-scale geological survey of the terrain characteristics and a local debris flow susceptibility map. We applied the TopRunDF model for determination of the run-out zones. Forest structure data were obtained from 26 sample plots. A detailed description and delineation of forest stands was performed. The results showed that these forests play an important role in the protection of infrastructure. Forest protection efficiency can be improved by stand thinning for stability and careful planning of regeneration patches over time and space. In areas where silvicultural measures cannot provide sufficient protection, technical measures are needed. Since these forests have not been managed for several decades, natural disturbances (windthrow are frequent. Research findings suggest that regular assessment and management of these beech-dominated protection forests are necessary, contrary to the current practice of non-management in protection forests in Slovenia.

  15. Assessment of fires in chemical warehouses. An overview of the TOXFIRE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The report summarises the scientific outcome of the CEC Environment project "TOXFIRE. Guidelines for Management of Fires in Chemical Warehouses". The project was performed in the period 1994 - 1996 in a multi-national co-operation between partners fromUnited Kingdom, Sweden, Finland and Denmark...... performed. Also included were items as fire modelling, risk assessment to human health and the environment. Finally, the basis of guidelines for safetyengineers and fire brigades were established. The report describes the work done by each partner and the main results achieved. The references of all reports...

  16. Effects of Pluronic F-68 on Tetrahymena cells: protection against chemical and physical stress and prolongation of survival under toxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellung-Larsen, P; Assaad, F; Pankratova, Stanislava

    2000-01-01

    concentrations of Ca2+ (70 microM); (c) prolongs the survival of cells exposed to higher ion concentrations (10 mM Ca2+, or Na+ or K+); (d) postpones the death caused by trace metal ions like Zn2+, Fe3+ and, Cu2+; (e) protects cells from the death caused by shearing forces; and (f) prolongs the survival of cells......The effects of the non-ionic surfactant Pluronic F-68 (0.01% w/v) on Tetrahymena cells have been studied. A marked protection against chemical and physical stress was observed. The chemical stress effects were studied in cells suspended in buffer (starvation) or in buffers with added ingredients...... from a chemically defined medium (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, trace metal ions). The physical stress was due to mechanical stress or hyperthermia. The data show that Pluronic: (a) prolongs the survival of low concentration cell suspensions during starvation; (b) prevents the cell death caused by low...

  17. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  18. Integrated assessment of sources, chemical stressors and stream quality along a groundwater fed stream system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Sonne, Anne T.; Rønde, Vinni; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2016-04-01

    Streams are impacted by significant contamination at the catchment scale, as they are often locations of multiple chemical stressor inputs. The European Water Framework Directive requires EU member states to ensure good chemical and ecological status of surface water bodies by 2027. This requires monitoring of stream water quality, comparison with environmental quality standards (EQS) and assessment of ecological status. However, the achievement of good status of stream water also requires a strong focus on contaminant sources, pathways and links to stream water impacts, so source management and remedial measures can be implemented. Fate and impacts of different contaminant groups are governed by different processes and are dependent on the origin (geogenic, anthropogenic), source type (point or diffuse) and pathway of the contaminant. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors on a groundwater-fed stream to quantify the contaminant discharges, link the chemical impact and stream water quality and assess the main chemical risk drivers in the stream system potentially driving ecological impact. The study was conducted in the 8 m wide Grindsted stream (Denmark) along a 16 km stream stretch that is potentially impacted by two contaminated sites (Grindsted Factory site, Grindsted Landfill), fish farms, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Water samples from the stream and the hyporheic zone as well as bed sediment samples were collected during three campaigns in 2012 and 2014. Data for xenobiotic organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow were collected. The measured chemical concentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on the 48h acute toxicity tests with D. magna. The results show a substantial impact of the Grindsted Factory site at a specific stretch of the stream. The groundwater plume caused

  19. How objective are protected area management effectiveness assessments? A case study from the iSimangaliso Wetland Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton Carbutt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of protected area management effectiveness was developed out of a genuine desire to improve the way protected areas are managed and reported on, in relation to a formalised set of conservation objectives. For monitoring and reporting purposes, a number of participatory methods of rapidly assessing management effectiveness were developed. Most rapid assessment methods rely on scoring a range of protected area-related activities against an objective set of criteria documented in a formal questionnaire. This study evaluated the results of two applications of the same management effectiveness assessment tool applied to the same protected area, namely the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa. The manner in which the assessments were undertaken differed considerably and, not unexpectedly, so did the results, with the national assessment scoring significantly higher than the provincial assessment. Therefore, a further aim was to evaluate the operating conditions applied to each assessment, with a view to determining which assessment was more closely aligned with best practice and hence which score was more credible. The application of the tool differed mainly with respect to the level of spatial detail entered into for the evaluation, the depth and breadth of the management hierarchy that was consulted, the time in which the assessment was undertaken and the degree of peer review applied. Disparate scores such as those obtained in the assessments documented here are likely to bring the discipline of management effectiveness assessment into disrepute unless an acceptable and standardised set of operating procedures is developed and adopted. Recommendations for such a set of ‘indispensable constants’ were made in this article to ensure that management effectiveness assessments remain robust and reputable, thereby ensuring an honest picture of what is happening on the ground. Conservation implications: We proposed that standard

  20. Dermal permeation data and models for the prioritization and screening-level exposure assessment of organic chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    High throughput screening (HTS) models are being developed and applied to prioritize chemicals for more comprehensive exposure and risk assessment. Dermal pathways are possible exposure routes to humans for thousands of chemicals found in personal care products and the indoor env...

  1. A SEM Model in Assessing the Effect of Convergent, Divergent and Logical Thinking on Students' Understanding of Chemical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamovlasis, D.; Kypraios, N.; Papageorgiou, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, structural equation modeling (SEM) is applied to an instrument assessing students' understanding of chemical change. The instrument comprised items on understanding the structure of substances, chemical changes and their interpretation. The structural relationships among particular groups of items are investigated and analyzed using…

  2. Risk assessment of chemicals in food and diet: Hazard identification by methods of animal-based toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, S. M.; Greig, J. B.; Bridges, J. W.;

    2002-01-01

    the current state of the science of risk assessment of chemicals in food and diet, by consideration of the four stages of risk assessment, that is. hazard identification. hazard characterisation, exposure assessment and risk characterisation. The contribution of animal-based methods in toxicology to hazard......, on hazard identification for food chemicals, such as new measurement techniques, the use of transgenic animals, assessment of hormone balance and the possibilities for conducting studies in which common human diseases have been modelled. is also considered. (C) 2002 ILSI. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....... All rights reserved....

  3. Assessment of changes of some functions of Ukrainian acid soils after chemical amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapko Yurij

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to determine the effectiveness of lime of different origin for chemical amelioration of soils and examine its impact on soil functions such as productivity, habitat, regulation of water quality, and the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen. Limy ameliorants were applied in small local field experiment on Luvic Chernozem, and experiment with lysimeter columns was carried out on Albic Luvisol. The number of the main groups of microflora and enzymatic activity of soil was determined in soil samples taken for the analysis from the root zone. Research concerning the influence of natural and industrial origin ameliorants on soil as habitat showed the correlation of sugar beets productivity with soil biogenic. The increase of biomultiplicity of soil microbiota after addition of a cement dust and negative influence of red sludge on soil as habitat for living organisms was observed. Research involving the influence of ameliorants on soil by lime as the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen was carried out using lysimeter columns. It was stated that the addition of limy ameliorants reduces mobility of heavy metals.

  4. Grouping chemicals for health risk assessment: A text mining-based case study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna

    2016-01-22

    As many chemicals act as carcinogens, chemical health risk assessment is critically important. A notoriously time consuming process, risk assessment could be greatly supported by classifying chemicals with similar toxicological profiles so that they can be assessed in groups rather than individually. We have previously developed a text mining (TM)-based tool that can automatically identify the mode of action (MOA) of a carcinogen based on the scientific evidence in literature, and it can measure the MOA similarity between chemicals on the basis of their literature profiles (Korhonen et al., 2009, 2012). A new version of the tool (2.0) was recently released and here we apply this tool for the first time to investigate and identify meaningful groups of chemicals for risk assessment. We used published literature on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-persistent, widely spread toxic organic compounds comprising of 209 different congeners. Although chemically similar, these compounds are heterogeneous in terms of MOA. We show that our TM tool, when applied to 1648 PubMed abstracts, produces a MOA profile for a subgroup of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) which differs clearly from that for the rest of PCBs. This suggests that the tool could be used to effectively identify homogenous groups of chemicals and, when integrated in real-life risk assessment, could help and significantly improve the efficiency of the process.

  5. [Emission characteristics and hazard assessment analysis of volatile organic compounds from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Song, Shuang; Xu, Zhi-Rong; Xu, Ming-Zhu; Xu, Wei-Li

    2014-10-01

    In this study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry in Taizhou, Zhejiang province were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was in the range of 14.9-308.6 mg · m(-3). Evaluation models of ozone formation potentials (OFP) and health risk assessment were adopted to preliminarily assess the environmental impact and health risk of VOCs. The results showed that the values of OFP of VOCs were in the range of 3.1-315.1 mg · m(-3), based on the maximum incremental reactivity, the main principal contribution was toluene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetic ether etc. The non-carcinogenic risk and the carcinogen risk fell in the ranges of 9.48 x 10(-7)-4.98 x 10(-4) a(-1) and 3.17 x 10(-5)- 6.33 x 10(-3). The principal contribution of VOCs was benzene, formaldehyde and methylene chloride.

  6. Environmental impact assessment: chemical explosive fracturing project, Petroleum Technology Corporation, Leslie, Letcher and Perry counties, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonnessen, K.A.

    1977-05-19

    This review of the plans for a gas stimulation program by chemical explosive fracturing (CEF) in the Devonian shales of Letcher, Leslie and Perry counties, Kentucky also includes an assessment of the environmental consequences of the proposed project. This document was prepared at the request of the Nevada Operations Office of the Energy Research and Development Administration, and is intended to provide the information and data required for the preparation of an environmental assessment of the construction and testing program. This report was compiled from material provided by the Petroleum Technology Corporation of Redmond, Washington, Kentucky-West Virginia Gas Transmission Corporation of Prestonsburg, Kentucky and the State of Kentucky Bureau of Mines and Minerals during site visits in October, 1976.

  7. Non-chemical stressors and cumulative risk assessment: an overview of current initiatives and potential air pollutant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S; Sax, Sonja N; Wason, Susan C; Campleman, Sharan L

    2011-06-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  8. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  9. The European Conformity Assessment Procedures and the Quality Assurance Instruments for Personal Protective Equipment in the Internal Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Conformity assessment procedures prescribed by European legislation are presented and their concrete implementation is illustrated by the example of personal protective equipment (PPE). The different categories of PPE defined by Council Directive 89/686/EEC are explained with reference to the applicable conformity assessment elements. Quality assurance of production is presented as the central element of the conformity assessment procedure for complex PPE. Special emphasis is put on the necessity of having a regular exchange of views and information among notified bodies in Europe. Ways in which third countries can eventually carry out conformity assessment on the basis of a contract with the European Community Commission are explained.

  10. [Assessment of the relationship of properties of chemical compounds and their toxicity to a unified hygienic standardization for chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushkov, V F; Perminov, K A; Sapozhnikova, V V; Ignatova, O L

    2013-01-01

    The connection of thermodynamic properties and parameters of toxicity of chemical substances was determined. Obtained data are used for the evaluation of toxicity and hygienic rate setting of chemical compounds. The relationship between enthalpy and toxicity of chemical compounds has been established. Orthogonal planning of the experiment was carried out in the course of the investigations. Equation of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism is presented. Prospects of determination of toxicity and methodology of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism are presented

  11. Toxicological and chemical assessment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater after electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Crnojević, Helena; Vujčić, Valerija; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Cvetković, Želimira; Petra, Cvjetko; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Oreščanin, Višnja

    2016-02-01

    Owing to its proven toxicity and mutagenicity, arsenic is regarded a principal pollutant in water used for drinking. The objective of this study was the toxicological and chemical evaluation of groundwater samples obtained from arsenic enriched drinking water wells before and after electrochemical and ozone-UV-H2O2-based advanced oxidation processes (EAOP). For this purpose, acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna and chronic toxicity test with Lemna minor L. were employed as well as in vitro bioassays using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). Several oxidative stress parameters were estimated in L.minor. Physicochemical analysis showed that EAOP treatment was highly efficient in arsenic but also in ammonia and organic compound removal from contaminated groundwater. Untreated groundwater caused only slight toxicity to HPBLs and D. magna in acute experiments. However, 7-day exposure of L. minor to raw groundwater elicited genotoxicity, a significant growth inhibition and oxidative stress injury. The observed genotoxicity and toxicity of raw groundwater samples was almost completely eliminated by EAOP treatment. Generally, the results obtained with L. minor were in agreement with those obtained in the chemical analysis suggesting the sensitivity of the model organism in monitoring of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In parallel to chemical analysis, the implementation of chronic toxicity bioassays in a battery is recommended in the assessment of the toxic and genotoxic potential of such complex mixtures.

  12. Application of infrared spectroscopy for assessing quality (chemical composition) of peatland plants, litter and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straková, Petra; Laiho, Raija

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, we assess the merits of using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra to estimate the organic matter composition in different plant biomass and peat soil samples. Infrared spectroscopy has a great potential in large-scale peatland studies that require low cost and high throughput techniques, as it gives a unique "chemical overview" of a sample, with all the chemical compounds present contributing to the spectrum produced. Our extensive sample sets include soil samples ranging from boreal to tropical peatlands, including sites under different environmental and/or land-use changes; above- and below-ground biomass of different peatland plant species; plant root mixtures. We mainly use FTIR to estimate (1) chemical composition of the samples (e.g., total C and N, C:N ratio, holocellulose, lignin and ash content), (2) proportion of each plant species in root mixtures, and (3) respiration of surface peat. The satisfactory results of our predictive models suggest that this experimental approach can, for example, be used as a screening tool in the evaluation of organic matter composition in peatlands during monitoring of their degradation and/or restoration success.

  13. The inadequacies of pre-market chemical risk assessment's toxicity studies-the implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedale, Anthony C

    2017-01-01

    Industry provides essentially all the data for most (pre-market) chemical risk assessments (RA); academics study a chemical once it is marketed. For two randomly-chosen high production chemicals, despite new European Union mandates to evaluate all data, just 13% of the herbicide bentazon and 15% of the flame-retardant hexabromocyclododecane's published toxicity studies were found in their pre-market RA, and a systematic review on bentazon concludes it has greater hazards than indicated in its RA. More important, for both, academia's toxicity studies were designated as lower quality than industries were, despite showing hazards at lower doses. The accuracy of industry's test methods is analyzed and found to be replicable but insensitive, thus inaccurate. The synthetic pharmaceutical industry originated them, and by 1983 the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development mandated their test guidelines (TG) methods be accepted for any new study for pre-market RA. For existing studies, industry's "Klimisch" criterion is universally used to evaluate quality, but it only states that TG studies produce the best data. However, no TG can answer the realistic exposure effect hypotheses of academics; therefore, crucially in pre-market RA, tens of thousands of published experimental findings (increasingly at low dose) are ignored to determine the safe dose. Few appreciate this, so scientific debate on the most accurate elements of toxicity tests is urgently indicated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Laerhoven, Frank van, E-mail: vanLaerhoven@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter, E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Arts, Jos, E-mail: e.j.m.m.arts@rug.nl [University of Groningen, Faculty of Planning, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by

  15. Assessing the authenticity of commercial deep-sea drinking water by chemical and isotopic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tsung-Ren; Liang, Wen-Jui; Liu, Tsang-Sen; Lin, Yu-Wen; Zhan, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study combines stable isotopes and chemical elements with statistical principal component analysis (PCA) to assess the authenticity of bottled commercial drinking water desalinized from deep seawater in the Taiwan market. Isotopic results indicate that true bottled deep-sea drinking water (DSDW) exhibits about 0 ‰ for both δ(2)H and δ(18)O values, which are values similar to those of open seawater. By comparison, suspected counterfeit DSDW products display δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of around -51 ‰ and -8 ‰, respectively. These values are representative of terrestrial freshwater. In addition, suspected counterfeit DSDWs have δ and electrical conductivity values similar to a mixed water (MW) product that was manufactured by purifying terrestrial freshwater and adulterating this with small amounts of brine. Furthermore, PCA results indicate the chemical constitution of suspected DSDW products to be similar to the MW product which falls between purified terrestrial freshwater and desalinized open seawater. These similarities imply that suspected counterfeit DSDW products are manufactured in a similar manner to the declared MW product. This study demonstrates how combining knowledge of stable water isotopes and PCA can be used in assessing the authenticity of commercial DSDW products. The method should be of great interest to similar investigations elsewhere.

  16. Intercomparison of chemical mechanisms for air quality policy formulation and assessment under North American conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, Richard

    2017-02-22

    The intercomparison of seven chemical mechanisms for their suitability for air quality policy formulation and assessment is described. Box modelling techniques were employed using 44 sets of background environmental conditions covering North America to constrain the chemical development of the longer-lived species. The selected mechanisms were modified to enable an unbiased assessment of the adequacy of the parameterisations of photochemical ozone production from VOC oxidation in the presence of NOx. Photochemical ozone production rates responded differently to 30% NOx and VOC reductions with the different mechanisms, despite the striking similarities between the base case ozone production rates. The 30% reductions in NOx and VOCs also produced changes in OH. The responses in OH to 30% reductions in NOx and VOCs appeared to be more sensitive to mechanism choice, compared with the responses in the photochemical ozone production rates. Whereas 30% NOx reductions generally led to decreases in OH, 30% reductions in VOCs led to increases in OH, irrespective of mechanism choice and background environmental conditions. The different mechanisms therefore gave different OH responses to NOx and VOC reductions and so would give different responses in terms of changes in the fate and behaviour of air toxics, acidification and eutrophication and fine particle formation compared with others, in response to ozone control strategies. Policy-makers need to understand that there are likely to be inherent differences in the responses to ozone control strategies between different mechanisms, depending on background environmental conditions and the extents of NOx and VOC reductions under consideration. IMPLICATIONS The purpose of this paper is to compare predicted ozone responses to NOx and VOC reductions with seven chemical mechanisms under North American conditions. The good agreement found between the tested mechanisms should provide some support for their application in the air

  17. Assessing the comparative risk of plant protection products to honey bees, non-target arthropods and non-Apis bees

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Mark J.; Alix, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the European Union the placing of pesticides on the market requires as a prerequisite that a risk assessment demonstrates low risks to human health and the environment, among which includes pollinators. Currently risks are evaluated for honey bees and for non-target arthropods (NTA) of cultivated ecosystems. The actual protection of pollinators other than the honey bees, as for example for non-Apis bees, in relation to these risk assessments has recently been questioned and req...

  18. Incorporating biomarkers in ecological risk assessment of chemical contaminants of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Reinecke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an important but complex natural resource which is increasingly used as sink for chemicals. The monitoring of soil quality and the assessment of risks posed by contaminants have become crucial. This study deals with the potential use of biomarkers in the monitoring of soils and the assessment of risk resulting from contamination. Apart from an overview of the existing literature on biomarkers, the results of various of our field experiments in South African soils are discussed. Biomarkers may have potential in the assessment of risk because they can indicate at an early stage that exposure has taken place and that a toxic response has been initiated. It is therefore expected that early biomarkers will play an increasing role as diagnostic tools for determining exposure to chemicals and the resulting effects. They may have predictive value that can assist in the prevention or minimising of risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of using our results on biomarker responses of soil dwelling organisms to predict changes at higher organisational levels (which may have ecological implications. Our recent experimental results on the evaluation of various biomarkers in both the laboratory and the field are interpreted and placed in perspective within the broader framework of response biology. The aim was further to contribute to the development and application of biomarkers in regulatory risk assessment schemes of soils. This critical review of our own and recent literature on biomarkers in ecotoxicology leads to the conclusion that biomarkers can, under certain conditions, be useful tools in risk assessment. Clear relationships between contamination loads in soil organisms and certain biomarker responses were determined in woodlice, earthworms and terrestrial snails. Clear correlations were also established in field experiments between biomarker responses and changes at the population level. This indicated that, in

  19. The Chemical Basis of Thiol Addition to Nitro-conjugated Linoleic Acid, a Protective Cell-signaling Lipid*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, Lucía; Vitturi, Darío A.; Coitiño, E. Laura; Lebrato, Lourdes; Möller, Matías N.; Sagasti, Camila; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Woodcock, Steven R.; Alvarez, Beatriz; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitroalkene fatty acids are formed in vivo and exert protective and anti-inflammatory effects via reversible Michael addition to thiol-containing proteins in key signaling pathways. Nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-CLA) is preferentially formed, constitutes the most abundant nitrated fatty acid in humans, and contains two carbons that could potentially react with thiols, modulating signaling actions and levels. In this work, we examined the reactions of NO2-CLA with low molecular weight thiols (glutathione, cysteine, homocysteine, cysteinylglycine, and β-mercaptoethanol) and human serum albumin. Reactions followed reversible biphasic kinetics, consistent with the presence of two electrophilic centers in NO2-CLA located on the β- and δ-carbons with respect to the nitro group. The differential reactivity was confirmed by computational modeling of the electronic structure. The rates (kon and koff) and equilibrium constants for both reactions were determined for different thiols. LC-UV-Visible and LC-MS analyses showed that the fast reaction corresponds to β-adduct formation (the kinetic product), while the slow reaction corresponds to the formation of the δ-adduct (the thermodynamic product). The pH dependence of the rate constants, the correlation between intrinsic reactivity and thiol pKa, and the absence of deuterium solvent kinetic isotope effects suggested stepwise mechanisms with thiolate attack on NO2-CLA as rate-controlling step. Computational modeling supported the mechanism and revealed additional features of the transition states, anionic intermediates, and final neutral products. Importantly, the detection of cysteine-δ-adducts in human urine provided evidence for the biological relevance of this reaction. Finally, human serum albumin was found to bind NO2-CLA both non-covalently and to form covalent adducts at Cys-34, suggesting potential modes for systemic distribution. These results provide new insights into the chemical basis of NO2-CLA

  20. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, diethylstilbestrol (DES and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold2 software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69% and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%. Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed.

  1. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huixiao; Shen, Jie; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ye, Hao; Ge, Weigong; Gong, Ping; Xiao, Wenming; Tong, Weida

    2016-03-25

    Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest) and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold² software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69%) and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%). Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence) in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed.

  2. Assessment of Forest Management in Protected Areas Based on Multidisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Machar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The remnants of primeval Norway spruce forests in the European temperate zone are crucial for maintaining forest biodiversity in high mountain landscapes. This paper presents results of a multidisciplinary research and evaluation project on the management practices for mountain spruce forests in the Natura 2000 site (National Nature Reserve Serak-Keprnik in the Hruby Jesenik Mountains, the Czech Republic. Results are based on combining research on the historical development of the forest ecosystem and predictions of future dynamics using a forest growth simulation model. The presented results show that a non-intervention management strategy for mountain spruce forest in the next 50 years complies with the Natura 2000 requirement to maintain the existing character of the forest habitat. Thus, the results indicate that the current management plan for the spruce forests does not require significant corrections in the context of its conservation goals (i.e., maintaining biodiversity and current character of the forest ecosystem dominated by Norway spruce. The results of this study suggest that combining the knowledge of historical development with forest inventory data using forest growth simulation represents a suitable support tool for the assessment of management practices for forest habitats in protected areas.

  3. Thermal Cycling Assessment of Steel-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings for Al Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Dominique; Lamarre, Jean-Michel; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong interest from the transportation industry to achieve vehicle weight reduction through the replacement of steel components by aluminum parts. For some applications, aluminum requires protective coatings due to its limited wear and lower temperature resistance compared to steel. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of amorphous-type plasma-sprayed steel coatings and conventional arc-sprayed steel coatings as thermal barrier coatings, mainly through the evaluation of their spalling resistance under thermal cycling. The microstructures of the different coatings were first compared via SEM. The amorphicity of the coatings produced via plasma spraying of specialized alloyed steel and the crystalline phases of the conventional arc-sprayed steel coatings were confirmed through x-ray diffraction. The thermal diffusivity of all coatings produced was measured to be about a third of that of bulk stainless steel. Conventional arc-sprayed steel coatings typically offered better spalling resistance under thermal cycling than steel-based amorphous coatings due probably to their higher initial bond strength. However, the presence of vertical cracks in the steel-based amorphous coatings was found to have a beneficial effect on their thermal cycling resistance. The amorphous plasma-sprayed steel coatings presented indications of recrystallization after their exposure to high temperature.

  4. Assessment of landscape ecology of agricultural protection forest system at Beizang Town, Daxing County, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIChun-ping; GUANWen-bin; FANXiu-zhen; ZHAOTing-ning; CHENJian-gang; SUNBao-pina

    2003-01-01

    Based on theories of protective forests and landscape ecology, the reasonableness of structures and patterns of shelterbelt system at Beizang Town, Daxing County, Beijing were analyzed and assessed from the two scales of forest belts and networks, by integrating uses of field investigation, GIS and RS techniques. Results showed that the existent main belt (3-12 m in width) was too narrow, while the assistant belt (3-27.1 m in width) was too wide; the species composition of the existent shelterbelts was single, and the structures and patterns of the shelterbelt system were unreasonable. It is suggested that the structure of the main and the assistant belts should be changed, such as increasing the width of main belts, decreasing the width of assistant belt, and planting more mixed species, and the pattern with arbores in the middle and shrubs in the sides of belts could be taken into account. For the landscape structure of forest network after regenerating or reconstruction, the grid number of closed network should be 13 per km2 and the minimum number of belts should be 34 per km2, This study also testified that integrating GIS and remote technique with landscape ecology could provide an effective method for reasonable reconstruction of the structures and patterns of shelterbelts system.

  5. A Novel Self-Evaluation Tool to Assess the Team Function of a Child Protection Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistin, Caroline J.; Tien, Irene; Leventhal, John M.; Bauchner, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a reliable and valid self-evaluation tool for use by child protection team (CPT) members. Methods An on-line survey was administered to members of 10 CPTs. The survey included 3 sections: 1) Initial Conditions (eg, team composition, resources); 2) Enabling Conditions (eg, team effort, strategy); and 3) Team Effectiveness (eg, team cohesion, meeting performance standards). Each section contained multiple subscales. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach’s α. To evaluate construct validity, the subscale scores of the most advanced teams who qualified as centers of excellence (N=3) were compared to the subscale scores of the other teams (N=7) to determine whether the tool could distinguish between the two. Results Of 116 team members, 83 (72%) completed the survey. The subscales exhibited good internal consistency (α = 0.71 – 0.97). The 3 centers of excellence had significantly higher mean scores than the other 7 CPTs on the following subscales: incentives (in the Initial Conditions section) (61.46 vs. 38.89, p = 0.003), effort (in the Enabling Conditions section) (79.31 vs. 67.70, p = 0.003), and professional growth (in the Team Effectiveness section) (83.89 vs. 80.40, p = 0.004). Conclusions This novel survey demonstrates satisfactory test characteristics and can be used to assess CPT performance and identify areas for improvement. PMID:21959096

  6. Metallic Thermal Protection System Technology Development: Concepts, Requirements and Assessment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Poteet, Carl C.; Chen, Roger R.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2002-01-01

    A technology development program was conducted to evolve an earlier metallic thermal protection system (TPS) panel design, with the goals of: improving operations features, increasing adaptability (ease of attaching to a variety of tank shapes and structural concepts), and reducing weight. The resulting Adaptable Robust Metallic Operable Reusable (ARMOR) TPS system incorporates a high degree of design flexibility (allowing weight and operability to be traded and balanced) and can also be easily integrated with a large variety of tank shapes, airframe structural arrangements and airframe structure/material concepts. An initial attempt has been made to establish a set of performance based TPS design requirements. A set of general (FARtype) requirements have been proposed, focusing on defining categories that must be included for a comprehensive design. Load cases required for TPS design must reflect the full flight envelope, including a comprehensive set of limit loads, However, including additional loads. such as ascent abort trajectories, as ultimate load cases, and on-orbit debris/micro-meteoroid hypervelocity impact, as one of the discrete -source -damage load cases, will have a significant impact on system design and resulting performance, reliability and operability. Although these load cases have not been established, they are of paramount importance for reusable vehicles, and until properly included, all sizing results and assessments of reliability and operability must be considered optimistic at a minimum.

  7. The Development and Validation of the Contextualized Assessment Tool for Risk and Protection Management (CAT-RPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Julie M.; Carroll, Annemaree; Ashman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Traditional resources for ascertaining risk and protection for disengaged youth are often unsuitable, due to the stamina and skill required to complete them. Many of these tools assess risk without considering participants' potential for personal growth. The present study outlines the development and initial validation of a tool titled the…

  8. 78 FR 19002 - Marine Mammal Protection Act; Draft Revised Stock Assessment Reports for Two Stocks of West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ...: March 14, 2013. Stephen Guertin, Deputy Director, Fish and Wildlife Service. BILLING CODE 4310-55-P ... Fish and Wildlife Service Marine Mammal Protection Act; Draft Revised Stock Assessment Reports for Two Stocks of West Indian Manatee AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  9. An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, prepared by the Global Change Research Program (GCRP) in the National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) of the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is a review of decision-making processes of selected la...

  10. Laboratory and outdoor assessment of UV protection offered by flax and hemp fabrics dyed with natural dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Daniele; Bacci, Laura; Zipoli, Gaetano; Carreras, Giulia; Baronti, Silvia; Sabatini, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The safest protection from UV radiation (UVR) exposure is offered by clothing and its protectiveness depends on fabric composition (natural, artificial or synthetic fibers), fabric parameters (porosity, weight and thickness) and dyeing (natural or synthetic dyes, dye concentration, UV absorbing properties, etc.). In this study the UV protection properties of two fabrics made of natural fibers (flax and hemp) dyed with some of the most common natural dyes were investigated. UVR transmittance of fabrics was measured by two methods: one based on the utilization of a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere (in vitro test), and the other based on outdoor measurements taken by a spectroradiometer. Transmittance measurements were used to calculate the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF). Experimental results revealed that natural dyes could confer good UV protection, depending mainly on their different UVR-absorbing properties, provided that the fabric construction already guaranteed good cover. An increase in cover factor caused by the dyeing process was also detected. Weld-dyed fabrics gave the highest protection level. The comparison between the two methods applied to measure fabric transmittance pointed out that the UPFs calculated by in vitro measurements were generally lower than those based on outdoor data, indicating an underestimation of the actual protection level of tested fabrics assessed by the in vitro test.

  11. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lithner, Delilah, E-mail: delilah.lithner@gmail.com; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Goeran

    2011-08-15

    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out

  12. Testing REACH draft technical guidance notes for conducting chemical safety assessments-the experience of a downstream user of a preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Anne Lill; Ovrebø, Steinar; Hylland, Ketil

    2008-07-01

    The goal of REACH is the safe use of chemicals. This study examines the efficiency and usefulness of two draft technical guidance notes in the REACH Interim Project 3.2-2 for the development of the chemical safety report and exposure scenarios. A case study was carried out for a paint system for protection of structural steel. The focuses of the study were risk assessment of preparations based on Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) and Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) and on effective and accurate communication in the supply chain. Exposure scenarios and generic descriptions of uses, risk management measures, and exposure determinants were developed. The study showed that communication formats, software tools, and guidelines for chemical risk assessment need further adjustment to preparations and real-life situations. Web platforms may simplify such communication. The downstream formulator needs basic substance data from the substance manufacturer during the pre-registration phase to develop exposure scenarios for preparations. Default values need to be communicated in the supply chain because these were critical for the derivation of applicable risk management demands. The current guidelines which rely on the available toxicological knowledge are insufficient to advise downstream users on how to develop exposure scenarios for preparations.

  13. Assessing the effectiveness of specially protected areas for conservation of Antarctica's botanical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A; Ireland, Louise C; Convey, Peter; Fleming, Andrew H

    2016-02-01

    Vegetation is sparsely distributed over Antarctica's ice-free ground, and distinct plant communities are present in each of the continent's 15 recently identified Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions (ACBRs). With rapidly increasing human activity in Antarctica, terrestrial plant communities are at risk of damage or destruction by trampling, overland transport, and infrastructure construction and from the impacts of anthropogenically introduced species, as well as uncontrollable pressures such as fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) activity and climate change. Under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, the conservation of plant communities can be enacted and facilitated through the designation of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs). We examined the distribution within the 15 ACBRs of the 33 ASPAs whose explicit purpose includes protecting macroscopic terrestrial flora. We completed the first survey using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite remote sensing to provide baseline data on the extent of vegetation cover in all ASPAs designated for plant protection in Antarctica. Large omissions in the protection of Antarctic botanical diversity were found. There was no protection of plant communities in 6 ACBRs, and in another 6, Antarctic continent; over half was within a single protected area. Over 96% of the protected vegetation was contained in 2 ACBRs, which together contributed only 7.8% of the continent's ice-free ground. We conclude that Antarctic botanical diversity is clearly inadequately protected and call for systematic designation of ASPAs protecting plant communities by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties, the members of the governing body of the continent.

  14. Efficiency of a Protected-Area Network in a Mediterranean Region: A Multispecies Assessment with Raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, María D.; Martínez, José E.; Palazón, José A.; Esteve, Miguel Á.; Calvo, José F.

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km2), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel ( Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  15. Risk assessment for benefits analysis: framework for analysis of a thyroid-disrupting chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Baetcke, Karl; Dockins, Chris; Griffiths, Charles W; Hill, Richard N; Murphy, Patricia A; Owens, Nicole; Simon, Nathalie B; Teuschler, Linda K

    Benefit-cost analysis is of growing importance in developing policies to reduce exposures to environmental contaminants. To quantify health benefits of reduced exposures, economists generally rely on dose-response relationships estimated by risk assessors. Further, to be useful for benefits analysis, the endpoints that are quantified must be expressed as changes in incidence of illnesses or symptoms that are readily understood by and perceptible to the layperson. For most noncancer health effects and for nonlinear carcinogens, risk assessments generally do not provide the dose-response functions necessary for economic benefits analysis. This article presents the framework for a case study that addresses these issues through a combination of toxicology, epidemiology, statistics, and economics. The case study assesses a chemical that disrupts proper functioning of the thyroid gland, and considers the benefits of reducing exposures in terms of both noncancer health effects (hypothyroidism) and thyroid cancers. The effects are presumed to be due to a mode of action involving interference with thyroid-pituitary functioning that would lead to nonlinear dose response. The framework integrates data from animal testing, statistical modeling, human data from the medical and epidemiological literature, and economic methodologies and valuation studies. This interdisciplinary collaboration differs from the more typical approach in which risk assessments and economic analyses are prepared independently of one another. This framework illustrates particular approaches that may be useful for expanded quantification of adverse health effects, and demonstrates the potential of such interdisciplinary approaches. Detailed implementation of the case study framework will be presented in future publications.

  16. Risk management measures for chemicals in consumer products: documentation, assessment, and communication across the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; Hakkinen, Pertti Bert; Lahaniatis, Majlinda; Papameletiou, Demosthenes; Del Pozo, Carlos; Reina, Vittorio; Van Engelen, Jacqueline; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Viso, Anne Catherine; Rodriguez, Carlos; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes the way risk management measures (RMMs) for consumer products have been used to date in authority and industry risk assessments. A working concept for consumer product RMMs is developed, aimed at controlling, limiting or avoiding exposures, and helping to insure the safe use (or handling) of a substance as part of a consumer product. Particular focus is placed on new requirements introduced by REACH (registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals). A RMMs categorization approach is also developed, dividing consumer product RMMs into those that are product integrated and those that are communicated to consumers. For each of these categories, RMMs for normal use, accidental use or misuse need to be distinguished. The level of detail for documenting, assessing and communicating RMMs across supply chains can vary, depending on the type of the assessment (tiered approach). Information on RMMs was collected from published sources to demonstrate that a taxonomical approach using standard descriptors for RMMs libraries is needed for effective information exchange across supply chains.

  17. Quantitative assessment of the relationship between radiant heat exposure and protective performance of multilayer thermal protective clothing during dry and wet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, M; Weng, W G; Yuan, H Y

    2014-07-15

    The beneficial effect of clothing on a person is important to the criteria for people exposure to radiant heat flux from fires. The thermal protective performance of multilayer thermal protective clothing exposed to low heat fluxes during dry and wet conditions was studied using two designed bench-scale test apparatus. The protective clothing with four fabric layers (outer shell, moisture barrier, thermal linear and inner layer) was exposed to six levels of thermal radiation (1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10kW/m(2)). Two kinds of the moisture barrier (PTFE and GoreTex) with different vapor permeability were compared. The outside and inside surface temperatures of each fabric layer were measured. The fitting analysis was used to quantitatively assess the relationship between the temperature of each layer during thermal exposure and the level of external heat flux. It is indicated that there is a linear correlation between the temperature of each layer and the radiant level. Therefore, a predicted equation is developed to calculate the thermal insulation of the multilayer clothing from the external heat flux. It can also provide some useful information on the beneficial effects of clothing for the exposure criteria of radiant heat flux from fire.

  18. Chemical Considerations for an Updated National Assessment of Brackish Groundwater Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P B; Böhlke, J K; Dahm, K G; Parkhurst, D L; Anning, D W; Stanton, J S

    2016-07-01

    Brackish groundwater (BGW) is increasingly used for water supplies where fresh water is scarce, but the distribution and availability of such resources have not been characterized at the national scale in the United States since the 1960s. Apart from its distribution and accessibility, BGW usability is a function of the chemical requirements of the intended use, chemical characteristics of the resource, and treatment options to make the resource compatible with the use. Here, we discuss relations between these three chemical factors using national-scale examples and local case studies. In a preliminary compilation of BGW data in the United States, five water types accounted for the major-ion composition of 70% of samples. PHREEQC calculations indicate that 57-77% of samples were oversaturated with respect to barite, calcite, or chalcedony. In the study, 5-14% of samples had concentrations of arsenic, fluoride, nitrate, or uranium that exceeded drinking-water standards. In case studies of the potential use of BGW for drinking water, irrigation, and hydraulic fracturing, PHREEQC simulations of a hypothetical treatment process resembling reverse osmosis (RO) showed that BGW had the potential to form various assemblages of mineral deposits (scale) during treatment that could adversely affect RO membranes. Speciation calculations showed that most boron in the irrigation example occurred as boric acid, which has relatively low removal efficiency by RO. Results of this preliminary study indicate that effective national or regional assessments of BGW resources should include geochemical characterizations that are guided in part by specific use and treatment requirements.

  19. Chemical considerations for an updated National assessment of brackish groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Peter B.; Bohlke, John Karl; Dahm, Katharine; Parkhurst, David L.; Anning, David W.; Stanton, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Brackish groundwater (BGW) is increasingly used for water supplies where fresh water is scarce, but the distribution and availability of such resources have not been characterized at the national scale in the United States since the 1960s. Apart from its distribution and accessibility, BGW usability is a function of the chemical requirements of the intended use, chemical characteristics of the resource, and treatment options to make the resource compatible with the use. Here, we discuss relations between these three chemical factors using national-scale examples and local case studies. In a preliminary compilation of BGW data in the United States, five water types accounted for the major-ion composition of 70% of samples. PHREEQC calculations indicate that 57–77% of samples were oversaturated with respect to barite, calcite, or chalcedony. In the study, 5–14% of samples had concentrations of arsenic, fluoride, nitrate, or uranium that exceeded drinking-water standards. In case studies of the potential use of BGW for drinking water, irrigation, and hydraulic fracturing, PHREEQC simulations of a hypothetical treatment process resembling reverse osmosis (RO) showed that BGW had the potential to form various assemblages of mineral deposits (scale) during treatment that could adversely affect RO membranes. Speciation calculations showed that most boron in the irrigation example occurred as boric acid, which has relatively low removal efficiency by RO. Results of this preliminary study indicate that effective national or regional assessments of BGW resources should include geochemical characterizations that are guided in part by specific use and treatment requirements.

  20. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithner, Delilah; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Göran

    2011-08-15

    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out.

  1. Approaches to assessing the risk of chemical contamination of Urban Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, O. A.; Makarov, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The existing approaches to studying the risk of chemical contamination of soils are analyzed. It is noted that the actual and critical loads of contaminants on the soil cover are often compared for estimating these risks. The insufficient use of economic tools and methods for assessing the risk of soil contamination is emphasized. The sanitary-hygienic standards are found out to be exceeded for lead, zinc, cadmium and copper content in soils in six localities, each of 6250 m2 in the area, situated in the industrial and transport zones of Podol'sk and Moscow. The values of actual and maximal permissible damage exerted by the heavy-metal contamination to the studied soils are calculated. The probable damage R and the degree of probable damage implementation (DPDI) are used as the indices of soil contamination risk.

  2. Environmental risk assessment of chemicals and nanomaterials — The best foundation for regulatory decision-making?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is often considered as the most transparent, objective and reliable decision-making tool for informing the risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials. ERAs are based on the assumption that it is possible to provide accurate estimates of hazard and exposure...... and, subsequently, to quantify risk. In this paper we argue that since the quantification of risk is dominated by uncertainties, ERAs do not provide a transparent or an objective foundation for decision-making and they should therefore not be considered as a “holy grail” for informing risk management.......Webuild this thesis on the analysis of two case studies (of nonylphenol and nanomaterials) as well as a historical analysis in which we address the scientific Foundation for ERAs. The analyses show that ERAs do not properly address all aspects of actual risk, such as the mixture effect and the environmentally...

  3. Assessment of existing H2/O2 chemical reaction mechanisms at reheat gas turbine conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Weydahl, Torleif; Seljeskog, Morten; Haugen, Nils Erland L

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides detailed comparisons of chemical reaction mechanisms of H2 applicable at high preheat temperatures and pressures relevant to gas turbine and particularly Alstom's reheat gas turbine conditions. It is shown that the available reaction mechanisms exhibit large differences in several important elementary reaction coefficients. The reaction mechanisms are assessed by comparing ignition delay and laminar flame speed results obtained from CHEMKIN with available data, however, the amount of data at these conditions is scarce and a recommended candidate among the mechanisms can presently not be selected. Generally, the results with the GRI-Mech and Leeds mechanisms deviate from the Davis, Li, O'Conaire, Konnov and San Diego mechanisms, but there are also significant deviations between the latter five mechanisms that altogether are better adapted to hydrogen. The differences in ignition delay times between the dedicated hydrogen mechanisms (O'Conaire, Li and Konnov) range from approximately a maxim...

  4. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Challenges, priorities, and future issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, S. [National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues related to developing information resources for assessing the health effects from chemical exposure include the question of how to address the individual political issues relevant to identifying and determining the timeliness, scientific credibility, and completeness of such kinds of information resources. One of the important ways for agencies to share information is through connection tables. This type of software is presently being used to build information products for some DHHS agencies. One of the challenges will be to convince vendors of data of the importance of trying to make data files available to communities that need them. In the future, information processing will be conducted with neural networks, object-oriented database management systems, and fuzzy-set technologies, and meta analysis techniques.

  5. Epidemiologic approaches to assessing human cancer risk from consuming aquatic food resources from chemically contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozonoff, D. (Boston Univ. School of Public Health, MA (United States)); Longnecker, M.P. (UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiologic approaches to assessing human cancer risk from contaminated waters must confront the problems of long latency and rarity of the end point (cancer). The latency problem makes determination of diet history more difficult, while the low frequency of cancer as an end point reduces the statistical power of the study. These factors are discussed in relation to the study designs most commonly employed in epidemiology. It is suggested that the use of biomarkers for persistent chemicals may be useful to mitigate the difficulty of determining exposure, while the use of more prevalent and timely end points, such as carcinogen-DNA adducts or oncogene proteins, may make the latency and rarity problems more tractable.

  6. Possible protective effect of royal jelly against cyclophosphamide induced prostatic damage in male albino rats; a biochemical, histological and immuno-histo-chemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafez, Sara Mohammed Naguib; Rifaai, Rehab Ahmed; Abdelzaher, Walaa Yehia

    2017-03-21

    Almost all the chemotherapy treat many cancer types effectively, but it leads to severe side effects. Chemotherapy like cyclophosphamide (CP) not works only on the active cells, such as cancer cells, but also acts on the healthy cells. Royal jelly (RJ) was reported to have a lot of therapeutic effects besides being an anti-oxidant and anti-cancer agent. The purpose of this study was to assess the possible protective role of RJ in ameliorating the toxic effects of CP overdose in the rat prostatic tissue. The rats were separated into 4 groups; control group, RJ group, CP group and RJ with CP group. Prostatic specimens were processed for biochemical, histological and immune-histo-chemical studies. The mean area fractions of eNOS and Bax expression were measured in all groups, and statistical analysis was carried out. The results showed that in CP treated group, there were marked biological changes in the form of significant increase in prostatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and C - reactive protein (CRP). Additionally there was a significant decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in prostatic tissue if compared with the control group. Furthermore, the histological changes showed marked acinar and stromal prostatic degeneration. Most prostatic acini showed less PAS reaction and more (eNOS and Bax) expression if compared with the control group. Concomitant administration of RJ with CP revealed a noticeable amelioration of these biochemical and histological changes. In conclusion, RJ provided biochemical and histo-pathological improvement in CP induced prostatic tissue toxicity. These findings revealed that this improvement was associated with a decrease in the tissue oxidative damage and apoptosis.

  7. Cytocompatibility assessment of chemical surface treatments for phosphate glass to improve adhesion between glass and polyester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Hasan, M; Ahmed, I; Parsons, A J; Walker, G S; Scotchford, C A

    2013-11-01

    Fully resorbable phosphate glass fiber reinforced polymer composites have shown real potential for replacing some of the existing metallic bone fracture fixation devices. However, some of these composites have not provided suitable mechanical strength profiles over the required healing period for bone. Typically, it has been seen that these composites can lose up to 50% or more of their strength within the first week of degradation. Functionalizing the glass surface to promote polymer adhesion or to introduce hydrophobicity at the glass surface could potentially introduce control over the mechanical properties of the composite and their retention. In this study eight chemical agents namely, Glycerol 2-phosphate disodium salt; 3-phosphonopropionic acid; 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane; etidronic acid; hexamethylene diisocyanate; sorbitol/sodium ended PLA oligomers and amino phosphonic acid, were selected to functionalise the bulk phosphate glass surface. Selected chemical agents had one functional group (-OH or O C N) to react with the glass and another functionality (either -OH, NH2, or Na) to react with the polymer matrix and/or produce hydrophobicity at the fiber surface. Bulk phosphate glass surface-treated with the above agents were assessed for the cytotoxicity of degradation products cell-material interaction in short- and long-term direct cytocompatibility studies. Results obtained from these cytocompatibility studies (using human osteosarcoma (MG63) and primary human osteoblast cell lines) revealed no cytotoxicity from the degradation products and a response comparable to controls in terms of cell functions (attachment, viability, metabolic activity, proliferation, and differentiation) and morphology.

  8. Hancornia speciosa latex for biomedical applications: physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luciane Madureira; Floriano, Juliana Ferreira; Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Magno, Lais Nogueira; da Mota, Lígia Souza Lima Silveira; Peixoto, Nei; Mrué, Fátima; Melo-Reis, Paulo; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Pablo José

    2014-09-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa is used in folk medicine for treatment of several diseases, such as acne, warts, diabetes, gastritis and inflammation. In this work, we describe the biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic properties of H. speciosa latex and its potential application in medicine. The physical-chemical characterization was carried out following different methodologies (CHN elemental analyses; thermogravimetric analyses and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The biocompatibility was evaluated through cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests in fibroblast mouse cells and the angiogenic properties were evaluated using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay model. The physical-chemical results showed that the structure of Hancornia speciosa latex biomembrane is very similar to that of Hevea brasiliensis (commercially available product). Moreover, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that H. speciosa latex is biocompatible with life systems and can be a good biomaterial for medical applications. The CAM test showed the efficient ability of H. speciosa latex in neovascularization of tissues. The histological analysis was in accordance with the results obtained in the CAM assay. Our data indicate that the latex obtained from H. speciosa and eluted in water showed significant angiogenic activity without any cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on life systems. The same did not occur with H. speciosa latex stabilized with ammonia. Addition of ammonia does not have significant effects on the structure of biomembranes, but showed a smaller cell survival and a significant genotoxicity effect. This study contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of H. speciosa latex as a source of new phytomedicines.

  9. Comprehensive assessment of germline chemical toxicity using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Daniela A; Damoiseaux, Robert; Allard, Patrick

    2015-02-22

    Identifying the reproductive toxicity of the thousands of chemicals present in our environment has been one of the most tantalizing challenges in the field of environmental health. This is due in part to the paucity of model systems that can (1) accurately recapitulate keys features of reproductive processes and (2) do so in a medium- to high-throughput fashion, without the need for a high number of vertebrate animals. We describe here an assay in the nematode C. elegans that allows the rapid identification of germline toxicants by monitoring the induction of aneuploid embryos. By making use of a GFP reporter line, errors in chromosome segregation resulting from germline disruption are easily visualized and quantified by automated fluorescence microscopy. Thus the screening of a particular set of compounds for its toxicity can be performed in a 96- to 384-well plate format in a matter of days. Secondary analysis of positive hits can be performed to determine whether the chromosome abnormalities originated from meiotic disruption or from early embryonic chromosome segregation errors. Altogether, this assay represents a fast first-pass strategy for the rapid assessment of germline dysfunction following chemical exposure.

  10. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for American Samoa 2004: Water Quality, Sediment Grain and Chemistry Data (NODC Accession 0000455)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), coordinated through the...

  11. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for American Samoa 2004: water quality, sediment grain, and chemistry data (NODC Accession 0000455)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), coordinated through the...

  12. Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) TRACI version 2.1 User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRACI 2.1 (the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts) has been developed for sustainability metrics, life cycle impact assessment, industrial ecology, and process design impact assessment for developing increasingly sustainable products...

  13. Assessing dispersal patterns of fish propagules from an effective mediterranean marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Franco

    Full Text Available Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called 'recruitment subsidy', the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1 spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2 Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration and 3 a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices, suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings

  14. Assessing dispersal patterns of fish propagules from an effective mediterranean marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, José Martin; De Leo, Giulio A; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melià, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called 'recruitment subsidy', the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide

  15. Assessment of Atmospheric Algorithms to Retrieve Vegetation in Natural Protected Areas Using Multispectral High Resolution Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Marcello

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The precise mapping of vegetation covers in semi-arid areas is a complex task as this type of environment consists of sparse vegetation mainly composed of small shrubs. The launch of high resolution satellites, with additional spectral bands and the ability to alter the viewing angle, offers a useful technology to focus on this objective. In this context, atmospheric correction is a fundamental step in the pre-processing of such remote sensing imagery and, consequently, different algorithms have been developed for this purpose over the years. They are commonly categorized as imaged-based methods as well as in more advanced physical models based on the radiative transfer theory. Despite the relevance of this topic, a few comparative studies covering several methods have been carried out using high resolution data or which are specifically applied to vegetation covers. In this work, the performance of five representative atmospheric correction algorithms (DOS, QUAC, FLAASH, ATCOR and 6S has been assessed, using high resolution Worldview-2 imagery and field spectroradiometer data collected simultaneously, with the goal of identifying the most appropriate techniques. The study also included a detailed analysis of the parameterization influence on the final results of the correction, the aerosol model and its optical thickness being important parameters to be properly adjusted. The effects of corrections were studied in vegetation and soil sites belonging to different protected semi-arid ecosystems (high mountain and coastal areas. In summary, the superior performance of model-based algorithms, 6S in particular, has been demonstrated, achieving reflectance estimations very close to the in-situ measurements (RMSE of between 2% and 3%. Finally, an example of the importance of the atmospheric correction in the vegetation estimation in these natural areas is presented, allowing the robust mapping of species and the analysis of multitemporal variations

  16. Assessing Dispersal Patterns of Fish Propagules from an Effective Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, José Martin; De Leo, Giulio A.; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melià, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called ‘recruitment subsidy’, the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide

  17. ICLIPS - integrated assessment of climate protection strategies. Final report; ICLIPS - Integrierte Abschaetzung von Klimaschutzstrategien. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, F.L.; Bruckner, T.; Fuessel, H.M.

    2000-12-01

    The ICLIPs project is connected to the development of integrated climate impact research in Germany. It is concerned not only with a single dimension of possible impacts of climate change, but it also investigates these impacts in the context of adaptation options and mitigation possibilities. The Tolerable Windows Approach (TWA) permits the explicit consideration of both ecological and economic requirements in identifying tolerable climate protection strategies. This way it fulfills the central objective of science policy related to the complex issue of 'Sustainable Growth'. In the project period, the ICLIPS model, a detailed integrated model of global climate change ('Integrated Assessment Model', IAM) was developed in the framework of a successful international cooperation. As a result, climate impact research in Germany succeeded to catch up with the international forefront in a research field that is very important for practical policy advice, and even managed to take a leading role in some important sub-fields. The ICLIPS model contains a series of innovative features that clearly distinguish this model from other intertemporal optimization models. The features worth mentioning here include: a numerically highly efficient climate model that covers all relevant greenhouse gases; a series of Climate Impact Response Functions that depict climate-relevant changes in natural vegetation systems, agricultural yields, and water availability; and finally a model of long-term economic development that explicitly considers the cost-reducing effects of technological learning. (orig.) [German] Das ICLIPS-Projekt bezieht sich auf die Weiterentwicklung der integrierten Klimafolgenforschung in Deutschland, die sich nicht nur eindimensional mit moeglichen Auswirkungen von Klimaveraenderungen beschaeftigt, sondern diese zusammen mit Anpassungsoptionen und Vermeidungsmoeglichkeiten untersucht. Der Fensteransatz, der bei der Identifizierung von tolerierbaren

  18. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE`s Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  19. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE's Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  20. Sustainability assessment of crop protection systems: SustainOS methodology and its application for apple orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouron, P.; Heijne, B.; Naef, A.; Strassemever, J.; Haver, F.; Avilla, J.

    2012-01-01

    Crop protection in general and apple crop protection in particular often rely on pesticides, although several alternative pest management measures are available. In this context European agricultural policy requires the implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) by 2014. Within IPM, more tha

  1. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations... Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse protection regulations to require horse industry organizations or associations that license Designated Qualified...

  2. AB159. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: toxicological risk assessment in vivo and in vitro models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Vo Thi Bich; Nguyen Binh, Le Thi; Phuong Oanh, Kim Thi; Van Hai, Nong

    2015-01-01

    the stimulation of CaBP-9k gene, an estrogenic biomarker, via binding to estrogen receptor and/or progesterone receptor in immature female rat and GH3 cell line. An increasing number of chemical compounds in the environment have been identified as endocrine disruptor in vivo and in vitro bioassay. A future challenge is required to confirm a theoretical toxicology and risk assessment of EDs for human and animal health.

  3. Using Mode of Action to Assess Health Risks from Mixtures of Chemical/Physical Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Richard J.; Lei, Xingye C.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-01-20

    Interactions between tumor promoters with differing mechanisms of action were examined in male B6C3F1 mice treated with mixtures of dichloroacetate (DCA), trichloroacetate (TCA), and tetrachloride (CT), each of which acts by a different mode of action. Mice were initiated by vinyl carbamate (VC), and then promoted by DCA, TCA, CT, or the pair-wised combinations of the three compounds. The effect of each treatment or treatment combination on tumor number/animal and tumor size was individually assessed at 18, 24, 30 or 36 weeks of treatment. Dose-related increases in tumor size were observed with 20 & 50 mg/kg CT, but each produced equal number of tumors at 36 weeks with the main distinction being a decrease in tumor latency at the higher dose. Overall TCA treatment produced dose-related increases in tumor number at 36 weeks of treatment. Thus, the lower doses of CT and TCA treatments apparently affected tumor size rather than number. Results with DCA were not as clear as a true maximum tumor number was not clearly observed within the experimental period. Treatment of mice receiving a high dose of TCA (2 g/L of drinking water) combined with varying doses of DCA (0.1, 0.5 and 2 g/L) produced increased numbers of tumors at 24 weeks and 36 weeks. However, at 36 weeks of treatment DCA produced a dose-related decrease in the size of tumors promoted by TCA. The low dose of TCA (0.1 g/L) decreased the number of tumors produced by a high dose of DCA, however, higher doses of TCA produced the same number as observed with DCA alone. Since these two chemicals produce lesions with differing phenotypes, the combination would have been expected to be additive with respect to number, but this was obviously not the case. These data suggest that the induction of liver cancer from mixtures of solvents may have predictable outcomes. The major conclusion is that these interactions are generally no more than additive. It was most interesting to note that additivity was only observed when

  4. Interactions of physical, chemical, and biological weather calling for an integrated approach to assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Thomas; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Dahl, Aslög; Bossioli, Elissavet; Baklanov, Alexander; Vik, Aasmund Fahre; Agnew, Paul; Karatzas, Kostas D; Sofiev, Mikhail

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews interactions and health impacts of physical, chemical, and biological weather. Interactions and synergistic effects between the three types of weather call for integrated assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality. Today's air quality legislation falls short of addressing air quality degradation by biological weather, despite increasing evidence for the feasibility of both mitigation and adaptation policy options. In comparison with the existing capabilities for physical and chemical weather, the monitoring of biological weather is lacking stable operational agreements and resources. Furthermore, integrated effects of physical, chemical, and biological weather suggest a critical review of air quality management practices. Additional research is required to improve the coupled modeling of physical, chemical, and biological weather as well as the assessment and communication of integrated air quality. Findings from several recent COST Actions underline the importance of an increased dialog between scientists from the fields of meteorology, air quality, aerobiology, health, and policy makers.

  5. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  6. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

  7. Describing the chemical singularity of the Spanish protected designations of origin for virgin olive oils in relation to oils from neighbouring areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, D. L.; Tena, N.; Aparicio, R.

    2012-11-01

    The protected designations of origin (PDOs) have proven to be a successful regulatory framework to protect singular virgin olive oils that have distinctive properties. However, sometimes the registration of new PDOs and the demarcation of the geographical areas associated to them are based on administrative issues rather than objective chemical data. In this work, the chemical compositions of fatty acids, hydrocarbons, alcohols, sterols and methyl sterols have been used to prove the differences between a PDO virgin olive oil and the oils produced in the surrounding areas. Three cases were studied (PDO Estepa, PDO Montoro-Adamuz, and Campina de Jaen) which actually mean three different situations that combine variations in cultivar and pedoclimatic characteristics. The chemical compounds that showed a better ability to classify samples were selected by the Brown- Forsythe test, a particular modification of ANOVA, and this ability was later visualized in a principal component analysis. The oils from PDOs Estepa and Montoro-Adamuz showed clear differences in their chemical compositions, while the oils from Campina de Jaen formed a group of samples which greatly overlapped with the oils from surrounding areas, probably due to the lack of variation in cultivar (Picual) throughout the province of Jaen. (Author) 32 refs.

  8. Quality assessment of cortex cinnamomi by HPLC chemical fingerprint, principle component analysis and cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Chen, Li-Hong; Zhang, Qin; Lai, Mao-Xiang; Wang, Qiang

    2007-06-01

    HPLC fingerprint analysis, principle component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis were introduced for quality assessment of Cortex cinnamomi (CC). The fingerprint of CC was developed and validated by analyzing 30 samples of CC from different species and geographic locations. Seventeen chromatographic peaks were selected as characteristic peaks and their relative peak areas (RPA) were calculated for quantitative expression of the HPLC fingerprints. The correlation coefficients of similarity in chromatograms were higher than 0.95 for the same species while much lower than 0.6 for different species. Besides, two principal components (PCs) have been extracted by PCA. PC1 separated Cinnamomum cassia from other species, capturing 56.75% of variance while PC2 contributed for their further separation, capturing 19.08% variance. The scores of the samples showed that the samples could be clustered reasonably into different groups corresponding to different species and different regions. The scores and loading plots together revealed different chemical properties of each group clearly. The cluster analysis confirmed the results of PCA analysis. Therefore, HPLC fingerprint in combination with chemometric techniques provide a very flexible and reliable method for quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicines.

  9. Preliminary Assessment of Mercury Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Parameterizations for Incorporation into Chemical Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, T.; Agnan, Y.; Obrist, D.; Selin, N. E.; Urban, N. R.; Wu, S.; Perlinger, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Inadequate representation of process-based mechanisms of exchange behavior of elemental mercury (Hg0) and decoupled treatment of deposition and emission are two major limitations of parameterizations of atmosphere-surface exchange flux commonly incorporated into chemical transport models (CTMs). Of nineteen CTMs for Hg0 exchange we reviewed (ten global, nine regional), eight global and seven regional models have decoupled treatment of Hg0 deposition and emission, two global models include no parameterization to account for emission, and the remaining two regional models include coupled deposition and emission parameterizations (i.e., net atmosphere-surface exchange). The performance of atmosphere-surface exchange parameterizations in CTMs depends on parameterization uncertainty (in terms of both accuracy and precision) and feasibility of implementation. We provide a comparison of the performance of three available parameterizations of net atmosphere-surface exchange. To evaluate parameterization accuracy, we compare predicted exchange fluxes to field measurements conducted over a variety of surfaces compiled in a recently developed global database of terrestrial Hg0 surface-atmosphere exchange flux measurements. To assess precision, we estimate the sensitivity of predicted fluxes to the imprecision in parameter input values, and compare this sensitivity to that derived from analysis of the global Hg0 flux database. Feasibility of implementation is evaluated according to the availability of input parameters, computational requirements, and the adequacy of uncertainty representation. Based on this assessment, we provide suggestions for improved treatment of Hg0 net exchange processes in CTMs.

  10. Using chemical biology to assess and modulate mitochondria: progress and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of the role of mitochondria in biomedical sciences has expanded considerably over the past decade. In addition to their well-known metabolic roles, mitochondrial are also central to signalling for various processes through the generation of signals such as ROS and metabolites that affect cellular homeostasis, as well as other processes such as cell death and inflammation. Thus, mitochondrial function and dysfunction are central to the health and fate of the cell. Consequently, there is considerable interest in better understanding and assessing the many roles of mitochondria. Furthermore, there is also a growing realization that mitochondrial are a promising drug target in a wide range of pathologies. The application of interdisciplinary approaches at the interface between chemistry and biology are opening up new opportunities to understand mitochondrial function and in assessing the role of the organelle in biology. This work and the experience thus gained are leading to the development of new classes of therapies. Here, we overview the progress that has been made to date on exploring the chemical biology of the organelle and then focus on future challenges and opportunities that face this rapidly developing field. PMID:28382206

  11. Combined use of meio- and macrobenthic indices to assess complex chemical impacts on a stream ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne T.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Traunspurger, Walter; Höss, Sebastian; Bjerg, Poul L.

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem dynamics (e.g. temperature, inorganic nutrients) and properties (e.g. resilience, robustness), and ecological functions and services depend on the structure and diversity of biological communities, and the fluxes of energy and materials occurring within and across abiotic and biotic boundaries. The close interchange, i.e. multiple feedback loops, between hydrologic and biologic controls is also becoming increasingly evident. Holistic approaches are thus necessary for a robust understanding of ecosystem functioning and subsequent implementation of effective management practices across multiple spatial scales. Groundwater and surface water resources are under pressure from increasing global exploitation and anthropogenic impacts such as contamination by chemicals, leading to a severe degradation of essential ecological functions. Many of the environmental problems we face today have existed for decades; what has changed is our understanding of the key drivers, processes and impacts. The first reporting by European Member States (MS) on the status of their water bodies found that rivers and transitional waters were often in worse condition than lakes and coastal waters. This is not surprising considering that streams integrate all of the diverse stressors found within a catchment (e.g. contaminated sites; diffuse source pollution; water abstraction). The chemical status of a water body is relatively straightforward to assess, defined partly by environmental quality standards on priority substances and partly by additional regulations imposed by individual MS. However, the biological quality elements used for the classification of ecological status are only loosely defined, leaving MS free to develop their own assessment tools. Although useful for the individual MS, it impedes methodological standardization across different ecoregions, thus contributing to inconsistencies and data gaps across Europe. Moreover, despite the unambiguous importance of benthic

  12. Review of laboratory-based terrestrial bioaccumulation assessment approaches for organic chemicals: Current status and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Robert; Huggett, Duane; Brasfield, Sandra; Brown, Becky; Embry, Michelle; Fairbrother, Anne; Kivi, Michelle; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Prosser, Ryan; Salvito, Dan; Scroggins, Rick

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, interest has been renewed in approaches for the assessment of the bioaccumulation potential of chemicals, principally driven by the need to evaluate large numbers of chemicals as part of new chemical legislation, while reducing vertebrate test organism use called for in animal welfare legislation. This renewed interest has inspired research activities and advances in bioaccumulation science for neutral organic chemicals in aquatic environments. In January 2013, ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute convened experts to identify the state of the science and existing shortcomings in terrestrial bioaccumulation assessment of neutral organic chemicals. Potential modifications to existing laboratory methods were identified, including areas in which new laboratory approaches or test methods could be developed to address terrestrial bioaccumulation. The utility of "non-ecotoxicity" data (e.g., mammalian laboratory data) was also discussed. The highlights of the workshop discussions are presented along with potential modifications in laboratory approaches and new test guidelines that could be used for assessing the bioaccumulation of chemicals in terrestrial organisms.

  13. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer D; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Friis-Wandall, Søren; Simonsen, Yvonne; Broesbøl-Jensen, Birgitte; Bonnichsen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety deserves attention. A challenge for the future is to fill up gaps in toxicological databases and improve models for carry-over of contaminants.

  14. Assessing the Impacts of Future Climate Change on Protected Area Networks: A Method to Simulate Individual Species' Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Stephen; Hole, Dave; Collingham, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change, along with continued habitat loss and fragmentation, is now recognized as being a major threat to future biodiversity. There is a very real threat to species, arising from the need to shift their ranges in the future to track regions of suitable climate. The Important Bird....... In this article, we provide a method to simulate the occurrence of species of conservation concern in protected areas, which could be used as a first-step approach to assess the potential impacts of climate change upon such species in protected areas. We use species-climate response surface models to relate...... technique provides good simulations of current species' occurrence in protected areas. We then use basic habitat data for IBAs along with habitat preference data for the species to reduce over-prediction and further improve predictive ability. This approach can be used with future climate change scenarios...

  15. Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair B A; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes.

  16. Guidance on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR was tasked to revise the Guidance Document (GD on Aquatic Ecotoxicology under Council Directive 91/414/EEC (SANCO/3268/2001 rev.4 (final, 17 October 2002. This Guidance of the PPR Panel is the first of three requested deliverables within this mandate. It has its focus on tiered acute and chronic effect assessment schemes with detailed guidance on tier 1 and higher tier effect assessments for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters and on proposals regarding how to link effects to exposure estimates. The exposure assessment methodology was not reviewed and it is assumed that the current FOCUS surface water exposure assessment methodology will continue to be used for exposure assessment at EU level. The current GD is intended to be used for authorisation of active substances at EU level as well as for plant protection products at Member State level. The effect assessment schemes in this GD allow for the derivation of regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs on the basis of two options: (1 the ecological threshold option (ETO, accepting negligible population effects only, and (2 the ecological recovery option (ERO, accepting some population-level effects if ecological recovery takes place within an acceptable time period. In the tiered effect assessment schemes, in principle, all tiers (1, 2 and 3 are able to address the ETO, while the model ecosystem approach (tier 3, under certain conditions, is able to also address the ERO. The GD provides the scientific background for the risk assessment to aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters and is structured to give detailed guidance on all assessment steps. An executive summary joining all parts of the guidance and decision schemes in a concise way is provided and is intended to help applicants and regulatory authorities in day-to-day use.

  17. Corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  18. 76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... penalties for infractions of the Horse Protection Act; Enhancing the reputation and integrity of the walking... regional economies; and Improving the value of the walking horse breeds. Under these circumstances,...

  19. Environmental Assessment Proposal to Protect Wildlife Habitat at Lake Umbagog 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this United States Fish & Wildlife Service proposal is to ensure the long-term protection of unique wetland habitats adjacent to Lake Umbagog, on...

  20. Grasslands Wildlife Management Area proposed expansion: Environmental Assessment, Land Protection Plan, and Conceptual Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses the proposed expansion of the Service's easement program for protection of the wildlife habitat of Merced County's Grasslands Ecological...

  1. Understanding Coatings that Protect Plasmonic Structures for Materials Characterization and Detection and Identification of Chemical, Biological and Explosive Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    in the following categories: Received Paper 04/11/2013 7.00 Rebecca L. Agapov, Alexei P. Sokolov , Mark D. Foster. Protecting TERS probes from...Agapov, Andrey V. Malkovskiy, Alexei .P. Sokolov , Mark D. Foster. Prolonged Blinking from TERS Probes, J. Phys. Chem. C, (04 2011): 8900. doi: 08/28...peer-reviewed journals: Agapov, R.L., Sokolov , A.P., Foster,M.D., “Protected tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy probes for the study of polymer surfaces

  2. Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Ensembles: Biophysical Characteristics and Predicted Work Times With and Without Chemical Protection and Active Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    Disposal (EOD) configuration elements 4 3 Three-piece liquid circulating personal cooling suit and ice -based 100V cooling unit; (BCS4 Med-Eng...wearer from immediate area blast threats. While the ultimate goal of these suits is to protect EOD technicians from fragmentation and blast , the...the military. Technicians wear fully encapsulating EOD suits designed to protect the individual wearer from immediate area blast threats. While the

  3. Use of the event tree to assess the risk reduction obtained from rockfall protection devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Peila

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and discusses a procedure for the evaluation of the collective risk that can affect a road subjected to rockfalls, with and without protection measures, by means of the event tree analysis. This tool is useful to show designers whether the rockfall protection structures are located in the correct positions, whether they are the correct technological choice and what level of reduction of risk can be obtained. Different design options can therefore be compared on the same bases.

  4. Portugal; Financial Sector Assessment Program: Technical Note: Investor Protection, Disclosure, and Financial Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This technical note on Investor Protection, Disclosure, and Financial Literacy for Portugal explains investor protection and corporate governance. Comissão do Mercado de Valores Mobiliários (CMVM) is the regulator in charge on ensuring compliance with disclosure issues as well as the corporate governance framework. It has also participated in the creation of a specialized program in securities at the university level. Portugal has implemented an investor compensation scheme, which covers secu...

  5. Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality assessment of shallow wells in Kitui town, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulus Abila

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Kitui town, a small but fast growing town in arid south-eastern Kenya faces unreliable water supply and residents are highly dependent on shallow wells as the main source of water for domestic use. A study was carried out to assess the physical-chemical and bacteriological quality of water from shallow wells within the town’s main residential areas. 96 water samples were collected from 8 main residential estates within the town between May and July 2011 and analysed for physical-chemical characteristics and bacterial quantity and species. Water analysis revealed presence of 9 pathogenic genera including Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Vibrio, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Multiple-tube fermentation technique was used to enumerate coliform bacteria in water. Total aerobic bacterial load ranged from 3.70 x102 to 2.352 x103 CFU/ml. E. Coli was isolated from Majengo and Mjini estates only and the bacterial load estimated as 1.10 x102 CFU/ml and 0.20 x102 CFU/ml respectively while Salmonella sp. was isolated from water samples from Kunda Kindu, JICA and Mjini estates. Conductivity and pH levels were above World Health Organization acceptable levels for drinking water in all samples. All samples tested did not meet the WHO bacteriological standards for drinking water. The presence of Salmonella, Vibrio, Listeria and E. Coli should particularly raise serious public health concerns over the quality of the town’s shallow wells water. Intervention measures including creating awareness and educating residents on shallow well construction, citing and care, boiling of water and improving sanitation should be urgently instituted. There is also need to construct sewerage works for the rapidly expanding Kitui town to reduce incidences of contamination from septic tanks.

  6. Can Smartphones and Privacy Coexist Assessing Technologies and Regulations Protecting Personal Data on Android and iOS Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Experience Returns for Security (BADGERS), September 11, 2014. Lockheimer, Hiroshi, “ Android and Security ,” Google Mobile Blog, February 2, 2012. As...C O R P O R A T I O N Can Smartphones and Privacy Coexist? Assessing Technologies and Regulations Protecting Personal Data on Android and iOS...from unknown sources even if they have not been approved for the app store (“Google Report: Android Security 2014 Year in Review,” 2014). This makes

  7. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  8. A Framework for Assessing Chemical/Nonchemical Interactions: A Case Study of Lead and Psychosocial Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and nonchemical stressors may contribute to negative health consequences in certain individuals. Nonchemical stressors include poverty, crowding, noise, and exposure to violence. Research has suggested that some nonchemical stressors may alter chemical toxicity. We propo...

  9. Risk assessment of TBT in the Japanese short-neck clam ( Ruditapes philippinarum) of Tokyo Bay using a chemical fate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Fumio; Nakata, Kisaburo; Ito, Naganori; Okawa, Ken

    2006-12-01

    A risk assessment of Tributyltin (TBT) in Tokyo Bay was conducted using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) method at the species level using the Japanese short-neck clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. The assessment endpoint was defined to protect R. philippinarum in Tokyo Bay from TBT (growth effects). A No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) for this species with respect to growth reduction induced by TBT was estimated from experimental results published in the scientific literature. Sources of TBT in this study were assumed to be commercial vessels in harbors and navigation routes. Concentrations of TBT in Tokyo Bay were estimated using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, an ecosystem model and a chemical fate model. MOEs for this species were estimated for the years 1990, 2000, and 2007. Estimated MOEs for R. philippinarum for 1990, 2000, and 2007 were approximately 1-3, 10, and 100, respectively, indicating a declining temporal trend in the probability of adverse growth effects. A simplified software package called RAMTB was developed by incorporating the chemical fate model and the databases of seasonal flow fields and distributions of organic substances (phytoplankton and detritus) in Tokyo Bay, simulated by the hydrodynamic and ecological model, respectively.

  10. Sub-50 nm metrology on extreme ultra violet chemically amplified resist--A systematic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, D J; Fliervoet, T; Herfst, R; van Veldhoven, E; Meessen, J; Vaenkatesan, V; Sadeghian, H

    2015-10-01

    With lithographic patterning dimensions decreasing well below 50 nm, it is of high importance to understand metrology at such small scales. This paper presents results obtained from dense arrays of contact holes (CHs) with various Critical Dimension (CD) between 15 and 50 nm, as patterned in a chemically amplified resist using an ASML EUV scanner and measured at ASML and TNO. To determine the differences between various (local) CD metrology techniques, we conducted an experiment using optical scatterometry, CD-Scanning Electron Microscopy (CD-SEM), Helium ion Microscopy (HIM), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). CD-SEM requires advanced beam scan strategies to mitigate sample charging; the other tools did not need that. We discuss the observed main similarities and differences between the various techniques. To this end, we assessed the spatial frequency content in the raw images for SEM, HIM, and AFM. HIM and AFM resolve the highest spatial frequencies, which are attributed to the more localized probe-sample interaction for these techniques. Furthermore, the SEM, HIM, and AFM waveforms are analyzed in detail. All techniques show good mutual correlation, albeit the reported CD values systematically differ significantly. HIM systematically reports a 25% higher CD uniformity number than CD-SEM for the same arrays of CHs, probably because HIM has a higher resolution than the CD-SEM used in this assessment. A significant speed boost for HIM and AFM is required before these techniques are to serve the demanding industrial metrology applications like optical critical dimension and CD-SEM do nowadays.

  11. How TK-TD and population models for aquatic macrophytes could support the risk assessment for plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommen, Udo; Schmitt, Walter; Heine, Simon; Brock, Theo Cm; Duquesne, Sabine; Manson, Phil; Meregalli, Giovanna; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo; van Vliet, Peter; Arts, Gertie

    2016-01-01

    This case study of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) workshop MODELINK demonstrates the potential use of mechanistic effects models for macrophytes to extrapolate from effects of a plant protection product observed in laboratory tests to effects resulting from dynamic exposure on macrophyte populations in edge-of-field water bodies. A standard European Union (EU) risk assessment for an example herbicide based on macrophyte laboratory tests indicated risks for several exposure scenarios. Three of these scenarios are further analyzed using effect models for 2 aquatic macrophytes, the free-floating standard test species Lemna sp., and the sediment-rooted submerged additional standard test species Myriophyllum spicatum. Both models include a toxicokinetic (TK) part, describing uptake and elimination of the toxicant, a toxicodynamic (TD) part, describing the internal concentration-response function for growth inhibition, and a description of biomass growth as a function of environmental factors to allow simulating seasonal dynamics. The TK-TD models are calibrated and tested using laboratory tests, whereas the growth models were assumed to be fit for purpose based on comparisons of predictions with typical growth patterns observed in the field. For the risk assessment, biomass dynamics are predicted for the control situation and for several exposure levels. Based on specific protection goals for macrophytes, preliminary example decision criteria are suggested for evaluating the model outputs. The models refined the risk indicated by lower tier testing for 2 exposure scenarios, while confirming the risk associated for the third. Uncertainties related to the experimental and the modeling approaches and their application in the risk assessment are discussed. Based on this case study and the assumption that the models prove suitable for risk assessment once fully evaluated, we recommend that 1) ecological scenarios be developed that are also

  12. Application of the Activity Framework for Assessing Aquatic Ecotoxicology Data for Organic Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Paul; Dawick, James; Lampi, Mark;

    2015-01-01

    Toxicological research in the 1930s gave the first indications of the link between narcotic toxicity and the chemical activity of organic chemicals. More recently, chemical activity has been proposed as a novel exposure parameter that describes the fraction of saturation and that quantifies the p...

  13. Assessing planetary protection and contamination control technologies for planetary science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Patricia; Belz, Andrea

    Planetary protection and organic contamination control, like many technologically rich areas, continually progress. As a result of the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey Report, Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, the future focus is now on proposed Mars sample return missions. In addition to Mars exploration we now have the exciting possibility of a potential mission to the outer planets, most likely Europa. This paper reassesses planetary protection and organic contamination control technologies, which were evaluated in 2005, and provides updates based on new science results, technology development, and programmatic priorities. The study integrates information gathered from interviews of a number of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA) scientists, systems engineers, planetary protection engineers, and consultants, as well as relevant documents, and focuses on the technologies and practices relevant to the current project mission set as presented in the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. This paper provides the status of planetary protection and contamination control technologies as they apply to potential future missions, and provides findings and recommendations to improve our capabilities as we further explore our solar system. It has become clear that linking planetary protection and contamination control requirements and processes together early in mission development and spacecraft design is key to keeping mission costs in check and returning high-quality samples that are free from biological and organic contaminants.

  14. Chemical analysis of World Trade Center fine particulate matter for use in toxicologic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, John K; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chee, Glen R; Prophete, Colette M; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Wasson, Shirley J; Conner, Teri L; Costa, Daniel L; Gavett, Stephen H

    2003-06-01

    The catastrophic destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 caused the release of high levels of airborne pollutants into the local environment. To assess the toxicity of fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter fraction was isolated on filters. Here we report the chemical and physical properties of PM2.5 derived from these samples and compare them with PM2.5 fractions of three reference materials that range in toxicity from relatively inert to acutely toxic (Mt. St. Helens PM; Washington, DC, ambient air PM; and residual oil fly ash). X-ray diffraction of very coarse sieved WTC PM (fraction. Analysis of WTC PM2.5 using X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis, and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry showed high levels of calcium (range, 22-33%) and sulfur (37-43% as sulfate) and much lower levels of transition metals and other elements. Aqueous extracts of WTC P