WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing chemical effects

  1. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  2. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs

  3. Prospective Environmental Risk Assessment for Sediment-Bound Organic Chemicals: A Proposal for Tiered Effect Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepens, Noël J; Koelmans, Albert A; Baveco, Hans; van den Brink, Paul J; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Brock, Theo C M

    A broadly accepted framework for prospective environmental risk assessment (ERA) of sediment-bound organic chemicals is currently lacking. Such a framework requires clear protection goals, evidence-based concepts that link exposure to effects and a transparent tiered-effect assessment. In this paper, we provide a tiered prospective sediment ERA procedure for organic chemicals in sediment, with a focus on the applicable European regulations and the underlying data requirements. Using the ecosystem services concept, we derived specific protection goals for ecosystem service providing units: microorganisms, benthic algae, sediment-rooted macrophytes, benthic invertebrates and benthic vertebrates. Triggers for sediment toxicity testing are discussed.We recommend a tiered approach (Tier 0 through Tier 3). Tier-0 is a cost-effective screening based on chronic water-exposure toxicity data for pelagic species and equilibrium partitioning. Tier-1 is based on spiked sediment laboratory toxicity tests with standard benthic test species and standardised test methods. If comparable chronic toxicity data for both standard and additional benthic test species are available, the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) approach is a more viable Tier-2 option than the geometric mean approach. This paper includes criteria for accepting results of sediment-spiked single species toxicity tests in prospective ERA, and for the application of the SSD approach. We propose micro/mesocosm experiments with spiked sediment, to study colonisation success by benthic organisms, as a Tier-3 option. Ecological effect models can be used to supplement the experimental tiers. A strategy for unifying information from various tiers by experimental work and exposure-and effect modelling is provided.

  4. BYSTANDER EFFECTS GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIAION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURESR. Julian PrestonEnvironmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, USAThere ...

  5. A new index to assess chemicals increasing the greenhouse effect based on their toxicity to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Tian, Dayong; Gao, Ya; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingyun

    2015-11-01

    CO2, as the typical greenhouse gas causing the greenhouse effect, is a major global environmental problem and has attracted increasing attention from governments. Using algae to eliminate CO2, which has been proposed as an effective way to reduce the greenhouse effect in the past decades, can be disturbed by a growing number of artificial chemicals. Thus, seven types of chemicals and Selenastrum capricornutum (algae) were examined in this study, and the good consistency between the toxicity of artificial chemicals to algae and the disturbance of carbon fixation by the chemicals was revealed. This consistency showed that the disturbance of an increasing number of artificial chemicals to the carbon fixation of algae might be a "malware" worsening the global greenhouse effect. Therefore, this study proposes an original, promising index to assess the risk of deepening the greenhouse effect by artificial chemicals before they are produced and marketed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  7. The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects database (CAFE), a tool that supports assessments of chemical spills in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Farr, James K; Jenne, Polly; Chu, Valerie; Hielscher, Al

    2016-06-01

    The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database is a centralized repository that allows for rapid and unrestricted access to data. Information in CAFE is integrated into a user-friendly tool with modules containing fate and effects data for 32 377 and 4498 chemicals, respectively. Toxicity data are summarized in the form of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) with associated 1st and 5th percentile hazard concentrations (HCs). An assessment of data availability relative to reported chemical incidents showed that CAFE had fate and toxicity data for 32 and 20 chemicals, respectively, of 55 chemicals reported in the US National Response Center database (2000-2014), and fate and toxicity data for 86 and 103, respectively, of 205 chemicals reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2003-2014). Modeled environmental concentrations of 2 hypothetical spills (acrylonitrile, 625 barrels; and denatured ethanol, 857 barrels) were used to demonstrate CAFE's practical application. Most species in the 24-h SSD could be potentially impacted by acrylonitrile and denatured ethanol during the first 35 min and 15 h post spill, respectively, with concentrations falling below their HC5s (17 mg/L and 2676 mg/L) at 45 min and 60 h post spill, respectively. Comparisons of CAFE-based versus published HC5 values for 100 chemicals showed that nearly half of values were within a 2-fold difference, with a relatively small number of comparisons exceeding a 10-fold difference. The development of CAFE facilitates access to relevant environmental information, with potential uses likely expanding beyond those related to assessment of spills in aquatic environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1576-1586. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Chemical Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course is aimed at providing an overview of the fundamental guiding principles and general methods used in chemical risk assessment. Chemical risk assessment is a complex and ever-evolving process. These principles and methods have been organized by the National Research Cou...

  9. Effect of Continuous Assessment on Learning Outcomes on Two Chemical Engineering Courses: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning…

  10. Endocrine effects of chemicals: aspects of hazard identification and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Colnot, Thomas

    2013-12-16

    Hazard and risk assessment of chemicals with endocrine activity is hotly debated due to claimed non-monotonous dose-response curves in the low-dose region. In hazard identification a clear definition of "endocrine disruptors" (EDs) is required; this should be based on the WHO/IPCS definition of EDs and on adverse effects demonstrated in intact animals or humans. Therefore, endocrine effects are a mode of action potentially resulting in adverse effects; any classification should not be based on a mode of action, but on adverse effects. In addition, when relying on adverse effects, most effects reported in the low-dose region will not qualify for hazard identification since most have little relation to an adverse effect. Non-monotonous dose-response curves that had been postulated from limited, exploratory studies could also not be reproduced in targeted studies with elaborate quality assurance. Therefore, regulatory agencies or advisory bodies continue to apply the safety-factor method or the concept of "margin-of-exposure" based on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) in the risk assessment of chemicals with weak hormonal activity. Consistent with this approach, tolerable levels regarding human exposure have been defined for such chemicals. To conclusively support non-monotonous dose-response curves, targeted experiments with a sufficient number of animals, determination of adverse endpoints, adequate statistics and quality control would be required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Challenges, priorities, and future issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, S. [National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues related to developing information resources for assessing the health effects from chemical exposure include the question of how to address the individual political issues relevant to identifying and determining the timeliness, scientific credibility, and completeness of such kinds of information resources. One of the important ways for agencies to share information is through connection tables. This type of software is presently being used to build information products for some DHHS agencies. One of the challenges will be to convince vendors of data of the importance of trying to make data files available to communities that need them. In the future, information processing will be conducted with neural networks, object-oriented database management systems, and fuzzy-set technologies, and meta analysis techniques.

  12. BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increased interest in utilizing mechanistic data in support of the cancer risk assessment process for ionizing radiation and environmental chemical exposures. In this regard the use of biologically based dose-response models is particularly advocated. The aim is to pr...

  13. An improved probit method for assessment of domino effect to chemical process equipment caused by overpressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingguang, Zhang; Juncheng, Jiang

    2008-10-30

    Overpressure is one important cause of domino effect in accidents of chemical process equipments. Damage probability and relative threshold value are two necessary parameters in QRA of this phenomenon. Some simple models had been proposed based on scarce data or oversimplified assumption. Hence, more data about damage to chemical process equipments were gathered and analyzed, a quantitative relationship between damage probability and damage degrees of equipment was built, and reliable probit models were developed associated to specific category of chemical process equipments. Finally, the improvements of present models were evidenced through comparison with other models in literatures, taking into account such parameters: consistency between models and data, depth of quantitativeness in QRA.

  14. Assessing environmental quality status by integrating chemical and biological effect data : The Cartagena coastal zone as a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, Beatriz; Robinson, Craig D.; Campillo, J. Antonio; León, Víctor M.; Benedicto, José; Hylland, Ketil; Vethaak, A. Dick

    Cartagena coastal zone (W Mediterranean) was chosen for a practical case study to investigate the suitability of an integrated indicator framework for marine monitoring and assessment of chemicals and their effects, which was developed by ICES and OSPAR. Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and the

  15. Assessing single and joint effects of chemicals on the survival and reproduction of Folsomia candida (Collembola) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, M.J.B.; Pereira, C.; Menezes-Oliveira, V.B.; Campos, B.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Loureiro, S.

    2012-01-01

    Chemicals are often found in the environment as complex mixtures. There has been a large effort in the last decade to assess the combined effect of chemicals, using the conceptual models of Concentration Addition and Independent Action, but also including synergistic, antagonistic, dose-level and dose–ratio dependent deviations from these models. In the present study, single and mixture toxicity of atrazine, dimethoate, lindane, zinc and cadmium were studied in Folsomia candida, assessing survival and reproduction. Different response patterns were observed for the different endpoints and synergistic patterns were observed when pesticides were present. Compared with the previously tested Enchytraeus albidus and Porcellionides pruinosus, the mixture toxicity pattern for F. candida was species specific. The present study highlights the importance of studying toxicity of chemicals mixtures due to the observed potentiation of effects and confirms that for an adequate ecologically relevant risk assessment different organisms and endpoints should be included. - Highlights: ► Folsomia candida (Collembola) were exposed to binary mixtures of atrazine, dimethoate, lindane, zinc and cadmium. ► Synergistic response patterns were often observed when pesticides were present in the mixtures. ► Response patterns upon mixture exposure differed within endpoints (survival vs. reproduction) in some cases. ► As to single chemical toxicity, response patterns for mixture exposures seem to be also species specific. - Exposure to chemical mixtures in Folsomia candida showed potentiation of effects. Mixture toxicity patterns differ among species and endpoint measured.

  16. Overview of toxicity data and risk assessment methods for evaluating the chemical effects of depleted uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.M.; Monette, F.A.; Avci, H.I.

    2000-01-01

    In the United States, depleted uranium is handled or used in several chemical forms by both governmental agencies and private industry (primarily companies producing and machining depleted uranium metal for military applications). Human exposure can occur as a result of handling these compounds, routine low-level effluent releases to the environment from processing facilities, or materials being accidentally released from storage locations or during processing or transportation. Exposure to uranium can result in both chemical and radiological toxicity, but in most instances chemical toxicity is of greater concern. This article discusses the chemical toxic effects from human exposure to depleted uranium compounds that are likely to be handled during the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) inventories in the United States. It also reviews representative publications in the toxicological literature to establish appropriate reference values for risk assessments. Methods are described for evaluating chemical toxicity caused by chronic low-level exposure and acute exposure. Example risk evaluations are provided for illustration. Preliminary results indicate that chemical effects of chronic exposure to uranium compounds under normal operating conditions would be negligibly small. Results also show that acute exposures under certain accident conditions could cause adverse chemical effects among the populations exposed.

  17. Model-based experimental design for assessing effects of mixtures of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baas, Jan, E-mail: jan.baas@falw.vu.n [Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, Dept of Theoretical Biology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stefanowicz, Anna M., E-mail: anna.stefanowicz@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Klimek, Beata, E-mail: beata.klimek@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Laskowski, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard.laskowski@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.L.M., E-mail: bas@bio.vu.n [Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, Dept of Theoretical Biology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    We exposed flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) to a mixture of four poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The experimental setup was chosen such that the emphasis was on assessing partial effects. We interpreted the effects of the mixture by a process-based model, with a threshold concentration for effects on survival. The behavior of the threshold concentration was one of the key features of this research. We showed that the threshold concentration is shared by toxicants with the same mode of action, which gives a mechanistic explanation for the observation that toxic effects in mixtures may occur in concentration ranges where the individual components do not show effects. Our approach gives reliable predictions of partial effects on survival and allows for a reduction of experimental effort in assessing effects of mixtures, extrapolations to other mixtures, other points in time, or in a wider perspective to other organisms. - We show a mechanistic approach to assess effects of mixtures in low concentrations.

  18. Model-based experimental design for assessing effects of mixtures of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baas, Jan; Stefanowicz, Anna M.; Klimek, Beata; Laskowski, Ryszard; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    We exposed flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) to a mixture of four poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The experimental setup was chosen such that the emphasis was on assessing partial effects. We interpreted the effects of the mixture by a process-based model, with a threshold concentration for effects on survival. The behavior of the threshold concentration was one of the key features of this research. We showed that the threshold concentration is shared by toxicants with the same mode of action, which gives a mechanistic explanation for the observation that toxic effects in mixtures may occur in concentration ranges where the individual components do not show effects. Our approach gives reliable predictions of partial effects on survival and allows for a reduction of experimental effort in assessing effects of mixtures, extrapolations to other mixtures, other points in time, or in a wider perspective to other organisms. - We show a mechanistic approach to assess effects of mixtures in low concentrations.

  19. Pred-Skin: A Fast and Reliable Web Application to Assess Skin Sensitization Effect of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodolpho C; Alves, Vinicius M; Muratov, Eugene N; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Trospsha, Alexander; Andrade, Carolina Horta

    2017-05-22

    Chemically induced skin sensitization is a complex immunological disease with a profound impact on quality of life and working ability. Despite some progress in developing alternative methods for assessing the skin sensitization potential of chemical substances, there is no in vitro test that correlates well with human data. Computational QSAR models provide a rapid screening approach and contribute valuable information for the assessment of chemical toxicity. We describe the development of a freely accessible web-based and mobile application for the identification of potential skin sensitizers. The application is based on previously developed binary QSAR models of skin sensitization potential from human (109 compounds) and murine local lymph node assay (LLNA, 515 compounds) data with good external correct classification rate (0.70-0.81 and 0.72-0.84, respectively). We also included a multiclass skin sensitization potency model based on LLNA data (accuracy ranging between 0.73 and 0.76). When a user evaluates a compound in the web app, the outputs are (i) binary predictions of human and murine skin sensitization potential; (ii) multiclass prediction of murine skin sensitization; and (iii) probability maps illustrating the predicted contribution of chemical fragments. The app is the first tool available that incorporates quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models based on human data as well as multiclass models for LLNA. The Pred-Skin web app version 1.0 is freely available for the web, iOS, and Android (in development) at the LabMol web portal ( http://labmol.com.br/predskin/ ), in the Apple Store, and on Google Play, respectively. We will continuously update the app as new skin sensitization data and respective models become available.

  20. Assessing environmental quality status by integrating chemical and biological effect data: The Cartagena coastal zone as a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, Beatriz; Robinson, Craig D; Campillo, J Antonio; León, Víctor M; Benedicto, José; Hylland, Ketil; Vethaak, A Dick

    2017-03-01

    Cartagena coastal zone (W Mediterranean) was chosen for a practical case study to investigate the suitability of an integrated indicator framework for marine monitoring and assessment of chemicals and their effects, which was developed by ICES and OSPAR. Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were selected as target species. Concentrations of contaminants in sediment and biota, and contaminant-related biomarkers were analysed. To assess environmental quality in the Cartagena coastal zone with respect to chemical pollution, data were assessed using available assessment criteria, and then integrated for different environmental matrices. A qualitative scoring method was used to rank the overall assessments into selected categories and to evaluate the confidence level of the final integrated assessment. The ICES/OSPAR integrated assessment framework, originally designed for the North Atlantic, was found to be applicable for Mediterranean species and environmental matrices. Further development of assessment criteria of chemical and biological parameters in sediments and target species from the Mediterranean will, however, be required before this framework can be fully applied for determining Good Environmental Status (GES) of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in these regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Model-based experimental design for assessing effects of mixtures of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, J.; Stefanowicz, A.M.; Klimek, B.; Laskowski, R.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    We exposed flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) to a mixture of four poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The experimental setup was chosen such that the emphasis was on assessing partial effects. We interpreted the effects of the mixture by a process-based model, with a threshold concentration for

  2. Chemical Risk Assessment: Traditional vs Public Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments

  3. Report: EPA Should Assess Needs and Implement Management Controls to Ensure Effective Incorporation of Chemical Safety Research Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0294, June 23, 2017. With management controls that ensure the collaborative development of research products and prioritize chemical safety research needs, the EPA would be better able to conduct faster chemical risk assessments.

  4. Assessing ecorelevance of emerging chemicals in sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Great Lakes and elsewhere has detected the presence of a wide variety of chemicals which has raised concern that these chemicals pose risks to resident species. Sediments are of particular interest due to their tendency to accumulate hydrophobic and persistent...... chemicals and because less is known about toxic effects of chemicals to sediment-feeding organisms than to pelagic species. Data collected on the polycyclic musks provides available evidence relevant to assessing exposure and effects in Great Lakes' sediments. Studies at Roskilde University demonstrate how...

  5. Biological effects of anthropogenic chemical stress: Tools for the assessment of ecosystem health (BEAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Kari K.; Sundelin, Brita; Lang, Thomas

    : Tools for the Assessment of Ecosystem Health, 2009-2011), which is part of the Baltic Sea BONUS+ Programme funded jointly by national funding agencies and FP7 ERA-NET+ of the European Commission. The BEAST project consists of three workpackages (WP) with the following main tasks: WP1- Field studies...... and experiments in selected sub-regions of the Baltic Sea, WP2 - Application and validation of methods in monitoring and assessment in the Baltic Sea, and WP3 - Developing tools for ecosystem health assessment in the Baltic Sea. BEAST research activities are focused in the sub-regions of Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf...... of Finland, Gulf of Riga, Gulf of Gdansk and the Belt Sea, most of which are characterised by scarce data on biological effects of hazardous substances. The data acquired will be combined with previous data (e.g. national monitoring activities, case studies, EU BEEP project) to reach the goals of WP2 and WP3...

  6. Transcriptomic effects-based monitoring for endocrine active chemicals: Assessing relative contribution of treated wastewater to downstream pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Mehinto, Alvine C.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Barber, Larry B.; Lee, Kathy E.; King, Ryan J.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a combination of targeted analytical chemistry information with unsupervised, data-rich biological methodology (i.e., transcriptomics) could be utilized to evaluate relative contributions of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents to biological effects. The effects of WWTP effluents on fish exposed to ambient, receiving waters were studied at three locations with distinct WWTP and watershed characteristics. At each location, 4 d exposures of male fathead minnows to the WWTP effluent and upstream and downstream ambient waters were conducted. Transcriptomic analyses were performed on livers using 15 000 feature microarrays, followed by a canonical pathway and gene set enrichment analyses. Enrichment of gene sets indicative of teleost brain–pituitary–gonadal–hepatic (BPGH) axis function indicated that WWTPs serve as an important source of endocrine active chemicals (EACs) that affect the BPGH axis (e.g., cholesterol and steroid metabolism were altered). The results indicated that transcriptomics may even pinpoint pertinent adverse outcomes (i.e., liver vacuolization) and groups of chemicals that preselected chemical analytes may miss. Transcriptomic Effects-Based monitoring was capable of distinguishing sites, and it reflected chemical pollution gradients, thus holding promise for assessment of relative contributions of point sources to pollution and the efficacy of pollution remediation.

  7. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Office of pesticides programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner-Crisp, P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs is trying to develop a complete picture of a chemical`s toxicity and exposure profile. It is also important to share information in the office`s files because of pesticides, particularly as a consequence of agricultural use, find their way into places not necessarily intended.

  8. Hepatoprotective Effect and Chemical Assessment of a Selected Egyptian Chickpea Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekky, Reham H.; Fayed, Mostafa R.; El-Gindi, Mohamed R.; Abdel-Monem, Azza R.; Contreras, María del Mar; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2016-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. In Egypt, chickpea seeds are usually consumed at raw green and tender stage, or in the form of mature dry seeds. In our previous study, ‘Giza 1’ seeds exhibited stronger antioxidant activity and higher total phenol content than those from other Egyptian cultivars. In order to assess the biological potential of ‘Giza 1’ seeds in vivo, the extraction procedure was reproduced here. The extract was standardized using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to evaluate their hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and acute toxicity. Administration of the extract to rats in doses up to 2 g/Kg) did not cause any mortalities or observable signs of toxicity. Further, the plant extract showed a strong hepatoprotective activity based on assessing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase and levels of albumen, globulin, total protein, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein. The antioxidative activity was evaluated by assessing hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase activity as well as reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde levels. Additionally, anti-inflammatory activity was observed as the extract significantly lowered the hepatic tumor necrosis factor α content. Histopathological examination of liver tissues indicated that the extract-treated animals showed almost normal hepatic architecture with fewer pathological changes. In conclusion, the current results suggest that the chickpea extract possesses an excellent safety profile with very low acute toxicity. Also, it exhibits a significant hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. This can be attributed, at least partly, to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of the isoflavones and phenolic acids content

  9. Hepatoprotective Effect and Chemical Assessment of a Selected Egyptian Chickpea Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekky, Reham H; Fayed, Mostafa R; El-Gindi, Mohamed R; Abdel-Monem, Azza R; Contreras, María Del Mar; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2016-01-01

    Chickpea ( Cicer arietinum ) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. In Egypt, chickpea seeds are usually consumed at raw green and tender stage, or in the form of mature dry seeds. In our previous study, 'Giza 1' seeds exhibited stronger antioxidant activity and higher total phenol content than those from other Egyptian cultivars. In order to assess the biological potential of 'Giza 1' seeds in vivo , the extraction procedure was reproduced here. The extract was standardized using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to evaluate their hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and acute toxicity. Administration of the extract to rats in doses up to 2 g/Kg) did not cause any mortalities or observable signs of toxicity. Further, the plant extract showed a strong hepatoprotective activity based on assessing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase and levels of albumen, globulin, total protein, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein. The antioxidative activity was evaluated by assessing hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase activity as well as reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde levels. Additionally, anti-inflammatory activity was observed as the extract significantly lowered the hepatic tumor necrosis factor α content. Histopathological examination of liver tissues indicated that the extract-treated animals showed almost normal hepatic architecture with fewer pathological changes. In conclusion, the current results suggest that the chickpea extract possesses an excellent safety profile with very low acute toxicity. Also, it exhibits a significant hepatoprotective effect against CCl 4 -induced liver injury in rats. This can be attributed, at least partly, to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of the isoflavones and phenolic acids content of

  10. Hepatoprotective Effect and Chemical Assessment of a Selected Egyptian Chickpea Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Abdelsattar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. In Egypt, chickpea seeds are usually consumed at raw green and tender stage, or in the form of mature dry seeds. In our previous study, ‘Giza 1’ seeds exhibited stronger antioxidant activity and high total phenol content than those from other Egyptian cultivars. In order to assess the biological potential of ‘Giza 1’ seeds in vivo, the extraction procedure was reproduced here. The extract was standardized using liquid chromatography (LC coupled to diode array detector (DAD and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS to evaluate their hepatoprotective effect on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and acute toxicity. Administration of the extract to rats in doses up to 2 g/Kg did not cause any mortalities or observable signs of toxicity. Further, the plant extract showed a strong hepatoprotective activity based on assessing serum alanine aminotranferase, aspartate aminotranferase, and alkaline phosphatase and levels of albumen, globulin, total protein, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein. The antioxidative activity was evaluated by assessing hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase activity as well as reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde levels. Additionally, anti-inflammatory activity was observed as the extract significantly lowered the hepatic tumor necrosis factor α content. Histopathological examination of liver tissues indicated that the extract-treated animals showed almost normal hepatic architecture with fewer pathological changes. In conclusion, the current results suggest that the chickpea extract possesses an excellent safety profile with very low acute toxicity. Also, it exhibits a significant hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. This can be attributed, at least partly, to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of the isoflavones and phenolic acids content of

  11. Improving the assessment of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) effects on puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    During puberty, key developmental events occur that are critical for normal adult male and female reproductive maturation. Recent studies raised concern that exposure to environmental chemicals alter the normal progression through puberty and lead to impaired reproductive functio...

  12. Assessment of therapeutic effect of human choriogonadotropin in a chemical cystitis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Tanik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, female rats induced with chemical cystitis were administered the hormone human choriogonadotropin (HCG, and it was aimed to reveal the usefulness of HCG in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. The materials for this study were 32 Wistar albino female rats. The study groups were formed as follows: the cystitis group (Group 1, the cystitis + HCG protection group (Group 2, the cystitis + HCG treatment group (Group 3, and the control group (Group 4, with eight rats in each group. In this study, blood and urine samples were taken from the rats, they were euthanized, and their bladders were removed for glutathione, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma measurements. It was observed that tissue damage in Group 2 was lower than that in the other two groups. Glutathione levels in Groups 2 and 4 were significantly higher than in Groups 1 and 3 (p = 0.01. Malondialdehyde levels of Groups 2 and 4 were significantly lower than the values in Groups 1 and 3 (p < 0.001. When the cystitis groups were compared in terms of their interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels, the lowest interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were detected in Group 3. It was found that HCG has positive effects on experimental cystitis in rats. This study revealed that HCG should be researched as a therapeutic agent and formed a step for studies to be carried out on this subject.

  13. A SEM Model in Assessing the Effect of Convergent, Divergent and Logical Thinking on Students' Understanding of Chemical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamovlasis, D.; Kypraios, N.; Papageorgiou, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, structural equation modeling (SEM) is applied to an instrument assessing students' understanding of chemical change. The instrument comprised items on understanding the structure of substances, chemical changes and their interpretation. The structural relationships among particular groups of items are investigated and analyzed using…

  14. Dispelling urban myths about default uncertainty factors in chemical risk assessment--sufficient protection against mixture effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Olwenn V; Martin, Scholze; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Assessing the detrimental health effects of chemicals requires the extrapolation of experimental data in animals to human populations. This is achieved by applying a default uncertainty factor of 100 to doses not found to be associated with observable effects in laboratory animals. It is commonly assumed that the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic sub-components of this default uncertainty factor represent worst-case scenarios and that the multiplication of those components yields conservative estimates of safe levels for humans. It is sometimes claimed that this conservatism also offers adequate protection from mixture effects. By analysing the evolution of uncertainty factors from a historical perspective, we expose that the default factor and its sub-components are intended to represent adequate rather than worst-case scenarios. The intention of using assessment factors for mixture effects was abandoned thirty years ago. It is also often ignored that the conservatism (or otherwise) of uncertainty factors can only be considered in relation to a defined level of protection. A protection equivalent to an effect magnitude of 0.001-0.0001% over background incidence is generally considered acceptable. However, it is impossible to say whether this level of protection is in fact realised with the tolerable doses that are derived by employing uncertainty factors. Accordingly, it is difficult to assess whether uncertainty factors overestimate or underestimate the sensitivity differences in human populations. It is also often not appreciated that the outcome of probabilistic approaches to the multiplication of sub-factors is dependent on the choice of probability distributions. Therefore, the idea that default uncertainty factors are overly conservative worst-case scenarios which can account both for the lack of statistical power in animal experiments and protect against potential mixture effects is ill-founded. We contend that precautionary regulation should provide an

  15. Dispelling urban myths about default uncertainty factors in chemical risk assessment – sufficient protection against mixture effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the detrimental health effects of chemicals requires the extrapolation of experimental data in animals to human populations. This is achieved by applying a default uncertainty factor of 100 to doses not found to be associated with observable effects in laboratory animals. It is commonly assumed that the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic sub-components of this default uncertainty factor represent worst-case scenarios and that the multiplication of those components yields conservative estimates of safe levels for humans. It is sometimes claimed that this conservatism also offers adequate protection from mixture effects. By analysing the evolution of uncertainty factors from a historical perspective, we expose that the default factor and its sub-components are intended to represent adequate rather than worst-case scenarios. The intention of using assessment factors for mixture effects was abandoned thirty years ago. It is also often ignored that the conservatism (or otherwise) of uncertainty factors can only be considered in relation to a defined level of protection. A protection equivalent to an effect magnitude of 0.001-0.0001% over background incidence is generally considered acceptable. However, it is impossible to say whether this level of protection is in fact realised with the tolerable doses that are derived by employing uncertainty factors. Accordingly, it is difficult to assess whether uncertainty factors overestimate or underestimate the sensitivity differences in human populations. It is also often not appreciated that the outcome of probabilistic approaches to the multiplication of sub-factors is dependent on the choice of probability distributions. Therefore, the idea that default uncertainty factors are overly conservative worst-case scenarios which can account both for the lack of statistical power in animal experiments and protect against potential mixture effects is ill-founded. We contend that precautionary regulation should provide an

  16. Assessing the effects of seawater temperature and pH on the bioaccumulation of emerging chemical contaminants in marine bivalves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Barbosa, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore......, the effects of environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and pH) on bioaccumulation and elimination mechanisms of these emerging contaminants in marine biota have been poorly studied until now. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effect of warmer seawater...... and Ruditapes philippinarum). Overall, results showed that warming alone or combined with acidification promoted the bioaccumulation of some compounds (i.e. dechloranes 602, 604, TBBPA), but also facilitated the elimination of others (i.e. iAs, TBBPA). Similarly, lower pH also resulted in higher levels...

  17. A Tutorial for Analysing the Cost-effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Assessing Chemical Toxicology: The Case of Acute Oral Toxicity Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norlen, H.; Worth, A.P.; Gabbert, S.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Compared with traditional animal methods for toxicity testing, in vitro and in silico methods are widely considered to permit a more cost-effective assessment of chemicals. However, how to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative methods has remained unclear. This paper offers a user-oriented

  18. A Comparative Assessment of Biological Effects and Chemical Profile of Italian Asphodeline lutea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Melucci

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to highlight the therapeutic potential of Asphodeline lutea (AL, a wild edible plant of the Mediterranean diet. Roots, aerial parts, and flowers of AL at two different phenological stages were collected from three locations in Italy. The inhibitory activities of extracts on strategic enzymes linked to human diseases were assessed. The antioxidant properties were evaluated in vitro, using six standard bioassays. The phenolic and anthraquinone profiles were also established using HPLC-PDA. Zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper contents were also determined. All the samples inhibited acetylcholinesterase (from 1.51 to 2.20 mg GALAEs/g extract, tyrosinase (from 7.50 to 25.3 mg KAEs/g extract, and α-amylase (from 0.37 to 0.51 mmol ACAEs/g extract. Aloe-emodin and physcion were present in all parts, while rhein was not detected. The phenolic profile and the heavy metals composition of specimens gathered from three different regions of Italy were different. It can be argued that samples collected near the street can contain higher concentrations of heavy metals. The experimental data confirm that the A. lutea species could be considered as a potential source of bioactive metabolites, and its consumption could play a positive and safe role in human health maintenance.

  19. Assessing effects of chemical treatment on mechanical properties of transported anthracite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danil' chenko, I M; Sukhanov, V V; Putilina, O.N.

    1984-10-01

    A method is discussed for control of anthracite comminution during coal haulage in underground mines. Coal hauled by belt conveyors was sprayed with MFF-M urea formaldehyde resin and oxalic acid used as a hardener. Design of the UAP experimental spraying system successfully tested in some coal mines in the Donbass is shown in a scheme. Effects of anthracite spraying on toxicity of fire gases were analyzed. Gas emission was analyzed at 300 C and at 1000 C. Content of the following compounds in fire gases was determined: hydrocyanic acid, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde, methanol. Evaluations showed that toxicity increase was within the permissible limits with the exception of hydrocyanic acid. In the case of underground fires in areas of haulage lines with resin spraying systems, members of rescue teams should use special equipment protecting the respiratory system from hydrocyanic acid. 2 references.

  20. [Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Chemicals in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tie-yu; Zhou, Yun-qiao; Li, Qi-feng; Lü, Yong-long

    2016-02-15

    Risk assessment and risk management have been increasingly approved as an effective approach for appropriate disposal and scientific management of chemicals. This study systematically analyzed the risk assessment methods of chemicals from three aspects including health risk, ecological risk and regional risk. Based on the current situation of classification and management towards chemicals in China, a specific framework of risk management on chemicals was proposed by selecting target chemicals, predominant industries and related stakeholders as the objects. The results of the present study will provide scientific support for improving risk assessment and reasonable management of chemicals in China.

  1. Chemical Risk Assessment Screening Tool of a Global Chemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Tjoe-Nij

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper describes a simple-to-use and reliable screening tool called Critical Task Exposure Screening (CTES, developed by a chemical company. The tool assesses if the exposure to a chemical for a task is likely to be within acceptable levels. Methods: CTES is a Microsoft Excel tool, where the inhalation risk score is calculated by relating the exposure estimate to the corresponding occupational exposure limit (OEL or occupational exposure band (OEB. The inhalation exposure is estimated for tasks by preassigned ART1.5 activity classes and modifying factors. Results: CTES requires few inputs. The toxicological data, including OELs, OEBs, and vapor pressure are read from a database. Once the substance is selected, the user specifies its concentration and then chooses the task description and its duration. CTES has three outputs that may trigger follow-up: (1 inhalation risk score; (2 identification of the skin hazard with the skin warnings for local and systemic adverse effects; and (3 status for carcinogenic, mutagenic, or reprotoxic effects. Conclusion: The tool provides an effective way to rapidly screen low-concern tasks, and quickly identifies certain tasks involving substances that will need further review with, nevertheless, the appropriate conservatism. This tool shows that the higher-tier ART1.5 inhalation exposure assessment model can be included effectively in a screening tool. After 2 years of worldwide extensive use within the company, CTES is well perceived by the users, including the shop floor management, and it fulfills its target of screening tool. Keywords: occupational exposure, risk assessment, risk management

  2. Assessing the effects of seawater temperature and pH on the bioaccumulation of emerging chemical contaminants in marine bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Barbosa, Vera; Alves, Ricardo; Anacleto, Patrícia; Fogaça, Fabiola; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Kotterman, Michiel; Cunha, Sara C; Fernandes, José O; Rasmussen, Rie R; Sloth, Jens J; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Marques, António

    2018-02-01

    Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore, the effects of environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and pH) on bioaccumulation and elimination mechanisms of these emerging contaminants in marine biota have been poorly studied until now. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effect of warmer seawater temperatures (Δ = + 4°C) and lower pH levels (Δ = - 0.4 pH units), acting alone or combined, on the bioaccumulation and elimination of emerging FRs (dechloranes 602, 603 and 604, and TBBPA), inorganic arsenic (iAs), and PFCs (PFOA and PFOS) in two estuarine bivalve species (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Ruditapes philippinarum). Overall, results showed that warming alone or combined with acidification promoted the bioaccumulation of some compounds (i.e. dechloranes 602, 604, TBBPA), but also facilitated the elimination of others (i.e. iAs, TBBPA). Similarly, lower pH also resulted in higher levels of dechloranes, as well as enhanced iAs, PFOA and PFOS elimination. Data also suggests that, when both abiotic stressors are combined, bivalves' capacity to accumulate contaminants may be time-dependent, considering significantly drastic increase observed with Dec 602 and TBBPA, during the last 10 days of exposure, when compared to reference conditions. Such changes in contaminants' bioaccumulation/elimination patterns also suggest a potential increase of human health risks of some compounds, if the climate continues changing as forecasted. Therefore, this first study pointed out the urgent need for further research on the effects of abiotic conditions on emerging contaminants kinetics, to adequately estimate the potential toxicological hazards associated to these compounds and

  3. In silico assessment of the acute toxicity of chemicals: recent advances and new model for multitasking prediction of toxic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of acute toxicity is one of the most important stages to ensure the safety of chemicals with potential applications in pharmaceutical sciences, biomedical research, or any other industrial branch. A huge and indiscriminate number of toxicity assays have been carried out on laboratory animals. In this sense, computational approaches involving models based on quantitative-structure activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) can help to rationalize time and financial costs. Here, we discuss the most significant advances in the last 6 years focused on the use of QSAR/QSTR models to predict acute toxicity of drugs/chemicals in laboratory animals, employing large and heterogeneous datasets. The advantages and drawbacks of the different QSAR/QSTR models are analyzed. As a contribution to the field, we introduce the first multitasking (mtk) QSTR model for simultaneous prediction of acute toxicity of compounds by considering different routes of administration, diverse breeds of laboratory animals, and the reliability of the experimental conditions. The mtk-QSTR model was based on artificial neural networks (ANN), allowing the classification of compounds as toxic or non-toxic. This model correctly classified more than 94% of the 1646 cases present in the whole dataset, and its applicability was demonstrated by performing predictions of different chemicals such as drugs, dietary supplements, and molecules which could serve as nanocarriers for drug delivery. The predictions given by the mtk-QSTR model are in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Chemical Risk Assessment Screening Tool of a Global Chemical Company

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn Tjoe-Nij; Christophe Rochin; Nathalie Berne; Alessandro Sassi; Antoine Leplay

    2018-01-01

    Background: This paper describes a simple-to-use and reliable screening tool called Critical Task Exposure Screening (CTES), developed by a chemical company. The tool assesses if the exposure to a chemical for a task is likely to be within acceptable levels. Methods: CTES is a Microsoft Excel tool, where the inhalation risk score is calculated by relating the exposure estimate to the corresponding occupational exposure limit (OEL) or occupational exposure band (OEB). The inhalation exposure i...

  5. The Architecture of Chemical Alternatives Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Kenneth; Tickner, Joel; Edwards, Sally; Rossi, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Chemical alternatives assessment is a method rapidly developing for use by businesses, governments, and nongovernment organizations seeking to substitute chemicals of concern in production processes and products. Chemical alternatives assessment is defined as a process for identifying, comparing, and selecting safer alternatives to chemicals of concern (including those in materials, processes, or technologies) on the basis of their hazards, performance, and economic viability. The process is intended to provide guidance for assuring that chemicals of concern are replaced with safer alternatives that are not likely to be later regretted. Conceptually, the assessment methods are developed from a set of three foundational pillars and five common principles. Based on a number of emerging alternatives assessment initiatives, in this commentary, we outline a chemical alternatives assessment blueprint structured around three broad steps: Scope, Assessment, and Selection and Implementation. Specific tasks and tools are identified for each of these three steps. While it is recognized that on-going practice will further refine and develop the method and tools, it is important that the structure of the assessment process remain flexible, adaptive, and focused on the substitution of chemicals of concern with safer alternatives. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Chemical effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philips, G.O.

    1986-01-01

    Ionizing radiations initiate chemical changes in materials because of the high energy of their quanta. In water, highly reactive free radicals are produced which can initiate secondary changes of solutes, and in chemical of biological molecules in contact with the water. Free radicals can also be directly produced in irradiated medical products. Their fate can be identified and the molecular basis of radiation inactivation clarified. Methods have now been developed to protect and minimise such radiation damage. (author)

  7. Combined chemical (fluoranthene) and drought effects on Lumbricus rubellus demonstrate the applicability of the independent action model for multiple stressor assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sara M; Reichenberg, Fredrik; Lister, Lindsay J; Hankard, Peter K; Townsend, Joanna; Mayer, Philipp; Wright, Julian; Holmstrup, Martin; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J

    2009-03-01

    The combined effect of a chemical (fluoranthene) and a nonchemical stress (reduced soil moisture content) to the widely distributed earthworm Lumbricus rubellus were investigated in a laboratory study. Neither fluoranthene (up to 500 microg/g) nor low soil moisture (15% below optimal) had a significant effect on the survival of the exposed worms, but a significant effect on reproduction (cocoon production rate) was found for both stressors (p IA) model that is widely used in pharmacology and chemical mixture risk assessment. Fitting of the IA model provided a good description of the combined stressor data (accounting for 53.7% of total variation) and was the most parsimonious model describing joint effect (i.e., the description of the data was not improved by addition of further parameters accounting for synergism or antagonism). Thus, the independent action of the two responses was further supported by measurement of internal fluoranthene exposure. The chemical activity of fluoranthene in worm tissue was correlated only with soil fluoranthene concentration and not with soil moisture content. Taken together these results suggest that the IA model can help interpret the joint effects of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Such analyses should, however, be done with caution since the literature data set suggests that there may be cases where interactions between stressors result in joint effects that differ significantly from IA predictions.

  8. Life cycle sustainability assessment of chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Di; Lv, Liping; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an integrated vector-based three-dimensional (3D) methodology for the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) of chemical process alternatives is proposed. In the methodology, a 3D criteria assessment system is first established by using the life cycle assessment, the life cycl...

  9. Enhancement of Bacterial Transport in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments: Assessing the Effect of Metal Oxide Chemical Heterogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.C. Onstott

    2005-01-01

    The goal of our research was to understand the fundamental processes that control microbial transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous aquifers and from this enhanced understanding determine the requirements for successful, field-scale delivery of microorganisms to metal contaminated subsurface sites. Our specific research goals were to determine; (1) the circumstances under which the preferential adsorption of bacteria to Fe, Mn, and Al oxyhydroxides influences field-scale bacterial transport, (2) the extent to which the adhesion properties of bacterial cells affect field-scale bacterial transport, (3) whether microbial Fe(III) reduction can enhance field-scale transport of Fe reducing bacteria (IRB) and other microorganisms and (4) the effect of field-scale physical and chemical heterogeneity on all three processes. Some of the spin-offs from this basic research that can improve biostimulation and bioaugmentation remediation efforts at contaminated DOE sites have included; (1) new bacterial tracking tools for viable bacteria; (2) an integrated protocol which combines subsurface characterization, laboratory-scale experimentation, and scale-up techniques to accurately predict field-scale bacterial transport; and (3) innovative and inexpensive field equipment and methods that can be employed to enhance Fe(III) reduction and microbial transport and to target microbial deposition under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions

  10. Hazard assessment and risk management of offshore production chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobben, H.P.M.; Scholten, M.C.T.; Vik, E.A.; Bakke, S.

    1994-01-01

    There is a clear need for harmonization of the regulations with regard to the use and discharge of drilling and production chemicals in the North Sea. Therefore the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model was developed. Both government (of several countries) and industry (E and P and chemical suppliers) participated in the project. The CHARM model is discussed and accepted by OSPARCON. The CHARM model consists of several modules. The model starts with a prescreening on the basis of hazardous properties like persistency, accumulation potential and the appearance on black lists. The core of the model.consists of modules for hazard assessment and risk analysis. Hazard assessment covers a general environmental evaluation of a chemical on the basis of intrinsic properties of that chemical. Risk analysis covers a more specific evaluation of the environmental impact from the use of a production chemical, or a combination of chemicals, under actual conditions. In the risk management module the user is guided to reduce the total risk of all chemicals used on a platform by the definition of measures in the most cost-effective way. The model calculates the environmental impact for the marine environment. Thereto three parts are distinguished: pelagic, benthic and food chain. Both hazard assessment and risk analysis are based on a proportional comparison of an estimated PEC with an estimated NEC. The PEC is estimated from the use, release, dilution and fate of the chemical and the NEC is estimated from the available toxicity data of the chemicals

  11. General approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Patrick [Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XI, Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection (Belgium)

    1992-07-01

    In the context of the UNCED 92 'Earth Summit' in Rio, the following definition of chemical risk assessment has been developed: 'Chemical risk assessment is a scientific process that identifies and quantifies the potential adverse effects on human health or ecosystems of defined exposures to chemical substances, to mixtures that include chemicals, or to chemically hazardous processes or situations. Risk itself is the probability of the occurrence of a defined adverse effect in a defined group and in defined circumstances'. I would not be so impertinent as to try and improve upon a definition that has the tacit endorsement of the majority of world-leaders. Furthermore, I consider that too many man-years have been spent discussing this topic. Thankfully the UNCED definition recognises chemical risk assessment as being a process and not some immutable physical law. In this presentation I will attempt to explain some of the details and mechanisms of that process but first of all it is worthwhile to spend a few moments putting chemical risk assessment in its proper context and asking the simple question: why do we want/need to assess the potential risk of chemicals?. In general terms, chemicals risk assessment is carried out in order to ensure that neither man (consumer/worker/general public) nor the environment are exposed to unacceptable risks arising from the production, use and disposal of chemicals. At a national and/or international level, risk assessments are performed by the regulatory authorities before they accept notification dossiers (e.g. new industrial chemicals) or grant authorizations (e.g. pharmaceuticals, pesticides, cosmetics, food additives). At the local level, plant-operators must carry out risk assessments to ensure that in the particular circumstances of their factory the workers are adequately protected and that satisfactory accident prevention and contingency plans are prepared. Similarly, local authorities must carry out risk assessments before

  12. General approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    In the context of the UNCED 92 'Earth Summit' in Rio, the following definition of chemical risk assessment has been developed: 'Chemical risk assessment is a scientific process that identifies and quantifies the potential adverse effects on human health or ecosystems of defined exposures to chemical substances, to mixtures that include chemicals, or to chemically hazardous processes or situations. Risk itself is the probability of the occurrence of a defined adverse effect in a defined group and in defined circumstances'. I would not be so impertinent as to try and improve upon a definition that has the tacit endorsement of the majority of world-leaders. Furthermore, I consider that too many man-years have been spent discussing this topic. Thankfully the UNCED definition recognises chemical risk assessment as being a process and not some immutable physical law. In this presentation I will attempt to explain some of the details and mechanisms of that process but first of all it is worthwhile to spend a few moments putting chemical risk assessment in its proper context and asking the simple question: why do we want/need to assess the potential risk of chemicals?. In general terms, chemicals risk assessment is carried out in order to ensure that neither man (consumer/worker/general public) nor the environment are exposed to unacceptable risks arising from the production, use and disposal of chemicals. At a national and/or international level, risk assessments are performed by the regulatory authorities before they accept notification dossiers (e.g. new industrial chemicals) or grant authorizations (e.g. pharmaceuticals, pesticides, cosmetics, food additives). At the local level, plant-operators must carry out risk assessments to ensure that in the particular circumstances of their factory the workers are adequately protected and that satisfactory accident prevention and contingency plans are prepared. Similarly, local authorities must carry out risk assessments before

  13. Chemical effects of nuclear transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulbulian, S

    1982-06-01

    A brief survey of the present state of knowledge on the chemical effects of nuclear transformations is presented. The recoil energy produced by these transformations in the nuclide is often sufficiently high to disrupt the chemical ligands between these particular atoms affected by the nuclear transformations, while the rest of their molecules. It also contains a discussion of the different annealing processes that produce the cancellation of the chemical change produced by the nuclear transformation.

  14. Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a statistical assessment of the effect of chemical composition on mechanical properties of hypereutectic AlSi17 silumin, which is expected to act as a counterpart of alloys used by automotive industry and aviation for casting of high-duty engine parts in West European countries and USA. The studies on the choice of chemical composition of silumins were preceded by analysis of the reference literature to state what effect some selected alloying elements and manufacturing technology may have on the mechanical properties (HB, Rm and A5 of these alloys. As alloying additives, Cu, Ni and Mg in proper combinations were used. The alloy after modification with phosphorus (CuF was cast into a metal mould. Basing on the results obtained, it has been reported that the developed silumin of hypereutectic composition is characterised by properties similar to its Western counterparts.

  15. Human exposure assessment to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Silva, Manori J; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Needham, Larry L

    2006-02-01

    In modern societies, humans may be exposed to a wide spectrum of environmental chemicals. Although the health significance of this exposure for many chemicals is unknown, studies to investigate the prevalence of exposure are warranted because of the chemicals' potential harmful health effects, as often indicated in animal studies. Three tools have been used to assess exposure: exposure history/questionnaire information, environmental monitoring, and biomonitoring (i.e. measuring concentrations of the chemicals, their metabolites, or their adducts in human specimens). We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure assessment using phthalates, bisphenol A and other environmental phenols, and perfluorinated chemicals as examples. We discuss some factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information. The use of biomonitoring in human risk assessment is not discussed.

  16. Assessment of Chemical and Radiological Vulnerabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SETH, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    Following the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at Hanford's Plutonium Reclamation Facility, the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and its prime contractor, Fluor Hanford, Inc., completed an extensive assessment to identify and address chemical and radiological safety vulnerabilities at all facilities under the Project Hanford Management Contract. This was a challenging undertaking because of the immense size of the problem, unique technical issues, and competing priorities. This paper focuses on the assessment process, including the criteria and methodology for data collection, evaluation, and risk-based scoring. It does not provide details on the facility-specific results and corrective actions, but discusses the approach taken to address the identified vulnerabilities

  17. Chemical-based risk assessment and in vitro models of human health effects induced by organic pollutants in soils from the Olona valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baderna, Diego, E-mail: diego.baderna@marionegri.it; Colombo, Andrea; Amodei, Giorgia; Cantù, Stefano; Teoldi, Federico; Cambria, Felice; Rotella, Giuseppe; Natolino, Fabrizio; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-10-01

    Risk assessment of soils is usually based on chemical measurements and assuming accidental soil ingestion and evaluating induced toxic and carcinogenic effects. Recently biological tools have been coupled to chemical-based risk assessment since they integrate the biological effects of all xenobiotics in soils. We employed integrated monitoring of soils based on chemical analyses, risk assessment and in vitro models in the highly urbanized semirural area of the Olona Valley in northern Italy. Chemical characterization of the soils indicated low levels of toxic and carcinogenic pollutants such as PAHs, PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HCB and human risk assessment did not give any significant alerts. HepG2 and BALB/c 3T3 cells were used as a model for the human liver and as a tool for the evaluation of carcinogenic potential. Cells were treated with soil extractable organic matters (EOMs) and the MTS assay, LDH release and morphological transformation were selected as endpoints for toxicity and carcinogenicity. Soil EOMs induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth at low doses and cytotoxicity after exposure to higher doses. This might be the result of block of cell cycle progression to repair DNA damage caused by oxidative stress; if this DNA damage cannot be repaired, cells die. No significant inductions of foci were recorded after exposure to EOMs. These results indicate that, although the extracts contain compounds with proven carcinogenic potential, the levels of these pollutants in the analyzed soils were too low to induce carcinogenesis in our experimental conditions. In this proposed case study, HepG2 cells were found an appropriate tool to assess the potential harm caused by the ingestion of contaminated soil as they were able to detect differences in the toxicity of soil EOMs. Moreover, the cell transformation assay strengthened the combined approach giving useful information on carcinogenic potential of mixtures. Highlights: • A combined approach for risk

  18. The effectiveness of spent coffee grounds and its biochar on the amelioration of heavy metals-contaminated water and soil using chemical and biological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Koo, Namin; Park, Jeongsik; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Bak, Gwan-In; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-12-15

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) and charred spent coffee grounds (SCG-char) have been widely used to adsorb or to amend heavy metals that contaminate water or soil and their success is usually assessed by chemical analysis. In this work, the effects of SCG and SCG-char on metal-contaminated water and soil were evaluated using chemical and biological assessments; a phytotoxicity test using bok choy (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Jusl.) was conducted for the biological assessment. When SCG and SCG-char were applied to acid mine drainage, the heavy metal concentrations were decreased and the pH was increased. However, for SCG, the phytotoxicity increased because a massive amount of dissolved organic carbon was released from SCG. In contrast, SCG-char did not exhibit this phenomenon because any easily released organic matter was removed during pyrolysis. While the bioavailable heavy metal content decreased in soils treated with SCG or SCG-char, the phytotoxicity only rose after SCG treatment. According to our statistical methodology, bioavailable Pb, Cu and As, as well as the electrical conductivity representing an increase in organic content, affected the phytotoxicity of soil. Therefore, applying SCG during environment remediation requires careful biological assessments and evaluations of the efficiency of this remediation technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing the effects of seawater temperature and pH on the bioaccumulation of emerging chemical contaminants in marine bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Barbosa, Vera; Alves, Ricardo; Anacleto, Patrícia; Fogaça, Fabiola; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Kotterman, Michiel; Cunha, Sara C.; Fernandes, José O.; Rasmussen, Rie R.; Sloth, Jens J.; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Marques, António

    2018-01-01

    Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore, the

  20. Assessment of chemicals in construction products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Hanne; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2000-01-01

    . The reasons for that are lacks of product-specific emissions by manufacturing of chemical products, e.g. waterproofing systems and sealants. Besides, most LCA-models do not include assessments of emissions in working environment, in indoor environment or from disposal processes. It was therefore...

  1. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  2. Chemical composition, antioxidant effects and antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thymus vulgaris, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Ocimum gratissimum are spices widely used as aroma enhancers and food preservatives. This work assessed the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of their essential oils on some food pathogenic bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter ...

  3. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and other substances of concern in food contact materials: an updated review of exposure, effect and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncke, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are an underestimated source of chemical food contaminants and a potentially relevant route of human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Quantifying the exposure of the general population to substances from FCM relies on estimates of food consumption and leaching into food. Recent studies using polycarbonate plastics show that food simulants do not always predict worst-case leaching of bisphenol A, a common FCM substance. Also, exposure of children to FCM substances is not always realistically predicted using the common conventions and thus possibly misjudged. Further, the exposure of the whole population to substances leaching into dry foods is underestimated. Consumers are exposed to low levels of substances from FCM across their entire lives. Effects of these compounds currently are assessed with a focus on mutagenicity and genotoxicity. This approach however neglects integrating recent new toxicological findings, like endocrine disruption, mixture toxicity, and developmental toxicity. According to these new toxicology paradigms women of childbearing age and during pregnancy are a new sensitive population group requiring more attention. Furthermore, in overweight and obese persons a change in the metabolism of xenobiotics is observed, possibly implying that this group of consumers is insufficiently protected by current risk assessment practice. Innovations in FCM risk assessment should therefore include routine testing for EDCs and an assessment of the whole migrate toxicity of a food packaging, taking into account all sensitive population groups. In this article I focus on recent issues of interest concerning either exposure to or effects of FCM-related substances. Further, I review the use of benzophenones and organotins, two groups of known or suspected EDCs, in FCM authorized in the US and EU. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health effects of occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals: a comparative assessment with notes on ionizing radiation. Executive summary. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanetos, M.A.; Warling, J.C.; Marsh, G.M.

    1983-09-01

    This three-part report provides quantitative estimates of the risk of cancer and other diseases among persons exposed to hazardous substances in the workplace. The risk estimates presented are based on a comprehensive review of recent epidemiologic studies. Primary emphasis was placed on studies of workers exposed to hazardous chemicals under conditions typical of a given industry over a working lifetime. Despite finding over 100 chemicals associated with increased incidence of disease, convincing dose-response trends existed for only a few. Although there were notable exceptions (arsenic, asbestos, PAH's, etc.), it was generally impossible to estimate risk-per-unit of dose in a manner analogous to calculations which exist for radiation exposure. The principal reason for this is the lack of adequate environmental monitoring data for the specific chemicals, locations, and time periods needed to estimate individual cumulative doses. In addition to analyzing risk in terms of increased incidence of specific diseases, we also examined life expectancy and years of life lost due to cancer in four selected occupational groups via a life table model which allowed for competing risks. The resulting estimates indicated that the overall life expectancy of these groups was generally greater than that of the general population but that the workers suffered greater loss of life expectancy (LLE) due to cancer than their counterparts in the general population. Published estimates of LLE due to radiation induced cancer indicate that at doses of less than or equal to 0.5 rem/y, radiation workers are projected to suffer less LLE than any of the four non-nuclear cohorts examined. At 5 rem/y (the MPD) or higher, LLE may be greater than one or more of the cohorts examined. This is Volume I of a three volume series. 12 references

  5. Animal-Free Chemical Safety Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D Loizou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of the Internet of Things and the global popularity and remarkable decline in cost of the mobile phone is driving the digital transformation of medical practice. The rapidly maturing digital, nonmedical world of mobile (wireless devices, cloud computing and social networking is coalescing with the emerging digital medical world of omics data, biosensors and advanced imaging which offers the increasingly realistic prospect of personalized medicine. Described as a potential seismic shift from the current healthcare model to a wellness paradigm that is predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory, this change is based on the development of increasingly sophisticated biosensors which can track and measure key biochemical variables in people. Additional key drivers in this shift are metabolomic and proteomic signatures, which are increasingly being reported as pre-symptomatic, diagnostic and prognostic of toxicity and disease. These advancements also have profound implications for toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. An approach based primarily on human in vivo and high-throughput in vitro human cell-line data is a distinct possibility. This would transform current chemical safety assessment practise which operates in a human data poor to a human data rich environment. This could also lead to a seismic shift from the current animal-based to an animal-free chemical safety assessment paradigm.

  6. Toxicity assessment of unintentional exposure to multiple chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, M.M.; Ruiz, P.; De Rosa, C.T.

    2007-01-01

    Typically exposure to environmental chemicals is unintentional, and often the exposure is to chemical mixtures, either simultaneously or sequentially. When exposure occurs, in public health practice, it is prudent to ascertain if thresholds for harmful health effects are exceeded, whether by individual chemicals or by chemicals in combination. Three alternative approaches are available for assessing the toxicity of chemical mixtures. Each approach, however, has shortcomings. As the procedures of each approach are described in this paper, at various steps research needs are identified. Recently, reliance has increased on computational toxicology methods for predicting toxicological effects when data are limited. Advances in molecular biology, identification of biomarkers, and availability of accurate and sensitive methods allow us to more precisely define the relationships between multiple chemical exposures and health effects, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Key research needs are best fulfilled through collaborative research. It is through such collaborations that resources are most effectively leveraged to further develop and apply toxicity assessment methods that advance public health practices in vulnerable communities

  7. The Assessment of Risk Caused By Fire and Explosion in Chemical Process Industry: A Domino Effect-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri , Farid; Chatelet , E.; Lallement , Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In the field of risks analysis, the domino effect has been documented in technical literature since 1947. The accidents caused by the domino effect are the most destructive accidents related to industrial plants. Fire and explosion are among the most frequent primary accidents for a domino effect due to the units under pressure and the storage of flammable and dangerous substances. Heat radiation and overpressure are one of major factors leading to domino effect on ind...

  8. Radiation, chemicals and combined effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1991-01-01

    A brief background has been provided on current carcinogenic risks from ionizing radiation and their magnitude in background circumstances. The magnitude of the risks from possibly carcinogenic chemicals at background levels in air, water and food are surprisingly similar. The exception is, perhaps, for the single source of radon which, while variable, on the average stands out above all other sources. Some basic principles concerning the interaction of combined radiation and chemicals and some practical examples where the two interact synergistically to enhance radiation effects has also been provided. Areas for human research in the future are discussed. (Author)

  9. Neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioural effects of polybrominated and perfluorinated chemicals: a systematic review of the epidemiological literature using a quality assessment scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, N; Wilks, M F

    2014-10-15

    Concerns over effects of halogenated persistent environmental contaminants on the developing brain have been expressed for many years, and human biomonitoring has confirmed that low-level, prenatal and/or postnatal exposure of children to these chemicals is ubiquitous. Over the last decade there have been increasing reports in the epidemiological literature of the potential association of exposure to polybromo diphenylethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) with neurodevelopmental and/or neurobehavioural effects in infants and children, such as adverse birth outcomes, cognitive deficits, developmental delay and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). However, direct evidence from epidemiology studies has been limited and contradictory. Given the general lack of comparability across studies in terms of design, conduct, methodology and reporting, we developed a checklist-type quality assessment scheme based on the STROBE guidelines and the proposed HONEES criteria, and conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological peer-reviewed literature published since 2006 on neurodevelopmental and/or neurobehavioural effects following prenatal and postnatal exposure to PBDEs and PFCs. We rated 7 of the 18 studies that met our inclusion criteria as being of high quality, 7 of moderate quality and 4 of low quality. Frequently observed shortcomings were the lack of consideration of confounding factors; uncertainties regarding exposure characterization; inadequate sample size; the lack of a clear dose-response; and the representativeness/generalizability of the results. Collectively, the epidemiological evidence does currently not support a strong causal association between PBDEs and PFCs and adverse neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioural outcomes in infants and children. However, despite their limitations, the studies raise questions that require further investigation through hypothesis-driven studies using more harmonized study designs and methodologies

  10. Probabilistic risk assessment for new and existing chemicals: Example calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager T; Hollander HA den; Janssen GB; Poel P van der; Rikken MGJ; Vermeire TG; ECO; CSR; LAE; CSR

    2000-01-01

    In the risk assessment methods for new and existing chemicals in the EU, "risk" is characterised by means of the deterministic quotient of exposure and effects (PEC/PNEC or Margin of Safety). From a scientific viewpoint, the uncertainty in the risk quotient should be accounted for explicitly in the

  11. ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON NEURITE OUTGROWTH, NEURONAL POLARIZATION AND SYNAPTOGENESIS IN RAT CORTICAL NEURONS USING HIGH CONTENT IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need for efficient, cost-effective methods for screening and prioritization of potential developmental neurotoxicants. One approach uses in vitro cell culture models that can recapitulate the critical processes of nervous system development. In vitro, primary cultures ...

  12. Framework for human health risk assessment of non-cancer effects resulting from short-duration and intermittent exposures to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Lynne T; Sandhu, Reena; Li-Muller, Angela; Mohapatra, Asish; Petrovic, Sanya; Meek, M E Bette

    2016-09-01

    Durations of exposure to chemicals, whether for single, repeated or intermittent periods, may vary from those upon which most guidance values are normally based. Because it is presently not feasible to conduct toxicity studies or develop toxicity reference values (TRVs) specific to each scenario of interest, methods are needed to address these various durations, drawing as much as possible on existing TRVs. A working framework was developed to address the potential for non-cancer effects resulting from continuous short-duration and intermittent exposures to chemicals. The framework presents an integrated, tiered approach that assists the user in identifying when existing TRVs can be applied directly, and the adaptations needed to assess the acceptability of short-duration or intermittent exposure scenarios. Descriptions of when and how toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic aspects need to be taken into consideration are also presented. The framework incorporates the use of TRVs based on exposure periods as similar as possible to the "actual" exposure periods and application of dose averaging under limited, specified conditions. This framework has been developed to aid in improving the scientific basis for the evaluation of short-duration and intermittent exposures in a variety of settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Critical issues in benzene toxicity and metabolism: the effect of interactions with other organic chemicals on risk assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Medinsky, M A; Schlosser, P M; Bond, J A

    1994-01-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene are well documented and include aplastic anemia and pancytopenia. Some individuals exposed repeatedly to cytotoxic concentrations of benzene develop acute myeloblastic anemia. It has been hypothesized that metabolism of benzene is required for its toxicity, although administration of no single benzene metabolite duplicates the toxicity of benzene. Several inve...

  14. Life Cycle assessment of basic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    , the most important application are in research and development to improve the environmental performance of processes and products, and as support for strategic decision making. However, the coherence between LCA and decision making needs to be addressed more specifically because most companies...... in the survey did not think LCA is sufficiently fit to support strategic decision making. Because, the chemical industry is a major supplier to other product systems the major incentive to perform LCAs has been to comply with customer requirements. An LCA may not always need to be very detailed to fulfil...... and output data (together interventions) from all unit processes in the system and assessing the potential environmental impact of these interventions. The LCA framework comprise four phases which are iteratively interlinked: · Goal and scope definition · Inventory · Impact assessment · Interpretation...

  15. Risks assessment of environmental exposure to certain organo chemicals in male rats: the possible modulatory effect of micro nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely volatile organic compound, because of its widespread commercial use. So, TCE become a major environmental pollutant. It is the most frequently reported organic contaminant in ground water, so a considerable numbers of people are exposed to TCE via inhalation, through the skin or through drinking water and rarely through food. The main symptoms of exposure are headache, dizziness, and confusion, beyond the effects on the central nervous system, work place exposure to TCE has been associated with toxic effects in many organs including liver, kidney and testes in addition to attenuation to the immune system. The present study aims to investigate the possible modulatory effect of certain micro nutrients such as vitamin C and zinc alone and in combination on the damage of liver, kidney and testes of male rats intoxicated with trichloroethylene for 20 and 105 days. The results showed significant decrease in body and testes weight and increase in liver and kidney weights after long period of treatment with TCE. Some of the selected hematological and biochemical parameters of the rats intoxicated by TCE for short and long period significantly changed. The results revealed significant decrease in free tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine) (FT4) and significant increase in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (Thyrotropin) (TSH) in TCE-intoxicated rat groups for the two periods of treatment. Also results revealed significant decrease of total testosterone in TCE-intoxicated rat groups as compared to that of normal control. Also significant changes were detected in the level of immunoglobulins IgG and IgM.Histopathological examination of liver, kidney and testicular tissues showed significant alteration. The DNA damage was observed in both period of treatment and increased DNA damage with apoptosis was recorded after 105 days of the treatment. Withdrawal group recorded mild improvement in all changed parameters and the

  16. Assessing chemical mutagens: the risk to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewen, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: chromosomal aberrations induced by x radiation, tritiated thymidine, maleic hydrazide, and nitrogen mustard; removal of pyrimidine dimers by photoreactivation in amphibian cells following uv radiation; effects of 4-nitroquinoline-oxide on leukocytes from XP and normal patients; DNA as a target for alkylating agents; sensitivity of spermatogonia to chemical mutagens; chromosomal aberrations induced by 8-ethoxycaffeine, methoxycaffeine, cytosine arabinoside, streptonigrin, bleomycin, and phleomycin; effects of MMS and triethylenemelamine on germ cells; and use of chromosomal aberrations for improving risk estimates for ionizing radiation

  17. Critical issues in benzene toxicity and metabolism: the effect of interactions with other organic chemicals on risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinsky, M A; Schlosser, P M; Bond, J A

    1994-11-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene are well documented and include aplastic anemia and pancytopenia. Some individuals exposed repeatedly to cytotoxic concentrations of benzene develop acute myeloblastic anemia. It has been hypothesized that metabolism of benzene is required for its toxicity, although administration of no single benzene metabolite duplicates the toxicity of benzene. Several investigators have demonstrated that a combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol, for example) is necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene. Enzymes implicated in the metabolic activation of benzene and its metabolites include the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and myeloperoxidase. Since benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. Other organic molecules that are substrates for cytochrome P450 can inhibit the metabolism of benzene. For example, toluene has been shown to inhibit the oxidation of benzene in a noncompetitive manner. Enzyme inducers, such as ethanol, can alter the target tissue dosimetry of benzene metabolites by inducing enzymes responsible for oxidation reactions involved in benzene metabolism. The dosimetry of benzene and its metabolites in the target tissue, bone marrow, depends on the balance of activation processes, such as enzymatic oxidation, and deactivation processes, like conjugation and excretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Chemical variations in the Cerro de Mercado (Durango, Mexico) fluorapatite: Assessing the effect of heterogeneity on a geochronologic standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J. W.; Hodges, K. V.

    2001-12-01

    Despite the lack of an official pronouncement, the fluorapatite of Cerro de Mercado, Durango, Mexico has become the de facto standard for (U-Th)/He geochronology. In addition to being relatively inclusion-free and easily obtained, these crystals are commonly in excess of 5mm in diameter, permitting the removal of the outer skin of the crystal, theoretically eliminating the alpha-ejection correction. However, bulk analyses of the Durango fluorapatite indicate a substantial variation in U and Th concentrations from aliquot to aliquot (167-238 ppm Th; 9.7-12.3 ppm U, [1]). If similar variations were to occur on the sub-grain scale, small fragments of single crystals could contain helium excesses or deficiencies due to alpha-ejection exchange between zones with varying parent element content. We have performed a series of experiments to quantify the intra-grain variation in U and Th, in order to model the effect of this variation on ages determined on Durango fluorapatite. X-ray maps show concentric zonation in U and Th, with similar, but more apparently pronounced zonation in Si and Cl. Preliminary laser-ablation ICPMS data indicate, not surprisingly, that intra-grain variations in U and Th concentrations obtained by analysis of ~35 μ m spots are larger than that which had been previously obtained by bulk analytical techniques (with overall concentrations greater than for bulk analyses). Thus far, analyses yield U concentrations varying from 11 to 16 ppm, and Th concentrations ranging from 220 to 340 ppm. Modeling underway suggests that parent element variations on the order of 50%, such as those observed, and the resulting differential alpha-exchange could lead to several percent error in age, for ~100 μ m fragments. The effect scales inversely with fragment size, with 300 μ m fragments (roughly the size of a large, single grain analysis) having only ~1% error. This may offer an explanation for the previously observed inability to reproduce ages for the Durango

  19. Assessment of chemical exposures: calculation methods for environmental professionals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daugherty, Jack E

    1997-01-01

    ... on by scientists, businessmen, and policymakers. Assessment of Chemical Exposures: Calculation Methods for Environmental Professionals addresses the expanding scope of exposure assessments in both the workplace and environment...

  20. Assessment of Radiological and Chemical Pollutants and Their Effects on the Marine Ecosystems A long the Mediterranean Sea Coast Between Alexandria and Port Said City-Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Salama, M.H.; Monged, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program for the Egyptian coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea was established to initiate a monitoring data base system. This was done by applying quality control assessments to evaluate and protect the coastal zone, which ensure its sustainable use. An environmental risk assessment was performed, including a screening level ecological risk assessment (SLERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA). The aim of SLERA risk assessment was to determine which classes of chemical pollutants could possibly cause adverse ecological effects to benthic species and to determine whether hot spots exist or not. Investigation of the sediments revealed that the region which extends from the Alexandria harbor area to Port Said City is enriched with trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organo chlorine pesticides. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected but in lower concentrations compared to the other organic compounds. The spatial distribution of the different contaminants investigated here showed that the Nile Delta region is more influenced by waste water discharge than the rest of the Egyptian coastal regions. In addition to sediments, two mussel species (Mactra corallina and Tapes decussate) were successfully used as bio indicators of marine environmental quality. The concentrations of most pollutants investigated (except organo chlorine pesticides, and some trace metals) were higher in the tissues of the mussels, especially M. caerulein, than in sediments. The highest concentration of PAHs in sediments and mussels were observed in front of the Alexandria harbor and Nile Delta, they possibly affected by shipping activities. Natural radioactivity of surface sediments and sea water samples were measured along the coastal Mediterranean Sea between Alexandria and Port Said City. The main source of radiation along the area is the black sands, which is rich in radionuclides. The measured values of "2"3"8U and "2"3"2Th for

  1. Clinical Considerations in the Assessment of Adolescent Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Ken

    1990-01-01

    Discusses relevant research findings of clinical assessment of adolescent chemical dependency so that service providers can better address these concerns. Three major issues are discussed: the definition of adolescent chemical dependency, clinical domains of assessment (chemical use problem severity, precipitating and perpetuating risk factors,…

  2. Chemical and biological assessment of Cd-polluted sediment for land use: The effect of stabilization using chitosan-coated zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jia; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-04-15

    Disposal of dredged sediment contaminated with heavy metals on site or in landfills inevitably causes leaching of metals that generate new environmental problems. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of stabilizing heavy metal Cd in sediment taken from Dongting Lake, China, using a chitosan-coated zeolite, and assessed the feasibility of reusing the stabilized sediment in river bank soil based on chemical and biological analyses. Results showed that the addition of chitosan-coated zeolite significantly reduced acid-exchangeable Cd by 8% in the dredged sediment and 7% in a sediment-soil mixture. Cadmium leachability was greatly reduced in the amended sediment or sediment-soil mixture. Toxicity bioassay using Eisenia fetida showed the mortality rate of worms reduced by 16% in sediment-soil mixture with a Cd concentration of 550 mg/kg and by 17% under a Cd concentration of 250 mg/kg, both with the addition of modified zeolite. Moreover, assimilation of Cd in the earthworms was decreased by a maximum of 36 mg/kg in the sediment-soil mixture with zeolite amendment. These results indicate that the reuse of Cd-contaminated sediment following chitosan-coated zeolite modification is a feasible option for treating the dredged sediment, and could thus benefit both aquatic and terrestrial systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of biological and chemical oxidation on the removal of estrogenic compounds (NP and BPA) from wastewater: an integrated assessment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Dal Grande, Mario; Papa, Matteo; Zambarda, Valerio; Montani, Claudia; Steimberg, Nathalie; Mazzoleni, Giovanna; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2011-04-01

    A major source of the wide presence of EDCs (Endocrine Disrupting Compounds) in water bodies is represented by direct/indirect discharge of sewage. Recent scientific literature reports data about their trace concentration in water, sediments and aquatic organisms, as well as removal efficiencies of different wastewater treatment schemes. Despite the availability of a huge amount of data, some doubts still persist due to the difficulty in evaluating synergistic effects of trace pollutants in complex matrices. In this paper, an integrated assessment procedure was used, based on chemical and biological analyses, in order to compare the performance of two full scale biological wastewater treatment plants (either equipped with conventional settling tanks or with an ultrafiltration membrane unit) and tertiary ozonation (pilot scale). Nonylphenol and bisphenol A were chosen as model EDCs, together with the parent compounds mono- and di-ethoxylated nonylphenol (quantified by means of GC-MS). Water estrogenic activity was evaluated by applying the human breast cancer MCF-7 based reporter gene assay. Process parameters (e.g., sludge age, temperature) and conventional pollutants (e.g., COD, suspended solids) were also measured during monitoring campaigns. Conventional activated sludge achieved satisfactory removal of both analytes and estrogenicity. A further reduction of biological activity was exerted by MBR (Membrane Biological Reactor) as well as ozonation; the latter contributed also to decrease EDC concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness and efficiency of chemical mutagens in cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... A study was undertaken in a cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) variety CO 6 to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of chemical mutagens; ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA). EMS treatments were found highly effective than the other chemicals.

  5. Improving ecological risk assessment of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals by using an integrated modeling system - An example assessing chloroparaffins in riverine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical risk assessment (CRA) is primarily carried out at the screening level relying on empirical relationships between chemical properties and tested toxicity effects. Ultimately, risk to aquatic ecosystems is strongly dependent on actual exposure, which depends on chemical pr...

  6. A Chemical Activity Approach to Exposure and Risk Assessment of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobas, Frank A. P. C.; Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F.

    2018-01-01

    activity approach, its strengths and limitations, and provides examples of how this concept may be applied to the management of single chemicals and chemical mixtures. The examples demonstrate that the chemical activity approach provides a useful framework for 1) compiling and evaluating exposure......To support the goals articulated in the vision for exposure and risk assessment in the twenty-first century, we highlight the application of a thermodynamic chemical activity approach for the exposure and risk assessment of chemicals in the environment. The present article describes the chemical...... assessment. The article further illustrates that the chemical activity approach can support an adaptive management strategy for environmental stewardship of chemicals where “safe” chemical activities are established based on toxicological studies and presented as guidelines for environmental quality...

  7. Seismic assessment of existing nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines the generic approach to the seismic assessment of existing structures. It describes the role of the safety case in determining the studies carried out by the functional departments on individual projects. There is an emphasis on the role of existing information and material tests to provide realistic properties for analysis to account for possible degradation effects. Finally, a case study of a concrete containment cell is shown to illustrate the approach. (author)

  8. Comprehensive assessment of toxic chemical pollutants at Trombay region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Saradhi, I.V.; Raghunath, R.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2006-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities like industrial production and transportation, a wide range of chemical pollutants such as trace and toxic metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons etc. eventually found their way into various environmental compartments. These pollutants get distributed among soil, water bodies, air and if left unattended can cause serious health risk to all exposed ecosystem components including human beings. These compounds may produce immediate toxicity to ecosystems or exhibit long term effects such as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity or biomagnify (concentrations of pollutant increase per unit body weight) in higher trophic organism of the food chain. Thus regular monitoring of these toxic chemicals in all the environmental matrices is unquestionably essential for reclaiming our natural resources. This report describes some of the activities of Environmental Assessment Division which are having direct relevance to the public health and regulatory bodies. Extensive studies were carried out in our laboratories for the Trombay site, over the years; on the organic as well as inorganic pollution in the environment to understand inter compartmental behaviour of these chemical pollutants. In this report attempt has been made to compare the data on various toxic chemical pollutants that are being monitored regularly at Trombay site and their levels are compared with existing regulations. For monitoring, methodologies have been standardized for characterization of toxic chemical pollutants using different analytical techniques. Regular sample collection from different environmental matrices has been done. Sample analysis has been carried out using different analytical instruments such as high performance liquid chromatograph, ion chromatograph, gas chromatograph, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Major portion of the study covers Air quality monitoring of toxic chemical pollutants, as the other

  9. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  10. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  11. Chemical Dependency Regional Needs Assessment: Northeastern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Marylee

    The Minnesota Model of Chemical Dependency Treatment, which evolved from a combination of the grassroots Alcoholics Anonymous movement and the State Mental Health Services in the 1960s has made Minnesota an international leader in chemical dependency treatment efforts. Northeastern Minnesota has shared this reputation with the state. In spite of…

  12. Health effects assessment summary tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is an excellent pointer system to identify current literature or changes in assessment criteria for many chemicals of interest to Superfund. It was prepared for Superfund use by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office (ECAO-Cin) in EPA's Office of Health and Environmental Assessment. Chemicals considered are those for which Health Effects Assessment Documents, Health and Environmental Effects Profiles, Health Assessment Documents or Air Quality Criteria Documents have been prepared by ECAO. Radionuclides considered are those believed to be most common at Superfund sites. Tables summarize reference doses (RfDs) for toxicity from subchronic and chronic inhalation, oral exposure, slope factors and unit risk values for carcinogenicity based on lifetime inhalation and oral exposure, and radionuclide carcinogenicity

  13. Computational Approaches to Chemical Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luechtefeld, Thomas; Hartung, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Summary Computational prediction of toxicity has reached new heights as a result of decades of growth in the magnitude and diversity of biological data. Public packages for statistics and machine learning make model creation faster. New theory in machine learning and cheminformatics enables integration of chemical structure, toxicogenomics, simulated and physical data in the prediction of chemical health hazards, and other toxicological information. Our earlier publications have characterized a toxicological dataset of unprecedented scale resulting from the European REACH legislation (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals). These publications dove into potential use cases for regulatory data and some models for exploiting this data. This article analyzes the options for the identification and categorization of chemicals, moves on to the derivation of descriptive features for chemicals, discusses different kinds of targets modeled in computational toxicology, and ends with a high-level perspective of the algorithms used to create computational toxicology models. PMID:29101769

  14. Risk assessment of chemicals: A central European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencko, Vladimir [Institute of Hygiene, 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Ungvary, Gyoergy [National Institute of Occupational Health, Budapest (Hungary)

    1992-07-01

    During the last four decades in the Czech and Slovak federal Republic (CSFR) and Hungary, similar to the previous Soviet Union and all the Central and East European countries the prevention of the adverse health effects of chemicals in occupational and environmental settings, drinking water and food of population was intended to be achieved by determination and compulsory observance of hygienic limit values. From recent political developments it can be expected that due to the decay of the former Warsaw Pact and the related Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) the next development of risk assessment will reflect that new situation. The OECD principles of toxicity testing and risk assessment of exposure to chemicals will be sooner or later accepted in principle in the framework of a general economic integration of Central and Eastern European countries with EEC. During the 80s there was a growing feeling of the necessity to harmonize the activities of OECD and CMEA countries in the field of toxicological methodology and approaches to risk assessment of chemicals because of the growing production and mutual trade including transport of industrial and agricultural chemicals. As a contributory factor supporting this effort there was growing cross boundary air and river pollution in Europe. The former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance was an intergovernmental organization of 10 countries with a number of other countries and agencies cooperating with it in its work. CMEA as, and OECD still is concerned primarily with economic development but both had stated commitments to protecting human health and the environment. To help to mutual understanding and to promote harmonization of above mentioned obligations and commitments of the both organizations United Nation Environment Programme's International Registry of Potentially Toxic Chemicals and The International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP/IRPTC/IPCS) convened an International Consultation on

  15. Risk assessment of chemicals: A central European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencko, Vladimir; Gyoergy Ungvary

    1992-01-01

    During the last four decades in the Czech and Slovak federal Republic (CSFR) and Hungary, similar to the previous Soviet Union and all the Central and East European countries the prevention of the adverse health effects of chemicals in occupational and environmental settings, drinking water and food of population was intended to be achieved by determination and compulsory observance of hygienic limit values. From recent political developments it can be expected that due to the decay of the former Warsaw Pact and the related Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) the next development of risk assessment will reflect that new situation. The OECD principles of toxicity testing and risk assessment of exposure to chemicals will be sooner or later accepted in principle in the framework of a general economic integration of Central and Eastern European countries with EEC. During the 80s there was a growing feeling of the necessity to harmonize the activities of OECD and CMEA countries in the field of toxicological methodology and approaches to risk assessment of chemicals because of the growing production and mutual trade including transport of industrial and agricultural chemicals. As a contributory factor supporting this effort there was growing cross boundary air and river pollution in Europe. The former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance was an intergovernmental organization of 10 countries with a number of other countries and agencies cooperating with it in its work. CMEA as, and OECD still is concerned primarily with economic development but both had stated commitments to protecting human health and the environment. To help to mutual understanding and to promote harmonization of above mentioned obligations and commitments of the both organizations United Nation Environment Programme's International Registry of Potentially Toxic Chemicals and The International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP/IRPTC/IPCS) convened an International Consultation on

  16. Economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, M F; Shannon, H S

    1986-05-01

    This paper considers how the economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety can be strengthened. Its main focus is on how economic appraisal techniques, such as cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, can be adapted to the requirements of the risk-assessment process. Following a discussion of the main methodological issues raised by the use of economic appraisal, illustrated by examples from the health and safety field, a number of practical issues are discussed. These include the consideration of the distribution of costs, effects and benefits, taking account of uncertainty, risk probabilities and public perception, making the appraisal techniques useful to the early stages of the risk-assessment process and structuring the appraisal to permit continuous feedback to the participants in the risk-assessment process. It is concluded that while the way of thinking embodied in economic appraisal is highly relevant to the consideration of choices in chemical safety, the application of these principles in formal analysis of risk reduction procedures presents a more mixed picture. The main suggestions for improvement in the analyses performed are the undertaking of sensitivity analyses of study results to changes in the key assumptions, the presentation of the distribution of costs and benefits by viewpoint, the comparison of health and safety measures in terms of their incremental cost per life-year (or quality-adjusted life-year) gained and the more frequent retrospective review and revision of the economic analyses that are undertaken.

  17. A novel approach: chemical relational databases, and the role of the ISSCAN database on assessing chemical carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Richard, Ann M; Yang, Chihae

    2008-01-01

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did not contain chemical structures. Concepts and technologies originated from the structure-activity relationships science have provided powerful tools to create new types of databases, where the effective linkage of chemical toxicity with chemical structure can facilitate and greatly enhance data gathering and hypothesis generation, by permitting: a) exploration across both chemical and biological domains; and b) structure-searchability through the data. This paper reviews the main public databases, together with the progress in the field of chemical relational databases, and presents the ISSCAN database on experimental chemical carcinogens.

  18. Chemical decontamination solutions: Effects on PWR equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezze, C.M.; Colvin, E.R.; Aspden, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical objective for the nuclear industry is the reduction of personnel exposure to radiation. Reductions have been achieved through industry's radiation management programs including training and radiation awareness concepts. Increased plant maintenance and higher radiation fields at many sites continue to raise concerns. To alleviate the radiation exposure problem, the sources of radiation which contribute to personnel exposure must be removed from the plant. A feasible was of significantly reducing these sources from a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is to chemically decontaminate the entire reactor coolant system (RCS). A program was conducted to determine the technical acceptability of using certain dilute chemical solvent processes for full RCS chemical decontamination. The two processes evaluated were CAN-DEREM and LOMI. The purpose of the program was to define and complete a systematic evaluation of the major issues that need to be addressed for the successful decontamination of the entire RCS and affected portions of the auxiliary systems of a four-loop PWR system. A test program was designed to evaluate the corrosion effects of the two decontamination processes under expected plant conditions. Materials and sample configurations dictated by generic PWR components were evaluated. The testing also included many standard corrosion coupons. The test data were then used to assess the impact of chemical decontamination on the physical condition and operability of the components, equipment and mechanical systems that make up the RCS. An overview of the test program, sample configurations, data and engineering evaluations is presented. The data demonstrate that through detailed engineering evaluations of corrosion data and equipment function, the impact of full RCS chemical decontamination on plant equipment is established

  19. ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    KEY WORDS: Physico-chemical, Pollution, Irrigation, Tsaeda Agam River ... Rivers are the main sources of both drinking water and irrigation for agriculture. They also ..... Suspended solids are present in sanitary wastewater and many types of.

  20. Structure, solvent, and relativistic effects on the NMR chemical shifts in square-planar transition-metal complexes: assessment of DFT approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vícha, J.; Novotný, J.; Straka, Michal; Repisky, M.; Ruud, K.; Komorovsky, S.; Marek, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 38 (2015), s. 24944-24955 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03564S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR chemical shifts * transition metal complexes * relativistic effects * method calibration Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.449, year: 2015 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/cp/c5cp04214c

  1. Development of an in vitro test battery for assessing chemical effects on bovine germ cells under the ReProTect umbrella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, Giovanna; Tessaro, Irene; Crotti, Gabriella; Galli, Cesare; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Bremer, Susanne; Pellizzer, Cristian

    2008-01-01

    Current European legislation for the registration and authorisation of chemicals (REACH) will require a dramatic increase in the use of animals for reproductive toxicity testing. Since one objective of REACH is to use vertebrates only as last resort, the development and validation of alternative methods is urgently needed. For this purpose ReProTect, an integrated research project funded by the European Union, joining together 33 partners with complementary expertise in reproductive toxicology, was designed. The study presented here describes a battery of two tests developed within ReProTect. The objective of these tests is the detection of chemical effects during the processes of oocyte maturation and fertilisation in a bovine model. The corresponding toxicological endpoints are the reaching of metaphase II and the formation of the pronuclei respectively. Fifteen chemicals have been tested (Benzo[a]pyrene, Busulfan, Butylparaben, Cadmium Chloride, Carbendazim, Cycloheximide, Diethylstilbestrol, Genistein, Ionomycin, Ketoconazole, Lindane, Methylacetoacetate, Mifepristone, Nocodazole and DMSO as solvent) demonstrating high intra-laboratory reproducibility of the tests. Furthermore, the responses obtained in both tests, for several substances, had a good correlation with the available in vivo and in vitro data. These tests therefore, could predictably become part of an integrated testing strategy that combines the bovine models with additional in vitro tests, in order to predict chemical hazards on mammalian fertility

  2. Thyroid effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Main, Katharina M

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many studies of thyroid-disrupting effects of environmental chemicals have been published. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid disruption of the developing organism may have deleterious effects on neurological outcome. Chemicals may exert ...... thyroid-disrupting effects, and there is emerging evidence that also phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals may have thyroid disrupting properties....

  3. A study of the ionizing radiation effect on some chemical changes in irradiated soy-bean flour, and its biological value assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Katsareva, Ts.

    1985-01-01

    The results of the assessment of a number of chemical indicators are presented, namely: formation of free radicals in defatted soy-bean flour irradiated with 10 kGy using EPR-spectrometry, alteration in the residual lipid fraction, estimated by the UV spectrometry and TB test. Assessment of the biological value of protein is done on the basis of the protein efficiency coefficient (PEC). For the purpose two kinds of synthetic diets, including 10% soy-bean protein, are employed. Growing rats of the Wistar line (body weight 55 g) are used in the experiment. The amino acid profile of irradiated and non-irradiated soy-bean flour is also outlined. The obtained results indicate that the amount of free radicals, found in soy-bean flour irradiated with dose 10 kGy,is approximately 11 times larger than in flour irradiated with 5 kGy. Changes in the UV spectrum of the lipid fraction are likewise disclosed

  4. Chemical equivalence assessment of three brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assay for content of active ingredients is a critical test of drug quality; failure to meet up the standard for content of active ingredients will result to sub therapeutic quantities. Three brands (A, B and C) of carbamazepine were assayed to determine their chemical equivalence as well as their anticonvulsant activities. This was ...

  5. Microbiological Quality Assessment and Physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two commercial poultry diets namely chick mash and grower mash were obtained from five (5) major poultry feed millers in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. A total of seventy – five (75) samples were collected and these diets were examined for their microbiological and physico-chemical qualities. Total bacterial counts in the chick ...

  6. Space, time, and chemical risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to manufactured chemicals is a fact of contemporary life for both humans and wildlife. In many cases, these exposures occur at safe environmental concentrations. However, spectacular exceptions have occurred (e.g., DDT and eggshell thinning, monocrotophos and Swainson&r...

  7. Assessing the Effect of Organic Compounds, Biofertilizers and Chemical Fertilizers on Morphological Properties,yield and Yield Components of Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H Saeidnejad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, using the source of organic fertilizers and biofertilizers in sustainable crop production is growing. In order to evaluate the effect of organic compounds, biofertilizers and chemical fertilizer on morphological properties, yield and yield components of forage Sorghum (sorghum bicolor a field experiment was conducted in the Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2008.The treatments were seed inoculation with the combination of Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense, Compost (15 t/ha, Vermicompost (10 t/ha, seed inoculation with Azotobacter and Azospirillum and compost (10t/ha, seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense and Vermicompost (7t/ha, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence and Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense combination, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence and compost (15t/ha, chemical fertilizer (80 kg/h urea fertilizer and 50 kg/h super phosphate fertilizer and control. Harvesting was performed in 2 cuts in flowering stage. Plant height, number of tiller per plant and SPAD reading was significantly affected by the treatments. Stem diameter was not affected by any treatments. There was a significant difference among all treatments in terms of fresh and dry forage yield. There were no significant differences among all treatments in terms of stem and leaf dry matter. In general, result of this experiment indicated that organic amendments and biofertilizers could be acceptable alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  8. Tools and perspectives for assessing chemical mixtures and multiple stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Ragas, Ad M. J.; Holmstrup, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the most important insights and findings of the EU NoMiracle project with a focus on (1) risk assessment of chemical mixtures, (2) combinations of chemical and natural stressors, and (3) the receptor-oriented approach in cumulative risk assessment. The project aimed...... is suggested. The results are discussed in the light of recent developments in risk assessment of mixtures and multiple stressors....

  9. Evaluation of a chemical risk assessment method of South Korea for chemicals classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic or reprotoxic (CMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Uk; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2017-12-12

    Chemicals were used in various fields by the development of industry and science and technology. The Chemical Hazard Risk Management (CHARM) was developed to assess the risk of chemicals in South Korea. In this study, we were to evaluate the CHARM model developed for the effective management of workplace chemicals. We used 59 carcinogenic, mutagenic or reprotoxic (CMR) materials, which are both the work environment measurement result and the usage information among the manufacturer data. The CHARM model determines the risk to human health using the exposure level (based on working environment measurements or a combination of the quantity used and chemical physical properties (e.g., fugacity and volatility)), hazard (using occupational exposure limit (OEL) or Risk phrases (R-phrases)/Hazard statements (H-statements) from the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)). The risk level was lower when using the results of the work environment measurement than when applying the chemical quantity and physical properties in the exposure level evaluation method. It was evaluated as grade 4 for the CMR material in the hazard class determination. The risk assessment method by R-phrases was evaluated more conservatively than the risk assessment method by OEL. And the risk assessment method by H-statements was evaluated more conservatively than the risk assessment method by R-phrases. The CHARM model was gradually conservatively assessed as it proceeded in the next step without quantitative information for individual workplaces. The CHARM is expected to help identify the risk if the hazards and exposure levels of chemicals were identified in individual workplaces. For CMR substances, although CHARM is highly evaluated for hazards, the risk is assessed to be low if exposure levels are assessed low. When evaluating the risk of highly hazardous chemicals such as CMR substances, we believe the model should be adapted to be more conservative and classify these as higher risk. This work is

  10. Managing major chemical accidents in China: Towards effective risk information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Guizhen; Zhang Lei; Lu Yonglong; Mol, Arthur P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical industries, from their very inception, have been controversial due to the high risks they impose on safety of human beings and the environment. Recent decades have witnessed increasing impacts of the accelerating expansion of chemical industries and chemical accidents have become a major contributor to environmental and health risks in China. This calls for the establishment of an effective chemical risk management system, which requires reliable, accurate and comprehensive data in the first place. However, the current chemical accident-related data system is highly fragmented and incomplete, as different responsible authorities adopt different data collection standards and procedures for different purposes. In building a more comprehensive, integrated and effective information system, this article: (i) reviews and assesses the existing data sources and data management, (ii) analyzes data on 976 recorded major hazardous chemical accidents in China over the last 40 years, and (iii) identifies the improvements required for developing integrated risk management in China.

  11. Development and assessment of frying characteristics, chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Completely randomized design was used to assess and compare frying characteristics, proximate and vitamin A contents between samples with bread types being the principal factor while Randomised complete Block design was used to assess sensory properties and consumer acceptability of the bread samples with ...

  12. Exposure Assessment Tools by Chemical Classes - Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  13. Objective, Quantitative, Data-Driven Assessment of Chemical Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolin, Albert A; Tym, Joseph E; Komianou, Angeliki; Collins, Ian; Workman, Paul; Al-Lazikani, Bissan

    2018-02-15

    Chemical probes are essential tools for understanding biological systems and for target validation, yet selecting probes for biomedical research is rarely based on objective assessment of all potential compounds. Here, we describe the Probe Miner: Chemical Probes Objective Assessment resource, capitalizing on the plethora of public medicinal chemistry data to empower quantitative, objective, data-driven evaluation of chemical probes. We assess >1.8 million compounds for their suitability as chemical tools against 2,220 human targets and dissect the biases and limitations encountered. Probe Miner represents a valuable resource to aid the identification of potential chemical probes, particularly when used alongside expert curation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of chemical emissions in life cycle impact assessment - focus on low substance data availability and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2004-01-01

    impact approaches, i.e. the assessment factor-based PNEC approach and the PAF-based approach, shows pros and cons for both. However, taking the comparative nature of LCA and its aim for best estimate into account, and combining this with the possibilities for reducing the data demand of an EC50-based PAF......Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies on products or services seem generally to be carried out without a proper inclusion of potential toxic impacts from emissions of chemicals. The first goal of the thesis is to investigate this statement and to clarify whether or not the outcome of an LCA can...... of substance data on known emissions. To be able to characterize the potential toxic impacts on humans and the environment of chemical emissions, substance data on fate and effect are needed. The second goal of this thesis is to investigate how to deal with low substance data availability on especially effect...

  15. The assessment of treated wastewater quality and the effects of mid-term irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties (case study: Bandargaz-treated wastewater)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboosi, Kami

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of inflow and outflow wastewater of the Bandargaz wastewater treatment plant on the basis of the data collection of operation period and the samples taken during the study. Also the effects of mid-term use of the wastewater for irrigation (from 2005 to 2013) on soil physical and chemical characteristics were studied. For this purpose, 4 samples were taken from the inflow and outflow wastewater and 25 quality parameters were measured. Also, the four soil samples from a depth of 0-30 cm of two rice field irrigated with wastewater in the beginning and middle of the planting season and two samples from one adjacent rice field irrigated with fresh water were collected and their chemical and physical characteristics were determined. Average of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium adsorption ratio, chemical oxygen demand and 5 days biochemical oxygen demand in treated wastewater were 1.35 dS/m, 707 ppm, 0.93, 80 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. Results showed that although some restrictions exist about chlorine and bicarbonate, the treated wastewater is suitable for irrigation based on national and international standards and criteria. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused a little increase of soil salinity. However, it did not lead to increase of soil salinity beyond rice salinity threshold. Also, there were no restrictions on soil in the aspect of salinity and sodium hazard on the basis of many irrigated soil classifications. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused the increase of total N, absorbable P and absorbable K in soil due to high concentration of those elements in treated wastewater.

  16. A preliminary assessment of the chemical and microbial water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary assessment of the chemical and microbial water quality of the Chunies River - Limpopo: short communication. ... For this purpose sampling was undertaken on 25 and 26 May 2002, and a range of chemical (macro-elements, micro-elements and heavy metals) and microbial variables (HPC, total coliforms and ...

  17. Gut microbiota in toxicological risk assessment of drugs and chemicals: The need of hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Ganesan

    2018-03-06

    The advent of industrial revolution caused a large inflow of synthetic chemicals for medical, agricultural, industrial and other purposes in the world. In general, these chemicals were subjected to toxicological risk assessment for human health and ecology before release for public use. But today we are witnessing a negative impact of some of these chemicals on human health and environment indicating an underestimation of toxic effects by current risk assessment protocol. Recent studies established gut microbiota as one of the key player in intercession of toxicity of drugs and synthetic chemicals. Hence, the need of the hour is to include the assessment for microbiota specifically gut microbiota in human toxicological risk assessment protocol. Herewith we are proposing a framework for assessment of gut microbiota upon exposure to drugs or chemicals.

  18. Towards a Life Cycle Based Chemical Alternative Assessment (LCAA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, O.; Huang, L.; Overcash, Michael

    2017-01-01

    approach combines the following elements: a) The manufacturing phase chemical inventory is based on the environmental genome of industrial products database, ensuring mass and energy balance, b) near-field exposure to consumer products during the use phase is determined based on the mass of chemical......There is a need for an operational quantitative screening-level assessment of alternatives, that is life-cycle based and able to serve both Life cycle Assessment (LCA and chemical alternatives assessment (CAA). This presentation therefore aims to develop and illustrate a new approach called “Life...... Cycle Based Chemical Alternative Assessment (LCAA)” that will quantify exposure and life cycle impacts consistently and efficiently over the main life cycle stages. The new LCAA approach is illustrated though a proof-of-concept case study of alternative plasticizers in vinyl flooring. The proposed LCAA...

  19. Assessing Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals In Landfills, Solid Waste Sites and Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers are assessing waste water effluents to measure their effects on ecosystems and aquatic animals while also developing innovative solutions to reduce concentrations of potential endocrine disrupting chemicals.

  20. Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The methods for the dermal exposure assessment vary in their complexity and are in some sense complementary to each other. The most easy-to-use methods involve a pseudo-skin-approach, such as gloves and removal by washing. In some cases generic modelling appears to be possible. The experimental

  1. Chemical effects of fission recoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisels, G.G.; Freeman, J.P.; Gregory, J.P.; Richardson, W.C.; Sroka, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    The production of nitrogen from nitrous oxide at high density was employed to investigate the energy deposition efficiency of fission recoils produced from fission of U 235 in uranium-palladium foils clad with platinum. Nitrogen production varied linearly with fission recoil dose from 1.1 x 10 20 to 9.0 x 10 20 eV, and was independent of density between 12.5 and 127.5 g l -1 N 2 O. 16.2 +- 0.8% of the fission recoil energy was deposited external to the foil. Electron microprobe analysis showed some unevenness of new foil and polymer buildup on the surface after irradiation of ethylene-oxygen mixtures. Subsequent irradiation in the presence of nitrous oxide restored some of the original efficiency. This is ascribed to chemical oxidation of the polymer induced by reactive intermediates produced from nitrous oxide. (author)

  2. Prevalence and effects of multiple chemical sensitivities in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Steinemann

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS is a medical condition associated with exposure to common chemical pollutants. The aims of this study are to assess the prevalence of MCS, its overlaps with asthma and fragrance sensitivity, and its health and societal effects in Australia. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample (N = 1098 of adults (ages 18–65 in Australia. Results found that, across the country, 6.5% report medically diagnosed MCS, 18.9% report chemical sensitivity (being unusually sensitive to everyday chemicals and chemically formulated products, and 19.9% either or both. Among people with MCS, 74.6% also have diagnosed asthma or an asthma-like condition, and 91.5% have fragrance sensitivity, reporting health problems (such as migraine headaches when exposed to fragranced consumer products (such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies. In addition, among people with MCS, 77.5% are prevented from access to places because of fragranced products, 52.1% lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace, and 55.4% report health effects considered potentially disabling. Results indicate that MCS is a widespread disease, affecting an estimated 1 million adult Australians, with chemical sensitivity affecting another 2 million. Reducing chemical exposure to problematic sources, such as fragranced consumer products, is critical to reduce adverse effects. Keywords: MCS, Multiple chemical sensitivities, Chemical sensitivity, Asthma, Fragrance sensitivity, Fragranced consumer products

  3. Chemical and catalytic effects of ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.K.

    1982-01-01

    Energetic particles are used for inducing chemical reactions as well as for modifying the properties of materials with regard to their bulk and surface chemical behavior. The effects are partly caused by radiation damage or phase intermixing, partly by the chemical properties of the individual bombarding particles. In this contribution a survey of relevant applications of these techniques is presented: (1) Chemical reactions of implanted and recoil atoms and their use for syntheses, doping and labeling of compounds. (2) The formation of thin films by decomposing chemical compounds with ion beams. 3) Catalytic effects on substrates treated by sputtering or ion implantation. Recent results with nonmetallic substrates are reviewed. Mainly hydrogenation reactions at a solid/gas interface or redox reactions at an electrified solid/liquid interface are mentioned. The present status and future prospects of these kinds of investigations will be discussed. (author)

  4. Chemical and radiological vulnerability assessment in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities and towns are faced with various types of threat from the extraordinary events involving chemical and radiological materials as exemplified by major chemical accidents, radiological incidents, fires, explosions, traffic accidents, terrorist attacks, etc. On the other hand, many sensitive or vulnerable assets exist within cities, such as: settlements, infrastructures, hospitals, schools, churches, businesses, government, and others. Besides emergency planning, the land use planning also represents an important tool for prevention or reduction of damages on people and other assets due to unwanted events. This paper considers development of method for inclusion vulnerability assessment in land use planning with objective to assess and limit the consequences in cities of likely accidents involving hazardous materials. We made preliminary assessment of criticality and vulnerability of the assets within Belgrade city area in respect to chemical sites and transportation roads that can be exposed to chemical accidents, or terrorist attacks.

  5. The applicability of chemical alternatives assessment for engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case......, such as the use of mechanistic toxicity screens and control banding tools, alternatives assessment can be adapted to evaluate engineered nanomaterials both as potential substitutes for chemicals of concern and to ensure safer nanomaterials are incorporated in the design of new products. This article is protected...... for alternatives assessment approaches as they can be considered both emerging “chemicals” of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomaterials to traditional chemicals or to other nanomaterials is challenging and critical elements...

  6. Isotope effects on chemical equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golding, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibrium constants of three deuterated substituted acetic acids are reported. The calculation of secondary isotope effects of the second kind for the three isotopic acid pairs has been accomplished by the appropriate comparison of thermodynamic equilibrium constants, and by the comparison of isotopic slopes. The effect of substituent variation on the isotope effects reported here disqualifies the simple inductive model as a legitimate description of secondary isotope effects of the second kind. The correlation of diminishing isotope effect per deuterium atom with increasing acidity is also invalidated by the present results. The syntheses of 9-thia-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-9-oxide and thioxanthene-10-oxide are described. These compounds have been partially deuterated at their respective methylene positions. Spectral evidence indicates stereoselectivity of the methylene protons in the exchange reactions of both compounds. (author)

  7. Assessment of subsurface VOCs using a chemical microsensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batterman, S.A.; Zellers, E.T.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes the results of laboratory investigations of several performance parameters relevant to surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) chemical sensor arrays for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated soil and groundwater. The small size, low cost, sensitivity and selectivity of such instruments promise improvements in the quality and quantity of data used to guide site assessment and restoration efforts. In this investigation, calibrations were performed for 15 different coated SAW sensors. Each sensor was exposed to six VOCs selected to represent three chemical classes of contaminants that are commonly found at waste sites (i.e., aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons). A new pattern recognition method was developed for determining which coated sensors would maximize the selectivity and accuracy of quantitation for a given set of vapor contaminants. Using this method, an optimal subwet of four coated sensors was selected for testing in a prototype microsensor instrument. Additional laboratory experiments were performed with this optimized array to assess the limits of detection and linear response ranges for the representative vapors, as well as the additivity of responses to vapors in binary mixtures, temperature and humidity effects, aging effects, and other performance parameters related to the application of this technology to soil and groundwater VOC monitoring. Results demonstrate that SAW microsensor arrays can identify and quantify specific VOCs at concentrations in the μg/L to mg/L range when present alone or in simple (e.g., binary) mixtures. SAW sensor technology offers a potentially effective alternative to existing field instrumentation for headspace analysis, soil vapor monitoring, and vacuum extraction process monitoring of VOCs in subsurface media

  8. Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application

  9. Modeling exposure to persistent chemicals in hazard and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E; McLachlan, Michael S; Arnot, Jon A; Macleod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E; Wania, Frank

    2009-10-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not, thus far, been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared for evaluating the significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals in the environment. The goal of this publication is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include 1) benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk; 2) directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota, and humans to provide information to complement measurements or where measurements are not available or are limited; 3) to identify the key processes and chemical or environmental parameters that determine the exposure, thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile; and 4) forecasting future time trends, including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and

  10. Chemical composition and mutagenic assessment of petrochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... could serve as indicator of the deleterious effects of these wastewaters on other organisms at the point of discharge – either on land or water bodies. The need for sound sewerage system that would protect flora and fauna in the ecosystem is advocated. Key words: Chromosome, ecosystem, heavy metal, mitosis, mutation.

  11. Thyroid effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Malene; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Main, Katharina M

    2012-05-22

    In recent years, many studies of thyroid-disrupting effects of environmental chemicals have been published. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid disruption of the developing organism may have deleterious effects on neurological outcome. Chemicals may exert thyroid effects through a variety of mechanisms of action, and some animal experiments and in vitro studies have focused on elucidating the mode of action of specific chemical compounds. Long-term human studies on effects of environmental chemicals on thyroid related outcomes such as growth and development are still lacking. The human exposure scenario with life long exposure to a vast mixture of chemicals in low doses and the large physiological variation in thyroid hormone levels between individuals render human studies very difficult. However, there is now reasonably firm evidence that PCBs have thyroid-disrupting effects, and there is emerging evidence that also phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals may have thyroid disrupting properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrating Exposure into Chemical Alternatives Assessment Using a Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that i...

  13. Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures: A Review of Mixtures Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bjarnason, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    .... Recent advances in disciplines such as genomics, proteomics, metabonomics and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling should assist in the hazard assessment of complex chemical mixtures. However, the process of regulatory assessment of these types of exposures will remain both complex and difficult.

  14. Human exposure assessment: Approaches for chemicals (REACH) and biocides (BPD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.

    2008-01-01

    The approaches that are indicated in the various guidance documents for the assessment of human exposure for chemicals and biocides are summarised. This reflects the TNsG (Technical notes for Guidance) version 2: human exposure assessment for biocidal products (1) under the BPD (Biocidal Products

  15. Deciding which chemical mixtures risk assessment methods work best for what mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuschler, Linda K.

    2007-01-01

    The most commonly used chemical mixtures risk assessment methods involve simple notions of additivity and toxicological similarity. Newer methods are emerging in response to the complexities of chemical mixture exposures and effects. Factors based on both science and policy drive decisions regarding whether to conduct a chemical mixtures risk assessment and, if so, which methods to employ. Scientific considerations are based on positive evidence of joint toxic action, elevated human exposure conditions or the potential for significant impacts on human health. Policy issues include legislative drivers that may mandate action even though adequate toxicity data on a specific mixture may not be available and risk assessment goals that impact the choice of risk assessment method to obtain the amount of health protection desired. This paper discusses three important concepts used to choose among available approaches for conducting a chemical mixtures risk assessment: (1) additive joint toxic action of mixture components; (2) toxicological interactions of mixture components; and (3) chemical composition of complex mixtures. It is proposed that scientific support for basic assumptions used in chemical mixtures risk assessment should be developed by expert panels, risk assessment methods experts, and laboratory toxicologists. This is imperative to further develop and refine quantitative methods and provide guidance on their appropriate applications. Risk assessors need scientific support for chemical mixtures risk assessment methods in the form of toxicological data on joint toxic action for high priority mixtures, statistical methods for analyzing dose-response for mixtures, and toxicological and statistical criteria for determining sufficient similarity of complex mixtures

  16. Should the scope of human mixture risk assessment span legislative/regulatory silos for chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard M; Martin, Olwenn V; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Current chemicals regulation operates almost exclusively on a chemical-by-chemical basis, however there is concern that this approach may not be sufficiently protective if two or more chemicals have the same toxic effect. Humans are indisputably exposed to more than one chemical at a time, for example to the multiple chemicals found in food, air and drinking water, and in household and consumer products, and in cosmetics. Assessment of cumulative risk to human health and/or the environment from multiple chemicals and routes can be done in a mixture risk assessment (MRA). Whilst there is a broad consensus on the basic science of mixture toxicology, the path to regulatory implementation of MRA within chemical risk assessment is less clear. In this discussion piece we pose an open question: should the scope of human MRA cross legislative remits or 'silos'? We define silos as, for instance, legislation that defines risk assessment practice for a subset of chemicals, usually on the basis of substance/product, media or process orientation. Currently any form of legal mandate for human MRA in the EU is limited to only a few pieces of legislation. We describe two lines of evidence, illustrated with selected examples, that are particularly pertinent to this question: 1) evidence that mixture effects have been shown for chemicals regulated in different silos and 2) evidence that humans are co-exposed to chemicals from different silos. We substantiate the position that, because there is no reason why chemicals allocated to specific regulatory silos would have non-overlapping risk profiles, then there is also no reason to expect that MRA limited only to chemicals within one silo can fully capture the risk that may be present to human consumers. Finally, we discuss possible options for implementation of MRA and we hope to prompt wider discussion of this issue. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing Effect of Manure and Chemical Fertilizer on Net Primary Production, Soil Respiration and Carbon Budget in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Ecosystem under Mashhad Climatic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y alizade

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The imbalance between anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and the sequestration of CO2 from the atmosphere by ecosystems has led to an increase in the average concentration of this greenhouse gas (GHG in the atmosphere. Enhancing carbon sequestration in soil is an important issue to reduce net flux of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Soil organic carbon content is obtained from the difference between carbon input resulting from plant biomass and carbon losses the soil through different ways including soil respiration. CO2 emission varies largely during the year and is considerably affected by management type. The goal of this investigation was to study the effects of application of manure and chemical fertilizer on CO2 flux and carbon balance in agricultural system. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the carbon dynamics and effect of fertilizer and manure management on soil respiration and carbon budget for winter wheat, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications in research field of Faculty of Agriculture of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad for two years of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 . The experimental treatments were 150 and 250 kg chemical nitrogen (N1 and N2, manure (M, manure plus chemical nitrogen (F-M and control (C. CO2 emission was measured six times during growth season and to minimize daily temperature variation error, the measurement was performed between 8 to 11 am. Chambers length and diameter were 50 cm and 30 cm respectively and their edges were held down 3 cm in soil in time of sampling so that no plant live mass was present in the chamber. Carbon budgets were estimated for two years using an ecological technique. Results and Discussion The net primary production (NPP was significantly higher in the F2 and F-M treatments with 6467 and 6294kg ha-1 in the first year and 6260 and 6410 kg ha-1 in the second year, respectively. The highest shoot to root ratio was obtained in

  18. Health risk assessment for chemical exposures of military interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Polhuijs, M.; Sijbranda, T.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in military operations is accompanied by health hazards resulting from exposure to chemical substances from natural and anthropogenic sources. Historically, focus on toxicological risks has been on the health effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents (CW A). In recent years the

  19. Chemical alternatives assessment: the case of flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    Decisions on chemical substitution are made rapidly and by many stakeholders; these decisions may have a direct impact on consumer exposures, and, when a hazard exists, to consumer risks. Flame retardants (FRs) represent particular challenges, including very high production volumes, designed-in persistence, and often direct consumer exposure. Newer FR products, as with other industrial chemicals, typically lack data on hazard and exposure, and in many cases even basic information on structure and use in products is unknown. Chemical alternatives assessment (CAA) provides a hazard-focused approach to distinguishing between possible substitutions; variations on this process are used by several government and numerous corporate entities. By grouping chemicals according to functional use, some information on exposure potential can be inferred, allowing for decisions based on those hazard properties that are most distinguishing. This approach can help prevent the "regrettable substitution" of one chemical with another of equal, or even higher, risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

    2010-01-01

    The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

  1. From incremental to fundamental substitution in chemical alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Weber, Roland; Scheringer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    to similarity in chemical structures and, hence, similar hazard profiles between phase-out and substitute chemicals, leading to a rather incremental than fundamental substitution. A hampered phase-out process, the lack of implementing Green Chemistry principles in chemicals design, and lack of Sustainable...... an integrated approach of all stakeholders involved toward more fundamental and function-based substitution by greener and more sustainable alternatives. Our recommendations finally constitute a starting point for identifying further research needs and for improving current alternatives assessment practice....

  2. Chemical effects in the mine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The main objective of the workshop was to bring together, and get talking to each other, long-term safety modellers, geochemical modellers and experimenters working in the field of chemical effects, and to give an insight into their respective activity areas and problem constellations. Lectures on the following subjects were given: modelling of chemical effects in long-term safety analysis; influence of brines; corrosion experiments; sorption experiments; actinide chemistry experiments; geochemical modelling; requirements of safety analyses and geochemical modelling. The workshop concluded with a detailed discussion of the subjects raised and of interdisciplinary aspects. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Assessment and management of chemical exposure in the Mohs laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunson, Todd H; Smith, Harvey R; Vinciullo, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The correct handling, storage, and disposal of chemicals used in the processing of tissue for Mohs micrographic surgery are essential. To identify the chemicals involved in the preparation of Mohs frozen sections and assess the associated occupational health risks. To quantify exposure levels of hazardous chemicals and ensure that they are minimized. A risk assessment form was completed for each chemical. Atmospheric sampling was performed at our previous laboratory for formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds. These data were used in the design of our new facility, where testing was repeated. Twenty-five chemicals were identified. Ten were classified as hazardous substances, 10 were flammable, six had specific disposal requirements, four were potential carcinogens, and three were potential teratogens. Formaldehyde readings at our previous laboratory were up to eight times the national exposure standard. Testing at the new laboratory produced levels well below the exposure standards. Chemical exposure within the Mohs laboratory can present a significant occupational hazard. Acutely toxic and potentially carcinogenic formaldehyde was found at high levels in a relatively standard laboratory configuration. A laboratory can be designed with a combination of physical environment and operational protocols that minimizes hazards and creates a safe working environment. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  4. Structure activity relationships to assess new chemicals under TSCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auletta, A.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), manufacturers must notify the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 90 days before manufacturing, processing, or importing a new chemical substance. This is referred to as a premanufacture notice (PMN). The PMN must contain certain information including chemical identity, production volume, proposed uses, estimates of exposure and release, and any health or environmental test data that are available to the submitter. Because there is no explicit statutory authority that requires testing of new chemicals prior to their entry into the market, most PMNs are submitted with little or no data. As a result, EPA has developed special techniques for hazard assessment of PMN chemicals. These include (1) evaluation of available data on the chemical itself, (2) evaluation of data on analogues of the PMN, or evaluation of data on metabolites or analogues of metabolites of the PMN, (3) use of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), and (4) knowledge and judgement of scientific assessors in the interpretation and integration of the information developed in the course of the assessment. This approach to evaluating potential hazards of new chemicals is used to identify those that are most in need of addition review of further testing. It should not be viewed as a replacement for testing. 4 tabs.

  5. Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: A role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Maryoung, Lindley A.; Noyes, Pamela D.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between chemicals and target molecules. In addition, GCC challenges processes critical for coping with the external environment (water balance, thermoregulation, nutrition, and the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems), leaving organisms sensitive to even slight perturbations by chemicals when pushed to the limits of their physiological tolerance range. In simplest terms, GCC can make organisms more sensitive to chemical stressors, while alternatively, exposure to chemicals can make organisms more sensitive to GCC stressors. One challenge is to identify potential interactions between nonchemical and chemical stressors affecting key physiological processes in an organism. We employed adverse outcome pathways, constructs depicting linkages between mechanism-based molecular initiating events and impacts on individuals or populations, to assess how chemical- and climate-specific variables interact to lead to adverse outcomes. Case examples are presented for prospective scenarios, hypothesizing potential chemical–GCC interactions, and retrospective scenarios, proposing mechanisms for demonstrated chemical–climate interactions in natural populations. Understanding GCC interactions along adverse outcome pathways facilitates extrapolation between species or other levels of organization, development of hypotheses and focal areas for further research, and improved inputs for risk and resource injury assessments.

  6. Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of nutritional potentials of almond fruit waste as an alternative feedstuff for livestock. ... AFW using day-old cockerels and considering performance parameters showed that treated AFW improved feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio even better ...

  7. Assessment of Physicochemical and Major Chemical Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to assess the physicochemical and major chemical parameters of water springs in Iddo Wara Wale area of Dale Sadi district of Kellem Wollega, Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 20 L samples were collected from five densely populated springs, namely: Ittisa, Abba Moga, Kersa, Ele Gonda and Merfata ...

  8. Assessment of chemical properties of tropical peatland soil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical assessment of the peatland in oil palm plantation in South Selangor Peatland Swamp in Malaysia were evaluated in this study. Soil samples were obtained from fifteen (15) different locations within the study area at three different depths of 0.5m, 1.5 m, and 2.5 m in three replicates at each depth, using peat ...

  9. Microbiological and chemical assessment of spring water from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of spring water from Ikare-Akoko, a rural setting in southwest, Nigeria for microbial and chemical contaminants was carried out. Total heterotrophic bacteria count of 4.0 x 106 CFU/mL was highest during the peak of the rainy season in Omi-idu spring (Igbede community) while the lowest population of 0.14 x106 ...

  10. How does EPA assess risks of chemicals to birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluates the risk of chemicals to birds and other non-target organisms using Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA). The specific evaluations conducted under an ERA typically vary by statutory authority and available data. Under the Fede...

  11. Geometrical criteria versus quantum chemical criteria for assessment of intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) interaction: A computational comparison into the effect of chlorine substitution on IMHB of salicylic acid in its lowest energy ground state conformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India); Guchhait, Nikhil, E-mail: nikhil.guchhait@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IMHB) in salicylic acid and its chloro derivatives. ► A complex effect of +R and −I effect of chlorine substituents on IMHB energy. ► Interplay between IMHB energy and aromaticity. ► Directional nature of IMHB from quantum chemical assessment. ► Quantum chemical treatment vs. geometrical criteria to assess weak interaction. - Abstract: Density functional theory based computational study has been performed to characterize intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IMHB) interaction in a series of salicylic acid derivatives varying in chlorine substitution on the benzene ring. The molecular systems studied are salicylic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 3,5-dichlorosalicylic acid and 3,5,6-tricholorosalicylic acid. Major emphasis is rendered on the analysis of IMHB interaction by calculation of electron density ρ(r) and Laplacian ∇{sup 2}ρ(r) at the bond critical point using atoms-in-molecule theory. Topological features, energy densities based on ρ(r) through perturbing the intramolecular H-bond distances suggest that at equilibrium geometry the IMHB interaction develops certain characteristics typical of covalent interaction. The interplay between aromaticity and resonance-assisted hydrogen bonding (RAHB) is discussed using both geometrical and magnetic criteria as the descriptors of aromaticity. The optimized geometry features, molecular electrostatic potential map analysis are also found to produce a consensus view in relation with the formation of RAHB in these systems.

  12. Geometrical criteria versus quantum chemical criteria for assessment of intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) interaction: A computational comparison into the effect of chlorine substitution on IMHB of salicylic acid in its lowest energy ground state conformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IMHB) in salicylic acid and its chloro derivatives. ► A complex effect of +R and −I effect of chlorine substituents on IMHB energy. ► Interplay between IMHB energy and aromaticity. ► Directional nature of IMHB from quantum chemical assessment. ► Quantum chemical treatment vs. geometrical criteria to assess weak interaction. - Abstract: Density functional theory based computational study has been performed to characterize intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IMHB) interaction in a series of salicylic acid derivatives varying in chlorine substitution on the benzene ring. The molecular systems studied are salicylic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 3,5-dichlorosalicylic acid and 3,5,6-tricholorosalicylic acid. Major emphasis is rendered on the analysis of IMHB interaction by calculation of electron density ρ(r) and Laplacian ∇ 2 ρ(r) at the bond critical point using atoms-in-molecule theory. Topological features, energy densities based on ρ(r) through perturbing the intramolecular H-bond distances suggest that at equilibrium geometry the IMHB interaction develops certain characteristics typical of covalent interaction. The interplay between aromaticity and resonance-assisted hydrogen bonding (RAHB) is discussed using both geometrical and magnetic criteria as the descriptors of aromaticity. The optimized geometry features, molecular electrostatic potential map analysis are also found to produce a consensus view in relation with the formation of RAHB in these systems

  13. Holistic Metrics for Assessment of the Greenness of Chemical Reactions in the Context of Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adelio A. S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Two new semiquantitative green chemistry metrics, the green circle and the green matrix, have been developed for quick assessment of the greenness of a chemical reaction or process, even without performing the experiment from a protocol if enough detail is provided in it. The evaluation is based on the 12 principles of green chemistry. The…

  14. Can water quality of tubewells be assessed without chemical testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad A.; Butler, Adrian P.

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic is one of the major pollutants found in aquifers on a global scale. The screening of tubewells for arsenic has helped many people to avoid drinking from highly polluted wells in the Bengal Delta (West Bengal and Bangladesh). However, there are still many millions of tubewells in Bangladesh yet to be tested, and a substantial proportion of these are likely to contain excessive arsenic. Due to the level of poverty and lack of infrastructure, it is unlikely that the rest of the tubewells will be tested quickly. However, water quality assessment without needing a chemical testing may be helpful in this case. Studies have found that qualitative factors, such as staining in the tubewell basement and/or on utensils, can indicate subsurface geology and water quality. The science behind this staining is well established, red staining is associated with iron reduction leading to release of arsenic whilst black staining is associated with manganese reduction (any release of arsenic due to manganese reduction is sorbed back on the, yet to be reduced, iron), whereas mixed staining may indicate overlapping manganese and iron reduction at the tubewell screen. Reduction is not uniform everywhere and hence chemical water quality including dissolved arsenic varies from place to place. This is why coupling existing tubewell arsenic information with user derived staining data could be useful in predicting the arsenic status at a particular site. Using well location, depth, along with colour of staining, an assessment of both good (nutrients) and bad (toxins and pathogens) substances in the tubewell could be provided. Social-network technology, combined with increasing use of smartphones, provides a powerful opportunity for both sharing and providing feedback to the user. Here we outline how a simple digital application can couple the reception both qualitative and quantitative tubewell data into a centralised interactive database and provide manipulated feedback to an

  15. [DIFFERENT APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL RISK ASSESSMENT IN LABORATORIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporossi, Lidia; Papaleo, Bruno; Capanna, Silvia; Calicchia, Sara; Marcellini, Laura; De Rosa, Mariangela; Castellano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the different approaches used for chemical risk assessment, in relation to the perception of riskfor operators, in some research laboratories of a hospital in Rome. All information regarding the chemicals used for the application of three algorithmic models for chemical risk assessment ("Movarisch", "Inforisk", "Archimede") were collected. An environmental and biological monitoring and a study on the combined exposure to multiple chemicals using the World Health Organization proposed steps were carried out. A questionnaire was prepared for the identification of risk perception. An estimation of chemical risk with algorithms was compared with data from monitoring: findings showed that estimated risk was higher than those identified with airborne or urine concentrations, always under their limit values. The study of multiple exposure showed a possible cumulative risk, in some cases, but the conditions of use (volume and time) often bring to a reduced one. The perception of risk attributed to the monitored hazardous substances showed a correct perception in all laboratories and for all workers, with regard to the substances manipulated.

  16. Health risk assessment of chemical pollutants in a petrochemical complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Golbabaie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: workers in petrochemical industries are exposed to various contaminants and are facing to serious hazards, therefore a comprehensive risk assessment program for identification of hazardous chemicals that affect human health and also determination of hazardous tasks and processes is necessary.     Methods : This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in three stages. First stage consisted of identifying hazardous chemicals and determination of chemicals risk ratio, the second stage included the evaluation of worker's exposure to hazardous chemicals, and the third stage was estimating the relative risk of blood cancer caused by exposure to benzene through epidemiological studies.     Results: With regard to risk assessment method, 40 chemicals were identified in this Petrochemical Company. Among them, Benzene introduced as the most hazardous chemical. The results of the second stage showed that site man workers in noon shift work and in aromatic site with mean exposure 4.29 ppm had the highest exposure to benzene. The results of estimated leukemia relative risk stage in benzene exposure, the highest relative risk in workers related to site man workers in aromatic units with cumulative benzene exposure of 4.149 ppm. Years that obtained the relative risk of 2.3. The statistical test results showed that the relationship between worker's exposure to benzene and their job was significant(p<0/001     Conclusion : This study showed that benzene with a risk ratio of 4.5 -5 have 5th rank in risk levels and this indicates that preventative actions regarding to this hazardous and carcinogenic chemical must be started as soon as possible.

  17. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...... residues in connection with the installation of the pipelines. Novel exposure and toxicity assessments are presented and the risk is assessed. The overall conclusion is that there is a negligible acute added CWA risk towards the fish community from the installation of the pipelines....

  18. Current methods in risk assessment of genotoxic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartus, Alexander; Schrenk, Dieter

    2017-08-01

    Chemical contaminants and residues are undesired chemicals occurring in consumer products such as food and drugs, at the workplace and in the environment, i.e. in air, soil and water. These compounds can be detected even at very low concentrations and lead frequently to considerable concerns among consumers and in the media. Thus it is a major challenge for modern toxicology to provide transparent and versatile tools for the risk assessment of such compounds in particular with respect to human health. Well-known examples of toxic contaminants are dioxins or mercury (in the environment), mycotoxins (from infections by molds) or acrylamide (from thermal treatment of food). The process of toxicological risk assessment of such chemicals is based on i) the knowledge of their contents in food, air, water etc., ii) the routes and extent of exposure of humans, iii) the toxicological properties of the compound, and, iv) its mode(s) of action. In this process quantitative dose-response relationships, usually in experimental animals, are of outstanding importance. For a successful risk assessment, in particular of genotoxic chemicals, several conditions and models such as the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach or the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) concept exist, which will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk assessment of chemicals in foundries: The International Chemical Toolkit pilot-project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcela G.; Filho, Walter R.P.

    2006-01-01

    In Brazil, problems regarding protection from hazardous substances in small-sized enterprises are similar to those observed in many other countries. Looking for a simple tool to assess and control such exposures, FUNDACENTRO has started in 2005 a pilot-project to implement the International Chemical Control Toolkit. During the series of visits to foundries, it was observed that although many changes have occurred in foundry technology, occupational exposures to silica dust and metal fumes continue to occur, due to a lack of perception of occupational exposure in the work environment. After introducing the Chemical Toolkit concept to the foundry work group, it was possible to show that the activities undertaken to improve the management of chemicals, according to its concept, will support companies in fulfilling government legislations related to chemical management, occupational health and safety, and environmental impact. In the following meetings, the foundry work group and FUNDACENTRO research team will identify 'inadequate work situations'. Based on the Chemical Toolkit, improvement measures will be proposed. Afterwards, a survey will verify the efficency of those measures in the control of hazards and consequently on the management of chemicals. This step is now in course

  20. A method for assessing residual NAPL based on organic chemical concentrations in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Mackay, D.M.; Cherry, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Ground water contamination by non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals is a serious concern at many industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. NAPL in the form of immobile residual contamination, or pools of mobile or potentially mobile NAPL, can represent continuing sources of ground water contamination. In order to develop rational and cost-effective plans for remediation of soil and ground water contamination at such sites, it is essential to determine if non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals are present in the subsurface and delineate the zones of NAPL contamination. Qualitatively, soil analyses that exhibit chemical concentrations in the percent range or >10,000 mg/kg would generally be considered to indicate the presence of NAPL. However, the results of soil analyses are seldom used in a quantitative manner to assess the possible presence of residual NAPL contamination when chemical concentrations are lower and the presence of NAPL is not obvious. The assessment of the presence of NAPL in soil samples is possible using the results of chemical and physical analyses of the soil, and the fundamental principles of chemical partitioning in unsaturated or saturated soil. The method requires information on the soil of the type typically considered in ground water contamination studies and provides a simple tool for the investigators of chemical spill and waste disposal sites to assess whether soil chemical analyses indicate the presence of residual NAPL in the subsurface

  1. Prioritizing Chemicals and Data Requirements for Screening-Level Exposure and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Trevor N.; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; McLachlan, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Scientists and regulatory agencies strive to identify chemicals that may cause harmful effects to humans and the environment; however, prioritization is challenging because of the large number of chemicals requiring evaluation and limited data and resources. Objectives: We aimed to prioritize chemicals for exposure and exposure potential and obtain a quantitative perspective on research needs to better address uncertainty in screening assessments. Methods: We used a multimedia mass balance model to prioritize > 12,000 organic chemicals using four far-field human exposure metrics. The propagation of variance (uncertainty) in key chemical information used as model input for calculating exposure metrics was quantified. Results: Modeled human concentrations and intake rates span approximately 17 and 15 orders of magnitude, respectively. Estimates of exposure potential using human concentrations and a unit emission rate span approximately 13 orders of magnitude, and intake fractions span 7 orders of magnitude. The actual chemical emission rate contributes the greatest variance (uncertainty) in exposure estimates. The human biotransformation half-life is the second greatest source of uncertainty in estimated concentrations. In general, biotransformation and biodegradation half-lives are greater sources of uncertainty in modeled exposure and exposure potential than chemical partition coefficients. Conclusions: Mechanistic exposure modeling is suitable for screening and prioritizing large numbers of chemicals. By including uncertainty analysis and uncertainty in chemical information in the exposure estimates, these methods can help identify and address the important sources of uncertainty in human exposure and risk assessment in a systematic manner. PMID:23008278

  2. Prioritizing chemicals and data requirements for screening-level exposure and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnot, Jon A; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; McLachlan, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    Scientists and regulatory agencies strive to identify chemicals that may cause harmful effects to humans and the environment; however, prioritization is challenging because of the large number of chemicals requiring evaluation and limited data and resources. We aimed to prioritize chemicals for exposure and exposure potential and obtain a quantitative perspective on research needs to better address uncertainty in screening assessments. We used a multimedia mass balance model to prioritize > 12,000 organic chemicals using four far-field human exposure metrics. The propagation of variance (uncertainty) in key chemical information used as model input for calculating exposure metrics was quantified. Modeled human concentrations and intake rates span approximately 17 and 15 orders of magnitude, respectively. Estimates of exposure potential using human concentrations and a unit emission rate span approximately 13 orders of magnitude, and intake fractions span 7 orders of magnitude. The actual chemical emission rate contributes the greatest variance (uncertainty) in exposure estimates. The human biotransformation half-life is the second greatest source of uncertainty in estimated concentrations. In general, biotransformation and biodegradation half-lives are greater sources of uncertainty in modeled exposure and exposure potential than chemical partition coefficients. Mechanistic exposure modeling is suitable for screening and prioritizing large numbers of chemicals. By including uncertainty analysis and uncertainty in chemical information in the exposure estimates, these methods can help identify and address the important sources of uncertainty in human exposure and risk assessment in a systematic manner.

  3. EFFECT OF FEEDBACK IN FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT IN THE STUDENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES ON CHEMICAL COURSE TO THE FORMATION OF HABITS OF MIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahadi -

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find the impact of feedback in formative assessment in the learning process activity and students learning outcomes on learning chemistry. The method used on this study was quasi experiment research with non-equivalent control group design. The result showed that the application of feedback in formative assessment has a positive impact toward students learning process activity. Students become more enthusiastic, motivated, and more active on the learning process. Thus in this study can be conclude that feedback in formative assessment have a positive impact toward the learning process activity to form a habits of mind.

  4. Effects of the discharge of uranium mining effluents on the water quality of the reservoir: an integrative chemical and ecotoxicological assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Carla Rolim; do Nascimento, Heliana de Azevedo Franco; Rodgher, Suzelei; Almeida, Tito; Bruschi, Armando Luiz; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do; Bonifácio, Rodrigo Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The water quality of the Antas reservoir, under the influence of treated effluents from a uranium mining area Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) with acid mine drainage, was investigated. Samples were collected every 3 months from the Antas reservoir (CAB, P41-E and P14) and from the UTM (P41-S). Chemical and acute 48 h toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Daphnia magna analyses were carried out to determine the potential environmental risks due to discharging the uranium mine effluents int...

  5. Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure, COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method, Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment, MEASE (Metal’s EASE, PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database, DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4:557–569

  6. Evaluating the Effects of Chemicals on Nervous System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are thousands of chemicals that lack data on their potential effects on neurodevelopment. EPA is developing New Approach Methods to evaluate these chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity hazard.

  7. National Prevalence and Effects of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), its co-occurrence with asthma and fragrance sensitivity, and effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products. A nationally representative cross-sectional population-based sample of adult Americans (n = 1137) was surveyed in June 2016. Among the population, 12.8% report medically diagnosed MCS and 25.9% report chemical sensitivity. Of those with MCS, 86.2% experience health problems, such as migraine headaches, when exposed to fragranced consumer products; 71.0% are asthmatic; 70.3% cannot access places that use fragranced products such as air fresheners; and 60.7% lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced products in the workplace. Prevalence of diagnosed MCS has increased over 300%, and self-reported chemical sensitivity over 200%, in the past decade. Reducing exposure to fragranced products could help reduce adverse health and societal effects.

  8. International physical protection self-assessment tool for chemical facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewell, Craig R.; Burdick, Brent A.; Stiles, Linda L.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2010-09-01

    This report is the final report for Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project No.130746, International Physical Protection Self-Assessment Tool for Chemical Facilities. The goal of the project was to develop an exportable, low-cost, computer-based risk assessment tool for small to medium size chemical facilities. The tool would assist facilities in improving their physical protection posture, while protecting their proprietary information. In FY2009, the project team proposed a comprehensive evaluation of safety and security regulations in the target geographical area, Southeast Asia. This approach was later modified and the team worked instead on developing a methodology for identifying potential targets at chemical facilities. Milestones proposed for FY2010 included characterizing the international/regional regulatory framework, finalizing the target identification and consequence analysis methodology, and developing, reviewing, and piloting the software tool. The project team accomplished the initial goal of developing potential target categories for chemical facilities; however, the additional milestones proposed for FY2010 were not pursued and the LDRD funding therefore was redirected.

  9. Major national human biomonitoring programs in chemical exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human biomonitoring (HBM programs have been established in several countries around the world in order to monitor the levels of chemical exposures in the general population and qualify health risk assessment of national and international interest. Study design, population, sample collection, and chemical analysis must be considered when comparing and interpreting the results. In this review, the objectives and brief descriptions of the major national HBM programs in North America, Europe, and Asia are provided. Similarities and differences observed from a comparative analysis among these programs, including the stratification of data according to age, sex, socioeconomic background, etc. as well as the identification of chemical exposure associated with food intake, are discussed. Overall, although there are some discrepancies in the study designs among the reviewed national HBM programs, results from the programs can provide useful information such as chemical levels found within the general population of a country that can be compared. Furthermore, the results can be used by regulatory authorities or the government to enforce legislations in order to reduce the exposure of chemicals into the human body.

  10. Combined genetic effects of chemicals and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kada, T.; Inoue, T.; Yokoiyama, A.; Russel, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    Interactions of chemicals and radiation are complex and there may exist other unexpected patterns that are not mentioned. We show some examples. Photodynamic mutation induction by fluorescein dyes and Radiosensitization with iodine compounds are classified as Interactions of chemicals and radiation outside of the cell. On the other hand, the Antimutagenic effects of cobaltous chloride is concerned with events taking place in cells that had already been exposed to a mutagenic agent. It is likely that the action of a mutagenic agent is not direct and that cellular functions, such as mutators or repair systems, are involved in the mutagenesis initiated by the agent. Such cellular functions can be affected by a second agent. In sexually reproducing organisms, the two agents can also act on separate cells (male and female germcells) which subsequently fuse. Interaction effects of all types will be useful in future research in shedding light on the main pathways of mutagenesis

  11. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicka, Kamila; Siemion, Przemysław; Kurcok, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation ...

  12. SOT Risk Assessment: Complex mixtures of anti-androgens at concentrations below individual chemical effect levels produces reproductive tract malformations in the male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is an invited webinar to the Society of Toxicology Risk Assessment Specialty Section (co-hosted by the Mixtures Specialty Section) as part of their monthly webinar series. The webinar is scheduled for 3:00PM on Wednesday September 13th.

  13. Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models in Chemical Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiz Mumtaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-exposure risk assessment of chemical and environmental stressors is a public health challenge. Linking exposure to health outcomes is a 4-step process: exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose response assessment, and risk characterization. This process is increasingly adopting “in silico” tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK models to fine-tune exposure assessments and determine internal doses in target organs/tissues. Many excellent PBPK models have been developed. But most, because of their scientific sophistication, have found limited field application—health assessors rarely use them. Over the years, government agencies, stakeholders/partners, and the scientific community have attempted to use these models or their underlying principles in combination with other practical procedures. During the past two decades, through cooperative agreements and contracts at several research and higher education institutions, ATSDR funded translational research has encouraged the use of various types of models. Such collaborative efforts have led to the development and use of transparent and user-friendly models. The “human PBPK model toolkit” is one such project. While not necessarily state of the art, this toolkit is sufficiently accurate for screening purposes. Highlighted in this paper are some selected examples of environmental and occupational exposure assessments of chemicals and their mixtures.

  14. Chemicals: Assessment of Risks to Ecosystem Services (CARES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Brink, van den P.J.; Faber, J.H.; Marshall, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Chemicals may have positive or negative effects on human well-being. The long-term survival and well-being of human populations depend on the sustainable use of ecosystems. The biophysical components of ecosystems (i.e., land, water, air, minerals, species, genes) provide the stocks of natural

  15. Combined genetic effects of chemicals and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kada, T.; Inoue, T.; Yokoiyama, A.; Russell, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    The interactions of chemicals and radiation are complex, and there may exist other unexpected patterns. The photodynamic induction of mutation by fluorescein dyes, and the radiosensitization with iodine compounds are classified as the interactions of chemicals and radiation outside cells. On the other hand, the antimutagenic effects of cobaltous chloride is concerned with the events taking place in the cells that had already been exposed to mutagenic agents. It is likely that the action of mutagenic agents is not direct, and that cellular functions, such as mutators or repair systems, are involved in the mutagenesis initiated by the agents. Such cellular functions can be affected by a second agent. In sexually reproducing organisms, two agents can also act on separate cells (male and female germ cells) which subsequently fuse. In mice, the experiments combining the radiation applied to one sex with the chemicals given to the other sex are only in early stages. Males were irradiated with X-ray (spermatozoa and spermatids sampled) and females (mature oocytes) were treated with caffeine. When the endpoint was dominant lethal, the level of X-ray effect induced in the male genome was independent of the caffeine treatment of the female. However, when the endpoint was sex-chromosome-loss, and a different strain of female was used, the caffeine potentiation was statistically significant at 5% level. (Yamashita, S.)

  16. Chemical effects in the near-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, F.T.; Tasker, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    A research program is described which is designed to investigate the chemical conditions in the near-field of a concrete based repository and the behavior of the radiologically important nuclides under these conditions. The chemical conditions are determined by the corrosion of the iron components of the repository and by the soluble components of the concrete. Both of these have been investigated experimentally and models developed which have been validated by further experiment. The effect of these reactions on the repository pH and Eh, and how these develop in time and space have been modelled using a new coupled chemical equilibrium and transport code. The solubility of the important nuclides are being studied experimentally under these conditions, and under sensible variations. Results are reported for plutonium, americium, neptunium and lead; these results have been under to refine the thermodynamic data base used for the geochemical code PHREEQE. The sorption behavior of plutonium and americium, under the same conditions, have been studied, the sorption coefficients were found to be large and independent of the concrete formulation, particle size and solid liquid ratio

  17. Improving the risk assessment of lipophilic persistent environmental chemicals in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Geniece M; Verner, Marc-André; Luukinen, Bryan; Henning, Cara; Assimon, Sue Anne; LaKind, Judy S; McLanahan, Eva D; Phillips, Linda J; Davis, Matthew H; Powers, Christina M; Hines, Erin P; Haddad, Sami; Longnecker, Matthew P; Poulsen, Michael T; Farrer, David G; Marchitti, Satori A; Tan, Yu-Mei; Swartout, Jeffrey C; Sagiv, Sharon K; Welsh, Clement; Campbell, Jerry L; Foster, Warren G; Yang, Raymond S H; Fenton, Suzanne E; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Francis, Bettina M; Barnett, John B; El-Masri, Hisham A; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2014-08-01

    Lipophilic persistent environmental chemicals (LPECs) have the potential to accumulate within a woman's body lipids over the course of many years prior to pregnancy, to partition into human milk, and to transfer to infants upon breastfeeding. As a result of this accumulation and partitioning, a breastfeeding infant's intake of these LPECs may be much greater than his/her mother's average daily exposure. Because the developmental period sets the stage for lifelong health, it is important to be able to accurately assess chemical exposures in early life. In many cases, current human health risk assessment methods do not account for differences between maternal and infant exposures to LPECs or for lifestage-specific effects of exposure to these chemicals. Because of their persistence and accumulation in body lipids and partitioning into breast milk, LPECs present unique challenges for each component of the human health risk assessment process, including hazard identification, dose-response assessment, and exposure assessment. Specific biological modeling approaches are available to support both dose-response and exposure assessment for lactational exposures to LPECs. Yet, lack of data limits the application of these approaches. The goal of this review is to outline the available approaches and to identify key issues that, if addressed, could improve efforts to apply these approaches to risk assessment of lactational exposure to these chemicals.

  18. TSAR User’s Manual: A Program for Assessing the Effects of Conventional and Chemical Attacks on Sortie Generation. Volume 1. Program Features, Logic, and Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    continuous recycling of aircraft in wartime are the requirements for adequate launching surfaces; the availability of aircrews, munitions, and fuel; and the...enccuntered in the CEPRTY array ( Cr39 ). When resources arc exhausted, and when a central repair facility (CIRF) has been idex’ified, one final Lask...determined from TSARINA CT140 input) and the losses to indirect effects (for accidents, accidental exposure, etc., from Cr39 /99) to produce the total loss

  19. Mode of Action Frameworks in Toxicity Testing and Chemical Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, B.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, legislative mandates worldwide are requiring systematic consideration of much larger numbers of chemicals. This necessitates more efficient and effective toxicity testing, as a basis to be more predictive in a risk assessment context. This in turn requires much more emphasis early in the

  20. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lewicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation are discussed. Properties of microwave radiation and its impact on starch (with particular regard to modifications described in literature are characterized.

  1. Integrating exposure into chemical alternatives assessment using a qualitative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, T. E.

    2016-01-01

    , other attributes beyond hazard are also important, including exposure, risk, life-cycle impacts, performance, cost, and social responsibility. Building on the 2014 recommendations by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to improve AA decisions by including comparative exposure assessment, the HESI...... Sustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher human or environmental...... not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency....

  2. Framework for integrating human and animal data in chemical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Karlene S; Robert Schnatter, A; Travis, Kim Z; Swaen, Gerard M H; Pallapies, Dirk; Money, Chris; Priem, Peter; Vrijhof, Henk

    2012-03-01

    Although regulatory agencies formally encourage the integration of all available data in chemical risk assessment, consistent implementation of this practice has been constrained by the lack of a clear, systematic method for doing so. In this paper, we describe a methodology for evaluating, classifying and integrating human and animal data into the risk assessment process that incorporates: (1) a balanced appraisal of human and animal data, (2) relevance to different stages of the risk assessment process, and (3) accommodation for different data quality requirements. The proposed framework offers a flexible, step-wise approach for determining which set of available data best support the chemical risk assessment that involves the rating and relative ranking of human and animal data quality. The evaluation of human data incorporates seven data quality elements, nature and specificity of the lead effect; evaluation of animal data incorporates data quality and relevance to humans. Results of simulations with selected chemicals previously evaluated in a formal risk assessment generally agreed with existing regulatory guidance. Application of the proposed framework across a wider range of chemical agents will improve transparency of the risk assessment process and validity of results, while informing continuous refinements to this evolving methodology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Review of Non-Chemical Stressors and Their Importance in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative exposure/risk assessments need to include non-chemical stressors as well as human activities and chemical data. Multiple stressor research can offer information on the interactions between chemical and non-chemical stressors needed for cumulative risk assessment resea...

  4. Transparency of chemical risk assessment data under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingre-Khans, Ellen; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Beronius, Anna; Rudén, Christina

    2016-12-08

    The REACH regulation requires EU manufacturers and importers of substances to register information on the hazard and risk of their substances with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Risk management of the substances is based on the provided information. It is known that conclusions on hazard and risk are influenced by expert judgements as well as potential conflict of interests. Thus, it is important that hazard and risk assessments are transparent and can be evaluated by a third party. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the transparency, i.e. the accessibility and comprehensibility, of information on substances registered under REACH. Data on repeated dose toxicity and hazard assessment conclusions were extracted for 60 substances from the REACH registration database available on the ECHA website. The data were compiled in a database for systematically evaluating the transparency of information related to the conclusions on hazard or risk. In addition, chemical safety reports (CSR) were requested from ECHA for five substances. The transparency of information on the hazard and risk of substances was found to be limited for several reasons. First, certain information was removed due to confidentiality and certain fields were not published because they could contain confidential information although the information had not been claimed confidential. Also, the extent to which registrants reported information varied, and the presentation of some data and certain terminology required further clarification. In addition, the data source for the majority of the key and supporting studies could not be identified due to confidentiality. Since registrants are only required to summarise studies, it cannot be verified whether all relevant information from non-public industry reports have been reported. Lastly, certain information related to the hazard and risk assessment were only reported in the CSR which is only available upon request; a time-consuming and work

  5. Prioritising chemicals used in personal care products in China for environmental risk assessment: Application of the RAIDAR model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouin, Todd; Egmond, Roger van; Price, Oliver R.; Hodges, Juliet E.N.

    2012-01-01

    China represents a significant market for the sale of personal care products (PCPs). Given the continuous emission of hundreds of chemicals used in PCPs to waste water and the aquatic environment after regular use, methods for prioritising the environmental risk assessment for China are needed. In an effort to assess the prioritisation of chemicals used in PCPs in China, we have identified the chemical ingredients used in 2500 PCPs released to the Chinese market in 2009, and estimated the annual emission of these chemicals. The physical-chemical property data for these substances have been estimated and used as model inputs in the RAIDAR model. In general, the RAIDAR model provides an overall assessment of the multimedia fate of chemicals, and provides a holistic approach for prioritising chemical ingredients. The prioritisation exercise conducted in this study is shown to be strongly influenced by loss processes, such as the removal efficiencies of WWT plants and biotransformation. - Highlights: ► Chemicals used in PCPs in China are prioritised using the RAIDAR model. ► Chemicals used in PCPs are estimated to have Risk assessment factors <<1. ► Loss processes strongly influence how chemicals are prioritised. - The application of the Risk IDentification And Ranking (RAIDAR) model is shown to be a potentially effective tool for prioritising chemicals used in personal care products in China.

  6. Uptake of chemicals from indoor air: Pathways and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Building occupants are exposed to manufactured chemicals. Exposure in the indoor environment can occur via non-dietary ingestion (e.g. indoor dust), inhalation and dermal absorption including dermal uptake directly from air. The extent of dermal uptake from air has been previously studied...... for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Not much is however known about its role for semivolatile organics (SVOC) and therefore this exposure pathway is often neglected in exposure assessments. Dermal uptake received attention with regards to contact transfer from contaminated surfaces. Recent modeling efforts...... intake from inhalation. Further experiments have been conducted with nicotine and the results are similar. Some of the SVOCs present indoors may have adverse health effects or are categorized as potential endocrine-disrupting compounds. It has been suggested that the health effects of a chemical may...

  7. Isotope effects of sulfur in chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolajczuk, A.

    1999-01-01

    Sulfur is an important component of organic matter because it forms compounds with many elements. Due to high chemical activity of sulfur, it takes part in biological and geological processes in which isotope effects are occurring. It has been shown during last years research of isotope effects that we have take into account not only mass difference but also many other physical properties of nuclides e.g. even or odd number of neutrons in nuclei, shape and distribution of charge, turn of nuclear spin etc. The factor remains that new theoretical ideas have been formed on the base of data, being obtained in fractionation processes of heavy element isotope, particularly uranium. Now it is being well known that effects unconnected with vibration energy have also caused an effect on fractionation of considerably lighter elements like iron and magnesium. The important question is, if these effects would come to light during the separation of sulfur isotopes. Sulfur have three even isotopes M = (32, 34, 36) and one odd M 33). This problem is still open. (author)

  8. Chemical Exposure Assessment Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory: A risk based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The University of California Contract And DOE Order 5480.10 require that Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) perform health hazard assessments/inventories of all employee workplaces. In response to this LANL has developed the Chemical Exposure Assessment Program. This program provides a systematic risk-based approach to anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of chemical workplace exposures. Program implementation focuses resources on exposures with the highest risks for causing adverse health effects. Implementation guidance includes procedures for basic characterization, qualitative risk assessment, quantitative validation, and recommendations and reevaluation. Each component of the program is described. It is shown how a systematic method of assessment improves documentation, retrieval, and use of generated exposure information

  9. Prioritization of chemicals in the aquatic environment based on risk assessment: analytical, modeling and regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, D; Ginebreda, A; Farré, M; Darbra, R M; Petrovic, M; Gros, M; Barceló, D

    2012-12-01

    The extensive and intensive use of chemicals in our developed, highly technological society includes more than 100,000 chemical substances. Significant scientific evidence has lead to the recognition that their improper use and release may result in undesirable and harmful side-effects on both the human and ecosystem health. To cope with them, appropriate risk assessment processes and related prioritization schemes have been developed in order to provide the necessary scientific support for regulatory procedures. In the present paper, two of the elements that constitute the core of risk assessment, namely occurrence and hazard effects, have been discussed. Recent advances in analytical chemistry (sample pre-treatment and instrumental equipment, etc.) have allowed for more comprehensive monitoring of environmental pollution reaching limits of detection up to sub ng L(-1). Alternative to analytical measurements, occurrence models can provide risk managers with a very interesting approach for estimating environmental concentrations from real or hypothetical scenarios. The most representative prioritization schemes used for issuing lists of concerning chemicals have also been examined and put in the context of existing environmental policies for protection strategies and regulations. Finally, new challenges in the field of risk-assessment have been outlined, including those posed by new materials (i.e., nanomaterials), transformation products, multi-chemical exposure, or extension of the risk assessment process to the whole ecosystem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  11. High production volume chemical Amine Oxide [C8-C20] category environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Greggs, William

    2009-01-01

    and personal care products. Given the lack of persistence or bioaccumulation, and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil, the focus of the environmental assessment is on the aquatic environment. In the United States, the E-FAST model is used to estimate effluent concentrations in the United......An environmental assessment of amine oxides has been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Amine Oxides Consortium. Amine oxides are primarily used in conjunction with surfactants in cleaning...... States from manufacturing facilities and from municipal facilities resulting from consumer product uses. Reasonable worst-case ratios of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) range from 0.04 to 0.003, demonstrating that these chemicals are a low risk...

  12. Evaluating Chemical Dispersant Efficacy In An Experimental Wave Tank: 1, Dispersant Effectiveness As A Function Of Energy Dissipation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous laboratory test systems have been developed for the comparison of efficacy between various chemical oil dispersant formulations. However, for the assessment of chemical dispersant effectiveness under realistic sea state, test protocols are required to produce hydrodynam...

  13. Thermo effect of chemical reaction in irreversible electrochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Vinh Quy; Nguyen Tang

    1989-01-01

    From first law of thermodynamics the expressions of statistical calculation of 'Fundamental' and 'Thermo-chemical' thermal effects are obtained. Besides, method of calculation of thermal effect of chemical reactions in non-equilibrium electro-chemical systems is accurately discussed. (author). 7 refs

  14. Assessing dose-response relationships for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs): a focus on non-monotonicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2015-05-15

    The fundamental principle in regulatory toxicology is that all chemicals are toxic and that the severity of effect is proportional to the exposure level. An ancillary assumption is that there are no effects at exposures below the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), either because no effects exist or because they are not statistically resolvable, implying that they would not be adverse. Chemicals that interfere with hormones violate these principles in two important ways: dose-response relationships can be non-monotonic, which have been reported in hundreds of studies of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs); and effects are often observed below the LOAEL, including all environmental epidemiological studies examining EDCs. In recognition of the importance of this issue, Lagarde et al. have published the first proposal to qualitatively assess non-monotonic dose response (NMDR) relationships for use in risk assessments. Their proposal represents a significant step forward in the evaluation of complex datasets for use in risk assessments. Here, we comment on three elements of the Lagarde proposal that we feel need to be assessed more critically and present our arguments: 1) the use of Klimisch scores to evaluate study quality, 2) the concept of evaluating study quality without topical experts' knowledge and opinions, and 3) the requirement of establishing the biological plausibility of an NMDR before consideration for use in risk assessment. We present evidence-based logical arguments that 1) the use of the Klimisch score should be abandoned for assessing study quality; 2) evaluating study quality requires experts in the specific field; and 3) an understanding of mechanisms should not be required to accept observable, statistically valid phenomena. It is our hope to contribute to the important and ongoing debate about the impact of NMDRs on risk assessment with positive suggestions.

  15. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  16. Vulnerability assessment of chemical industry facilities in South Korea based on the chemical accident history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, S.; Lee, W. K.; Jong-Ryeul, S.; Kim, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The use of chemical compounds are keep increasing because of their use in manufacturing industry. Chemical accident is growing as the consequence of the chemical use increment. Devastating damages from chemical accidents are far enough to aware people's cautious about the risk of the chemical accident. In South Korea, Gumi Hydrofluoric acid leaking accident triggered the importance of risk management and emphasized the preventing the accident over the damage reducing process after the accident occurs. Gumi accident encouraged the government data base construction relate to the chemical accident. As the result of this effort Chemical Safety-Clearing-house (CSC) have started to record the chemical accident information and damages according to the Harmful Chemical Substance Control Act (HCSC). CSC provide details information about the chemical accidents from 2002 to present. The detail informations are including title of company, address, business type, accident dates, accident types, accident chemical compounds, human damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, human damage outside of the chemical industry facilities, financial damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, and financial damages outside of the chemical industry facilities, environmental damages and response to the chemical accident. Collected the chemical accident history of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and provide the spatial information to the each accident records based on their address. With the spatial information, compute the data on ArcGIS for the spatial-temporal analysis. The spatial-temporal information of chemical accident is organized by the chemical accident types, damages, and damages on environment and conduct the spatial proximity with local community and environmental receptors. Find the chemical accident vulnerable area of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and add the vulnerable area of total period to examine the historically vulnerable area from the chemical accident in

  17. An open framework for automated chemical hazard assessment based on GreenScreen for Safer Chemicals: A proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehage, Kristopher; Chenhansa, Panan; Schoenung, Julie M

    2017-01-01

    GreenScreen® for Safer Chemicals is a framework for comparative chemical hazard assessment. It is the first transparent, open and publicly accessible framework of its kind, allowing manufacturers and governmental agencies to make informed decisions about the chemicals and substances used in consumer products and buildings. In the GreenScreen® benchmarking process, chemical hazards are assessed and classified based on 18 hazard endpoints from up to 30 different sources. The result is a simple numerical benchmark score and accompanying assessment report that allows users to flag chemicals of concern and identify safer alternatives. Although the screening process is straightforward, aggregating and sorting hazard data is tedious, time-consuming, and prone to human error. In light of these challenges, the present work demonstrates the usage of automation to cull chemical hazard data from publicly available internet resources, assign metadata, and perform a GreenScreen® hazard assessment using the GreenScreen® "List Translator." The automated technique, written as a module in the Python programming language, generates GreenScreen® List Translation data for over 3000 chemicals in approximately 30 s. Discussion of the potential benefits and limitations of automated techniques is provided. By embedding the library into a web-based graphical user interface, the extensibility of the library is demonstrated. The accompanying source code is made available to the hazard assessment community. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:167-176. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. An integrated multi-label classifier with chemical-chemical interactions for prediction of chemical toxicity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Chen, Lei; Pan, Xiaoyong

    2018-05-31

    Chemical toxicity effect is one of the major reasons for declining candidate drugs. Detecting the toxicity effects of all chemicals can accelerate the procedures of drug discovery. However, it is time-consuming and expensive to identify the toxicity effects of a given chemical through traditional experiments. Designing quick, reliable and non-animal-involved computational methods is an alternative way. In this study, a novel integrated multi-label classifier was proposed. First, based on five types of chemical-chemical interactions retrieved from STITCH, each of which is derived from one aspect of chemicals, five individual classifiers were built. Then, several integrated classifiers were built by integrating some or all individual classifiers. By testing the integrated classifiers on a dataset with chemicals and their toxicity effects in Accelrys Toxicity database and non-toxic chemicals with their performance evaluated by jackknife test, an optimal integrated classifier was selected as the proposed classifier, which provided quite high prediction accuracies and wide applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Biological Effects of Interaction between Radiation and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Kyung Man; Han, Min; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    The organisms are exposed to natural radiations from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Radiation is known to cause cell death, mainly due to its ability to produce reactive oxygen species in cells. The combined action between radiation and various chemicals is a distinguishing feature of modern life. Mercury chloride is a widespread environmental pollutant that is known to have toxic effects. Synergistic effects of radiation and HgCl{sub 2} on human cells was previously reported. NAC is a well-known sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant whose role in radioprotection has been explored in several studies. There has been an increasing interest of studying the role of NAC as a radioprotective substance. The present study was designed not only to assess the synergistic effects between radiation and HgCl{sub 2}, but also to investigate protective effects of NAC on cells.

  20. A Novel Approach: Chemical Relational Databases, and the Role of the ISSCAN Database on Assessing Chemical Carcinogenity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did no...

  1. Cost effectiveness of dilute chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeSurf, J.E.; Weyman, G.D.

    The basic principles of dilute chemical decontamination are described, as well as the method of application. Methods of computing savings in radiation dose and costs are presented, with results from actual experience and illustrative examples. It is concluded that dilute chemical decontamination is beneficial in many cases. It reduces radiation exposure of workers, saves money, and simplifies maintenance work

  2. Ecotoxicological assessments and the setting of limit values for chemicals in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Committee on the Setting of Limit Values for Chemicals held its first open conference in Denmark in March 1992 at Mogenstrup Kro, Zealand. The conference proceedings were entitled `Risk Management and Risk Assessment in Different Sectors in Denmark`. The conference focused on risk assessment and the setting of limit values for chemicals in connection with human exposure to chemicals. The conference held in January 1996, which is covered by the present proceedings, dealt with the exposure of the environment to chemicals and the state-of-the-art as well as perspectives of ecotoxicological research. Special emphasis was placed on the illustration and discussion of the problems that have to be solved in order to secure satisfactory levels of protection of soil and aquatic environments in connection with exposure to chemicals. Also, problems connected with exposure through the atmosphere were discussed and exemplified by the work on the setting of limit values for tropospheric ozone. Furthermore, the global problems pertaining to what is believed to be the greenhouse effect and the degradation of the stratospheric ozone layer as well as the damage to crops caused by ozone were mentioned. (au)

  3. Assessing preferential flow by simultaneously injecting nanoparticle and chemical tracers

    KAUST Repository

    Subramanian, S. K.; Li, Yan; Cathles, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    The exact manner in which preferential (e.g., much faster than average) flow occurs in the subsurface through small fractures or permeable connected pathways of other kinds is important to many processes but is difficult to determine, because most chemical tracers diffuse quickly enough from small flow channels that they appear to move more uniformly through the rock than they actually do. We show how preferential flow can be assessed by injecting 2 to 5 nm carbon particles (C-Dots) and an inert KBr chemical tracer at different flow rates into a permeable core channel that is surrounded by a less permeable matrix in laboratory apparatus of three different designs. When the KBr tracer has a long enough transit through the system to diffuse into the matrix, but the C-Dot tracer does not, the C-Dot tracer arrives first and the KBr tracer later, and the separation measures the degree of preferential flow. Tracer sequestration in the matrix can be estimated with a Peclet number, and this is useful for experiment design. A model is used to determine the best fitting core and matrix dispersion parameters and refine estimates of the core and matrix porosities. Almost the same parameter values explain all experiments. The methods demonstrated in the laboratory can be applied to field tests. If nanoparticles can be designed that do not stick while flowing through the subsurface, the methods presented here could be used to determine the degree of fracture control in natural environments, and this capability would have very wide ranging value and applicability.

  4. The modelling of direct chemical kinetic effects in turbulent flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstet, R.P. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-06-01

    Combustion chemistry-related effects have traditionally been of secondary importance in the design of gas turbine combustors. However, the need to deal with issues such as flame stability, relight and pollutant emissions has served to bring chemical kinetics and the coupling of finite rate chemistry with turbulent flow fields to the centre of combustor design. Indeed, improved cycle efficiency and more stringent environmental legislation, as defined by the ICAO, are current key motivators in combustor design. Furthermore, lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) combustion systems, increasingly used for power generation, often operate close to the lean blow-off limit and are prone to extinction/reignition type phenomena. Thus, current key design issues require that direct chemical kinetic effects be accounted for accurately in any simulation procedure. The transported probability density function (PDF) approach uniquely offers the potential of facilitating the accurate modelling of such effects. The present paper thus assesses the ability of this technique to model kinetically controlled phenomena, such as carbon monoxide emissions and flame blow-off, through the application of a transported PDF method closed at the joint scalar level. The closure for the velocity field is at the second moment level, and a key feature of the present work is the use of comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanisms. The latter are derived from recent work by Lindstedt and co-workers that has resulted in a compact 141 reactions and 28 species mechanism for LNG combustion. The systematically reduced form used here features 14 independent C/H/O scalars, with the remaining species incorporated via steady state approximations. Computations have been performed for hydrogen/carbon dioxide and methane flames. The former (high Reynolds number) flames permit an assessment of the modelling of flame blow-off, and the methane flame has been selected to obtain an indication of the influence of differential

  5. Immune effects of respiratory exposure to fragrance chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Ezendam J; Klerk A de; Cassee FR; Fokkens PHB; Park MVDZ; Loveren H van; Jong WH de; GBO

    2007-01-01

    Inhalation of the fragrance chemicals, isoeugenol and cinnamal, by mice resulted in immune reactions in the respiratory tract. This was observed in experiments performed by the RIVM (National Institute for Public Health and the Enviroment) of which results indicate that inhalation of some fragrance chemicals could induce unwanted effects on the immune system. Fragrance chemicals are common ingredients in such consumer products as cosmetics and scented products. Several fragrance chemicals are...

  6. Complementary use of life cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: Lessons learned from chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Successful strategies to handle the potential health and environmental risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) often rely upon the well-established frameworks of life cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA). However, current research and specific guidance on how to actually apply these two...... scientific research efforts have taken into account some key lessons learned from past experiences with chemicals at the same time that many key challenges remain to applying these frameworks to ENM. In that setting, two main proposed approaches to use LCA and RA together for ENM are identified: i) LC......-based RA, similar to traditional RA applied in a life cycle perspective, and ii) RA-complemented LCA, similar to conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life cycle steps. This study finds that these two approaches for using LCA and RA together for ENM are similar to those made for chemicals...

  7. An approach for assessing human exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Glenn; MacDonell, Margaret; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Teuschler, Linda; Picel, Kurt; Butler, Jim; Chang, Young-Soo; Hartmann, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to multiple chemicals, including incidental exposures to complex chemical mixtures released into the environment and to combinations of chemicals that already co-exist in the environment because of previous releases from various sources. Exposures to chemical mixtures can occur through multiple pathways and across multiple routes. In this paper, we propose an iterative approach for assessing exposures to environmental chemical mixtures; it is similar to single-chemical approaches. Our approach encompasses two elements of the Risk Assessment Paradigm: Problem Formulation and Exposure Assessment. Multiple phases of the assessment occur in each element of the paradigm. During Problem Formulation, analysts identify and characterize the source(s) of the chemical mixture, ensure that dose-response and exposure assessment measures are concordant, and develop a preliminary evaluation of the mixture's fate. During Exposure Assessment, analysts evaluate the fate of the chemicals comprising the mixture using appropriate models and measurement data, characterize the exposure scenario, and estimate human exposure to the mixture. We also describe the utility of grouping the chemicals to be analyzed based on both physical-chemical properties and an understanding of environmental fate. In the article, we also highlight the need for understanding of changes in the mixture composition in the environment due to differential transport, differential degradation, and differential partitioning to other media. The section describes the application of the method to various chemical mixtures, highlighting issues associated with assessing exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment

  8. Chemical exchange effects in spectral line shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, M.A.; Veguillas, J.

    1990-01-01

    A theory of spectral-line shapes has been extended to the case in which relaxation broadening may be influenced by reactive interactions. This extension is valid for gaseous systems in the same way it is valid for condensed media, and particularly, for such chemical mechanisms as isomerizations. The dependence of the spectral rate on the chemical exchange rate is clarified. Finally, a discussion concerning the above aspects and their applications has been included. (author)

  9. Construction of a risk assessment system for chemical residues in agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Shinai; Hong, Jiyeon; Lee, Dayeon; Paik, Minkyoung

    2014-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of chemical residues in agricultural and food products has been performed by various government bodies in South Korea. These bodies have made attempts to systematically manage this information by creating a monitoring database system as well as a system based on these data with which to assess the health risk of chemical residues in agricultural products. Meanwhile, a database system is being constructed consisting of information about monitoring and, following this, a demand for convenience has led to the need for an evaluation tool to be constructed with the data processing system. Also, in order to create a systematic and effective tool for the risk assessment of chemical residues in foods and agricultural products, various evaluation models are being developed, both domestically and abroad. Overseas, systems such as Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model: Food Commodity Intake Database and Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System are being used; these use the US Environmental Protection Agency as a focus, while the EU has developed Pesticide Residue Intake Model for assessments of pesticide exposure through food intake. Following this, the National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) created the Agricultural Products Risk Assessment System (APRAS) which supports the use and storage of monitoring information and risk assessments. APRAS efficiently manages the monitoring data produced by NAAS and creates an extraction feature included in the database system. Also, the database system in APRAS consists of a monitoring database system held by the NAAS and food consumption database system. Food consumption data is based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This system is aimed at exposure and risk assessments for chemical residues in agricultural products with regards to different exposure scenarios.

  10. Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last....../corrosive chemicals will remain serious risks also in future the development of plausible scenarios for potential emerging risks is also needed. This includes risks from new mixtures and chemicals (e.g. nanoparticles)....

  11. Exposure assessment of a cyclist to particles and chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, C A; Silva, J R; Faria, T; Wolterbeek, T H; Almeida, S M

    2017-05-01

    Cycle paths can be used as a route for active transportation or simply to cycle for physical activity and leisure. However, exposure to air pollutants can be boosted while cycling, in urban environments, due to the proximity to vehicular emissions and elevated breathing rates. The objective of this work was to assess the exposure of a cyclist to particles and to chemical elements by combining real-time aerosol mass concentration reading equipment and biomonitoring techniques. PM 10 and PM 2.5 were measured on three cycle paths located in Lisbon, during weekdays and weekends and during rush hours and off-peak hours resulting in a total of 60 campaigns. Lichens were exposed along cycle paths for 3 months, and their element contents were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis using the k 0 methodology (k 0 -INAA). Using a bicycle commute route of lower traffic intensity and avoiding rush hours or other times with elevated vehicular congestion facilitate a reduction in exposure to pollutants. The implementation of cycle paths in cities is important to stimulate physical activity and active transportation; however, it is essential to consider ambient air and pollutant sources to create safer infrastructures.

  12. Assessment of Environmental Effects of Post-Blasted Explosive on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Assessment of Environmental Effects of Post-Blasted Explosive on the Ecosystem of Old ... intensity and temperature of explosive dissolution in the mine environment shows that TNT ... based on their physical/chemical properties as: gelatin.

  13. Sublethal effects of industrial chemicals on fish fingerlings (Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... Key words: Tilapia guineensis, industrial chemical, bioaccumulation, surfactants. ... product that has acceptable stability in oil pipelines. (Patton, 1995). .... assays were assessed with the two-factor ANOVA (analysis of.

  14. Toward refined environmental scenarios for ecological risk assessment of down-the-drain chemicals in freshwater environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, Antonio; Price, Oliver R.; Marshall, Stuart; Jolliet, Olivier; Brink, van den Paul J.; Rico Artero, Andreu; Focks, Andreas; Laender, De Frederik; Ashauer, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Current regulatory practice for chemical risk assessment suffers from the lack of realism in conventional frameworks. Despite significant advances in exposure and ecological effect modeling, the implementation of novel approaches as high-tier options for prospective regulatory risk assessment

  15. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Janeen Denise [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  16. Chemical effect on ozone deposition over seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface layer resistance plays an important role in determining ozone deposition velocity over seawater. Recent studies suggest that surface layer resistance over sea-water is influenced by wind-speed and chemical interaction at the air-water interface. Here, we investigate the e...

  17. Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Chemical Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the work that has been done on the project “Design and optimization of silicon nanowire for chemical sensing‿, including Si-NW fabrication, electrical/electrochemical modeling, the application as ISFET, and the build-up of Si- NW/LOC system for automatic sample delivery. A

  18. Models for risk assessment of reactive chemicals in aquatic toxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freidig, Andreas Peter

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for a,b-unsaturated carboxylates (mainly acrylates and methacrylates) was established in chapter 2. Chemical reaction rate constants were measured for 12 different chemicals with three different nucleophiles, namely H 2 O, OH - and glutathione

  19. Standard Review Risk Assessment on Medium-chain and Long-chain Chlorinated paraffin PMN submissions by Dover Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assessment was conducted under EPA’s TSCA Section 5 New Chemicals Program. EPA is assessing Medium-chain Chlorinated Paraffin (MCCP) and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin (LCCP) chemicals as part of its New Chemicals Review program.

  20. New perspectives in toxicological information management, and the role of ISSTOX databases in assessing chemical mutagenicity and carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Romualdo; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Bossa, Cecilia; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Crettaz, Pierre

    2013-07-01

    Currently, the public has access to a variety of databases containing mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data. These resources are crucial for the toxicologists and regulators involved in the risk assessment of chemicals, which necessitates access to all the relevant literature, and the capability to search across toxicity databases using both biological and chemical criteria. Towards the larger goal of screening chemicals for a wide range of toxicity end points of potential interest, publicly available resources across a large spectrum of biological and chemical data space must be effectively harnessed with current and evolving information technologies (i.e. systematised, integrated and mined), if long-term screening and prediction objectives are to be achieved. A key to rapid progress in the field of chemical toxicity databases is that of combining information technology with the chemical structure as identifier of the molecules. This permits an enormous range of operations (e.g. retrieving chemicals or chemical classes, describing the content of databases, finding similar chemicals, crossing biological and chemical interrogations, etc.) that other more classical databases cannot allow. This article describes the progress in the technology of toxicity databases, including the concepts of Chemical Relational Database and Toxicological Standardized Controlled Vocabularies (Ontology). Then it describes the ISSTOX cluster of toxicological databases at the Istituto Superiore di Sanitá. It consists of freely available databases characterised by the use of modern information technologies and by curation of the quality of the biological data. Finally, this article provides examples of analyses and results made possible by ISSTOX.

  1. Capturing ecology in modeling approaches applied to environmental risk assessment of endocrine active chemicals in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintram, Kate S; Brown, A Ross; Maynard, Samuel K; Thorbek, Pernille; Tyler, Charles R

    2018-02-01

    Endocrine active chemicals (EACs) are widespread in freshwater environments and both laboratory and field based studies have shown reproductive effects in fish at environmentally relevant exposures. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) seeks to protect wildlife populations and prospective assessments rely on extrapolation from individual-level effects established for laboratory fish species to populations of wild fish using arbitrary safety factors. Population susceptibility to chemical effects, however, depends on exposure risk, physiological susceptibility, and population resilience, each of which can differ widely between fish species. Population models have significant potential to address these shortfalls and to include individual variability relating to life-history traits, demographic and density-dependent vital rates, and behaviors which arise from inter-organism and organism-environment interactions. Confidence in population models has recently resulted in the EU Commission stating that results derived from reliable models may be considered when assessing the relevance of adverse effects of EACs at the population level. This review critically assesses the potential risks posed by EACs for fish populations, considers the ecological factors influencing these risks and explores the benefits and challenges of applying population modeling (including individual-based modeling) in ERA for EACs in fish. We conclude that population modeling offers a way forward for incorporating greater environmental relevance in assessing the risks of EACs for fishes and for identifying key risk factors through sensitivity analysis. Individual-based models (IBMs) allow for the incorporation of physiological and behavioral endpoints relevant to EAC exposure effects, thus capturing both direct and indirect population-level effects.

  2. Radiological and chemical assessment of phosphate rocks in some countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevik, U.; Baltas, H.; Tabak, A.; Damla, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the radiological, structural and chemical characterizations of Mardin-Mazidagi phosphate rock, which is an important phosphate fertilizer source in Turkey were investigated and compared to those of several different phosphate rocks of Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria and Syria using gamma spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement techniques. Elemental analysis results of phosphate samples showed that they were mainly composed of CaO, P 2 O 5 , SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , SO 3 and Fe 2 O 3 . Elemental concentrations of U and Th were calculated using 226 Ra and 232 Th activity concentrations, respectively. As a result of XRD analysis, the main peaks of the samples were found to be Fluorapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F). The radioactivity concentration levels for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in all phosphate samples ranged from 250 to 1029 Bq kg -1 with a mean of 535 Bq kg -1 , from 5 to 50 Bq kg -1 with a mean of 20 Bq kg -1 and from 117 to 186 Bq kg -1 with a mean of 148 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The computed values of annual effective doses ranged from 0.17 to 0.59 mSv, with a mean value of 0.33 mSv, which is lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y -1 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  3. Non-Chemical Stressors and Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Current Initiatives and Potential Air Pollutant Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S.; Sax, Sonja N.; Wason, Susan C.; Campleman, Sharan L.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  4. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

  5. Integrated environmental risk assessment and whole-process management system in chemical industry parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-04-19

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  6. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  7. Taking Multiple Exposure Into Account Can Improve Assessment of Chemical Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Frédéric; Bertrand, Nicolas Jean Hyacinthe; La Rocca, Bénédicte

    2017-12-15

    During work, operators may be exposed to several chemicals simultaneously. Most exposure assessment approaches only determine exposure levels for each substance individually. However, such individual-substance approaches may not correctly estimate the toxicity of 'cocktails' of chemicals, as the toxicity of a cocktail may differ from the toxicity of substances on their own. This study presents an approach that can better take into account multiple exposure when assessing chemical risks. Almost 30000 work situations, monitored between 2005 and 2014 and recorded in two French databases, were analysed using MiXie software. The algorithms employed in MiXie can identify toxicological classes associated with several substances, based on the additivity of the selected effects of each substance. The results of our retrospective analysis show that MiXie was able to identify almost 20% more potentially hazardous situations than identified using a single-substance approach. It therefore appears essential to review the ways in which multiple exposure is taken into account during risk assessment. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  8. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huixiao; Shen, Jie; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ye, Hao; Ge, Weigong; Gong, Ping; Xiao, Wenming; Tong, Weida

    2016-03-25

    Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest) and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold² software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69%) and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%). Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence) in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed.

  9. Brief communication: the ecosystem perspective in ecotoxicology as a way forward for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laender, Frederik; Janssen, Colin R

    2013-07-01

    One of the objectives of the European Union (EU) ecological risk assessment of chemicals (ERA) is to derive maximum environmental concentrations that are not expected to cause adverse ecological effects. To this end, related EU directives list protection goals as well as guidelines that should be used to reach these goals. It is generally accepted that the individual-level endpoints on which these guidelines are based do not correspond to the listed population- and ecosystem-level protection goals. In this article, we identify 5 research topics that are key to bridging this gap: 1) the refinement of population-level effects and recovery rates by explicitly taking into account competition and 2) predation, 3) the assessment of chemical effects on biodiversity, 4) the assessment of chemical stress on ecosystem functions and services, and 5) the quantification of the effects of chemical mixtures. In addition, we illustrate why an ecosystem perspective is needed to address these topics and to inform the risk assessment process. We propose the use of existing ecotoxicological community, food web, and ecosystem models to tackle these issues and discuss why new models are needed to predict chemical effects on biodiversity. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  10. Improved use of workplace exposure data in the regulatory risk assessment of chemicals within Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, C D; Margary, S A

    2002-04-01

    The process of risk assessment for human health demands the availability of soundly based effects and exposure information. However, many of the available data, particularly those which seek to describe human exposures to chemicals, are of varying quality and scope. Changing public and regulatory expectations increasingly demand that the outcomes of risk assessments are seen to have duly accounted for these data, in order that their conclusions can be viewed as valid. The challenge for risk assessors, therefore, is how the different grades of data should be integrated within the overall process. A series of core values are identified that govern the relationships and the influence that different types of exposure data have within European Union (EU) regulatory risk assessment for chemicals. Building on these values, an approach is presented for evaluating workplace exposure information in the context of how such data might be used within the EU process for assessing the risks to human health of new and existing substances. The implications of adopting the approach for regulatory risk assessment within the EU and its consequent impact on current occupational hygiene practice are discussed.

  11. Radiological and related Chemical Health Impact Assessments of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunjo Samuel

    concentrations obtained and the relation from United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the chemical ... radioactive elements uranium-238 and thorium-232 decay .... Using Equation 2, the elemental concentrations in pipe.

  12. Microbiological and chemical assessment of spring water from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-06-20

    Jun 20, 2013 ... to the Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Physico-chemical parameters ..... Ademoroti CMA (1996). Standard methods for ... Taulo S, Wetlesen A, Abrahamsen R, Mkakosya R, Kulunlanga G. (2008). Microbiological ...

  13. Progress of environmental management and risk assessment of industrial chemicals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Yan, Zhen-Guang; Li, Hong; Yang, Ni-Yun; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Wang, Yi-Zhe; Yu, Ruo-Zhen; Zhang, Lai; Wang, Wan-Hua; Jiao, Cong-Ying; Liu, Zheng-Tao

    2012-06-01

    With China's rapid economic growth, chemical-related environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, and the environmental management of chemicals has garnered increased attention from the government. This review focuses on the current situation and the application of risk assessment in China's environmental management of industrial chemicals. The related challenges and research needs of the country are also discussed. The Chinese government promulgated regulations for the import and export of toxic chemicals in 1994. Regulations for new chemical substances came into force in 2003, and were revised in 2010 based on the concept of risk management. In order to support the implementation of new regulations, Guidance for Risk Assessment of Chemicals is under development in an attempt to provide the concepts and techniques of risk assessment. With increasing concern and financial support from Chinese government, China is embarking on the fast track of research and development in environmental management of industrial chemicals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High-throughput screening of chemical effects on ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental chemicals can result in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. A high-throughput assay using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells was used to evaluate the effect of 2,060 chemical samples on steroidogenesis via HPLC-MS/MS quantification of 10 steroid hormones, including progestagens, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. The study employed a three stage screening strategy. The first stage established the maximum tolerated concentration (MTC; >70% viability) per sample. The second stage quantified changes in hormone levels at the MTC while the third stage performed concentration-response (CR) on a subset of samples. At all stages, cells were pre-stimulated with 10 µM forskolin for 48 h to induce steroidogenesis followed by chemical treatment for 48 h. Of the 2,060 chemical samples evaluated, 524 samples were selected for six-point CR screening, based in part on significantly altering at least 4 hormones at the MTC. CR screening identified 232 chemical samples with concentration-dependent effects on 17β-estradiol and/or testosterone, with 411 chemical samples showing an effect on at least one hormone across the steroidogenesis pathway. Clustering of the concentration-dependent chemical-mediated steroid hormone effects grouped chemical samples into five distinct profiles generally representing putative mechanisms of action, including CYP17A1 and HSD3B inhibition. A d

  15. Biological assessment of contaminated land using earthworm biomarkers in support of chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankard, Peter K.; Svendsen, Claus; Wright, Julian; Wienberg, Claire; Fishwick, Samantha K.; Spurgeon, David J.; Weeks, Jason M.

    2004-01-01

    Biological indicators can be used to assess polluted sites but their success depends on the availability of suitable assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of two earthworm biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability measured using the neutral red retention assay (NRR-T) and the total immune activity (TIA) assay, that have previously been established as responsive to chemical exposure. Responses of the two assays were measured following in situ exposure to complexly contaminated field soils at three industrial sites as well as urban and rural controls. The industrial sites were contaminated with a range of metal (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cobalt) and organic (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants, but at concentrations below the 'New Dutch List' Intervention concentrations. Exposed earthworms accumulated both metals and organic compounds at the contaminated sites, indicating that there was significant exposure. No effect on earthworm survival was found at any of the sites. Biomarker measurements, however, indicated significant effects, with lower NRR-T and TIA found in the contaminated soils when compared to the two controls. The results demonstrate that a comparison of soil pollutant concentrations with guideline values would not have unequivocally identified chemical exposure and toxic effect for soil organisms living in these soils. However, the earthworm biomarkers successfully identified significant exposure and biological effects caused by the mixture of chemicals present

  16. Biological and chemical assessments of zinc ageing in field soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, Erica; Broos, Kris; Heemsbergen, Diane; Warne, Michael St. J.; McLaughlin, Mike J.; Hodson, Mark E.; Nortcliff, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    As zinc (Zn) is both an essential trace element and potential toxicant, the effects of Zn fixation in soil are of practical significance. Soil samples from four field sites amended with ZnSO 4 were used to investigate ageing of soluble Zn under field conditions over a 2-year period. Lability of Zn measured using 65 Zn radioisotope dilution showed a significant decrease over time and hence evidence of Zn fixation in three of the four soils. However, 0.01 M CaCl 2 extractions and toxicity measurements using a genetically modified lux-marked bacterial biosensor did not indicate a decrease in soluble/bioavailable Zn over time. This was attributed to the strong regulatory effect of abiotic properties such as pH on these latter measurements. These results also showed that Zn ageing occurred immediately after Zn spiking, emphasising the need to incubate freshly spiked soils before ecotoxicity assessments. - Ageing effects were detected in Zn-amended field soils using 65 Zn isotopic dilution as a measure of lability, but not with either CaCl 2 extractions or a lux-marked bacterial biosensor.

  17. WEED CONTROL EFFECTS ON SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The weed control procedures are known to affect the soil physical attributes and the nutrient amount taken up by weed roots. This work hypothesis is that weed control methods might also affect soil chemical attributes. Four experiments were carried out, three with maize (E-1, E-2 and E-3 and one with cotton (E-4, in randomized complete blocks design arranged in split-plots, with five replications. In E-1 experiment, the plots consisted of two weed control treatments: no-weed control and weed shovel-digging at 20 and 40 days after sowing; and the subplots consisted of six maize cultivars. In the three other experiments, the plots consisted of plant cultivars: four maize cultivars (E-2 and E-3 and four cotton cultivars (E-4. And, the subplots consisted of three weed control treatments: (1 no-weed control; (2 weed shovel-digging at 20 and 40 days after sowing; and (3 intercropping with cowpea (E-2 or Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. (E-3 and E-4. In all experiments, after harvest, eight soil samples were collected from each subplot (0-20 cm depth and composed in one sample. Soil chemical analysis results indicated that the weed control by shovel-digging or intercropping may increase or decrease some soil element concentrations and the alterations depend on the element and experiment considered. In E-2, the weed shovel-dug plots showed intermediate soil pH, lower S (sum of bases values and higher soil P concentrations than the other plots. In E-4, soil K and Na concentrations in plots without weed control did not differ from plots with intercropping, and in both, K and Na values were higher than in weed shovel-dug plots. Maize and cotton cultivars did not affect soil chemical characteristics.

  18. Hemijski udesi i procena rizika / Chemical accidents and hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Biočanin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Brojni su udesi vezani za transport i upotrebu hemijskih materija. Ova činjenica je važna i zbog toga što se naša zemlja nalazi na raskrsnici značajnih svetskih komunikacija kojima se ovakvi tereti prevoze. Veliki broj vrsta hemijskih materija može znatno da naruši životnu sredinu za duži period. Ovaj rad, kroz različite parametre, nastoji da prouči takvu mogućnost i ukaže na načine za prevenciju sličnih događaja i zaštitu stanovništva u miru i tokom ratnih dejstava. Ostvarenje projekta jedinstvenog sistema ABHO daje mogućnost da se, korišćenjem savremene opreme za komunikaciju i efikasnih jedinica za brzo reagovanje u realnom vremenu, uspešno obavi monitoring opasnosti, uzbunjivanje, zaštita i dekontaminacija. / There is a growing number of accidents involving hazardous chemical substances during transportation. Serbia and Montenegro are at the crossroads of numerous important European transport links where a lot of such transports pass through. A great number of such substances can considerably damage environment for a very long period of time. This paper studies such events applying different parameters; it tries to point at successful prevention and protection from this threat at peace, as well as during war operations. The realization of the universal and united system of the NBCD of the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, together with modern communication equipment and very effective mobile units, enables on - time reaction and successful monitoring, alarming, protection and decontamination.

  19. Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Chemical Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the work that has been done on the project “Design and optimization of silicon nanowire for chemical sensing‿, including Si-NW fabrication, electrical/electrochemical modeling, the application as ISFET, and the build-up of Si- NW/LOC system for automatic sample delivery. A novel top-down fabrication technique was presented for single-crystal Si-NW fabrication realized with conventional microfabrication technique. High quality triangular Si-NWs were made with high wafer-s...

  20. A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFERY ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

  1. Chemical Mixtures Health Risk Assessment of Environmental Contaminants: Concepts, Methods, Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This problems-based, introductory workshop focuses on methods to assess health risks posed by exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment. Chemical mixtures health risk assessment methods continue to be developed and evolve to address concerns over health risks from multic...

  2. Chemical Mixtures Health Risk Assessment of Environmental Contaminants: Concepts, Methods, And Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This problems-based, introductory workshop focuses on methods to assess health risks posed by exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment. Chemical mixtures health risk assessment methods continue to be developed and evolve to address concerns over health risks from multic...

  3. Effects of Irradiation on Albite's Chemical Durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Hsuan; La Plante, Erika Callagon; Krishnan, N M Anoop; Le Pape, Yann; Neithalath, Narayanan; Bauchy, Mathieu; Sant, Gaurav

    2017-10-19

    Albite (NaAlSi 3 O 8 ), a framework silicate of the plagioclase feldspar family and a common constituent of felsic rocks, is often present in the siliceous mineral aggregates that compose concrete. When exposed to radiation (e.g., in the form of neutrons) in nuclear power plants, the crystal structure of albite can undergo significant alterations. These alterations may degrade its chemical durability. Indeed, careful examinations of Ar + -implanted albite carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and molecular dynamics simulations show that albite's crystal structure, upon irradiation, undergoes progressive disordering, resulting in an expansion in its molar volume (i.e., a reduction of density) and a reduction in the connectivity of its atomic network. This loss of network connectivity (i.e., rigidity) results in an enhancement of the aqueous dissolution rate of albite-measured using vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) in alkaline environments-by a factor of 20. This enhancement in the dissolution rate (i.e., reduction in chemical durability) of albite following irradiation has significant impacts on the durability of felsic rocks and of concrete containing them upon their exposure to radiation in nuclear power plant (NPP) environments.

  4. Effect of chemical reaction on unsteady MHD free convective two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of flow parameters on the coefficient of skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also tabulated and discussed appropriately. It was observed that the increase in chemical reaction coefficient/parameter suppresses both velocity and concentration profiles. Keywords: Chemical Reaction, MHD, ...

  5. Modeling food matrix effects on chemical reactivity: Challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Edoardo; Oliviero, Teresa; van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2017-06-29

    The same chemical reaction may be different in terms of its position of the equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamics) and its kinetics when studied in different foods. The diversity in the chemical composition of food and in its structural organization at macro-, meso-, and microscopic levels, that is, the food matrix, is responsible for this difference. In this viewpoint paper, the multiple, and interconnected ways the food matrix can affect chemical reactivity are summarized. Moreover, mechanistic and empirical approaches to explain and predict the effect of food matrix on chemical reactivity are described. Mechanistic models aim to quantify the effect of food matrix based on a detailed understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in food. Their applicability is limited at the moment to very simple food systems. Empirical modeling based on machine learning combined with data-mining techniques may represent an alternative, useful option to predict the effect of the food matrix on chemical reactivity and to identify chemical and physical properties to be further tested. In such a way the mechanistic understanding of the effect of the food matrix on chemical reactions can be improved.

  6. Effect of ozone gas processing on physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of ozone treatment on chemical and physical properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gluten, glutenin and gliadin. Methods: Wheat proteins isolated from wheat flour were treated with ozone gas. The physical and chemical properties of gluten proteins were investigated after treatment ...

  7. Chemical warfare in freshwater, allelopathic effects of macrophytes on phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field

  8. Chemical warfare in freshwater. Allelpathic effects of macrophytes on phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field

  9. Safety management and risk assessment in chemical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marendaz, Jean-Luc; Friedrich, Kirstin; Meyer, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The present paper highlights a new safety management program, MICE (Management, Information, Control and Emergency), which has been specifically adapted for the academic environment. The process starts with an exhaustive hazard inventory supported by a platform assembling specific hazards encountered in laboratories and their subsequent classification. A proof of concept is given by a series of implementations in the domain of chemistry targeting workplace health protection. The methodology is expressed through three examples to illustrate how the MICE program can be used to address safety concerns regarding chemicals, strong magnetic fields and nanoparticles in research laboratories. A comprehensive chemical management program is also depicted.

  10. Cost effectiveness of dilute chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Surf, J.E.; Weyman, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    The origin and basic principles of the dilute chemical decontamination (DCD) concept are described and illustrated by reference to the CAN-DECON process. The estimated dose savings from the actual application of the process at several reactors are presented and discussed. Two methods of performing a cost/benefit appraisal are described and discussed. This methodology requires more study by the nuclear industry, including collection by station staff of relevant data on which future cost/benefit appraisals may be based. Finally, three illustrative cases are examinated to show the breakeven point and potential savings achievable by DCD with different initial radiation fields and different amounts of work to be done. The overall conclusion is that there are many situations in which DCD is desirable to reduce radiation exposure of workers, to save costs to the station, and to ease the performance of maintenance and repair work on reactor systems

  11. Toward refined environmental scenarios for ecological risk assessment of down-the-drain chemicals in freshwater environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Antonio; Price, Oliver R; Marshall, Stuart; Jolliet, Olivier; Van den Brink, Paul J; Rico, Andreu; Focks, Andreas; De Laender, Frederik; Ashauer, Roman

    2017-03-01

    Current regulatory practice for chemical risk assessment suffers from the lack of realism in conventional frameworks. Despite significant advances in exposure and ecological effect modeling, the implementation of novel approaches as high-tier options for prospective regulatory risk assessment remains limited, particularly among general chemicals such as down-the-drain ingredients. While reviewing the current state of the art in environmental exposure and ecological effect modeling, we propose a scenario-based framework that enables a better integration of exposure and effect assessments in a tiered approach. Global- to catchment-scale spatially explicit exposure models can be used to identify areas of higher exposure and to generate ecologically relevant exposure information for input into effect models. Numerous examples of mechanistic ecological effect models demonstrate that it is technically feasible to extrapolate from individual-level effects to effects at higher levels of biological organization and from laboratory to environmental conditions. However, the data required to parameterize effect models that can embrace the complexity of ecosystems are large and require a targeted approach. Experimental efforts should, therefore, focus on vulnerable species and/or traits and ecological conditions of relevance. We outline key research needs to address the challenges that currently hinder the practical application of advanced model-based approaches to risk assessment of down-the-drain chemicals. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:233-248. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Assessment and management of cancer risks from radiological and chemical hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A Joint Working Group was established in April 1995 by the President of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and the Assistant Deputy Minister of the Health Protection Branch of Health Canada to examine the similarities, disparities and inconsistencies between the levels of risk considered acceptable for regulating ionizing radiation and those considered acceptable for regulating chemical and microbiological hazards. During the process of collecting, analysing and interpreting information, the Joint Working Group realized that its terms of reference as written presented a major difficulty because of the lack of consensus on acceptable levels of risk. Consequently it decided that the most reasonable way to proceed was to compare the risk assessment and management processes used to protect the public from radiation, chemicals and microbiological hazards. This report concentrates on the assessment and management of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals (which both cause cancer by damaging the DNA in cells) and pays less attention to non-genotoxic effects and microbiological hazards. The report also examines public more than occupational exposures and exposures from man-made rather than naturally occurring agents. (author)

  13. Effects of symbiotic bacteria on chemical sensitivity of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakul, Patcharaporn; Peerakietkhajorn, Saranya; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    The crustacean zooplankton Daphnia magna has been widely used for chemical toxicity tests. Although abiotic factors have been well documented in ecotoxicological test protocols, biotic factors that may affect the sensitivity to chemical compounds remain limited. Recently, we identified symbiotic bacteria that are critical for the growth and reproduction of D. magna. The presence of symbiotic bacteria on Daphnia raised the question as to whether these bacteria have a positive or negative effect on toxicity tests. In order to evaluate the effects of symbiotic bacteria on toxicity tests, bacteria-free Daphnia were prepared, and their chemical sensitivities were compared with that of Daphnia with symbiotic bacteria based on an acute immobilization test. The Daphnia with symbiotic bacteria showed higher chemical resistance to nonylphenol, fenoxycarb, and pentachlorophenol than bacteria-free Daphnia. These results suggested potential roles of symbiotic bacteria in the chemical resistance of its host Daphnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Risk Assessment Methodology for Toxic Chemicals Evaporation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents a method for determining the mass transfer coefficient for the toxic chemicals evaporation from circular pools formed due to the failure of plant integrity or escape from valves. The approach used in this present research work is to develop a correlation by a robust optimization technique known as Genetic ...

  15. Assessment of physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Water quality is a critical factor affecting human health and welfare. This study aimed at examining the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water in Adama town. A total of 107 triplicate water samples were examined; 1 from inlet point (raw water), 1 from outlet (the water after treatment, 1 from reservoir ...

  16. An assessment of the biological and physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical parameters and biological (phytoplanktons and macrophytes) composition of Bindare and Hanwa streams in Zaria, Nigeria were studied for a period of three months (September to November 2008). The streams have catchments of varying land use patterns ranging from agricultural (farming and animal ...

  17. Health risk assessments of DEHP released from chemical protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Huang, Chan-Sheng; Wei, Chung-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The substance di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in chemical protective gloves to improve their flexibility and workability. However, it is possible that workers using protective gloves to handle various solvents may be exposed to DEHP leached by the solvents. Using an ASTM F739 permeation cell, it was found that BTEX solvents permeating through the glove samples dissolved DEHP from the gloves. Even without continuously contacting the permeant, DEHP was released from the contaminated glove samples during the desorption experiments. The DEHP leaching amounts were found to be inversely correlated to the permeability coefficients of BTEX in the glove samples. This result implied that the larger the amount of DEHP released from the glove samples, the higher the permeation resistance of gloves. Although chemical protective gloves provide adequate skin exposure protection to workers, the dermal exposure model developed herein indicates that leaching of DEHP from the glove samples may pose a potential health risk to the workers who handle BTEX. This study suggests that the selection of protective gloves should not only be concerned with the chemical resistance of the gloves but also the health risk associated with leaching of chemicals, such as DEHP, used in the manufacturing of the gloves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative assessment of chemical contaminant removal by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at modifying the design of, constructing, evaluating and comparing chemical contaminant removal efficiency by, 3 household water treatment filters. The filters were: 1) biosand filter (BSF); 2) the ceramic candle filter (CCF); 3) bucket filter (BF). The filters were evaluated for their efficiency in removal of ...

  19. assessment of perception and knowledge of occupational chemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    uting factors of the occupational chemical hazard exposure in the paint spraying industry. Man- ... up to 100 different organic compounds, 90 per- cent of these being ... inform policy. MATERIAL AND METHODS ..... erations did not make engineering interventions appropriate. .... of shea butter applied to the nostrils and the.

  20. Quality Assessment of Film Processing Chemicals in Dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Chul

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the qualities of the four different processing chemicals (solutions). With EP 21 films (Ektaspeed plus film, Kodak Co., USA), nine unexposed and nine exposed films of a step wedge were processed utilizing automatic film processor (XR 24, Durr Co., Germany) for 5 days. During 5 days, the total number of processed films including out-patient's intraoral films were about 400-500 for each brand. Base plus fog density, film density, contrast of processed films were measured with densitometer (model 07-443 digital densitometer, Victoreen Co., USA). These measurements were analyzed for comparison. The results were as follows,1. For the base plus fog density, there was significant difference among the four chemicals (p<0.05). The sequence of the base plus fog densities was in ascending order by Kodak, X-dol 90, Agfa and Konica. 2. For the film density, all chemicals showed useful range of photographic densities (0.25-2.5). The sequence of the film densities was in ascending order by Kodak, X-dol 90, Konica and Agfa. But there was no statistically significant difference of film density between X-dol and Kodak (p<0.05). 3. The sequence of the contrasts was in ascending order by Konica, X-dol 90, Kodak and Agfa. But there was no statistically significant difference of contrast between X-dol and Konica (p<0.05). These results indicated that the four processing chemicals had the clinically useful film density and contrast, but only Kodak processing chemical had useful base plus fog density.

  1. Effect of magnetic treatment of water on chemical properties of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed effect of magnetic treatment of water on chemical properties of water, sodium adsorption ratio, electrical conductivity (EC) of the water and the lifespan of the magnetic effect on water. Magnetic flux densities used for treating the water were 124, 319, 443 and 719 gauss. All the cations (Calcium, Sodium, ...

  2. Potential for MERLIN-Expo, an advanced tool for higher tier exposure assessment, within the EU chemical legislative frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, Nicoleta; Tediosi, Alice; Ciffroy, Philippe; Altenpohl, Annette; Brochot, Céline; Verdonck, Frederik; Ferrari, Federico; Giubilato, Elisa; Capri, Ettore; Fait, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    MERLIN-Expo merges and integrates advanced exposure assessment methodologies, allowing the building of complex scenarios involving several pollution sources and targets. The assessment of exposure and risks to human health from chemicals is of major concern for policy and ultimately benefits all citizens. The development and operational fusion of the advanced exposure assessment methodologies envisaged in the MERLIN-Expo tool will have a significant impact in the long term on several policies dealing with chemical safety management. There are more than 30 agencies in Europe related to exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals, which have an important role in implementing EU policies, having especially tasks of technical, scientific, operational and/or regulatory nature. The main purpose of the present paper is to introduce MERLIN-Expo and to highlight its potential for being effectively integrated within the group of tools available to assess the risk and exposure of chemicals for EU policy. The main results show that the tool is highly suitable for use in site-specific or local impact assessment, with minor modifications it can also be used for Plant Protection Products (PPPs), biocides and REACH, while major additions would be required for a comprehensive application in the field of consumer and worker exposure assessment. - Highlights: • Exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals • Coupling environmental exposure and pharmacokinetic models • MERLIN-expo as a higher tier exposure tool • MERLIN-expo potential application in EU chemical regulations • EU legislations and policies related to risk assessment and management of chemicals

  3. Potential for MERLIN-Expo, an advanced tool for higher tier exposure assessment, within the EU chemical legislative frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suciu, Nicoleta, E-mail: nicoleta.suciu@unicatt.it [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza (Italy); Tediosi, Alice [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Ciffroy, Philippe [Electricité de France (EDF) R& D, National Hydraulic and Environment Laboratory, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France); Altenpohl, Annette [Österreichisches Normungsinstitut/Austrian Standards Institute, Heinestraße 38, 1020 Wien (Austria); Brochot, Céline [INERIS, Parc ALATA, BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Verdonck, Frederik [ARCHE cvba, Liefkensstraat 35d, 9032 Gent-Wondelgem (Belgium); Ferrari, Federico [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Giubilato, Elisa [University Ca Foscari Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre-Venice (Italy); Capri, Ettore [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza (Italy); Fait, Gabriella [EFSA, via Carlo Magno 1/a, 43126 Parma (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    MERLIN-Expo merges and integrates advanced exposure assessment methodologies, allowing the building of complex scenarios involving several pollution sources and targets. The assessment of exposure and risks to human health from chemicals is of major concern for policy and ultimately benefits all citizens. The development and operational fusion of the advanced exposure assessment methodologies envisaged in the MERLIN-Expo tool will have a significant impact in the long term on several policies dealing with chemical safety management. There are more than 30 agencies in Europe related to exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals, which have an important role in implementing EU policies, having especially tasks of technical, scientific, operational and/or regulatory nature. The main purpose of the present paper is to introduce MERLIN-Expo and to highlight its potential for being effectively integrated within the group of tools available to assess the risk and exposure of chemicals for EU policy. The main results show that the tool is highly suitable for use in site-specific or local impact assessment, with minor modifications it can also be used for Plant Protection Products (PPPs), biocides and REACH, while major additions would be required for a comprehensive application in the field of consumer and worker exposure assessment. - Highlights: • Exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals • Coupling environmental exposure and pharmacokinetic models • MERLIN-expo as a higher tier exposure tool • MERLIN-expo potential application in EU chemical regulations • EU legislations and policies related to risk assessment and management of chemicals.

  4. Chemical composition and antinociceptive effects of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antinociceptive effect of EOGT in rats was carried out using chemical (formalin and acetic acid) and .... rat using a microsyringe with a 27 gauge needle. Immediately after formalin ... SEM, and were analyzed using GraphPad Prism. Statistically ...

  5. Investigating the effects of different physical and chemical stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-09

    Apr 9, 2018 ... bacteria from extreme physical and chemical stress conditions. Additionally .... by inducing stress response genes, become more tolerant phenotypes ..... biofilm, monochloramine is more effective than free chlorine over long ...

  6. Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional and Metal Composition of Banana ( Musa spp ) ... Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2014) > ... curcas leaf were used and compared with a control with no ripening agent.

  7. Sanitary Assessment of Hazardous Materials Exposed To Highly Toxic Chemical Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rembovskiy, V.; Ermolaeva, E.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial or terroristic accidents in which toxic chemicals (TC) are the main or attendant damaging factors should be regarded as a new challenge for experts, because of little knowledge on the methodology to estimating the long-term risk for humans due to contamination of the building materials and environment. In the Russian Federation, there appeared to be a kind of model systems for developing an algorithm for solving these or similar problems. Under dismantling and liquidation of the former facilities for chemical weapon production (FCWP) the building materials are regarded as potential waste products the fate of which (processing, warehousing, utilization, and destruction) is dependent on their possible hazard for human population and environment. The standard approaches for hazard assessment of waste products of the FCWP turned out to be insufficient. When conducting the present work, the following problems have been solved: 1. Selection of representative samples taking into consideration a diversity of construction materials, great quantities of potentially toxic waste materials, information on the production conditions, breakdowns in the process of production, accidents, composition of the decontaminators used, decontamination frequency, etc. 2. Analysis of TC in composite matrixes complicated by the following problems: extraction, masking effects of concomitant components during indirect analysis, lack of certified methods of direct analysis of TC, discrepancy of results of GC and direct GCMS analysis, low sensitivity of GCMS analysis, big volume of samples (more than 0.5 kg), heterogeneity of physical-chemical properties of different matrixes influencing the process of degradation of TC. 3. Hazard assessment of the wastes in toxic-and-sanitary experiment relying on non-specific signs of intoxication due to relatively low percentage of TC and masking effects of various matrix components. Application of the integral toxicity tests with soil

  8. Seismic vulnerability assessment of chemical plants through probabilistic neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, T.; Ceravolo, R.; De Stefano, A.; Genovese, C.; Sabia, D.

    2002-01-01

    A chemical industrial plant represents a sensitive presence in a region and, in case of severe damage due to earthquake actions, its impact on social life and environment can be devastating. From the structural point of view, chemical plants count a number of recurrent elements, which are classifiable in a discrete set of typological families (towers, chimneys, cylindrical or spherical or prismatic tanks, pipes etc.). The final aim of this work is to outline a general procedure to be followed in order to assign a seismic vulnerability estimate to each element of the various typological families. In this paper, F.E. simulations allowed to create a training set, which has been used to train a probabilistic neural system. A sample application has concerned the seismic vulnerability of simple spherical tanks

  9. Probabilistic safety assessment in the chemical and nuclear industries

    CERN Document Server

    Fullwood, Ralph R

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) determines the probability and consequences of accidents, hence, the risk. This subject concerns policy makers, regulators, designers, educators and engineers working to achieve maximum safety with operational efficiency. Risk is analyzed using methods for achieving reliability in the space program. The first major application was to the nuclear power industry, followed by applications to the chemical industry. It has also been applied to space, aviation, defense, ground, and water transportation. This book is unique in its treatment of chemical and nuclear risk. Problems are included at the end of many chapters, and answers are in the back of the book. Computer files are provided (via the internet), containing reliability data, a calculator that determines failure rate and uncertainty based on field experience, pipe break calculator, event tree calculator, FTAP and associated programs for fault tree analysis, and a units conversion code. It contains 540 references and many...

  10. Effect of potassium on micromorphological and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... study the effect of potassium on yield and internal leaf tissues composition of cotton ... Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were applied at 150 mg N/kg soil and 75 mg ..... Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts: Polyphenol.

  11. Climate-chemical interactions and greenhouse effects of trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang-Yu; Fan, Xiao-Biao

    1994-01-01

    A completely coupled one-dimensional radiative-convective (RC) and photochemical-diffusion (PC) model has been developed recently and used to study the climate-chemical interactions. The importance of radiative-chemical interactions within the troposphere and stratosphere has been examined in some detail. We find that increases of radiatively and/or chemically active trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O have both the direct effects and the indirect effects on climate change by changing the atmospheric O3 profile through their interaction with chemical processes in the atmosphere. It is also found that the climatic effect of ozone depends strongly on its vertical distribution throughout the troposphere and stratosphere, as well on its column amount in the atmosphere.

  12. Health Risk Assessment of Harmful Chemicals: Case Study in a Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motovagheh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims In the most chemical process industries, workers are exposed to various chemicals and working with these chemicals without considering safety and health considerations can lead to different harmful symptoms. For deciding about control measures and reducing risk to acceptable level , it is necessary to assess the health risk of exposing to harmful chemicals by aid of specific risk assessment techniques in the process industries. The purpose of this study was to assess the health risks arising from the exposures to chemicals in a petrochemical industry.  methods A simple and applied method was used for health risk assessment of chemicals in a petrochemical industry. Firstly job tasks and work process were determined and then different chemicals in each tasks identified and risk ranking was calculated in each job task by aid of hazard and exposure rate.   Results The result showed that workers are exposed to 10 chemicals including Methyl ethyl ketone, Epichlorohydrin, Sulfuric acid, Phenol, Chlorobenzene, Toluene, Isopropanol, Methylene chloride, Chlorideric Acid and Acetone during their work in plant. From these chemicals, the highest risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in the jobs of tank and utility operations and maintenance workers. The next high risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in technical inspecting and Methyl ethyl ketone in Tank and utility operations operator.     Conclusion Hazard information and monitoring data of chemical agents in the chemical industries can be used for assessing health risks from exposures to chemicals and ranking jobs by their risk level. These data can be used for resource allocation for control measures and reducing risk level to acceptable level.    

  13. Chemical stimulation in unconventional hydrocarbons extraction in the USA: a preliminary environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutra, Emilie; Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-04-01

    While the exploitation of unconventional resources recently shows an extensive development, the stimulation techniques in use in this domain arouse growing public concerns. Often in the shadow of the disputed hydraulic fracturing process, the matrix acidizing is however a complementary or alternative procedure to enhance the reservoir connectivity. Although acidizing processes are widespread within the traditional hydrocarbons sources exploration, the matrix acidizing does not appear to be commonly used in unconventional hydrocarbons formations due to their low permeability. Nonetheless, this process has been recently applied to the Monterey formation, a shale oil play in California. These stimulation fluids are composed by various chemicals, what represents a matter of concern for public as well as for authorities. As a consequence, a risk assessment implying an exposure and toxicity analysis is needed. Focusing on site surface accidents, e.g., leak of a chemical from a storage tank, we develop in this study concentration scenarios for different exposure pathways to estimate the potential environmental risk associated with the use of specific hazardous substances in the matrix acidizing process for unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in the USA. Primary, information about the usage of different hazardous substances have been collected in order to extract the most frequently used chemicals. Afterwards, a probabilistic estimation of the environmental risk associated with the use of these chemicals is carried out by comparing the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) distribution with the Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) value. The latter is collected from a literature review, whereas the PEC is estimated as probability distribution concentrations in different environmental compartments (e.g., soil) built upon various predefined accident scenarios. By applying a probabilistic methodology for the concentrations, the level at which the used chemicals

  14. Potential health effects associated with dermal exposure to occupational chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual's health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical-skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health.

  15. Molecular effects: interactions with chemicals and viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawalt, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    Research focused upon an understanding of the cellular responses to the molecular effects of ionizing radiation should be an essential program component in the Federal Strategy for Research into the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Although we know that DNA is a principal target molecule for some highly significant biological effects of ionizing radiation, we need to learn which other target substances such as membrane components may also be important. Most of the emphasis should continue to be on DNA effects and highest priority should be assigned to the identification of the complete spectrum of products produced in DNA. Once the lesions are known we can proceed to determine how these behave as blocks to replication and transcription or as modulators on the fidelity of these crucial processes. Considerable work should be done on the repair of these lesions. High priority should be given to the search for mutants in mammalian cell systems with evident defects in the processing of specific lesions. Viruses should provide important tools for the research in this area, as probes for host cell repair responses and also for the isolation of mutants. Furthermore, it is important to consider the interaction of viruses and ionizing radiation with regard to possible modulating effects on repair processes and tumorigenesis. Finally we must consider the important problem of the modification of repair responses by environmental factors

  16. The potential role of life cycle assessment in regulation of chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frans Møller; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2004-01-01

    Scope and Background. This paper presents the preliminary results from an ongoing feasibility study, investigating potential application of elements from the life cycle assessment (LCA) framework in European chemicals' policy. Many policy areas affect manufacturing, marketing and use of chemicals...... dialogues with various stakeholders. Results and Discussion. LCAs are comparative and more holistic in view as compared to chemical risk assessments for regulatory purposes1. LCAs may therefore potentially improve the basis for decisions between alternatives in cases where a risk assessment calls for risk...

  17. Evidence from pharmacology and pathophysiology suggests that chemicals with dissimilar mechanisms of action could be of bigger concern in the toxicological risk assessment of chemical mixtures than chemicals with a similar mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrup, Niels

    2014-08-01

    Mathematical models have been developed for the toxicological risk assessment of chemical mixtures. However, exposure data as well as single chemical toxicological data are required for these models. When addressing this data need, it could be attractive to focus on chemicals with similar mechanisms of action, similar modes of action or with common target organs. In the European Union, efforts are currently being made to subgroup chemicals according to this need. However, it remains to be determined whether this is the best strategy to obtain data for risk assessment. In conditions such as cancer or HIV, it is generally recognised that pharmacological combination therapy targeting different mechanisms of action is more effective than a strategy where only one mechanism is targeted. Moreover, in diseases such as acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, several organ systems concomitantly contribute to the pathophysiology, suggesting that a grouping based on common target organs may also be inefficient. A better option may be to prioritise chemicals on the basis of potency and risk of exposure. In conclusion, there are arguments to suggest that we should concomitantly consider all targets that a chemical can affect in the human body and not merely a subset. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical Assessment of White Wine during Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated chemical properties of indigenous white wine varieties (Fetească albă, Fetească regală and Galbenă de Odobeşti during fermentation. The white wine making process took place at Wine Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. We aimed to monitorize the evolution of fermentation process parameters (temperature, alcohol content, and real extract and the quality of the bottled white wine (total acidity, alcohol content, total sulfur dioxide, total dry extract. The results obtained were in accordance to Romanian Legislation.

  19. Chemical composition and prophylactic effects of Saturja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The main components of SKEO were carvacrol (78.8%), thymol (7.5%), and beta-Bisabolene (1.2%). Findings of prophylactic effects revealed that mortality rate of infected mice was 8 days after oral administration of SKEO at the concentration of 0.2 and 0.3ml/kg (P<0.05). In contrast, this value for control group was ...

  20. 78 FR 16694 - Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... information provided. Comments that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information... secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, CVI, SSI, or PCII should be appropriately... Department make the instruments (e.g., Top-Screen, Security Vulnerability Assessment [SVA]/ Alternative...

  1. Preliminary Chemical and Biological Assessment of Ogbe Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of water from the Ogbe Creek ... indicated the impact of the perturbational stress on the organisms inhabiting the creek. ... experiences seasonal flooding which introduces a lot of detritus and ...

  2. Chemical Mixtures and Epidemiologic Fundamentals for Risk Assessment Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk management options are increasingly being considered early in the risk assessment process to help scope the considerations and bound the inherent complexities related to potential exposures, risk and future clean-up decisions (including acceptable pollutant levels) related t...

  3. Physico-Chemical and microbial water quality assessment of Densu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality assessment conducted in the Densu basin of Ghana between July ... High nutrient loads observed in the basin were due to domestic, agricultural and ... a pattern which is an intermediate between fresh and sea water systems.

  4. Security risk assessment and protection in the chemical and process industry

    OpenAIRE

    Reniers, Genserik; van Lerberghe, Paul; van Gulijk, Coen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a security risk assessment and protection methodology that was developed for use in the chemical- and process industry in Belgium. The approach of the method follows a risk-based approach that follows desing principles for chemical safety. That approach is beneficial for workers in the chemical industry because they recognize the steps in this model from familiar safety models .The model combines the rings-of-protection approach with generic security practices including...

  5. The Effects of Perfluorinated Chemicals on Adipoctye ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 3T3-L1 preadipocyte culture system has been used to examine numerous compounds that influence adipocyte differentiation or function. The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), used as surfactants in a variety of industrial applications, are of concern as environmental contaminants that are detected worldwide in human serum and animal tissues. This study was designed to evaluate the potential for PFAAs to affect adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation using mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Cells were treated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (5-100 IJM), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (5-100 1JM), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (50-300 IJM}, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (40-250 IJM), the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) PPARa agonist Wyeth-14,643 (WY-14,643), and the PPARy agonist rosiglitazone. The PPARy agonist was included as a positive control as this pathway is critical to adipocyte differentiation. The PPARa agonist was included as the PFAA compounds are known activators of this pathway. Cells were assessed morphometrically and biochemically for number, size, and lipid content. RNA was extracted for qPCR analysis of 13 genes selected for their importance in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. There was a significant concentration-related increase in cell number and decreased cell size after exposure to PFOA, PFHxS, PFOS, and PFNA. All four PFAA treatments produced a concentration-related decrease in the calculated average area oc

  6. Environmental risk assessment of chemicals and nanomaterials--The best foundation for regulatory decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syberg, Kristian; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-15

    Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is often considered as the most transparent, objective and reliable decision-making tool for informing the risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials. ERAs are based on the assumption that it is possible to provide accurate estimates of hazard and exposure and, subsequently, to quantify risk. In this paper we argue that since the quantification of risk is dominated by uncertainties, ERAs do not provide a transparent or an objective foundation for decision-making and they should therefore not be considered as a "holy grail" for informing risk management. We build this thesis on the analysis of two case studies (of nonylphenol and nanomaterials) as well as a historical analysis in which we address the scientific foundation for ERAs. The analyses show that ERAs do not properly address all aspects of actual risk, such as the mixture effect and the environmentally realistic risk from nanomaterials. Uncertainties have been recognised for decades, and assessment factors are used to compensate for the lack of realism in ERAs. The assessment factors' values were pragmatically determined, thus lowering the scientific accuracy of the ERAs. Furthermore, the default choice of standard assay for assessing a hazard might not always be the most biologically relevant, so we therefore argue that an ERA should be viewed as a pragmatic decision-making tool among several, and it should not have a special status for informing risk management. In relation to other relevant decision-making tools we discuss the use of chemical alternative assessments (CAAs) and the precautionary principle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Introduction of Life Cycle Assessment and Sustainability Concepts in Chemical Engineering Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Schmidt Rivera, Ximena C.; Stamford, Laurence

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The implementation of life cycle assessment (LCA) and carbon footprinting represents an important professional and research opportunity for chemical engineers, but this is not broadly reflected in chemical engineering curricula worldwide. This paper aims to present the implementation of a coursework that is easy to apply, free of cost,…

  8. Progress of environmental management and risk assessment of industrial chemicals in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hong; Yan Zhenguang; Li Hong; Yang Niyun; Leung, Kenneth M.Y.; Wang Yizhe; Yu Ruozhen; Zhang Lai; Wang Wanhua; Jiao Congying

    2012-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic growth, chemical-related environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, and the environmental management of chemicals has garnered increased attention from the government. This review focuses on the current situation and the application of risk assessment in China’s environmental management of industrial chemicals. The related challenges and research needs of the country are also discussed. The Chinese government promulgated regulations for the import and export of toxic chemicals in 1994. Regulations for new chemical substances came into force in 2003, and were revised in 2010 based on the concept of risk management. In order to support the implementation of new regulations, Guidance for Risk Assessment of Chemicals is under development in an attempt to provide the concepts and techniques of risk assessment. With increasing concern and financial support from Chinese government, China is embarking on the fast track of research and development in environmental management of industrial chemicals. - This paper reviews the current situation of industrial chemical management in China, and discusses the application of risk assessment and further research needs in this field.

  9. Toxicity assessment of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants: transition from in vivo to in vitro test methods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakand, S; Winder, C; Khalil, C; Hayes, A

    2005-12-01

    Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Inhalation of gases, vapors, aerosols, and mixtures of these can cause a wide range of adverse health effects, ranging from simple irritation to systemic diseases. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there are approximately 80,000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from both economical and practical perspectives. While in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information, regulatory agencies in general are still cautious about the replacement of whole-animal methods with new in vitro techniques. Although studying the toxic effects of inhaled chemicals is a complex subject, recent studies demonstrate that in vitro methods may have significant potential for assessing the toxicity of airborne contaminants. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of in vitro methods for studying respiratory toxicity, more recent models developed for toxicity testing of airborne contaminants are discussed.

  10. Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair B A; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  11. Chemical concentrations, exposures, health risks by census tract from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical concentrations, exposures, health risks by census tract for the United States from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). This dataset is associated...

  12. Ab initio chemical safety assessment: A workflow based on exposure considerations and non-animal methods

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Elisabet; White, Andrew; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Paini, Alicia; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Bois, Frederic Y.; Exner, Thomas; Leite, Sofia; Grunsven, Leo A. van; Worth, Andrew; Mahony, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Highlights • A workflow for an exposure driven chemical safety assessment to avoid animal testing. • Hypothesis based on existing data, in silico modelling and biokinetic considerations. • A tool to inform targeted and toxicologically relevant in vitro testing.

  13. Insecticide Usage and Chemical Contamination Assessment in Asiatic Pennywort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumroongsook, S.

    2017-07-01

    The insecticide usage in commercially grown asiatic pennywort plantations in Nakhonpatum and Nonthaburi province, Thailand was surveyed during January-June, 2016. The results showed that asiatic pennywort cuttworms was leaf destructive and caused the most damge to the production. The growers used organophosphate insecticides to control the caterpillars the most, followed by pyrethoid, abamectin, carbamate and organochlorine, respectively. The chemical contaminants of pennywort from 9 fresh markets in Bangkok was monitored, the result indicated that lead was not detected in the samples. The amount of arsenic was less than 0.075 mg / kg. The insecticide residue measurement of dicofol, chlorpyrifos and methidathion was 0.98, 2.84 and 0.46 mg / kg, respectively.

  14. Bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beronius, Anna; Hanberg, Annika; Zilliacus, Johanna; Rudén, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory risk assessment is traditionally based primarily on toxicity studies conducted according to standardized and internationally validated test guidelines. However, health risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is argued to rely on the efficient integration of findings from academic research. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of current developments to facilitate the use of academic research in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals and how certain aspects of study design and reporting are particularly important for the risk assessment process. By bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of EDCs, scientific uncertainty in risk assessment conclusions can be reduced, allowing for better targeted policy decisions for chemical risk reduction. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The Assessment of Hedge Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BUNEA-BONTAS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Earnings volatility can be a significant source of concern for a company, putting pressure on its capital base and share price. Prudent management of the company’s exposure to different risks typically involves hedging solutions. Hedging is important for corporate risk management, involving reducing the exposure of the company to specific risks. The aim of this paper is to examine the basic requirements for assessing the hedge effectiveness, this being a vital stage in applying hedge accounting, that gives the possibility to assess if the companies match the timing of the gains and losses of hedged items and their hedging derivatives. The article identifies some difficulties encountered by companies and choices that they must make in assessing hedge effectiveness.

  16. 78 FR 67141 - Antimony Trioxide (ATO) TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ...On September 27, 2013, EPA announced that it would be holding three peer review meetings by web connect and teleconference on October 16, 2013, October 31, 2013, and November 14, 2013, regarding EPA's draft Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) chemical risk assessment, ``TSCA Workplan Chemical Risk Assessment for ATO.'' Due to the government shutdown, however, EPA has rescheduled the peer review meetings and is announcing the rescheduled meetings in this notice. EPA is also extending the due date for public comments.

  17. Physico-chemical and toxicological assessment of liquid wastes from olive processing-related industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantozzi, Pierluigi; Zampini, Catiana; Torres, Mariela; Isla, María I; Verdenelli, Romina A; Meriles, José M; Maestri, Damián

    2012-01-30

    In the last few years, agricultural uses of waste waters from olive processing-related industries have been gaining interest mainly with a view to composting or bio-fertilizers. The present work examines physico-chemical, toxicological and geno-toxicological properties of three liquid wastes, namely olive mill wastewater (OMWW), olive wet husk and olive brine. The effect of OMWW spreading on soil microbial activity and biomass was also evaluated. Data from Artemia salina and Lactuca sativa toxicity tests indicated high levels of lethality, and inhibitory effects on seed germination and seedling growth of all olive wastes. The genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa tests showed contrasting results. At high concentrations, olive wastes caused inhibition or suppression of mitosis. However, they did not produce induced anaphase aberrations. Data on reversion of Salmonella thyphimurium strains using the Ames test indicated that the olive wastes did not present mutagenic activity. Results from the field experiment showed that OMWW at a 500 m(3) ha(-1) had the highest values of both soil microbial activity and biomass after 3 months of the amendment application. This work adds new data for environmental risk assessment of olive industrial wastes. Direct use of olive wastes for agricultural purposes should be limited owing to their possible chemotoxic, phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Delayed effects of nuclear and chemical weapons in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienstbier, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Delayed radiation effects are discussed of the use of nuclear and chemical weapons (defoliants and herbicides). Attention is drawn to the development of delayed malignities in exposed subjects and their pathophysiologic causes are explained. The only prevention of these effects is to prohibit the use of weapons of mass destruction. (author)

  19. Integrated assessment of the impact of chemical stressors on surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S; Rasmussen, Jes J; Kronvang, Brian

    2012-01-01

    of chemical stressors on stream ecosystems are evaluated for a stream in Denmark where the effects of major physical habitat degradation can be disregarded. The methods are: (i) the Danish Stream Fauna Index, (ii) Toxic Units (TU), (iii) SPEAR indices, (iv) Hazard Quotient (HQ) index and (v) AQUATOX...... of this case study, the HQ index and AQUATOX were extended for additional compounds, not only partly to identify potential compounds of concern, but also to determine thresholds where ecological impacts could be expected to occur. The results demonstrate that some commonly used methods for the assessment...... of ecological impact are not sufficient for capturing - and ideally separating - the effects of all anthropogenic stressors affecting ecosystems. Predictive modelling techniques can be especially useful in supporting early decisions on prioritising hot spots, serving to identify knowledge gaps and thereby...

  20. Assessment of fires in chemical warehouses. An overview of the TOXFIRE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The report summarises the scientific outcome of the CEC Environment project "TOXFIRE. Guidelines for Management of Fires in Chemical Warehouses". The project was performed in the period 1994 - 1996 in a multi-national co-operation between partners fromUnited Kingdom, Sweden, Finland and Denmark....... The project included micro, small, medium, and two types of large scale combustion experiments. The experiments focused on the characterization of the combustion products and scaling effects are described.Additional, a few experiments on the effects of packaging and water on the fire products have been...... performed. Also included were items as fire modelling, risk assessment to human health and the environment. Finally, the basis of guidelines for safetyengineers and fire brigades were established. The report describes the work done by each partner and the main results achieved. The references of all reports...

  1. Relevance of leaf surface contamination for assessing chemical composition of bromeliads in a restinga forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, C; Fernandes, E A.N.; Franca, E J; Bacchi, M A; Tagliaferro, F S [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Resuspended soil and other airborne particles adhered to the leaf surface affect the chemical composition of the plant. A well-defined cleaning procedure is necessary to avoid this problem, providing a correct assessment of the inherent chemical composition of bromeliads. To evaluate the influence of a washing procedure, INAA was applied for determining chemical elements in the leaves of bromeliads from Vriesea carinata species, both non-washed and washed with Alconox, EDTA and bi-distilled water. Br, Ce, Hg, La, Sc, Se, Sm and Th showed higher mass fractions in nonwashed leaves. The washing procedure removed the exogenous material without leaching chemical elements from inside the tissues. (author)

  2. Relevance of leaf surface contamination for assessing chemical composition of bromeliads in a restinga forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, C.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Franca, E.J.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    Resuspended soil and other airborne particles adhered to the leaf surface affect the chemical composition of the plant. A well-defined cleaning procedure is necessary to avoid this problem, providing a correct assessment of the inherent chemical composition of bromeliads. To evaluate the influence of a washing procedure, INAA was applied for determining chemical elements in the leaves of bromeliads from Vriesea carinata species, both non-washed and washed with Alconox, EDTA and bi-distilled water. Br, Ce, Hg, La, Sc, Se, Sm and Th showed higher mass fractions in nonwashed leaves. The washing procedure removed the exogenous material without leaching chemical elements from inside the tissues. (author)

  3. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT FOR PLANNING FUTURE DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed

  4. Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Rashad; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Murphy, Jerry D.; Kiely, Gerard [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm [Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University (Denmark); Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

    2010-12-15

    The rise in oil price triggered the exploration and enhancement of various renewable energy sources. Producing biogas from organic waste is not only providing a clean sustainable indigenous fuel to the number of on-farm digesters in Europe, but also reducing the ecological and environmental deterioration. The lignocellulosic substrates are not completely biodegraded in anaerobic digesters operating at commercial scale due to their complex physical and chemical structure, which result in meager energy recovery in terms of methane yield. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 C-150 C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect on biogas and methane potential in the temperature range (25-100 C). Maximum enhancement is observed at 70 C with increase of 78% biogas and 60% methane production. Thermal pretreatment also showed enhancement in the temperature range (50-10 C), with maximum enhancement at 100 C having 28% biogas and 25% methane increase. (author)

  6. Environmental risk assessment of selected organic chemicals based on TOC test and QSAR estimation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yulang; Zhang, Huanteng; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Yi; Ye, Guozhu; Zhu, Huimin; Dong, Sijun

    2018-02-01

    Environmental risks of organic chemicals have been greatly determined by their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT) and physicochemical properties. Major regulations in different countries and regions identify chemicals according to their bioconcentration factor (BCF) and octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), which frequently displays a substantial correlation with the sediment sorption coefficient (Koc). Half-life or degradability is crucial for the persistence evaluation of chemicals. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) estimation models are indispensable for predicting environmental fate and health effects in the absence of field- or laboratory-based data. In this study, 39 chemicals of high concern were chosen for half-life testing based on total organic carbon (TOC) degradation, and two widely accepted and highly used QSAR estimation models (i.e., EPI Suite and PBT Profiler) were adopted for environmental risk evaluation. The experimental results and estimated data, as well as the two model-based results were compared, based on the water solubility, Kow, Koc, BCF and half-life. Environmental risk assessment of the selected compounds was achieved by combining experimental data and estimation models. It was concluded that both EPI Suite and PBT Profiler were fairly accurate in measuring the physicochemical properties and degradation half-lives for water, soil, and sediment. However, the half-lives between the experimental and the estimated results were still not absolutely consistent. This suggests deficiencies of the prediction models in some ways, and the necessity to combine the experimental data and predicted results for the evaluation of environmental fate and risks of pollutants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Determination of chemical solute transport parameters effecting radiostrontium interbed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemming, C.; Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The extent to which radionuclides migrate in an aquifer system is a function of various physical, chemical, and biological processes. A measure of this migration rate is of primary concern when locating suitable storage sites for such species. Parameters including water-rock interactions, infiltration rates, chemical phase modification, and biochemical reactions all affect solute transport. While these different types of chemical reactions can influence solute transport in subsurface waters, distribution coefficients (Kd) can be send to effectively summarize the net chemical factors which dictate transport efficiency. This coefficient describes the partitioning of the solute between the solution and solid phase. Methodology used in determining and interpreting the distribution coefficient for radiostrontium in well characterized sediments will be presented

  8. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  9. Environmental chemicals - how do we assess the risk (question mark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somers, E.

    Risk assessment is considered as comprising risk identification, risk estimation, and risk evaluation. The methodology of risk estimation is described and the key role of animal experimentation outlined, drawing attention to the inherent problems of extrapolating from animals to humans. The application of risk estimation to regulatory decision-making in Canada is given for chloroform in drinking water; asbestos in dry-wall patching compounds; arsenic emissions in air; nitrogen oxides; mercury in fish; and the food additive saccharin. Risk evaluation represents societal judgement and is ultimately political but a number of techniques can be of value in separating the competing factors, i.e., comparison with natural background or with other risks, balancing risks from alternatives, and risk-benefit analysis. However, the inherent limitations of a completely rational approach to risk assessment must always be recognized. (author)

  10. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  11. CASCADE - Chemicals as contaminants in the food chain. A network of excellence for research, risk assessment, and education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeberg, M.; Haakansson, H. [Karolinska Institutet, Insitute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Pongratz, I.; Gustavsson, J.Aa. [Karolinska Institutet, Dept. of Biosciences, Huddinge (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Harmful effects of chemical contaminants in food are of major health concern in Europe today. Lack of integration between basic research, risk assessment, and education severely hampers the efforts to reach European excellence in this area. The research activities that are carried out are small in scale and are not well integrated into a coherent structure. To tackle the fragmentation problems and to achieve synergistic effects and full European research potential, the European Commission has initiated a Network of Excellence called CASCADE or ''Chemicals as contaminants in the food chain: a network of excellence for research, risk assessment, and education'' The contract is running for five years and is worth over 14 million with partners from eighteen research centres. The network has the potential and goal to be a world force in knowledge on health issues related to chemical contaminants in food. Focus is on chemical residues that act via and/or interfere with cell regulation at the level of nuclear receptors. The risk assessment integration parts of the network aim to increase the awareness among scientists and others of the need to bring multiple aspects of scientific information into use in risk assessment.

  12. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  13. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  14. Taxonomic and chemical assessment of exceptionally abundant rock mine biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Tomczyk-Żak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background An exceptionally thick biofilm covers walls of ancient gold and arsenic Złoty Stok mine (Poland in the apparent absence of organic sources of energy. Methods and Results We have characterized this microbial community using culture-dependent and independent methods. We sequenced amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene obtained using generic primers and additional primers targeted at Archaea and Actinobacteria separately. Also, we have cultured numerous isolates from the biofilm on different media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We discovered very high biodiversity, and no single taxonomic group was dominant. The majority of almost 4,000 OTUs were classified above genus level indicating presence of novel species. Elemental analysis, performed using SEM-EDS and X-ray, of biofilm samples showed that carbon, sulphur and oxygen were not evenly distributed in the biofilm and that their presence is highly correlated. However, the distribution of arsenic and iron was more flat, and numerous intrusions of elemental silver and platinum were noted, indicating that microorganisms play a key role in releasing these elements from the rock. Conclusions Altogether, the picture obtained throughout this study shows a very rich, complex and interdependent system of rock biofilm. The chemical heterogeneity of biofilm is a likely explanation as to why this oligotrophic environment is capable of supporting such high microbial diversity.

  15. Assessing and controlling risks from the emission of organic chemicals from construction products into indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Veronica M; Crump, Derrick R; Harrison, Paul T C

    2013-12-01

    Construction products can be a significant source of indoor pollutants, including volatile organic compounds that may be a risk to the health and well-being of building occupants. There are currently a number of schemes for the labelling of products according to their potential to emit organic compounds. Assessment of the complex mixtures of compounds that may be released has mandated the development of test methods that allow the determination of the concentrations of the chemicals released from products in controlled test chamber environments. In response to concerns about the financial burden faced by manufacturers required to test products according to the various different labelling schemes currently in existence, the European Commission has investigated the scope for greater harmonisation. This initiative has sought to harmonise the process for the assessment of emissions data, complementing work led by the European standards organisation focussed on harmonising the test chamber procedures. The current labelling schemes have a range of requirements with respect to the number of chemicals to be quantified. A comparison of 13 schemes worldwide has identified 15 lists of target compounds, with a total of 611 chemicals occurring on at least one of the target lists. While harmonisation may clarify and perhaps simplify these requirements, at least in Europe, it can be expected that future changes to product formulations, the introduction of new products and our increasing knowledge about the potential risks to health, will require continued development of new and improved measurement techniques. There is, therefore, a particular challenge for analytical chemists to ensure the efficient provision of high quality emissions data and thereby ultimately enable effective control of risks to human health through the prevention or reduction of indoor air pollution.

  16. Adsorption and catalysis: The effect of confinement on chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiso, Erik E.; George, Aaron M.; Turner, C. Heath; Kostov, Milen K.; Gubbins, Keith E.; Buongiorno-Nardelli, Marco; Sliwinska-Bartkowiak, MaIgorzata

    2005-01-01

    Confinement within porous materials can affect chemical reactions through a host of different effects, including changes in the thermodynamic state of the system due to interactions with the pore walls, selective adsorption, geometrical constraints that affect the reaction mechanism, electronic perturbation due to the substrate, etc. In this work, we present an overview of some of our recent research on some of these effects, on chemical equilibrium, kinetic rates and reaction mechanisms. We also discuss our current and future directions for research in this area

  17. Radiation chemical effects of X-rays on liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holroyd, R.A.; Preses, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This review describes some of the chemical changes induced by photoelectrons which are released in liquids when X-rays are absorbed. Both experimental studies and theory are discussed. In part 1, the basic processes occurring upon absorption of X-rays are described. Parts 2 and 3 deal with hydrocarbon liquids; in part 2 the ion yields, including effects at K-edges, and in part 3, the yields of excited states. Part 4 discusses chemical effects of X-rays in aqueous solutions. The authors end with a summary of future needs and directions

  18. Tools to prevent process safety events at university research facility - chemical risk assessment and experimental set-up risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the two forms developed to examine the hazards of the chemicals to be used in the experiments in the experimental setup in the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark. A system for the safety assessment of new experimental se...... setups in university research and teaching laboratories is presented. The significance of the forms for the effort of researchers in improving work with significant hazards is described....

  19. Climate-based archetypes for the environmental fate assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffo, Biagio; Sala, Serenella

    2013-11-15

    Emissions of chemicals have been on the rise for years, and their impacts are greatly influenced by spatial differentiation. Chemicals are usually emitted locally but their impact can be felt both locally and globally, due to their chemical properties and persistence. The variability of environmental parameters in the emission compartment may affect the chemicals' fate and the exposure at different orders of magnitude. The assessment of the environmental fate of chemicals and the inherent spatial differentiation requires the use of multimedia models at various levels of complexity (from a simple box model to complex computational and high-spatial-resolution models). The objective of these models is to support ecological and human health risk assessment, by reducing the uncertainty of chemical impact assessments. The parameterisation of spatially resolved multimedia models is usually based on scenarios of evaluative environments, or on geographical resolutions related to administrative boundaries (e.g. countries/continents) or landscape areas (e.g. watersheds, eco-regions). The choice of the most appropriate scale and scenario is important from a management perspective, as a balance should be reached between a simplified approach and computationally intensive multimedia models. In this paper, which aims to go beyond the more traditional approach based on scale/resolution (cell, country, and basin), we propose and assess climate-based archetypes for the impact assessment of chemicals released in air. We define the archetypes based on the main drivers of spatial variability, which we systematically identify by adopting global sensitivity analysis techniques. A case study that uses the high resolution multimedia model MAPPE (Multimedia Assessment of Pollutant Pathways in the Environment) is presented. Results of the analysis showed that suitable archetypes should be both climate- and chemical-specific, as different chemicals (or groups of them) have different traits

  20. Chemical effects of /sup 32/P recoil atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, N [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1975-06-01

    Szilard-Chalmers' effect of /sup 32/P were reviewed. The concentration method using Szilard-Chalmers' effect in production of radioisotope, circumstances such as exposure time in an atomic pile, states of target substances and the yields by them were discussed. Many kinds of chemical effects, such as chemical effects of /sup 32/P recoil atom in phosphorated glass, studies of the effect of adducts, the threshold of ..gamma..-ray effect, the oxidation number of /sup 32/P in phosphorated glass by exposure time in the pile and the labelling position of /sup 32/P, are associated with caryotransformation (nuclear transformation) by environmental factors. The abovementioned articles were explained concerning /sup 32/P.

  1. Assessment of subsurface VOCs using a chemical microsensor array. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.; Zellers, E.T. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Public Health

    1993-06-01

    This report describes the results of laboratory investigations of several performance parameters relevant to surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) chemical sensor arrays for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated soil and groundwater. The small size, low cost, sensitivity and selectivity of such instruments promise improvements in the quality and quantity of data used to guide site assessment and restoration efforts. In this investigation, calibrations were performed for 15 different coated SAW sensors. Each sensor was exposed to six VOCs selected to represent three chemical classes of contaminants that are commonly found at waste sites (i.e., aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons). A new pattern recognition method was developed for determining which coated sensors would maximize the selectivity and accuracy of quantitation for a given set of vapor contaminants. Using this method, an optimal subwet of four coated sensors was selected for testing in a prototype microsensor instrument. Additional laboratory experiments were performed with this optimized array to assess the limits of detection and linear response ranges for the representative vapors, as well as the additivity of responses to vapors in binary mixtures, temperature and humidity effects, aging effects, and other performance parameters related to the application of this technology to soil and groundwater VOC monitoring. Results demonstrate that SAW microsensor arrays can identify and quantify specific VOCs at concentrations in the {mu}g/L to mg/L range when present alone or in simple (e.g., binary) mixtures. SAW sensor technology offers a potentially effective alternative to existing field instrumentation for headspace analysis, soil vapor monitoring, and vacuum extraction process monitoring of VOCs in subsurface media.

  2. Effects of radiation and other influences on chemical lymphomagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, H.J.

    1987-06-01

    Methylnitrosourea (MNU) or butylnitrosourea (BNU) was used to induce T cell lymphomas (thymomas) in BDF/sub 1/ mice. In addition to the chemical, X-rays in various dose schedules were applied. An effect of the irradiation (shortening of the latency period) was seen with 12 x 0.25 Gy in protocols with a prolonged median induction time in the controls as a result of a dose reduction of the chemical (median induction time 27-36 weeks instead of 16-18 weeks under optimal conditions using 50 mg kg/sup -1/ of MNU). Preirradiation 2-5 weeks before 40 mg kg/sup -1/ of MNU resulted in enhanced leukaemogenesis. Also, mice with regenerating lympho-haemopoiesis after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation were more sensitive to the effect of both chemicals than were the controls. Treatment with anti-thy 1.2 and with corynebacterium parvum during the latency period had no influence.

  3. A combined chemical and biological assessment of industrial contamination in an estuarine system in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Sujatha, C H; Akhil, P S; Soman, Kunjupilai; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The Cochin Backwaters in India are part of the Vembanad-Kol system, which is a protected wetland and one of the largest estuarine ecosystems in South Asia. The backwaters are a major supplier of fisheries resources and are developed as tourist destination. Periyar River discharges into the northern arm of the system and receives effluents from chemical, petrochemical and metal processing industries which release huge amounts of wastewaters after little treatment. We investigated water and sediment contamination in the industrial vicinity and at one station further away including organic and inorganic contaminants. In total 83 organic contaminants were found, e.g. well known priority pollutants such as endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane and their metabolites, which likely stem from the industrial manufacturing of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, several benzothiazole, dibenzylamine and dicyclohexylamine derivatives were detected, which indicated inputs from rubber producing facilities. Several of these compounds have not been reported as environmental contaminants so far. A comparison of organic contaminant and trace hazardous element concentrations in sediments with reported sediment quality guidelines revealed that adverse effects on benthic species are likely at all stations. The chemical assessment was combined with an investigation of macrobenthic diversity and community composition. Benthic organisms were completely lacking at the site with the highest trace hazardous element concentrations. Highest species numbers, diversity indices and abundances were recorded at the station with the greatest distance to the industrial area. Filter feeders were nearly completely lacking, probably leading to an impairment of the filter function in this area. This study shows that a combination of chemical and biological methods is an innovative approach to achieve a comprehensive characterization of industrial contamination, to evaluate

  4. Predicting In Vivo Effect Levels for Repeat Dose Systemic Toxicity using Chemical, Biological, Kinetic and Study Covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to ensure chemical safety while reducing reliance on animal testing, USEPA and L’Oréal have collaborated to address a major challenge in chemical safety assessment using alternative approaches: the prediction of points-of-departure (POD) of systemic effects. Systemic...

  5. Low dose effects and non-monotonic dose responses for endocrine active chemicals: Science to practice workshop: Workshop summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beausoleil, Claire; Ormsby, Jean-Nicolas; Gies, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A workshop was held in Berlin September 12–14th 2012 to assess the state of the science of the data supporting low dose effects and non-monotonic dose responses (“low dose hypothesis”) for chemicals with endocrine activity (endocrine disrupting chemicals or EDCs). This workshop consisted of lectu...

  6. Feasibility study to combine the evaluation of radiological and chemical-toxicological effects of old contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Proehl, G.

    1997-01-01

    The uranium mining regions of the German Federal States Saxony, Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt are contaminated by radionuclides and by chemical substances. For both, ionizing radiations and chemicals, concepts and models exists to assess possible health effects for the population living in such areas. However, these assessment models were developed independently for both kinds of contaminants. Therefore, the 9 th Conference of the State Ministers for Environmental Protection have claimed that for the evaluation of contaminated sites the radiological and chemical contaminants should be integrated into a joint assessment. This feasibility study describes the state of the art of the concepts and models used for the evaluation of radiological and chemical contaminants. The similarities and differences of these evaluation methods are identified and discussed. Suggestions are made for an integrated assessment to standardize the evaluation of sites contaminated by radionuclides or chemicals. (orig.) [de

  7. A comparative assessment of chemical contaminant removal by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The CCF removed total organic carbon (TOC) (up to 39%) better than the BSF and BF (p ≤ 0.05). The filters removed turbidity effectively with the BSF having the highest reduction (70%). The average turbidity reduction efficiency was in the order BSF (70%) > BF (51%) > CCF (44%). The BSF, CCF and BF reduced turbidity ...

  8. Assessing the risks of nuclear and chemical contamination in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the first four chapters the focus is on risk assessment and the role of various segments of the society in defining risk criteria. In Chapter 2, the interface between science, policymaking, and environmental law is addressed. In chapter 3, the importance of including organizational and human factors in risk assessments is discussed. It is noted that risk assessment is also a matter for an informed public. Chapter 4 focuses on the specific application of technology to hazardous waste disposal. The most expensive high-tech equipment may not always be the best to solve a particular disposal problem. In Chapter 5 international efforts to determine the effects of nuclear testing are examined, moving on to question the methods used to define risk criteria. The last four chapters of the book focus on risk assessment and the role of various segments of the society in defining risk criteria. Chapter 6 is an introduction to the work done to assess the environmental and health affects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl. Also the Ukrainian government's effort to assess additional natural and anthropogenic sources of radioactive contamination is discussed. In chapter 7, the efforts by the International Atomic Energy Agency and other organizations to assess the effects of Chernobyl are examined. The eighth chapter introduces the means by which nongovernmental environmental groups (NGO), e.g. Greenpeace, collect information on environmental threats and the role they play in informing the larger public about them. In this case, the dumping of radioactive waste in the Kara and Barents Seas is examined in detail. In Chapter 9 it is examined how interdisciplinary groups are required to assess the environmental and health effects of the dumping in the Kara and Barents Seas. The issues of reliable data and determining risk in the absence of data are discussed. In the final chapter, the major themes and results of the workshop are summarized, including a set of recommendations for

  9. Toxicity assessment of chemical contaminants;transition from in vitromethods to novel in vitro methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Farshad

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there areapproximately 80, 000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from ethical, economical and scientific perspectives. Therefore, increasing the number of available industrial chemicals andnew products has created a demand for alternatives to animal methods for better safety evaluation. Recent toxicity studies have demonstrated that in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemical contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of  more recent test methods developed for toxicity testing of chemical contaminants are discussed. Although  to be considered more broadly for risk assessment of human chemical exposures. In vitro methods,in vitro toxicology methods cannot exactly mimic the biodynamics of the whole body, in vitro  relationships (QSARs and physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK models have a potentialtest systems in combination with the knowledge of quantitative structure activity.

  10. APPROACHES FOR INCORPORATING NON-CHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past twenty years, the risk assessment paradigm has gradually shifted from an individual chemical approach to a community-based model. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is consideration of the totality of stressors affecting a defined population including both ...

  11. Spatial Approaches for Ecological Screening and Exposure Assessment of Chemicals and Radionclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation details a tool, SADA, available for use in environmental assessments of chemicals that can also be used for radiological assessments of the environment. Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is a Windows freeware program that incorporates tools from e...

  12. Designing SQCRA as a Software to Semi-quantitative Chemical Risk Assessment in Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : The aim of chemical risk assessment is to identify and evaluate risks originated from chemicals usages. This study aims to design a practical tool for facilitating chemical risk assessment. Methods: The proposed software was derived from chemical risk assessment method which was recommended by Ministry of Human Resources of Malaysia. All of the processes in question are designed in operating system software. Based on some revisions, this software was developed using Visual Basic (VB titled as SQCRA. The developed software was used for chemical risk assessment in Narges Vegetale Oil Company in Shiraz (center of Iran. Result: The output of software showed that the level of risk derived from sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, aluminum sulphate, nickel catalyst, acetic acid used as a raw material were 2.4, 2.84, 2.3, 3.5 and 2.66, respectively. Moreover, risk rank and proposed control methods for each of these materials were determined. Conclusions : The developed software calculates the health risk level based on the degree of hazard and exposure in shorttime and without using risk matrix and chemical formula. After determining the risk rank, the software proposes the control procedures to reduce occupational exposure.

  13. Durable chemical sensors based on field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhoudt, David

    1995-01-01

    The design of durable chemical sensors based on field-effect transistors (FETs) is described. After modification of an ion-sensitive FET (ISFET) with a polysiloxane membrane matrix, it is possible to attach all electroactive components covalently. Preliminary results of measurements with a

  14. Effect of packaging and chemical treatment on storage life and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are inherently more liable to deterioration under tropical conditions characterized by high ambient temperatures and humidity. In determining the effects of chemical treatment on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Roma), fruits purchased at turning stage of ripening were packaged in low ...

  15. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of animal manures on chemical composition of silage produced from Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) two - years post application. The plots were established in June 2010 during this period, animal manures from cattle dung, swine waste, poultry droppings and small ...

  16. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer Application on Some Soil Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research was conducted during the 2004, 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons to study the effect of phosphorus fertilizer on some soil chemical properties and nitrogen fixation of legumes at Bauchi, northeastern Nigeria. Composite soil samples were collected from sites before planting and after harvesting at the depths of ...

  17. Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in vitro gas production and preference of Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum. ... It is concluded that in order to optimize DM intake farmers should consider the type of grasses and their age at harvest particularly for Muturu. Pelleting improves ...

  18. The effects on health of radiological and chemical toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, M.; Flury-Herard, A.

    2003-01-01

    Future trends in the protection against the effects on health of radiological and/or chemical toxicity will certainly be based on improved knowledge of specific biological mechanisms and individual sensitivity. Progress in these areas will most likely be made at the interfaces between research, health care and biomedical monitoring. (authors)

  19. Effect of natural and chemical insecticides on Hyalopterus pruni and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of water extracts of Fagonia arabica, Salix alba and Anthmis pseudocotula and their mixtures with chemical insecticide (Malathion) on growth of. Hyalopterus pruni and characters of Armeniaca vulgaris plants and their soils. The data revealed that F.arabica extract at 20% ...

  20. Effects of Molasses and Storage Period on the Chemical, Microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of molasses and storage periods on the chemical composition, microbial and fermentation characteristics of silage produced from guinea grass and cassava leaves mixture. Guinea grass was harvested at 2 months regrowth from an established pasture and cassava tops ...

  1. Effective chemical control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective chemical control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pests in mango orchards in northern Côte-d'Ivoire. OR N'depo, N Hala, A N'da Adopo, F Coulibaly, PK Kouassi, JF Vayssieres, M de Meyer ...

  2. Effect of biosolids application on soil chemical properties and uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of biosolids application on soil chemical properties and uptake of some heavy metals by Cercis siliquastrum. ... and municipal solid waste compost (50% CM + 50% MC) at three levels of 0, 2.5 and 5 kg/shrub and three replicates in calcareous sandy loam soil at the botanical garden of Mobarekeh steel company.

  3. Effects of different organic materials and chemical fertilizers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... 2The Chamber of Agricultural Engineers, Gaziantep, Turkey. Accepted 5 July, 2010. This study was conducted under greenhouse conditions to investigate the effects of applied nutrients such as ... Key words: Organic material, chemical fertilizer, Pistacia vera L., soil ... systematic approach of soil and plant.

  4. Effect of integration of cultural, botanical, and chemical methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted from November 2011 to June 2013 to evaluate the effects of botanical, cultural, and chemical methods on termite colony survival, crop and wooden damage, and other biological activities in Ghimbi district of western Ethiopia. The termite mounds were dug and the following treatments were ...

  5. Effects of thermal treatments and germination on physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain physico-chemical properties including viscoelasticity, crystallinity and maltose content of corn depends on the gelatinization of starch under different treatments. Three different treatments were performed; boiling in water, steam heating, and germination. The effects of gelatinization on viscoelastic property of corn ...

  6. Use of TSHβ:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a rapid in vivo model for assessing thyroid-disrupting chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Cheng [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yin, Zhan, E-mail: zyin@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2012-07-15

    Accumulating evidence indicates that a wide range of chemicals have the ability to interfere with the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis. Novel endpoints should be evaluated in addition to existing methods in order to effectively assess the effects of these chemicals on the HPT axis. Thyroid-stimulating hormone subunit β (TSHβ) plays central regulatory roles in the HPT system. We identified the regulatory region that determines the expression level of zebrafish TSHβ in the anterior pituitary. In the transgenic zebrafish with EGFP driven by the TSHβ promoter, the similar responsive patterns between the expression levels of TSHβ:EGFP and endogenous TSHβ mRNA in the pituitary are observed following treatments with goitrogen chemicals and exogenous thyroid hormones (THs). These results suggest that the TSHβ:EGFP transgenic reporter zebrafish may be a useful alternative in vivo model for the assessment of chemicals interfering with the HPT system. Highlights: ► The promoter of zebrafish TSHβ gene has been identified. ► The stable TSHβ:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter germline has been generated. ► The EGFP in the transgenic fish recapitulated the pattern of pituitary TSHβ mRNA. ► The transgenic zebrafish may be an in vivo model for EDC assessment.

  7. Use of TSHβ:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a rapid in vivo model for assessing thyroid-disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Cheng; Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that a wide range of chemicals have the ability to interfere with the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis. Novel endpoints should be evaluated in addition to existing methods in order to effectively assess the effects of these chemicals on the HPT axis. Thyroid-stimulating hormone subunit β (TSHβ) plays central regulatory roles in the HPT system. We identified the regulatory region that determines the expression level of zebrafish TSHβ in the anterior pituitary. In the transgenic zebrafish with EGFP driven by the TSHβ promoter, the similar responsive patterns between the expression levels of TSHβ:EGFP and endogenous TSHβ mRNA in the pituitary are observed following treatments with goitrogen chemicals and exogenous thyroid hormones (THs). These results suggest that the TSHβ:EGFP transgenic reporter zebrafish may be a useful alternative in vivo model for the assessment of chemicals interfering with the HPT system. Highlights: ► The promoter of zebrafish TSHβ gene has been identified. ► The stable TSHβ:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter germline has been generated. ► The EGFP in the transgenic fish recapitulated the pattern of pituitary TSHβ mRNA. ► The transgenic zebrafish may be an in vivo model for EDC assessment.

  8. Incorporating biomarkers in ecological risk assessment of chemical contaminants of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Reinecke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an important but complex natural resource which is increasingly used as sink for chemicals. The monitoring of soil quality and the assessment of risks posed by contaminants have become crucial. This study deals with the potential use of biomarkers in the monitoring of soils and the assessment of risk resulting from contamination. Apart from an overview of the existing literature on biomarkers, the results of various of our field experiments in South African soils are discussed. Biomarkers may have potential in the assessment of risk because they can indicate at an early stage that exposure has taken place and that a toxic response has been initiated. It is therefore expected that early biomarkers will play an increasing role as diagnostic tools for determining exposure to chemicals and the resulting effects. They may have predictive value that can assist in the prevention or minimising of risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of using our results on biomarker responses of soil dwelling organisms to predict changes at higher organisational levels (which may have ecological implications. Our recent experimental results on the evaluation of various biomarkers in both the laboratory and the field are interpreted and placed in perspective within the broader framework of response biology. The aim was further to contribute to the development and application of biomarkers in regulatory risk assessment schemes of soils. This critical review of our own and recent literature on biomarkers in ecotoxicology leads to the conclusion that biomarkers can, under certain conditions, be useful tools in risk assessment. Clear relationships between contamination loads in soil organisms and certain biomarker responses were determined in woodlice, earthworms and terrestrial snails. Clear correlations were also established in field experiments between biomarker responses and changes at the population level. This indicated that, in

  9. Antifoaming effect of chemical compounds in manure biogas reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan

    2013-01-01

    A precise and efficient antifoaming control strategy in bioprocesses is a challenging task as foaming is a very complex phenomenon. Nevertheless, foam control is necessary, as foam is a major operational problem in biogas reactors. In the present study, the effect of 14 chemical compounds on foam......), siloxanes (polydimethylsiloxane) and ester (tributylphosphate) were found to be the most efficient compounds to suppress foam. The efficiency of antifoamers was dependant on their physicochemical properties and greatly correlated to their chemical characteristics for dissolving foam. The antifoamers were...... more efficient in reducing foam when added directly into the liquid phase rather than added in the headspace of the reactor....

  10. The Impact of Novel Assessment Methodologies in Toxicology on Green Chemistry and Chemical Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Greene, Nigel

    2018-02-01

    The field of experimental toxicology is rapidly advancing by incorporating novel techniques and methods that provide a much more granular view into the mechanisms of potential adverse effects of chemical exposures on human health. The data from various in vitro assays and computational models are useful not only for increasing confidence in hazard and risk decisions, but also are enabling better, faster and cheaper assessment of a greater number of compounds, mixtures, and complex products. This is of special value to the field of green chemistry where design of new materials or alternative uses of existing ones is driven, at least in part, by considerations of safety. This article reviews the state of the science and decision-making in scenarios when little to no data may be available to draw conclusions about which choice in green chemistry is "safer." It is clear that there is no "one size fits all" solution and multiple data streams need to be weighed in making a decision. Moreover, the overall level of familiarity of the decision-makers and scientists alike with new assessment methodologies, their validity, value and limitations is evolving. Thus, while the "impact" of the new developments in toxicology on the field of green chemistry is great already, it is premature to conclude that the data from new assessment methodologies have been widely accepted yet. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Risk management measures for chemicals in consumer products: documentation, assessment, and communication across the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; Hakkinen, Pertti Bert; Lahaniatis, Majlinda; Papameletiou, Demosthenes; Del Pozo, Carlos; Reina, Vittorio; Van Engelen, Jacqueline; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Viso, Anne Catherine; Rodriguez, Carlos; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes the way risk management measures (RMMs) for consumer products have been used to date in authority and industry risk assessments. A working concept for consumer product RMMs is developed, aimed at controlling, limiting or avoiding exposures, and helping to insure the safe use (or handling) of a substance as part of a consumer product. Particular focus is placed on new requirements introduced by REACH (registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals). A RMMs categorization approach is also developed, dividing consumer product RMMs into those that are product integrated and those that are communicated to consumers. For each of these categories, RMMs for normal use, accidental use or misuse need to be distinguished. The level of detail for documenting, assessing and communicating RMMs across supply chains can vary, depending on the type of the assessment (tiered approach). Information on RMMs was collected from published sources to demonstrate that a taxonomical approach using standard descriptors for RMMs libraries is needed for effective information exchange across supply chains.

  12. Toward a conceptual approach for assessing risks from chemical mixtures and other stressors to coastal ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Backhaus, Thomas; Banta, Gary Thomas

    2017-01-01

    in Costa Rica) are provided; one focuses on chemicals that affect human food supply and the other addresses pesticide runoff and trade-offs among ES. The 2 cases are used to highlight challenges of such risk assessments, including use of standardized versus ES-relevant test species, data completeness......, translate impacts into ES units; step F, assess cumulative risk in ES units; step G, rank stressors based on their contribution to adverse effects on ES; and step H, implement regulation and management as appropriate and necessary. Two illustrative case studies (Swedish coastal waters and a coastal lagoon......, and trade-offs among ES. Lessons learned from the 2 case studies are discussed in relation to environmental risk assessment and management of chemical mixtures....

  13. Assessment of impacts at the advanced test reactor as a result of chemical releases at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.

    1991-02-01

    This report provides an assessment of potential impacts at the Advanced Test Reactor Facility (ATR) resulting from accidental chemical spill at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Spills postulated to occur at the Lincoln Blvd turnoff to ICPP were also evaluated. Peak and time weighted average concentrations were calculated for receptors at the ATR facility and the Test Reactor Area guard station at a height above ground level of 1.0 m. Calculated concentrations were then compared to the 15 minute averaged Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) and the 30 minute averaged Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) limit. Several different methodologies were used to estimate source strength and dispersion. Fifteen minute time weighted averaged concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and anhydrous ammonia exceeded TLV-STEL values for the cases considered. The IDLH value for these chemicals was not exceeded. Calculated concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, hexone, nitric acid, propane, gasoline, chlorine and liquid nitrogen were all below the TLV-STEL value

  14. Getting the chemicals right: addressing inorganics in sustainability assessments of technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Nienke; Fantke, Peter

    sustainability assessments, the toxicity potential of several thousand organic chemicals is included in characterization models within life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). However, many economic production processes involve the use of inorganic chemicals to a large extent, while the related pressure on human...... and environmental health of environmental emissions of these substances is not yet fully understood and not included in any existing LCIA method. In th is presentation, we provide an overview of the relevance of inorganic chemicals and outline possible ways towards incorporating inorganic chemicals in LCIA toxicity......A main goal of sustainability research is to enable a technological development in industry and elsewhere that ensures that what is produced and how it is produced today does not harm the quality of human or environmental health for present and future generations. As part of current environmental...

  15. Assessing the chemical contamination dynamics in a mixed land use stream system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne Thobo; McKnight, Ursula S.; Rønde, Vinni

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, the monitoring of streams for chemical and ecological status has been limited to surface water concentrations, where the dominant focus has been on general water quality and the risk for eutrophication. Mixed land use stream systems, comprising urban areas and agricultural production......, are challenging to assess with multiple chemical stressors impacting stream corridors. New approaches are urgently needed for identifying relevant sources, pathways and potential impacts for implementation of suitable source management and remedial measures. We developed a method for risk assessing chemical...... stressors in these systems and applied the approach to a 16-km groundwater-fed stream corridor (Grindsted, Denmark). Three methods were combined: (i) in-stream contaminant mass discharge for source quantification, (ii) Toxic Units and (iii) environmental standards. An evaluation of the chemical quality...

  16. The potential role of Life Cycle Assessment in regulation of chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frans Møller; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2003-01-01

    The regulation of chemicals in EU is undergoing substantial changes these years with implementation of the “REACH” system. Simultaneously, the concepts of LCA and Integrated Product Policy (IPP) are becoming increasingly integrated in European standardisation and regulatory activities. As a logical...... consequence, the European Chemicals Bureau (ECB) has enrolled in the OMNIITOX project with the clear aim of investigating possible applications of LCA in future EU regulation of chemicals. Implementation of REACH will expand and change the activities and services currently delivered by ECB as the focal point...... uses of LCA could be in overall priority setting (including non-chemical products) of environmental product policy and in standardisation work related to products/processes releasing chemicals to the environment. A number of methodological interactions between regulatory risk assessment and LCA as well...

  17. Covering chemical diversity of genetically-modified tomatoes using metabolomics for objective substantial equivalence assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyako Kusano

    Full Text Available As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin. In combination, the chosen platforms detected compounds that represent 86% of the estimated chemical diversity of the metabolites listed in the LycoCyc database. Following a proof-of-safety approach, we show that % had an acceptable range of variation while simultaneously indicating a reproducible transformation-related metabolic signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and that it constitutes a good starting point for characterizing genetically modified organisms.

  18. Covering Chemical Diversity of Genetically-Modified Tomatoes Using Metabolomics for Objective Substantial Equivalence Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Oikawa, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsushi; Arita, Masanori; Watanabe, Shin; Yano, Megumu; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2011-01-01

    As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin. In combination, the chosen platforms detected compounds that represent 86% of the estimated chemical diversity of the metabolites listed in the LycoCyc database. Following a proof-of-safety approach, we show that % had an acceptable range of variation while simultaneously indicating a reproducible transformation-related metabolic signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and that it constitutes a good starting point for characterizing genetically modified organisms. PMID:21359231

  19. The effects of environmental chemicals on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Anglina; Trasande, Leonardo; Trachtman, Howard

    2015-10-01

    The global incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing among individuals of all ages. Despite advances in proteomics, genomics and metabolomics, there remains a lack of safe and effective drugs to reverse or stabilize renal function in patients with glomerular or tubulointerstitial causes of CKD. Consequently, modifiable risk factors that are associated with a progressive decline in kidney function need to be identified. Numerous reports have documented the adverse effects that occur in response to graded exposure to a wide range of environmental chemicals. This Review summarizes the effects of such chemicals on four aspects of cardiorenal function: albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, blood pressure and serum uric acid concentration. We focus on compounds that individuals are likely to be exposed to as a consequence of normal consumer activities or medical treatment, namely phthalates, bisphenol A, polyfluorinated alkyl acids, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. Environmental exposure to these chemicals during everyday life could have adverse consequences on renal function and might contribute to progressive cumulative renal injury over a lifetime. Regulatory efforts should be made to limit individual exposure to environmental chemicals in an attempt to reduce the incidence of cardiorenal disease.

  20. Effectiveness and environmental considerations for non-dispersant chemical countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.H.; Kucklick, J.H.; Michel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical countermeasures for oil spill response have various effectiveness and operational limitations under certain spill situations. This has led to an interest in and use of alternative treatment methods. This chapter reviews the potential utility of one such group, nondispersant chemical countermeasures, in controlling the adverse impacts from marine oil spills. The types of nondispersant chemical countermeasures presented here include: herding agents, emulsion treating agents, solidifiers, elasticity modifiers, and shoreline cleaning agents. Each countermeasure group is discussed separately to provide a definition, mechanism of action, and effectiveness and environmental considerations for the group. Where ever possible, examples are given of countermeasure use during an actual spill. In addition to the groups mentioned above, a few other treating agents are briefly described under the section 'Miscellaneous Agents' to illustrate other, less prominent types of chemical countermeasures. Non-dispersant chemical countermeasures appear to have discrete response niches, i.e. situations where the countermeasures are well-suited and offer potential benefits. The key is matching conditions for optimal effectiveness with the appropriate incident-specific characteristics and window of opportunity. The practical aspects of logistics are not addressed because, if their potential utility can be demonstrated, the resolution of these issues would follow. (author)

  1. Quantitative assessment of chemical artefacts produced by propionylation of histones prior to mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldi, Monica; Cuomo, Alessandro; Bonaldi, Tiziana

    2016-07-01

    Histone PTMs play a crucial role in regulating chromatin structure and function, with impact on gene expression. MS is nowadays widely applied to study histone PTMs systematically. Because histones are rich in arginine and lysine, classical shot-gun approaches based on trypsin digestion are typically not employed for histone modifications mapping. Instead, different protocols of chemical derivatization of lysines in combination with trypsin have been implemented to obtain "Arg-C like" digestion products that are more suitable for LC-MS/MS analysis. Although widespread, these strategies have been recently described to cause various side reactions that result in chemical modifications prone to be misinterpreted as native histone marks. These artefacts can also interfere with the quantification process, causing errors in histone PTMs profiling. The work of Paternoster V. et al. is a quantitative assessment of methyl-esterification and other side reactions occurring on histones after chemical derivatization of lysines with propionic anhydride [Proteomics 2016, 16, 2059-2063]. The authors estimate the effect of different solvents, incubation times, and pH on the extent of these side reactions. The results collected indicate that the replacement of methanol with isopropanol or ACN not only blocks methyl-esterification, but also significantly reduces other undesired unspecific reactions. Carefully titrating the pH after propionic anhydride addition is another way to keep methyl-esterification under control. Overall, the authors describe a set of experimental conditions that allow reducing the generation of various artefacts during histone propionylation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Data Quality Objectives Workbook for Assessing Chemical Vulnerability Potential in REDOX and U Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R. G.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this data quality objective workbook is to present the rationale for selecting the sampling and characterization strategy that supports the assessment of the chemical vulnerabilities of the five tanks. Since characterization of the tanks' contents is likely to be expensive, a secondary goal was established to characterize the tank contents for proper waste designation and disposal at the same time the tanks are characterized for chemical vulnerability

  3. Life cycle impact assessment modeling for particulate matter: A new approach based on physico-chemical particle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, Dominic A

    2015-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) causes severe damage to human health globally. Airborne PM is a mixture of solid and liquid droplets suspended in air. It consists of organic and inorganic components, and the particles of concern range in size from a few nanometers to approximately 10μm. The complexity of PM is considered to be the reason for the poor understanding of PM and may also be the reason why PM in environmental impact assessment is poorly defined. Currently, life cycle impact assessment is unable to differentiate highly toxic soot particles from relatively harmless sea salt. The aim of this article is to present a new impact assessment for PM where the impact of PM is modeled based on particle physico-chemical properties. With the new method, 2781 characterization factors that account for particle mass, particle number concentration, particle size, chemical composition and solubility were calculated. Because particle sizes vary over four orders of magnitudes, a sound assessment of PM requires that the exposure model includes deposition of particles in the lungs and that the fate model includes coagulation as a removal mechanism for ultrafine particles. The effects model combines effects from particle size, solubility and chemical composition. The first results from case studies suggest that PM that stems from emissions generally assumed to be highly toxic (e.g. biomass combustion and fossil fuel combustion) might lead to results that are similar compared with an assessment of PM using established methods. However, if harmless PM emissions are emitted, established methods enormously overestimate the damage. The new impact assessment allows a high resolution of the damage allocatable to different size fractions or chemical components. This feature supports a more efficient optimization of processes and products when combating air pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fate and effects of anthropogenic chemicals in mangrove ecosystems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael, E-mail: lewis.michael@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561 (United States); Pryor, Rachel; Wilking, Lynn [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    The scientific literature for fate and effects of non-nutrient contaminant concentrations is skewed for reports describing sediment contamination and bioaccumulation for trace metals. Concentrations for at least 22 trace metals have been reported in mangrove sediments. Some concentrations exceed sediment quality guidelines suggesting adverse effects. Bioaccumulation results are available for at least 11 trace metals, 12 mangrove tissues, 33 mangrove species and 53 species of mangrove-habitat biota. Results are specific to species, tissues, life stage, and season and accumulated concentrations and bioconcentration factors are usually low. Toxicity tests have been conducted with 12 mangrove species and 8 species of mangrove-related fauna. As many as 39 effect parameters, most sublethal, have been monitored during the usual 3 to 6 month test durations. Generalizations and extrapolations for toxicity between species and chemicals are restricted by data scarcity and lack of experimental consistency. This hinders chemical risk assessments and validation of effects-based criteria. - Chemical risk assessments and resource management are restricted by the limited chemical fate and effects database for mangroves.

  5. Coupled near-field and far-field exposure assessment framework for chemicals in consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi; Huang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to chemicals in consumer products through product use and environmental emissions over the product life cycle. Exposure pathways are often complex, where chemicals can transfer directly from products to humans during use or exchange between various indoor and outdoor...... compartments until sub-fractions reach humans. To consistently evaluate exposure pathways along product life cycles, a flexible mass balance-based assessment framework is presented structuring multimedia chemical transfers in a matrix of direct inter-compartmental transfer fractions. By matrix inversion, we...

  6. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of biotransformation rates for assessing bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic chemicals in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Shan; Lo, Justin C; Otton, S Victoria; Moore, Margo M; Kennedy, Chris J; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2017-07-01

    Incorporating biotransformation in bioaccumulation assessments of hydrophobic chemicals in both aquatic and terrestrial organisms in a simple, rapid, and cost-effective manner is urgently needed to improve bioaccumulation assessments of potentially bioaccumulative substances. One approach to estimate whole-animal biotransformation rate constants is to combine in vitro measurements of hepatic biotransformation kinetics with in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) and bioaccumulation modeling. An established IVIVE modeling approach exists for pharmaceuticals (referred to in the present study as IVIVE-Ph) and has recently been adapted for chemical bioaccumulation assessments in fish. The present study proposes and tests an alternative IVIVE-B technique to support bioaccumulation assessment of hydrophobic chemicals with a log octanol-water partition coefficient (K OW ) ≥ 4 in mammals. The IVIVE-B approach requires fewer physiological and physiochemical parameters than the IVIVE-Ph approach and does not involve interconversions between clearance and rate constants in the extrapolation. Using in vitro depletion rates, the results show that the IVIVE-B and IVIVE-Ph models yield similar estimates of rat whole-organism biotransformation rate constants for hypothetical chemicals with log K OW  ≥ 4. The IVIVE-B approach generated in vivo biotransformation rate constants and biomagnification factors (BMFs) for benzo[a]pyrene that are within the range of empirical observations. The proposed IVIVE-B technique may be a useful tool for assessing BMFs of hydrophobic organic chemicals in mammals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1934-1946. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the Pecan Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W

    2011-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications. Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin occur naturally in southeastern U.S. pecan orchards and have shown promise as alternative control agents for C. caryjae. Conceivably, the chemical and microbial agents occur simultaneously within pecan orchards or might be applied concurrently. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions between two chemical insecticides that are used in commercial C. caryae control (i.e., carbaryl and cypermethrin applied below field rates) and the microbial agents B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae. In laboratory experiments, pecan weevil larval or adult mortality was assessed after application of microbial or chemical treatments applied singly or in combination (microbial + chemical agent). The nature of interactions (antagonism, additivity, or synergy) in terms of weevil mortality was evaluated over 9 d (larvae) or 5 d (adults). Results for B. bassiana indicated synergistic activity with carbaryl and antagonism with cypermethrin in C. caryae larvae and adults. For S. carpocapsae, synergy was detected with both chemicals in C. caryae larvae, but only additive effects were detected in adult weevils. Our results indicate that the chemical-microbial combinations tested are compatible with the exception of B. bassiana and cypermethrin. In addition, combinations that exhibited synergistic interactions may provide enhanced C. caryae control in commercial field applications; thus, their potential merits further exploration.

  8. In vitro cardiotoxicity assessment of environmental chemicals using an organotypic human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirenko, Oksana, E-mail: oksana.sirenko@moldev.com [Molecular Devices, LLC, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Grimm, Fabian A. [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States); Ryan, Kristen R. [Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Iwata, Yasuhiro; Chiu, Weihsueh A. [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States); Parham, Frederick [Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wignall, Jessica A. [ICF, Fairfax, VA (United States); Anson, Blake [Cellular Dynamics International, Madison, WI (United States); Cromwell, Evan F. [Protein Fluidics, Inc., Burlingame, CA (United States); Behl, Mamta [Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Rusyn, Ivan [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States); Tice, Raymond R. [Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2017-05-01

    An important target area for addressing data gaps through in vitro screening is the detection of potential cardiotoxicants. Despite the fact that current conservative estimates relate at least 23% of all cardiovascular disease cases to environmental exposures, the identities of the causative agents remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of a combinatorial in vitro/in silico screening approach for functional and mechanistic cardiotoxicity profiling of environmental hazards using a library of 69 representative environmental chemicals and drugs. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were exposed in concentration-response for 30 min or 24 h and effects on cardiomyocyte beating and cellular and mitochondrial toxicity were assessed by kinetic measurements of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} flux and high-content imaging using the nuclear dye Hoechst 33342, the cell viability marker Calcein AM, and the mitochondrial depolarization probe JC-10. More than half of the tested chemicals exhibited effects on cardiomyocyte beating after 30 min of exposure. In contrast, after 24 h, effects on cell beating without concomitant cytotoxicity were observed in about one third of the compounds. Concentration-response data for in vitro bioactivity phenotypes visualized using the Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi) showed chemical class-specific clustering of environmental chemicals, including pesticides, flame retardants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For environmental chemicals with human exposure predictions, the activity-to-exposure ratios between modeled blood concentrations and in vitro bioactivity were between one and five orders of magnitude. These findings not only demonstrate that some ubiquitous environmental pollutants might have the potential at high exposure levels to alter cardiomyocyte function, but also indicate similarities in the mechanism of these effects both within and among chemicals and classes. - Highlights:

  9. In vitro cardiotoxicity assessment of environmental chemicals using an organotypic human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirenko, Oksana; Grimm, Fabian A.; Ryan, Kristen R.; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Parham, Frederick; Wignall, Jessica A.; Anson, Blake; Cromwell, Evan F.; Behl, Mamta; Rusyn, Ivan; Tice, Raymond R.

    2017-01-01

    An important target area for addressing data gaps through in vitro screening is the detection of potential cardiotoxicants. Despite the fact that current conservative estimates relate at least 23% of all cardiovascular disease cases to environmental exposures, the identities of the causative agents remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of a combinatorial in vitro/in silico screening approach for functional and mechanistic cardiotoxicity profiling of environmental hazards using a library of 69 representative environmental chemicals and drugs. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were exposed in concentration-response for 30 min or 24 h and effects on cardiomyocyte beating and cellular and mitochondrial toxicity were assessed by kinetic measurements of intracellular Ca 2+ flux and high-content imaging using the nuclear dye Hoechst 33342, the cell viability marker Calcein AM, and the mitochondrial depolarization probe JC-10. More than half of the tested chemicals exhibited effects on cardiomyocyte beating after 30 min of exposure. In contrast, after 24 h, effects on cell beating without concomitant cytotoxicity were observed in about one third of the compounds. Concentration-response data for in vitro bioactivity phenotypes visualized using the Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi) showed chemical class-specific clustering of environmental chemicals, including pesticides, flame retardants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For environmental chemicals with human exposure predictions, the activity-to-exposure ratios between modeled blood concentrations and in vitro bioactivity were between one and five orders of magnitude. These findings not only demonstrate that some ubiquitous environmental pollutants might have the potential at high exposure levels to alter cardiomyocyte function, but also indicate similarities in the mechanism of these effects both within and among chemicals and classes. - Highlights:

  10. An extended risk assessment approach for chemical plants applied to a study related to pipe ruptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, Maria Francesca; Aven, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessments and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) in particular have been used in the chemical industry for many years to support decision-making on the choice of arrangements and measures associated with chemical processes, transportation and storage of dangerous substances. The assessments have been founded on a risk perspective seeing risk as a function of frequency of events (probability) and associated consequences. In this paper we point to the need for extending this approach to place a stronger emphasis on uncertainties. A recently developed risk framework designed to better reflect such uncertainties is presented and applied to a chemical plant and specifically the analysis of accidental events related to the rupture of pipes. Two different ways of implementing the framework are presented, one based on the introduction of probability models and one without. The differences between the standard approach and the extended approaches are discussed from a theoretical point of view as well as from a practical risk analyst perspective.

  11. Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

    2004-02-01

    Mass balance models of chemical fate and transport can be applied in ecological risk assessments for quantitative estimation of concentrations in air, water, soil and sediment. These concentrations can, in turn, be used to estimate organism exposures and ultimately internal tissue concentrations that can be compared to mode-of-action-based critical body residues that correspond to toxic effects. From this comparison, risks to the exposed organism can be evaluated. To illustrate the practical utility of fate models in ecological risk assessments of commercial products, the EQC model and a simple screening level biouptake model including three organisms, (a bird, a mammal and a fish) is applied to gasoline. In this analysis, gasoline is divided into 24 components or ''blocks'' with similar environmental fate properties that are assumed to elicit ecotoxicity via a narcotic mode of action. Results demonstrate that differences in chemical properties and mode of entry into the environment lead to profound differences in the efficiency of transport from emission to target biota. We discuss the implications of these results and insights gained into the regional fate and ecological risks associated with gasoline. This approach is particularly suitable for assessing mixtures of components that have similar modes of action. We conclude that the model-based methodologies presented are widely applicable for screening level ecological risk assessments that support effective chemicals management.

  12. Health-related quality of life of chemical warfare victims: an assessment with the use of a specific tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biat Saeed, Khaled; Parandeh, Akram; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salaree, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to chemical warfare gases significantly changes the quality of life (QoL) of victims and has significant chronic adverse effects. This study sought to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of chemical victims by means of a tool specifically designed for this purpose. The correlation of their QoL with several demographic factors was evaluated as well. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 chemical warfare victims were selected from subjects presenting to selected medical centers in Tehran in 2012 using convenience sampling. Two questionnaires of demographic information and HRQoL of chemical warfare victims (specific tool) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). The mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD) of scores obtained by chemical warfare victims in physical, psychosocial and spiritual domains was 39.6 ± 16.5, 42.1 ± 15.2 and 82.4 ± 15.4, respectively. Different age groups showed a significant difference in the psychosocial domain score (P chemical warfare victims, it can be used as strategically for these patients to help them cope with their injury and improve their physical and psychosocial health and QoL.

  13. Chemical extraction to assess the bioavailability of chlorobenzenes in soil with different aging periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yang; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xinglun; Liu, Cuiying; Jin, Xin; Jiang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Kengara, Fredrick Orori [Maseno Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-12-15

    Bioavailability is mainly influenced by aging and desorption of contaminants in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the desorption kinetics of chlorobenzenes (CBs) in soil and to investigate whether chemical extractions are suitable for the bioavailability assessment of CBs in soil. A soil spiked with CBs and aged for different periods was extracted with Tenax, hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD), and butanol to assess the bioavailability of CBs in soil, respectively. Earthworm (Eisenia foetida) accumulation was used as bioassay in parallel experiments to evaluate the chemical extractions. The results showed that desorption of CBs from soil with consecutive Tenax extraction fitted into triphasic kinetics model. Different chemical methods extracted different amounts of CBs over different aging periods. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the extraction efficiency was in the order of butanol > Tenax-6h > HPCD extraction, while the order of butanol > HPCD > Tenax-6h extraction for pentachlorobenzene (PeCB). The bioaccumulation by earthworm decreased with increasing aging period and was significantly higher for HCB than for PeCB (p < 0.05). Earthworm accumulated CBs correlated well with all the three chemical extracted CBs. However, HPCD extraction showed the converse extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs. Chemical extraction could be used to assess the bioavailability of contaminants in soil; however, they were method and compound specific. Tenax and butanol extractions were more reliable than HPCD extraction for bioavailability assessment of the tested CBs and the soil used since they showed the consistent extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs.

  14. Using Green Chemistry and Engineering Principles to Design, Assess, and Retrofit Chemical Processes for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concepts of green chemistry and engineering (GC&E) have been promoted as an effective qualitative framework for developing more sustainable chemical syntheses, processes, and material management techniques. This has been demonstrated by many theoretical and practical cases. I...

  15. Proposals to overcome limitations in the EU chemical risk assessment scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Schwartz, S.

    2000-01-01

    The noti®cation of new chemicals in the European Union requires a risk assessment. A Technical Guidance Document (TGD) was prepared for assistance. The TGD proposes QSARs, regressions and models from various sources. Each method has its own range of applicability and its own restrictions. Regress......The noti®cation of new chemicals in the European Union requires a risk assessment. A Technical Guidance Document (TGD) was prepared for assistance. The TGD proposes QSARs, regressions and models from various sources. Each method has its own range of applicability and its own restrictions...

  16. 78 FR 59679 - Antimony Trioxide TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ...EPA's contractor, The Scientific Consulting Group (SCG), Inc., has identified a panel of scientific experts to conduct a peer review of EPA's draft Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) chemical risk assessment, ``TSCA Workplan Chemical Risk Assessment for Antimony Trioxide.'' EPA will hold three peer review meetings by web connect and teleconference. EPA invites the public to register to attend the meetings as observers and/or speakers providing oral comments during any or all of the peer review meetings as discussed in this notice. The public may also provide comment on whether they believe the appearance of conflict of interest exists for any proposed peer review panel expert.

  17. Potential long-term chemical effects of diesel fuel emissions on a mining environment: A preliminary assessment based on data from a deep subsurface tunnel at Rainer Mesa, Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meike, A.; Bourcier, W.L.; Alai, M.

    1995-09-01

    The general purpose of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMSCP) Introduced Materials Task is to understand and predict potential long-term modifications of natural water chemistry related to the construction and operation of a radioactive waste repository that may significantly affect performance of the waste packages. The present study focuses on diesel exhaust. Although chemical information on diesel exhaust exists in the literature, it is either not explicit or incomplete, and none of it establishes mechanisms that might be used to predict long-term behavior. In addition, the data regarding microbially mediated chemical reactions are not well correlated with the abiotic chemical data. To obtain some of the required long-term information, we chose a historical analog: the U12n tunnel at Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site. This choice was based on the tunnel's extended (30-year) history of diesel usage, its geological similarity to Yucca Mountain, and its availability. The sample site within the tunnel was chosen based on visual inspection and on information gathered from miners who were present during tunnel operations. The thick layer of dark deposit at that site was assumed to consist primarily of rock powder and diesel exhaust. Surface samples and core samples were collected with an intent to analyze the deposit and to measure potential migration of chemical components into the rock. X-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis, secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis were used to measure both spatial distribution and concentration for the wide variety of chemical components that were expected based on our literature survey

  18. Potential long-term chemical effects of diesel fuel emissions on a mining environment: A preliminary assessment based on data from a deep subsurface tunnel at Rainer Mesa, Nevada test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meike, A.; Bourcier, W.L.; Alai, M. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The general purpose of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMSCP) Introduced Materials Task is to understand and predict potential long-term modifications of natural water chemistry related to the construction and operation of a radioactive waste repository that may significantly affect performance of the waste packages. The present study focuses on diesel exhaust. Although chemical information on diesel exhaust exists in the literature, it is either not explicit or incomplete, and none of it establishes mechanisms that might be used to predict long-term behavior. In addition, the data regarding microbially mediated chemical reactions are not well correlated with the abiotic chemical data. To obtain some of the required long-term information, we chose a historical analog: the U12n tunnel at Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site. This choice was based on the tunnel`s extended (30-year) history of diesel usage, its geological similarity to Yucca Mountain, and its availability. The sample site within the tunnel was chosen based on visual inspection and on information gathered from miners who were present during tunnel operations. The thick layer of dark deposit at that site was assumed to consist primarily of rock powder and diesel exhaust. Surface samples and core samples were collected with an intent to analyze the deposit and to measure potential migration of chemical components into the rock. X-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis, secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis were used to measure both spatial distribution and concentration for the wide variety of chemical components that were expected based on our literature survey.

  19. Static analysis of the thermochemical hydrogen production IS process for assessment of the operation parameters and the chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Seiji; Onuki, Kaoru; Nomura, Mikihiro; Nakao, Shin-ichi

    2006-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of the operation parameters and the chemical properties in the thermochemical hydrogen production IS process (iodine-sulfur process) was carried out for a static flow sheet. These parameters were evaluated by hydrogen production thermal efficiency, the mass flow rate or heat exchange based on the heat/mass balance. The most important parameters were the concentration of HI after electro-electrodialysis (EED) and the apparent transport number of protons of the cation exchange membrane in the EED cell. HI concentration operation should be operated carefully because the parameters for optimum thermal efficiency and for the optimum flow rate and heat exchange were different. For the chemical properties, composition at the inlet of the HI decomposition procedure and HI x pseudo-azeotropic composition had great effects. The HI concentration after the EED should be optimized for each composition. The order of priority for the assessment of the operation parameters and chemical properties was determined by the evaluation. (author)

  20. Human exposure to chemical mixtures: Challenges for the integration of toxicology with epidemiology data in risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Antonio F; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the potential adverse effects from longterm exposure to complex mixtures at low doses, close to health-based reference values. Traditional chemical-specific risk assessment based on animal testing may be insufficient and the lack of toxicological studies on chemical mixtures remains a major regulatory challenge. Hence, new methodologies on cumulative risk assessment are being developed but still present major limitations. Evaluation of chemical mixture effects requires an integrated and systematic approach and close collaboration across different scientific fields, particularly toxicology, epidemiology, exposure science, risk assessment and statistics for a proper integration of data from all these disciplines. Well designed and conducted epidemiological studies can take advantage of this new paradigm and can provide insight to support the correlation between humans low-dose exposures and diseases, thus avoiding the uncertainty associated with extrapolation across species. In this regard, human epidemiology studies may play a significant role in the new vision of toxicity testing. However, this type of information has not been fully considered in risk assessment, mainly due to the inherent limitations of epidemiologic studies. An integrated approach of in vivo, in vitro and in silico data, together with systematic reviews or meta-analysis of high quality epidemiological studies will improve the robustness of risk assessment of chemical mixtures and will provide a stronger basis for regulatory decisions. The ultimate goal is that experimental and mechanistic data can lend support and biological plausibility to the human epidemiological observations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensah John Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers’, manufacturers’, retailers’ and consumers’ (end-users’ preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Methods Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Results Suppliers’, manufacturers’ and retailers’ preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users. But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. Conclusion This study contributes some practical suggestions

  2. The effects of specified chemical meals on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, H S; Maggio, C A

    1978-10-01

    Rats received intragastric infusions of various specified chemical meals and were subsequently tested for a reduction in food intake. A second experiment, using a novel technique, tested for conditioned aversion to the meal infusions. The nonnutritive substances, kaolin clay and emulsified fluorocarbon, had no significant effect on food intake. Infusions of 1 M glucose and 1 M sorbitol reduced feeding behavior, but the 1 M sorbitol infusion also produced a conditioned aversion to flavored pellets paired with the sorbitol infusion, showing that the reduced feeding could have been caused by discomfort. Infusion of a high-fat meal consisting of emulsified triolein mixed with small amounts of sugar and protein or the rat's normal liquid diet, Nutrament, also reduced food intake, and both infusions failed to produce a conditioned aversion. The use of specified meals to understand the chemical basis of satiety requires a sensitive behavioral test to establish that the meal does not cause discomfort or other nonspecific effects.

  3. Effect-based tools for monitoring and predicting the ecotoxicological effects of chemicals in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connon, Richard E; Geist, Juergen; Werner, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Ecotoxicology faces the challenge of assessing and predicting the effects of an increasing number of chemical stressors on aquatic species and ecosystems. Herein we review currently applied tools in ecological risk assessment, combining information on exposure with expected biological effects or environmental water quality standards; currently applied effect-based tools are presented based on whether exposure occurs in a controlled laboratory environment or in the field. With increasing ecological relevance the reproducibility, specificity and thus suitability for standardisation of methods tends to diminish. We discuss the use of biomarkers in ecotoxicology including ecotoxicogenomics-based endpoints, which are becoming increasingly important for the detection of sublethal effects. Carefully selected sets of biomarkers allow an assessment of exposure to and effects of toxic chemicals, as well as the health status of organisms and, when combined with chemical analysis, identification of toxicant(s). The promising concept of "adverse outcome pathways (AOP)" links mechanistic responses on the cellular level with whole organism, population, community and potentially ecosystem effects and services. For most toxic mechanisms, however, practical application of AOPs will require more information and the identification of key links between responses, as well as key indicators, at different levels of biological organization, ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services.

  4. Effect-Based Tools for Monitoring and Predicting the Ecotoxicological Effects of Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Connon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecotoxicology faces the challenge of assessing and predicting the effects of an increasing number of chemical stressors on aquatic species and ecosystems. Herein we review currently applied tools in ecological risk assessment, combining information on exposure with expected biological effects or environmental water quality standards; currently applied effect-based tools are presented based on whether exposure occurs in a controlled laboratory environment or in the field. With increasing ecological relevance the reproducibility, specificity and thus suitability for standardisation of methods tends to diminish. We discuss the use of biomarkers in ecotoxicology including ecotoxicogenomics-based endpoints, which are becoming increasingly important for the detection of sublethal effects. Carefully selected sets of biomarkers allow an assessment of exposure to and effects of toxic chemicals, as well as the health status of organisms and, when combined with chemical analysis, identification of toxicant(s. The promising concept of “adverse outcome pathways (AOP” links mechanistic responses on the cellular level with whole organism, population, community and potentially ecosystem effects and services. For most toxic mechanisms, however, practical application of AOPs will require more information and the identification of key links between responses, as well as key indicators, at different levels of biological organization, ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services.

  5. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. Physico-chemical evaluation of radiation effects on apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Maria H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice

    1997-01-01

    Gala and Fuji varieties apple's juice were clarified with enzyme and irradiated aiming to extend the shelf-life without conservants and chemical additives. The juices were analysed for soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH and color. Results showed effect of storage periods in soluble solids, pH and color. The variety and storage period modified the titrable acidity. The pH was altered by irradiation dose and the storage period. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs

  7. Effects of water scarcity and chemical pollution in aquatic ecosystems: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Sánchez, Alba; Rico, Andreu; Vighi, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is an expanding climate and human related condition, which drives and interacts with other stressors in freshwater ecosystems such as chemical pollution. In this study we provide an overview of the existing knowledge regarding the chemical fate, biological dynamics and the ecological risks of chemicals under water scarcity conditions. We evaluated a total of 15 studies dealing with the combined effects of chemicals and water scarcity under laboratory conditions and in the field. The results of these studies have been elaborated in order to evaluate additive, synergistic or antagonistic responses of the studied endpoints. As a general rule, it can be concluded that, in situations of water scarcity, the impacts of extreme water fluctuations are much more relevant than those of an additional chemical stressor. Nevertheless, the presence of chemical pollution may result in exacerbated ecological risks in some particular cases. We conclude that further investigations on this topic would take advantage on the focus on some specific issues. Experimental (laboratory and model ecosystem) studies should be performed on different biota groups and life stages (diapausing eggs, immature stages), with particular attention to those including traits relevant for the adaptation to water scarcity. More knowledge on species adaptations and recovery capacity is essential to predict community responses to multiple stressors and to assess the community vulnerability. Field studies should be performed at different scales, particularly in lotic systems, in order to integrate different functional dynamics of the river ecosystem. Combining field monitoring and experimental studies would be the best option to reach more conclusive, causal relationships on the effects of co-occurring stressors. Contribution of these studies to develop ecological models and scenarios is also suggested as an improvement for the prospective aquatic risk assessment of chemicals in (semi-)arid areas

  8. Assessing the Extent of Sediment Contamination Around Creosote-treated Pilings Through Chemical and Biological Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Creosote is a common wood preservative used to treat marine structures, such as docks and bulkheads. Treated dock pilings continually leach polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other creosote compounds into the surrounding water and sediment. Over time, these compounds can accumulate in marine sediments, reaching much greater concentrations than those in seawater. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of creosote contamination in sediments, at a series of distances from treated pilings. Three pilings were randomly selected from a railroad trestle in Fidalgo Bay, WA and sediment samples were collected at four distances from each: 0 meters, 0.5 meters, 1 meter, and 2 meters. Samples were used to conduct two bioassays: an amphipod bioassay (Rhepoxynius abronius) and a sand dollar embryo bioassay. Grain size and PAH content (using a fluorometric method) were also measured. Five samples in the amphipod bioassay showed significantly lower effective survival than the reference sediment. These consisted of samples closest to the piling at 0 and 0.5 meters. One 0 m sample in the sand dollar embryo bioassay also showed a significantly lower percentage of normal embryos than the reference sediment. Overall, results strongly suggest that creosote-contaminated sediments, particularly those closest to treated pilings, can negatively affect both amphipods and echinoderm embryos. Although chemical data were somewhat ambiguous, 0 m samples had the highest levels of PAHs, which corresponded to the lowest average survival in both bioassays. Relatively high levels of PAHs were found as far as 2 meters away from pilings. Therefore, we cannot say how far chemical contamination can spread from creosote-treated pilings, and at what distance this contamination can still affect marine organisms. These results, as well as future research, are essential to the success of proposed piling removal projects. In addition to creosote-treated pilings, contaminated sediments must

  9. Utilizing toxicogenomic data to understand chemical mechanism of action in risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Vickie S., E-mail: wilson.vickie@epa.gov [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Keshava, Nagalakshmi [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Hester, Susan [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Segal, Deborah; Chiu, Weihsueh [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The predominant role of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment, thus far, has been one of augmentation of more traditional in vitro and in vivo toxicology data. This article focuses on the current available examples of instances where toxicogenomic data has been evaluated in human health risk assessment (e.g., acetochlor and arsenicals) which have been limited to the application of toxicogenomic data to inform mechanism of action. This article reviews the regulatory policy backdrop and highlights important efforts to ultimately achieve regulatory acceptance. A number of research efforts on specific chemicals that were designed for risk assessment purposes have employed mechanism or mode of action hypothesis testing and generating strategies. The strides made by large scale efforts to utilize toxicogenomic data in screening, testing, and risk assessment are also discussed. These efforts include both the refinement of methodologies for performing toxicogenomics studies and analysis of the resultant data sets. The current issues limiting the application of toxicogenomics to define mode or mechanism of action in risk assessment are discussed together with interrelated research needs. In summary, as chemical risk assessment moves away from a single mechanism of action approach toward a toxicity pathway-based paradigm, we envision that toxicogenomic data from multiple technologies (e.g., proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, supportive RT-PCR studies) can be used in conjunction with one another to understand the complexities of multiple, and possibly interacting, pathways affected by chemicals which will impact human health risk assessment.

  10. Utilizing toxicogenomic data to understand chemical mechanism of action in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Vickie S.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Hester, Susan; Segal, Deborah; Chiu, Weihsueh; Thompson, Chad M.; Euling, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    The predominant role of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment, thus far, has been one of augmentation of more traditional in vitro and in vivo toxicology data. This article focuses on the current available examples of instances where toxicogenomic data has been evaluated in human health risk assessment (e.g., acetochlor and arsenicals) which have been limited to the application of toxicogenomic data to inform mechanism of action. This article reviews the regulatory policy backdrop and highlights important efforts to ultimately achieve regulatory acceptance. A number of research efforts on specific chemicals that were designed for risk assessment purposes have employed mechanism or mode of action hypothesis testing and generating strategies. The strides made by large scale efforts to utilize toxicogenomic data in screening, testing, and risk assessment are also discussed. These efforts include both the refinement of methodologies for performing toxicogenomics studies and analysis of the resultant data sets. The current issues limiting the application of toxicogenomics to define mode or mechanism of action in risk assessment are discussed together with interrelated research needs. In summary, as chemical risk assessment moves away from a single mechanism of action approach toward a toxicity pathway-based paradigm, we envision that toxicogenomic data from multiple technologies (e.g., proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, supportive RT-PCR studies) can be used in conjunction with one another to understand the complexities of multiple, and possibly interacting, pathways affected by chemicals which will impact human health risk assessment

  11. White paper on the promotion of an integrated risk assessment concept in European regulatory frameworks for chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, M F; Roth, N; Aicher, L; Faust, M; Papadaki, P; Marchis, A; Calliera, M; Ginebreda, A; Andres, S; Kühne, R; Schüürmann, G

    2015-07-15

    The vision of a sustainable and safe use of chemicals to protect human health, preserve the environment and maintain the ecosystem requires innovative and more holistic approaches to risk assessment (RA) in order to better inform decision making. Integrated risk assessment (IRA) has been proposed as a solution to current scientific, societal and policy needs. It is defined as the mutual exploitation of environmental risk assessment (ERA) for human health risk assessment (HHRA) and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process. Extrapolating between species which are relevant for HHRA and ERA requires a detailed understanding of pathways of toxicity/modes of action (MoA) for the various toxicological endpoints. Significant scientific advances, changes in chemical legislation, and increasing environmental consciousness have created a favourable scientific and regulatory environment to develop and promote the concept and vision of IRA. An initial proof of concept is needed to foster the incorporation of IRA approaches into different chemical sectorial regulations and demonstrate their reliability for regulatory purposes. More familiarity and confidence with IRA will ultimately contribute to an overall reduction in in vivo toxicity testing requirements. However, significant progress will only be made if long-term support for MoA-related research is secured. In the short term, further exchange and harmonization of RA terminology, models and methodologies across chemical categories and regulatory agencies will support these efforts. Since societal values, public perceptions and cultural factors are of increasing importance for the acceptance of risk analysis and successful implementation of risk mitigation measures, the integration of socio-economic analysis and socio-behavioural considerations into the risk analysis process may help to produce a more

  12. The current status of exposure-driven approaches for chemical safety assessment: A cross-sector perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Fiona; Aggarwal, Manoj; Bachler, Gerald; Broadmeadow, Alan; Gellatly, Nichola; Moore, Emma; Robinson, Sally; Rooseboom, Martijn; Stevens, Alexander; Terry, Claire; Burden, Natalie

    2017-08-15

    For the purposes of chemical safety assessment, the value of using non-animal (in silico and in vitro) approaches and generating mechanistic information on toxic effects is being increasingly recognised. For sectors where in vivo toxicity tests continue to be a regulatory requirement, there has been a parallel focus on how to refine studies (i.e. reduce suffering and improve animal welfare) and increase the value that in vivo data adds to the safety assessment process, as well as where to reduce animal numbers where possible. A key element necessary to ensure the transition towards successfully utilising both non-animal and refined safety testing is the better understanding of chemical exposure. This includes approaches such as measuring chemical concentrations within cell-based assays and during in vivo studies, understanding how predicted human exposures relate to levels tested, and using existing information on human exposures to aid in toxicity study design. Such approaches promise to increase the human relevance of safety assessment, and shift the focus from hazard-driven to risk-driven strategies similar to those used in the pharmaceutical sectors. Human exposure-based safety assessment offers scientific and 3Rs benefits across all sectors marketing chemical or medicinal products. The UK's National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) convened an expert working group of scientists across the agrochemical, industrial chemical and pharmaceutical industries plus a contract research organisation (CRO) to discuss the current status of the utilisation of exposure-driven approaches, and the challenges and potential next steps for wider uptake and acceptance. This paper summarises these discussions, highlights the challenges - particularly those identified by industry - and proposes initial steps for moving the field forward. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In silico tools to aid risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.N.

    2004-01-01

    In silico or computational tools could be used more effectively in endocrine disruptor risk assessment for prescreening potential endocrine disruptors, improving experimental in vitro screening assay design and facilitating more thorough data analyses. The in silico tools reviewed here are three-fold and include the use of: (1) nuclear receptor (NR) crystal structures and homology models to examine potential modes of ligand binding by different representative compounds; (2) multivariate principal component analyses (PCA) techniques to select best predicted cell lines for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) risk assessment purposes; (3) NR quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) that can be constructed from varied biological data sources, using multivariate partial least squares (PLS) techniques and specific descriptors. The cytosolic and NR examples discussed here include the Ah receptor (AhR), the human oestrogen receptor α (hERα) and the human pregnane X receptor (PXR). The varied biological data sets can be compared to give a more integrated dimension to receptor cross talk mechanisms, with further support from molecular modelling studies

  14. The effect of the indoor environment on the fate of organic chemicals in the urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Anna Palm

    2012-11-01

    To assess the effect of the indoor environment on the urban fate of organic chemicals, an 8-compartment indoor-inclusive steady state multimedia chemical fate model was developed. The model includes typical urban compartments (air, soil, water, sediment, and urban film) and a novel module representing a generic indoor environment. The model was parameterized to the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden and applied to four organic chemicals with different physical-chemical characteristics and use patterns: formaldehyde, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, di-ethylhexylphthalate and decabromodiphenyl ether. The results show that emissions to indoor air may increase the steady state mass and residence time in the urban environment by a factor of 1.1 to 22 for the four chemicals, compared to if emissions are assigned to outdoor air. This is due to the nested nature of the indoor environment, which creates a physical barrier that prevents chemicals from leaving the urban system with outflowing air. For DEHP and BDE 209, the additional partitioning to indoor surfaces results in a greater importance of the indoor removal pathways from surfaces. The outdoor environmental concentrations of these chemicals are predicted to be lower if emitted to indoor air than if emitted to outdoor air because of the additional indoor removal pathways of dust and indoor film, leading to loss of chemical from the system. For formaldehyde and 2,4,6-TBP outdoor environmental concentrations are not affected by whether the release occurs indoors or outdoors because of the limited partitioning to indoor surfaces. A sensitivity analysis revealed that there appears to be a relationship between logK(OA) and the impact of the ventilation rate on the urban fate of organic chemicals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical monitoring strategy for the assessment of advanced water treatment plant performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, J E; McDonald, J A; Trinh, T; Storey, M V; Khan, S J

    2011-01-01

    A pilot-scale plant was employed to validate the performance of a proposed full-scale advanced water treatment plant (AWTP) in Sydney, Australia. The primary aim of this study was to develop a chemical monitoring program that can demonstrate proper plant operation resulting in the removal of priority chemical constituents in the product water. The feed water quality to the pilot plant was tertiary-treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. The unit processes of the AWTP were comprised of an integrated membrane system (ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis) followed by final chlorination generating a water quality that does not present a source of human or environmental health concern. The chemical monitoring program was undertaken over 6 weeks during pilot plant operation and involved the quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, steroidal hormones, industrial chemicals, pesticides, N-nitrosamines and halomethanes. The first phase consisted of baseline monitoring of target compounds to quantify influent concentrations in feed waters to the plant. This was followed by a period of validation monitoring utilising indicator chemicals and surrogate measures suitable to assess proper process performance at various stages of the AWTP. This effort was supported by challenge testing experiments to further validate removal of a series of indicator chemicals by reverse osmosis. This pilot-scale study demonstrated a simplified analytical approach that can be employed to assure proper operation of advanced water treatment processes and the absence of trace organic chemicals.

  16. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  17. Assessment on separate effect tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, M.; Kukita, Y.; Renault, C.

    1985-01-01

    In the general frame of Cathare assessment this operation is aimed to qualify the set of constitutive laws by reconstitution of experimental tests. The experimental tests are selected following 2 objectives: to be able to qualify separately (as far as possible) the constitutive laws, and, to cover the entire parameter range which is of interest for safety studies. This selection has led to a set of 135 separate effect tests taken from 15 experimental facilities and which can be arranged in 3 main categories: Adiabatic flow tests, without significant external heat exchange; non adiabatic flow tests, in which external heating or cooling is applied to the test section but not being driven by wall heat exchange; and, heat transfer tests, in which wall heat transfer plays the dominant role

  18. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  19. Sensory assessment and chemical measurement of astringency of Greek wines: Correlations with analytical polyphenolic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallithraka, S; Kim, D; Tsakiris, A; Paraskevopoulos, I; Soleas, G

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to measure the astringency of selected Greek red wines and to assess the relationship between sensory and chemical data. Nine red wines produced by three native Greek grape varieties (agiorgitiko, xinomavro and mavrodafni) were used and their astringency and bitterness was assessed by a trained panel. In addition, their astringency was estimated chemically employing the ovalbumin precipitation method. Their polyphenolic composition was also determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The sensory data showed that mandilaria was the most astringent variety whereas agiorgitiko was the least. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the chemical data obtained for astringency significantly correlated with the sensory determinations. In addition, significant correlations were obtained between the sensory data and the wine polyphenolic composition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions

  1. In ovo exposure quail assay for risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Ryo; Takahashi, Shinji; Shimizu, Akira; Morita, Masatoshi; Shiraishi, Fujio

    2006-12-01

    Although there are in vivo assays using various organisms for the risk assessment of chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties, effective experimental methods for avian species are still under debate. We have developed an in ovo exposure assay using Japanese quail eggs, aimed at assessing disrupting effects on avian reproductive development and function. Hybrid eggs from Brazilian Brown male and White Egg female quails, which can be genetically sexed by their plumage color after hatching, were prepared, and test materials dissolved in olive oil were injected into the air-chamber on day 10 of incubation. After sexual maturation of hatched chicks, we observed egg production by females and the egg quality and male-typical reproductive behavior, and then examined reproductive system morphology and serum steroid concentrations in both sexes. Treatment with a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.5-50 ng/g egg), dose-dependently reduced the eggshell thickness and strength of eggs. A few females treated with 5 ng/g DES per egg produced soft-shelled/ unmarked eggs, and all laying females treated with 50 ng/g egg produced eggs completely lacking shells. DES also induced shortening of the left oviduct and abnormal development of the right oviduct in a dose-dependent manner, while testis weight was reduced symmetrically. In addition, 2,2',4',6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-4-ol (10-1,000 ng/g egg), which previously showed relatively high estrogenic activity in vitro, caused dose-dependent shortening of the left oviduct and reduction in testis weight. The methods for evaluating endocrine disrupting effects and preparing experimental birds proposed in the present study are expected to facilitate assays for avian reproductive toxicology.

  2. [Risk assessment and risk control for occupational exposure to chemical toxicants from an isophorone nitrile device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dejun; Fu, Xiaokuan; Kong, Fanling; Sui, Shaofeng; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Du, Yinglin; Zhou, Jingyang

    2014-06-01

    Risk assessment and risk control for occupational exposure to chemical toxicants were performed on an isophorone nitrile device with an annual production of 5,000 tons, based on improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method, with consideration of actual situation in China and in the present project. With the use of engineering analysis and identification of occupational hazards in the improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method, hazard rating (HR) and risk assessment were performed on chemical toxicants from an isophorone nitrile device with an annual production of 5,000 tons. The chemical toxicants in the isophorone nitrile device were mainly isophorone, hydrocyanic acid, methanol, phosphoric acid, sodium hydroxide, and sodium cyanide; the HR values were mild hazard (2), extreme hazard (5), mild hazard (2), mild hazard (2), moderate hazard (3), and extreme hazard (5), respectively, and the corresponding exposure rating (ER) values were 2.09, 2.72, 2.76, 1.68, 2.0, and 1.59, respectively. The risk of chemical toxicants in this project was assessed according to the formula Risk = [HR×ER](1/2). Hydrocyanic acid was determined as high risk, sodium hydroxide and sodium cyanide as medium risk, and isophorone, methanol, and phosphoric acid as low risk. Priority in handling of risks was determined by risk rating. The table of risk control measure was established for pre-assessment of occupational hazards. With risk assessment in this study, we concluded that the isophorone nitrile device with 5,000 ton annual production was a high-occupational hazard device. This device is a project of extreme occupational hazard. The improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method is a scientific and applicable method, and is especially suitable for pre-evaluation of on-site project with no analogy.

  3. Chemical and microbiological effects in the near field: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, F.T.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Wisbey, S.J.; Woodwark, D.R.

    1988-12-01

    The radionuclide inventory of a radioactive waste repository, influenced by the chemical conditions in the near-field, determines the source term for radionuclides entering the geosphere. The research described in this report is focussed on providing the information necessary to quantify this source term. The processes which interact to determine near field behaviour over a long period of time are complex and a simplified representation is required for radiological assessment modelling. The assumptions made in formulating the near field assessment methodology are discussed and justified in this report. The techniques for acquiring the necessary large body of data for a wide range of relevant radionuclides are also described and the values used in the CASCADE I exercise are given. (author)

  4. Techno-economic assessment of the production of bio-based chemicals from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Gangarapu, S.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, possible process steps for the production of bio-based industrial chemicals from glutamic acid are described, including a techno-economic assessment of all processes. The products under investigation were those that were shown to be synthesized from glutamic acid on lab-scale, namely

  5. Developing Computer Model-Based Assessment of Chemical Reasoning: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Waight, Noemi; Gregorius, Roberto; Smith, Erica; Park, Mihwa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study on developing computer model-based assessments of chemical reasoning at the high school level. Computer models are flash and NetLogo environments to make simultaneously available three domains in chemistry: macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic. Students interact with computer models to answer assessment…

  6. REMOTE SENSING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES FOLLOWING HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...

  7. Building a model based on scientific consensus for Life Cycle Impact Assessment of chemicals:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Huijbregts, Mark; Jolliet, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Achieving consensus among scientists is often a challenge - particularly in model development. In this article we describe a recent scientific consensus-building process for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) models applied to chemical emissions - including the strategy, execution, and results...

  8. 78 FR 14299 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Chemical Assessment Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9786-6] Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science...: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the SAB Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) to receive a...

  9. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and

  10. Challenges to developing countries after joining WTO: risk assessment of chemicals in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Junshi

    2004-01-01

    FAO/WHO encourages member countries to develop national food control measures based on risk assessment in order to assure proper protection level to consumers and facilitate fair trade. This is particularly important for developing countries as WTO members because it is clearly stated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement that: (a) SPS measures should be based on risk assessment techniques developed by relevant international organizations; and (b) Codex standards which is based on risk assessment are regarded as the international norm in trade dispute settlement. When conducting risk assessment on food chemicals (including additives and contaminants) in developing countries, in most cases it is not necessary to conduct their own hazard characterization because the ADIs or PTWIs of food chemicals developed by international expert groups (e.g. JECFA) are universally applicable and also developing countries do not have the resources to repeat those expensive toxicological studies. On the other hand, it is necessary to conduct exposure assessment in developing countries because exposure to food chemicals varies from country to country. This is not only crucial in setting national standards, but also very important for developing countries to participate in the process of developing Codex standards. In addition to food standard development, risk assessment is also useful in setting up priorities in imported food inspection and evaluating the success of various food safety control measures

  11. Challenges to developing countries after joining WTO: risk assessment of chemicals in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junshi

    2004-05-20

    FAO/WHO encourages member countries to develop national food control measures based on risk assessment in order to assure proper protection level to consumers and facilitate fair trade. This is particularly important for developing countries as WTO members because it is clearly stated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement that: (a) SPS measures should be based on risk assessment techniques developed by relevant international organizations; and (b) Codex standards which is based on risk assessment are regarded as the international norm in trade dispute settlement. When conducting risk assessment on food chemicals (including additives and contaminants) in developing countries, in most cases it is not necessary to conduct their own hazard characterization because the ADIs or PTWIs of food chemicals developed by international expert groups (e.g. JECFA) are universally applicable and also developing countries do not have the resources to repeat those expensive toxicological studies. On the other hand, it is necessary to conduct exposure assessment in developing countries because exposure to food chemicals varies from country to country. This is not only crucial in setting national standards, but also very important for developing countries to participate in the process of developing Codex standards. In addition to food standard development, risk assessment is also useful in setting up priorities in imported food inspection and evaluating the success of various food safety control measures.

  12. Irradiation of starches for industrial uses: Chemical and physical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria E.

    1999-01-01

    Corn and cassava starches have been irradiated with gamma doses from 10 to 180 kGy and pastes have been prepared by boiling the starches in water. The rheological properties of the pastes have been determined showing that the 10 kGy dose reduces sharply the viscosity of the aqueous pastes. The solubility of the irradiated starches has been also studied. The cassava starch irradiated with 180 kGy is soluble in boiling water and remains soluble at room temperature. After some considerations on the chemical effects of the irradiation it is concluded that the irradiation technique is suitable to replace the chemical treatment in many industrial applications of the starch. (author)

  13. Chemical effects of ionizing radiation and sonic energy in the context of chemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron Mendoza, A.; Albarran, G.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and sonic energy are considered as sources for chemical evolution processes. These sources have still a modest place in the interdisciplinary approach for the prebiological synthesis of organic compounds. Studies in Radiation Chemistry and Sonochemistry can provide a deeper insight into the chemical processes that may have importance for prebiotic chemistry. The present work concerns the analysis of some chemical reactions induced by ionizing radiation or cavitation in aqueous media that may be relevant to chemical evolution studies. (author)

  14. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Virginia C.; Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L.; Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K.; Hedge, Joan M.; Wood, Charles E.; McMahen, Rebecca L.; Strynar, Mark J.; Herr, David W.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long–Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. - Highlights: • Pesticides typical of different classes produced distinct patterns of change in biomarker panels. • Based on the panels used, alterations suggest impacts on immune, metabolism, and homeostasis functions. • Some changes may reflect actions on neurotransmitter systems involved in immune modulation. • Fipronil effects on thyroid and kinetics

  15. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Virginia C., E-mail: Moser.ginger@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K. [Analytical Chemistry Research Core/Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hedge, Joan M.; Wood, Charles E. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); McMahen, Rebecca L. [ORISE fellow, Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Strynar, Mark J. [Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Herr, David W. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long–Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. - Highlights: • Pesticides typical of different classes produced distinct patterns of change in biomarker panels. • Based on the panels used, alterations suggest impacts on immune, metabolism, and homeostasis functions. • Some changes may reflect actions on neurotransmitter systems involved in immune modulation. • Fipronil effects on thyroid and kinetics

  16. Problem formulation for risk assessment of combined exposures to chemicals and other stressors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Wilks, Martin F; Bachman, Ammie; Boobis, Alan; Moretto, Angelo; Pastoor, Timothy P; Phillips, Richard; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-11-01

    When the human health risk assessment/risk management paradigm was developed, it did not explicitly include a "problem formulation" phase. The concept of problem formulation was first introduced in the context of ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the pragmatic reason to constrain and focus ERAs on the key questions. However, this need also exists for human health risk assessment, particularly for cumulative risk assessment (CRA), because of its complexity. CRA encompasses the combined threats to health from exposure via all relevant routes to multiple stressors, including biological, chemical, physical and psychosocial stressors. As part of the HESI Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) Project, a framework for CRA was developed in which problem formulation plays a critical role. The focus of this effort is primarily on a chemical CRA (i.e., two or more chemicals) with subsequent consideration of non-chemical stressors, defined as "modulating factors" (ModFs). Problem formulation is a systematic approach that identifies all factors critical to a specific risk assessment and considers the purpose of the assessment, scope and depth of the necessary analysis, analytical approach, available resources and outcomes, and overall risk management goal. There are numerous considerations that are specific to multiple stressors, and proper problem formulation can help to focus a CRA to the key factors in order to optimize resources. As part of the problem formulation, conceptual models for exposures and responses can be developed that address these factors, such as temporal relationships between stressors and consideration of the appropriate ModFs.

  17. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in fish: developing exposure indicators and predictive models of effects based on mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankley, Gerald T; Bencic, David C; Breen, Michael S; Collette, Timothy W; Conolly, Rory B; Denslow, Nancy D; Edwards, Stephen W; Ekman, Drew R; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Jensen, Kathleen M; Lazorchak, James M; Martinović, Dalma; Miller, David H; Perkins, Edward J; Orlando, Edward F; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Wang, Rong-Lin; Watanabe, Karen H

    2009-05-05

    Knowledge of possible toxic mechanisms (or modes) of action (MOA) of chemicals can provide valuable insights as to appropriate methods for assessing exposure and effects, thereby reducing uncertainties related to extrapolation across species, endpoints and chemical structure. However, MOA-based testing seldom has been used for assessing the ecological risk of chemicals. This is in part because past regulatory mandates have focused more on adverse effects of chemicals (reductions in survival, growth or reproduction) than the pathways through which these effects are elicited. A recent departure from this involves endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), where there is a need to understand both MOA and adverse outcomes. To achieve this understanding, advances in predictive approaches are required whereby mechanistic changes caused by chemicals at the molecular level can be translated into apical responses meaningful to ecological risk assessment. In this paper we provide an overview and illustrative results from a large, integrated project that assesses the effects of EDCs on two small fish models, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). For this work a systems-based approach is being used to delineate toxicity pathways for 12 model EDCs with different known or hypothesized toxic MOA. The studies employ a combination of state-of-the-art genomic (transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic), bioinformatic and modeling approaches, in conjunction with whole animal testing, to develop response linkages across biological levels of organization. This understanding forms the basis for predictive approaches for species, endpoint and chemical extrapolation. Although our project is focused specifically on EDCs in fish, we believe that the basic conceptual approach has utility for systematically assessing exposure and effects of chemicals with other MOA across a variety of biological systems.

  18. Chelating impact assessment of biological ad chemical chelates on metal extraction from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manwar, S.; Iram, S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil contamination is the result of uncontrolled waste dumping and poor practices by humans. Of all the pollutants heavy metals are of particular concern due to their atmospheric deposition, leaching capacity and non-biodegradability. Heavy metal containing effluent is discharged into the agricultural fields and water bodies. This results in the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and the crops grown on that soil. Studies have revealed detrimental impacts on soil fertility and the poor health of animals and humans. Phytoextraction is widely researched for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of phytoextraction heavy metals have to be available to the plants in soluble form. In this study the potential of different chelating agents was assessed in solubilizing the heavy metals making easy for plants to uptake them. For this purpose efficient chemical and biological chelating agent had to be identified. Along with that an optimum dose and application time for chemical chelating agent was determined. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), Nitriloacetic acid (NTA) were applied to the soil, containing Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd, at different concentrations and application time. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were incubated in soil for different time periods. In correspondence with findings of the study, Pb and Cr were best solubilized by 5mM EDTA. For Cd and Cu 5mM DTPA carried out efficient chelation. NTA showed relatively inadequate solubilisation, although for Cr it performed equal to EDTA. A. niger and A. flavus instead of solubilizing adsorbed the metals in their biomass. Adsorption was mainly carried out by A. niger. (author)

  19. The Effects of Smartphone Use on Organic Chemical Compound Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Nuray

    2015-01-01

    As a result of rapid technological advances, smartphones have recently enjoyed widespread use. The basic purpose of this study is to examine the effects of smartphones when they are used as educational tools in learning environments. To assess the effects of smartphone use on learning, this study uses smartphones as educational tools in a…

  20. Chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in surface water using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Perkins, S.D.; Clark, R.C.; Smith, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers. In addition to the chemical analysis, the Microtox assay for acute toxicity and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) were conducted as potential assessment tools in combination with the passive samplers. During the spring of 2004, the passive samplers were deployed for 29 to 65 d at Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Morgan Creek, MD; and DR2 Drain, WA. Chemical analysis of the sampler extracts identified the agrochemicals predominantly used in those areas, including atrazine, simazine, acetochlor, and metolachlor. Other chemicals identified included deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, trifluralin, fluoranthene, pyrene, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and pentachloroanisole. Screening using Microtox resulted in no acutely toxic samples. POCIS samples screened by the YES assay failed to elicit a positive estrogenic response. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  1. Computational Methods to Assess the Production Potential of Bio-Based Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campodonico, Miguel A; Sukumara, Sumesh; Feist, Adam M; Herrgård, Markus J

    2018-01-01

    Elevated costs and long implementation times of bio-based processes for producing chemicals represent a bottleneck for moving to a bio-based economy. A prospective analysis able to elucidate economically and technically feasible product targets at early research phases is mandatory. Computational tools can be implemented to explore the biological and technical spectrum of feasibility, while constraining the operational space for desired chemicals. In this chapter, two different computational tools for assessing potential for bio-based production of chemicals from different perspectives are described in detail. The first tool is GEM-Path: an algorithm to compute all structurally possible pathways from one target molecule to the host metabolome. The second tool is a framework for Modeling Sustainable Industrial Chemicals production (MuSIC), which integrates modeling approaches for cellular metabolism, bioreactor design, upstream/downstream processes, and economic impact assessment. Integrating GEM-Path and MuSIC will play a vital role in supporting early phases of research efforts and guide the policy makers with decisions, as we progress toward planning a sustainable chemical industry.

  2. Chemical buffering in natural and engineered barrier systems: Thermodynamic constraints and performance assessment consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.C.; Wei Zhou

    2000-12-01

    proportional to the buffer intensity. For conditions considered in the bentonite model, calculated front velocities vary from 6.6 x 10 -2 to 6.6 x 10 -5 mm/yr, corresponding to values of the buffer intensity between 1 and 1000 meq/l, respectively. Corresponding travel times for the front to migrate from the buffer-host rock interface to the buffer-canister boundary range from about 5 x 10 3 to 5 x 10 6 years. For conditions considered in the farfield model, the estimated pH-front velocity is about 5.7 x 10 -1 mm/yr, or a factor 5.7 x 10 -5 slower than the assumed Darcy flow velocity of 10 m/yr. The corresponding time for the front to migrate 500 m (e.g., from the ground surface to the depth of a KBS-3 repository) is about 9 x 10 5 years. With the preliminary nature of these results in mind, we conclude that chemical buffering may play an important role in determining the performance of a KBS-3 repository. For example, periods of time that are significant in relation to performance assessment time scales may be required for a pH front, and perhaps other types of fronts, to migrate from the buffer host rock boundary to the buffer-canister boundary (just 35 cm in width). This implies that the KBS-3 near field could in effect be decoupled from the far field, thus minimizing effects on repository performance of time-dependent variations in the geosphere. Similarly, buffering may strongly resist changes in the chemistry of the geosphere, which could be caused, for example, by future variations in climate or other natural or man-induced processes

  3. Combined use of meio- and macrobenthic indices to assess complex chemical impacts on a stream ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne T.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Traunspurger, Walter; Höss, Sebastian; Bjerg, Poul L.

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem dynamics (e.g. temperature, inorganic nutrients) and properties (e.g. resilience, robustness), and ecological functions and services depend on the structure and diversity of biological communities, and the fluxes of energy and materials occurring within and across abiotic and biotic boundaries. The close interchange, i.e. multiple feedback loops, between hydrologic and biologic controls is also becoming increasingly evident. Holistic approaches are thus necessary for a robust understanding of ecosystem functioning and subsequent implementation of effective management practices across multiple spatial scales. Groundwater and surface water resources are under pressure from increasing global exploitation and anthropogenic impacts such as contamination by chemicals, leading to a severe degradation of essential ecological functions. Many of the environmental problems we face today have existed for decades; what has changed is our understanding of the key drivers, processes and impacts. The first reporting by European Member States (MS) on the status of their water bodies found that rivers and transitional waters were often in worse condition than lakes and coastal waters. This is not surprising considering that streams integrate all of the diverse stressors found within a catchment (e.g. contaminated sites; diffuse source pollution; water abstraction). The chemical status of a water body is relatively straightforward to assess, defined partly by environmental quality standards on priority substances and partly by additional regulations imposed by individual MS. However, the biological quality elements used for the classification of ecological status are only loosely defined, leaving MS free to develop their own assessment tools. Although useful for the individual MS, it impedes methodological standardization across different ecoregions, thus contributing to inconsistencies and data gaps across Europe. Moreover, despite the unambiguous importance of benthic

  4. Effects of radiation and chemical substances on cells and organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremuth, F.

    1981-01-01

    The book treats the radiation chemistry part of biophysics and applied biophysics in the sphere of ionizing radiation. Discussed are the concepts of radiation units and radioactivity units and the relative biological efficiency. The effects of ionizing and UV radiations are analyzed at the level of macromolecular changes. Chapters dealing with genetic radiation effects discuss the effects at the cellular level with respect to cell proliferation. All these problems are used to illustrate the effect on the organism as a whole. The chapters on applied biophysics deal with the indications of radiation and chemical damage, sensitivity of cells and the organism, and the study and influencing of growth at the cellular level. The concluding chapter is devoted to the environmental impact of radiation. (J.P.)

  5. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of

  6. Aquatic exposures of chemical mixtures in urban environments: Approaches to impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zwart, Dick; Adams, William; Galay Burgos, Malyka; Hollender, Juliane; Junghans, Marion; Merrington, Graham; Muir, Derek; Parkerton, Thomas; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Whale, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Urban regions of the world are expanding rapidly, placing additional stress on water resources. Urban water bodies serve many purposes, from washing and sources of drinking water to transport and conduits for storm drainage and effluent discharge. These water bodies receive chemical emissions arising from either single or multiple point sources, diffuse sources which can be continuous, intermittent, or seasonal. Thus, aquatic organisms in these water bodies are exposed to temporally and compositionally variable mixtures. We have delineated source-specific signatures of these mixtures for diffuse urban runoff and urban point source exposure scenarios to support risk assessment and management of these mixtures. The first step in a tiered approach to assessing chemical exposure has been developed based on the event mean concentration concept, with chemical concentrations in runoff defined by volumes of water leaving each surface and the chemical exposure mixture profiles for different urban scenarios. Although generalizations can be made about the chemical composition of urban sources and event mean exposure predictions for initial prioritization, such modeling needs to be complemented with biological monitoring data. It is highly unlikely that the current paradigm of routine regulatory chemical monitoring alone will provide a realistic appraisal of urban aquatic chemical mixture exposures. Future consideration is also needed of the role of nonchemical stressors in such highly modified urban water bodies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:703-714. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  7. Aligning the 3Rs with new paradigms in the safety assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Natalie; Mahony, Catherine; Müller, Boris P; Terry, Claire; Westmoreland, Carl; Kimber, Ian

    2015-04-01

    There are currently several factors driving a move away from the reliance on in vivo toxicity testing for the purposes of chemical safety assessment. Progress has started to be made in the development and validation of non-animal methods. However, recent advances in the biosciences provide exciting opportunities to accelerate this process and to ensure that the alternative paradigms for hazard identification and risk assessment deliver lasting 3Rs benefits, whilst improving the quality and relevance of safety assessment. The NC3Rs, a UK-based scientific organisation which supports the development and application of novel 3Rs techniques and approaches, held a workshop recently which brought together over 20 international experts in the field of chemical safety assessment. The aim of this workshop was to review the current scientific, technical and regulatory landscapes, and to identify key opportunities towards reaching these goals. Here, we consider areas where further strategic investment will need to be focused if significant impact on 3Rs is to be matched with improved safety science, and why the timing is right for the field to work together towards an environment where we no longer rely on whole animal data for the accurate safety assessment of chemicals.

  8. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases

  9. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  10. Evidence of Non-local Chemical, Thermal and Gravitational Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu H.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum entanglement is ubiquitous in the microscopic world and manifests itself macroscopically under some circumstances. But common belief is that it alone cannot be used to transmit information nor could it be used to produce macroscopic non- local effects. Yet we have recently found evidence of non-local effects of chemical substances on the brain produced through it. While our reported results are under independent verifications by other groups, we report here our experimental findings of non-local chemical, thermal and gravitational effects in simple physical systems such as reservoirs of water quantum-entangled with water being manipulated in a remote reservoir. With the aids of high-precision instruments, we have found that the pH value, temperature and gravity of water in the detecting reservoirs can be non-locally affected through manipulating water in the remote reservoir. In particular, the pH value changes in the same direction as that being manipulated; the temperature can change against that of local environment; and the gravity apparently can also change against local gravity. These non-local effects are all reproducible and can be used for non-local signalling and many other purposes. We suggest that they are mediated by quantum entanglement between nuclear and/or electron spins in treated water and discuss the implications of these results.

  11. Environmental fate and exposure models: advances and challenges in 21st century chemical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, Antonio; Gouin, Todd; MacLeod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin

    2018-01-24

    Environmental fate and exposure models are a powerful means to integrate information on chemicals, their partitioning and degradation behaviour, the environmental scenario and the emissions in order to compile a picture of chemical distribution and fluxes in the multimedia environment. A 1995 pioneering book, resulting from a series of workshops among model developers and users, reported the main advantages and identified needs for research in the field of multimedia fate models. Considerable efforts were devoted to their improvement in the past 25 years and many aspects were refined; notably the inclusion of nanomaterials among the modelled substances, the development of models at different spatial and temporal scales, the estimation of chemical properties and emission data, the incorporation of additional environmental media and processes, the integration of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis in the simulations. However, some challenging issues remain and require research efforts and attention: the need of methods to estimate partition coefficients for polar and ionizable chemical in the environment, a better description of bioavailability in different environments as well as the requirement of injecting more ecological realism in exposure predictions to account for the diversity of ecosystem structures and functions in risk assessment. Finally, to transfer new scientific developments into the realm of regulatory risk assessment, we propose the formation of expert groups that compare, discuss and recommend model modifications and updates and help develop practical tools for risk assessment.

  12. Guidelines for application of chemical-specific adjustment factors in dose/concentration-response assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, M.E.; Renwick, A.; Ohanian, E.; Dourson, M.; Lake, B.; Naumann, B.D.; Vu, V.

    2002-01-01

    This manuscript addresses guidance in the use of kinetic and dynamic data to inform quantitatively extrapolations for interspecies differences and human variability in dose-response assessment developed in a project of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) initiative on Harmonisation of Approaches to the Assessment of Risk from Exposure to Chemicals. The guidance has been developed and refined through a series of planning and technical meetings and larger workshops of a broad range of participants from academia, government agencies and the private sector. The guidance for adequacy of data for replacement of common defaults for interspecies differences and human variability is presented in the context of several generic categories including: determination of the active chemical species, choice of the appropriate metric (kinetic components) or endpoint (dynamic components) and nature of experimental data, the latter which includes reference to the relevance of population, route and dose and the adequacy of the number of subjects/samples. The principal objective of this guidance developed primarily as a resource for risk assessors, is to foster better understanding of the components of and criteria for adequacy of chemical-specific data to quantitate interspecies differences and human variability in kinetics and dynamics. It is anticipated that this guidance will also encourage the development of appropriate data and facilitate their incorporation in a consistent fashion in dose-response assessment for regulatory purposes (IPCS, 2001)

  13. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Gon; Byun, Hun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks

  14. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Gon [Hanwha Chemical Ulsan Site, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hun Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks.

  15. Ab initio chemical safety assessment: A workflow based on exposure considerations and non-animal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Elisabet; White, Andrew; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Paini, Alicia; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Bois, Frederic Y; Exner, Thomas; Leite, Sofia; Grunsven, Leo A van; Worth, Andrew; Mahony, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    We describe and illustrate a workflow for chemical safety assessment that completely avoids animal testing. The workflow, which was developed within the SEURAT-1 initiative, is designed to be applicable to cosmetic ingredients as well as to other types of chemicals, e.g. active ingredients in plant protection products, biocides or pharmaceuticals. The aim of this work was to develop a workflow to assess chemical safety without relying on any animal testing, but instead constructing a hypothesis based on existing data, in silico modelling, biokinetic considerations and then by targeted non-animal testing. For illustrative purposes, we consider a hypothetical new ingredient x as a new component in a body lotion formulation. The workflow is divided into tiers in which points of departure are established through in vitro testing and in silico prediction, as the basis for estimating a safe external dose in a repeated use scenario. The workflow includes a series of possible exit (decision) points, with increasing levels of confidence, based on the sequential application of the Threshold of Toxicological (TTC) approach, read-across, followed by an "ab initio" assessment, in which chemical safety is determined entirely by new in vitro testing and in vitro to in vivo extrapolation by means of mathematical modelling. We believe that this workflow could be applied as a tool to inform targeted and toxicologically relevant in vitro testing, where necessary, and to gain confidence in safety decision making without the need for animal testing.

  16. Assessing exposure and health consequences of chemicals in drinking water: current state of knowledge and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cristina M; Kogevinas, Manolis; Cordier, Sylvaine; Templeton, Michael R; Vermeulen, Roel; Nuckols, John R; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Levallois, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Safe drinking water is essential for well-being. Although microbiological contamination remains the largest cause of water-related morbidity and mortality globally, chemicals in water supplies may also cause disease, and evidence of the human health consequences is limited or lacking for many of them. We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge, identify gaps in understanding, and provide recommendations for epidemiological research relating to chemicals occurring in drinking water. Assessing exposure and the health consequences of chemicals in drinking water is challenging. Exposures are typically at low concentrations, measurements in water are frequently insufficient, chemicals are present in mixtures, exposure periods are usually long, multiple exposure routes may be involved, and valid biomarkers reflecting the relevant exposure period are scarce. In addition, the magnitude of the relative risks tends to be small. Research should include well-designed epidemiological studies covering regions with contrasting contaminant levels and sufficient sample size; comprehensive evaluation of contaminant occurrence in combination with bioassays integrating the effect of complex mixtures; sufficient numbers of measurements in water to evaluate geographical and temporal variability; detailed information on personal habits resulting in exposure (e.g., ingestion, showering, swimming, diet); collection of biological samples to measure relevant biomarkers; and advanced statistical models to estimate exposure and relative risks, considering methods to address measurement error. Last, the incorporation of molecular markers of early biological effects and genetic susceptibility is essential to understand the mechanisms of action. There is a particular knowledge gap and need to evaluate human exposure and the risks of a wide range of emerging contaminants. Villanueva CM, Kogevinas M, Cordier S, Templeton MR, Vermeulen R, Nuckols JR, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Levallois P. 2014. Assessing

  17. Computational Methods to Assess the Production Potential of Bio-Based Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campodonico, Miguel A; Sukumara, Sumesh; Feist, Adam M.

    2018-01-01

    are described in detail. The first tool is GEM-Path: an algorithm to compute all structurally possible pathways from one target molecule to the host metabolome. The second tool is a framework for Modeling Sustainable Industrial Chemicals production (MuSIC), which integrates modeling approaches for cellular...... metabolism, bioreactor design, upstream/downstream processes, and economic impact assessment. Integrating GEM-Path and MuSIC will play a vital role in supporting early phases of research efforts and guide the policy makers with decisions, as we progress toward planning a sustainable chemical industry....

  18. Effect of Chemical Stabilizers in Silver Nanoparticle Suspensions on Nanotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Eun Joo; Park, Hee Jin; Park, Jun Su; Yoon, Je Yong; Yi, Jong Heop; Kim, Young Hun; Choi, Kyung Hee

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been commercialized as the typically stabilized form via the addition of a variety of surfactants or polymers. Herein, to examine the effects of stabilizing AgNPs in suspension, we modified the surface of bare AgNPs with four type of surfactants (NaDDBS, SDS, TW80, CTAB) and polymers (PVP, PAA, PAH, CMC). The modified AgNPs was applied to compare suspension stability and nanotoxicity test using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model organism. Modification of AgNPs surface using chemical stabilizer may be not related with molecular weight, but chemical structure such as ionic state and functional group of stabilizer. In this study, it is noteworthy that AgNPs modified with a cationic stabilizer (CTAB, PAH) were importantly toxic to E. coli, rather than anionic stabilizers (NaDDBS, SDS). Comparing similar anionic stabilizer, i.e., NaDDBS and SDS, the result showed that lipophilicity of chemical structure can affect on E. coli, because NaDDBS, which contains a lipophilic benzene ring, accelerated the cytotoxicity of AgNPs. Interestingly, none of the stabilizers tested, including biocompatible nonionic stabilizers (i.e., TW80 and cellulose) caused a reduction in AgNP toxicity. This showed that toxicity of AgNPs cannot be reduced using stabilizers

  19. Effect of Chemical Stabilizers in Silver Nanoparticle Suspensions on Nanotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Eun Joo; Park, Hee Jin; Park, Jun Su; Yoon, Je Yong; Yi, Jong Heop [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hun [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyung Hee [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been commercialized as the typically stabilized form via the addition of a variety of surfactants or polymers. Herein, to examine the effects of stabilizing AgNPs in suspension, we modified the surface of bare AgNPs with four type of surfactants (NaDDBS, SDS, TW80, CTAB) and polymers (PVP, PAA, PAH, CMC). The modified AgNPs was applied to compare suspension stability and nanotoxicity test using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model organism. Modification of AgNPs surface using chemical stabilizer may be not related with molecular weight, but chemical structure such as ionic state and functional group of stabilizer. In this study, it is noteworthy that AgNPs modified with a cationic stabilizer (CTAB, PAH) were importantly toxic to E. coli, rather than anionic stabilizers (NaDDBS, SDS). Comparing similar anionic stabilizer, i.e., NaDDBS and SDS, the result showed that lipophilicity of chemical structure can affect on E. coli, because NaDDBS, which contains a lipophilic benzene ring, accelerated the cytotoxicity of AgNPs. Interestingly, none of the stabilizers tested, including biocompatible nonionic stabilizers (i.e., TW80 and cellulose) caused a reduction in AgNP toxicity. This showed that toxicity of AgNPs cannot be reduced using stabilizers.

  20. Determination of the capabilities of a detachment for neutralizing chemical attack effects in the brigade defense zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan R. Inđić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one possible way of deploying detachments for neutralizing the effects of chemical attacks in a brigade defense zone. The detachment composition is provisional and depends on the assessment of whether the enemy in the incoming combat will use weapons of mass destruction. A detachment consists of several organizational units: medical care forces, chemical reconnaissance forces, forces for the establishment of combat efficiency and chemical decontamination forces. The capabilities of the mentioned forces depend on their size, equipment, training level, extent of effects and combat conditions. The paper indicates a potential to overcome the gap in the provisions after disbanding the Army Corps.

  1. Effects of Chemical Treatments on Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E. S.; Strom, M.; Dexter, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biofilms are known to have an effect on galvanic corrosion of alloys in seawater systems. In the Delaware Bay, biofilm formation on surface of cathodes has been shown to cause galvanic corrosion to occur up to 100 times more rapidly. Given the impacts that corrosion can have on structures, it is important to study how we can affect corrosion rates. One way of doing this is the application of chemical treatments to biofilms on metal samples. To investigate this, natural marine biofilms were grown on alloy 6XN stainless steel samples, and various chemical treatments were applied to discover their effects on open circuit potentials and corrosion currents. Another objective of this study was to determine if there was a threshold molecular weight above which molecules were unable to penetrate the biofilm. It was discovered that chemicals with molecular weights as high as 741.6 g/mol were able to penetrate at least some parts of the heterogeneous biofilm and reach the metal surface. No upper threshold value was found in this study. It was found that the reducing agents sodium L-ascorbate and NADH as well as the chelate ferizene caused a drop in open circuit potential of biofilmed 6XN samples. Also, glutaraldahyde, which is used as a fixative for bacteria, shifted the open circuit potential of biofilm samples in the noble direction but had no effect on the corrosion current. Sodium L- ascorbate was found to reach the metal surface, but in concentrations lower than those present in the bulk fluid. It was not determined in this study whether this was due to physical or chemical processes within the biofilm. A synergistic effect was observed when applying a mixture of ferizene and glutaraldahyde. It is thought that this was due to the death of the bacteria as well as the disruption of iron cycling in the biofilm. Finally, it was observed that NADH caused a reduction in current at potentials associated with iron reduction, leading us to believe that the iron was being reduced

  2. Improving cumulative effects assessment in Alberta: Regional strategic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dallas; Lalonde, Kim; McEachern, Menzie; Kenney, John; Mendoza, Gustavo; Buffin, Andrew; Rich, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Alberta, Canada is developing a regulatory framework to better manage cumulative environmental effects from development in the province. A key component of this effort is regional planning, which will lay the primary foundation for cumulative effects management into the future. Alberta Environment has considered the information needs of regional planning and has concluded that Regional Strategic Assessment may offer significant advantages if integrated into the planning process, including the overall improvement of cumulative environmental effects assessment in the province.

  3. Environmental and economic assessment of the chemical absorption process in Korea using the LEAP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho-Jun; Lee, Seungmoon; Maken, Sanjeev; Ahn, Se-Woong; Park, Jin-Won; Min, Byoungryul; Koh, Wongun

    2007-01-01

    CO 2 emission from fossil fuels is a major cause for the global warming effect, but it is hard to remove completely in actuality. Moreover, energy consumption is bound to increase for the continuous economic development of a country that has an industrial formation requiring high-energy demand. Therefore, we need to consider not only a device for CO 2 mitigation but also its impact when a CO 2 mitigation device is applied. The device for CO 2 emission mitigation can be classified into three fields: energy consumption reduction, development of CO 2 removal and recovery technology, and development of alternative energy technology. Among these options, CO 2 removal and recovery technology has a merit that can be applied to a process in the near future. Therefore, research for CO 2 removal and recovery is actively progressing in Korea. In this study, environmental and economic assessment according to the energy policy change for climate change agreement and increase of CO 2 mitigation technology is accomplished, on the bases of operating data for the CO 2 chemical absorption pilot plant that is installed in the Seoul coal steam power plant. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system (LEAP) was used to analyze the alternative scenario, and results were shown quantitatively

  4. Proteomic Signatures of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo: Sensitivity and Specificity in Toxicity Assessment of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Karen; Küster, Eberhard; Altenburger, Rolf; Gündel, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Studies using embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio (DarT) instead of adult fish for characterising the (eco-) toxic potential of chemicals have been proposed as animal replacing methods. Effect analysis at the molecular level might enhance sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the embryonal studies. The present paper aimed to test the potential of toxicoproteomics with zebrafish eleutheroembryos for sensitive and specific toxicity assessment. 2-DE-based toxicoproteomics was performed applying low-dose (EC(10)) exposure for 48 h with three-model substances Rotenone, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC) and Diclofenac. By multivariate "pattern-only" PCA and univariate statistical analyses, alterations in the embryonal proteome were detectable in nonetheless visibly intact organisms and treatment with the three substances was distinguishable at the molecular level. Toxicoproteomics enabled the enhancement of sensitivity and specificity of the embryonal toxicity assay and bear the potency to identify protein markers serving as general stress markers and early diagnosis of toxic stress.

  5. Are we going about chemical risk assessment for the aquatic environment the wrong way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C; Sumpter, John P

    2016-07-01

    The goal of protecting the aquatic environment through testing thousands of chemicals against hundreds of aquatic species with thousands of endpoints while also considering mixtures is impossible given the present resources. Much of the impetus for studies on micropollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, came from the topic of endocrine disruption in wild fish. But despite concern over reductions in fish fertility, there is little evidence that fish populations are in peril. Indeed, fish biologists suggest that many cyprinid populations have been recovering for the past 30 to 40 yr. The central assumption, key to current risk assessment, that effects observed in the laboratory or predicted by models are readily transferrable to the population level, is therefore questionable. The neglect in monitoring wildlife populations is the key weakness in environmental protection strategies. If we do not know whether aquatic wildlife species are declining or increasing, how valuable are our other ecotoxicological activities? Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1609-1616. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Dissecting the assays to assess microbial tolerance to toxic chemicals in bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingaro, Kyle A; Nicolaou, Sergios A; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2013-11-01

    Microbial strains are increasingly used for the industrial production of chemicals and biofuels, but the toxicity of components in the feedstock and product streams limits process outputs. Selected or engineered microbes that thrive in the presence of toxic chemicals can be assessed using tolerance assays. Such assays must reasonably represent the conditions the cells will experience during the intended process and measure the appropriate physiological trait for the desired application. We review currently used tolerance assays, and examine the many parameters that affect assay outcomes. We identify and suggest the use of the best-suited assays for each industrial bioreactor operating condition, discuss next-generation assays, and propose a standardized approach for using assays to examine tolerance to toxic chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence from pharmacology and pathophysiology suggests that chemicals with dissimilar mechanisms of action could be of bigger concern in the toxicological risk assessment of chemical mixtures than chemicals with a similar mechanism of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models have been developed for the toxicological risk assessment of chemical mixtures. However, exposure data as well as single chemical toxicological data are required for these models. When addressing this data need, it could be attractive to focus on chemicals with similar...... concomitantly contribute to the pathophysiology, suggesting that a grouping based on common target organs may also be inefficient. A better option may be to prioritise chemicals on the basis of potency and risk of exposure. In conclusion, there are arguments to suggest that we should concomitantly consider all...... targets that a chemical can affect in the human body and not merely a subset....

  8. The effect of the indoor environment on the fate of organic chemicals in the urban landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Anna Palm, E-mail: anna.cousins@ivl.se

    2012-11-01

    To assess the effect of the indoor environment on the urban fate of organic chemicals, an 8-compartment indoor-inclusive steady state multimedia chemical fate model was developed. The model includes typical urban compartments (air, soil, water, sediment, and urban film) and a novel module representing a generic indoor environment. The model was parameterized to the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden and applied to four organic chemicals with different physical-chemical characteristics and use patterns: formaldehyde, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, di-ethylhexylphthalate and decabromodiphenyl ether. The results show that emissions to indoor air may increase the steady state mass and residence time in the urban environment by a factor of 1.1 to 22 for the four chemicals, compared to if emissions are assigned to outdoor air. This is due to the nested nature of the indoor environment, which creates a physical barrier that prevents chemicals from leaving the urban system with outflowing air. For DEHP and BDE 209, the additional partitioning to indoor surfaces results in a greater importance of the indoor removal pathways from surfaces. The outdoor environmental concentrations of these chemicals are predicted to be lower if emitted to indoor air than if emitted to outdoor air because of the additional indoor removal pathways of dust and indoor film, leading to loss of chemical from the system. For formaldehyde and 2,4,6-TBP outdoor environmental concentrations are not affected by whether the release occurs indoors or outdoors because of the limited partitioning to indoor surfaces. A sensitivity analysis revealed that there appears to be a relationship between logK{sub OA} and the impact of the ventilation rate on the urban fate of organic chemicals. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel indoor-inclusive multimedia urban fate model is developed and applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emissions indoors may increase the urban chemical residence time. Black

  9. The effect of the indoor environment on the fate of organic chemicals in the urban landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousins, Anna Palm

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effect of the indoor environment on the urban fate of organic chemicals, an 8-compartment indoor-inclusive steady state multimedia chemical fate model was developed. The model includes typical urban compartments (air, soil, water, sediment, and urban film) and a novel module representing a generic indoor environment. The model was parameterized to the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden and applied to four organic chemicals with different physical–chemical characteristics and use patterns: formaldehyde, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, di-ethylhexylphthalate and decabromodiphenyl ether. The results show that emissions to indoor air may increase the steady state mass and residence time in the urban environment by a factor of 1.1 to 22 for the four chemicals, compared to if emissions are assigned to outdoor air. This is due to the nested nature of the indoor environment, which creates a physical barrier that prevents chemicals from leaving the urban system with outflowing air. For DEHP and BDE 209, the additional partitioning to indoor surfaces results in a greater importance of the indoor removal pathways from surfaces. The outdoor environmental concentrations of these chemicals are predicted to be lower if emitted to indoor air than if emitted to outdoor air because of the additional indoor removal pathways of dust and indoor film, leading to loss of chemical from the system. For formaldehyde and 2,4,6-TBP outdoor environmental concentrations are not affected by whether the release occurs indoors or outdoors because of the limited partitioning to indoor surfaces. A sensitivity analysis revealed that there appears to be a relationship between logK OA and the impact of the ventilation rate on the urban fate of organic chemicals. -- Highlights: ► A novel indoor-inclusive multimedia urban fate model is developed and applied. ► Emissions indoors may increase the urban chemical residence time. ► Indoor removal from surfaces constitutes an additional loss process

  10. Assessing the chemical contamination dynamics in a mixed land use stream system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Anne Th; McKnight, Ursula S; Rønde, Vinni; Bjerg, Poul L

    2017-11-15

    Traditionally, the monitoring of streams for chemical and ecological status has been limited to surface water concentrations, where the dominant focus has been on general water quality and the risk for eutrophication. Mixed land use stream systems, comprising urban areas and agricultural production, are challenging to assess with multiple chemical stressors impacting stream corridors. New approaches are urgently needed for identifying relevant sources, pathways and potential impacts for implementation of suitable source management and remedial measures. We developed a method for risk assessing chemical stressors in these systems and applied the approach to a 16-km groundwater-fed stream corridor (Grindsted, Denmark). Three methods were combined: (i) in-stream contaminant mass discharge for source quantification, (ii) Toxic Units and (iii) environmental standards. An evaluation of the chemical quality of all three stream compartments - stream water, hyporheic zone, streambed sediment - made it possible to link chemical stressors to their respective sources and obtain new knowledge about source composition and origin. Moreover, toxic unit estimation and comparison to environmental standards revealed the stream water quality was substantially impaired by both geogenic and diffuse anthropogenic sources of metals along the entire corridor, while the streambed was less impacted. Quantification of the contaminant mass discharge originating from a former pharmaceutical factory revealed that several 100 kgs of chlorinated ethenes and pharmaceutical compounds discharge into the stream every year. The strongly reduced redox conditions in the plume result in high concentrations of dissolved iron and additionally release arsenic, generating the complex contaminant mixture found in the narrow discharge zone. The fingerprint of the plume was observed in the stream several km downgradient, while nutrients, inorganics and pesticides played a minor role for the stream health. The

  11. Pathway analysis and exposure assessment: MEPAS modeling for nonradiological chemical contaminants at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, M.L.; Dirkes, R.; Buck, J.; Cooper, A.; Castieton, K.; Glantz, C.

    1995-01-01

    A Chemical Pathway Analysis and Exposure Assessment was performed by the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). The SESP monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife in order to assess onsite of offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health risk at the Hanford Site. The objectives of this study are (1) determine if a nonradiological chemical monitoring program is warranted for the Hanford Site, (2) ensure that the selection of surveillance parameters such as media, sampling location, and analytes are chosen in a manner that is scientifically sound and cost-efficient, and (3) identify specific nonradiological chemicals of concern (COC) for the Hanford Site. The basis for identification of COC for the Hanford Site was an extensive literature review. The model was also used to predict COC concentrations required onsite to achieve an offsite cancer incidence of 1 E-6 and a hazard quotient of 1.0. This study indicated that nonradiological chemical contamination occurring onsite does not pose a significant offsite human health risk. The highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual from COC was from arsenic (1.76E-1 0); the highest hazard quotient was chromium VI (1.48E-04)

  12. Preventive effect of chemical peeling on ultraviolet induced skin tumor formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Funasaka, Yoko; Kamo, Tsuneyoshi; Ooe, Masahiko; Matsunaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Emmy; Itoh, Tomoo; Nishigori, Chikako

    2010-10-01

    Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photoaged skin. We assessed the photochemopreventive effect of several clinically used chemical peeling agents on the ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin of hairless mice. Chemical peeling was done using 35% glycolic acid dissolved in distilled water, 30% salicylic acid in ethanol, 10% or 35% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in distilled water at the right back of UV-irradiated hairless mice every 2 weeks in case of glycolic acid, salicylic acid, and 10% TCA and every 4 weeks in case of 35% TCA for totally 18 weeks after the establishment of photoaged mice by irradiation with UVA+B range light three times a week for 10 weeks at a total dose of 420 J/cm(2) at UVA and 9.6 J/cm(2) at UVB. Tumor formation was assessed every week. Skin specimens were taken from treated and non-treated area for evaluation under microscopy, evaluation of P53 expression, and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Serum level of prostaglandin E(2) was also evaluated. All types of chemical peeling reduced tumor formation in treated mice, mostly in the treated area but also non-treated area. Peeling suppressed clonal retention of p53 positive abnormal cells and reduced mRNA expression of COX-2 in treated skin. Further, serum prostaglandin E(2) level was decreased in chemical peeling treated mice. These results indicate that chemical peeling with glycolic acid, salicylic acid, and TCA could serve tumor prevention by removing photodamaged cells. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Composition and Hypotensive Effect of Campomanesia xanthocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Santariano Sant’Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Campomanesia xanthocarpa is known in Brazil as Guabiroba and is popularly used for various diseases, such as inflammatory, renal, and digestive diseases and dyslipidemia. The aim of the study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the effects of aqueous extract of C. xanthocarpa on the blood pressure of normotensive rats, analyzing the possible action mechanism using experimental and in silico procedures. The extract was evaluated for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content. The chemical components were determined by HPLC analyses. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured with extract and drugs administration. The leaves of C. xanthocarpa presented the relevant content of phenolics and flavonoids, and we suggested the presence of chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, and theobromine. The acute administration of aqueous extract of C. xanthocarpa has a dose-dependent hypotensive effect in normotensive rats, suggesting that the action mechanism may be mediated through the renin-angiotensin system by AT1 receptor blockade and sympathetic autonomic response. Docking studies showed models that indicated an interaction between chlorogenic acid and quercetin with the AT1 receptor (AT1R active site. The findings of these docking studies suggest the potential of C. xanthocarpa constituents for use as preventive agents for blood pressure.

  14. Multiplied effect of heat and radiation in chemical stress relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masayuki

    1981-01-01

    About the deterioration of rubber due to radiation, useful knowledge can be obtained by the measurement of chemical stress relaxation. As an example, the rubber coating of cables in a reactor containment vessel is estimated to be irradiated by weak radiation at the temperature between 60 and 90 deg C for about 40 years. In such case, it is desirable to establish the method of accelerated test of the deterioration. The author showed previously that the law of time-dose rate conversion holds in the case of radiation. In this study, the chemical stress relaxation to rubber was measured by the simultaneous application of heat and radiation, and it was found that there was the multiplied effect of heat and radiation in the stress relaxation speed. Therefore the factor of multiplication of heat and radiation was proposed to describe quantitatively the degree of the multiplied effect. The chloroprene rubber used was offered by Hitachi Cable Co., Ltd. The experimental method and the results are reported. The multiplication of heat and radiation is not caused by the direct cut of molecular chains by radiation, instead, it is based on the temperature dependence of various reaction rates at which the activated species reached the cut of molecular chains through complex reaction mechanism and the temperature dependence of the diffusion rate of oxygen in rubber. (Kako, I.)

  15. Accumulation of Co by abalone, 1. Effect of chemical form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Nakahara, M. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Nakaminato, Ibaraki (Japan). Nakaminato Lab. Brance Office); Shimizu, C.

    1982-03-01

    The appearance of radioactive Co in the liver of abalone from sea water was examined to consider the effect of chemical forms of Co(CoCl/sub 2/ and cyanocobalamin; vitamin B/sub 12/) in sea water upon the metabolisms in marine organisms. Organic /sup 57/Co(cyanocobalamin) from sea water appeared in the liver of abalone combining with a constituent with a molecular weight of 4 x 10/sup 4/. The constituent had the activity of vitamin B/sub 12/, while inorganic /sup 60/Co(CoCl/sub 2/) appeared combining with three constituents with molecular weights more than or equal to 1.5 x 10/sup 6/, 7 x 10/sup 3/ and less than or equal to 1.5 x 10/sup 3/ which did not show the activities of vitamin B/sub 12/. The effect of chemical forms of Co in sea water is significant in its accumulation by some species of marine organisms.

  16. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Grolander, Sara

    2010-12-01

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  17. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mats Troejbom Konsult AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  18. Some problems of risk assessment in cases of environmental radioactive and chemical contamination in regions of the Ural radioactive trail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Isaeva, L.N.; Sazykina, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology of risk assessment if being developed to permit the analysis of possible consequences of radioactive and chemical environment contamination on the territory of the Urals radioactive trail. The assessment of hazards from radioactive contamination of the Techa river (Muslyumovo) has been carried out. A comparison of radioactive and chemical risks for the population of Kasli has been made

  19. A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals...

  20. Integrated assessment of chemical stressors and ecological impact in mixed land use stream systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne Thobo

    activities, including contaminated sites. To determine potential impacts, the chemical quality of both organic (i.e. pharmaceuticals, gasoline constituents, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides) and inorganic (i.e. metals, general water chemistry and macroions) compounds was assessed in all three stream...... multiple compounds (i.e. organic and inorganic chemical stressors) and stream compartments to locate key sources and risk drivers. The approaches and findings in this thesis could truly be helpful for management and future remediation of mixed land use stream systems....... of the different stream compartments thus comprises both temporal and spatial variation. Despite the growing understanding of the complexity, approaches for a holistic risk assessment of the potential impacts in the three stream compartments of a mixed land use stream system are still missing. To investigate...

  1. Statistical study of chemical additives effects in the waste cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, Cledola C.O. de; Diniz, Paula S.; Haucz, Maria J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the statistical study, that was carried out to analyse the chemical additives effect in the waste cementation process. Three different additives from two industries were tested: set accelerator, set retarder and super plasticizers, in cemented pates with and without bentonite. The experiments were planned in accordance with the 2 3 factorial design, so that the effect of each type of additive, its quantity and manufacturer in cemented paste and specimens could be evaluated. The results showed that the use of these can improve the cementation process and the product. The admixture quantity and the association with bentonite were the most important factors affecting the process and product characteristics. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  2. A Study on Safety and Risk Assessment of Dangerous Cargo Operations in Oil/Chemical Tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Cenk ŞAKAR; Yusuf ZORBA

    2017-01-01

    The safety and risk assessment of dangerous cargo operations in oil and chemical tankers is a necessary process to prevent possible accidents during these operations. Fire and explosion are the major accidents encountered in tanker operations. In this study, a model was constructed through the Fuzzy Bayes Network Method for the probabilistic relationships between the causes of fire and explosion accidents that could occur during the tank cleaning process. The study is composed of two stages. ...

  3. Revision and extension of Eco-LCA metrics for sustainability assessment of the energy and chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiying; Yang, Siyu; Kraslawski, Andrzej; Qian, Yu

    2013-12-17

    Ecologically based life cycle assessment (Eco-LCA) is an appealing approach for the evaluation of resources utilization and environmental impacts of the process industries from an ecological scale. However, the aggregated metrics of Eco-LCA suffer from some drawbacks: the environmental impact metric has limited applicability; the resource utilization metric ignores indirect consumption; the renewability metric fails to address the quantitative distinction of resources availability; the productivity metric seems self-contradictory. In this paper, the existing Eco-LCA metrics are revised and extended for sustainability assessment of the energy and chemical processes. A new Eco-LCA metrics system is proposed, including four independent dimensions: environmental impact, resource utilization, resource availability, and economic effectiveness. An illustrative example of comparing assessment between a gas boiler and a solar boiler process provides insight into the features of the proposed approach.

  4. A combined approach to investigate the toxicity of an industrial landfill's leachate: Chemical analyses, risk assessment and in vitro assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baderna, D.; Maggioni, S.; Boriani, E.; Gemma, S.; Molteni, M.; Lombardo, A.; Colombo, A.; Bordonali, S.; Rotella, G.; Lodi, M.; Benfenati, E.

    2011-01-01

    Solid wastes constitute an important and emerging problem. Landfills are still one of the most common ways to manage waste disposal. The risk assessment of pollutants from landfills is becoming a major environmental issue in Europe, due to the large number of sites and to the importance of groundwater protection. Furthermore, there is lack of knowledge for the environmental, ecotoxicological and toxicological characteristics of most contaminants contained into landfill leacheates. Understanding leachate composition and creating an integrated strategy for risk assessment are currently needed to correctly face the landfill issues and to make projections on the long-term impacts of a landfill, with particular attention to the estimation of possible adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. In the present study, we propose an integrated strategy to evaluate the toxicity of the leachate using chemical analyses, risk assessment guidelines and in vitro assays using the hepatoma HepG2 cells as a model. The approach was applied on a real case study: an industrial waste landfill in northern Italy for which data on the presence of leachate contaminants are available from the last 11 years. Results from our ecological risk models suggest important toxic effects on freshwater fish and small rodents, mainly due to ammonia and inorganic constituents. Our results from in vitro data show an inhibition of cell proliferation by leachate at low doses and cytotoxic effect at high doses after 48 h of exposure. - Research highlights: → We study the toxicity of leachate from a non-hazardous industrial waste landfill. → We perform chemical analyses, risk assessments and in vitro assays on HepG2 cells. → Risk models suggest toxic effects due to ammonia and inorganic constituents. → In vitro assays show that leachate inhibits cell proliferation at low doses. → Leachate can induce cytotoxic effects on HepG2 cells at high doses.

  5. Environmental Chemical Assessment in Clinical Practice: Unveiling the Elephant in the Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bijlsma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests chemicals present in air, water, soil, food, building materials and household products are toxicants that contribute to the many chronic diseases typically seen in routine medical practice. Yet, despite calls from numerous organisations to provide clinicians with more training and awareness in environmental health, there are multiple barriers to the clinical assessment of toxic environmental exposures. Recent developments in the fields of systems biology, innovative breakthroughs in biomedical research encompassing the “-omics” fields, and advances in mobile sensing, peer-to-peer networks and big data, provide tools that future clinicians can use to assess environmental chemical exposures in their patients. There is also a need for concerted action at all levels, including actions by individual patients, clinicians, medical educators, regulators, government and non-government organisations, corporations and the wider civil society, to understand the “exposome” and minimise the extent of toxic exposures on current and future generations. Clinical environmental chemical risk assessment may provide a bridge between multiple disciplines that uses new technologies to herald in a new era in personalised medicine that unites clinicians, patients and civil society in the quest to understand and master the links between the environment and human health.

  6. Design of Chemical Literacy Assessment by Using Model of Educational Reconstruction (MER) on Solubility Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusmaita, E.; Nasra, Edi

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to produce instrument for measuring chemical literacy assessment in basic chemistry courses with solubility topic. The construction of this measuring instrument is adapted to the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) problem’s characteristics and the Syllaby of Basic Chemistry in KKNI-IndonesianNational Qualification Framework. The PISA is a cross-country study conducted periodically to monitor the outcomes of learners' achievement in each participating country. So far, studies conducted by PISA include reading literacy, mathematic literacy and scientific literacy. Refered to the scientific competence of the PISA study on science literacy, an assessment designed to measure the chemical literacy of the chemistry department’s students in UNP. The research model used is MER (Model of Educational Reconstruction). The validity and reliability values of discourse questions is measured using the software ANATES. Based on the acquisition of these values is obtained a valid and reliable chemical literacy questions.There are seven question items limited response on the topic of solubility with valid category, the acquisition value of test reliability is 0,86, and has a difficulty index and distinguishing good

  7. Comprehensive multipathway risk assessment of chemicals associated with recycled ("crumb") rubber in synthetic turf fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael K; Lemay, Julie C; Pacheco Shubin, Sara; Prueitt, Robyn L

    2018-01-01

    Thousands of synthetic turf fields in the US are regularly used by millions of individuals (particularly children and adolescents). Although many safety assessments have concluded that there are low or negligible risks related to exposure to chemicals found in the recycled rubber used to make these fields, concerns remain about the safety of this product. Existing studies of recycled rubber's potential health risks have limitations such as small sample sizes and limited evaluation of relevant exposure pathways and scenarios. Conduct a comprehensive multipathway human health risk assessment (HHRA) of exposure to chemicals found in recycled rubber. All available North American data on the chemical composition of recycled rubber, as well as air sampling data collected on or near synthetic turf fields, were identified via a literature search. Ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation pathways were evaluated according to US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) guidance, and exposure scenarios for adults, adolescents, and children were considered. Estimated non-cancer hazards and cancer risks for all the evaluated scenarios were within US EPA guidelines. In addition, cancer risk levels for users of synthetic turf field were comparable to or lower than those associated with natural soil fields. This HHRA's results add to the growing body of literature that suggests recycled rubber infill in synthetic turf poses negligible risks to human health. This comprehensive assessment provides data that allow stakeholders to make informed decisions about installing and using these fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases (OSDs, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals.

  9. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for predicting potential ecological hazard of organic chemicals for use in regulatory risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Mike H I; Walker, John D; Watts, Chris; Hermens, Joop

    2003-08-01

    The use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for deriving the predicted no-effect concentration of discrete organic chemicals for the purposes of conducting a regulatory risk assessment in Europe and the United States is described. In the United States, under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) use SARs to estimate the hazards of existing and new chemicals. Within the Existing Substances Regulation in Europe, QSARs may be used for data evaluation, test strategy indications, and the identification and filling of data gaps. To illustrate where and when QSARs may be useful and when their use is more problematic, an example, methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), is given and the predicted and experimental data are compared. Improvements needed for new QSARs and tools for developing and using QSARs are discussed.

  10. Health assessment for Maywood Chemical Company, Maywood, Bergen County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD980529762. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Health Assessment for the Maywood Chemical Company Site includes the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS), the Ballod property, the Scanel site, residential properties, and the Sears warehouse and its adjacent properties, all of which are located in the towns of Maywood and Rochelle Park of Bergen County, New Jersey. These sites are at different investigative or remediation stages under the auspices of both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The EPA is responsible for chemical characterization and cleanup operations, whereas the DOE is primarily in charge of radiologic analysis and remediation. On the basis of the information reviewed, ATSDR and NJDOH have concluded that the Maywood Chemical site is of public health concern because humans have probably been exposed to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted in the Environmental Contamination and Physical Hazards section above, human exposure to chemical and radiological contamination is probably occurring and has probably occurred in the past via the use of contaminated groundwater and contact with contaminated soils. Before suspected areas of contamination are developed, both on-site contamination and the potential off-site migration of contaminants need to be fully evaluated. Developing an area, without characterizing potential contamination could lead to an adverse impact on the public health

  11. A quantitative screening-level approach to incorporate chemical exposure and risk into alternative assessment evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Greggs, Bill; Goyak, Katy O; Landenberger, Bryce D; Mason, Ann M; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2017-11-01

    As the general public and retailers ask for disclosure of chemical ingredients in the marketplace, a number of hazard screening tools were developed to evaluate the so-called "greenness" of individual chemical ingredients and/or formulations. The majority of these tools focus only on hazard, often using chemical lists, ignoring the other part of the risk equation: exposure. Using a hazard-only focus can result in regrettable substitutions, changing 1 chemical ingredient for another that turns out to be more hazardous or shifts the toxicity burden to others. To minimize the incidents of regrettable substitutions, BizNGO describes "Common Principles" to frame a process for informed substitution. Two of these 6 principles are: "reduce hazard" and "minimize exposure." A number of frameworks have emerged to evaluate and assess alternatives. One framework developed by leading experts under the auspices of the US National Academy of Sciences recommended that hazard and exposure be specifically addressed in the same step when assessing candidate alternatives. For the alternative assessment community, this article serves as an informational resource for considering exposure in an alternatives assessment using elements of problem formulation; product identity, use, and composition; hazard analysis; exposure analysis; and risk characterization. These conceptual elements build on practices from government, academia, and industry and are exemplified through 2 hypothetical case studies demonstrating the questions asked and decisions faced in new product development. These 2 case studies-inhalation exposure to a generic paint product and environmental exposure to a shampoo rinsed down the drain-demonstrate the criteria, considerations, and methods required to combine exposure models addressing human health and environmental impacts to provide a screening level hazard and exposure (risk) analysis. This article informs practices for these elements within a comparative risk context

  12. Bonding effectiveness to different chemically pre-treated dental zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokoshi, Masanao; Poitevin, André; De Munck, Jan; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different chemical pre-treatments on the bond durability to dental zirconia. Fully sintered IPS e.max ZirCAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) blocks were subjected to tribochemical silica sandblasting (CoJet, 3M ESPE). The zirconia samples were additionally pre-treated using one of four zirconia primers/adhesives (Clearfil Ceramic Primer, Kuraray Noritake; Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent; Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE; Z-PRIME Plus, Bisco). Finally, two identically pre-treated zirconia blocks were bonded together using composite cement (RelyX Ultimate, 3M ESPE). The specimens were trimmed at the interface to a cylindrical hourglass and stored in distilled water (7 days, 37 °C), after which they were randomly tested as is or subjected to mechanical ageing involving cyclic tensile stress (10 N, 10 Hz, 10,000 cycles). Subsequently, the micro-tensile bond strength was determined, and SEM fractographic analysis performed. Weibull analysis revealed the highest Weibull scale and shape parameters for the 'Clearfil Ceramic Primer/mechanical ageing' combination. Chemical pre-treatment of CoJet (3M ESPE) sandblasted zirconia using Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) and Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent) revealed a significantly higher bond strength than when Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE) and Z-PRIME Plus (Bisco) were used. After ageing, Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) revealed the most stable bond durability. Combined mechanical/chemical pre-treatment, the latter with either Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) or Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent), resulted in the most durable bond to zirconia. As a standard procedure to durably bond zirconia to tooth tissue, the application of a combined 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate/silane ceramic primer to zirconia is clinically highly recommended.

  13. EFFECT OF ALTERNATIVE MULTINUTRIENT SOURCES ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current high price of potassium chloride and the dependence of Brazil on imported materials to supply the domestic demand call for studies evaluating the efficiency of alternative sources of nutrients. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of silicate rock powder and a manganese mining by-product, and secondary materials originated from these two materials, on soil chemical properties and on brachiaria production. This greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with 5 kg of soil (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico - Oxisol. The alternative nutrient sources were: verdete, verdete treated with NH4OH, phonolite, ultramafic rock, mining waste and the proportion of 75 % of these K fertilizers and 25 % lime. Mixtures containing 25 % of lime were heated at 800 ºC for 1 h. These sources were applied at rates of 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg ha-1 K2O, and incubated for 45 days. The mixtures of heated silicate rocks with lime promoted higher increases in soil pH in decreasing order: ultramafic rock>verdete>phonolite>mining waste. Applying the mining waste-lime mixture increased soil exchangeable K, and available P when ultramafic rock was incorporated. When ultramafic rock was applied, the release of Ca2+ increased significantly. Mining subproduct released the highest amount of Zn2+ and Mn2+ to the soil. The application of alternative sources of K, with variable chemical composition, altered the nutrient availability and soil chemical properties, improving mainly plant development and K plant uptake, and are important nutrient sources.

  14. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  15. Cover Crops Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Onion Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Assis de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops contribute to nutrient cycling and may improve soil chemical properties and, consequently, increase crop yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate cover crop residue decomposition and nutrient release, and the effects of these plants on soil chemical properties and on onion (Allium cepa L. yield in a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in an Inceptisol in southern Brazil, where cover crops were sown in April 2012 and 2013. In July 2013, shoots of weeds (WD, black oats (BO, rye (RY, oilseed radish (RD, oilseed radish + black oats (RD + BO, and oilseed radish + rye (RD + RY were cut at ground level and part of these material from each treatment was placed in litter bags. The litter bags were distributed on the soil surface and were collected at 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days after distribution (DAD. The residues in the litter bags were dried, weighed, and ground, and then analyzed to quantify lignin, cellulose, non-structural biomass, total organic carbon (TOC, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. In November 2012 and 2013, onion crops were harvested to quantify yield, and bulbs were classified according to diameter, and the number of rotted and flowering bulbs was determined. Soil in the 0.00-0.10 m layer was collected for chemical analysis before transplanting and after harvesting onion in December 2012 and 2013. The rye plant residues presented the highest half-life and they released less nutrients until 90 DAD. The great permanence of rye residue was considered a protection to soil surface, the opposite was observed with spontaneous vegetation. The cultivation and addition of dry residue of cover crops increased the onion yield at 2.5 Mg ha-1.

  16. Additive mixture effects of estrogenic chemicals in human cell-based assays can be influenced by inclusion of chemicals with differing effect profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mark Evans

    Full Text Available A growing body of experimental evidence indicates that the in vitro effects of mixtures of estrogenic chemicals can be well predicted from the estrogenicity of their components by the concentration addition (CA concept. However, some studies have observed small deviations from CA. Factors affecting the presence or observation of deviations could include: the type of chemical tested; number of mixture components; mixture design; and assay choice. We designed mixture experiments that address these factors, using mixtures with high numbers of components, chemicals from diverse chemical groups, assays with different in vitro endpoints and different mixture designs and ratios. Firstly, the effects of mixtures composed of up to 17 estrogenic chemicals were examined using estrogenicity assays with reporter-gene (ERLUX and cell proliferation (ESCREEN endpoints. Two mixture designs were used: 1 a 'balanced' design with components present in proportion to a common effect concentration (e.g. an EC(10 and 2 a 'non-balanced' design with components in proportion to potential human tissue concentrations. Secondly, the individual and simultaneous ability of 16 potential modulator chemicals (each with minimal estrogenicity to influence the assay outcome produced by a reference mixture of estrogenic chemicals was examined. Test chemicals included plasticizers, phthalates, metals, PCBs, phytoestrogens, PAHs, heterocyclic amines, antioxidants, UV filters, musks, PBDEs and parabens. In all the scenarios tested, the CA concept provided a good prediction of mixture effects. Modulation studies revealed that chemicals possessing minimal estrogenicity themselves could reduce (negatively modulate the effect of a mixture of estrogenic chemicals. Whether the type of modulation we observed occurs in practice most likely depends on the chemical concentrations involved, and better information is required on likely human tissue concentrations of estrogens and of potential

  17. Additive mixture effects of estrogenic chemicals in human cell-based assays can be influenced by inclusion of chemicals with differing effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard Mark; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of experimental evidence indicates that the in vitro effects of mixtures of estrogenic chemicals can be well predicted from the estrogenicity of their components by the concentration addition (CA) concept. However, some studies have observed small deviations from CA. Factors affecting the presence or observation of deviations could include: the type of chemical tested; number of mixture components; mixture design; and assay choice. We designed mixture experiments that address these factors, using mixtures with high numbers of components, chemicals from diverse chemical groups, assays with different in vitro endpoints and different mixture designs and ratios. Firstly, the effects of mixtures composed of up to 17 estrogenic chemicals were examined using estrogenicity assays with reporter-gene (ERLUX) and cell proliferation (ESCREEN) endpoints. Two mixture designs were used: 1) a 'balanced' design with components present in proportion to a common effect concentration (e.g. an EC(10)) and 2) a 'non-balanced' design with components in proportion to potential human tissue concentrations. Secondly, the individual and simultaneous ability of 16 potential modulator chemicals (each with minimal estrogenicity) to influence the assay outcome produced by a reference mixture of estrogenic chemicals was examined. Test chemicals included plasticizers, phthalates, metals, PCBs, phytoestrogens, PAHs, heterocyclic amines, antioxidants, UV filters, musks, PBDEs and parabens. In all the scenarios tested, the CA concept provided a good prediction of mixture effects. Modulation studies revealed that chemicals possessing minimal estrogenicity themselves could reduce (negatively modulate) the effect of a mixture of estrogenic chemicals. Whether the type of modulation we observed occurs in practice most likely depends on the chemical concentrations involved, and better information is required on likely human tissue concentrations of estrogens and of potential modulators

  18. Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: A new challenge for employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Piotr Gromiec

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs, as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users. Med Pr 2013;64(5:699–716

  19. Assessing the spatial pattern of a river water quality in southern Brazil by multivariate analysis of biological and chemical indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. B. Cassanego

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed the genotoxicity and chemical quality of the Rio dos Sinos, southern Brazil. During two years, bimonthly, cuttings of Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea with flower buds were exposed to river water samples from Caraá, Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Taquara and Campo Bom, which are municipalities located in the upper, middle and lower stretches of the Rio dos Sinos basin. Simultaneously, chemical parameters were analyzed, rainfall data were surveyed and negative (distilled water and positive (0.1% formaldehyde controls were made. Micronuclei (MCN frequencies were determined in tetrads of pollen grain mother cells. From the upper stretch toward the lower, there was an increase in the frequency of MCN and in concentrations of chemical parameters. Cadmium, lead, copper, total chromium and zinc were present at the four sites and a concentration gradient was not demonstrated along the river. The multivariate analysis revealed that two principal components exist, which accounted for 62.3% of the observed variances. Although genotoxicity was observed in Santo Antônio da Patrulha, the water presented higher mean values for most of the assessed parameters, in the lower stretch, where urbanization and industrialization are greater. The spatial and temporal pattern of water quality observed reinforces the importance of considering the environmental factors and their effects on organisms in an integrated way in watercourse monitoring programs.

  20. Chemical buffering in natural and engineered barrier systems: Thermodynamic constraints and performance assessment consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C.; Wei Zhou [Monitor Scientific, LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic constraints on the chemical buffering properties of natural and engineered-barrier systems are derived in this study from theoretical descriptions, incorporated in the reaction-path model, of reversible and irreversible mass transfer in multicomponent, multiphase systems. The buffering properties of such systems are conditional properties because they refer to a specific aqueous species in a system that is open with respect to a specific reactant. The solution to a mathematical statement of this concept requires evaluation of the dependence of the activity of the buffered species on incremental changes in the overall reaction-progress variable. This dependence can be represented by a truncated Taylor's series expansion, where the values of associated derivatives are calculated using finite-difference techniques and mass-balance, charge-balance and mass-action constraints. Kinetic constraints on buffering behavior can also be described if the relation between reactant flux and reaction rate is well defined. This relation is explicit for the important case of advective groundwater flow and water-rock interaction. We apply the theoretical basis of the chemical buffering concept to processes that could affect the performance of a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. Specifically, we focus on the likelihood that an inverse relation must exist between the buffer intensity and the migration velocity of reaction fronts in systems involving advective or diffusive mass transport. A quantitative understanding of this relation would provide the basis for evaluating the potential role of chemical buffering in achieving the isolation and retardation functions, of the EBS and geosphere in a KBS-3 repository. Our preliminary evaluation of this role considers the effects of chemical buffering on the propagation velocity of a pH front in both the near- and far field. We use a geochemical modeling technique compatible with the reaction-path model

  1. Modelling of structural effects on chemical reactions in turbulent flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammelsaeter, H.R.

    1997-12-31

    Turbulence-chemistry interactions are analysed using algebraic moment closure for the chemical reaction term. The coupling between turbulence and chemical length and time scales generate a complex interaction process. This interaction process is called structural effects in this work. The structural effects are shown to take place on all scales between the largest scale of turbulence and the scales of the molecular motions. The set of equations describing turbulent correlations involved in turbulent reacting flows are derived. Interactions are shown schematically using interaction charts. Algebraic equations for the turbulent correlations in the reaction rate are given using the interaction charts to include the most significant couplings. In the frame of fundamental combustion physics, the structural effects appearing on the small scales of turbulence are proposed modelled using a discrete spectrum of turbulent scales. The well-known problem of averaging the Arrhenius law, the specific reaction rate, is proposed solved using a presumed single variable probability density function and a sub scale model for the reaction volume. Although some uncertainties are expected, the principles are addressed. Fast chemistry modelling is shown to be consistent in the frame of algebraic moment closure when the turbulence-chemistry interaction is accounted for in the turbulent diffusion. The modelling proposed in this thesis is compared with experimental data for an laboratory methane flame and advanced probability density function modelling. The results show promising features. Finally it is shown a comparison with full scale measurements for an industrial burner. All features of the burner are captured with the model. 41 refs., 33 figs.

  2. Chemical and biological effects of radiation sterilization of medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.L.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation is extensively used for the sterilization of plastic materials, pharmaceuticals and biological tissue grafts. The pharmaceuticals may be solid, liquid, or suspension in a liquid or a solution. Cobalt-60 gamma radiation, generally used for sterilization, primarily interacts with these materials through the Compton process. The resulting damage may be direct or indirect. In aqueous systems the primary species produced compete for interaction among themselves and the dissolved solutes. The nature, the G-values and the reactions of the primary species very much depend on the pH of the solution. The important chemical changes in plastic materials are gas liberation, change in concentration of double bonds, cross-linking, degradation and oxidation. These chemical changes lead to some physical changes like crystallinity, specific conductivity and permeability. The reactions in biological systems are very complex and are influenced by the presence or absence of water and oxygen. Water produces indirect damage and the radiation effect is generally more in the presence of oxygen. Most microorganisms are relatively radioresistant. Various tissues of an animal differ in their response to radiation. Catgut is not stable to irradiation. Lyophilized human serum is stable to irradiation whereas, when irradiated in aqueous solutions, several changes are observed. Generally, pharmaceuticals are considerably more stable in the dry solid state to ionizing radiations than in aqueous solutions or in any other form of molecular aggregation. (author)

  3. Nonlinear chemical sorption isotherms in the assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.R.; LeNeveu, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclides emplaced in an underground disposal vault can possibly migrate from the vault, and through the geosphere, to enter Man's environment. Chemical sorption is a primary mechanism for retarding this migration. The effects of nonlinear chemical sorption isotherms on radionuclide transport are discussed. A method is given by which nonlinear isotherms can be approximated by the linear sorption isotherm used in the vault submodel. The relevance of nonlinear isotherms to transport in the geosphere is discussed, and it is shown that the linear isotherm model is conservative for deep geologic disposal. 22 refs

  4. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit; Bond, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systematic evaluation of practice. The criteria can be mapped within a cycle/or cycles of evaluation, based on the ‘logic model’, at the stages of input, process, output and outcome to enable the identification of connections between the criteria across the categories of effectiveness. This framework is considered to have potential application in measuring the effectiveness of many impact assessment processes, including strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA), social impact assessment (SIA) and health impact assessment (HIA). -- Highlights: • Conceptualising effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Identification of factors influencing effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Development of criteria within a framework for evaluating IA effectiveness. • Applying the logic model to examine connections between effectiveness criteria

  5. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit, E-mail: chaunjit@g.sut.ac.th [School of Environmental Health, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Maung District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Internal Box 375, North West University (Potchefstroom campus) (South Africa)

    2013-11-15

    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systematic evaluation of practice. The criteria can be mapped within a cycle/or cycles of evaluation, based on the ‘logic model’, at the stages of input, process, output and outcome to enable the identification of connections between the criteria across the categories of effectiveness. This framework is considered to have potential application in measuring the effectiveness of many impact assessment processes, including strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA), social impact assessment (SIA) and health impact assessment (HIA). -- Highlights: • Conceptualising effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Identification of factors influencing effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Development of criteria within a framework for evaluating IA effectiveness. • Applying the logic model to examine connections between effectiveness criteria.

  6. Managing major chemical accidents in China: Towards effective risk information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical industries, from their very inception, have been controversial due to the high risks they impose on safety of human beings and the environment. Recent decades have witnessed increasing impacts of the accelerating expansion of chemical industries and chemical accidents have become a major

  7. Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Chemicals Bisphenol A and Phthalates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Shoei-Lung Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The epigenetic effects on DNA methylation, histone modification, and expression of non-coding RNAs (including microRNAs of environmental chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates have expanded our understanding of the etiology of human complex diseases such as cancers and diabetes. Multiple lines of evidence from in vitro and in vivo models have established that epigenetic modifications caused by in utero exposure to environmental toxicants can induce alterations in gene expression that may persist throughout life. Epigenetics is an important mechanism in the ability of environmental chemicals to influence health and disease, and BPA and phthalates are epigenetically toxic. The epigenetic effect of BPA was clearly demonstrated in viable yellow mice by decreasing CpG methylation upstream of the Agouti gene, and the hypomethylating effect of BPA was prevented by maternal dietary supplementation with a methyl donor like folic acid or the phytoestrogen genistein. Histone H3 was found to be trimethylated at lysine 27 by BPA effect on EZH2 in a human breast cancer cell line and mice. BPA exposure of human placental cell lines has been shown to alter microRNA expression levels, and specifically, miR-146a was strongly induced by BPA treatment. In human breast cancer MCF7 cells, treatment with the phthalate BBP led to demethylation of estrogen receptor (ESR1 promoter-associated CpG islands, indicating that altered ESR1 mRNA expression by BBP is due to aberrant DNA methylation. Maternal exposure to phthalate DEHP was also shown to increase DNA methylation and expression levels of DNA methyltransferases in mouse testis. Further, some epigenetic effects of BPA and phthalates in female rats were found to be transgenerational. Finally, the available new technologies for global analysis of epigenetic alterations will provide insight into the extent and patterns of alterations between human normal and diseased tissues.

  8. Chemical and radiation induced late dominant lethal effects in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favor, J.; Crenshaw, J.W. Jr.; Soares, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Although theoretically expected, experimental data to date have not shown dominant lethal expression to occur throughout the developmental period. Specifically, late post-implantation effects have not been demonstrated. The authors routinely use an experimental technique in which parental females mated to mutagenically treated males are allowed to give birth and wean their litter, and their uterine horns are then inspected for uterine scars indicative of live and dead embryos. In a number of experiments in which males were mutagenically treated with either chemicals or X-irradiation, a discrepancy was observed between the number of live embryos as determined by the scar technique and the number of live observed at birth, suggesting the possibility of embryonic losses at a late stage in development. Initial analyses showed that mutagenic treatment increased the percentage of these late losses. These differences were statistically significant in 2 of 3 analyses. Factors affecting statistical significance and an understanding of dominant lethal mutations are discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Bioprocess intensification for the effective production of chemical products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John

    2017-01-01

    The further implementation of new bioprocesses, using biocatalysts in various formats, for the synthesis of chemicals is highly dependent upon effective process intensification. The need for process intensification reflects the fact that the conditions under which a biocatalyst carries out...... a reaction in nature are far from those which are optimal for industrial processes. In this paper the rationale for intensification will be discussed, as well as the four complementary approaches used today to achieve bioprocess intensification. Two of these four approaches are based on alteration...... of the biocatalyst (either by protein engineering or metabolic engineering), resulting in an extra degree of freedom in the process design. To date, biocatalyst engineering has been developed independently from the conventional process engineering methodology to intensification. Although the integration of these two...

  10. Chemical effects of nuclear transformations in metal permanganates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Hun; Kim, Bong Whan

    1986-01-01

    The chemical effects resulting from the capture of the thermal neutrons by manganese in different crystalline permanganates, that is, potassium permanganate,sodium permanganate, silver permanganate, barium permanganate and ammonium permanganate, have been investigated. The distribution of radioactive manganese formed has been determined by using different absorbents and ion-exchangers, that is,manganese dioxide, alumina, Zeolite A-3, Kaolinite and Dowex-50. The distribution of radioactive manganese in various adsorbents and ion-exchangers has almost similar result for each permanganate. The affinity for radioactive manganous ion is greatest for Dewex-50. A significant increase of retention is shown through the thermal annealing and the retention depends on the first ionization potential of metal ion in permanganates. (Author)

  11. Neurological effects on startle response and escape from predation by medaka exposed to organic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.; Drummond, R.; Hammermeister, D.; Bradbury, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    Simultaneous electrophysiological and behavioral studies were performed on juvenile Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to representative neurotoxic organic chemicals at sublethal concentrations. Non-invasive recordings were made of the electrical impulses generated within giant neuronal Mauthner cells, associated interneurons or motoneurons, and musculature, all of which initiate the startle or escape response in fish. Timing in milliseconds between these electrical sequelae was measured for each fish before and at 24 and 48 hours exposure to a chemical. Also noted was the number of startle responses to number of stimuli ratio (R/S). Other groups of medaka were fed to bluegills and consumption times recorded to assess their ability to escape predation. These results were compared to neurophysiological effect levels. Phenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, and 1-octanol impaired the ability of medaka to escape predation at all concentrations. Medaka were more susceptible to predation in high concentrations of carbaryl and strychnine, but less susceptible at low concentrations, whereas the reverse was true for endosulfan. The variety of neurological effects detected at these concentrations suggest that different mechanisms may be responsible. Phenol and strychnine affected Mauthner cell to motoneuron transmission, chlorpyrifos and carbaryl showed neuromuscular effects, and R/S was affected by most chemicals. Although a variety of neurotoxic mechanisms were examined, the exposure threshold for significant effects for each specific compound was found to be consistent for both the neurophysiological and behavioral endpoints.

  12. Task force report on health effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.; Hushon, J.

    1978-08-01

    From April to August, 1978 MITRE supported the Health Effects Assessment Task Force sponsored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for the Environment at DOE. The findings of that Task Force are incorporated in this report and include a detailed definition of health effects assessment, a survey of the mandates for health effects assessments within DOE/EV, a review of current DOE-EV health effects assessment activities, an analysis of the constraints affecting the health effects assessment process and a discussion of the Task Force recommendations. Included as appendices are summaries of two workshops conducted by the Task Force to determine the state-of-the-art of health effects assessment and modeling and a review of risk assessment activities in other federal agencies. The primary recommendation of the panel was that an office be designated or created under the Office of the Assistant Secretary for the Environment to coordinate the Health Effects Risk Assessment effort covering up to 40 program and policy areas; a similar need was expressed for the environmental effects assessment area. 1 tab

  13. Experimental assessment of the sensitiveness of an electrochemical oscillator towards chemical perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela C A Ferreira

    Full Text Available In this study we address the problem of the response of a (electrochemical oscillator towards chemical perturbations of different magnitudes. The chemical perturbation was achieved by addition of distinct amounts of trifluoromethanesulfonate (TFMSA, a rather stable and non-specifically adsorbing anion, and the system under investigation was the methanol electro-oxidation reaction under both stationary and oscillatory regimes. Increasing the anion concentration resulted in a decrease in the reaction rates of methanol oxidation and a general decrease in the parameter window where oscillations occurred. Furthermore, the addition of TFMSA was found to decrease the induction period and the total duration of oscillations. The mechanism underlying these observations was derived mathematically and revealed that inhibition in the methanol oxidation through blockage of active sites was found to further accelerate the intrinsic non-stationarity of the unperturbed system. Altogether, the presented results are among the few concerning the experimental assessment of the sensitiveness of an oscillator towards chemical perturbations. The universal nature of the complex chemical oscillator investigated here might be used for reference when studying the dynamics of other less accessible perturbed networks of (biochemical reactions.

  14. Use of batch and column methodologies to assess utility waste leaching and subsurface chemical attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachara, J.M.; Streile, G.P.

    1991-05-01

    Waste leaching and chemical attenuation involve geochemical reactions between immobile solid surfaces in the waste or in other porous media and dissolved solutes in the mobile fluid phase. Because the geochemical reactions occur along with water flow, the question often arises whether waste leaching and chemical attenuation are best studied under static or dynamic conditions. To answer this question, the scientific literature was reviewed to identify how static (batch) and dynamic (column) approaches have been applied to obtain data on waste leaching and chemical attenuation and the types of information each technique has provided. This review made it possible to both (1) assess the specific merits of the batch and column experimental techniques and (2) develop an integrated research strategy for employing these techniques to quantify leaching and chemical attenuation processes under conditions relevant to the field. This review led to the conclusion that batch systems are best suited to systematically establishing the specific geochemical reactions involved in leaching and attenuation, obtaining thermodynamic and kinetic constants, and identifying the manifestation of these reactions in wastes or natural subsurface materials. 184 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Designing Intelligent Secure Android Application for Effective Chemical Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukran, Mohd Afizi Mohd; Naim Abdullah, Muhammad; Nazri Ismail, Mohd; Maskat, Kamaruzaman; Isa, Mohd Rizal Mohd; Shahfee Ishak, Muhammad; Adib Khairuddin, Muhamad

    2017-08-01

    Mobile services support various situations in everyday life and with the increasing sophistication of phone functions, the daily life is much more easier and better especially in term of managing tools and apparatus. Since chemical inventory management system has been experiencing a new revolution from antiquated to an automated inventory management system, some additional features should be added in current chemical inventory system. Parallel with the modern technologies, chemical inventory application using smart phone has been developed. Several studies about current related chemical inventory management using smart phone application has been done in this paper in order to obtain an overview on recent studies in smartphone application for chemical inventory system which are needed in schools, universities or other education institutions. This paper also discuss about designing the proposed secure mobile chemical inventory system. The study of this paper can provide forceful review analysis support for the chemical inventory management system related research.

  16. Compared assessment of chemical risk and radiological risk for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2007-01-01

    The environmental protection is today a global issue that concerns all the human activities. The challenge is to be able to prove their compatibility with the protection of the natural environment, but also if required to manage adequately a potential or established risk, generally in the context of ever strict regulations. Regarding the chemical aspects, known methods are available for the assessment of the associated risk for the environment. From the radiological point of view, the necessity to have such tools recently became more apparent, in order to justify for the public and with a full transparency the release of radioactive substances into the environment, to meet the requirements of the new regulations in terms of environmental protection and finally to harmonize the approaches between human and environmental radioprotection as well as between chemical and radioactive pollutants, simultaneously present for example in routine releases from nuclear power plants. At this end of harmonization, the assessment methodologies of the environmental risk linked to radionuclides or chemical substances are exposed from the theory to their comparative application, a new approach under development from which the first results are summarised. (authors)

  17. Assessment of exposure to chemical agents and ergonomic stressors in tanneries in Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, F G; Rahman, F U; Katagade, V; Shukla, A; Burdorf, A

    1997-10-01

    In developing countries qualitative assessment of exposure at the workplace may be an essential tool in evaluating hazardous working conditions. This survey reports on qualitative assessment of exposure to chemicals, dust, and ergonomic stressors among 298 workers in 15 tanneries in Kanpur, India. In general, chemical exposure and dermal exposure were highest among beamhouse workers, less for workers involved in dry finishing activities, and lowest for those performing the wet finishing of hides. Dermal exposure was rated as high to very high during beamhouse activities, reflecting direct contact with wet hides and manual handling of hides in soak tanks. Relevant dust exposure was observed only during dry finishing activities. Most workers experienced severe postural load due to working in trunk flexion and rotation for more than 50% of their daily work time. In addition, manual materials handling with loads over 20 kg frequently occurred. The size of the tannery, in general a reflection of state of technology, showed no systematic influence on exposure profiles. The survey suggested that mechanization of material transfer and application of trolleys reduced the work time with trunk flexion and rotation and implied less