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Sample records for assessing calcium intake

  1. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Franco de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI, and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake.METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg, parametric and nonparametric tests were used.RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg and only 25 students (11.7% had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium.CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence.

  2. REAL INTAKE AND PROVISION WITH VITAMINS AND CALCIUM IN OSTEOPOROSIS: ASSESSMENT BY MEASURING INTAKE AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS

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    V. N. Khodyrev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim:  To assess the providing an organism with vitamins (А, В2, С, Е, β-carotene, and calcium in osteoporosis patients by measuring their intake and plasma concentrations. Materials and methods: 108 pairs “osteoporosis patient – healthy volunteer” aged 64.29±9.73 years were formed using a “case-control” method. Real intake of vitamins and calcium was studied defining the frequency of food taking for a month using questionnaire method. Daily intake of vitamins А, В2, С, Е, β-carotene, and calcium was calculated based on the analysis of the frequency of food taking. Among the basic group, using randomized method, 60% of osteoporosis patients were selected who underwent definition of plasma levels of vitamins А, В2, С, and Е. The same study was performed in 60 control volunteers. Results: Correlation of the intake of vitamins A, C, and β-carotene with their plasma levels wasn’t noted. It may reveal an increased need in these nutrients in osteoporosis. According to the calcium intake, every osteoporosis patient can be attributed to a population category with deep insufficiency of calcium intake (less than 500 mg a day. Conclusion: The data obtained need further investigation and, first of all, in clinical and biochemical fields (enzymatic non-provision for calcium uptake, clinical manifestations of insufficient provision with nutrients. Solution of these problems would enable regulation of food intake concerning calcium uptake in osteoporosis.

  3. Calcium Intake in the Moroccan Elderly

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    Sebbar El-houcine

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium intakes of elderly people are often below the recommendations which are 1200 mg/day. The advancing age may be accompanied by a loss of capacity to absorb additional calcium in case of deficiency. The aim of our work is to evaluate the calcium intake in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: The version translated into Arabic dialect Fardellone questionnaire is tested on a sample of 159 subjects aged over 60 years. Results: The study population includes 87 women (55%, 72 men (45%. The mean calcium intake was respectively 3078 mg by week (that means 440 mg/day. The assessment of calcium intake showed a deficiency and the average consumption of calcium per day is significantly lower than the recommended daily amount for this population. The comparison of both gender found a deficit higher among women than among men. Conclusion: Evaluation of the calcium intake is an essential tool for better management of metabolic bone diseases.

  4. Dietary calcium intake and sunlight exposure among children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  5. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

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    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  6. Association between CASR Polymorphisms, Calcium Intake, and Colorectal Cancer Risk

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    Kyee-Zu Kim; Aesun Shin; Jeongseon Kim; Ji Won Park; Sung Chan Park; Hyo Seong Choi; Hee Jin Chang; Dae Yong Kim; Jae Hwan Oh

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The current study aimed to assess the effect of dietary calcium intake and possible interactions with calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene polymorphisms on colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: A total of 420 colorectal cancer cases and 815 controls were included in the analysis. Calcium intake was investigated using a 103 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CASR, rs10934578, rs12485716, rs2270916, and rs4678174, were...

  7. A 51-item calcium-focused food frequency questionnaire is a reliable tool to assess dietary calcium intake in postmenopausal women.

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    Ong, Angel M; Weiler, Hope A; Wall, Michelle; Goltzman, David; Whiting, Susan J; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Morin, Suzanne N

    2017-07-01

    Given the lack in a valid biomarker to assess dietary calcium intake (dCai), reproducible estimation of usual dCai is crucial for better understanding of its interaction with health outcomes in specific populations. This study tested the hypothesis that a calcium-focused food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) may be used to estimate dCai of women ≥50 years residing in a multicultural environment (Montreal, Canada). One hundred and eight women (age, 63.1±7.7 years; 98% postmenopausal) completed the FFQ twice and 4 nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls (24HRs) over 1 month. Medians of dCai were compared by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Reproducibility and relative validity of the FFQ were assessed by Spearman correlation (rs) and Cohen's weighted kappa (κw). Agreement was further assessed by cross-classification by quartiles, Bland-Altman plot, and sensitivity and specificity analyses. The median (interquartile range) dCai estimated by the FFQ and 24HRs were 723 (524-1033) mg/d and 854 (666-1068) mg/d, respectively (P<.001). The FFQs had a strong correlation (rs=0.72, P<.001) and moderate agreement (κw=0.55). The FFQ and 24HRs were moderately correlated (rs=0.65, P<.001). Cross-classification showed moderate agreement (κw=0.42), with 85% of the participants classified into identical or contiguous quartiles and 2.8% into extreme opposite quartiles. According to the Bland-Altman plot, the FFQ underestimated dCai with a bias of 99 mg/d (95% limits of agreement, -677 to +480 mg/d). Sensitivity and specificity of identifying intakes <1000 mg/d were 90% and 57%, respectively. This FFQ is a useful tool to discriminate dCai <600 and ≥1000 mg/d in postmenopausal women and to rank dCai in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Is yogurt intake associated with periodontitis due to calcium?

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    Hye-Sung Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether the lower intakes of yogurt, milk, and calcium are associated with periodontitis in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. This study comprised 6,150 adults 19 or more years old who took both periodontal examination and nutrition survey. The frequency of yogurt and milk intake was examined with a food frequency questionnaire. The amount of calcium intake was calculated with dietary intakes data gained from complete one-day 24-hour recall interviews. Periodontitis was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for the whole sample and subgroups with the strata of age, gender, or smoking, in a complex sampling design. Less intake of yogurt was significantly associated with periodontitis (odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidential interval [CI] 0.70-0.97, but neither less intake of milk (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.20 nor lower intake of calcium (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.21 was significantly associated with periodontitis. In the subgroup analysis, no difference in the association of yogurt intake with periodontitis was found according to the strata of age, gender, and smoking. In conclusion, periodonitis was significantly associated with the less intake of yogurt among the Korean adults, but the calcium contained in yogurt is not likely to cause it.

  9. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children.

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    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-02-01

    Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable.

  10. Calcium intake, polymorphisms of the calcium-sensing receptor, and recurrent/aggressive prostate cancer.

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    Binder, Moritz; Shui, Irene M; Wilson, Kathryn M; Penney, Kathryn L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Kibel, Adam S

    2015-12-01

    To assess whether calcium intake and common genetic variants of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) are associated with either aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) or disease recurrence after prostatectomy. Calcium intake at diagnosis was assessed, and 65 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CASR were genotyped in 886 prostatectomy patients. We investigated the association between calcium intake and CASR variants with both PCa recurrence and aggressiveness (defined as Gleason score ≥4 + 3, stage ≥pT3, or nodal-positive disease). A total of 285 men had aggressive disease and 91 experienced recurrence. A U-shaped relationship between calcium intake and both disease recurrence and aggressiveness was observed. Compared to the middle quintile, the HR for disease recurrence was 3.07 (95% CI 1.41-6.69) for the lowest quintile and 3.21 (95% CI 1.47-7.00) and 2.97 (95% CI 1.37-6.45) for the two upper quintiles, respectively. Compared to the middle quintile, the OR for aggressive disease was 1.80 (95% CI 1.11-2.91) for the lowest quintile and 1.75 (95% CI 1.08-2.85) for the highest quintile of calcium intake. The main effects of CASR variants were not associated with PCa recurrence or aggressiveness. In the subgroup of patients with moderate calcium intake, 31 SNPs in four distinct blocks of high linkage disequilibrium were associated with PCa recurrence. We observed a protective effect of moderate calcium intake for PCa aggressiveness and recurrence. While CASR variants were not associated with these outcomes in the entire cohort, they may be associated with disease recurrence in men with moderate calcium intakes.

  11. A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children.

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    Söderberg, Lotta; Lind, Torbjörn; Karlsland Åkeson, Pia; Sandström, Ann-Kristin; Hernell, Olle; Öhlund, Inger

    2017-06-30

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients with a range of biological effects of public health relevance. This study aimed to validate a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) against a three-day food record (3D record), assessing the intake of vitamin D and calcium in Swedish children during wintertime. In a double-blinded, randomized food-based intervention study on the effect of feeding different daily doses of vitamin D supplement to 5-7-year-old children (n = 85), 79 (93%) participants completed SFFQ1 at baseline and SFFQ2 after the intervention, and 72 were informed to fill in a 3D record. The 28 (39%) children who completed the 3D record were included in this validation study. The baseline level of serum-25 hydroxy vitamin D [S-25(OH)D] was used as a biomarker. The correlation between all three instruments were moderate to strong. SFFQ2 and the 3D record correlated moderately to S-25(OH)D. Bland-Altman analysis showed that SFFQ2 overestimated vitamin D intake by on average 0.6 μg/day, (limits of agreement (LOA) 5.7 and -4.6 μg/day), whereas the intake of calcium was underestimated by on average 29 mg/day, (LOA 808 and -865 mg/day). Finally, the validity coefficient calculated for vitamin D using the method of triad was high (0.75). In conclusion, this SFFQ, assessed by a dietician, is a valid tool to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake in groups of young children.

  12. Annual Feedback Is an Effective Tool for a Sustained Increase in Calcium Intake among Older Women

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    Geoffrey C. Nicholson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to optimize calcium intake among the 2,000+ older women taking part in the Vital D study. Calcium supplementation was not included in the study protocol. Our hypothesis was that annual feedback of calcium intake and informing women of strategies to improve calcium intake can lead to a sustained increase in the proportion of women who consume adequate levels of the mineral. Calcium intake was assessed on an annual basis using a validated short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Supplemental calcium intake was added to the dietary estimate. Participants and their nominated doctor were sent a letter that the participant’s estimated daily calcium intake was adequate or inadequate based on a cutoff threshold of 800 mg/day. General brief statements outlining the importance of an adequate calcium intake and bone health were included in all letters. At baseline, the median daily consumption of calcium was 980 mg/day and 67 percent of 1,951 participants had calcium intake of at least 800 mg per day. Of the 644 older women advised of an inadequate calcium intake at baseline (< 800 mg/day, 386 (60% had increased their intake by at least 100 mg/day when re-assessed twelve months later. This desirable change was sustained at 24 months after baseline with almost half of these women (303/644 consuming over 800 mg calcium per day. This study devised an efficient method to provide feedback on calcium intake to over 2,000 older women. The improvements were modest but significant and most apparent in those with a low intake at baseline. The decreased proportion of these women with an inadequate intake of calcium 12- and 24-months later, suggests this might be a practical, low cost strategy to maintain an adequate calcium intake among older women.

  13. Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese

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    Butler, Lesley M.; Wong, Alvin S.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of dairy products, the primary source of calcium in Western diets, has been found to be positively associated with prostate cancer. In an Asian diet, non-dairy foods are the major contributors of calcium. Thus, a study of dietary calcium and prostate cancer in Asians can better inform on whether calcium, as opposed to other dairy components is responsible for the dairy foods-prostate cancer association. We examined calcium intake and prostate cancer risk among 27,293 men of the Singapore Chinese Health Study that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2007, 298 incident prostate cancer cases had been diagnosed among the cohort members. Diet was assessed at baseline with a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire. It is hypothesized that there is greater net absorption of calcium in smaller individuals. Therefore, the calcium-prostate cancer association was also assessed in stratified analyses by median body mass index (BMI). Vegetables were the largest contributor of daily calcium intake in the study population. Overall, we observed a modest, statistically nonsignificant 25% increase in prostate cancer risk for the 4th (median = 659 mg/day) versus 1st (median=211 mg/day) quartiles of calcium intake after adjustment for potential confounders. The association became considerably stronger and achieved statistical significance (hazard ratio=2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.34; P for trend=0.01) for men with below median (22.9 kg/m2) BMI. Dietary calcium may be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at relatively low intake. PMID:20516117

  14. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

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    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  15. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

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    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of intake of calcium and vitamin D and sun exposure in the context of osteoporosis risk in a study conducted on perimenopausal women

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    Anna Kopiczko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The results of many epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease and develops mainly in women during menopause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diet with particular emphasis on calcium and vitamin D intake and sun exposure in premenopausal women in terms of risk of osteoporosis. Material and methods : The study involved 300 women aged 45-55 years from Warsaw. The method used was a questionnaire assessing the frequency of consumption from the last three months. Exposure to the sun evaluated using a questionnaire prepared in cooperation with the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw. For the purpose of the project, profiles of attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis were developed. Results : Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D among the majority of women surveyed was confirmed. The highest percentage of women represented profile VIII: attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis, characterized by insufficient exposure to sunlight and a diet deficient in both calcium and vitamin D. Conclusions: In the diets of women surveyed significant deficiencies of calcium and vitamin D were found, which confirms previous reports on the lack of nutritional support for normal women’s bone mineralization. Among the surveyed women the majority reported insufficient exposure to sunlight as a source of vitamin D additional to food. There is a need for health education of these women in the prevention of osteoporosis and especially paying attention to the proper intake of calcium and more vitamin D in their diet. At the same time, adequate exposure to the sun is vital as it is the main source of vitamin D for the body coming not from the food consumed.

  17. DOI: 10.18697/ajfand.79.16510 12427 DIETARY CALCIUM INTAKE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  18. Individual and family correlates of calcium-rich food intake among parents of early adolescent children.

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    Reicks, Marla; Ballejos, Miriam Edlefsen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2011-03-01

    Most adults do not meet calcium intake recommendations. Little is known about how individual and family factors, including parenting practices that influence early adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, affect calcium intake of parents. This information could inform the development of effective nutrition education programs. To identify individual and family factors associated with intake of calcium-rich foods among parents of early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years). A cross-sectional survey was used with 14 scales to assess attitudes/preferences and parenting practices regarding calcium-rich foods and a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire (2006-2007). A convenience sample of self-reporting non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian (n=661) parents was recruited in nine states. Parents were the primary meal planner/preparer and completed questionnaires in homes or community settings. Predictors of calcium intake from three food groupings-all food sources, dairy foods, and milk. Multivariate regression analyses identified demographic, attitude/preference, and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake. Most respondents were women (∼90%) and 38% had a college degree. Education was positively associated with calcium intake from all three food groupings, whereas having an Asian spouse compared to a non-Hispanic white spouse was negatively associated with calcium intake only from all food sources and from dairy foods. Expectations for and encouragement of healthy beverage intake for early adolescents were positively associated with calcium intake from dairy foods and milk, respectively. Parental concern regarding adequacy of intake was negatively associated, whereas perception of health benefits from calcium-rich foods was positively associated with calcium intake from all food sources and from dairy foods. Between 20% and 32% of the variance in calcium intake from all food groupings was explained in these models. Individual factors and positive

  19. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia.

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    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance.

  20. Girls' Calcium Intake Is Associated with Bone Mineral Content During Middle Childhood1

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorito, Laura M.; MITCHELL, DIANE C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    We examined longitudinally the association between calcium intake and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) in 151 non-Hispanic white girls. Intakes of dairy, energy, and calcium were assessed using three 24-h dietary recalls in girls at ages 5, 7, 9, and 11 y. We assessed their total-body bone mineral content with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ages 9 and11 y. Dairy foods comprised the major contributor (70%) to calcium intake over the 6-y period; 28% of calcium came from other foods,...

  1. Content Validity of a Short Calcium Intake List to Estimate Daily Dietary Calcium Intake of Patients with Osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasch, L.A.; Schueren, de van der M.A.E.; Tuyl, van L.H.D.; Bultink, I.E.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Lems, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Calcium supplements are prescribed for prevention of osteoporotic fractures, but there is controversy whether excess of calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular events. While an accurate estimation of dietary calcium intake is a prerequisite to prescribe the adequate amount of

  2. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study

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    Peter van den Berg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians. An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day. After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  3. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

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    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs and adequate intake (AI values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006. Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032. When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086 and fluorine (p = 0.503. These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  4. Dietary Calcium Intake and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

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    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of dietary calcium intake with anthropometric measures, physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet in 1176 Spanish children aged 6–9 years. Data were obtained from “Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia” (ANIVA, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample. Dietary calcium intake assessed from three-day food records was compared to recommended daily intakes in Spain. Anthropometric measures (weight and height were measured according to international standards and adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED test. For the total sample of children, 25.8% had inadequate calcium intake, a significantly higher prevalence in girls (p = 0.006 and inadequate calcium intake was associated with lower height z-score (p = 0.001 for both sexes. In girls, there was an inverse relationship between calcium intake and body mass index (p = 0.001 and waist/hip ratio (p = 0.018. Boys presented a polarization in physical activity, reporting a greater level of both physical and sedentary activity in comparison with girls (p = 0.001. Children with poor adherence to MedDiet, even if they consume two yogurts or cheese (40 g daily, adjusted by gender, age, total energy intake, physical activity and father’s level of education, are at risk of inadequate total calcium intake (odds ratio adjusted [ORa]: 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–9.94, p = 0.001. The intake of these dairy products was insufficient to cover calcium intake recommendations in this age group (6–9 years. It is important to prioritize health strategies that promote the MedDiet and to increase calcium intake in this age group.

  5. Assessing the efficacy and external validity of interventions promoting calcium or dairy intake in young adults: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouf, Anika S; Grech, Amanda; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-06-29

    Calcium and dairy products have a role in the prevention of chronic diseases and attainment of peak bone mass, during adolescence to young adulthood. However, intakes are often suboptimal and interventions to improve consumption of food sources are needed. This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy and external validity of interventions promoting calcium or dairy foods among young adults. Eight databases were searched from inception to identify relevant studies. Inclusion criteria included those aged 18 to 35 years in an intervention promoting calcium or dairy food intake. The mean age of the participants was 19.9 ± 1.4 years. Of the 16 studies that met the selection criteria, five studies were included in the meta-analyses for calcium (pooled effect size 0.35, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.67) and three studies for dairy (pooled effect size 0.31, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.50). The quality of the body of evidence was determined using the GRADE system, and was of overall low quality with high risk of bias. Our review suggests young adults respond favorably to interventions but the effect size is small.

  6. Calcium intake and prostate cancer among African Americans: effect modification by vitamin D receptor calcium absorption genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    High dietary intake of calcium has been classified as a probable cause of prostate cancer, although the mechanism underlying the association between dietary calcium and prostate cancer risk is unclear. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key regulator of calcium absorption. In the small intestine, VDR expression is regulated by the CDX-2 transcription factor, which binds a polymorphic site in the VDR gene promoter. We examined VDR Cdx2 genotype and calcium intake, assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, in 533 African-American prostate cancer cases (256 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 277 with localized stage) and 250 African-American controls who participated in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study. We examined the effects of genotype, calcium intake, and diet-gene interactions by conditional logistic regression. Compared with men in the lowest quartile of calcium intake, men in the highest quartile had an approximately twofold increased risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40, 3.46), with a significant dose-response. Poor absorbers of calcium (VDR Cdx2 GG genotype) had a significantly lower risk of advanced prostate cancer (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.90). The gene-calcium interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Among men with calcium intake below the median (680 mg/day), carriers of the G allele had an approximately 50% decreased risk compared with men with the AA genotype. These findings suggest a link between prostate cancer risk and high intestinal absorption of calcium. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  7. Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, S.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Peeters, P.H.; Engel, P.; Brustad, M.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European

  8. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Elizabeth J; Booth, Sarah L; Fox, Caroline S; Tucker, Katherine L; Wang, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo; Cupples, L Adrienne; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Kiel, Douglas P

    2012-12-01

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification, which is a measure of atherosclerosis that predicts risk of ischemic heart disease independent of other risk factors. This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Participants included 690 women and 588 men in the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 60 y; range: 36-83 y) who attended clinic visits and completed food-frequency questionnaires in 1998-2001 and underwent computed tomography scans 4 y later in 2002-2005. The mean age-adjusted coronary artery-calcification Agatston score decreased with increasing total calcium intake, and the trend was not significant after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, vitamin D-supplement use, energy intake, and, for women, menopause status and estrogen use. Multivariable-adjusted mean Agatston scores were 2.36, 2.52, 2.16, and 2.39 (P-trend = 0.74) with an increasing quartile of total calcium intake in women and 4.32, 4.39, 4.19, and 4.37 (P-trend = 0.94) in men, respectively. Results were similar for dietary calcium and calcium supplement use. Our study does not support the hypothesis that high calcium intake increases coronary artery calcification, which is an important measure of atherosclerosis burden. The evidence is not sufficient to modify current recommendations for calcium intake to protect skeletal health with respect to vascular calcification risk.

  9. [Food sources and average intake of calcium in a representative sample of Spanish schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, R M; López-Sobaler, A M; Jiménez Ortega, A I; Navia Lombán, B; Ruiz-Roso Calvo de Mora, B; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; López Plaza, B

    2012-01-01

    There is controversy about the adequacy of calcium intake to that recommended in Spanish schoolchildren. Some studies indicate that the intake is inadequate in a variable percentage of children, while others insist on the danger of an excessive intake in a huge percentage of this population. To assess calcium intake and food sources of this nutrient in a representative sample of Spanish children and to judge the adequacy of its contribution to the coverage of recommended intakes. 903 schoolchildren (7 to 11 years) from 10 Spanish provinces (Tarragona, Caceres, Burgos, Guadalajara, Valencia, Salamanca, Cordoba, Vizcaya, Lugo and Madrid) were studied. They constituted a representative sample of the Spanish schoolchildren population. The energy and nutrient intake was determined using a "Food record questionnaire" for 3 days, including a Sunday. Calcium intake was compared with the recommended intakes (RI) for the mineral. Weight and height were recorded and body mass index (BMI) calculated. In the studied group (55.3% girls and 44.7% of children), 30.7% had an excess body weight (23.3% overweight and 7.4% obesity). Calcium intake was 859.9 ± 249.2 mg / day (79.5% of the recommendations). 76.7% of children had intakes below 100% of those recommended and 40.1% below of 67% of RI. The ratios calcium/phosphorus (0.74 ± 0.21) and calcium/protein (10.1 ± 2.8) and the index of nutritional quality for calcium (0.78 ± 0.29) were lower than recommended in 91.6%, 99.8% and 81.1% of children, respectively. Dietary calcium came from dairy products (64.7%), dietetic products and infant formulae (7.6%), cereals (7.3%), vegetables (3.5%), fruits (3.4%), pre-cooked meals (3.3%), meats (2.8%), fishes (2.8%) and pulses (2.2%), with no differences by gender. Calcium intake was lower than recommended in 76.7% of the children and 40.1% had insufficient intake (calcium source was dairy products (64.7%), increase consumption of this food group is recommended, especially in the 37.1% of

  10. Relationship between milk and calcium intake and lipid metabolism in female patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JaeHee; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Ki Nam; Choi, Young-Ju; Chang, Namsoo; Huh, Kap-Bum

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the association between intake of milk and dairy products as well as calcium and biomarkers related to lipid metabolism in Korean female patients with type 2 diabetes. A cohort of 509 female subjects (mean age: 59.0 years; range: 35-80 years) was recruited from Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of their daily intake of milk and dairy products [200 g/day (>200-1201 g/day)] and then further divided into two groups according to their daily calcium intake: below and above the estimated average requirement (EAR). After adjustment for age, body mass index, energy intake, exercise, use of nutritional supplements and cholesterol medication, the level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly higher in subjects with milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day than in subjects in the other two groups. Those subjects with a milk and dairy products consumption of >200 g/day had significantly higher levels of apolipoprotein A-1 and a significantly lower atherogenic index than the other two groups. Patients with a calcium intake above the EAR exhibited a significantly greater serum HDL-cholesterol level than those with a calcium intake below the EAR. Milk and dairy products, good sources of calcium, play a positive role in lipid profiles in female patients with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Intake of protein, calcium and sodium in public child day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To assess calcium, protein and sodium intake, of children that attend public day-care centers and to compare it with the recommended one.METHODS:Cross-sectional descriptive study in seven public day care centers of São Paulo city, Southeast Brazil, which enrolled 366 children between 12 and 36 months of age. The data collection occurred between September and December 2010. Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Dietary intake was assessed by a direct food weighing method. For the nutritional calculation, DietWin(r Profissional 2.0 was used, and the adequacy was calculated according to the recommendations of the National School Feeding Program for energy, protein, calcium and sodium. The calcium/protein relation was also calculated, as well as calcium density (mg/1,000kcal.RESULTS: The energy (406.4kcal, protein (18.2g and calcium (207.6mg consumption did not reach the recommended values ​​in all the evaluated day care centers. Sodium intake exceeded up to three times the recommendation. The calcium/protein ratio of 11.7mg/g was less than the adequate one (20mg/g.CONCLUSIONS: There was inadequacy of calcium, protein and sodium dietary intake, in children attending public day-care centers.

  12. Status of Dietary Intake of Calcium in Women of Reproductive Age in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca plays an important role in bone formation. Attaining optimal bone mass and peak bone densities is essential to prevent osteoporotic fractures in future life. In conditions of Ca deficiency, Ca from the bones maintains the blood levels of Ca leading to its depletion in bones. Calcium depletion leads to poor bone density and a higher risk of osteoporosis particularly in women who have repeated episodes of pregnancy and lactation.Aim & Objective: To assess the dietary intake of calcium.Material Methods: the study was conducted among 200 healthy women of reproductive age group of 20-49 years.Result: The dietary intake of calcium was less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances of 600mg/day. Women from upper socioeconomic class had a higher intake of dietary calcium 435±268 mg/day as compared to women from low socioeconomic class with a dietary intake of 295±163 mg/day.Conclusion: The dietary intake of calcium improved with an increase in socioeconomic class.

  13. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

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    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  14. Calcium intake in the United States from dietary and supplemental sources across adult age groups: new estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Walsh, Stephen J; Insogna, Karl L; Kenny, Anne M; Kerstetter, Jane E

    2011-05-01

    Adequate lifelong calcium intake is essential in optimizing bone health. Recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data were used to quantify variation in calcium intake across adult age groups and to relate age-associated changes in calcium intake with energy intake. Additional goals were to assess differences in dietary calcium intake between supplemental calcium users and nonusers and to evaluate associations between age and calcium density in the diet. This cross-sectional analysis determined calcium and energy intake for National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey respondents during 2003-2006. Diet was assessed with 24-hour recall and supplement use via questionnaire. Trends in median intakes for dietary calcium, total calcium, and energy across age categories were assessed using survey analysis methods. Nutrient density was represented using calcium to energy intake ratios. The analyses included data from 9,475 adults. When compared to the 19- to 30-year age group, median dietary calcium intake was lower in the ≥81-year age group by 23% in men (Pcalcium supplement use increased (Pcalcium intake was greater than in nonusers (P=0.02). Calcium density in the diet significantly increased relative to age in men and women (Pcalcium to energy ratios were insufficient to meet target ratios inferred by adequate intake standards after age 50 years. Although supplemental calcium use and calcium density were highest in older age groups, they were not sufficient in meeting recommended levels. New approaches to increasing the frequency and level of calcium supplement use to enhance calcium density in diets may be necessary to reduce osteoporosis risk among older Americans. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Whitcomb, Brian W; Szegda, Kathleen L; Boutot, Maegan E; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Troy, Lisa M; Michels, Karin B; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-01

    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk.Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2).Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors.Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P-trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P-trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk.Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other dairy

  16. Calcium intake and serum concentration in relation to risk of cardiovascular death in NHANES III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular death remains controversial. By assessing dietary intake, use of supplements, and serum levels of calcium, we aimed to disentangle this link in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. METHODS: Mortality linkage of NHANES III to death certificate data for those aged 17 years or older (n = 20,024 was used to estimate risk of overall cardiovascular death as well as death from ischemic heart disease (IHD, acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure (HF, and cerebrovascular disease (CD with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: About 10.0% of the population died of cardiovascular disease and the majority (5.4% died of IHD. There was increased risk of overall CVD death for those in the bottom 5% of serum calcium compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.03-2.22. For women there was a statistically significant increased risk of IHD death for those with serum calcium levels in the top 5% compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.72 (95%CI: 1.13-2.61, whereas in men, low serum calcium was related to increased IHD mortality (HR: 2.32 (95% CI 1.14-3.01, Pinteraction: 0.306. No clear association with CVD death was observed for dietary or supplemental calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium as assessed by serum concentrations is involved in cardiovascular health, though differential effects by sex may exist. No clear evidence was found for an association between dietary or supplementary intake of calcium and cardiovascular death.

  17. Calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk: Results from the nurses' health study and health professionals follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Keum, NaNa; Wu, Kana; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-11-15

    The relationship between calcium intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remains inconclusive. We conducted this study to evaluate whether the association between calcium intake and CRC risk differs by anatomic subsite and determine the dose-response relationship for this association, as well as assess when in carcinogenesis calcium may play a role. We assessed calcium intake every 4 years and followed 88,509 women (1980-2012) in the Nurses' Health Study and 47,740 men (1986-2012) in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We documented 3,078 incident CRC cases. Total calcium intake (≥1,400 vs. cancer (multivariable relative risk: 0.78, 95%CI: 0.65-0.95). Similar results were observed by different sources of calcium (from all foods or dairy products only). The inverse association was linear and suggestively stronger for distal colon cancer (0.65, 0.43-0.99) than for proximal colon cancer (0.94, 0.72-1.22, p-common effects  = 0.14). Additionally, when comparing different latencies, the overall pattern suggested that the inverse association appeared to be stronger with increasing latency and was strongest for intakes 12-16 years before diagnosis. Comparing total calcium intakes of ≥1,400 vs. calcium intake was associated with a lower risk of developing colon cancer, especially for distal colon cancer. Overall inverse association was linear and did not differ by intake source. Additionally, calcium intake approximately 10 years before diagnosis appeared to be associated with a lower risk of CRC. © 2016 UICC.

  18. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-11-01

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption. © 2010 International Life Sciences Institute.

  19. Interactions between dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density or bone geometry in a low calcium intake population (KNHANES IV 2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Moon, Jae Hoon; Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Sang Wan; Jang, Hak Chul; Shin, Chan Soo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the interactions between dietary calcium intake and bone strength parameters in populations or areas with low calcium intake. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) or bone geometry in an Asian population with low calcium intake. This was a cross-sectional study of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010. A total of 3448 men and 3812 women older than 50 years were stratified by daily dietary calcium intake: less than 400 mg/d, 400-799 mg/d, 800-1199 mg/d, and 1200 mg/d or greater. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the geometric index was calculated. Mean daily calcium intake was 470 mg/d in this population. BMD in the lumbar spine (both sexes) and femoral neck (women) was significantly lower only when calcium intake was less than 400 mg/d. In men, femoral neck and total hip BMD was positively related to calcium intake up to 1200 mg/d. Calcium intake less than 400 mg/d was negatively related to femoral cortical thickness and buckling ratio. These interactions disappeared when the 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 30 ng/mL or greater in men and 20 ng/mL or greater in women. Low calcium intake was significantly related with low BMD and increased risk of osteoporosis. However, the association between calcium and BMD was not consistently linear, and a sufficient vitamin D level appears to compensate for the negative influences of low calcium intake on bone.

  20. The effect of dairy products choice on calcium dietary intake in female university students of nutritional faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarek, Dariusz; Głabska, Dominika; Lange, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products provide the most important source of calcium in a typical human diet, being of particular significance to women. To determine dietary calcium intakes in a group of female students studying human nutrition at a Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW through analysing the selections made of dairy products. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess average consumption of dairy products. Total daily calcium intakes were then estimated by adding the intakes obtained from such dairy products to an average non-dairy calcium value obtained from other foodstuffs and taken to be 250 mg. Varied choices were made of dairy foodstuffs, with most subjects consuming milk, milk beverages, cottage cheese and rennet cheese. Calcium intakes were thus dependent on the dietary assortment of such selected dairy products made. Whenever cheeses were avoided in the diet, then low calcium intakes became more common. When compared to dietary recommendations, calcium intakes in this group of young women were inadequately low especially for those not eating cheese and despite supposedly having sufficient knowledge through studying this subject area.

  1. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  2. The influence of breakfast and dairy products on dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in postpubertal adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B S E; Verly, E; Marchioni, D M L; Fisberg, M; Martini, L A

    2012-02-01

    Given the importance of both calcium and vitamin D for bone health and the high prevalence of vitamin D from around the world, the present study aimed to evaluate calcium and vitamin D intake in a group of healthy Brazilian adolescents and young adults and to examine the influence of breakfast and dairy products in the total intake of these nutrients.   One hundred and sixty adolescents and young adults, aged 16-20 years old, from a public school, participated in the present study. Three-day dietary records were used to assess calcium and vitamin D intakes. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay kit. The results were expressed as the mean (SD). Only 3.8% of the subjects met the daily adequate intake recommendation for calcium, and none for vitamin D [682.2 (132.2)mg day(-1) and 124.0 (28.0)IU day(-1) , respectively]. 25(OH)D serum levels were insufficient in 51.5% and deficient in 9.7% of the individuals [72.5 (22.3) nmol L(-1) ]. There was a significant positive correlation between dairy product intake with both calcium and vitamin D (r=0.597 and r =0.561, respectively; P=0.000). Adolescents who ate breakfast had a significant higher mean calcium, vitamin D and dairy product intake than adolescents who did not report this meal. The majority of adolescents and young adults did not consume recommended intakes of calcium and vitamin D and also presented 25(OH)D insufficiency. The results indicate that a regular breakfast and the consumption of dairy products represent important strategies in improving calcium and vitamin D intake in the diet. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and economic factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in Flemish preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, I; Lin, Y; De Keyzer, W; Sioen, I; Mouratidou, T; Moreno, L A; Slimani, N; Jenab, M; Vandevijvere, S; De Backer, G; De Henauw, S

    2011-09-01

    Low calcium and vitamin D intakes have been associated with health risks in childhood and adulthood. This study aims to investigate dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D intake, and its associated sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors among preschoolers. Three-day estimated diet records from 696 Flemish preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old (51% boys) were used (66% of 1052 collected diaries). Contribution of 58 food groups to calcium and vitamin D intake were computed. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of intakes with sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors. Mean calcium intake (844 mg per day) was above, and mean vitamin D intake (2.0 μg per day) largely below the Belgian recommendations. Milk, sweetened milk drinks and cheese were the main sources of calcium intakes (26, 25 and 11%, respectively). Butter and margarine were the main vitamin D sources (26%), followed by growth milk (=fortified milk) (20%) and fish (15%). Calcium and vitamin D intake were negatively associated with participants' age, and calcium positively with parental education and family size. The child's gender, supplement use and physical activity level, and the employment status and smoking behaviour of the parents were not associated with calcium or vitamin D intake. Flemish preschoolers had too low vitamin D intakes while most had adequate calcium intakes. Milk (including sweetened, fortified/growth milk) was the main food source of calcium intake and the second important source of vitamin D intake after butter and margarine. Calcium intake was positively associated with parental education, while vitamin D intake was not.

  4. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified...

  5. Association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Daniele Lazzarotto; Busnello, Fernanda Michielin; Dibi, Raquel Papandreus; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Kato, Sérgio Kakuta; Vanin, Carla Maria De Martini

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal abnormality characterized by reduction and alteration of bone microarchitecture that results in increased fragility and greater predisposition to fractures. Age and low bone mass are the main non-modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. The modifiable factors include sedentary lifestyle, inadequate calcium intake, excessive alcohol and/or caffeine consumption, smoking and low body weight. The aim here was to evaluate the association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil. Cross-sectional study conducted in Porto Alegre and Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Women (n = 155) of mean age 53.6 ± 9.5 years were evaluated through a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil. Food frequency questionnaires, bone mass evaluation using calcaneal ultrasound and anthropometric assessment were used. The prevalence of overweight was 67.7%. In the bone mass screening, 30.3% had low bone mass and 4.5% had osteoporosis. The median calcium intake was 574.94 mg/day and the caffeine intake was 108.11 mg/day. No association was found between bone mass and anthropometric parameters, calcium intake or caffeine intake. It was found that 38.4% of the women had low bone mass. No association was found between calcium and caffeine intake and bone mass. High prevalence of low bone mass was observed.

  6. Association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Lazzarotto Harter

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is a skeletal abnormality characterized by reduction and alteration of bone microarchitecture that results in increased fragility and greater predisposition to fractures. Age and low bone mass are the main non-modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. The modifiable factors include sedentary lifestyle, inadequate calcium intake, excessive alcohol and/or caffeine consumption, smoking and low body weight. The aim here was to evaluate the association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in Porto Alegre and Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Women (n = 155 of mean age 53.6 ± 9.5 years were evaluated through a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil. Food frequency questionnaires, bone mass evaluation using calcaneal ultrasound and anthropometric assessment were used. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 67.7%. In the bone mass screening, 30.3% had low bone mass and 4.5% had osteoporosis. The median calcium intake was 574.94 mg/day and the caffeine intake was 108.11 mg/day. No association was found between bone mass and anthropometric parameters, calcium intake or caffeine intake. It was found that 38.4% of the women had low bone mass. CONCLUSIONS: No association was found between calcium and caffeine intake and bone mass. High prevalence of low bone mass was observed.

  7. Effectiveness of a Theory-Driven Nutritional Education Program in Improving Calcium Intake among Older Mauritian Adults

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    Trishnee Bhurosy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low calcium intake, a risk factor of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures, has been previously reported among post-menopausal women in Mauritius. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention in improving the calcium intake, self-efficacy, and knowledge of older Mauritians. Methodology. The study was conducted as a pre- and post-test design which was evaluated through a baseline, immediate postintervention, and 2-month follow-up assessments. Participants were adults (n=189 aged ≥40 years old from 2 urban community-based centres. The intervention group (IG (n=98 participated in 6 weekly interactive lessons based on the health belief model (HBM. The main outcome measures were calcium intake, HB scale scores, knowledge scores, and physical activity level (PAL. Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. Results. The IG significantly increased its baseline calcium intake, knowledge and self-efficacy (P<0.001 at post-assessments. A significant decrease in waist circumference in the IG was noted (P<0.05 after intervention. PAL significantly increased by 12.3% at post-test and by 29.6% at follow-up among intervention adults when compared to the CG (P<0.001. Conclusion. A theory-driven educational intervention is effective in improving the dietary calcium intake, knowledge, self-efficacy, and PAL of older community-based Mauritian adults.

  8. Mineral Intake in Urban Pregnant Women from Base Diet, Fortified Foods, and Food Supplements: Focus on Calcium, Iron, and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai Xian; Han, Jun Hua; Li, Hu Zhong; Liang, Dong; Deng, Tao Tao; Chang, Su Ying

    2016-12-01

    In the Chinese national nutrition surveys, fortified foods were not investigated separately from the base diet, and the contribution of fortified foods to micronutrients intake is not very clear. This study investigated the diet, including fortified foods and food supplements, of urban pregnant women and analyzed the intake of calcium, iron, and zinc to assess the corresponding contributions of fortified foods, food supplements, and the base diet. The results demonstrated that the base diet was the major source of calcium, iron, and zinc, and was recommended to be the first choice for micronutrients intake. Furthermore, consumption of fortified foods and food supplements offered effective approaches to improve the dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc in Chinese urban pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E

    1998-01-01

    Calcium's ability to prevent bone loss in early postmenopausal women is controversial. We used data on 394 women from the placebo group of the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study, a clinical trial of alendronate, to investigate the relation of calcium intake to bone loss. Calcium...... intake was recorded, and bone mineral density (BMD) (in the lumbar spine, total body, forearm, and hip) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum total alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide crosslink levels) were measured at baseline and annually thereafter. Women whose...... were not significantly associated with changes in BMD or bone turnover. Even women whose total calcium intake was >1333 mg/d (the highest tertile of total calcium intake) showed a decline in BMD of almost 2%, similar to declines in the lower two tertiles of total calcium intake (

  10. Daily menus can result in suboptimal nutrient intakes, especially calcium, of adolescents living in dormitories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresić, Greta; Simundić, Borislav; Mandić, Milena L; Kendel, Gordana; Zezelj, Sandra Pavicić

    2008-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences.

  11. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Keiko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41–50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Results Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose–response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend = 0.01. The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend = 0.07, 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend = 0.07, and 0.50 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend = 0.08, respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. Conclusion These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  12. Impact of a nutrition education program to increase intake of calcium-rich foods by Chinese-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Nan; Brown, J Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Chinese-American women have a high risk of osteoporosis. However, their calcium intake has been reported previously as considerably below the Dietary Reference Intake. Increasing consumption of calcium-rich foods, many of which are also fortified with vitamin D, is a safe way to increase their calcium and vitamin D intake. This study's objective was to pilot-test an intervention to help Chinese-American women incorporate calcium-rich foods into their diet. This intervention was evaluated using a quasi-experimental study with a nested design and pre-, immediate post-, and 3-month follow-up assessments. Calcium and vitamin D intake, Theory of Planned Behavior constructs, and knowledge were measured at three time points. First-generation Chinese-American mothers between 35 and 55 years old (n=141) were recruited from six weekend Chinese schools. Three Chinese schools each were randomly assigned to the experimental (n=71) or control group (n=70). The experimental group received a free heel scan and six weekly interactive lessons designed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The control group received six weekly nonrelated financial lessons by mail. Changes for each measure were assessed by linear mixed model with repeated measures adjusted for confounding variables. Compared to the control group, the experimental group improved all measures considerably, except two subjective norm constructs (normative belief and motivation to comply) at post-assessments. The experimental group significantly increased its baseline calcium (t=7.898, P<0.001) and vitamin D intake (t=6.609; P<0.001) at posttest and this increase was retained at follow-up. Results suggest that this theory-based intervention is effective for increasing the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake of Chinese-American women. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary calcium intake by a group of 13 18-year-old Costa Rican teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, R; Nuñez, H P

    2001-06-01

    Calcium intake is one of the most important predictors of the amount of bone mass gained during growth. Therefore, this study was designed to estimate the dietary calcium intake of Costa Rican urban and rural adolescents ages 13-18 years old. Calcium dietary intake was determined using prospective 3-d diet records. Two-thirds (or 66.7%) or less of the Adequate Intake (AI) was used as the criterion for inadequate calcium intake as suggested by several authors. Reported mean daily calcium intake was 573 mg +/- 290. On average 82% of the adolescents did not meet two-thirds of the Al for calcium. A higher percentage of rural than urban youngsters reported inadequate calcium intake (92% and 75% respectively, p = 0.000). Likewise a higher percentage of girls (91%) than boys (77%) reported marginal calcium intake. This study shows evidence that nutritional interventions and educational strategies are urgent for increasing calcium consumption among adolescents in order to reduce the future burden of osteoporosis in old age.

  14. Calcium intake in health maintenance – a systematic review

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    Kirsti Uusi-Rasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca is an essential nutrient for the human body. Despite lively research, there is uncertainty about Ca requirements in terms of desirable health outcomes including an upper intake level above which the potential for harm increases. Objectives: The aim was to conduct a review to update requirements and desirable or harmful health effects of Ca on the current scientific evidence. Methods: We searched Medline and Swemed from January 2000 to December 2011 and included all systematic reviews that reported Ca supplementation or usual Ca intake on health outcomes. Meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and cohort studies were included in the second search between May 2009 and March 2011 and an additional search covering studies till the end of 2011. This review concentrated on studies reporting independent effects of Ca, although a few recent trials report sole effects of Ca on health outcomes, most trials use Ca in combination with vitamin D vs. placebo. Results: In total, we reviewed 38 studies addressing the effects of Ca on bone, pregnancy-related outcomes, cancers, cardiovascular outcomes, obesity, and mortality. There was a lot of heterogeneity in the study protocols, which made it difficult to draw any strong conclusions. According to the literature, high Ca intake seems to have a small positive effect on bone mineral content (BMC or bone mineral density (BMD in children and postmenopausal women. We did not find any consistent evidence on the effects of Ca on bone health in premenopausal women or men. Also, the evidence that Ca supplementation reduces fracture incidence is scarce and inconsistent. Maternal diet may influence the peak bone mass of offspring but more studies are required. There was no overall effect of Ca intake on cancers. Ca was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer and a slightly increased risk of prostate cancer in two of the three studies. No associations were found with other cancers. We

  15. CALCIUM INTAKE AS A FACTOR OF OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION AMONG TEENAGERS IN CELJE REGION

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    Samo K. Fokter

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence is a critical time for bone mineral acquisition and is as such the crucial period for the prevention of osteoporosis. The purpose of the study was to find whether adolescents’ calcium intake in Celje region is high enough to attain peak bone mass.Methods. 217 pupils attending primary school and 434 students attending secondary school participated in an anonymous survey regarding their calcium intake. The acquired data were statistically analysed.Results. Only 77 (11.8% among 651 teenagers had an optimal daily intake of calcium (≥ 1300 mg. The average calcium intake was 828.9 mg per day. The average daily calcium intake for girls was 777.6 mg and for boys 910.0 mg. Calcium intake decreased with the age of the adolescents. The lowest calcium intake was found in those adolescents who were concerned that drinking milk would make them fat.Conclusions. Because of adolescents’ sub-optimal intake of calcium there is a probability that osteoporosis will break out in the future. To avoid that, it would be necessary to start inexpensive education programs aimed at teenagers about the importance of the prevention of osteoporosis in adolescence.

  16. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  17. Young Adults' Perceptions of Calcium Intake and Health: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinow, Michelle L; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Whiting, Susan J; Jung, Mary E; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2017-12-01

    Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young adults' (18-34 years) knowledge of calcium in relation to health, facilitators and barriers to adequate calcium intake, and to explore both their suggestions for individual strategies to increase calcium intake and ways to communicate calcium-related messaging to this population. Eight gender-specific focus groups (18 men; 35 women) were conducted using a semistructured interview guide, guided by social cognitive theory. Deductive thematic analysis was used to generate themes. Participants perceived adequate calcium intake to be important for children and older adults but were uncertain of the benefits for their own age group. Perceived positive outcomes (e.g., aesthetics such as strong nails) associated with adequate calcium intake were cited as a motivator to increase intake. Perceived barriers to achieving increased calcium intake included the high cost and inconvenience of milk products and negative practices of dairy farmers. Participants suggested planning healthy well-balanced meals and forming a habit of consuming calcium-rich foods as individual strategies to increase calcium intake. Strategies to convey calcium-related information to young adults included increasing awareness of the importance of calcium via credible sources of information and developing nutrition education curricula. Social media and advertising were perceived as ineffective. Our findings provide key information for nutrition education initiatives.

  18. Worldwide trends in dairy production and consumption and calcium intake: is promoting consumption of dairy products a sustainable solution for inadequate calcium intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Li, Shiru

    2008-09-01

    Adequate calcium intake is critical for good health. Inadequate calcium intake is a worldwide problem and is more serious in countries where consumption of dairy products is low. To analyze worldwide trends in production and consumption of dairy products and in calcium intake. Data were taken from Food and Agriculture Organization food balance sheets, from published studies, and from surveys of four countries with large populations and large dairy production (China, India, the United States, and Russia). Linear regression models were fitted to estimate average annual changes and to project future trends. Overall global dairy production and supply (total and per capita) have increased since 1980, especially in developing countries. There are large between-region and between-country differences in the levels of production, supply, and consumption and in the trends. In 1997 India surpassed the United States to become the largest dairy producer. Consumption of dairy products in China has more than tripled since 1982 and has increased sevenfold among urban residents. The increase has been more dramatic during recent years. In spite of increases in dairy production and consumption in China and India, calcium intake has decreased in these countries. The average daily per capita consumption of dairy products was more than 200 g in the United States in 1999-2004 but less than 27g in China in 2002; the average daily per capita intake of calcium was 962 mg in US men and 756 mg in US women in 1999-2004, but less than 400 mg in China in 2002. Global production and supply of dairy products have been increasing since 1980, which has an impact on the environment. Dairy consumption and calcium intake remain low in most countries examined as compared with recommended amounts of dairy products and calcium. Promotion of consumption of dairy products does not necessarily increase total calcium intake.

  19. Effect of training mode and calcium intake on bone mineral density in female master cyclist, runners, and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshgetoor, D; Nichols, J F; Rego, I

    2000-09-01

    The focus of this prospective, observational study was to determine the effect of sport-specific training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) in female master cyclists, runners and non-athletes. Thirty women (12 cyclists, 9 runners, 9 controls), mean age of 49.6 +/- 7.9 years, were assessed at baseline and 18 months for calcium intake (4-day records), current exercise activity (recall questionnaire), and BMD of the lumbar spine and hip (DXA). A three (cyclists, runners, controls) by two (0 and 18 months) repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated a significant interaction effect of sport and time at the femoral neck (p cyclists and runners but declined in controls (p cyclists (p <.007) and in controls (p <.03), while trochanteric BMD declined in all groups (p <.01). No significant interaction effect of sport and dietary calcium intake was noted for BMD at any site.

  20. The importance of breakfast in meeting daily recommended calcium intake in a group of schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, R M; Requejo, A M; López-Sobaler, A M; Andrés, P; Quintas, M E; Navia, B; Izquierdo, M; Rivas, T

    1998-02-01

    To evaluate the breakfast intake of calcium and milk products and to determine whether these correlate with total intake of both calcium and milk products. Food taken at breakfast and throughout the day was recorded using a 7 consecutive day food record in 200 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 13 years. 65.3% of boys and 80.5% of girls showed intakes of calcium which were lower than recommended. Milk products were the foods most frequently included in breakfast (95.5% of subjects included them in this meal). A relationship was seen between energy provided by breakfast and the quantities of milk products (r = 0.5735) and calcium (r = 0.6908) taken at this meal. A relationship was also seen between energy provided by breakfast and daily intake of milk products (r = 0.4633) and calcium (r = 0.4954). The percentage of intakes of calcium lower than those recommended decreased when breakfast provided > or = 20% of total energy intake, and when the consumption of milk products at breakfast was greater than the 50th percentile (200 ml). Subjects with breakfast milk product intakes > or = 200 ml showed higher intakes of the same over the rest of the day (233.3 +/-140.4 g) than did those who took lesser quantities of these foods at breakfast (161.5 +/- 100.6 g). Further, those who took > or = 25% of the recommended intake of calcium at breakfast showed greater intakes of the same over the rest of the day (600.4 +/- 213.8 mg compared to 510.8 +/- 200.7 mg in subjects with lower calcium intakes). The intake of milk products (r = 0.7587) and calcium (r = 0.7223) at breakfast correlates with the consumption of these foods in the whole diet. However, the total daily intake of milk products and calcium does not depend solely on breakfast intake. Subjects with the greatest intakes at breakfast also showed greater intakes over the rest of the day (r = 0.3953 for milk products and r = 0.4122 for calcium).

  1. Calcium and vitamin D intake by postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Spain: an observational calcium and vitamin D intake (CaVIT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan T

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tao Fan,1 Gonzalo Nocea,2 Ankita Modi,3 Leah Stokes,1 Shuvayu S Sen1 1Global Outcomes Research, Merck & Company, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 2Department of Outcomes Research, Merck, Sharp and Dohme Spain, Madrid, Spain; 3Global Human Health, Outcomes Research, Merck & Company, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: Osteoporotic fractures are important causes of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. However, the risk of osteoporotic fractures can be decreased, with clinical studies supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements to promote bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread, particularly among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and this indicates that dietary intake is suboptimal, even though vitamin D supplements are widely available. Methods: We conducted an observational study, using telephone surveys, to estimate vitamin D and calcium intake and the use of prescription osteoporosis medications in Spanish women aged ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis. Results: Among the study participants, mean dietary calcium intake was 1239 mg/day and generally appeared sufficient in terms of the recommended daily intake guidance documents. Participants aged ≥ 75 years had a significantly lower mean dietary calcium intake (988 mg/day, thus one-half were below the level advised by the World Health Organization. Daily calcium intake was also lower in participants who were not taking prescription medications for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake was 167 IU/day, which is well below both the established target dose (400 IU/day and the more recent, higher guideline recommended for postmenopausal women (800–1300 IU/day. Dietary vitamin D intake was even lower for participants aged ≥75 years (120 IU/day and was not related to the use of bone health prescription medications. Conclusion: These results support the need for greater promotion of the benefits of higher vitamin D intake in Spanish women with

  2. Theory-Driven Intervention Improves Calcium Intake, Osteoporosis Knowledge, and Self-Efficacy in Community-Dwelling Older Black Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, Oyinlola T.; Himburg, Susan P.; Newman, Frederick L.; Campa, Adriana; Dixon, Zisca

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an osteoporosis education program to improve calcium intake, knowledge, and self-efficacy in community-dwelling older Black adults. Design: Randomized repeated measures experimental design. Setting: Churches and community-based organizations. Participants: Men and women (n = 110) 50 years old and older…

  3. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Vicky; Leung, William; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R; Bolland, Mark J

    2015-09-29

    To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. Random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Ovid Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches were undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Randomised controlled trials of dietary sources of calcium or calcium supplements (with or without vitamin D) in participants aged over 50 with BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, total body, or forearm as an outcome. We identified 59 eligible randomised controlled trials: 15 studied dietary sources of calcium (n=1533) and 51 studied calcium supplements (n=12,257). Increasing calcium intake from dietary sources increased BMD by 0.6-1.0% at the total hip and total body at one year and by 0.7-1.8% at these sites and the lumbar spine and femoral neck at two years. There was no effect on BMD in the forearm. Calcium supplements increased BMD by 0.7-1.8% at all five skeletal sites at one, two, and over two and a half years, but the size of the increase in BMD at later time points was similar to the increase at one year. Increases in BMD were similar in trials of dietary sources of calcium and calcium supplements (except at the forearm), in trials of calcium monotherapy versus co-administered calcium and vitamin D, in trials with calcium doses of ≥ 1000 versus 500 mg/day, and in trials where the baseline dietary calcium intake was calcium intake from dietary sources or by taking calcium supplements produces small non-progressive increases in BMD, which are unlikely to lead to a clinically significant reduction in risk of fracture. © Tai et al 2015.

  4. Calcium and vitamin D intake by postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Spain: an observational calcium and vitamin D intake (CaVIT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tao; Nocea, Gonzalo; Modi, Ankita; Stokes, Leah; Sen, Shuvayu S

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are important causes of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. However, the risk of osteoporotic fractures can be decreased, with clinical studies supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements to promote bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread, particularly among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, and this indicates that dietary intake is suboptimal, even though vitamin D supplements are widely available. We conducted an observational study, using telephone surveys, to estimate vitamin D and calcium intake and the use of prescription osteoporosis medications in Spanish women aged ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis. Among the study participants, mean dietary calcium intake was 1239 mg/day and generally appeared sufficient in terms of the recommended daily intake guidance documents. Participants aged ≥ 75 years had a significantly lower mean dietary calcium intake (988 mg/day), thus one-half were below the level advised by the World Health Organization. Daily calcium intake was also lower in participants who were not taking prescription medications for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake was 167 IU/day, which is well below both the established target dose (400 IU/day) and the more recent, higher guideline recommended for postmenopausal women (800-1300 IU/day). Dietary vitamin D intake was even lower for participants aged ≥ 75 years (120 IU/day) and was not related to the use of bone health prescription medications. These results support the need for greater promotion of the benefits of higher vitamin D intake in Spanish women with osteoporosis.

  5. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Monnat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers compared to those lacking access in their dormitory (non-milk vending consumers. Milk vending machines were installed in two dormitories, and two dormitories having non-milk beverage vending served as comparison sites. Students completed a calcium intake questionnaire at the point of milk (n = 73 or non-milk (n = 79 beverage vending purchases. Mean total calcium intake was higher in milk vending consumers (1245 + 543 mg/d compared to non-milk vending consumers (1042 + 447 mg/d (p = 0.01. Adjusting for gender and milk vending consumer status, there was a positive association between past month milk vending purchases and daily calcium intake from milk (p < 0.001. Fifty-seven students without in-dormitory access to milk vending reported an interest in milk vending if made available. Milk vending may serve as a novel approach for improving calcium intake in college students.

  6. Calcium Intake and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingxing; Li, Zongyao; Ji, Xinqiang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for eligible publications up to April 2017. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Small-study effect was estimated using Egger’s test and the funnel plot. Among 15 epidemiological studies involving 493,415 participants and 7453 cases eligible for this meta-analysis, 13 studies were about dietary calcium intake, 4 studies about dairy calcium intake and 7 studies about dietary plus supplemental calcium intake. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled RRs of ovarian cancer were 0.80 (95% CI 0.72–0.89) for dietary calcium, 0.80 (95% CI 0.66–0.98) for dairy calcium and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65–1.24) for dietary plus supplemental calcium, respectively. Dietary calcium was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74–0.99) and among case-control studies (RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.89). In subgroup analysis by ovarian cancer subtypes, we found a statistically significant association between the dietary calcium (RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.69–0.88) and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This meta-analysis indicated that increased calcium intake might be inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer; this still needs to be confirmed by larger prospective cohort studies. PMID:28665326

  7. Calcium Intake and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Song

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for eligible publications up to April 2017. Pooled relative risks (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using the random-effects model. Small-study effect was estimated using Egger’s test and the funnel plot. Among 15 epidemiological studies involving 493,415 participants and 7453 cases eligible for this meta-analysis, 13 studies were about dietary calcium intake, 4 studies about dairy calcium intake and 7 studies about dietary plus supplemental calcium intake. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled RRs of ovarian cancer were 0.80 (95% CI 0.72–0.89 for dietary calcium, 0.80 (95% CI 0.66–0.98 for dairy calcium and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65–1.24 for dietary plus supplemental calcium, respectively. Dietary calcium was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74–0.99 and among case-control studies (RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.89. In subgroup analysis by ovarian cancer subtypes, we found a statistically significant association between the dietary calcium (RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.69–0.88 and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. This meta-analysis indicated that increased calcium intake might be inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer; this still needs to be confirmed by larger prospective cohort studies.

  8. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila; Leticia Hernández-Cadena; Gabriela Rueda-Hernández; Maritsa Solano-González; Luis G Ibarra; Howard Hu; Martha M. Téllez-Rojo

    2009-01-01

    Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cro...

  9. Intake of dairy calcium and tooth loss among Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Twetman, Svante; Christensen, Lisa B

    2011-01-01

    and 1988 through 1993 and 1994. Total calcium intake, estimated by a 7-d food record or a a diet history interview, was divided into dairy and non-dairy forms of calcium. RESULTS: In men, a 10-fold increase in dairy calcium intake was significantly associated with a decreased risk of tooth loss (incidence......-rate ratio 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.68) even after an adjustment for tooth count in 1987 and 1988, age, education, and civil status (model 1), smoking, alcohol consumption, sucrose intake, and use of vitamin and/or mineral supplements (model 2), time since last dental visit and the presence...

  10. CALCIUM AND IRON INTAKE BY OLD PEOPLE LIVING IN GERIATRIC INSTITUTIONS IN FORTALEZA, CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarciana Nobre de Menezes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and iron intake by 152 old people living in geriatric institutions in Fortaleza, CE was analyzed. The methodology used consisted of weighing food first and then its remainder after meals in order to calculate food consumption. The results showed that 93% of the old people studied presented inadequate intake of calcium. Regarding iron, 72% of men and 41% of women presented intakes above the recommended levels. However, 12% of women presented iron intakes below the recommended levels. According to such results, it is concluded that this population is under a nutritional risk of osteoporosis (considering the large proportion of individuals with inadequate intake of calcium as well as ferroprivous anaemia, especially concerning women. Thus, interventions to prevent and correct such deficiencies are necessary. Key words: old people in geriatric institutions, food intake, food direct weighing.

  11. Intake of dairy products and calcium and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Okubo, H; Sasaki, S; Arakawa, M

    2015-02-01

    To examine the relationship between the intake of dairy products and calcium and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Cross-sectional study. Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study (KOMCHS). A cohort of 1745 pregnant Japanese women. Dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Scores of 16 or higher on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale denoted depressive symptoms. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, job type, household income, education, and body mass index. In our analyses regarding dairy products in general, adjustment was also made for fish intake; in our analysis regarding calcium, adjustment was also made for the intake of saturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid, and vitamin D. Depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Higher intake levels of yogurt and calcium were independently related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios between extreme quartiles were 0.69 (95% CI 0.48-0.99, P for trend = 0.03) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.40-0.88, P for trend = 0.006), respectively. No relationships were observed between the intake of all dairy products, milk, or cheese and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The current results suggest that a higher intake of yogurt and calcium may be associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Relationship between pregnancy outcomes and maternal vitamin D and calcium intake: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabour, Hadis; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Maghbooli, Zhila; Madani, Farzaneh; Mir, Elham; Larijani, Bagher

    2006-10-01

    Poor maternal vitamin D status affects fetal and infant skeletal growth. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between newborn outcomes and maternal calcium and vitamin D intakes. Four hundred and forty-nine pregnant women, healthy at the point of delivery, and their newborns were enrolled in the study, which was performed in three university hospitals in Tehran in March 2004. Maternal anthropometric data and energy, protein, calcium and vitamin D intakes were collected, and newborn outcomes (weight, length, head circumference and 1-min Apgar score) were determined. Almost two-thirds of the mothers (64.3%) took no supplements during pregnancy. Only one-third of the mothers (33.8%) had adequate intakes of calcium and vitamin D (from supplements and foods) compared with the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Mean length at birth and 1-min Apgar score were higher in newborns whose mothers had adequate calcium and vitamin D intake than in newborns whose mothers had inadequate intake (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively). Significant correlations were found between adequate maternal calcium and vitamin D intake and both appropriate birth weight and 1-min Apgar score of newborns and weight gain of mothers during pregnancy. Informing mothers of the critical importance of consuming adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D seems necessary.

  13. Effects of calcium intake on the cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoumas, D; Cobbold, C; Dimitrakakis, G

    2013-11-01

    The use of calcium supplements for the prevention of complications of osteoporosis has significantly increased during the last years. The effects of calcium intake in postmenopausal women on cardiovascular parameters such as blood pressure, serum lipids and cardiovascular events are controversial. Even though transient beneficial effects of calcium supplementation have been reported, especially in women with low dietary calcium intake, their long-term outcomes are inconclusive. Only a very few studies investigating serum lipids in postmenopausal women have been described and these showed significant increases in high-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein to low-density lipoprotein ratio. With regards to cardiovascular events in this population group adverse effects have been reported on the rates of myocardial infarction and stroke with increased calcium intake by some authors, however, others described no effects or even beneficial outcomes. We present a review of the current literature which provides a balanced summary of the possible beneficial and adverse effects of calcium intake in postmenopausal women on cardiovascular parameters. Taking into account the modest effect of calcium supplementation in reducing fracture rates, a reassessment of the role, benefits and adverse effects of calcium supplements should be conducted in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of Pre-Pregnancy Dietary Intake with a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Alberta Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Ramage

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pre-pregnancy is an under-examined and potentially important time to optimize dietary intake to support fetal growth and development as well as maternal health. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which dietary intake reported by non-pregnant women is similar to pre-pregnancy dietary intake reported by pregnant women using the same assessment tool. Methods: The self-administered, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was adapted from the Canadian version of the Diet History Questionnaire, originally developed by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Pregnant women (n = 98 completed the FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the year prior to pregnancy. Non-pregnant women (n = 103 completed the same FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the previous year. Energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients: long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D and iron were examined. Results: Dietary intake between groups; reported with the FFQ; was similar except for saturated fat; trans fat; calcium; and alcohol. Pregnant women reported significantly higher intakes of saturated fat; trans fat; and calcium and lower intake of alcohol in the year prior to pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women who reported intake in the previous year. Conclusions: Despite limitations; a FFQ may be used to assist with retrospective assessment of pre-pregnancy dietary intake.

  15. Parental Influences on Dairy Intake in Children, and Their Role in Child Calcium-Fortified Food Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Beth H.; Chung, Kimberly R.; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Design: Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. Setting…

  16. Dietary intake of calcium, vitamins A and E and bleeding on probing in Sri Lankan preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, V; Ekanayake, L; Silva, R

    2014-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of gingival bleeding on probing and the associations between dietary intake of calcium, vitamins A and E and gingival bleeding on probing in Sri Lankan preschool children. A cross-sectional study. 784 children aged 48-72 months attending preschools in the Kegalle district and their mothers/carers. The prevalence of gingival bleeding on probing was 52.9%. A Poisson logistic regression model revealed that children with a high daily dietary intake of calcium were less likely to have gingival bleeding on probing than those with low intake (PR=0.80; 95%CI 0.64,0.98). Also prevalence of gingival bleeding was higher in children: with plaque on their teeth; whose mothers were not employed; or, were from families with three or more children. The prevalence of gingivitis was high in the children and the findings suggest that high levels of dietary calcium intake are associated with reduced gingival bleeding in preschool children.

  17. A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwalka, Neha J; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Mughal, M Zulf; Sayyad, Mehmood G; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Shirole, Shilpa C; Divate, Uma P; Bhandari, Dhanshari R

    2010-01-01

    Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adolescence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689-1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.

  18. Calcium intake and knowledge among white adolescent girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiftyone per cent of participants had not been given any information relating to calcium and its benefits. Teachers and parents are the most noted sources of information and 31% of the participants knew that adolescence was the most important period for calcium absorption and bone building. Conclusions. Adolescents ...

  19. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  20. Milk Vending Does Not Improve College Students' Milk and Calcium Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Hanks, Andrew S; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2017-08-01

    In the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, overall diet quality decreases, including a reduction in both dairy and calcium consumption. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the impact of milk vending on milk and calcium intakes in college students. Participants were 124 college students living in dorms at a large public university (Fall 2012). Milk vending machines were installed in two campus dorms. Before and 2 months after installation, students were surveyed about milk and calcium intakes, as well as attitudes regarding milk vending. Sales data for the newly installed machines were also collected between the pre- and posttest surveys. Students reported similar milk and calcium consumption before and after the intervention. Mean calcium intakes were lower than the recommended dietary allowance for students in either life stage group (18 years old or 19 years and older). Milk vending sales data showed that during the study period, approximately nine bottles of milk were bought each day from the two dorms combined. Results from this study suggest that milk vending alone may not be an effective strategy for preventing the commonly observed decrease in milk and calcium intakes among college students.

  1. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level.

  2. Dietary calcium intake in a cohort of elderly patients already in drug therapy for osteoporosis. Is it possible and how to modify the eating habits before calcium supplementation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Manzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate intake of calcium via the diet is very common in patients taking drugs for osteoporosis. We have evaluated 302 consecutive elderly patients (68.6 median age attending our Rheumatological and Orthopedic Outpatient Clinics using a questionnaire for evaluation of dietary calcium intake. Two hundred and forty of these had a questionnaire score 7 in 205/240 after an average period of 3-6 months. In the 35 patients in which this was not possible, the exact knowledge of calcium dietary intake (poor or absent has allowed a tailored calcium supplementation.

  3. Dietary calcium intake and higher body mass index in Mexican adults aged 20 to 59 years old: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Efraín Flores-Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although energy balance is the main factor that regulates body weight, recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism can modify the energy balance and help regulate body weight. Objective. To evaluate the association between the calcium intake in the diet and high body mass index in Mexican adults in the 20-59 age group. Material and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study was conducted based on the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutritional Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Food intake questionnaires applied to 16,494 adults were analyzed. After removing biologically implausible values or incomplete information, we arrived at a final sample of 15,662 adults grouped according to their body mass index. Linear regression was used to assess association between daily dietary calcium intake and body mass index. Results. There was an inverse association between dietary calcium consumption and a high body mass index. The mean calcium intake in subjects with normal body mass index was 903.9 mg/day versus 832.0 mg/day in obese subjects (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. The study corroborates existing evidence of an inverse association between the dietary calcium intake and a high body mass index.

  4. Dietary and total calcium intakes are associated with lower percentage total body and truncal fat in young, healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Megan L; Simpson, Janis A Randall; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between different sources of calcium intake (dairy [milk products only], dietary [all dietary sources including dairy], nondairy dietary [all dietary sources excluding dairy], and total [dietary + supplemental]) and fat mass in young adults. One hundred ninety-seven healthy Caucasian men and women aged 18 to 28 years from southwestern Ontario underwent whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to determine total body fat mass (%FM) and truncal fat (%TF). Calcium intakes, determined using a food frequency questionnaire, were divided into quartiles for each of dairy, dietary, nondairy dietary, and total sources. Physical activity scores were collected on a subset of subjects (n = 167). Mean %FM and %TF were compared between the lowest (Q1) and highest (Q4) quartiles of calcium consumers for each calcium source. Calcium intakes between subjects with %FM ≥ 50th and regardless of calcium source (dairy, dietary, and total). When adjusted for physical activity, lower %FM and %TF persisted (P ≤ 0.05) for subjects in Q4 (1113-1595 mg/d mean dietary and total calcium intakes) vs Q1 (116-393 mg/d mean dietary and total calcium intakes). Calcium intakes from dairy, dietary, and total sources for subjects with a %FM ≥ 50th percentile were significantly lower (all P ≤ 0.05); when adjusted for physical activity, dietary (P = 0.025) and total (P = 0.060) calcium intakes remained lower. Our findings support a relationship, even after adjusting for physical activity, between higher dietary and total calcium intakes and lower total body and truncal fat in young adults. Results suggest an intake of approximately 1500 mg/d calcium could aid in the management of body and truncal fat. We recommend that young adults be encouraged to increase their total calcium intakes to at least the recommended daily allowance of 1000 mg/d for reasons extending beyond bone health.

  5. Calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, NaNa; Aune, Dagfinn; Greenwood, Darren C; Ju, Woong; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2014-10-15

    Mechanistic and epidemiologic studies provide considerable evidence for a protective association between calcium intake and incident colorectal cancer (CRC). While the relationship has not been substantiated by short-duration randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CRC, trials do show a benefit on adenomas, a precursor to CRC. To address some of this inconsistency, we conducted dose-response meta-analyses by sources of calcium intake, based on prospective observational studies published up to December 2013 identified from PubMed, Embase, and BIOSIS. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. For total calcium intake, each 300 mg/day increase was associated with an approximately 8% reduced risk of CRC (summary RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.89-0.95, I(2)  = 47%, 15 studies with 12,305 cases, intake = 250-1,900 mg/day, follow-up = 3.3-16 years). While the risk decreased less steeply in higher range of total calcium intake (P(non-linearity)  = 0.04), the degree of curvature was mild and statistical significance of non-linearity was sensitive to one study. For supplementary calcium, each 300 mg/day increase was associated with an approximately 9% reduced risk of CRC (summary RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.86-0.98, I(2)  = 67%, six studies with 8,839 cases, intake = 0-1,150 mg/day, follow-up = 5-10 years). The test for non-linearity was not statistically significant (P(non-linearity)  = 0.11). In conclusion, both dietary and supplementary calcium intake may continue to decrease CRC risk beyond 1,000 mg/day. Calcium supplements and non-dairy products fortified with calcium may serve as additional targets in the prevention of CRC. RCTs of calcium supplements with at least 10 years of follow-up are warranted to confirm a benefit of calcium supplements on CRC risk. © 2014 UICC.

  6. Protective effects of low calcium intake and low calcium absorption vitamin D receptor genotype in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2013-01-01

    High calcium intake is consistently associated with increased prostate cancer risk in epidemiologic studies. We previously reported that the positive association between calcium intake and risk of aggressive prostate cancer was modified by the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CDX-2 binding site of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, among African American men. We expanded our previous study to include White men, a population with a higher calcium intake and a higher prevalence of the low absorption allele. We also examined VDR polymorphisms at other loci unrelated to calcium absorption. The study included 1,857 prostate cancer cases (1,140 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 717 with localized stage) and 1,096 controls. OR were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Among both Blacks and Whites, we observed a threshold for calcium intake (604 mg/d) below which prostate cancer risk declined sharply. Low calcium intake was most strongly associated with decreased risk among men with the VDR Cdx2 low calcium absorption genotype (P for interaction = 0.001 and P = 0.06 for Whites and African Americans, respectively). Among all men with this genotype, those in the lowest quartile of calcium intake (≤604 mg/d) had a 50% reduction in risk as compared with those in the upper three quartiles [OR = 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-0.67]. The association between calcium intake and prostate cancer risk was not modified by genotype at other VDR loci. Our findings support the hypothesis that genetic determinants of calcium absorption influence prostate cancer risk. The differences between African Americans and Whites in calcium absorption and dietary calcium intake may contribute to racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  7. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Vicky; Leung, William; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R; Mark J Bolland

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. Design Random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches were undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled tria...

  8. Dairy products and total calcium intake at 13 years of age and its association with obesity at 21 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabujo, Tiago; Ramos, Elisabete; Lopes, Carla

    2018-01-25

    Dairy products and specifically calcium have been suggested to play a role in obesity development but more longitudinal evidence is still needed. The objective of this study was to assess the association between dairy products and total calcium intake at age 13 and body mass index at age 21. This longitudinal study included 2159 individuals from the Epidemiological Health Investigation of Teenagers cohort (EPITeen), Porto, Portugal, evaluated at ages 13 and 21. Assessment consisted of anthropometrics measurements and structured questionnaires namely a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to appraise food consumption in the past 12 months. Linear regression models were run in 941 individuals with complete information of confounders: gender, follow-up period, parents' education, physical activity, energy, and total calcium intake. Negative association was found on total calcium intake at age 13 with BMI at age 21 (model 0: β = -0.059 (95% CI: -0.113, -0.004) and model 1: -0.057 (95% CI: -0.113, -0.002)), however, no statistically significant association was found when adjusting for energy intake (model 2: β = -0.031 (95% CI: -0.110, 0.047). There were no associations between milk, yogurt, and cheese consumption at age 13 and BMI at age 21 when adjusting for confounders. This study did not support an independent effect of dairy products or total calcium intake in adolescence on later early adulthood adiposity.

  9. Estimation of milk, dairy products and calcium intake in nutrition of the celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Panjkota Krbavčić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley and possibly oats. The smallest amount of gluten in food damages the small intestine of these patients. In Croatia there is no data about nutrition and dietary habits of people with celiac disease. In celiac disease there is one and only cure: a gluten-free diet. Milk and dairy products are major source of calcium, and this population, because of malapsorptive syndrome is especially sensitive and predisposed for osteoporosis and osteopenya. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to establish milk, dairy products and calcium intake in celiac patients nutrition. Milk and dairy products was determined by using 3-day-dietary record (3DD combined with food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in 15 celiac patients. Energy share of milk and dairy products were 11,82 % kJ, twice less than recommendation. Average daily intake of calcium was also below the recommendation (62,64 % DRI, and 67 % of examinees did not achieve neither 2/3 of daily recommendation intake (DRI for calcium. From milk and dairy group examinees use milk and pudding the most, yoghurt and fruit yoghurt less. It is necessary to increase intake of calcium from milk and dairy products group because they are the best source of this nutrient.

  10. Calcium Intake From Diet and Supplements and the Risk of Coronary Artery Calcification and its Progression Among Older Adults: 10-Year Follow-up of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John J B; Kruszka, Bridget; Delaney, Joseph A C; He, Ka; Burke, Gregory L; Alonso, Alvaro; Bild, Diane E; Budoff, Matthew; Michos, Erin D

    2016-10-11

    Recent randomized data suggest that calcium supplements may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Using a longitudinal cohort study, we assessed the association between calcium intake, from both foods and supplements, and atherosclerosis, as measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC). We studied 5448 adults free of clinically diagnosed CVD (52% female; aged 45-84 years) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Baseline total calcium intake was assessed from diet (using a food frequency questionnaire) and calcium supplements (by a medication inventory) and categorized into quintiles. Baseline CAC was measured by computed tomography, and CAC measurements were repeated in 2742 participants ≈10 years later. At baseline, mean calcium intakes across quintiles were 313.3, 540.3, 783.0, 1168.9, and 2157.4 mg/day. Women had higher calcium intakes than men. After adjustment for potential confounders, among 1567 participants without baseline CAC, the relative risk (RR) of developing incident CAC over 10 years, by quintile 1 to 5 of calcium intake, were 1 (reference), 0.95 (0.79-1.14), 1.02 (0.85-1.23), 0.86 (0.69-1.05), and 0.73 (0.57-0.93). After accounting for total calcium intake, calcium supplement use was associated with increased risk for incident CAC (RR=1.22 [1.07-1.39]). No relation was found between baseline calcium intake and 10-year changes in log-transformed CAC among those participants with baseline CAC >0. High total calcium intake was associated with a decreased risk of incident atherosclerosis over long-term follow-up, particularly if achieved without supplement use. However, calcium supplement use may increase the risk for incident CAC. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. Calcium intake and knowledge among white adolescent girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    imperative to develop awareness of the importance of calcium consumption during childhood and adolescence in order to minimise ... Anthropometry. Height was measured to the nearest 5 mm with a tape measure placed against a perpendicular wall. Participants stood erect without shoes looking forward with the head in ...

  12. Assessment of macronutrient and micronutrient intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadigan, C M; Anderson, E J; Miller, K K; Hubbard, J L; Herzog, D B; Klibanski, A; Grinspoon, S K

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of diet history compared to observed food intake in the nutritional assessment of women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy age-matched controls. One-month diet history was compared to 1-day observed food intake in 30 women with AN and 28 control subjects. Reported intake by diet history was similar to observed intake for macronutrient composition and fat intake for patients with AN. Reported energy intake was higher than observed intake (1,602 +/- 200 kcal vs. 1,289 +/- 150 kcal, p Micronutrient intake by diet history was highly correlated with observed intake in patients with AN. More than one half of the patients with AN failed to meet the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin D, calcium, folate, vitamin B12, zinc, magnesium, and copper when assessed by diet history. In contrast to patients with AN, diet history did not correlate with observed intake of energy, macronutrients, or most micronutrients among the controls. Diet history is an accurate tool to assess fat intake and macronutrient composition in patients with AN and demonstrates significant micronutrient deficiencies in this population. The agreement between total energy intake and predicted energy expenditure supports the overall utility of the diet history in the nutritional assessment of patients with AN. Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Bone Mineral Density Changes after Physical Training and Calcium Intake in Students with Attention Deficit and Hyper Activity Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab ameri, Elahe; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with attention deficit and hyper activity (ADHD) disorder. For this reason 54 male students with ADHD (age 8-12 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  14. Bone Mineral Density Accrual in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Calcium Intake and Physical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mahmood; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with autism spectrum disorders. For this reason 60 boy students with autism disorder (age 8-10 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  15. The influence of calcium intake and physical activity on bone mineral content and bone size in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Christian; Thomsen, B. Lykke; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents, Bone area, Bone minral content, Calcium intake, Children, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Physical activity, Size-adjusted......Adolescents, Bone area, Bone minral content, Calcium intake, Children, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Physical activity, Size-adjusted...

  16. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents: relation to puberty, calcium intake, and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe association of height, weight, pubertal stage, calcium intake, and physical activity with bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in 500 children and adolescents (205 boys and 295 girls), aged 4-20 yr. The BMD (grams per cm2) of lumbar spine and total

  17. [Evaluation of the calcium intake in population of Marrakesh and its region: 1000 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Ouazar, M; Amine, M; Harifi, G; Ouilki, I; Younsi, R; Belkhou, A; El Bouchti, I; El Hassani, S

    2010-02-01

    The aim of our work is to evaluate the calcium intake in population of Marrakesh and its region by the translated version in Moroccan Arabic dialect of Fardellone questionnaire. The version translated into Arabic dialect Fardellone questionnaire is tested on a sample of 1000 subjects. The subjects aged less than 15 years accounted for 30.9% (n=309), those aged 15 to 59 62% (n=620) and those aged over 60 years 7.1% (n=71). The distribution by age group is calculated on the distribution of the Moroccan population. The study population includes 60.6% women (n=606), 39.4% of men (n=394). The mean calcium intake was respectively 5875 mg by week (that means 839 mg/day), 4899 mg by week (that means 699 mg/day), 3053 mg by week (that means 436 mg/day), in subjects aged less than 15, those aged 15 to 59, and those aged over 60 years. The average consumption of calcium per day is significantly lower than the recommended daily amount for the three age groups. Patients aged over 60 years is the age group most under nourished calcium. The comparison of both gender found a deficit higher among women than among men. Evaluation of the calcium intake is an essential tool for better management of metabolic bone diseases. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations of dietary calcium intake with metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density among the Korean population: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Chon, S J; Noe, E B; Roh, Y H; Yun, B H; Cho, S; Choi, Y S; Lee, B S; Seo, S K

    2017-01-01

    Excessive amount of calcium intake increased risk for metabolic syndrome in men. However, modest amount decreased the risk of metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Modest amount of calcium also increased bone mineral density (BMD) in both men and postmenopausal women. The present study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary calcium intake with metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean men and women, especially postmenopausal women. The study was performed using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) and included 14,705 participants (5953 men, 4258 premenopausal women, and 4494 postmenopausal women). Clinical and other objective characteristics, presence of metabolic syndrome, and the BMD of the femur neck and lumbar spine were evaluated according to dietary calcium intake. There was a higher tendency for metabolic syndrome in men with a dietary calcium intake of >1200 mg/day than with ≤400 mg of calcium intake; >400 and ≤800 mg of calcium intake was helpful for postmenopausal women to decrease risk for metabolic syndrome. Overall, the group with calcium intake >400 and ≤800 mg daily had significantly increased BMD in both femoral neck and lumbar spine from both men and postmenopausal women. From both femoral neck and lumbar spine, the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women significantly decreased in the group whose calcium intake was >400 and ≤800 mg daily. Excessive dietary calcium may increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men. For postmenopausal women, calcium intake does not increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, but modest amount decreases the risk. It may increase the BMD in men and postmenopausal women, and also reduce the prevalence of both osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

  19. A systematic review of behavioural interventions to increase maternal calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mary E; Stork, Matthew J; Stapleton, Jessica; Bourne, Jessica E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy and lactation are a time when adequate calcium consumption is essential for the development of the fetus and to ensure the health of the mother. Over 50% of Canadian women of childbearing and rearing age fail to meet the recommended daily intake of calcium. Identification of effective behavioural intervention strategies for increasing calcium intake is needed within this specific population. This paper brings together all published behavioural interventions designed to increase calcium consumption in pregnant, lactating or post-partum mothers in a systematic review. Relevant studies were obtained through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library with no date restrictions. Studies were evaluated using previously published criteria for evaluating calcium behaviour change interventions. This systematic literature review identified five behavioural calcium interventions conducted within this population. Three interventions aimed to improve overall dietary behaviours, the fourth aimed to promote breastfeeding (including increasing calcium consumption) and the fifth aimed to increase daily servings of yoghurt. Only one of the five interventions yielded large effect sizes, with a mean change of 954 mg of calcium per day post-intervention. The number of behavioural change techniques did not appear to be related to intervention efficacy. Only one study used a theoretical framework to guide the intervention. This review highlights the lack of research examining behaviour change interventions aimed at increasing calcium consumption in pregnant, lactating and post-partum women and provides practical suggestions for researchers wishing to intervene with this population in the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Inadequate intake of calcium in adults from the Autonomous Community of Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Jiménez Talamantes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: mineral calcium is essential for bone health throughout life. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of inadequate calcium intake in adults from the Valencian Community. Material and methods: the Autonomous Community of Valencia Nutrition Survey 2010-2011, a cross-sectional population study, was used as the data source, which collected data on calcium intake using one 24-h recall. The final sample was 1206 (597 men and 609 women subjects older than 18 years. Results: an average calcium intake of 741.4 mg/person/day (SD= 334.9, 757.8 mg/person/day (SD= 350.0 in men and 725.3 mg/person/day (SD= 319.0 in women was estimated. The results of insufficient intake obtained according to the levels of the estimated average requirements were 70.6% (95%CI: 68.0-73.2, 75.4% higher in women (95%CI: 72.0-78.2 than in men 65.7% (95%CI: 61.9-69.5. The prevalence was 83.8% (95%CI: 81.7-85.9 for the recommended dietary allowances and the differences by sex were significant (p<0,05. The estimated prevalence was highest by age group in those older than 70 years in both cases, 85.5% (95%CI: 80.0-91.0 and 94.3% (95%CI: 90.7-97, 9 respectively. Conclusions: there is evidence of a high prevalence of inadequate calcium intake in adult population from the Autonomous Community of Valencia. Studies should be carried out to evaluate the influence of these findings on related pathologies (osteoporosis, osteoporotic fracture.

  1. Calcium intakes in individuals on diets for the management of cows' milk allergy: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, M; Gibney, M J

    1993-09-01

    Three hundred and twenty-three individuals with self-reported food allergy were recruited by media advertisements. Questionnaire information was collected on all respondents. Chocolate (57%), milk (47%), wheat (36%) and food additives (35%) were the most frequently implicated foods. The most frequently reported symptoms were itching (43%), skin rash (43%) and tiredness (43%). Food avoidance was the most common form of food allergy diagnosis (33%) with only 8% of respondents reporting food challenge in food allergy diagnosis. Self-diagnosis was reported by 34% of respondents with 29% and 24% reporting diagnosis by a general practitioner or a homeopath, respectively. Twenty-four per cent of respondents 'always' avoided and a further 57% 'nearly always' avoided the implicated food(s). A group of 38 adults with self-reported 'milk allergy' was selected for further study. Dietary assessments, using the dietary history method, were carried out on this subgroup and on age-, sex- and occupation-matched controls. The results of the dietary assessments revealed that the 'milk allergy' group had significantly higher intakes of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron and folic acid (P allergy' group took calcium-containing supplements. Even after calcium supplementation, the mean calcium intake of those who completely avoided milk was unacceptably low (441 mg/d).

  2. Selection of methodology to assess food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, G.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Ovesen, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the EFCOSUM project was to develop a method to estimate both acute and usual consumption levels in European countries and for the sake of comparison, a common basic method for dietary assessment was needed. The method should allow a reliable comparison of the intake of relevant

  3. Children who avoid drinking cow milk have low dietary calcium intakes and poor bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Ruth E; Williams, Sheila M; Jones, Ianthe E; Goulding, Ailsa

    2002-09-01

    Information concerning the adequacy of bone mineralization in children who customarily avoid drinking cow milk is sparse. The objective was to evaluate dietary calcium intakes, anthropometric measures, and bone health in prepubertal children with a history of long-term milk avoidance. We recruited 50 milk avoiders (30 girls, 20 boys) aged 3-10 y by advertisement. We measured current dietary calcium intakes with a food-frequency questionnaire and body composition and bone mineral density with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and compared the results with those of 200 milk-drinking control children. The reasons for milk avoidance were intolerance (40%), bad taste (42%), and lifestyle choice (18%). Dietary calcium intakes were low (443 +/- 230 mg Ca/d), and few children consumed substitute calcium-rich drinks or mineral supplements. Although 9 children (18%) were obese, the milk avoiders were shorter (P milk is associated with small stature and poor bone health. This is a major concern that warrants further study.

  4. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  5. Calcium intake and bone mineral density as an example of non-linearity and threshold analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, L P

    2015-04-01

    Non-linearity is a likely phenomenon in bone metabolism, but is often ignored in pertinent epidemiological studies. Using NHANES III data on calcium intake and bone mineral density, the most important non-linear methods are introduced and discussed. The results should motivate researchers to consider non-linearity in this field more frequently. Many relationships in bone metabolism and homeostasis are likely to follow non-linear patterns. Detailed dose-response analyses allowing for non-linear associations nonetheless remain scarce in this field. A detailed analysis of NHANES III data on dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density was used to demonstrate the application and some of the challenges of the most important dose-response methods, including LOESS, categorical analysis, fractional polynomials, restricted cubic splines, and segmented regression. The spline estimate suggested increasing bone mineral density up to a calcium intake of about 1 g/day and a plateau thereafter. In segmented regression, the break-point marking the beginning of the plateau was placed at an intake of 0.58 (95 % confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.82) g/day. Sensitivity analyses suggested a less curved dose-response in women. Knowing about the possibilities and limitations of non-linear dose-response approaches should encourage researchers to consider these methods more frequently in studies on bone health and disease. The example analysis suggested bone mineral density to reach a plateau slightly below current calcium intake recommendations, with fairly pronounced differences of the dose-response shape by sex and menopausal status.

  6. [Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Kelly Aparecida da; Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Loureiro, Laís Monteiro Rodrigues; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Novaes, Juliana Farias de

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: "children" and "calcium" or "children" and "vitamin D" associated with the descriptors: "obesity", "adiposity" or "body fat" for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, as well as clinical trials, were included. Review articles or those that that have not addressed the association of interest were excluded. Eight articles were part of this review, five of which were related to calcium and three to vitamin D. Most studies had a longitudinal design. The analyzed studies found an association between calcium intake and obesity, especially when age and sex were considered. Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D and measures of adiposity in children has been observed and this association was influenced by the sex of the patient and by the seasons of the year. The studies reviewed showed an association between calcium and vitamin D with childhood obesity. Considering the possible protective effect of these micronutrients in relation to childhood obesity, preventive public health actions should be designed, with emphasis on nutritional education. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Better knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in older people is associated with a higher serum vitamin D level and a higher daily dietary calcium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Oudshoorn (Christian); K.A. Hartholt (Klaas); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); E.M. Colin (Edgar); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional

  8. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  9. Vitamin D deficiency and calcium intake in reference to increased body mass index in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musharaf, Sara; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Krishnaswamy, Soundararajan; Yusuf, Deqa S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Moharram, Osama; Yakout, Sobhy; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to several chronic diseases in adults. Studies focusing on children and adolescents, however, are limited. In this randomized cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its relationship with childhood obesity and dietary calcium intake among a population of healthy urban Saudi children and adolescents. To achieve this, 331 randomly selected Saudi children (53.8% females and 46.2% males) aged 6-17 years were included. Demographic, medical, and dietary information were collected; anthropometrics were measured. Levels of serum fasting glucose, lipid profile, 25(OH) D, and for albumin corrected calcium were analyzed. Vitamin D deficiency was noted in all subjects, with girls having significantly lower vitamin D levels than boys. Mean calcium intake was found to be 60% of the required dietary allowance (RDA), while the mean vitamin D intake was 23% of RDA. Vitamin D status and calcium intake were comparable in both normal and overweight/obese children and adolescents. Vitamin D status was highest among children who had calcium intake >800 mg/day. In adolescents there was insignificant but decreasing trend in BMI, which was observed to be highest among those whose calcium intake was 800 mg/day. results from this study suggest the importance of vitamin D fortification and increased dietary calcium in the Saudi diet to meet RDA requirements and avoid onset of vitamin D deficiency-related diseases in Saudi children and adolescents.

  10. Calcium intake is associated with decreased prevalence of periodontal disease in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Okubo, Hitomi; Hanioka, Takashi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Arakawa, Masashi

    2014-11-24

    We investigated the relationships between calcium intake and the prevalence of periodontal disease. This cross-sectional study included 1162 women with a mean age of 31.5 years. Information on dietary factors was collected using a diet history questionnaire during pregnancy. Oral examinations were performed between one and twelve months postpartum. Periodontal disease was defined as positive if a woman had at least one tooth with a pocket depth of 4.0 mm or deeper. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, smoking status, toothbrushing frequency, use of an interdental brush, household income, and education. Compared with the lowest quartile of calcium intake, the highest quartile was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of periodontal disease; however, the inverse linear trend fell just short of the significance level: the adjusted odds ratio was 0.53 (95% confidence interval: 0.30-0.94, P for trend =0.07). Our findings suggest that higher calcium intake may be inversely associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease.

  11. Effect of supplementation with barley and calcium hydroxide on intake of Mediterranean shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Skobic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Maquis plant communities are one of the most varied vegetation types in the Mediterranean region and an important habitat for wild and domestic herbivores. Although the majority of these shrubs are nutritious, the secondary compounds are main impediments that reduce their forage value. In five experiments we determined the effect of supplementing goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley, and barley alone on intake of five dominant shrubs (Quercus ilex, Erica multiflora, Arbutus unedo, Viburnum tinus and Pistacia lentiscus of the Mediterranean maquis community. The combination of calcium hydroxide plus barley and barley alone increased utilization of all five investigated Mediterranean shrubs; therewith that intake of Arbutus unedo and Viburnum tinus was not statistically significant. Supplemented goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley or barley alone could be effective in controlling secondary compounds-rich Mediterranean shrubs where their abundance threatens biodiversity. This control can be facilitated by browsing dominant Mediterranean shrubs, which has been shown to be effective in managing Mediterranean maquis density. Calcium hydroxide and barley (energy enhance use of secondary compounds-containing plants, which may increase production of alternate forages and create a more diverse mix of plant species in the Mediterranean maquis plant community.

  12. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS, DAIRY PRODUCTS AND CALCIUM INTAKES ON RISK FACTORS OF OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION IN FEMALE STUDENTS OF ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY OF DAMAVAND, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Rehmani Ghobadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand in Iran. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 280 healthy female university students aged between 18 to 24 years old who were selected randomly from the university students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran. Subjects completed an informed consent form, health history questionnaire; food questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intakes and physical activity questionnaire (Baecke. Result: The result shows that Increase in physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake with a decrease in BMI, and increase in BMD. Also results shows that there were significant negative correlations between the physical activity levels, diary product consumption, the calcium intake and risk factors of osteoporosis. Conclusions: Increased physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake is associated with an increase in BMD and a concomitant decrease in BMI. These findings suggest that population-level interventions to increase physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake would favorably impact bone and other health outcomes. Thus, dietary pattern coupled with higher education levels and greater physical activity favored bone health and osteoporosis prevention in middle school females.

  13. Calcium intake of rural Gambian infants: a quantitative study of the relative contributions of breast milk and complementary foods at 3 and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjou, L M A; Goldberg, G R; Coward, W A; Prentice, A

    2012-06-01

    There is a paucity of information from developing countries on total calcium intake during infancy, and potential consequences for growth and bone development. Observational longitudinal study of rural Gambian infants (13 males and 17 females) at 3 and 12 months of age. Breast-milk intake and calcium concentration, weighed dietary intake, anthropometry, midshaft radius bone mineral content (BMC) and bone width (BW). At 3 and 12 months (mean ± s.d.) calcium intake from breast milk was 179 ± 53 and 117 ± 38, and from other foods 12 ± 38 and 73 ± 105 mg/day. There was no difference in total calcium intake; 94% and 62% of calcium came from breast milk. At 3 and 12 months, weight s.d.-scores were -0.441 ± 1.07 and -1.967 ± 1.06; length s.d.-scores were -0.511 ± 1.04 and -1.469 ± 1.13. Breast-milk calcium intake positively predicted weight (P = 0.0002, P ≤ 0.0001) and length (P = 0.056, P = 0.001). These relationships were not independent of breast-milk intake, which positively predicted weight (P ≤ 0.002) and length (P = 0.06, P = 0.004). At 3, but not 12 months, weight and length correlated with total calcium intake. There were no relationships between total calcium intake and breast-milk intake with BW or BMC. The combination of low calcium intake from breast milk and complementary foods resulted in a low total calcium intake close to the estimated biological requirement for bone mineral accretion. Relationships between calcium intake and growth were largely accounted for by breast-milk intake, suggesting that low calcium intake per se was not the limiting factor in the poor growth. These findings have potential implications for deriving calcium requirements in developing countries.

  14. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p

  15. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides improve magnesium absorption in adolescent girls with a low calcium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Brouns, F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Consumption of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) has been shown to improve mineral absorption in the short term, but no long-term effects were studied in girls with a low calcium intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that short- and long-term consumption of short-chain FOS (sc-FOS) improves calcium and

  16. Parental influences on dairy intake in children, and their role in child calcium-fortified food use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Beth H; Chung, Kimberly R; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. A convenience sample of Asian (n = 56), Hispanic (n = 61), and white (n = 74) parents of children 10-13 years old, including boys (n = 86) and girls (n = 105). VARIABLES MEASURED AND ANALYSIS: Cluster analysis to identify groups with similar coded parental influences and chi-square analysis to determine associations between these groups and calcium-fortified food use. Two dominant patterns of parental influences: Cluster 1 (n = 128), with positive parental influences related to availability of dairy, milk, and cheese; positive health beliefs for dairy, and child preferences for dairy and cheese, included parents whose children were more likely to use calcium-fortified food. Cluster 2 (n = 63), with positive influences for availability of dairy and milk, included parents whose children were equally likely to be either users or nonusers of calcium-fortified food (P influence on children's dairy intake might also encourage calcium-fortified food intake and improve calcium nutriture.

  17. Dietary magnesium and calcium intake and risk of depression in the general population: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingrong; Lv, Jing; Wang, Weijing; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2017-03-01

    Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) intake and the risk of depression. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore these associations and to investigate the possible dose-response relationship between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression. MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan fang databases and Databases of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals were searched for eligible publications up to September 2016. Pooled relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effects model. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's test and the funnel plot. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline functions. A total of 17 epidemiological studies from 12 articles were included in the present meta-analysis. Among these studies, 11 studies evaluated the association between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression and 6 studies evaluated the association between dietary Ca intake and risk of depression. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled relative risks of depression were 0.81 (95% confidence interval = [0.70, 0.92]) for Mg and 0.66 (95% confidence interval = [0.42, 1.02]) for Ca. Dietary Mg intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of depression among studies conducted in Asia (relative risk  = 0.57; 95% confidence interval = [0.44, 0.74]) and in studies adjusting for energy intake (relative risk  = 0.73; 95% confidence interval = [0.58, 0.92]). For dose-response analysis, evidence of a nonlinear relationship was found between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression, and the largest risk reductions were observed for 320 mg/day. This meta-analysis indicated that moderate Mg intake may be inversely associated with the risk of depression, which

  18. Parent calcium-rich-food practices/perceptions are associated with calcium intake among parents and their early adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Degeneffe, Dennis; Ghosh, Koel; Bruhn, Christine; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Auld, Garry; Ballejos, Miriam; Boushey, Carol; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Wong, SiewSun; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2012-02-01

    The study aimed to (i) segment parents of early adolescents into subgroups according to their Ca-rich-food (CRF) practices and perceptions regarding early adolescent CRF intake and (ii) determine whether Ca intake of parents and early adolescents differed by subgroup. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 509 parents and their early adolescent children completed a questionnaire in 2006-2007 to assess parent CRF practices and perceptions and to estimate parent and child Ca intakes. Self-administered questionnaires were completed in community settings or homes across nine US states. Parents self-reporting as Asian, Hispanic or non-Hispanic White with a child aged 10-13 years were recruited through youth or parent events. Three parent CRF practice/perception segments were identified, including 'Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers' (49 %), 'Water Regulars' (30 %) and 'Sweet-Drink-Permissive Parents' (23 %). Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers were somewhat older and more likely to be non-Hispanic White than other groups. Ca intakes from all food sources, milk/dairy foods and milk only, and milk intakes, were higher among early adolescent children of Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers compared with early adolescents of parents in other segments. Soda pop intakes were highest for early adolescents with parents in the Water Regulars group than other groups. Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers scored higher on culture/tradition, health benefits and ease of use/convenience subscales and lower on a dairy/milk intolerance subscale and were more likely to report eating family dinners daily than parents in the other groups. Parent education programmes should address CRF practices/perceptions tailored to parent group to improve Ca intake of early adolescent children.

  19. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Christensen, Lisa B; Heitmann, Berit L

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g/d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same tooth) and ≥1 inter-proximal site with pocket depth ≥5 mm. Since vitamin D influences Ca absorption, models were stratified by lower and higher (periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, smoking, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, number of teeth, daily brushing, regular visits to the dentist and chronic illness, irrespective of vitamin D intake levels. Intake of vitamin D alone was not associated severe with periodontitis. Intakes of Ca, casein and whey protein were inversely associated with periodontitis. Consumption of foods rich in Ca, casein and whey (e.g. dairy foods) should be promoted, as they may contribute to the prevention of periodontitis. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm these associations.

  20. Dietary calcium intake and Renin Angiotensin System polymorphisms alter the blood pressure response to aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsongalis Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary calcium intake and the renin angiotensin system (RAS regulate blood pressure (BP by modulating calcium homeostasis. Despite similar BP regulatory effects, the influence of dietary calcium intake alone and combined with RAS polymorphisms on the BP response following acute aerobic exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of dietary calcium intake and selected RAS polymorphisms on postexercise hypotension. Methods Subjects were men (n = 50, 43.8 ± 1.3 yr with high BP (145.3 ± 1.5/85.9 ± 1.1 mm Hg. They completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle bouts at 40% and 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Subjects provided 3 d food records on five protocol-specific occasions. Dietary calcium intake was averaged and categorized as low (1R A/C were analyzed with molecular methods. Genotypes were reduced from three to two: ACE II/ID and ACE DD; or AT1R AA and AT1R CC/AC. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested if BP differed among experiments, dietary calcium intake level and RAS polymorphisms. Results Systolic BP (SBP decreased 6 mm Hg after 40% and 60% VO2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h with LowCa (p 2max versus non-exercise control for 10 h among ACE II/ID (6 mm Hg and AT1R AA (8 mm Hg; and by 8 mm Hg after 40% VO2max among ACE DD and AT1R CC/CA (p 2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h (p 2max (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion SBP decreased after exercise compared to non-exercise control among men with low but not high dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake interacted with the ACE I/D and AT1R A/C polymorphisms to further modulate postexercise hypotension. Interactions among dietary calcium intake, exercise intensity and RAS polymorphisms account for some of the variability in the BP response to exercise.

  1. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Emmanuelle Dias; Andretta, Aline; de Miranda, Renata Costa; Nehring, Jéssica; Dos Santos Paiva, Eduardo; Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo

    2016-01-01

    To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM) seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT) with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and the analyzed items were total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E) and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium). The software used was Avanutri Online(®). To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and pain threshold were used. 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group, there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Women with FM showed a lower qualitative and quantitative intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Dias Batista

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Methods: Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and analyzed items were: total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium. The software used was Avanutri Online®. To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and pain threshold were used. Results: 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Conclusion: Women with FM showed a lower qualitatively and quantitatively intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain.

  3. Parents' Calcium Knowledge Is Associated with Parental Practices to Promote Calcium Intake among Parents of Early Adolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Carolyn W.; Rose, Angela M.; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Reicks, Marla; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Boushey, Carol J.; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here aimed to identify the relationship of parents' calcium knowledge with diet-related parental practices and determinants of calcium knowledge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted measuring parental practices, calcium knowledge, and demographics. A convenience sample of 599 racially/ethnically diverse parents of children…

  4. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g....../d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same...... study of DANHES 2007-2008. RESULTS: Intakes of Ca within recommendations (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.58, 0.99), whey ≥9.6 g/d (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) and casein ≥32 g/d (OR=0.75 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) were associated with lower likelihood of severe periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education...

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    /day for adults, including pregnant and lactating women), which was based on different intervention studies of long duration in which total daily calcium intakes of 2,500 mg from both diet and supplements were tolerated without adverse effects, needed to be changed on the basis of new available evidence. A number...... diet and supplements and increased risk of nephrolithiasis, cardiovascular disease or prostate cancer. No new data have become available which would require a revision of the UL for calcium for adults, including pregnant and lactating women, of 2,500 mg. No new data have become available which would...... allow the setting of a UL for infants, children or adolescents. Data from European populations indicate that intakes of calcium in high consumers among adult males can be close to the UL. Although available data do not allow the setting of a UL for infants, children or adolescents, no risk has been...

  6. Effect of oligofructose-enriched inulin on bone metabolism in girls with low calcium intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Corrêa de Souza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present clinical study, the effect of oligofructose-enriched inulin was studied on bone metabolism in girls from 9 to 12 years old, with low habitual calcium intakes, who attended public schools. Two calcium-enriched formulations, supplemented with oligofructose-enriched inulin (test drink or without (standard drink were made. Sixty pre-pubertal girls were randomized into a double-blind and crossover design, divided into three groups and received one daily portion of either the standard drink (group 1 or test drink (group 2 during 11 weeks, followed by a three-week washout period. Group control did not receive any supplementation. Biochemical evaluations of serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone - iPTH - and bone alkaline phosphatase - BAP - were performed at baseline and after 4, 8 and 11 weeks of each intervention period. In group 1, a significant increase in serum calcium and BAP and a reduction of iPTH were observed after consumption of the test drink.No presente ensaio clínico, o efeito de oligofrutose enriquecida com inulina foi estudado no metabolismo ósseo de meninas de 9 a 12 anos com baixa ingestão habitual de cálcio, matriculadas em escolas públicas. Duas formulações foram suplementadas ou não (bebida padrão com oligofrutose enriquecida com inulina (bebida teste. Sessenta meninas pré-púberes foram aleatorizadas em estudo duplo cego crossover e divididas em três grupos e receberam uma porção diária da bebida padrão (grupo 1 ou teste (grupo 2 durante 11 semanas, seguidos por um período de intervalo de três semanas. O grupo controle não recebeu nenhuma suplementação. As avaliações bioquímicas de cálcio sérico, paratormônio intacto - PTHi e fosfatase alcalina fração óssea - FAO foram executadas ao início e após 4, 8 e 11 semanas de cada período de intervenção. No grupo 1, um aumento significante no cálcio sérico e FAO e uma redução no PTHi foram observadas após o consumo da bebida teste.

  7. Blood pressure in relation to dietary calcium intake, alcohol consumption, blood lead, and blood cadmium in female nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizent, A; Jurasovie, J; Telisman, S

    2001-01-01

    The interrelationship of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, alcohol consumption, blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), age, and body mass index (BMI) to blood pressure was examined in 267 peasant women 40-85 years of age. They were residents of two rural areas in Croatia and differed with regard to dietary Ca intake: 100 women with low Ca intake (approximately 450 mg/day) and 167 women with relatively high Ca intake (approximately 940 mg/day). All of the women were nonsmokers and consumed very little or no alcohol. Median and range BPb values were 74 (29-251) microg/L in women with low Ca intake and 59 (21-263) microg/L in women with high Ca intake (p 0.10). Results of multiple regression showed a significant (p women with low Ca intake), and marginally with BCd, and alcohol consumption (multiple r = 0.38, p women with different Ca intake were subdivided into consumers and nonconsumers of alcohol, BPb was related positively to alcohol consumption and inversely to Ca intake. The highest BPb was found in the subgroup of alcohol consumers with low Ca intake, and the lowest BPb in the subgroup of nonconsumers with high Ca intake: 78 (42-251) microg/L and 51 (22-192) microg/L, respectively (p < 10(-8)). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the former subgroup as compared to the latter: 95 (72-130) mm Hg and 90 (60-120) mm Hg, respectively (p < 0.05). This cannot be explained by age, BMI, or BCd, which were comparable in the two subgroups. The results indicate that alcohol consumption and low Ca intake can increase BPb, which may significantly contribute to an increase in diastolic blood pressure in female nonsmokers even at relatively low-level Pb exposure.

  8. [Comparison of the somatotype, nutritional assessment and food intake among university sport and sedentary students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo Mendonça, Roberto Carlos; Sospedra, Isabel; Sanchis, Ignacio; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, José Miguel

    2012-06-16

    The study of the somatotype and food intake among university students is important to carry out internal policies about the improvement of health and prevention of diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotype, nutritional assessment and food intake of university sport and sedentary students. The sample were 1,299 university students (420 males and 879 females) from University of Valencia, during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, who were evaluated for several anthropometric parameters, the somatotype and the nutritional and food intakes with a 7 day dietary diary. The somatotype was Endo-Mesomorph, Meso-Endomorph, Balanced Endomorph and Meso-Endomorph for sport and sedentary males, and sports and sedentary females, respectively. All groups had a high and low percentage of total calories in comparison with proteins plus lipids, and carbohydrates, respectively, as established in the nutritional objectives for the Spanish population. Low vitamin intakes, including E (in the sport males), A, D and E, folate and biotine (in the sedentary males) and A, D, E, folate and biotine (in the sport and sedentary females) were observed. All groups had a high intake of sodium and a deficit of potassium, calcium, iodine and magnesium. On the other hand, cereal groups were the most important in the energy dairy intake. Disequilibrium in macronutrients and micronutrients reflects the importance of developing food policies among University people to improve this situation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Dairy product consumption, calcium intakes, and metabolic syndrome-related factors over 5 years in the STANISLAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Anastasia; Herbeth, Bernard; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Fumeron, Fréderic; Billod, Stéphanie; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2013-03-01

    We assessed the associations of total dairy products; milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese; cheese; and calcium with 5-y changes in components of the metabolic syndrome. Two hundred eighty-eight men and 300 women 28 to 60 y of age from the suivi temporaire annuel non invasif de la santé des lorrains assurés sociaux (STANISLAS) cohort completed at baseline a 3-d dietary record. Statistics were performed using multivariate regression analysis. In men, no relation was found between the four dietary indices and components of the metabolic syndrome measured at baseline. Conversely, the consumption of milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese at entry was inversely associated with 5-y changes in glucose levels (P ≤ 0.05, P ≤ 0.01 for sex interaction) and positively with 5-y changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P ≤ 0.05). Higher calcium intakes were significantly related to a lower 5-y increase of the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in men (P ≤ 0.01, P ≤ 0.05 for sex interaction). In addition, changes in diastolic blood pressure were inversely associated with the consumption of milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese only in men with a normal BMI (P ≤ 0.05 for BMI interaction). In women, unlike men, associations were shown for some components measured at baseline: total dairy positively related to BMI and waist circumference; total dairy, milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese, and calcium were positively related to triacylglycerols and negatively to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, no significant association was found for any 5-y-changes. In men only, a higher consumption of dairy products was associated with positive changes in the metabolic profile in a 5-y period; a higher calcium consumption was associated with a lower 5-y increase of the BMI and waist circumference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcium intake and osteoporosis O consumo de cálcio e a osteoporose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeu Antonio Rossi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by the reduction of bone mass and damage of the microarchitecture of bone tissue, with a consequent increase of bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. In women, osteoporosis is associated with menopause, as the reduction of estrogens accelerates bone loss. Apart from the hormonal component, this illness can have other causes, amongst them: mechanical, genetic and nutritional. One of the nutritional components of great importance is calcium. About 99% of the corporeal calcium content is found in the skeleton, conferring rigidity and being a readily available source for the maintenance of the normal levels of plasma calcium concentration. Therefore, calcium is the most studied nutrient in the area of bone health and it is considered important for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Some studies have shown a positive relation between calcium supplementation and reduction of bone loss in postmenopausal women. However, some doubts concerning this effect still persist. The objective of this work is to revise the relation between calcium intake and bone health, focusing on osteoporosis prevention and/or treatment in women.   A osteoporose é caracterizada pela redução de massa óssea e prejuízo da microarquitetura do tecido ósseo, com um conseqüente aumento da fragilidade óssea e susceptibilidade à fratura. Nas mulheres, a osteoporose está associada à menopausa, uma vez que a diminuição de estrógenos acelera a perda óssea. Além do componente hormonal, essa doença pode apresentar outras causas, dentre elas: mecânicas, genéticas e nutricionais. Um dos componentes nutricionais de grande importância é o cálcio. Cerca de 99% do conteúdo de cálcio corpóreo se encontra no esqueleto, conferindo rigidez, e representando uma fonte prontamente disponível para a manutenção dos níveis normais de sua concentração plasmática. Por essa razão, o cálcio é o nutriente mais estudado na

  11. Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to risk of endometrial cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Marjorie L; Bandera, Elisa V; Moore, Dirk F; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2008-04-01

    In response to a recent ecologic study of UV exposure and endometrial cancer incidence, we present the epidemiologic evidence on the relation between intake of vitamin D and its metabolically related nutrient, calcium, and the occurrence of endometrial cancer. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of vitamin D and calcium in relation to endometrial cancer, including peer-reviewed manuscripts published up to May 2007. Random and fixed effects summary estimates were computed. Pooled analyses of the three case-control studies of dietary vitamin D and endometrial cancer uncovered heterogeneous results that were not significant in random or fixed effects analyses. Cut-points for the highest vitamin D intakes ranged from >244 to >476 IU/day. Qualitatively similar findings were observed for dietary calcium. Only two studies provided estimates for calcium supplements (random effects OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99; fixed effects OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.93, for top vs. bottom category, p for heterogeneity=0.25). The limited epidemiological evidence suggests no relation between endometrial cancer in the ranges of dietary vitamin D examined, and suggests a possible inverse association for calcium from supplements. Prospective studies, ideally including plasma 25(OH) D to estimate vitamin D input from diet and sun exposure, are needed to further explore these hypotheses.

  12. Estimated intake and food sources of vitamin A, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium, iron, and zinc for Guamanian children aged 9 to 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobocik, Rebecca S; Richer, Jennifer J

    2002-09-01

    This study describes the nutrient intake and food sources of select vitamins and minerals for children on Guam. Food records (n = 954) from public school students aged nine to twelve of all regions on Guam were analyzed for nutrient content and compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). Individual foods were condensed into 194 food aggregates and food lists representing 84% to 91% of the major vitamins and minerals in the diet of the children were developed by frequency analysis. Median intake of calcium, vitamin E, folate were less than 50% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and mean intake of these nutrients was 60% RDA or less. Mean and median vitamin A intake was 107% and 76% RDA, respectively. Both mean and median intake of Vitamin C, iron and zinc were present at levels above 100% RDA. Rice, meat, fruit drink from powder, milk, and fortified cereals are foods that provide substantial contributions to the vitamin and mineral content of the diets. Traditional, nutrient dense foods, such as fish, yams, papaya, and mango had minor contributions because of low frequently of consumption. Information from this study can be used to develop specific diet assessment instruments and culturally appropriate nutrition education.

  13. Adequate calcium intake during long periods improves bone mineral density in healthy children. Data from the Childhood Obesity Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Zaragoza-Jordana, Marta; Ferré, Natàlia; Luque, Veronica; Grote, Veit; Koletzko, Berthold; Verduci, Elvira; Vecchi, Fiammetta; Escribano, Joaquin

    2017-03-16

    Bone mineralization can be influenced by genetic factors, hormonal status, nutrition, physical activity and body composition. The association of higher calcium (Ca) intake or Ca supplementation with better bone mineral density (BMD) remains controversial. Furthermore, it has been speculated that maintaining long-term adequate Ca intake rather than having a brief supplementation period is more effective. The aim of the study was to prospectively analyse the influence of adequate Ca intake on BMD at 7 years of age in European children. Data from the Childhood Obesity Project were analysed in a prospective longitudinal cohort trial. Dietary intake was recorded using 3-day food records at 4, 5 and 6 years of age. The probability of adequate intake (PA) of Ca was calculated following the American Institute of Medicine guidelines for individual assessments, with FAO, WHO and United Nations University joint expert consultation dietary recommendations. Children were categorised as having high Ca PA (PA >95%) or not (PA BMD were measured in the Spanish subsample by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Internal BMD z-scores were calculated; BMD below -1 z-score were considered to indicate osteopenia, and BMD z-scores below -2, "low bone mineral density for age". BMD was measured in 179 children. Ca intake at 6 years was positively correlated with LS BMD at 7 years (R = 0.205, p = 0.030). A Ca increase of 100 mg/day explained 19.4% (p = 0.011) of the LS BMD z-score variation, modifying it by 0.089 (0.021, 0.157) units. Children with Ca PA >95% at 5 and 6 or from 4 to 6 years of age showed higher BMD z-scores at the LS and WB levels than children with Ca PA BMD, respectively). Ca PA >95% maintained over 2 years explained 26.3% of the LS BMD z-score variation (p 95% maintained over 3 years explained 24.9% of the LS BMD z-score variation, increasing it by 0.773 (0.282, 1.264). The effects of Ca adequacy on WB BMD were similar. Children with PA >95% over 2 years had an

  14. Significance of the ionized calcium measurement to assess calcium status in osteopenic/osteoporosis postmenopausal outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiducci, Letizia; Maffei, Silvia; Sabatino, Laura; Zyw, Luc; Battaglia, Debora; Vannucci, Alessandro; Di Cecco, Pietro; Vassalle, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of calcium status is important in the osteoporotic risk assessment. Although guidelines indicate total calcium (tCa) as first-line measurement, directly measured ionized calcium (m-iCa), considered as the gold standard, is more and more often required. Aim of this study is to evaluate the agreement between m-iCa, tCa and iCa calculated from a formula based on total calcium and albumin (c-iCa) in osteopenic/osteoporotic postmenopausal outpatients. A total of 140 postmenopausal outpatients, 41 osteopenic (OPN) and 99 osteoporotic (OP) were enrolled. Levels of tCa, m-iCa, c-iCa, total protein and albumin, vitamin D (25-OHD), parathyroid hormone 1-84 (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and serum collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) were also measured. There were no statistically significant differences between OPN and OP groups regarding values of tCa, m-iCa, and c-iCa, 25-OHD and PTH. However, OP women had lower levels of CTX (p calcium status in postmenopausal outpatients, but reflexive calcium testing strategy for m-iCa test is necessary to women presenting the low or high extremes of tCa levels, or in women with suspected PHPT.

  15. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turn to calcium-fortified (or "calcium-set") tofu, soy milk, tempeh, soy yogurt, and cooked soybeans (edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. You can get decent ...

  16. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. PMID:28230782

  17. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-02-21

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71-2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331-4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73-782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0-74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D.

  18. Assessment of dietary intake of children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Wun Fung; Betoko, Aisha; Savant, Jonathan D; Abraham, Alison G; Greenbaum, Larry A; Warady, Bradley; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Furth, Susan L

    2017-03-01

    Our aim was to characterize the nutrient intake of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) relative to recommended intake levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study of dietary intake assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) in The North American Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) prospective cohort study. Nutrient intake was analyzed to estimate the daily consumption levels of various nutrients and compared with national guidelines for intake. There were 658 FFQs available for analysis; 69.9 % of respondents were boys, with a median age [Interquartile range (IQR)] of 11 years (8-15). Median daily sodium, potassium, and phosphorus intake was 3089 mg (2294-4243), 2384 mg (1804-3076), and 1206 mg (894-1612) respectively. Sodium and phosphorus consumptions were higher than recommended in all age groups. Caloric intake decreased with dropping glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (p = 0.003). The median daily caloric intakes were 1307 kcal in male children 2-3 years old, 1875 kcal in children 4-8 years old, 1923 kcal in those 9-13 years old, and 2427 kcal in those 14-18 years old. Respective levels for girls were 1467 kcal, 1736 kcal, 1803 kcal, and 2281 kcal. Median protein intake exceeded recommended levels in all age groups, particularly among younger participants. Younger children were more likely than older children to exceed the recommended intakes for phosphorus (p < 0.001) and the age-specific recommended caloric intake (p < 0.001). Macronutrient distribution (carbohydrate:fat:protein) was consistent with recommendation. Children in the CKiD cohort consumed more sodium, phosphorus, protein, and calories than recommended. The gap between actual consumption and recommendations indicates a need for improved nutritional counseling and monitoring.

  19. Dairy consumption and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer in a prospective cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, Anette; Thoresen, Magne; Engeset, Dagrun; Lund, Eiliv

    2010-11-01

    To study the association between consumption of dairy products and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer risk according to menopausal status. In a population-based prospective cohort study of 64,904 Norwegian women followed from 1996/1999 through 2006, we examined total dairy consumption and consumption of various dairy products in relation to pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. We also examined breast cancer in relation to calcium intake and to milk consumption during childhood and performed additional analyses corrected for measurement errors in the dietary data. In total, 218 premenopausal and 1,189 postmenopausal incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up. Total dairy, adult, and childhood milk consumption was not associated with either pre- or postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Premenopausal women with the highest consumption of white cheese had half the risk of breast cancer compared to those with the lowest consumption (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.87). Total calcium intake tended to be inversely related to premenopausal (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.39-1.08) and postmenopausal breast cancer (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.70-1.04). Correcting for measurement errors did not alter the results substantially, nor did exclusion of early cancer cases. Dairy consumption is not strongly related to breast cancer risk in this prospective study. A non-significant negative association between calcium intake and breast cancer risk was seen, particularly among premenopausal women.

  20. Development and Testing of a Mobile Phone App for Self-Monitoring of Calcium Intake in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Ilona; Garland, Suzanne; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis

    2017-03-07

    Interventions to prevent osteoporosis by increasing dairy intake or physical activity in young women have been limited to increasing osteoporosis knowledge and awareness. However, findings have shown that this does not always lead to a change in behaviors. Self-monitoring using mobile devices in behavioral interventions has yielded significant and positive outcomes. Yet, to our knowledge, mobile self-monitoring has not been used as an intervention strategy to increase calcium intake, particularly in young women, for better bone health outcomes. As development and testing of mobile app-based interventions requires a sequence of steps, our study focused on testing the acceptability and usability of Calci-app, a dietary app to self-monitor calcium consumption, before it is used in a behavioral change intervention in young women aged 18-25 years. Calci-app development followed 4 steps: (1) conceptualization, (2) development and pretesting, (3) pilot testing, and (4) mixed methods evaluation. We present the development process of Calci-app and evaluation of the acceptability and usability of the app in young women. Overall, 78% (31/40) of study participants completed the 5-day food record with high compliance levels (defined as more than 3 days of full or partial completion). There was a significant reduction in the proportion of participants completing all meal entries over the 5 days (P=.01). Participants generally found Calci-app easy and convenient to use, but it was time-consuming and they expressed a lack of motivation to use the app. We present a detailed description of the development process of Calci-app and an evaluation of its usability and acceptability to self-monitor dietary calcium intake. The findings from this preliminary study demonstrated acceptable use of Calci-app to self-monitor calcium consumption. However, for regular and long-term use the self-monitoring function in Calci-app could be expanded to allow participants to view their total daily

  1. [Assessment of vitamins and minerals intake with supplements during breast-feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Gorzel, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of supplements intake during breast-feeding was aim of the work. Seventy three women were examined in age 19-42 years coming from the Lublin province. The information about applying supplements during breast-feeding was obtained using questionnaire method. Achieved results served for calculations of taking vitamins and minerals coming from supplements. During breast-feeding 48% women accepted supplements. Average intakes of vitamin B2 (113%), B6 (120%), folic acid (144%) and vitamin D (166%) from supplements were above 100% recommended values. The highest average consumption was noted for iron (229% of recommended value), however the lowest on level 10-35% recommendations for vitamin A (33%), calcium (11%), selenium (12%) and magnesium (20%). Nearly 100% of the norm realization was obtained in case of the vitamin C (93%), E (102%), PP (105%), B1 (107%) and zinc (99%).

  2. Feed intake, growth, and body and carcass attributes of feedlot steers supplemented with two levels of calcium nitrate or urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, R S; Miller, J; Oelbrandt, N; Li, L; Luijben, J P M; Robinson, D L; Nolan, J V; Perdok, H B

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate supplementation has been shown to be effective in reducing enteric methane emission from ruminants, but there have been few large-scale studies assessing the effects of level of nitrate supplementation on feed intake, animal growth, or carcass and meat quality attributes of beef cattle. A feedlot study was conducted to assess the effects of supplementing 0.25 or 0.45% NPN in dietary DM as either urea (Ur) or calcium nitrate (CaN) on DMI, ADG, G:F, and carcass attributes of feedlot steers ( = 383). The levels of NPN inclusion were selected as those at which nitrate has previously achieved measurable mitigation of enteric methane. The higher level of NPN inclusion reduced ADG as did replacement of Ur with CaN ( nitrate-supplemented cattle to have a slower rate of eating (g DMI/min) than Ur-supplemented cattle. When adjusted for BW, neither NPN source nor inclusion level affected cross-sectional area of the LM or fatness measured on the live animal. Similarly, there were no significant main effects of treatments on dressing percentage or fat depth or muscling attributes of the carcass after adjustment for HCW ( > 0.05). Analysis of composited meat samples showed no detectable nitrates or nitrosamines in raw or cooked meat, and the level of nitrate detected in meat from nitrate-supplemented cattle was no higher than for Ur-fed cattle ( > 0.05). We conclude that increasing NPN inclusion from 0.25 to 0.45% NPN in dietary DM and replacing Ur with CaN decreased ADG in feedlot cattle without improving G:F.

  3. Dietary indicators for assessing the adequacy of population zinc intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Christine

    2007-09-01

    The assessment of dietary zinc intakes is an important component of evaluating the risk of zinc deficiency in populations, and for designing appropriate food-based interventions, including fortification, to improve zinc intakes. The prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes can describe the relative magnitude of the risk of zinc deficiency in the population and identify subpopulations at elevated risk. As a cornerstone to evaluating the adequacy of population zinc intakes globally, a set of internationally appropriate dietary reference intakes must be defined. The World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (WHO/FAO/IAEA) and the Food and Nutrition Board/US Institute of Medicine (FNB/IOM) have presented estimated average requirements (EAR) for dietary zinc intake, and, more recently, the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) presented a revised set of recommendations for international use. A prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes greater than 25% is considered to represent an elevated risk of population zinc deficiency. As the requirement estimates are derived from smaller, clinical studies and, for children, most components of the estimates are extrapolated from data for adults, it was desirable to evaluate their internal validity. The estimated physiological requirements for adult men and women appear to adequately predict zinc status as determined by biochemical indicators of status and/or zinc balance. With the use of data from available studies, the reported prevalence of low serum zinc concentration and the estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes predict similar levels of risk of zinc deficiency, particularly among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Conformity between these two indicators is less consistent for children, suggesting that further data and/or direct studies of zinc requirements among children are needed.

  4. [Assessment of vitamins and minerals intake with supplements in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamułka, Jadwiga; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Pawłowska, Renata

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the work was to assess the application of diet supplements in pregnant women, as well as the intake of vitamins and minerals with pharmaceuticals. Sixty women in age 19 - 40 years coming from the Mazowsze district were examined. The information about applying supplements was obtained using questionnaire method. The intake of vitamin and mineral supplements before and during pregnancy was declared on the level of 55% and 98.3% respectively. The average intake of vitamin D (157%), folic acid (128%), vitamin B2 (125%), vitamin C (121%), iron (120%), iodine and zinc (113%) from supplements was above recommended values. The average intake of vitamin B1, B12 and B6 from supplements was about 95-105% of RDA. The lowest average consumption was noted for vitamin A (60%) as well as calcium and magnesium (10-12% of recommended value). Pregnant women who have lived in country consumed less vitamins and minerals from supplements, however differences were statistically significant in case vitamin A, E, magnesium, cooper, iodine and manganese.

  5. The Effects in the Rat of Varying Intakes of Dietary Calcium, Phosphorus, and Hydrogen Ion on Hyperparathyroidism Due to Chronic Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Renal failure of 4 wk duration in rats led to parathyroid enlargement, increased bone resorption, and decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphate by the remnant kidney. The degree of hyperparathyroidism was influenced by each of the three dietary factors investigated. In the first study increasing calcium intake reduced the size of the parathyroids by increasing calcium and reducing phosphate absorption. In the second study phosphate intake was linearly related to parathyroid gland size in the uremic animals and associated with rising plasma phosphate levels. In the last study acidosis led directly to increased bone resorption but small parathyroid glands associated with elevated ionized calcium levels. Alkalosis lowered the serum ionized calcium and led to parathyroid enlargement and the expected associated findings. It was shown that parathyroid weight reflected both metabolic activity as judged by amino acid uptake, and the content of immunoassayable parathyroid hormone. In all studies gland weight was inversely related to serum ionized calcium. PMID:4808640

  6. Intakes of dairy products and calcium and obesity in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19-64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m². Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45-0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71-0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64-0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

  7. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  8. [Effects of intake of heated mixtures of glucose-lysine and glucose-methionine on bone calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Andrade, C; Seiquer, I; Navarro, Maria P

    2005-01-01

    During food thermal treatment Maillard's reaction may occur, which implicates mainly the carbonyl groups of reductory sugars and amino protein groups. Maillard's reaction products (MRP) may interfere with mineral bioavailability because of modifications of their physical-chemical moiety in the food or the lumen, disrupting the absorption process or its normal metabolism. In this study, we sought to investigate MRP influence on issues related to Ca bioavailability in vitro and in vivo. Equimolar mixtures of glucose-lysine (GL) and glucose-methionine (GM) (40% moisture) were heated at 150 degrees C for 90 minutes (samples GL90 and GM90, respectively). In vitro solubility was measured by additioning each samples to a 3.75 mM Ca solution at intestinal pH and ionic strength; after shaking and centrifugation, soluble and insoluble calcium was determined. Three percent of GL90 and GM90 were individually added to the AIN93-G diet to obtain D-GL90 and D-GM90 diets. Three Wistar rats groups were fed for 21 days with both diets and with AIN93-G as control, carrying out calcium balance during last week and extirpating various organs after sacrifice. GM90 did not affect calcium solubility; GL90 reduced it slightly, remaining in both cases more than 94% soluble. D-GL90 and D-GM90 did not modify calcium bioavailability, with as effective usage as with the control diet (57.6 +/- 1.3%, 57.8 +/- 2.3% and 63.9 +/- 2.6% in control diet, D-GL90 and D-GM90, respectively). MRP intake produced, however, metabolic changes that decreased bone calcium, accumulating compensatorily in other organs.

  9. Greater Calcium Intake is Associated with Better Bone Health Measured by Quantitative Ultrasound of the Phalanges in Pediatric Patients Treated with Anticonvulsant Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Vera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate and compare the effects of chronic antiepileptic therapy on bone health in pediatric patients using quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges (QUS and controlling for potential confounding factors, particularly nutrient intake. The amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS was measured in 33 epileptic children and 32 healthy children aged 6.5 ± 3.1 and 6.3 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD years, respectively. There were no significant differences in the demographics such as age, weight and height between epileptic children and the control group children. None of the children in the epileptic or the treatment group were found to have a vitamin D deficiency. There were no significant differences in laboratory tests between groups. Lower QUS figures were found in the epileptic children (p = 0.001. After further adjustment for potential confounders such age, height, weight, calcium intake, vitamin D intake, physical activity and sex, the differences remained significant (p < 0.001. After further classification of the participants based on the tertile of calcium intake, no significant differences were found between patients and healthy controls in the greatest tertile of calcium intake (p = 0.217. We conclude that anticonvulsant therapy using valproate may lead to low bone mass in children and that an adequate intake of calcium might counteract such deleterious effects.

  10. Dairy food, calcium and vitamin D intake in pregnancy, and wheeze and eczema in infants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyake, Y; Sasaki, S; Tanaka, K; Hirota, Y

    2010-01-01

    The present prospective study examined the association between maternal consumption of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D during pregnancy and the risk of wheeze and eczema in the infants aged 16-24 months...

  11. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have ...

  12. Low calcium intake is related to increased risk of tooth loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    (30-60 y) with information on dietary Ca intake and number of teeth and a subset of 511 participants with information on tooth loss from 1987-88 to 1993-94. Ca intake less than the recommendations, estimated by a 7-d food record or a diet history interview in 1982-83, was more frequent among females...... (55%) than males (45%; P education, smoking, alcohol and sucrose consumption, subjective...

  13. Long-Term Low Intake of Dietary Calcium and Fracture Risk in Older Adults With Plant-Based Diet: A Longitudinal Study From the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Aiping; Li, Keji; Guo, Meihan; He, Jingjing; Li, He; Shen, Xin; Song, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate long-term associations between low dietary calcium intake and fracture risk in older adults with plant-based diet. Data of self-reported first fracture events of any type from 6210 Chinese men and women, aged 50 years or older and free from fracture at baseline, in a subcohort based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), were analyzed. Diet was repeatedly assessed by a combination of three consecutive 24-hour individual dietary recalls and a weighing and measuring of household food inventory in each round. The older men and women habitually ingested mean (SD) of 415 (147) mg/d and 373 (140) mg/d of calcium from plant-based diet, respectively. During a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 127 men (4.34%) and 232 women (7.06%) experienced first fracture events. The crude rates were 4.88, 2.55, and 6.83 per 1000 person-years at risk for men, and 6.72, 7.10, and 11.0 per 1000 person-years at risk for women in the lowest, third, and highest quintile of dietary calcium intake. In nonlinear regressions, an increased risk of fracture was associated with dietary calcium intake more than 778 mg/d (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-4.41) or lower than 275 mg/d (1.74, 95% CI 1.00-3.01) for men and more than 651 mg/d for women (1.54, 95% CI 1.00-2.38). A nonsignificant trend of increase in fracture risk was found below 248 mg/d (1.00, 95% CI 0.67-1.50) in women using restricted cubic spline Cox regression. A relatively low fracture risk is observed in men with dietary calcium intakes of 275 to 780 mg/d and in women with intakes of 250 to 650 mg/d, and higher intakes may have no further benefit for fracture prevention. The patterns of dietary calcium with fracture risk are U-shaped in men and possibly in women. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  14. Dietary intake assessment using integrated sensors and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Junqing; Pepin, Eric; Johnson, Eric; Hazel, David; Teredesai, Ankur; Kristal, Alan; Mamishev, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The area of dietary assessment is becoming increasingly important as obesity rates soar, but valid measurement of the food intake in free-living persons is extraordinarily challenging. Traditional paper-based dietary assessment methods have limitations due to bias, user burden and cost, and therefore improved methods are needed to address important hypotheses related to diet and health. In this paper, we will describe the progress of our mobile Diet Data Recorder System (DDRS), where an electronic device is used for objective measurement on dietary intake in real time and at moderate cost. The DDRS consists of (1) a mobile device that integrates a smartphone and an integrated laser package, (2) software on the smartphone for data collection and laser control, (3) an algorithm to process acquired data for food volume estimation, which is the largest source of error in calculating dietary intake, and (4) database and interface for data storage and management. The estimated food volume, together with direct entries of food questionnaires and voice recordings, could provide dietitians and nutritional epidemiologists with more complete food description and more accurate food portion sizes. In this paper, we will describe the system design of DDRS and initial results of dietary assessment.

  15. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillegonds, Darren J [Oakland, CA; Vogel, John S [San Jose, CA; Fitzgerald, Robert L [Encinitas, CA; Deftos, Leonard J [Del Mar, CA; Herold, David [Del Mar, CA; Burton, Douglas W [San Diego, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  16. [Calcium pros and cons significance and risk of phosphorus supplementation. The risk of dietary phosphorus intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Akiko; Nomura, Kengo; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus (Pi) is an important determinant of Pi balance in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a reduced GFR. High dietary Pi burden may promote vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Recently, Ohnishi and Razzaque suggest that phosphate toxicity accelerates the mammalian aging process and that reducing the phosphate burden can delay the aging (FASEB J 24, 3562, 2010) . Dietary Pi is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives. Accurate information on the Pi content of foods is needed to achieve a low Pi intake and effectively manage CKD and the aging. In this review, we discuss the risk of dietary Pi intake in CKD and the aging.

  17. Assessment of alcohol intake: Retrospective measures versus a smartphone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Antoinette; Pan, Jason; Bruns, Loren Richard; Sinnott, Richard O; Hester, Robert

    2017-11-03

    Research investigating problem drinking often relies on retrospective measures to assess alcohol consumption behaviour. Limitations associated with such instruments can, however, distort actual consumption levels and patterns. We developed the smartphone application (app), CNLab-A, to assess alcohol intake behaviour in real-time. Healthy individuals (N=671, M age 23.12) completed demographic questions plus the Alcohol Use Questionnaire and a 21-day Timeline Followback before using CNLab-A for 21days. The app asked participants to record alcohol consumption details in real time. We compared data reported via retrospective measures with that captured using CNLab-A. On average, participants submitted data on 20.27days using CNLab-A. Compared to Timeline Followback, a significantly greater percentage of drinking days (24.79% vs. 26.44%) and significantly higher total intake (20.30 vs. 24.26 standard drinks) was recorded via the app. CNLab-A captured a substantially greater number of high intake occasions at all levels from 8 or more drinks than Timeline Followback. Additionally, relative to the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, a significantly faster rate of consumption was recorded via the app. CNLab-A provided more nuanced information regarding quantity and pattern of alcohol intake than the retrospective measures. In particular, it revealed higher levels of drinking than retrospective reporting. This will have implications for how particular at-risk alcohol consumption patterns are identified in future and might enable a more sophisticated exploration of the causes and consequences of drinking behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Feed intake, growth, and body and carcass attributes of feedlot steers supplemented with two levels of calcium nitrate or urea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegarty, R.S.; Miller, J.; Oelbrandt, N.; Li, L.; Luijben, J.P.M.; Robinson, D.L.; Nolan, J.V.; Perdok, H.B.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate supplementation has been shown to be effective in reducing enteric methane emission from ruminants, but there have been few large-scale studies assessing the effects of level of nitrate supplementation on feed intake, animal growth, or carcass and meat quality attributes of beef cattle. A

  19. Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM, especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1 assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2 characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1 the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2 excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3 excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

  20. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  1. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, SG; Thompson, DR; Barton, BA; Franko, DL; Daniels, [No Value; Obarzanek, E; Schreiber, GB; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Design Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal

  2. Evaluation of nutritional knowledge of second grade school children and assessment of their dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (pinformation about healthy feeding (55%), lack of time for preparation of food (33%), inability to control child's feeding (36%), financial deficit (4%). The dietary intake of children does not correspond to WHO recommendations. It is recommended on the one hand to conduct country wide assessment of dietary intake of children and adolescent and on the other hand to implement nutrition education programs.

  3. Exposure assessment of metal intakes from drinking water relative to those from total diet in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Kurosawa, Yuki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Daily intakes of 17 metals (boron, aluminium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, lead, uranium, magnesium, calcium, and iron) via drinking water and total diet were investigated in six cities in Japan. The daily metal intakes were estimated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values proposed by the WHO or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for toxic metals and with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) values proposed for essential metals by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 13 toxic metals, mean dietary intakes of 10 (except arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum) were less than 50% of TDI, suggesting that for these 10 metals the allocation of intake to drinking water in establishing guidelines or standards could possibly be increased from the normal allocation of 10-20% of TDI. For the 13 toxic metals, the contribution of drinking water to TDI was 2% or less in all six cities. Mean dietary intakes of the essential elements magnesium, calcium, and iron were less than the RDA or AI values. Drinking water did not contribute much to essential metal intake, accounting for less than 10% of RDA or AI.

  4. [Adjustment for energy intake in the assessment of dietary risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Thiébaut, Anne,; Kesse, Emmanuelle; Com-Nougué, Catherine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Bénichou, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies assessing the association between health status and nutritional factors raise the issue of adjusting for energy intake. Indeed, as most nutrients are highly correlated with energy intake which can itself be associated with disease risk, energy intake needs to be adjusted for upon assessing the effect of a specific nutrient. To avoid problems of estimation and interpretation incurred by the use of the standard method which rests on directly adjusting for energy intake, se...

  5. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra R. Keast

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008. Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of <1, 1 to <2, or 2+ dairy servings, and yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  6. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R.; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Albertson, Ann M.; Gugger, Carolyn K.; Holschuh, Norton M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children. PMID:25742042

  7. Associations between yogurt, dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and obesity among U.S. children aged 8-18 years: NHANES, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Albertson, Ann M; Gugger, Carolyn K; Holschuh, Norton M

    2015-03-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8-18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  8. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna P Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES and (b association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90, from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis; no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05. Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01 as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937 and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825 did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  9. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prerna P.; Patel, Pinal A.; Zulf, M. Mughal; Yagnik, Bhrugu; Kajale, Neha; Mandlik, Rubina; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Phanse, Supriya; Patwardhan, Vivek; Joshi, Priscilla; Patel, Ashish; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a) prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES) and (b) association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90), from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India). Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall) and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd). Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis); no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01) as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937) and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825) did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe fluorosis. PMID

  11. People with the major alleles of ATP2B1 rs17249754 increases the risk of hypertension in high ratio of sodium and potassium, and low calcium intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, J W; Kim, B C; Liu, M; Park, S

    2017-12-01

    It is important to understand what genetic risk factors lead to hypertension and how genotype-specific dietary and lifestyle modification can mitigate the risk of developing hypertension. The ATP2B1 rs17249754 gene, which encodes a calcium pump expressed in vascular smooth muscle was identified as having variants that conferred higher or lower risk of hypertension-with the major allele carriers being increased at risk. However, the effects of dietary intakes on risk of hypertension among carriers of the different alleles have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we evaluated ATP2B1 rs17249754 and its interaction with dietary intakes of sodium (Na), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) on the risk of developing hypertension using the Ansan/Ansung (n=8842) and City-Rural (n=5512) cohorts from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Carriers of the major allele of ATP2B1 rs17249754 were at greater risk of developing hypertension and high Na intake and low Ca increased the risk more in major allele than among minor allele carriers. High potassium intake was more protective against hypertension in the subjects expressing minor alleles and a low Na/K intake ratio was the most consistently beneficial to the subjects expressing the minor allele. When controlling for Na and K, low Ca intake was associated with a substantially higher risk for high systolic blood pressure in the major allele carriers compared with minor allele, suggesting good calcium status is especially important for the major allele carriers. In conclusion, people with the major allele of ATP2B1 rs17249754 are susceptible to hypertension especially in low intake of Ca and high ratio of Na and K.

  12. Dietary inulin intake and age can significantly affect intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats: a stable isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudray, Charles; Rambeau, Mathieu; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Tressol, Jean Claude; Demigne, Christian; Gueux, Elyett; Mazur, Andrzej; Rayssiguier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Background previous studies have shown that non-digestible inulin-type fructan intake can increase intestinal mineral absorption in both humans and animals. However, this stimulatory effect on intestinal absorption may depend on experimental conditions such as duration of fermentable fiber intake, mineral diet levels and animals' physiological status, in particular their age. Objectives the aim of this study was to determine the effect of inulin intake on Ca and Mg absorption in rats at different age stages. Methods eighty male Wistar rats of four different ages (2, 5, 10 and 20 months) were randomized into either a control group or a group receiving 3.75% inulin in their diet for 4 days and then 7.5% inulin for three weeks. The animals were fed fresh food and water ad libitum for the duration of the experiment. Intestinal absorption of Ca and Mg was determined by fecal monitoring using stable isotopic tracers. Ca and Mg status was also assessed. Results absorption of Ca and Mg was significantly lower in the aged rats (10 and 20 mo) than in the young and adult rat groups. As expected, inulin intake increased Ca and Mg absorption in all four rat groups. However, inulin had a numerically greater effect on Ca absorption in aged rats than in younger rats whereas its effect on Mg absorption remained similar across all four rat age groups. Conclusion the extent of the stimulatory effect of inulin on absorption of Ca may differ according to animal ages. Further studies are required to explore this effect over longer inulin intake periods, and to confirm these results in humans. PMID:16253138

  13. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Spiegel, David M

    2017-06-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balance have important implications in patients with chronic kidney disease, where negative balance may increase risk of osteoporosis and fracture and positive balance may increase risk of vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Here, we examine the state of current knowledge about calcium balance in adults throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease and discuss recommendations for clinical strategies to maintain balance as well as future research needs in this area. Recent calcium balance studies in adult patients with chronic kidney disease show that neutral calcium balance is achieved with calcium intake near the recommended daily allowance. Increases in calcium through diet or supplements cause high positive calcium balance, which may put patients at risk for vascular calcification. However, heterogeneity in calcium balance exists among these patients. Given the available calcium balance data in this population, it appears clinically prudent to aim for recommended calcium intakes around 1000 mg/day to achieve neutral calcium balance and avoid adverse effects of either negative or positive calcium balance. Assessment of patients' dietary calcium intake could further equip clinicians to make individualized recommendations for meeting recommended intakes.

  14. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  15. Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Intakes in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population Using 24-h Dietary Recalls and Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Clare; Ho, Jolene Chien Yee; Tay, Zoey; Rebello, Salome A; Lu, Yonghai; Ong, Choon Nam; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-09-25

    The assessment of diets in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings is challenging. A semi-quantitative 163-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed for the adult Singapore population, and this study aimed to assess its reproducibility and relative validity against 24-h dietary recalls (24 h DR) and biomarkers. The FFQ was administered twice within a six-month interval in 161 adults (59 Chinese, 46 Malay, and 56 Indian). Fasting plasma, overnight urine, and 24 h DR were collected after one month and five months. Intra-class correlation coefficients between the two FFQ were above 0.70 for most foods and nutrients. The median correlation coefficient between energy-adjusted deattenuated FFQ and 24 h DR nutrient intakes was 0.40 for FFQ1 and 0.39 for FFQ2, highest for calcium and iron, and lowest for energy and carbohydrates. Significant associations were observed between urinary isoflavones and soy protein intake (r = 0.46), serum carotenoids and fruit and vegetable intake (r = 0.34), plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA) and fish/seafood intake (r = 0.36), and plasma odd chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and dairy fat intake (r = 0.25). Associations between plasma EPA + DHA and fish/seafood intake were consistent across ethnic groups (r = 0.28-0.49), while differences were observed for other associations. FFQ assessment of dietary intakes in modern cosmopolitan populations remains feasible for the purpose of ranking individuals' dietary exposures in epidemiological studies.

  16. Comparing methods for assessing beverage intake among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Eaton, Danice K; Park, Sohyun; Brener, Nancy D; Blanck, Heidi M

    2014-01-01

    To compare 7 beverage intake survey questions against criterion data from 24-hour dietary recall interviews (24HrDRIs) among adolescents. Data were available from 610 US high school students completing a survey and ≥3 24HrDRIs. Analyses compared mean intake (times/day) calculated from the survey to intake (servings/day) from the 24HrDRIs. Proportions of students reporting intake of ≥1 times/day were compared to the 24HrDRI results. Survey data significantly correlated with 24HrDRI data (all corrected r: 0.26-0.49). Survey results differed from 24HrDRI results on reported intake of 5 beverages. Intake from these beverage questions should be reported in times/day, which is related to, but not a proxy for, servings/day. These questions are useful for population-level surveillance of beverage intake and monitoring trends over time.

  17. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  18. Electronic nutritional intake assessment in patients with urolithiasis: A decision impact analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avory M. Heningburg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate a physician’s impression of a urinary stone patient’s dietary intake and whether it was dependent on the medium through which the nutritional data were obtained. Furthermore, we sought to determine if using an electronic food frequency questionnaire (FFQ impacted dietary recommendations for these patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six patients attended the Stone Clinic over a period of 6 weeks. Seventy-five gave consent for enrollment in our study. Patients completed an office-based interview with a fellowship-trained endourologist, and a FFQ administered on an iPad. The FFQ assessed intake of various dietary components related to stone development, such as oxalate and calcium. The urologists were blinded to the identity of patients’ FFQ results. Based on the office-based interview and the FFQ results, the urologists provided separate assessments of the impact of nutrition and hydration on the patient’s stone disease (nutrition impact score and hydration impact score, respectively and treatment recommendations. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to compare pre-FFQ data to post-FFQ data. Results: Higher FFQ scores for sodium (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; p=0.02 and fluids (OR, 1.03, p=0.04 were associated with a higher nutritional impact score. None of the FFQ parameters impacted hydration impact score. A higher FFQ score for oxalate (OR, 1.07; p=0.02 was associated with the addition of at least one treatment recommendation. Conclusions: Information derived from a FFQ can yield a significant impact on a physician’s assessment of stone risks and decision for management of stone disease.

  19. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx, which is a biomarker of bone resorption. The association between calcium ingestion and bone resorption was analyzed using random effects models; non-linear associations were explored using generalized additive models. RESULTS: Progressive increases in NTx levels were observed during pregnancy; with mean and standard deviation (SD values during the first, second and third trimester of 76.50 (SD=38, 101.02 (SD=48.86 and 144.83 (SD=61.33 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine, respectively. Higher dietary calcium intake was associated with lower bone resorption (β=-0.015; pEl metabolismo de calcio es modificado durante el embarazo debido a la mineralización del esqueleto del feto. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre la ingesta de calcio y la desmineralización ósea durante el embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se administró un Cuestionario de Frecuencia de Consumo de alimentos en cada trimestre del embarazo para evaluar el consumo de calcio en una cohorte de 206 mujeres residentes de la Ciudad de México. Se recolectaron muestras de orina para medir los niveles de N-telopéptido de colágeno tipo I (NTx, biomarcador de resorción. Se hicieron modelos de efectos aleatorios; se estudiaron asociaciones no lineales utilizando modelos aditivos generalizados. RESULTADOS: Se observó aumento progresivo en los niveles de NTx durante el embarazo. El mayor consumo de calcio se asoció con una menor resorción ósea (β=- 0.015, p<0

  20. Feasibility and validity of mobile phones to assess dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Darren B; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Current limitations of conventional dietary assessment methods restrict the establishment of diet-disease relationships and efficacy of dietary interventions. Technology, in particular the use of mobile phones, may help resolve methodologic limitations, in turn improving the validity of dietary assessment and research and associated findings. This review aims to evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of dietary assessment methods that have been deployed on mobile phone platforms. In August 2013, electronic databases for health sciences were searched for English, peer-reviewed, full-text articles, published from January 1, 2001 onward; and accompanied by a hand search of available relevant publications from universities and government bodies. Studies were not limited by design, length, setting, or population group. Of 194 articles, 12 met eligibility criteria: mobile phone as the dietary recording platform and validation of energy and/or macronutrient intake against another dietary or biological reference method. Four dietary recoding methods had been validated on mobile phone platforms: electronic food diary, food photograph-assisted self-administered, 24 h recall, food photograph analysis by trained dietitians, and automated food photograph analysis. All mobile phone dietary assessment methods showed similar, but not superior, validity or reliability when compared with conventional methods. Participants' satisfaction and preferences for mobile phone dietary assessment methods were higher than those for conventional methods, indicating the need for further research. Validity testing in larger and more diverse populations, over longer durations is required to evaluate the efficacy of these methods in dietary research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of prolonged breast-feeding on the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis in population with insufficient calcium intake and vitamin D level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, B H; Chon, S J; Choi, Y S; Cho, S; Lee, B S; Seo, S K

    2016-09-01

    Breast-feeding affects bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis, and prolonged breast-feeding may influence the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, particularly in highly susceptible populations. The study determined that breast-feeding may be a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in people with low calcium intakes and vitamin D deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether breast-feeding is a risk factor in the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in highly susceptible population. The study was performed using data from the 2010 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and it included 1231 postmenopausal women who were aged between 45 and 70 years. Osteoporosis was defined using the World Health Organization's T-score criteria, namely, a T-score of ≤-2.5 at the femoral neck or the lumbar spine. The patients' ages, body mass indexes, daily calcium intakes, serum vitamin D levels, exercise levels, smoking histories, and reproductive factors relating to menarche, menopause, delivery, breast-feeding, hormone treatment, and oral contraceptive use were evaluated. Comparisons between the osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis groups were undertaken using Student's t test and the chi-square test, and logistic regression models were built. A significant increase in the risk of osteoporosis was apparent in postmenopausal women with prolonged breast-feeding histories (≥24 months) (model 1: odds ratio [OR] = 2.489; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.111 to 5.578, p = 0.027; model 2: OR = 2.503; 95 % CI = 1.118 to 5.602, p = 0.026; model 3: OR = 2.825; 95 % CI = 1.056 to 7.56, p = 0.039), particularly in those with inadequate serum vitamin D levels and calcium intakes (Breast-feeding seems to increase the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis; however, its impact may not be definitive in women with sufficient vitamin D levels and calcium intakes

  2. A Simplified Regimen Compared with WHO Guidelines Decreases Antenatal Calcium Supplement Intake for Prevention of Preeclampsia in a Cluster-Randomized Noninferiority Trial in Rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotayo, Moshood O; Dickin, Katherine L; Pelletier, David L; Mwanga, Erick O; Kung'u, Jacqueline K; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2017-10-01

    Background: To prevent preeclampsia, the WHO recommends antenatal calcium supplementation in populations with inadequate habitual intake. The WHO recommends 1500-2000 mg Ca/d with iron-folic acid (IFA) taken separately, a complex pill-taking regimen. Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that simpler regimens with lower daily dosages would lead to higher adherence and similar supplement intake. Methods: In the Micronutrient Initiative Calcium Supplementation study, we compared the mean daily supplement intake associated with 2 dosing regimens with the use of a parallel, cluster-randomized noninferiority trial implemented in 16 primary health care facilities in rural Kenya. The standard regimen was 3 × 500 mg Ca/d in 3 pill-taking events, and the low-dose regimen was 2 × 500 mg Ca/d in 2 pill-taking events; both regimens included a 200 IU cholecalciferol and calcium pill and a separate IFA pill. We enrolled 990 pregnant women between 16 and 30 wk of gestation. The primary outcome was supplemental calcium intake measured by pill counts 4 and 8 wk after recruitment. We carried out intention-to-treat analyses with the use of mixed-effect models, with regimen as the fixed effect and health care facilities as a random effect, by using a noninferiority margin of 125 mg Ca/d. Results: Women in facilities assigned to the standard regimen consumed a mean of 1198 mg Ca/d, whereas those assigned to the low-dose regimen consumed 810 mg Ca/d. The difference in intake was 388 mg Ca/d (95% CI = 341, 434 mg Ca/d), exceeding the prespecified margin of 125 mg Ca/d. The overall adherence rate was 80% and did not differ between study arms. Conclusions: Contrary to our expectation, a simpler, lower-dose regimen led to significantly lower supplement intake than the regimen recommended by the WHO. Further studies are needed to precisely characterize the dose-response relation of calcium supplementation and preeclampsia risk and to examine cost effectiveness

  3. Reduced maternal calcium intake through nutrition and supplementation is associated with adverse conditions for both the women and their infants in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Xinjia; Tian, Yue; Yang, Zhixin; Lin, Li; Lin, Qing; Zhang, Zhonghao; Li, Li

    2017-05-01

    Effective nutritional guidelines for pregnant women in China are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary nutrition on the health condition of pregnant women and infants in China.In total, 331 pregnant women who had prenatal examinations were included in this study. Data, including dietary nutrition questionnaires, the weight, height, age, and health condition of the pregnant women as well as the health condition of the infants, were recorded.The average intake of milk, poultry and meat, fish and prawns, eggs, and bean products were 297.28 ± 129.67 mL/day, 123.34 ± 52.04 g/day, 157.31 ± 70.04 g/day, 67.34 ± 45.28 g/day, and 1.21 ± 0.62 per day, respectively. Among the 331 pregnant women, the intake rates of supplemental calcium and VD were 86.7% and 69.8%, respectively. The intake of milk, bean products, and meats was obviously lower (all P pregnant women with systremma compared to those without it. In addition, the body weight before and after delivery was higher (all P pregnant women with systremma. The calcium intake of the pregnant women and the infants' BMD were remarkably lower in the infants with pillow baldness or a wider anterior fontanelle (P pregnant women should be monitored, and in particular, the proper intake of milk, bean products, and meats, as well as calcium supplements, might decrease the occurrence of systremma in pregnant women and reduce the rate pillow baldness and a wider anterior fontanelle in infants.

  4. Assessment of caffeine intake in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, Jae Chon; Kim, Meehye

    2015-01-01

    An improved method for the analysis of caffeine in foods by HPLC was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The caffeine contents of 1202 products available from Korean markets were analysed. A consumption study was conducted by using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-12, to estimate the caffeine intakes of the Korean population. The mean intakes of caffeine from all sources in the general population and consumers were 67.8 and 102.6 mg day(-1) for all age groups, respectively. The 95th percentile intakes of the general population and consumers were 250.7 and 313.7 mg day(-1), respectively. In those aged 30-49 years, the caffeine intakes of the general population and consumers were highest at 25.5% (101.8 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 36.6% (0.9 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively, compared with the maximum recommended daily intake (400 mg day(-1)) for adults. In the general population, the main contributors to the total caffeine intake were carbonated beverage for the younger age groups and coffee for the adults. These data provide a current perspective on caffeine intake in the Korean population.

  5. The selection and prevalence of natural and fortified calcium food sources in the diets of adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M

    2011-01-01

    To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology from 1997 to 2008. Subjects randomly assigned to a high-calcium (HC) diet supplying 1,500 mg calcium/d, or their usual diet (UC). Dietary intake was assessed from 3-day food records and calcium intakes categorized by food source. Food group composites, representing calcium-fortified and dairy food categories, were examined for their relative nutrient contributions. Student t tests were used to evaluate differences in selected nutrient intakes between the 2 study groups. Dairy food contributed 68% of the total mean 1,494 mg calcium/d in the HC group, and calcium-fortified food contributed 304 mg calcium. In the UC group, dairy food contributed 69% of the total mean 765 mg calcium/d and calcium-fortified food contributed 50 mg calcium. Nutrient profiles of the dairy composites differed significantly from the calcium-fortified composites (P source of calcium selected by these adolescent girls; calcium-fortified food augmented calcium intakes. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing caffeine intake in the United Kingdom diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitt, Emily; Pell, David; Cole, Darren

    2013-10-01

    Caffeine occurs naturally in the leaves and seeds of many plants and is artificially added to some beverages. Consumption of caffeine has been linked to both positive and adverse health outcomes. We incorporated estimates of caffeine content (mg/100g or ml) of foods and drinks, taken from the published literature, to provide a preliminary estimate of caffeine intake for the UK population, based on data collected in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-10. Among consumers mean total caffeine intakes of adult men 19+ y were significantly greater than intakes by boys 4-10y and 11-18y (pcaffeine intakes in excess of 300mg/d. The addition of caffeine to UK food composition databases will allow more detailed study of the health effects of caffeine consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cálcio dietético: estratégias para otimizar o consumo Dietary calcium: strategies to optimize intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle A. P. Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O cálcio é um nutriente essencial necessário em diversas funções biológicas. Estudos têm demonstrado a associação entre o baixo consumo de cálcio e doenças crônicas, entre elas osteoporose, câncer de colón, hipertensão arterial e obesidade. Entretanto, grande parte da população brasileira apresenta consumo de cálcio abaixo do recomendado. Este artigo objetiva revisar os fatores endógenos (idade e estado hormonal e exógenos (fitatos, oxalatos, sódio, compostos bioativos e vitamina D que influenciam a absorção do cálcio, bem como as principais metodologias utilizadas para avaliar a absorção e biodisponibilidade desse nutriente. Discorre-se sobre os possíveis fatores para o baixo consumo de cálcio: 1 Hábito alimentar - substituição de leite por bebidas com baixo teor de cálcio como o refrigerante, refeições realizadas fora de casa e a não realização de refeições como o café da manhã; 2 Alto custo dos alimentos fontes de cálcio. Além disso, este artigo discute as estratégias para otimizar o consumo do cálcio, que incluem: 1 Aumentar o conhecimento sobre a importância do consumo de cálcio para a saúde e as principais fontes alimentares desse nutriente; 2 Aumentar a disponibilidade de alimentos fortificados com cálcio; 3 Uso de suplementos em grupos específicos - quando e como administrar os sais de cálcio.Calcium is an essential nutrient required for numerous biological functions. Studies have demonstrated an association between low calcium intake and chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis, colon cancer, hypertension, and obesity. However, most Brazilians do not meet the adequate intake for calcium. This review focuses on the endogenous (age, hormonal state and exogenous (phytate, oxalate, sodium, bioactive compounds and vitamin D factors that can influence calcium absorption. The main methods used for evaluating calcium absorption and bioavailability. The potential factors for the low calcium intake

  8. [Adjustment for energy intake in the assessment of dietary risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiébaut, A; Kesse, E; Com-Nougué, C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Bénichou, J

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies assessing the association between health status and nutritional factors raise the issue of adjusting for energy intake. Indeed, as most nutrients are highly correlated with energy intake which can itself be associated with disease risk, energy intake needs to be adjusted for upon assessing the effect of a specific nutrient. To avoid problems of estimation and interpretation incurred by the use of the standard method which rests on directly adjusting for energy intake, several other methods have been suggested. Namely, the density method uses the ratio of nutrient intake over total energy intake, the residual method relies on the residuals from the regression of nutrient intake on total energy intake, and the partition method fits energy from the nutrient and energy from other sources. These methods yield estimates of different effects but do not allow direct estimation of specific nutrient effects. Estimated effects combine specific and generic energy effects of nutrients and reflect effects of adding or substituting one nutrient for another. We review and apply these methods to the assessment of the association between protein intake and colorectal adenoma occurrence in the E3N-EPIC cohort. This example illustrates how considering findings from all of these methods rather than one single method can lead to a more in-depth understanding of such associations and provide useful guidance for nutritional recommendations.

  9. Ingestão do cálcio na obesidade de mulheres atendidas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde Calcium intake in obese women treated at Sistema Único de Saúde, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria Candido Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a associação entre consumo de cálcio e obesidade em uma amostra de mulheres obesas ou eutróficas. MÉTODOS: Por meio de inquéritos alimentares, estimou-se a ingestão de cálcio de 177 mulheres hipertensas e/ou diabéticas mediante recordatórios de 24h e frequência de consumo alimentar. Estudo caso-controle teve o grupo-estudo composto por 102 mulheres obesas e o grupo-controle por 75 mulheres eutróficas. Os dados de ingestão foram comparados às recomendações dietéticas e às porções de alimentos de origem animal, recomendados pela pirâmide alimentar brasileira, que são fontes de cálcio. Na análise estatística dos dois grupos segundo faixa etária, utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação linear simples de Pearson com nível de significância de até 5% de probabilidade de erro experimental. RESULTADOS: A ingestão quantitativa de cálcio foi semelhante entre os grupos e igualmente insuficiente para atingir as recomendações nutricionais. A análise da frequência de consumo de fontes de cálcio revelou que os dois grupos apresentavam consumo inferior a três porções/dia, merecendo destaque o grande número que referiu "raramente" consumir tais alimentos. CONCLUSÃO: Não foi observada nessa população a associação entre obesidade e ingestão de cálcio. Seu consumo foi insuficiente para atingir as quantidades recomendadas, um achado relevante. Considerando a idade das mulheres estudadas e o diagnóstico de hipertensão e diabetes, é evidente a necessidade de atividades de educação nutricional para estimular o consumo de fontes alimentares de cálcio com o intuito de auxiliar no controle da hipertensão e de prevenir agravos importantes, como a obesidade e a osteoporose.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between calcium intake and obesity in a sample of obese and normal weight women. METHODS: The 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire were used to

  10. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  11. An assessment of the dietary fiber intake of selected students in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is recognized that adequate intake of dietary fiber tends to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colon cancer and heart disease. This study was carried out to assess the adequacy of dietary fiber intake of 12 male and 12 female volunteer undergraduates of Ibadan University.

  12. Assessment of flavonoid and fatty acid intake by chemical analysis of biomarkers and the duplicate diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Dietary intake is important to investigate the relationship between diet and the occurrence of disease. However, it is difficult to assess the intake of nutrients such as flavonoids, minor fatty acids and plant sterols because the data on these nutrients in food composition tables are insufficient

  13. Urinary calcium excretion in non-lactating dairy cows in relation to intake of fat-coated rice bran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Tereso, J.; Derks, M.; Laar, van H.; Mulder, K.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    At calving, many older cows fail to compensate the sudden demand of calcium by an adequate activation of intestinal absorption. This results in a variable degree of hypocalcaemia. Reducing intestinal availability of calcium during the close-up period can prevent milk fever. Fat-coated rice bran

  14. Assessing Intake of Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Adolescents: its Relationship with Weight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Laura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of the study is to evaluate fluid intake during adolescence and correlate it with weight status. Material and methods. We assessed fluid intake using a validated questionnaire in a group of 106 adolescent students (22 boys - 20.8%, aged 15-19 years. Weight status was evaluated with the BMI-for-age values,using growth normograms. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of water intake between sexes (p>0.05. Water intake at least 3 times a day was declared by 72.16% of normal weight students and in 66% of overweight and obese, the difference being statistically significant (p=0.003. Boys consumed larger amounts of water (p=0.042 than girls. Intake of 100% natural fruit juice was significantly higher in boys compared to girls (p=0.002. A significantly higher percentage of normal weight adolescents consumed≤500 mL/day non-carbonated (p=0.004 and carbonated (p<0.001 sugar-sweetened beverages compared to the overweight or obese, who consumed ≥500 mL/day. Conclusions. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of fluid intake among adolescents is a mandatory step in the assessment of calorie and nutritional intake. Promoting low-calorie fluid intake in this age group, along with the principles of healthy eating, could contribute to achieving an optimal weight status.

  15. Potential Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Intake via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Key Words: Heavy Metals, leafy vegetable, daily intake of metals, health risk index, target hazard quotient. (THQ), zinc, lead .... Family. Parts used/ consumed. 1. Telferia occidentalis. Fluted pumpkin. Ugu. Cucurbitaceae ..... Characterization and functional properties. .... Science and Total Environment, 350: 28–37. Zhou, H ...

  16. Using Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey (HCES) data to assess dietary intake in relation to the nutrition transition: a case study from Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dop, Marie Claude; Pereira, Clodomir; Mistura, Lorenza; Martinez, Claudio; Cardoso, Edith

    2012-09-01

    Few surveys of food and nutrient intakes are conducted at the individual level in low- and middle-income countries, whereas Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are regularly carried out to monitor economic conditions. Because of the paucity of individual-level data, there is interest in using HCES to aid in the design of food and nutrition policies. Data from the 2001/02 HCES from Cape Verde were used to assess household dietary intakes in the context of the country's nutrition transition. The survey included weighed measurements of household food intake and measurements of the weight and height of all household members. Households were classified as "underweight" if they had at least one underweight member, "overweight" if they had at least one overweight member, and "dual burden" if they had at least one underweight and one overweight member. The proportion of households classified as underweight, overweight, and dual burden was 18%, 41%, and 14%, respectively. Household food and nutrient intakes were higher in the overweight households (particularly protein, vitamin A, and calcium) and lower in the underweight households, while there was no clear pattern of intakes in the dual burden group. Overweight households consumed more animal food groups than other households. Intakes of fruits and vegetables were low in all groups. The HCES data for Cape Verde were useful for assessing the extent of the nutrition transition and characterizing dietary intakes by anthropometric classification. Analysis of nutrient and food intakes showed that ensuring sufficient energy availability is no longer the most important issue for Cape Verde, but that ensuring dietary quality is equally crucial, in particular increasing access to fruits and vegetables.

  17. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Steenfeldt, S.; Bootwalla, S.M.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler

  18. Assessment of nutrient and water intake among adolescents from sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( guidelines of macronutrient intake for their sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.

  19. Intake and performance of feedlot cattle fed diets based on high and low Brix sugar cane with or without calcium oxide and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate low and high Brix diets, treated or not with 5 g of calcium oxide per kg of natural matter, and corn silage on intake, digestibility and performance of beef cattle. Forty cattle with initial body weight (BW of 350 kg were used: five composed the control group, 30 were distributed into random blocks (control and the other five were distributed in a 5 × 5 incomplete Latin square, with the objective of determining digestibility. The 30 animals evaluated for performance were slaughtered and empty body weight (EPW, carcass dressing and meat cuts were determined. The diet with corn silage (CS presented the best intake of the other ingredients and the best weight gain, except for neutral detergent fiber intake in g/kg of BW. Only carcass dressing, in relation to BW and EBW, was not affected by the treatments, and the others were greater for animals fed diets with sugar cane silage. Animals fed diets with high brix sugar cane silage and treated high brix sugar cane silage presented lower intake of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (g/kg of BW in relation to diets with low and high brix sugar cane silage, respectively. Animals fed diets with corn silage presented higher digestibility, except for crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Animals subjected to diets with corn silage presented low excretion of nitrogen compounds and higher microbial crude protein synthesis. Animals fed sugar cane silage present greater intake, performance and digestibility. The use of lime during 15 or 20º Brix sugar cane ensilage does not alter intake, digestibility or performance of beef cattle.

  20. Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity and relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and struvite in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Catherine M F; Hawthorne, Amanda; Colyer, Alison; Stevenson, Abigail E

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that daily fluid intake influences urinary dilution, and consequently the risk of urolithiasis in human subjects and dogs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dietary moisture on urinary parameters in healthy adult cats by comparing nutritionally standardised diets, varying only in moisture content. A total of six cats were fed a complete dry food (6.3 % moisture) hydrated to 25.4, 53.2 and 73.3 % moisture for 3 weeks in a randomised block cross-over design. Urinary specific gravity (SG), urine volume, water drunk and total fluid intake were measured daily; relative supersaturation (RSS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite was calculated using the SUPERSAT computer program. Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet produced urine with a significantly lower SG (P cats fed the diet with 73.3 % moisture and significantly lower than the 6.3 % moisture diet (CaOx RSS 2.29 (sem 0.21)). The effect of diet on struvite RSS was less clear, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Total fluid intake was significantly increased (P Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet had a higher total daily fluid intake resulting in a more dilute urine with a lower risk of CaOx when compared with the lower-moisture diets.

  1. Telephone versus in-person intake assessment for bereavement intervention : Does efficiency come at a cost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newsom, Catherine; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Margaret; Birrell, John; Wilson, Stewart

    Standardized, evidence-based risk assessment is an important component in providing effective bereavement care. E-health intake assessments have been offered alongside or instead of in-person assessments, although evidence concerning the equivalence of assessment results is lacking. This article

  2. Telephone versus in-person intake assessment for bereavement intervention : Does efficiency come at a cost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newsom, Catherine; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Margaret; Birrell, John; Wilson, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Standardized, evidence-based risk assessment is an important component in providing effective bereavement care. E-health intake assessments have been offered alongside or instead of in-person assessments, although evidence concerning the equivalence of assessment results is lacking. This article

  3. Low levels of vitamin D in professional basketball players after wintertime: relationship with dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium Bajos niveles de vitamina D en jugadores profesionales de baloncesto después del invierno: relación con la ingesta oral de vitamina D y calcio

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bescós García; F. A. Rodríguez Guisado

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Although vitamin D deficiency has a high worldwide prevalence among the general population, very little is known about vitamin status in athletes. Aim: To investigate serum vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels after wintertime in male elite basketball players, and to relate these levels to the dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Methods: Subjects were 21 players from the same professional Spanish team. Blood samples to assess 25(OH)D levels were collected after wintertime during the ...

  4. Development of a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to assess dietary intake of multiethnic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Danit; Shai, Iris; Vardi, Hillel; Brener-Azrad, Ayelet; Fraser, Drora

    2003-01-01

    The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is one of the most commonly used methods in epidemiological studies to assess long-term nutritional exposure. The purpose of this study is to develop a general FFQ for the Israeli population and present the procedures undertaken to select foods to be included in a questionnaire for a multiethnic population. Random population cluster sampling was done using voter registration lists of the Negev Jewish population, aged 35 years and over, which were divided into three groups based on where they were born, namely: Israel, Asia Africa and Europe-America. Participants were interviewed for their dietary intake using 24 hour recalls. Foods eaten by our subjects were aggregated into conceptually similar food groups and entered in stepwise regression models to predict variation in nutrient intake. Separate models were created for each origin group. It was found that the dietary intake was significantly lower for energy and vitamin E among European-American born subjects and significantly lower for calcium intake among Asian-African born subjects. Differences between ethnic groups were seen in the list of foods, which explained the between-person variability for energy and zinc. For most nutrients, fewer items were needed to explain the between-person variation in the group of people born in Israel. The final list of foods included 126 items and explained over 90% of the between-person variability in selected nutrients for all three groups. The newly developed FFQ for the Negev population includes 126 items that are sufficient to rank the nutritional exposure of people over 35 years old from the three origin groups in Israel.

  5. Intake of dairy products, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in childhood and age at menarche in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and phosphorus (P with menarcheal age were also examined. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes. RESULTS: The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.03-5.05], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.39-7.42], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12-5.27] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.44-7.87 after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1. Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche.

  6. [Assessment of food intake in rural area school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrei, L L; Albu, Adriana; Albu, M; Dănilă, Lorena; Foia, Iolanda

    2003-01-01

    Children food intake is influenced by family nutritional habits and economic status. According to the results of our survey, only 54.8% of the children have taken their breakfast, although all of them recognize the importance of this meal. 9.6% of the children are not using fresh fruits and vegetables in their diets, even if these are the main sources of vitamin C. Regarding the milk consumption, most of the children use this food item once (35.5%) or twice (19.4%) a day and only 16.1% occasionally. Although most of the children (93.5%) know that excessive salt intake represents a risk factor for their health, 87.1% have preferences for salted and spiced foods. Under the influence of advertising, certain changes in the nutritional habits have been noticed; instead of traditional snacks, children are more attracted to fast-food type snacks.

  7. Calcium intake and the associations with faecal fat and energy excretion, and lipid profile in a free-living population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2017-01-01

    registration (days 1–7), a 5-d faeces collection (days 3–7), a 2-d urine collection (days 5–7), and anthropometric measurements and a fasting blood sample (day 8) were collected. Analyses showed that dietary Ca intake (g/10 MJ per d) was positively associated with excretion of faecal fat (P = 0·004) and energy...... (P = 0·031) when adjusted for BMI, age, sex and intake of Ca-containing supplements. However, after adjustment for intake of fibre, the effect of Ca intake disappeared. Nevertheless, total cholesterol (CHOL) and LDL-CHOL concentrations were associated negatively with Ca intake (β −0·62 (95 % CI −0...

  8. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  9. A longitudinal assessment of alcohol intake and incident depression: the SUN project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies assessing the long-term association between alcohol intake and depression are scarce. The type of beverage may also be important. Therefore we aimed to prospectively evaluate the influence of alcohol intake on incident depression in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods We assessed 13,619 university graduates (mean age: 38 years, 42% men) participating in a Spanish prospective epidemiological cohort (the SUN Project), initially free of depression. They were recruited between 1999–2008 and biennially followed-up during 2001–2010. At baseline, a 136-item validated food–frequency questionnaire was used to assess alcohol intake. Wine was the preferred beverage. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression if they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression and restricted cubic splines analyses were performed over 82,926 person-years. Results Only among women, an U-shaped relationship between total alcohol intake and depression risk was found (P=0.01). Moderate alcohol intake (5–15 g/day) was associated with lower risk (Hazard Ratio: 0.62; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.43-0.89). No association was apparent for higher intakes of alcohol or for any specific type of alcoholic beverage. Conclusions Moderate alcohol intake might protect against depression among women. Further confirmatory studies are needed. PMID:23134690

  10. A longitudinal assessment of alcohol intake and incident depression: the SUN project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea Alfredo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal studies assessing the long-term association between alcohol intake and depression are scarce. The type of beverage may also be important. Therefore we aimed to prospectively evaluate the influence of alcohol intake on incident depression in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods We assessed 13,619 university graduates (mean age: 38 years, 42% men participating in a Spanish prospective epidemiological cohort (the SUN Project, initially free of depression. They were recruited between 1999–2008 and biennially followed-up during 2001–2010. At baseline, a 136-item validated food–frequency questionnaire was used to assess alcohol intake. Wine was the preferred beverage. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression if they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression and restricted cubic splines analyses were performed over 82,926 person-years. Results Only among women, an U-shaped relationship between total alcohol intake and depression risk was found (P=0.01. Moderate alcohol intake (5–15 g/day was associated with lower risk (Hazard Ratio: 0.62; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.43-0.89. No association was apparent for higher intakes of alcohol or for any specific type of alcoholic beverage. Conclusions Moderate alcohol intake might protect against depression among women. Further confirmatory studies are needed.

  11. Effect of a combination GOS/FOS® prebiotic mixture and interaction with calcium intake on mineral absorption and bone parameters in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Gabriel; Coronel, Magalí Zeni; Pellegrini, Gretel; Mandalunis, Patricia; Rio, María Ester; de Portela, María Luz Pita Martín; Zeni, Susana Noemí

    2015-09-01

    Increasing calcium intake is the most effective strategy for avoiding Ca deficit. However, if intake remains inadequate, improving Ca absorption becomes an important tool to optimize Ca homeostasis and bone health. The effect of a mixture of GOS/FOS(®) 9:1 added to a normal- or low-Ca diets on Ca absorption and bone mineralization, density and structure was investigated, in a model of growing rats. Several colonic parameters to help support the findings were also evaluated. Weanling Wistar rats received one of the four experimental AIN-93G diets: C5: 0.5% Ca; C3: 0.3% Ca; P5: 0.5% Ca + 5.3% GOS/FOS(®); P3: 0.3% Ca + 5.3% GOS/FOS(®) until 50 days (T = 50). At T = 50, lactobacillus and cecum weights were higher, whereas cecum pH was lower in P5 and P3 versus C5 and C3 (p bone mineral content, trabecular bone mineral density, tibia length, bone volume, osteoblast surface, stiffness and elastic modulus were higher in P5 and P3 versus C5 and C3 (p bone mineralization, density and structure due to an increase in Ca, P and Mg absorptions. Thus, this prebiotic mixture may help to improve bone development in a period of high calcium requirements.

  12. Optimized extraction of calcium malate from eggshell treated by PEF and an absorption assessment in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Songyi; Wang, Liyan; Jones, Gregory; Trang, Hung; Yin, Yongguang; Liu, Jingbo

    2012-06-01

    Under optimized pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment for production of eggshell calcium malate (ESCM) by one-factor-at-a-time test and ternary quadratic regression orthogonal combination design (TQROCD), an absorption assessment of ESCM treated by the best conditions of PEF were performed in male mice with apparent calcium absorption rate (ACAR), serum alkalinity phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum calcium and serum phosphorus, length of femurs and skeletal calcium content were studied. The highest dissoluble calcium malate content (7.075 mg/mL) was obtained with the 6.0% malic acid, the electric field intensity of 20 kV/cm, and pulse duration of 24 μs. In vitro, ESCM prepared by the best conditions of PEF at doses of 133.0 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for 70 d not only significantly improve the ALP activity, the femur length and calcium content of bone of the mice (PPEF could be taken as a highly effective, environmentally friendly and energy-saving method for preparation of ESCM, which treated by PEF could promote the absorption of calcium in vitro, extraordinary can promote bone development and a healthy bone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Needs assessment for patients food intake monitoring among Indonesian healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiningsari, D; Shahar, S; Abdul Manaf, Z; Susetyowati, S

    2017-08-18

    The aim of this study was to provide a needs assessment related to the current practice of food intake monitoring for hospitalized adult patients among healthcare professionals and obtain feedback for the development of a new dietary assessment tool. Continuous effort has been made to identify patients at high risk of malnutrition, but monitoring and documentation of nutritional intake are relative less emphasized upon. A needs assessment through a cross-sectional study design was carried out at six hospitals in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was filled out by 111 respondents recruited from three different professions (nurses, dietitians and serving assistants) in the wards. Seventy per cent of the respondents perceived that the current dietary assessment tool used to record patients' food intake was simple; however, the disadvantage of this tool was its tedious process of computing nutritional values of food consumed. Furthermore, more than half respondents encountered problems in conducting food intake record of patients, primarily due to limited number of human resources, followed by time constraints and perception that such dietary assessment as not part of their job scope. This study has revealed important information in developing a simple, valid and reliable dietary assessment tool for monitoring food intake of hospitalized patients to be applied by interdisciplinary hospital professionals. Awareness of the important on monitoring nutrient intake of patients should be emphasized among healthcare professionals. The current dietary assessment tool requires modification due to lengthy time taken to complete the task and poor accuracy in intake estimation. Hospitals should provide protocols and guidelines of cooperation among interdisciplinary professionals, including nurses, which includes a simple dietary assessment tool to assist nutritional management of hospitalized patients. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Assessment of a Salt Reduction Intervention on Adult Population Salt Intake in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Arti; Trieu, Kathy; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Sukhu, Arleen; Schultz, Jimaima; Wate, Jillian; Bell, Colin; Moodie, Marj; Snowdon, Wendy; Ma, Gary; Rogers, Kris; Webster, Jacqui

    2017-12-12

    Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to assess the impact of a complex, multi-faceted intervention to reduce population salt intake in Fiji between 2012 and 2016. The intervention combined initiatives to engage food businesses to reduce salt in foods and meals with targeted consumer behavior change programs. There were 169 participants at baseline (response rate 28.2%) and 272 at 20 months (response rate 22.4%). The mean salt intake from 24-h urine samples was estimated to be 11.7 grams per day (g/d) at baseline and 10.3 g/d after 20 months (difference: -1.4 g/day, 95% CI -3.1 to 0.3, p = 0.115). Sub-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in female salt intake in the Central Division but no differential impact in relation to age or ethnicity. Whilst the low response rate means it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about these changes, the population salt intake in Fiji, at 10.3 g/day, is still twice the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended maximum intake. This project also assessed iodine intake levels in women of child-bearing age and found that they were within recommended guidelines. Existing policies and programs to reduce salt intake and prevent iodine deficiency need to be maintained or strengthened. Monitoring to assess changes in salt intake and to ensure that iodine levels remain adequate should be built into future surveys.

  15. Hydration, Fluid Intake, and Related Urine Biomarkers among Male College Students in Cangzhou, China: A Cross-Sectional Study—Applications for Assessing Fluid Intake and Adequate Water Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Du, Songming; Tang, Zhenchuang; Zheng, Mengqi; Yan, Ruixia; Zhu, Yitang; Ma, Guansheng

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the associations between fluid intake and urine biomarkers and to determine daily total fluid intake for assessing hydration status for male college students. A total of 68 male college students aged 18–25 years recruited from Cangzhou, China completed a 7-day cross-sectional study. From day 1 to day 7; all subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day 24-h fluid intake record. The foods eaten by subjects were weighed and 24-h urine was collected for three consecutive days on the last three consecutive days. On the sixth day, urine osmolality, specific gravity (USG), pH, and concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride was determined. Subjects were divided into optimal hydration, middle hydration, and hypohydration groups according to their 24-h urine osmolality. Strong relationships were found between daily total fluid intake and 24-h urine biomarkers, especially for 24-h urine volume (r = 0.76; p hydration was 2582 mL, while the daily total fluid intake for assessing hypohydration was 2502 mL. Differences in fluid intake and urine biomarkers were found among male college students with different hydration status. A strong relationship existed between urine biomarkers and fluid intake. A PLS model identified that key variables for assessing daily total fluid intake were 24-h urine volume and osmolality. It was feasibility to use total fluid intake to judge hydration status. PMID:28492493

  16. An assessment of the nutritional intake of soccer referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Reñón, Cristian; Collado, Pilar S

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze the eating habits and attitudes of a group of soccer referees and linesmen. A nutritional study was undertaken of thirty-five soccer referees (aged between 18 and 50) refereeing at different levels, from the Spanish national third division down to the provincial second division. Through the use of a 3-day food diary and 24-hour recall, this study analyzed the intake and distribution of macro- and micro-nutrients and of dietary fiber consumed on different types of day (normal, training, and match days). There were no significant differences in calorie intake related to the three types of day (normal, training, and match days). This was true both of overall amounts (2371.1 kcal, 2479.7 kcal, and 2368.4 kcal, respectively) and amounts per unit of body weight (32.4 kcal/kg, 33.9 kcal/kg, and 32.4 kcal/kg, respectively). In respect of macro-nutrient intake, more specifically carbohydrates, the subjects consumed a diet with an insufficient amount of carbohydrates: 279 g, as against the 371 g (REC1) or 540 g (REC2) recommended according to physical activity levels. Slight increases were observed on game days, but were not statistically significant. Consideration of micro-nutrients showed that the quantities of three vitamins (B6, B12, and C) consumed were above the recommended amounts. However, this was not an issue, since the figures related to water-soluble vitamins. Finally, the amounts of minerals (Ca, Mg, and Fe) and fiber consumed were close to recommended values, regardless of the type of day being considered. This study found that the group of referees investigated consumed a diet that did not have sufficient calories from carbohydrates, in view of their occupation. This poor nutritional status might interfere with the development of their sporting performance and ultimately increase the risk of injury. This implies a need to design and implement a diet and to introduce educational programs on nutrition for these

  17. Assessment of monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake in a rural Thai community: questioning the methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinna, Karuthan; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2013-07-26

    We examined the methodological approach to the assessment of monosodium glutamate intake. The high carbohydrate and low fat consumption characteristic of this study population would be conducive to the development of metabolic syndrome. However, anomalies in the assessment of dietary information limits conclusion to a causal link of monosodium glutamate to metabolic syndrome and overweight because the study lacks data on the main dietary patterns of consumption. Given the current paucity of data from human studies on monosodium glutamate intake and risk, more studies with robust methodology are required to assess causal links to disease.

  18. Hydration, Fluid Intake, and Related Urine Biomarkers among Male College Students in Cangzhou, China: A Cross-Sectional Study—Applications for Assessing Fluid Intake and Adequate Water Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess the associations between fluid intake and urine biomarkers and to determine daily total fluid intake for assessing hydration status for male college students. A total of 68 male college students aged 18–25 years recruited from Cangzhou, China completed a 7-day cross-sectional study. From day 1 to day 7; all subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day 24-h fluid intake record. The foods eaten by subjects were weighed and 24-h urine was collected for three consecutive days on the last three consecutive days. On the sixth day, urine osmolality, specific gravity (USG, pH, and concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride was determined. Subjects were divided into optimal hydration, middle hydration, and hypohydration groups according to their 24-h urine osmolality. Strong relationships were found between daily total fluid intake and 24-h urine biomarkers, especially for 24-h urine volume (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001 and osmolality (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001. The percentage of the variances in daily total fluid intake (R2 explained by PLS (partial least squares model with seven urinary biomarkers was 68.9%; two urine biomarkers—24-h urine volume and osmolality—were identified as possible key predictors. The daily total fluid intake for assessing optimal hydration was 2582 mL, while the daily total fluid intake for assessing hypohydration was 2502 mL. Differences in fluid intake and urine biomarkers were found among male college students with different hydration status. A strong relationship existed between urine biomarkers and fluid intake. A PLS model identified that key variables for assessing daily total fluid intake were 24-h urine volume and osmolality. It was feasibility to use total fluid intake to judge hydration status.

  19. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavra Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9 or a weighed food record (wFR (n = 9, recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR (p > 0.05. Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  20. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mavra; Mandic, Iva; Lou, Wendy; Goodman, Len; Jacobs, Ira; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-02-27

    The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9) or a weighed food record (wFR) (n = 9), recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (-73 kcal/day for tablet app and -108 kcal/day for wFR) (p > 0.05). Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR) with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR) and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  1. [Dietary intake and risk assessment of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) in Chinese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Liu, Zhaoping; Zhang, Lei; Song, Yan; Zhou, Pingping; Yong, Ling; Sui, Haixia

    2015-09-01

    To study DINP concentration level in the main food, evaluate DINP dietary intake level in Chinese population and its potential health risks. Based on the deterministic assessment model, using concentration level of 25 kinds of food in 2011 - 2013 and Chinese national nutrition and health survey data in 2002, to calculate dietary intake of DINP in Chinese population. The average DINP concentration level in 24 kinds of foods was 0. 24 mg/kg, and the maximum value was 9. 55 mg/kg. In whole population, average dietary intake of DINP was 4. 39 µg/kg bw per day, only 2. 93% of TDI. The dietary intake of DINP in children aged 2 to 6 years old was highest, with an average of 8. 91 µg/kg bw per day, 5. 94% of the TDI. The dietary intake of DINP in children aged 7 to 12 years old was lower than 2 to 6 years old children, with an average of 6.53 µg/kg bw per day, 4. 35% of TDI. The dietary intake of DINP in high consumer(P97. 5) in all population was 8. 35 µg/kg bw per day, 5. 57% of the TDI. The range of dietary intake of DINP in high consumer (P97. 5) in each group (grouping by gender and age) was from 13. 84 to 5.44 µg/kg bw per day, which were all lower than the TDI. The dietary intake of DINP in different populations is considerably below the TDI and any health risk that would be expected to occur at this intake level is negligible.

  2. Phosphate decreases urine calcium and increases calcium balance: A meta-analysis of the osteoporosis acid-ash diet hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasziw Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acid-ash hypothesis posits that increased excretion of "acidic" ions derived from the diet, such as phosphate, contributes to net acidic ion excretion, urine calcium excretion, demineralization of bone, and osteoporosis. The public is advised by various media to follow an alkaline diet to lower their acidic ion intakes. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to quantify the contribution of phosphate to bone loss in healthy adult subjects; specifically, a to assess the effect of supplemental dietary phosphate on urine calcium, calcium balance, and markers of bone metabolism; and to assess whether these affects are altered by the b level of calcium intake, c the degree of protonation of the phosphate. Methods Literature was identified through computerized searches regarding phosphate with surrogate and/or direct markers of bone health, and was assessed for methodological quality. Multiple linear regression analyses, weighted for sample size, were used to combine the study results. Tests of interaction included stratification by calcium intake and degree of protonation of the phosphate supplement. Results Twelve studies including 30 intervention arms manipulated 269 subjects' phosphate intakes. Three studies reported net acid excretion. All of the meta-analyses demonstrated significant decreases in urine calcium excretion in response to phosphate supplements whether the calcium intake was high or low, regardless of the degree of protonation of the phosphate supplement. None of the meta-analyses revealed lower calcium balance in response to increased phosphate intakes, whether the calcium intake was high or low, or the composition of the phosphate supplement. Conclusion All of the findings from this meta-analysis were contrary to the acid ash hypothesis. Higher phosphate intakes were associated with decreased urine calcium and increased calcium retention. This meta-analysis did not find evidence that phosphate intake

  3. Reducing mineral usage in feedlot diets for Nellore cattle: II. Impacts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc contents on intake, performance, and liver and bone status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, L F; Sathler, D F T; Silva, B C; Zanetti, D; Valadares Filho, S C; Alhadas, H M; Detmann, E; Santos, S A; Mariz, L D S; Chizzotti, M L

    2017-04-01

    Weaned Nellore bulls ( = 36; 274 ± 34 kg) were used in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate intake, fecal excretion, and performance with different concentrations of minerals. Experimental diets were formulated with 2 concentrations of Ca and P (macromineral factor; diet supplying 100% of Ca and P according to BR-CORTE () [CaP+] or diet without limestone and dicalcium phosphate [CaP-]) and 2 concentrations of microminerals (micromineral factor; diet with supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn+] or diet without supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn-]). The factor CaP- was formulated without the addition of limestone and dicalcium phosphate, and the factor CuMnZn- was formulated without inorganic supplementation of microminerals (premix). The diets were isonitrogenous (13.3% CP). Intake was individually monitored every day. Indigestible NDF was used as an internal marker for digestibility estimates. The bulls were slaughtered (84 or 147 d on feed), and then carcass characteristics were measured and liver and rib samples were collected. Feed, feces, rib bones, and liver samples were analyzed for DM, ash, CP, ether extract (EE), Ca, P, Zn, Mn, and Cu. There were no significant interactions ( ≥ 0.06) between macro- and micromineral supplementation for any variables in the study. Calcium, P, and micromineral concentrations did not affect ( ≥ 0.20) intake of DM, OM, NDF, EE, CP, TDN, and nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC). Calcium and P intake were affected ( < 0.01) by macromineral factor. Animals fed without Ca and P supplementation consumed less of these minerals. Dry matter and nutrient fecal excretion (OM, NDF, EE, CP, and NFC) were similar ( ≥ 0.23) among all factors. Performance and carcass characteristics were similar ( ≥ 0.09) among diets. The content of ash in rib bones was not affected by diets ( ≥ 0.06). Plasma P and phosphatase alkaline concentrations were similar (

  4. The two-stroke poppet valve engine. Part 1: Intake and exhaust ports flow experimental assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamili Zahidi, M.; Razali Hanipah, M.; Ramasamy, D.; Noor, M. M.; Kadirgama, K.; Rahman, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    A two-stroke poppet valve engine is developed to overcome the common problems in conventional two-stroke engine designs. However, replacing piston control port with poppet valve will resulted different flow behaviour. This paper is looking at experimental assessment on a two-stroke poppet valve engine configuration to investigate the port flow performance. The aims are to evaluate the intake and exhaust coefficient of discharge and assess the twostroke capability of the cylinder head. The results has shown comparable coefficient of discharge values as production engine for the intake while the exhaust has higher values which is favourable for the two-stroke cycle operation.

  5. Effect of anionic salts in concentrate mixture and calcium intake on some blood and urine minerals, acid-base balance and feed intake of dry pregnant cows on grass silage based feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAURIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Ayrshire and eight Friesian cows were randomly assigned to one of four prepartum diets in a 2 x 2 factorially designed experiment to determine the effect of anionic diet and calcium (Ca intake on Ca metabolism, acid-base status and feed intake of grass silage based diets during the dry period. Four diets provided either 34 g or 74 g total dietary Ca/day, and were either anionic or cationic. Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB, calculated as milliequivalents [(Na+ + K+ - (Cl- + S2-], was -247 mEq/kg dry matter (DM in the low DCAB group and +34 mEq/kg DM in the high DCAB group. DCAB was formulated using NH4Cl, (NH42SO4 and MgCl2 as anionic salts. Cows received grass silage (5.2 kg DM, hay (0.9 kg DM and concentrate mixture (1.6 kg DM until calving. Blood and urine samples were collected 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before the expected calving date, at calving, the day after calving and 1 week following calving. The results indicate that the reduction of cation-anion balance induced mild metabolic acidosis and increased the ability of the cow to maintain blood Ca concentration. However, DCAB should be higher since urinary pH decreased markedly (< 6 and so remarkable changes in some blood electrolyte concentrations were noticed.;

  6. Calcium burden assessment and impact on drug-eluting balloons in peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, F; Cannavale, A; Gazzetti, M; Lucatelli, P; Wlderk, A; Cirelli, C; d'Adamo, A; Salvatori, F M

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of calcium on the efficacy of DEB during revascularization of steno-obstructive SFA lesions. Sixty patients with de novo lesions of the superficial femoral artery underwent endovascular treatment with drug eluting balloons (DEB). DEB was selected according to vessel reference diameter (1:1). In case of residual stenosis > 50 % or flow-limiting dissection, postdilatation with conventional balloon or provisional stenting was done. Patients were classified into eight groups according to circumferential distribution of calcium on CT-angiography axial images (from 0° to 360°) and to its length (length  3 cm) evaluated with digital-subtraction-angiography. Ankle-brachial index (ABI), late lumen loss (LLL), target lesion revascularization (TLR), primary (PP) and secondary (SP) patency, major adverse events (MAE), and Rutherford shift were evaluated at 1-year follow-up and correlated with the amount of calcium. Revascularization was successful in all cases. Flow-limiting dissection occurred in five cases (8.3 %) with a higher circumferential degree of calcium and solved in three cases with postdilatation and in the other two with provisional stenting. DEB effect was lower in patients with higher degree of calcium (>270° vs. <90°): ABI 0.71 ± 0.07 versus 0.92 ± 0.07; LLL 0.75 ± 0.21 versus 0.45 ± 0.1; PP 50 versus 100 %; SP 50 versus 100 %; TLR 25 versus 0 %; MAE 25 versus 0 %. Calcium represents a barrier to optimal drug absorption. Circumferential distribution seems to be the most influencing factor with the worst effect noticed in 360° calcium presence.

  7. Reproducibility and validity of an interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake of urban adults in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, V; Radhika, G; Sathya, R M; Ganesan, A; Mohan, V

    2006-01-01

    We report on the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed for southern India. One hundred and two adult subjects aged > or =20 years drawn from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study participated. The FFQ was developed based on local foods and habits, and was administered three times at 0, 6 and 12 month periods (called FFQ1, FFQ2 and FFQ3) to assess the reproducibility. To test the validity of the FFQ, multiple 24-h recalls collected at 2-monthly intervals for a period of 1 year and the estimated energy intake/basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR) ratio were used. The 'EpiNu' in-house food and nutrient database was used to compile dietary intakes, which were analyzed for statistical analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient for all three FFQs ranged from 0.72 for carbohydrates to 0.45 for folate. The de-attenuated Pearson correlation for the energy adjusted nutrients between FFQ3 and 24-h recalls ranged from 0.73 for carbohydrates to 0.35 for calcium. Bland and Altman plots for energy intake between the two methods showed the limits of agreement ranged from 768 to -1358 calories/day (+/-2 standard deviations). Misclassification was low for most of the nutrients. Under-reporting of the energy intake (EI/BMR ratioIndia.

  8. Mapping to assess feasibility of using subsurface intakes for SWRO, Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2013-11-19

    Use of subsurface intakes for seawater reverse osmosis desalination (SWRO) systems is known to improve raw water quality, reduce use of chemicals, improve operational reliability, and reduce the life cycle cost of desalination. A key issue in planning for the development of a SWRO facility that would potentially use a subsurface intake is the characterization of the coastal and nearshore geology of a region to ascertain the types of subsurface intakes that could be used and their respective costs. It is the purpose of this research to document a new methodology that can be used for planning and assessment of the feasibility of using subsurface intake systems for SWRO facilities at any location in the world. The Red Sea shoreline and nearshore area of Saudi Arabia were mapped and sediments were sampled from the Yemen border north of the Jordan border, a distance of about 1,950 km. Seventeen different coastal environments were defined, mapped, and correlated to the feasibility of using various types of subsurface intake systems. Six environments were found to have favorable characteristics for development of large-scale subsurface intakes. The most favorable of these coastal environments includes: (1) beaches and nearshore areas containing carbonate or siliciclastic sands with minimum mud concentrations and environmentally sensitive bottom community biota or fauna (A1, A2, and A3), limestone rocky shorelines with an offshore carbonate or siliciclastic sand bottom underlain by soft limestone and a barren area lying between the shoreline and the offshore reef (B1, B5), and wadi sediments on the beach (mixture of pebbles, gravel, and sand) with a corresponding nearshore area containing either siliciclastic sand and/or a marine hard ground (soft limestone or sandstone) (C2). It was found that seabed galleries were the subsurface intake type with the highest feasibility for development of large-capacity intakes. The geological characteristics of the offshore sea bottom

  9. An Assessment of Subsurface Intake Systems: Planning and Impact on Feed Water Quality for SWRO Facilities

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface intake systems are known to improve the feed water quality for SWRO plants. However, a little is known about the feasibility of implementation in coastal settings, the degree of water quality improvements provided by these systems, and the internal mechanisms of potential fouling compounds removal within subsurface intake systems. A new method was developed to assess the feasibility of using different subsurface intake systems in coastal areas and was applied to Red Sea coastline of Saudi Arabia. The methodology demonstrated that five specific coastal environments could support well intake systems use for small-capacity SWRO plants, whereas large-capacity SWRO facilities could use seabed gallery intake systems. It was also found that seabed intake system could run with no operational constraints based on the high evaporation rates and associated diurnal salinity changes along the coast line. Performance of well intake systems in several SWRO facilities along the Red Sea coast showed that the concentrations of organic compounds were reduced in the feed water, similar or better than traditional pretreatment methodologies. Nearly all algae, up to 99% of bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of TEP were removed during transport through the aquifer. These organics cause membrane biofouling and using well intakes showed a 50-75% lower need to clean the SWRO membranes compared to conventional open-ocean intakes. An assessment of the effectiveness of seabed gallery intake systems was conducted through a long-term bench-scale column experiment. The simulation of the active layer (upper 1 m) showed that it is highly effective at producing feed water quality improvements and acts totally different compared to slow sand filtration systems treating freshwater. No development of a “schmutzdecke” layer occurred and treatment was not limited to the top 10 cm, but throughout the full column thickness. Algae and

  10. [Nutrients and energy intake assessment in the critically ill patient on enteral nutritional therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilés, J; Lobo, G; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Rodríguez, M; Aguayo, E; Cobo, M A; Moreno-Torres, R; Aranda, A; Llopis, J; Sánchez, C; Planells, E

    2005-01-01

    The critically ill patient is especially susceptible to malnutrition due to his/her hypermetabolic state that leads to an increase in the nutritional requirementes, which many times are not compensated with the administered enteral formulas. The assessment of nutritional intake is essential in this kind of patients to know to what level their energetic and nutritional requirements are fulfilled, improving and monitoring in the most individualized possible way to indicated clinical and nutritional therapu. This is a retrospective study in which all patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Virgen de las Nieves Hospital were studied from January to December of 2003, aged more than 18 years, and on enteral nutrition. A total of 90 patients (52 men and 38 women) were studied, 81% of which were older than 50 years, and 57% had hospital stays longer than 8 days, with a 21% mortality rate. Intake was assessed from time of admission and throughout the whole hospitalization period. Energetic requirements were calculated according to the modified Long's formula and micronutrients intakes were compared to existing general recommendations for the Spanish, European and American populations, and to vitaminic requirements in critically ill patients. Percentages of mean energy and nutrients intakes in relation to theoretical calculated requirements for both genders are presented in figure 1. Mean energy intake was 1,326 cal in men and 917 cal in women. With regards to micronutrients intake, the values found for proteins, falts, and carbohydrates were lower than 50% of the requirements for both genders. The percentage of adequacy as referred to requirements for vitamins and minerals intake is shown in figure 2. Reference recommendations used correspond to sufficient intakes to cover the healthy individual requirements, therefore, the values obtained in our study show and adequacy greater than 75%, with the exception of particular elements such as vitamin A and magnesium

  11. Performance of Short Food Questions to Assess Aspects of the Dietary Intake of Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Single dietary questions are used as a rapid method of monitoring diet. The aim of this investigation was to assess the performance of questions to measure population group intake compared to the mean of two 24-h recalls. Data from the Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2007 was used (n = 4487. Children reported their intake on three questions relating to usual serves of fruit, vegetables and type of milk. Age, gender and body weight status were assessed as modifiers of the relationship between methods. There was a stepwise increase in fruit and vegetable intake (p < 0.001 measured by recall when grouped by response category of the short question. By recall, fruit consumption decreased with age (F = 12.92, p < 0.001 but this trend was not detectable from the short question (F = 2.31, p = 0.075. The difference in fruit intake between methods was greatest for obese children. Almost 85% of children who consumed whole milk by short question consumed mainly whole fat milk by recall, but agreement was lower for other milk types. Saturated fat and volume of milk was highest in whole milk consumers. Ease of administration suggests that short questions, at least for some aspects of diet, are a useful method to monitor population intakes for children.

  12. Assessing infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants via dietary intake in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen F; Harden, Fiona A

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs); organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, and pose a risk of causing adverse human health effects. Typically, exposure assessments undertaken by modeling existing intake data underestimate the concentrations of these chemicals in infants. This study aimed to determine concentrations of POPs in infant foods, assess exposure via dietary intake and compare this to historical exposure. Fruit purees, meat and vegetables, dairy desserts, cereals and jelly foods (n = 33) purchased in 2013 in Brisbane, Australia were analyzed. For OCPs and PCBs, concentrations ranged up to 95 pg/g fw and for PBDEs up to 32 pg/g fw with most analytes below the limit of detection. Daily intake is dependent on type and quantity of foods consumed. Consumption of a 140 g meal would result in intake ranging from 0 to 4.2 ng/day, 4.4 ng/day and 13.3 ng/day, for OCPs, PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. PBDEs were detected in 3/33 samples, OCPs in 9/33 samples and PCBs in 13/33 samples. Results from this study indicate exposure for infants via dietary (in contrast to dust and breast milk) intake in Australia contribute only a minor component to total exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements.

  14. GLOBOX : A spatially differentiated global fate, intake and effect model for toxicity assessment in LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegener Sleeswijk, Anneke; Heijungs, Reinout

    GLOBOX is a model for the calculation of spatially differentiated LCA toxicity characterisation factors on a global scale. It can also be used for human and environmental risk assessment. The GLOBOX model contains equations for the calculation of fate, intake and effect factors, and equations for

  15. Validation of the Photography Method for Nutritional Intake Assessment in Hospitalized Elderly Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacelli, F; Sartini, M; Bassoli, V; Becchetti, D; Biagini, A L; Nencioni, A; Cea, M; Borghi, R; Torre, F; Odetti, P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the photographic indirect method as an accurate and specific tool to assess nutritional intake in a cohort of elderly hospitalized patients. this is a prospective observational study. hospital (geriatric acute ward and transitional care of IRCCSS AUO San Martino Hospital, Genoa, Italy). 255 consecutive elderly hospitalized patients. assessment of malnutrition by: Mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and abbreviated Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CIRS; Barthel index, SPMSE). The direct method (Gold standard): food dish weight (before lunch) and residual (after lunch) food dish weight and estimation of the percentage of eaten food and of residual food for each dish. The percentages of food intake and residual food were calculated according to the following formula: intake %= initial weight of the dishes- residual food weight)/ initial weight dish x100. The unit of variable was the percentage. The indirect photographic method with extrapolation of the lunch food intake by photographic method confronting initial meal and residual meal (25% quartile food dish estimation). The results showed a significant correlation between the direct method (weighing residual food) and the indirect photographic method(n=255; r=0.9735; ptherapeutic interventions.

  16. Development, validation and implementation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess habitual vitamin D intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiely, M.; Collins, A.; Lucey, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A well-designed, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) could offer an efficient and cost-effective method for assessing habitual vitamin D intake. The present study aimed to describe the development, validation and implementation of a vitamin D FFQ. Methods National...

  17. Quality of life, dietary intake and nutritional status assessment in hospital admitted cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabal, J; Leyes, P; Forga, M T; Hervás, S

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the quality of life (QoL), nutritional status, and quantitative food intakes of non-terminal admitted cancer patients receiving oral feeding. As well as to evaluate what kind of relation exists between the quality of life, and the nutritional status and current intake. Medical Oncology and Radiotherapy Service ward at the Hospital Clinic de Barcelona. Fifty admitted patients in the Service ward. There was a follow-up of the dietary intake during 3 working days through direct observation, as well as an assessment of anthropometrical and biochemical parameters, a record of symptomatology related data, and a QoL assessment through the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Our data show that 32.6% of the patients did not reach 25 kcal/kg/day, and 23.3% did not even fulfill 1 g protein/kg/day. Concerning QoL, mean score for global health status and overall QoL for all patients was 46.2. Compared to the general population, there were important deficits among cancer patients regarding physical, role and social functioning. The most pronounced differences in the symptom scales were for fatigue, and in single items for appetite loss and constipation. A low protein intake was associated to a poorer perception on physical functioning (p = 0.01), and fatigue was close to significance (p = 0.058). No significant differences were found regarding caloric intake and QoL. A significant percentage of patients who received exclusive oral feeding did not cover a minimum acceptable quantity of their protein-energy requirements. Our results point-out that poor food intakes can affect QoL by themselves.

  18. Could molecular assessment of calcium metabolism be a useful tool to early screen patients at risk for pre-eclampsia complicated pregnancy? Proposal and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Di Gangi, Stefania; Saccardi, Carlo; Cosmi, Erich; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Plebani, Mario

    2015-06-01

    One of the most frequent causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity is represented by hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Women at high risk must be subjected to a more intensive antenatal surveillance and prophylactic treatments. Many genetic risk factors, clinical features and biomarkers have been proposed but none of these seems able to prevent pre-eclampsia onset. English literature review of manuscripts focused on calcium intake and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy was performed. We performed a critical analysis of evidences about maternal calcium metabolism pattern in pregnancy analyzing all possible bias affecting studies. Calcium supplementation seems to give beneficial effects on women with low calcium intake. Some evidence reported that calcium supplementation may drastically reduce the percentage of pre-eclampsia onset consequently improving the neonatal outcome. Starting from this evidence, it is intuitive that investigations on maternal calcium metabolism pattern in first trimester of pregnancy could represent a low cost, large scale tool to screen pregnant women and to identify those at increased risk of pre-eclampsia onset. We propose a biochemical screening of maternal calcium metabolism pattern in first trimester of pregnancy to discriminate patients who potentially may benefit from calcium supplementation. In a second step we propose to randomly allocate the sub-cohort of patients with calcium metabolism disorders in a treatment group (calcium supplementation) or in a control group (placebo) to define if calcium supplementation may represent a dietary mean to reduce pre-eclampsia onset and to improve pregnancy outcome.

  19. A Mobile Phone App for Dietary Intake Assessment in Adolescents: An Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Åsa; Larsson, Christel

    2015-11-03

    There is a great need for dietary assessment methods that suit the adolescent lifestyle and give valid intake data. To develop a mobile phone app and evaluate its ability to assess energy intake (EI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) compared with objectively measured TEE. Furthermore, to investigate the impact of factors on reporting accuracy of EI, and to compare dietary intake with a Web-based method. Participants 14 to 16 years of age were recruited from year nine in schools in Gothenburg, Sweden. In total, 81 adolescents used the mobile phone app over 1 to 6 days. TEE was measured with the SenseWear Armband (SWA) during the same or proximate days. Individual factors were assessed with a questionnaire. A total of 15 participants also recorded dietary intake using a Web-based method. The mobile phone app underestimated EI by 29% on a group level (Pmobile phone app was 1.19 times the value of TEE measured by the SWA on a group level (Pmobile phone app stratified by gender showed that accuracy of the mobile phone app was higher among boys. EI, nutrients, and food groups assessed with the mobile phone app and Web-based method among 15 participants were not significantly different and several were significantly correlated, but strong conclusions cannot be drawn due to the low number of participants. By using a mobile phone dietary assessment app, on average 71% of adolescents' EI was captured. The accuracy of reported dietary intake was higher with lower BMI z-score and if a weekend day was included in the record. The daily question in the mobile phone app about physical activity could accurately rank the participants' TEE.

  20. Causality assessment of liver injury after chronic oral amiodarone intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Lucía; Moreu, Rocío; Peiró, Ana M; Pascual, Sonia; Francés, Rubén; Such, José; Horga, José F; Pérez-Mateo, Miguel; Zapater, Pedro

    2009-04-01

    The number of patients receiving amiodarone will increase in future years. As clinically significant hepatotoxicity associated with oral amiodarone is infrequent and difficult to predict, a new Bayesian-developed model is proposed to help in the causality assessment of amiodarone-induced liver injury. Incidence of abnormal liver enzymes in patients receiving amiodarone was obtained from placebo controlled clinical trials. Published case reports of amiodarone-induced hepatotoxicity were identified through a literature search. Maximum number of expected hepatotoxicity cases in amiodarone and placebo-treated patients was calculated using Poisson distribution. The calculated odds ratio was used as a Prior Odds (PrO) to subsequent quantification, using a Bayesian-approach, of individual amiodarone-induced hepatotoxicity likelihood. PrO of amiodarone-induced hepatotoxicity was 0.48. Thirty nine amiodarone-associated hepatotoxicity case reports were retrieved. Half of published case reports developed an irreversible damage. The amiodarone Bayesian model combining information about latency period and period of remission, together with analytical parameters properly defines the toxicity profile shown in published case reports. The analytical pattern defined by this model is different from the one expected if liver injury in published cases was caused by other etiologies. A method based on a Bayesian-approach, which links information from clinical trials with clinical hepatotoxicity profile from published case reports can be a useful tool for amiodarone-induced liver injury causality assessment. At present, this method is limited due to scarcity and quality of available data. Further efforts are needed to improve model ability in order to identify amiodarone-induced liver injury.

  1. Effects of cholecalciferol supplementation and optimized calcium intakes on vitamin D status, muscle strength and bone health: a one-year pilot randomized controlled trial in adults with severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Foidart-Desalle, Marguerite; Ledoux, Didier; Remy, Christophe; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Damas, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne

    2015-03-01

    Burn patients are at risk of hypovitaminosis D and osteopenia or sarcopenia. Vitamin D pleiotropic effects may influence bone and muscle health. The aim of this pilot study was to assess effects of a cholecalciferol (VD3) supplementation and an optimized calcium (Ca) regimen on vitamin D (VD) status, bone and muscle health during sequelar stage of burn injury. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Fifteen adults with thermal burns dating from 2 to 5 years were randomized into two groups. For 12 months, they either received a quarterly IM injection of 200,000IU VD3 and daily oral Ca (Group D) or placebo (Group P). VD status and bone remodeling markers were assessed every 3 months. Knee muscle strength and bone mineral density were, respectively, assessed using isokinetic dynamometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry at initiation (M0) and completion (M12) of the protocol. Of all the patients, 66% presented with VD deficiency and 53% (with 3 men health was observed in both groups while Group D significantly improved quadriceps strength when tested at high velocity. This VD3 supplementation was safe and efficient to correct hypovitaminosis D in burn adults. When combined with optimized Ca intakes, it demonstrated positive effects on muscle health but not on bone health. A high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and osteopenia in these patients, as well as their wide range of muscle performances, seem to be worrying when considering rehabilitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of Nutritional Intake During Space Flight and Space Flight Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Barbara L.; Dlouhy, Holly; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maintaining adequate nutrient intake in microgravity is important not only to meet health maintenance needs of astronauts but also to help counteract the negative effects of space flight. Beyond this, food provides psychosocial benefits throughout a mission. Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss dietary intake data from multiple space programs, including Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Description: These data arise from medical monitoring of both dietary intake and crew health, as well as research protocols designed to assess the role of diet in counteracting bone loss and other health concerns. Ground-based studies are conducted to better understand some of the negative issues related to space flight. Examples of these analog studies are extended bed rest studies, vitamin D supplementation studies in Antarctica, and saturation diving missions on the floor of the ocean. Methods and findings will be presented describing the use of weighed records, diet diaries, and food frequency questionnaires in these various environments. Provision of food and nutrients in spaceflight is important for many body systems including cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and others. Some key areas of concern are loss of body mass, bone and muscle loss, radiation exposure, nutrient intakes during spacewalks, depletion of nutrient stores, and inadequate dietary intake. Initial experimental research studies using food and nutrition as a countermeasure to aid in mitigating these concerns are underway. Conclusion: Beyond their importance for the few individuals leaving the planet, these studies have significant implications for those remaining on Earth.

  3. Assessing Initial Validity and Reliability of a Beverage Intake Questionnaire in Hispanic Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Karina R; Davy, Brenda; Hedrick, Valisa; Ferris, Ann M; Anderson, Michael P; Wakefield, Dorothy

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between high-calorie beverage consumption and weight gain requires an accurate report of dietary intake. A critical need exists to develop and test the psychometrics of brief quantitative tools for minority pediatric populations. To modify the adult beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ-15) for Hispanic preschool-aged children (BEVQ-PS) and test its validity and test-retest reliability in children aged 3 to 5 years. Cross-sectional. The modified quantitative 12-beverage category questionnaire assessed consumption of water, fruit juice, sweetened juice drinks, whole milk, reduced-fat milk, low-fat milk, flavored milk, carbonated sweetened drinks, diet carbonated drinks, sweet tea, tea with or without artificial sweetener, and sport drinks consumed during the past month. Hispanic mothers (n=109) recruited from day-care centers provided one 4-day food intake record (FIR) and completed two BEVQ-PS surveys during a 2-week period for their preschool-aged child. Data collection was conducted through one-on-one interviews in Spanish. Validity was assessed by comparing amounts (in grams) and energy intake (in kilocalories) for each beverage category between the first BEVQ-PS and the mean of the FIRs using paired t tests and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Criteria for validity were nonsignificant mean differences in grams and kilocalories from the first BEVQ-PS and mean of the FIRs beverage categories, and significant correlation coefficients between beverage categories. Test-retest reliability was assessed by comparing grams and kilocalories for each beverage category in the first BEVQ-PS with those from the second BEVQ-PS using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The criterion for reliability was a significant correlation coefficient between beverage categories. Significance was set at Pchildren. Additional modifications should be evaluated to assess total beverage intake. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by

  4. Elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts demonstrate energy and dietary intake deficiencies during periods of intense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulou, Eleni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Kambas, Antonios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Michalopoulou, Maria; Tournis, Symeon; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2011-11-01

    This study determined dietary intake and energy balance of elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts during their preseason training. Forty rhythmic gymnasts and 40 sedentary age-matched females (10-12 yrs) participated in the study. Anthropometric profile and skeletal ages were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed to estimate daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, and resting metabolic rate. Groups demonstrated comparable height, bone age, pubertal development, resting metabolic rate. Gymnasts had lower body mass, BMI, body fat than age-matched controls. Although groups demonstrated comparable daily energy intake, gymnasts exhibited a higher daily energy expenditure resulting in a daily energy deficit. Gymnasts also had higher carbohydrate intake but lower fat and calcium intake. Both groups were below the recommended dietary allowances for fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin intake. Gymnasts may need to raise their daily energy intake to avoid the energy deficit during periods of intense training.

  5. Assessment of dietary intake and nutritional status (MNA) in Polish free-living elderly people from rural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, Joanna; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta; Piotrowska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the global population is rapidly increasing. Their nutritional status indicates many deficiencies that are risky to health. The aim of this paper was to assess the nutrition and nutritional status in elderly individuals above 60 years old living in their family houses in rural areas. Dietary intake and nutritional status were measured in 174 elderly women and 64 men living in the rural areas of Oleśnica (near Wrocław, SW Poland). Energy intake, consumption of nutrients, selected anthropometric and biochemical indicators, were measured in two groups: one at risk of malnutrition and one with adequate nutrition. Using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) questionnaire, 238 persons over 60 years of age were qualified according to their nutritional status. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. The group of women at risk of malnutrition (n=30) showed a statistically significantly lower energy intake in their diet (1,127 kcal) compared to women with adequate nutrition (1,351 kcal). The entire group of examined individuals showed a too low consumption of fiber, calcium, vitamins C and D, and folates. Most of the examined women had a too high body mass index (BMI) (on average 28.8), waist circumference was 96.3 cm, and the triceps skinfold (TSF) was 25.2mm thick. Women at a risk of malnutrition had statistically significantly lower lipid parameters than those with adequate nutrition (respectively: TC 191.1 vs. 219.1m/dl, pnutrition. According to the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), 8.2% of person with adequate nutrition had poor prognostic indicator for overall survival. All the examined individuals showed many significant nutritional deficiencies. The group with nutritional risk had more pronounced nutritional deficiencies. Despite a too low energy value of foods among individuals with correct nutrition, their anthropometric parameters paradoxically showed the presence of excessive fatty tissue. The most frequent

  6. Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%. Height, weight, fat mass (FM, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2 (overall obesity; WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І and waist hip ratio (WHR ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П. The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P0.05. Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.

  7. Food safety risk assessment for estimating dietary intake of sulfites in the Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Keng-Wen; Hsieh, Dennis P H; Huang, Hui-Ying; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Ling, Min-Pei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health risk associated with dietary intake of sulfites for Taiwanese general consumers by conducting a total diet study (TDS). We evaluated the exposure of Taiwanese to sulfites in the diet and its associated health risk. This study used a list of 128 food items representing 83% of the total daily diet. Among the 128 food items, 59 items may contain sulfites. Samples of the 59 food items were collected and subjected to chemical analysis to determine the sulfur dioxide concentration. Health risk was assessed by calculating the ratio of exposure level to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) level of the analyte. For high-intake consumers, the HI of sulfites was 19.7% ADI for males over the age of three years at the 95th percentile; whereas for females over the age of 66, the HI was 17.8% ADI. The HI for high-intake consumers was above 10% ADI. This suggests that regulatory actions must be continued and that consumers should be advised to be aware of processed foods with relatively high contamination to avoid excessive exposure.

  8. Food safety risk assessment for estimating dietary intake of sulfites in the Taiwanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng-Wen Lien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the health risk associated with dietary intake of sulfites for Taiwanese general consumers by conducting a total diet study (TDS. We evaluated the exposure of Taiwanese to sulfites in the diet and its associated health risk. This study used a list of 128 food items representing 83% of the total daily diet. Among the 128 food items, 59 items may contain sulfites. Samples of the 59 food items were collected and subjected to chemical analysis to determine the sulfur dioxide concentration. Health risk was assessed by calculating the ratio of exposure level to the acceptable daily intake (ADI level of the analyte. For high-intake consumers, the HI of sulfites was 19.7% ADI for males over the age of three years at the 95th percentile; whereas for females over the age of 66, the HI was 17.8% ADI. The HI for high-intake consumers was above 10% ADI. This suggests that regulatory actions must be continued and that consumers should be advised to be aware of processed foods with relatively high contamination to avoid excessive exposure.

  9. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  10. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  11. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile dermatomyositis, and systemic vasculitis: relationship to disease duration, cumulative corticosteroid dose, calcium intake, and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsufyani, Khayriah A; Ortiz-Alvarez, Olivia; Cabral, David A; Tucker, Lori B; Petty, Ross E; Nadel, Helen; Malleson, Peter N

    2005-04-01

    To describe the frequency of abnormal bone mineralization in a population of children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE), juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), and systemic vasculitis; and to investigate the relationship of bone mineral density (BMD) to cumulative corticosteroid dose, disease duration, Tanner stage, calcium intake, and exercise in these patients. A retrospective chart review of children attending the pediatric rheumatology clinic at British Columbia's Children's Hospital was conducted to obtain demographic data (sex, ethnicity, disease duration, cumulative corticosteroid dose, and mean daily corticosteroid dose). All patients had at least one BMD measurement by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at lumbar spine, hip, and total body. BMD was expressed as g/cm2 and Z scores; an abnormal Z score was defined as calcium intake was calculated. Physical activity was scored using a validated 7 day physical activities questionnaire. A total of 36 patients were studied. Twenty-five patients had SLE, 7 had JDM, and 4 had systemic vasculitis. Fourteen subjects were Caucasian, 13 Asian, 6 East Indian, and 3 Canadian First Nations. An abnormal Z score at one or more sites was found in 10/25 (40%) with JSLE, and in 3/11 (27%) JDM/vasculitis patients. The mean Z scores (+/- SD) for lumbar spine were -1.02 (+/- 1.2), for hip -0.88 (+/- 1.3), and for total body -0.77 (+/- 1.5). Compared to children with normal bone densities, those with lower bone density tended to be younger (13.5 +/- 2.2 vs 15.5 +/- 1.7 yrs), received higher corticosteroid dosages at the time of the study (0.78 +/- 0.6 vs 0.35 +/- 0.2 mg/kg), and were more often prepubertal (OR for total body scores 5, 95% CI 0.7-46). Decreased bone density is common in children with SLE and other systemic rheumatic diseases. Age, corticosteroid dose, and pubertal stage all appear to have some influence on bone mass in these children.

  12. Enamel mineralization by calcium-containing-bicarbonate toothpastes: assessment by various techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charig, Andrew; Winston, Anthony; Flickinger, Mark

    2004-09-01

    Surface defects such as scratching, acidic erosion, and natural dimpling of the tooth enamel can significantly affect its cosmetic appearance. There are many analytical techniques that can be used to view the surface of enamel and to assess the effect of surface treatments. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), profilometry, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) can usefully be applied to viewing mineral surfaces and obtaining information about surface morphology and smoothness. Energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence and other surface-ionizing techniques can give information about surface chemistry. Microhardness instrumentation can be used to determine surface hardness, while gloss meters and reflectometry can provide measurements of gloss and whiteness. In this study, four sets of in vitro experiments were performed, which illustrate the value of three of these techniques. Specially formulated calcium-containing toothpastes, designed to fill in surface defects in tooth enamel, were evaluated in four experiments for their ability to effect cosmetic improvements in etched tooth enamel: (1) two calcium-containing, sodium-bicarbonate-based toothpaste formulations were shown by SEM to smooth tooth enamel without introducing new scratches. In contrast, a commercial whitening toothpaste removed similar scratches but also created new ones; (2) calcium-containing dentifrices were shown by SEM and hardness measurements to put mineral onto the surface of enamel and to harden it. The effects of uneven dispensing of the two-phase, bicarbonate-based, calcium-containing formulation were shown to be small; (3) a number of different calcium-containing toothpastes were shown by SEM to deliver mineral onto the etched enamel surfaces, whereas a conventional fluoride toothpaste did not; and (4) AFM was used to follow the smoothing of an etched enamel surface after serial treatments with a calcium-containing, bicarbonate-based toothpaste. After 15 in vitro cycles, surface

  13. Dietary assessment methods for micronutrient intake: a systematic review on vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez-Sánchez, Patricia; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Doreste-Alonso, Jorge; Ortiz-Andrellucchi, Adriana; Pfrimer, Karina; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2009-12-01

    The EURRECA Network of Excellence is working towards the development of aligned micronutrient recommendations across Europe. The purpose of the present study was to define how to identify dietary intake validation studies in adults pertaining to vitamins. After establishing a search strategy, we conducted a MEDLINE and EMBASE literature review. A scoring system was developed to rate the quality of each validation study according to sample size, statistical methods, data collection procedure, seasonality and vitamin supplement use. This produced a quality index with possible scores obtained ranging from 0.5 to 7. Five thousand four-hundred and seventy-six papers were identified. The numbers meeting the inclusion criteria were: for vitamin A, 76; vitamin C, 108; vitamin D, 21; vitamin E, 75; folic acid, 47; vitamin B12, 19; vitamin B6, 21; thiamine, 49; riboflavin, 49; and niacin, 32. The most frequently used method to ascertain dietary intake was the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), whereas dietary records (DR) and 24-h recalls were the most used reference methods. The correlation coefficients (CC) between vitamin intakes estimated by FFQ and the reference method were weighted according to the study's quality index and ranged from 0.41 to 0.53 when the reference method was the DR and from 0.43 to 0.67 when the reference was 24-h recalls. A minority of studies (n 33) used biomarkers for validation and in these the CC ranged from 0.26 to 0.38. The FFQ is an acceptable method of assessing vitamin intake. The present review provides new insights regarding the characteristics that assessment methods for dietary intake should fulfil.

  14. Validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food intake in Mexican adolescent and adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez; Ivonne Ramírez-Silva; Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez; Alejandra Jiménez-Aguilar; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Juan A Rivera-Dommarco

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the validity of a 140-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ), in Mexican adolescents and adults. Materials and methods. Dietary intakes using a SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs),in nonconsecutive days during the same week were measured from 178 adolescents and 230 adults participating in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey-2012. Validity was evaluated using correlation coefficients (CC), deattenuated CC, linear regression models...

  15. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain; Md. Alamgir Hossain; Md. Abdur Rahman; Md. Mainul Islam; Md Atiqur Rahman; Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three comm...

  16. Impact of calcium and TOC on biological acidification assessment in Norwegian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Susanne C

    2011-02-15

    Acidification continues to be a major impact in freshwaters of northern Europe, and the biotic response to chemical recovery from acidification is often not a straightforward process. The focus on biological recovery is relevant within the context of the EU Water Framework Directive, where a biological monitoring system is needed that detects differences in fauna and flora compared to undisturbed reference conditions. In order to verify true reference sites for biological analyses, expected river pH is modeled based on Ca and TOC, and 94% of variability in pH at reference sites is explained by Ca alone, while 98% is explained by a combination of Ca and TOC. Based on 59 samples from 28 reference sites, compared to 547 samples from 285 non-reference sites, the impact of calcium and total organic carbon (TOC) on benthic algae species composition, expressed as acidification index periphyton (AIP), is analyzed. Rivers with a high Ca concentration have a naturally higher AIP, and TOC affects reference AIP only at low Ca concentrations. Four biological river types are needed for assessment of river acidification in Norway based on benthic algae: very calcium-poor, humic rivers (CaTOC>2 mg/l); very calcium-poor, clear rivers (CaTOC4 mg/l). A biological assessment system for river acidification in Norway based on benthic algae is presented, following the demands of the Water Framework Directive. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A new mobile phone-based tool for assessing energy and certain food intakes in young children: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Hanna; Bonn, Stephanie E; Bergström, Anna; Bälter, Katarina; Bälter, Olle; Delisle, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Löf, Marie

    2015-04-24

    Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem globally. Obesity may be established already at pre-school age. Further research in this area requires accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing the intake of energy and foods. Traditional methods have limited accuracy, and place large demands on the study participants and researchers. Mobile phones offer possibilities for methodological advancements in this area since they are readily available, enable instant digitalization of collected data, and also contain a camera to photograph pre- and post-meal food items. We have recently developed a new tool for assessing energy and food intake in children using mobile phones called the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH). The main aims of our study are to (1) compare energy intake by means of TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using a criterion method, the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, and (2) to compare intakes of fruits and berries, vegetables, juice, and sweetened beverages assessed by means of TECH with intakes obtained using a Web-based food frequency questionnaire (KidMeal-Q) in 3 year olds. In this study, 30 Swedish 3 year olds were included. Energy intake using TECH was compared to TEE measured using the DLW method. Intakes of vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, as well as sweetened beverages were assessed using TECH and compared to the corresponding intakes assessed using KidMeal-Q. Wilcoxon matched pairs test, Spearman rank order correlations, and the Bland-Altman procedure were applied. The mean energy intake, assessed by TECH, was 5400 kJ/24h (SD 1500). This value was not significantly different (P=.23) from TEE (5070 kJ/24h, SD 600). However, the limits of agreement (2 standard deviations) in the Bland-Altman plot for energy intake estimated using TECH compared to TEE were wide (2990 kJ/24h), and TECH overestimated high and underestimated low energy intakes. The Bland-Altman plots for foods showed similar patterns. The mean

  18. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DIETARY INTAKE OF PATIENTS ATTENDING THE PRE-DIALYSIS ASSESSMENT CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor nutrition status at the start of dialysis is associated with morbidity and mortality. Timely management of patients with ESKD pre-dialysis including providing nutrition intervention is important. The aim of this study was to describe the baseline nutritional status and dietary intake of patients attending the pre-dialysis assessment clinic. Of the 210 patient assessed, 60.5% were male; mean age was 65.7±13.6 years and mean GFR was 17.0±4.2 ml/min. 17.1% were underweight (BMI26 kg/m2. 39.5% were rated as malnourished (SGA score B&C and 18.5% were overweight/obese and malnourished. 26.7% had MAMC 10% less than 50th percentile of the standard. Mean energy and protein intakes were 23.4±6.9 kcal/kg IBW/d and 1.16±0.43 g/kg IBW/d with 65.5% and 15.6% did not meet the recommended intake of energy and protein respectively. 48% of patients experienced symptoms (e.g. poor appetite and nausea affecting dietary intake while 15.7% of patients self-imposed dietary restriction inappropriately due to misconception of nutrition requirements in ESKD. 41.4% and 85.2% did not consume adequate fruit and vegetables of 2 and 5 serves per day respectively based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Nutrient intake (prevalence % below the Recommended Daily Intake (DRI levels were: VitB1 (36.5%, VitB2 (43.5%, Niacin (3.9%, VitC (202%, VitE (41.0%, folate (83.2%, VitA (50.5%, Mg (94.5%, Fe (36.1%, Zn (70.8% and dietary fibre (83.3%. In conclusion, patients attended the current pre-dialysis assessment clinic presented with parameters indicative of poor nutritional health. This clinic may provide an opportunity to optimise nutritional status of ESKD patients before dialysis is required.

  19. A minimum of six days of diet recording is needed to assess usual vitamin K intake among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presse, Nancy; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna; Greenwood, Carol E; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Ferland, Guylaine

    2011-02-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of vitamin K in health, especially in aging populations. Knowledge of inter- and intra-individual variability of dietary vitamin K intake could be useful to accurately assess usual intake and rank participants in epidemiological studies. Our objectives were to: 1) estimate the variance components of vitamin K intake; 2) investigate whether day of the week, season, and energy intake are factors related to intra-individual variance; and 3) calculate the requisite number of days to achieve desired degrees of accuracy for estimating individual vitamin K intake, ranking individuals and estimating regression coefficient. Vitamin K intake was assessed in 939 older adults (67-84 y) enrolled in the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging study using 2 sets of 3 nonconsecutive multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls (24HR) collected 6 mo apart. Each set included 2 weekdays and one weekend day. Intra- to inter-individual variance ratios for vitamin K intake were 3.2 (95% CI = 2.6-3.9) overall, 2.6 (95% CI = 2.1-3.5) for men, and 3.7 (95% CI = 2.9-5.0) for women. Day of the week (weekdays) and season (May to October) were positively and significantly associated with vitamin K intake but explained a negligible part of intra-individual variation (<1%). Adjusting for energy intake explained <7% of variance and did not affect the variance ratio. Six to 13 24HR are required to properly rank individuals according to their usual vitamin K intake and limit attenuation of the regression coefficient. These results should be considered in studies planning to assess vitamin K intakes in older adults.

  20. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (pfiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (pfiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest.

  1. Correlation between serum phospholipid fatty acids and dietary intakes assessed a few years earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiébaut, Anne C M; Rotival, Maxime; Gauthier, Estelle; Lenoir, Gilbert M; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Joulin, Virginie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Chajès, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids has been shown to reflect dietary intakes in the previous weeks or months. However, how serum phospholipids relate to fatty acid intakes over a few years has hardly been examined. We designed a cross-sectional study within the E3N cohort, the French component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition in which female participants completed a 208-item diet history questionnaire in 1993-1995 and provided blood samples in 1995-1998. The study included 1,114 women who were free of cancer at the time of blood collection. Serum phospholipid fatty acid composition was assessed by capillary gas chromatography. Partial Spearman correlations adjusted for age and body mass index showed weak to moderate, although statistically significant, positive associations between dietary and serum oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids. Moreover, serum oleic acid was directly associated with olive oil, linoleic acid with sunflower oil, pentadecanoic acid with dairy products, long-chain n-3 fatty acids with fatty fish, and trans-monounsaturated fatty acids with manufactured foods. In conclusion, serum phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, oleic, trans-monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids are suitable biomarkers for usual dietary intakes, although the association may weaken as the time lag between dietary assessment and blood collection increases.

  2. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  3. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread...... is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults...... months later. Results: Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.999.8 and 28.199.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were 12% lower (pB0.001). Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r0.63 (pB0...

  4. Assessment of physical activity, energy expenditure and energy intakes of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Adequate nutrition and energy intake play key rule during the training period and recovery time. The assessment of athlete's energetic needs should be calculated individually, based on personal energy expenditure and Sense Wear PRO3 Armband (SWA) mobile monitor is a useful tool to achieve this goal. However, there is still few studies conducted with use of this monitor. To assess individual energy needs of athletes by use of SWA and to determine whether their energy intake fulfils the body's energy expenditure. Subjects were 15 male students attending Military University of Technology in Warsaw, aged 19-24 years, practicing aerobic. The average body mass was 80.7 ± 7.7 kg and average height was 186.9 ± 5.2 cm, (BMI 23.09 ± 1.85 kg/m2). Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure (TEE) was established using SWA, which was placed on the back side of dominant hand and worn continuously for 48 hours (during the training and non-training day). The presented results are the average values of these 2 days. Assessment of athletes' physical activity level was established by use of metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and number of steps (NS). Estimation of energy intake was based on three-day dietary recalls (two weekdays and one day of the weekend), evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package. The average TEE of examined athletes was 3877 ± 508 kcal/day and almost half of this energy was spend on physical activity (1898 ± 634 kcal/day). The number of steps was on average 19498 ± 5407 and average MET was 2.05 ± 2.09. The average daily energy intake was 2727 ± 576 kcal. Athletes consumed inadequate amount of energy in comparison to their energy expenditure. Examined group did not have an adequate knowledge about their energy requirement, which shows the need of nutritional consulting and education among these athletes. athletes, aerobic sports, energy expenditure, energy intake.

  5. An assessment of Walk-over-Weighing to estimate short-term individual forage intake in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, E; Golini, P de Oliveira; Hassoun, P; Bocquier, F; Hazard, D; González, L A; Ingham, A B; Bishop-Hurley, G J; Greenwood, P L

    2017-10-26

    The main limitation for determining feed efficiency of freely grazing ruminants is measurement of daily individual feed intake. This paper describes an investigation that assessed a method for estimating intake of forage based on changes in BW of ewes. A total of 24 dry and non-pregnant Romane ewes (12 hoggets, HOG; mean±SD 51.8±2.8 kg BW; body condition score (BCS) 2.6±0.2; and 12 adults, ADU; 60.4±8.5 kg BW; BCS 2.7±0.8) were selected for the study and moved from their rangeland system to a confined pen with controlled conditions and equipped with individual automatic feeders. The experiment lasted for 28 days (21 days adaptation and 7 days feed intake measurement). Ewes were fed hay and trained to use the electronic feeders (one feeding station per ewe) in which actual daily intake (H intake24) was measured. The pens were designed to maximize movement of trained ewes through an automated Walk-over-Weighing device, by using water and mineral salts as attractants. Total individual intake of hay measured in the automatic feeder at each meal (H intake) was compared with indirect estimates of feed intake determined using differences in the BW of the ewes (∆BW) before and 1 h following morning and afternoon feeding at fixed times. The BW, BCS, H intake, H intake24, as well as plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and insulin profiles were determined. The BW was higher in ADU v. HOG but BCS was not affected by parity. The H intake24 was affected by day of experiment as a consequence of reduced availability and intake of water on one day. Plasma glucose, NEFA and insulin were not affected by parity or day of experiment. The H Intake was and ∆BW tended to be higher in the morning in HOG, whereas H intake was and ∆BW tended to be higher in ADU at the afternoon meal. Irrespective of parity or feeding time, there was very strong correlation (r 2=0.93) between H intake and ∆BW. This relationship confirms that our indirect method of estimating

  6. Duplicate portion sampling combined with spectrophotometric analysis affords the most accurate results when assessing daily dietary phosphorus intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Zambrano, Esmeralda; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Agil, Ahmad; Olalla, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    The assessment of daily dietary phosphorus (P) intake is a major concern in human nutrition because of its relationship with Ca and Mg metabolism and osteoporosis. Within this context, we hypothesized that several of the methods available for the assessment of daily dietary intake of P are equally accurate and reliable, although few studies have been conducted to confirm this. The aim of this study then was to evaluate daily dietary P intake, which we did by 3 methods: duplicate portion sampling of 108 hospital meals, combined either with spectrophotometric analysis or the use of food composition tables, and 24-hour dietary recall for 3 consecutive days plus the use of food composition tables. The mean P daily dietary intakes found were 1106 ± 221, 1480 ± 221, and 1515 ± 223 mg/d, respectively. Daily dietary intake of P determined by spectrophotometric analysis was significantly lower (P < .001) and closer to dietary reference intakes for adolescents aged from 14 to 18 years (88.5%) and adult subjects (158.1%) compared with the other 2 methods. Duplicate portion sampling with P analysis takes into account the influence of technological and cooking processes on the P content of foods and meals and therefore afforded the most accurate and reliable P daily dietary intakes. The use of referred food composition tables overestimated daily dietary P intake. No adverse effects in relation to P nutrition (deficiencies or toxic effects) were encountered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Safety assessment of 16 sweeteners for the Korean population using dietary intake monitoring and poundage method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MeeKyung; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Hwang, Myungsil; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2017-09-01

    A sweetener is a food additive that imparts a sweet taste to food products. Sweeteners have been increasingly used in Korea since the approval of sodium saccharin and d-sorbitol in 1962. Unlike food contaminants, humans are exposed to food additives only through the consumption of processed food products. For exposure assessments of sweeteners, the dietary intakes of food products containing acesulfame-K, aspartame, saccharin-Na, and sucralose were determined, and the resulting calculated estimated daily intake (EDI) values were compared directly with each additive's ADI. The poundage method was used to calculate the daily intake per capita for 12 additional sweeteners, such as lactitol, for which appropriate analytical methods for food products do not exist. The risk, as evaluated by comparing the EDI with the ADI, was determined to be 2.9% for acesulfame-K, 0.8% for aspartame, 3.6% for saccharin-Na, 4.3% for steviol glycosides, and 2.1% for sucralose. No hazardous effect was predicted for the other 11 sweeteners, including lactitol.

  8. Validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food intake in Mexican adolescent and adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the validity of a 140-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ, in Mexican adolescents and adults. Materials and methods. Dietary intakes using a SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs,in nonconsecutive days during the same week were measured from 178 adolescents and 230 adults participating in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey-2012. Validity was evaluated using correlation coefficients (CC, deattenuated CC, linear regression models, cross-classification analysis, and the Bland-Altman method. Results. In adults, deattenuated correlation coefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs ranged from 0.30 for folate to 0.61 for saturated fat. In addition, 63% adults and 62% adolescents were classified in the same and adjacent quartile of nutrient intake when comparing data from SFFQ and 24DRs. Conclusions. The SFFQ had moderate validity for energy, macronutrients and micronutrients. It also had good validity to rank individuals according to their dietary intake of different nutrients.

  9. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. Calcium intake in the diet (milk, cheese, yogurt) is low. Vitamin D levels are ...

  10. A simple dietary assessment tool to monitor food intake of hospitalized adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiningsari D

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dwi Budiningsari,1,2 Suzana Shahar,1 Zahara Abdul Manaf,1 Susetyowati Susetyowati2 1Dietetic Programme, School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Health Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Background/objectives: Monitoring food intake of patients during hospitalization using simple methods and minimal training is an ongoing problem in hospitals. Therefore, there is a need to develop and validate a simple, easy to use, and quick tool that enables staff to estimate dietary intake. Thus, this study aimed to develop and validate the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT.Subjects and methods: A total of 37 health care staff members consisting of dietitians, nurses, and serving assistants estimated 130 breakfast and lunch meals consumed by 67 patients using PDAT. PDAT was developed based on the hospital menu that consists of staple food (rice or porridge, animal source protein (chicken, meat, eggs, and fish, and non-animal source protein (tau fu and tempeh, with a total of six pictorials of food at each meal time. Weighed food intake was used as a gold standard to validate PDAT. Agreement between methods was analyzed using correlations, paired t-test, Bland–Altman plots, kappa statistics, and McNemar’s test. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic were calculated to identify whether patients who had an inadequate food intake were categorized as at risk by the PDAT, based on the food weighing method. Agreement between different backgrounds of health care staff was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient and analysis of variance test.Results: There was a significant correlation between the weighing food method and PDAT for energy (r=0.919, P<0.05, protein (r=0.843, P<0.05, carbohydrate (r=0.912, P<0.05, and fat (r=0.952; P<0.05. Nutrient intakes as assessed using

  11. Food safety risk assessment for estimating dietary intake of sulfites in the Taiwanese population

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Keng-Wen; Hsieh, Dennis P.H.; Huang, Hui-Ying; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Ling, Min-Pei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health risk associated with dietary intake of sulfites for Taiwanese general consumers by conducting a total diet study (TDS). We evaluated the exposure of Taiwanese to sulfites in the diet and its associated health risk. This study used a list of 128 food items representing 83% of the total daily diet. Among the 128 food items, 59 items may contain sulfites. Samples of the 59 food items were collected and subjected to chemical analysis to determine...

  12. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  13. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. Design In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Results Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (pdietary fiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (pdietary intake of first and second FFQ were very similar (22.2±4.0 and 23.3±4.1 g/day, respectively, p=0.42) and showed a correlation of r=0.95 (95% CI 0.83–0.99). Conclusion The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest. PMID:25490961

  14. A simple dietary assessment tool to monitor food intake of hospitalized adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiningsari, Dwi; Shahar, Suzana; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Susetyowati, Susetyowati

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring food intake of patients during hospitalization using simple methods and minimal training is an ongoing problem in hospitals. Therefore, there is a need to develop and validate a simple, easy to use, and quick tool that enables staff to estimate dietary intake. Thus, this study aimed to develop and validate the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT). A total of 37 health care staff members consisting of dietitians, nurses, and serving assistants estimated 130 breakfast and lunch meals consumed by 67 patients using PDAT. PDAT was developed based on the hospital menu that consists of staple food (rice or porridge), animal source protein (chicken, meat, eggs, and fish), and non-animal source protein (tau fu and tempeh), with a total of six pictorials of food at each meal time. Weighed food intake was used as a gold standard to validate PDAT. Agreement between methods was analyzed using correlations, paired t-test, Bland-Altman plots, kappa statistics, and McNemar's test. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic were calculated to identify whether patients who had an inadequate food intake were categorized as at risk by the PDAT, based on the food weighing method. Agreement between different backgrounds of health care staff was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient and analysis of variance test. There was a significant correlation between the weighing food method and PDAT for energy (r=0.919, P0.05). The PDAT and food weighing method showed a satisfactory agreement beyond chance (k) (0.81 for staple food and animal source protein; 0.735 for non-animal source protein). Intraclass correlation coefficient ranged between 0.91 and 0.96 among respondents. There were no differences in energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat intake estimated among health care staff (P=0.967; P=0.951; P=0.888; P=0.847, respectively). In conclusion, PDAT provides a valid estimation of macronutrient consumption among

  15. Intake fraction assessment of the air pollutant exposure implications of a shift toward distributed electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Garvin A.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; W Nazaroff, William

    Small-scale, distributed electricity generation (DG) technologies have been promoted for their many benefits as compared to the traditional paradigm of large, centralized power plants. To evaluate the implications for human inhalation exposure resulting from a shift toward DG, we combined Gaussian plume modeling and a GIS-based inhalation exposure assessment of existing and hypothetical power-generation facilities in California. Twenty-five existing central stations (CSs) were analyzed and compared with hypothetical DG technologies deployed in the downtown areas of the 11 most populous cities in California. The intake fraction (iF) for primary pollutants was computed for populations living within 100 km of each source, using meteorological conditions typical of the long-term observational record and population, lifetime-average breathing rates. The iF (a dimensionless term representing the proportion of pollutant mass emitted by a source that is eventually inhaled) concisely expresses the source-to-intake relationship, is independent of the emissions characteristics of the plants assessed, and normalizes for the large scale differences between the two paradigms of electricity generation. The median iF for nonreactive primary pollutants emitted from the 25 CSs is 0.8 per million compared to 16 per million for the 11 DG units. The difference is partly attributable to the closer proximity of DG sources to densely populated areas as compared to typical CS facilities. In addition, the short stacks of DG sources emphasize near-source population exposure more than traditional CSs, and increase exposures during periods of low wind speed, low mixing height and stable atmospheric conditions. Strategies that could reduce the potential increase in air pollutant intake from DG include maximally utilizing waste heat in combined heat and power operations, increasing the release height of DG effluents and deploying DG technologies that do not emit air pollutants.

  16. Definition and Reliability Assessment of Elementary Ultrasonographic Findings in Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippou, Georgios; Scirè, Carlo A; Damjanov, Nemanja

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the ultrasonographic characteristics of calcium pyrophosphate crystal (CPP) deposits in joints and periarticular tissues and to evaluate the intra- and interobserver reliability of expert ultrasonographers in the assessment of CPP deposition disease (CPPD) according to the new...... definitions. METHODS: After a systematic literature review, a Delphi survey was circulated among a group of expert ultrasonographers, who were members of the CPPD Ultrasound (US) Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) subtask force, to obtain definitions of the US characteristics of CPPD at the level...... of fibrocartilage (FC), hyaline cartilage (HC), tendon, and synovial fluid (SF). Subsequently, the reliability of US in assessing CPPD at knee and wrist levels according to the agreed definitions was tested in static images and in patients with CPPD. Cohen's κ was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: HC and FC...

  17. Calcium balance in young adults on a vegan and lactovegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg-Mueller, Kathrin; Raschka, Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    For people in Western countries, the vegan diet has the advantage of low energy intake, but the calcium status of this strictly plant-based diet is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the calcium balance of individuals on a vegan diet in comparison with a lactovegetarian diet in a short-term investigation. Seven women and one man, ranging in age from 19 to 24 years, received during the first 10 days a vegan diet based on plant foods and calcium-rich mineral water and a lactovegetarian diet during the following 10 days. Portion size was adapted to the subjects' individual energy requirements. Calcium status was assessed by means of calcium intake in food and calcium output in feces and urine as measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition, deoxypyridinoline was measured in urine as a marker of bone resorption. The results show a significantly smaller daily calcium intake with an average of 843 +/- 140 mg in the vegan versus 1322 +/- 303 mg in the lactovegetarian diet. Apparent calcium absorption rates were calculated as 26% +/- 15% in the vegan and 24% +/- 8% in the lactovegetarian group (NS). The calcium balance was positive both in the vegan diet (119 +/- 113 mg/day) and in the lactovegetarian diet (211 +/- 136 mg/day) (NS). Deoxypyridinoline excretion showed no significant difference between the two diets (105 +/- 31 and 98 +/- 23 nmol/day). The present results indicate that calcium balance and a marker of bone turnover are not affected significantly when calcium is provided either solely by plant foods or by a diet including dairy products, despite the significantly different calcium intake levels in the diets. We conclude that a well-selected vegan diet maintains calcium status, at least for a short-term period.

  18. The inclusion of functional foods enriched in fibre, calcium, iodine, fat-soluble vitamins and n-3 fatty acids in a conventional diet improves the nutrient profile according to the Spanish reference intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Cuervo, Marta; de Las Heras, Arantza Ruiz; Santiago, Susana; Martínez, J Alfredo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2011-03-01

    The growing interest in maintaining good health status through optimal nutrition has boosted the launch of a number of functional foods on the market. The objective of the present study was to theoretically evaluate the nutritional relevance of incorporating selected enriched foods in the diet. A 28 d dietary plan, designed to be balanced under the recommended macronutrients criteria, was used as a basal diet. Some conventional foods were exchanged with foods enriched in fibre, calcium, iodine, vitamins A, D, E or n-3 fatty acids. Nutritional composition of basal and modified diets was derived and compared to the Spanish recommended intakes (RI). The basal diet covered the recommendations for fibre and calcium with mean intake of 28 g and 1241 mg, respectively. The current intake of salt, if iodized, or bread elaborated with this salt, allowed reaching the daily intake of iodine every day, with a mean supply of 216 μg/d and 278 μg/d, respectively. The deficient supply of vitamin E in the basal diet (mean = 8 mg/d) was covered by including enriched margarine and dairy products (mean = 15 mg/d). The low n-3 fatty acids intake in the basal diet (1·1 g/d) increased up to 1·9 g/d after the use of enriched margarine, butter and biscuits and soya drink instead of milk. In order to improve the accomplishment of the RI iodine, vitamin E and n-3 fatty acids, interesting strategies dealing with the incorporation of enriched foods in the diet were successfully initiated.

  19. Validity and Reliability of a Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Vitamin K Intake in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Misung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess vitamin K intake in clinical and research settings based on data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V). We collected a subset of data on informative food items using the 24-hour recall method from adults aged 19 to 64 years from KNHANES V. The cumulative percent contribution and cumulative multiple regression coefficients for vitamin K intake from each food were computed. Twenty-five foods items were selected for the FFQ to assess vitamin K intake. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day food record (5DR) (n = 48). To assess the reliability of the FFQ, participants completed the self-administered FFQ (FFQ1) and a second FFQ (FFQ2) after a 6-month period (n = 54). Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, the cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots. Mean intakes were similar for vitamin K between the FFQ and dietary records, with significant correlations observed (r = 0.652), and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman plots showed no serious systematic bias between the administrations of the two dietary assessment methods over the range of mean intakes. FFQ reliability was high, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.560. This pilot study shows promising validation and reliability evidence for the use of this FFQ, which is focused on vitamin K intake in adults, as an efficient screening tool in clinical and research settings. PMID:27482519

  20. Validity and Reliability of a Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Vitamin K Intake in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Misung; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess vitamin K intake in clinical and research settings based on data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V). We collected a subset of data on informative food items using the 24-hour recall method from adults aged 19 to 64 years from KNHANES V. The cumulative percent contribution and cumulative multiple regression coefficients for vitamin K intake from each food were comp...

  1. Assessment of Sodium and Potassium Intake by 24 h Urinary Excretion in a Healthy Mexican Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Maite; Colín-Ramírez, Eloisa; Rivera Mancía, Susana; Cartas Rosado, Raúl; Madero, Magdalena; Infante Vázquez, Oscar; Vargas-Barrón, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    A high dietary sodium intake and a low potassium intake are associated with adverse cardiovascular health. Data on these nutrients consumption in Mexico is limited. The aim of this study was to assess sodium and potassium intake by 24 h urinary excretion in a clinically healthy Mexican population. We additionally explored their association with blood pressure. 711 clinically healthy participants aged 20-50 years old recruited in the Tlalpan 2020 cohort from September 2014-December 2015, were included in this cross-sectional analysis. All participants provided a 24 h urine sample and underwent anthropometric, biochemical, and blood pressure evaluations. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of urinary sodium, potassium, and Na/K ratio with blood pressure. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) urinary sodium and potassium in the overall population was 3150.1 (3054.2-3246.0) mg/d and 1909.5 (1859.3-1959.6) mg/d, respectively. Overall, only 121 (17%) met the WHO recommendation for sodium intake (<2000 mg/d) and 16 (2.3%) met the goal for potassium intake (≥3510 mg/d). Urinary sodium (β coefficient 1.3, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.8, p <0.001) and potassium (β coefficient 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2, p <0.001) were found to be associated with systolic blood pressure in the univariate analysis but not in the multivariate analysis. Sodium intake was higher and potassium intake was lower than the WHO recommendations in this healthy Mexican population. Sodium and potassium intakes were not associated with blood pressure at the mean levels of intake observed in this population, after adjusting for key variables. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Case Study of Remaining Service Life Assessment of a Cooling Water Intake Concrete Structure in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sigit Darmawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessment of remaining service life of a cooling water intake concrete structure (CWICS subjected to corrosion due to chloride attacks. Field and laboratory tests were performed to determine the current existing condition of the structure. Both destructive and nondestructive tests were employed to obtain the parameter needed for the assessment. Based on the current condition and test results, structural analysis was carried out and the remaining safety factor of CWICS was determined. From the analysis, it was found that most concrete elements of CWICS had safety factor greater than unity and might fulfil its intended service life up to the year 2033. However, fewer elements require immediate strengthening to extend their service life.

  3. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40 were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day. The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages at a temperature of 24°±2ºC, light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours, and deionized water available ad libitum. On the 8th week of the experiment, food consumption was measured and 24-hour urine and 4-day feces were collected to determine calcium balance [Balance=Ca intake-(Urinary Ca+Fecal Ca]. RESULTS: Animals with adequate calcium intake presented higher balances and rates of calcium absorption and retention (p<0.05 than those with inadequate calcium intake, regardless of caffeine intake (p<0.05. Caffeine intake did not affect urinary calcium excretion but increased balance (p<0.05 in the groups with adequate calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Adequate calcium intake attenuated the negative effects of estrogen deficiency and improved calcium balance even in the presence of caffeine.

  4. Dietary intake, nutrition, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Hamrick, Kari J; Corbin, Karen D; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-h recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50% of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Intake, Nutrition, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E.; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-hours recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50 percent of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. PMID:24568797

  6. Application and interpretation of multiple statistical tests to evaluate validity of dietary intake assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Martani J; Steyn, Nelia P; Charlton, Karen E; Senekal, Marjanne

    2015-04-22

    Several statistical tests are currently applied to evaluate validity of dietary intake assessment methods. However, they provide information on different facets of validity. There is also no consensus on types and combinations of tests that should be applied to reflect acceptable validity for intakes. We aimed to 1) conduct a review to identify the tests and interpretation criteria used where dietary assessment methods was validated against a reference method and 2) illustrate the value of and challenges that arise in interpretation of outcomes of multiple statistical tests in assessment of validity using a test data set. An in-depth literature review was undertaken to identify the range of statistical tests used in the validation of quantitative food frequency questionnaires (QFFQs). Four databases were accessed to search for statistical methods and interpretation criteria used in papers focusing on relative validity. The identified tests and interpretation criteria were applied to a data set obtained using a QFFQ and four repeated 24-hour recalls from 47 adults (18-65 years) residing in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. 102 studies were screened and 60 were included. Six statistical tests were identified; five with one set of interpretation criteria and one with two sets of criteria, resulting in seven possible validity interpretation outcomes. Twenty-one different combinations of these tests were identified, with the majority including three or less tests. Coefficient of correlation was the most commonly used (as a single test or in combination with one or more tests). Results of our application and interpretation of multiple statistical tests to assess validity of energy, macronutrients and selected micronutrients estimates illustrate that for most of the nutrients considered, some outcomes support validity, while others do not. One to three statistical tests may not be sufficient to provide comprehensive insights into various facets of validity. Results of our

  7. Is bone equally responsive to calcium and vitamins D intake from food vs. supplements? Use of 41Ca tracer kinetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Few interventions directly compare equivalent calcium and vitamin D from dairy vs. supplements on the same bone outcomes. The radioisotope calcium-41 (41Ca) holds promise as a tracer method to directly measure changes in bone resorption with differing dietary interventions. Objective: U...

  8. Assessment of dietary intake of fumonisin B₁ in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, K; Rosim, R E; Neeff, D V; Rottinghaus, G E; Oliveira, C A F

    2014-07-15

    In this study, fumonisin B1 (FB1) consumption was assessed through determination of FB1 in corn meal, corn flour, corn flakes, polenta, canned corn and popcorn collected from homes of residents of Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil, and using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) filled out by the residents. One hundred and twenty samples were collected from 39 residents on four separate occasions. FB1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using a validated method that uses SAX column clean-up. The highest levels of FB1 were found in corn meal at a mean concentration of 474.6 μg kg(-1). However, none of the samples tested for FB1 had levels above the tolerance limit established in Brazil. The mean probable daily intake (PDIM) of FB1 was 63.3 ng kg(-1)body weight day(-1), which is approximately 3% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) recommended for fumonisins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: www.foodcomposition.co.nz. NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cumulative risk assessment of the intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in the Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A. F.; Petersen, Annette; Granby, Kit

    2003-01-01

    in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction...... fruit, vegetables and cereals is for adults 0.8-2% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in chlorpyrifos equivalents, and 0.03-11% of the ADI in methamidophos equivalents; and for children 2-5% of the ADI in the chlorpyrifos equivalents, and 0.07-27% of the ADI in methamidophos equivalents. Neither Acute...... Reference Dose (ARfD) nor ADI was exceeded for any of the compounds studied. The results indicate that the Danish population is neither exposed to any cumulative chronic risk, nor at risk of acute exposure, from consumption of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from fruit, vegetables and cereals....

  11. AGARD WG13 aerodynamics of high speed air intakes: Assessment of CFD results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, N. C.; Benson, T. J.; Bradley, R. G., Jr.

    1992-09-01

    A brief review of the work accomplished by the numerical subgroup of AGARD Working Group 13 on the aerodynamics of high speed air intakes is presented. This work comprised the selection of test cases for which experimental data were available. The test cases were chosen to range in complexity from normal-shock/boundary-layer interaction to full forebody-inlet combinations. Computations for these test cases were solicited from a large number of organizations and individual researchers within the NATO countries. The computation methods reached from Euler solvers (with and without boundary layer corrections) to full Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes codes. The group compared these results with the test data available for each test case. A short overview of the CFD methods employed, a description of the test cases selected, and some of the comparisons between CFD solutions and test data are presented. The conclusions and recommendations drawn from this assessment are given.

  12. Variation in intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and potassium in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welch, A. A.; Fransen, H.; Jenab, M.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Tumino, R.; Agnoli, C.; Ericson, U.; Johansson, I.; Ferrari, P.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Lentjes, M.; Key, T.; Touvier, M.; Niravong, M.; Larranaga, N.; Rodriguez, L.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Tjonneland, A.; Bjerregaard, L.; Vasilopoulou, E.; Dilis, V.; Linseisen, J.; Noethlings, U.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background/objectives: Adequate mineral intake is important for the maintenance of bone health, cellular function and general metabolism, and possibly in the aetiology of cancer and other chronic diseases. This study aimed at investigating variation in intakes of selected minerals across 10 European

  13. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Vuholm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. Design: In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Results: Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (p<0.001. Pearson's correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (p<0.001, and 62% of the participants were grouped into the same tertile of intake according to the two methods. The estimates of mean dietary intake of first and second FFQ were very similar (22.2±4.0 and 23.3±4.1 g/day, respectively, p=0.42 and showed a correlation of r=0.95 (95% CI 0.83–0.99. Conclusion: The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day, adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest.

  14. Micronutrient intakes from food and supplements in Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Caroline M; Black, Lucinda J; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-01-14

    Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n=991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements.

  15. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food group intake in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Flores Martinez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of the food groups included in the food guide pyramid for adolescents (FFQ-FP. The final version of the FFQ-FP consisted of 50 food items. The study was carried out with a sample of 109 adolescents over a period of four months. A 24hr recall (24hr was conducted four times and the FFQ-FP was conducted twice. Validity was determined by comparing the second FFQ-FP and the mean of the four 24hrs, while reproducibility was verified by comparing the results of the two FFQ-FPs. Statistical analysis was carried out using medians, standard deviations, Pearson and intraclass correlations and Kappa statistics to assess concordance. Best results were achieved for the rice (including bread, grains and starches, meats and sugars groups. Weakest correlation was observed for the variable vitamin C. The validity and reproducibility of the FFQ-FP was satisfactory for most variables.

  16. VALIDITY OF A DIETARY CALCIUM QUESTIONNAIRE MODIFIED TO INCLUDE SUPPLEMENT USE IN ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan B. Henry

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When conducting research in the area of bone health, accurate measurement of calcium intake is crucial. The rapid assessment method (RAM is one technique that has frequently been used for its measurement of calcium intake. However, the RAM and other currently established questionnaires lack the assessment of dietary supplement use, which is common for athletes. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of a RAM questionnaire designed to assess daily calcium consumption which was further modified to meet the needs of athletes who frequently consume dietary supplements. Usefulness of the modified RAM for athletes and non-athletes was evaluated as well as utility among those who do and do not use supplements. The 47 volunteers (n = 31 women, 16 men were between the ages of 18 and 25 including, 33 athletes and 14 controls. The population also contained 23 supplement users and 24 non-supplement users. Participants completed the modified RAM and were instructed to complete a three-day diet record (3DR, logging food intake for 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day. The data collected via the modified RAM was compared with the 3DR. Mean calcium intake was 935mg ± 420mg and 1085mg ± 573mg, for the modified RAM and 3DR respectively. A strong positive correlation (r was found between calcium intake measured with the modified RAM and 3DRs (r(45 = 0.854, p 0.05. We have found the modified RAM to be a valid tool which can be used to estimate calcium intake in the athletes and controls we strive to study. The accuracy of this instrument improved by including assessment of dietary supplement sources of calcium

  17. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián, Cristina; Mouratidou, Theodora; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Valtueña, Jara; González-Gross, Marcela; Ferrari, Marika; Gottrand, Frederic; Manios, Yannis; de la O, Alejandro; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnár, Dénes; Kafatos, Antonios; Sjöström, Michael; Kersting, Mathilde; Gunter, Marc J; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Huybrechts, Inge

    2017-06-01

    To investigate dietary sources of Ca and vitamin D (VitD) intakes, and the associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, among European adolescents. Linear regression mixed models were used to examine sex-specific associations of Ca and VitD intakes with parental education, family affluence (FAS), physical activity and television (TV) watching while controlling for age, Tanner stage, energy intake and diet quality. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA)Cross-Sectional Study. Adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years (n 1804). Milk and cheese were the main sources of Ca (23 and 19 % contribution to overall Ca intake, respectively). Fish products were the main VitD source (30 % contribution to overall VitD intake). Ca intake was positively associated with maternal education (β=56·41; 95 % CI 1·98, 110·82) and negatively associated with TV viewing in boys (β=-0·43; 95 % CI -0·79, -0·07); however, the significance of these associations disappeared when adjusting for diet quality. In girls, Ca intake was positively associated with mother's (β=73·08; 95 % CI 34·41, 111·74) and father's education (β=43·29; 95 % CI 5·44, 81·14) and FAS (β=37·45; 95 % CI 2·25, 72·65). This association between Ca intake and mother's education remained significant after further adjustment for diet quality (β=41·66; 95 % CI 0·94, 82·38). Girls with high-educated mothers had higher Ca intake. Low-educated families with poor diet quality may be targeted when strategizing health promotion programmes to enhance dietary Ca.

  18. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  19. Validation of Simplified Tools for Assessment of Sodium Intake in Iranian Population: Rationale, Design and Initial Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Abdollahi, Zahra; Salehi, Forouzan; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-09-01

    The 24-hour urine sodium excretion is considered the gold standard method to estimate salt intake. However, since this method is not easy to perform, this study developed two instruments, including a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and one spot urine sodium excretion, to assess sodium intake. These two methods were then compared with 24-h urine sodium excretion and twelve 24-h recalls during a year. This study was performed on 219 healthy subjects aged ≥ 6 years in 2014-2015. The FFQ was completed twice, at baseline and one year thereafter, to examine the reproducibility of the FFQ. The validity of three spot urine sodium excretions in the morning, afternoon, and evening and FFQ for the assessment of sodium intake were compared against the 24-h urine sodium excretion method. Moreover, the validity of FFQ was examined against 24-h dietary recalls for the assessment of total sodium consumption and contribution of food groups to sodium intake. The content validity of the FFQ was estimated by an expert panel including 10 nutritionists. Based on their nutrients, the final food items were categorized into 11 groups including: 1) dairy products, 2) fruits, 3) vegetables, 4) meat and egg, 5) grains and legumes, 6) mixed dishes, prepared foods, and restaurant foods, 8) nuts and seeds, 8) oils and fats, 9) sauces and desserts, 10) drinks, and 11) others. Spot urine and a specific FFQ comprising 136 items were used to develop a method for the assessment of sodium intake and contribution of foods to its intake among the Iranian population. This method can be used in large-scale population studies at the national level.

  20. Assessment of ion diffusion from a calcium hydroxide-propolis paste through dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Janaina Corazza; Mori, Graziela Garrido

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of ions from a non-alcoholic calcium hydroxide-propolis paste to diffuse through dentinal tubules. Thirty-six single-rooted bovine teeth were used. The tooth crowns were removed, and the root canals were instrumented and divided into 3 groups: Group 1 - calcium hydroxide-propylene glycol paste; Group 2 - calcium hydroxide-saline solution paste; Group 3 - calcium hydroxide-propolis paste. After the root canal dressings were applied, the teeth were sealed and placed in containers with deionized water. The pH of the water was measured after 3, 24, 72 and 168 hours to determine the diffusion of calcium hydroxide ions through the dentinal tubules. All of the pastes studied promoted the diffusion of calcium hydroxide ions through the dentinal tubules. Associating propolis to calcium hydroxide resulted in a pH increase, which occurred with greater intensity after 72 hours. The calcium hydroxide-propolis paste was able to diffuse in dentin.

  1. Assessment of ion diffusion from a calcium hydroxide-propolis paste through dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Corazza Montero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of ions from a non-alcoholic calcium hydroxide-propolis paste to diffuse through dentinal tubules. Thirty-six single-rooted bovine teeth were used. The tooth crowns were removed, and the root canals were instrumented and divided into 3 groups: Group 1 - calcium hydroxide-propylene glycol paste; Group 2 - calcium hydroxide-saline solution paste; Group 3 - calcium hydroxide-propolis paste. After the root canal dressings were applied, the teeth were sealed and placed in containers with deionized water. The pH of the water was measured after 3, 24, 72 and 168 hours to determine the diffusion of calcium hydroxide ions through the dentinal tubules. All of the pastes studied promoted the diffusion of calcium hydroxide ions through the dentinal tubules. Associating propolis to calcium hydroxide resulted in a pH increase, which occurred with greater intensity after 72 hours. The calcium hydroxide-propolis paste was able to diffuse in dentin.

  2. Metabolomic assessment reveals a stimulatory effect of calcium treatment on glucosinolates contents in broccoli microgreen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preharvest calcium application has been shown to increase broccoli microgreen yield and extend shelf life. Here we investigated the effect of calcium application on its metabolome using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem with mass spectrometry (HRMS). The data collected were...

  3. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eysteinsdottir Tinna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71. A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33. The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61. An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37. Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between

  4. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female) answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71). A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33). The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61). An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37). Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between consumption of several

  5. A probabilistic assessment of calcium carbonate export and dissolution in the modern ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Gianna; Steinacher, Marco; Joos, Fortunat

    2016-05-01

    The marine cycle of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is an important element of the carbon cycle and co-governs the distribution of carbon and alkalinity within the ocean. However, CaCO3 export fluxes and mechanisms governing CaCO3 dissolution are highly uncertain. We present an observationally constrained, probabilistic assessment of the global and regional CaCO3 budgets. Parameters governing pelagic CaCO3 export fluxes and dissolution rates are sampled using a Monte Carlo scheme to construct a 1000-member ensemble with the Bern3D ocean model. Ensemble results are constrained by comparing simulated and observation-based fields of excess dissolved calcium carbonate (TA*). The minerals calcite and aragonite are modelled explicitly and ocean-sediment fluxes are considered. For local dissolution rates, either a strong or a weak dependency on CaCO3 saturation is assumed. In addition, there is the option to have saturation-independent dissolution above the saturation horizon. The median (and 68 % confidence interval) of the constrained model ensemble for global biogenic CaCO3 export is 0.90 (0.72-1.05) Gt C yr-1, that is within the lower half of previously published estimates (0.4-1.8 Gt C yr-1). The spatial pattern of CaCO3 export is broadly consistent with earlier assessments. Export is large in the Southern Ocean, the tropical Indo-Pacific, the northern Pacific and relatively small in the Atlantic. The constrained results are robust across a range of diapycnal mixing coefficients and, thus, ocean circulation strengths. Modelled ocean circulation and transport timescales for the different set-ups were further evaluated with CFC11 and radiocarbon observations. Parameters and mechanisms governing dissolution are hardly constrained by either the TA* data or the current compilation of CaCO3 flux measurements such that model realisations with and without saturation-dependent dissolution achieve skill. We suggest applying saturation-independent dissolution rates in Earth system

  6. 78 FR 20672 - Literature Review Approach “Identifying Research Needs for Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Literature Review Approach ``Identifying Research Needs for... Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of Folic Acid,'' for review of the pertinent literature. The document is... literature was undertaken to identify the potential adverse health effects for which further research might...

  7. Assessment of iodine intake in vegans: weighed dietary record vs duplicate portion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowler, H J; Davies, G J

    2002-08-01

    To compare iodine intakes estimated from weighed dietary records with iodine intakes obtained by direct analysis of duplicate diets in a group of vegans. Cross-sectional study. London and the south-east of England. Thirty-three vegans consuming their habitual diet were recruited through the UK Vegan Society; 26 subjects (11 males, 15 females), age 21-84 y, completed the study. Iodine intakes were estimated from 4 day weighed dietary records and compared with iodine intakes obtained by direct analysis of concurrent 4 day duplicate diets. There was wide variation in iodine intakes. Mean daily iodine intake in males was significantly lower (Pvegan consumption, in food composition tables and the variability in iodine content of seaweed. The use of current food tables to estimate iodine intake in vegans is limited. It is not always practical to determine iodine intake using the duplicate portion technique, therefore more reliable information on iodine content of foods, incorporating the variation within foods, is needed.

  8. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake of women living in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNÁNDEZ-AVILA MAURICIO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the reproducibility and validity of a 116 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, designed to assess the relation between dietary intake and chronic diseases. Material and methods. To test the reproducibility of the FFQ questionnaire, the FFQ was administered twice to 134 women residing in Mexico City at an interval of approximately one year; to assess the validity we compared results obtained by the FFQs with those obtained by four 4-day 24-hour recalls at three month intervals. Validity and reproducibility were evaluated using regression analysis and Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients of log-e and calorie-adjusted nutrient scores. Results. Mean values for intake of most nutrients assessed by the two food frequency questionnaires were similar. However, means for the 24-hr recall were significantly lower. Intraclass correlation coefficients for nutrient intakes, assessed by questionnaires, administered one year apart, ranged from 0.38 for cholesterol to 0.54 for crude fiber. Correlation coefficients between energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, measured by diet recalls, and the first FFQ ranged from 0.12 for polyunsaturated fatty acids to 0.67 for saturated fatty acids. Regression coefficients between 24-hr recall and FFQ,s were all significant were significant for all nutrients, except for polyunsaturated fat, folic acid, vitamin E and Zinc. Conclusions. These data indicate that this semi-quantitative FFQ is reproducible and provides a useful estimate by which to categorize individuals by level of past nutrient intake. However, its application outside Mexico City or in different age and gender populations will require additional modifications and validation efforts.

  9. Conservation of body calcium by increased dietary intake of potassium: A potential measure to reduce the osteoporosis process during prolonged exposure to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechay, Bohdan R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1988 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, it was proposed that the loss of skeletal calcium upon prolonged exposure to microgravity could be explained, in part, by a renal maladjustment characterized by an increased urinary excretion of calcium. It was theorized that because the conservation of body fluids and electrolytes depends upon the energy of adenosine triphosphate and enzymes that control the use of its energy for renal ion transport, an induction of renal sodium and potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na + K ATPase) by oral loading with potassium would increase the reabsorption of sodium directly and that of calcium indirectly, leading to improved hydration and to reduced calcium loss. Preliminary studies showed the following. Rats drinking water containing 0.2 M potassium chloride for six to 13 days excreted in urine 22 muEq of calcium and 135 muEq of sodium per 100 grams of body weight per day. The corresponding values for control rats drinking tap water were 43 muEq and 269 muEq respectively. Renal Na + K ATPase activity in potassium loaded rats was higher than in controls. Thus, oral potassium loading resulted in increased Na + K ATPase activity and diminished urinary excretion of calcium and of sodium as predicted by the hypothesis. An extension of these studies to humans has the potential of resulting in development of harmless, non-invasive, drug-free, convenient measures to reduce bone loss and other electrolyte and fluid problems in space travelers exposed to prolonged periods of microgravity.

  10. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). Design: Cr...... to underestimate energy intake dependent on age and BMI....... record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. Main outcome measure: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages....... Difference between reported energy intake from both methods and estimated energy expenditure in different subgroups. Results: Energy and macronutrient intake was assessed slightly higher by the 7 day food record than by the diet history interview, but in absolute terms the differences were negligible...

  11. A short food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of seafood and n-3 supplements: validation with biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl Lisbeth

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seafood intake is associated with beneficial effects for human health. Seafood provides a number of nutrients beyond the traditionally known long chain marine n-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA, such as protein, vitamin D, iodine, selenium and vitamin B12. Valid assessment of dietary seafood and n-3 supplement intakes are becoming increasingly crucial when giving recommendations to populations as seafood consumption is regarded as an important part of a healthy and balanced diet. Methods The aim was to validate a short FFQ developed for assessment of dietary intake of seafood and n-3 supplements using the biomarkers marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and 25(OHD in serum. Results Fifty-three healthy Norwegians aged 30-64 years with a mean BMI of 25 kg/m2 were compliant with the study protocol. 70% reported eating seafood for dinner one to two times per week, and 45% reported to eat seafood as spread, in salads or as snack meal three to five times or more per week. The FFQ correlated significantly with both the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (r = 0.73, p Conclusion The present short FFQ predicted strongly the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes, and predicted fairly good the level of serum 25(OHD and may therefore be a valid method for assessment of seafood and n-3 supplements intake among adults.

  12. Food-intake patterns assessed by using front-of-pack labeling program criteria associated with better diet quality and lower cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Alice H; Carson, JoAnn S; Johnson, Rachel K; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Pappas, Antigoni; Rupp, Linda; Stitzel, Kimberly F; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-03-01

    Front-of-pack labeling systems may provide additional guidance to that already available to facilitate the identification of foods that improve diet quality. We examined the association between choosing foods that meet criteria of an established front-of-pack labeling system with food-group and nutrient intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors. The association between the consumption of foods that met 2014 American Heart Association (AHA) Heart-Check Food Certification Program criteria and 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2005) scores, food-group intake, energy intake, nutrient intake, and cardiometabolic risk factors was analyzed in 11,296 men and women ≥ 19 y old by using 1-d dietary recall data from the NHANES 2007-2010. Individuals were categorized into consumers and nonconsumers of AHA Heart-Check Food Certification Program-certifiable foods and quartiles of intakes on the basis of the percentage of calories. The consumption of AHA Heart-Check Food Certification Program-certifiable foods was positively associated with HEI-2005 scores and fruit, vegetable, whole-grain, total sugar, fiber, potassium, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and inversely associated with the percentage of energy from saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, added sugars, alcohol, and intakes of cholesterol and sodium. The highest quartile of daily energy intake from AHA Heart-Check Food Certification Program-certifiable foods was associated with lower risk of obesity (26%), lower risk of elevated waist circumference (29%), and lower risk of metabolic syndrome (24%) than with lowest intakes (all P front-of-pack labeling system positively influences food-group and nutrient intakes and is associated with a higher diet quality and lower risk of cardiometabolic syndrome.

  13. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  14. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Shakhaoat; Hossain, Md Alamgir; Rahman, Md Abdur; Islam, Md Mainul; Rahman, Md Atiqur; Adyel, Tanveer Mehedi

    2013-02-21

    The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady's finger and brinjal). Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL). Hazard risk index (HRI) for ethion (10.12) and carbaryl (1.09) was found in lady's finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  15. ASUPAN KALSIUM DAN VITAMIN D PADA ANAK INDONESIA USIA 2 – 12 TAHUN [Calcium and Vitamin D Intake of Indonesian Children 2-12 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Valentina*

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food consumption is playing an important role for nutritional status of children 2-12 years old. During growth and development phase, body needs macro and micro nutrients even more than later phase. The process can not be catched up at later stage therefore it is very important to pay attention to food consumption during this phase. This study used secondary data of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS 2011-2012 which was covered recapitulation profile data of 300 children age 2-12 years old representative of 48 districts in Indonesia. The study showed that Indonesian children consuming less calcium and vitamin D-rich foods than the recommended daily allowance (RDA. It does not reflects on the result of anthropometry data, vitamin D on the blood and bone mass density since the dietary recall 24 hours shows only food consumption in that specific day while nutritional status shows a result of longer process. However, vitamin D in blood has a significant correlation with bone mass density of tibia bone (p<0.05. Deficiency of calcium and mainly vitamin D is a new finding at this time. Therefore, the study showed that fortification of calcium and vitamin min D in food become important to improve nutritional status of Indonesian children. 20% of RDA per serving size twice a day is recommended as well for fortification level of Calcium and Vitamin D.

  16. Neglect of lactation stage leads to naive assessment of residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Berglund, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Mäntysaari, P; Løvendahl, P

    2017-11-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a candidate trait for feed efficiency in dairy cattle. We investigated the influence of lactation stage on the effect of energy sinks in defining RFI and the genetic parameters for RFI across lactation stages for primiparous dairy cattle. Our analysis included 747 primiparous Holstein cows, each with recordings on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, and body weight (BW) over 44 lactation weeks. For each individual cow, energy-corrected milk (ECM), metabolic BW (MBW), and change in BW (ΔBW) were calculated in each week of lactation and were taken as energy sinks when defining RFI. Two RFI models were considered in the analyses; RFI model [1] was a 1-step RFI model with constant partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks (ECM, MBW, and ΔBW) over lactation. In RFI model [2], data from 44 lactation weeks were divided into 11 consecutive lactation periods of 4 wk in length. The RFI model [2] was identical to model [1] except that period-specific partial regressions of DMI on ECM, MBW, and ΔBW in each lactation period were allowed across lactation. We estimated genetic parameters for RFI across lactation by both models using a random regression method. Using RFI model [2], we estimated the period-specific effects of ECM, MBW, and ΔBW on DMI in all lactation periods. Based on results from RFI model [2], the partial regression coefficients of DMI on ECM, MBW, and ΔBW differed across lactation in RFI. Constant partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks over lactation was not always sufficient to account for the effects across lactation and tended to give roughly average information from all period-specific effects. Heritability for RFI over 44 lactation weeks ranged from 0.10 to 0.29 in model [1] and from 0.10 to 0.23 in model [2]. Genetic variance and heritability estimates for RFI from model [2] tended to be slightly lower and more stable across lactation than those from model [1]. In both

  17. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  18. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyong Joo; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Baik, Soon Koo

    2015-01-01

    Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P sodium values. High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  19. Dietary Intake Assessment and Biochemical Characteristics of Blood and Urine in Patients with Chronic Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Chronic gastritis is a prevalent gastroentestinal disease in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate status of foods and nutrients intake and health related biochemical indicators in the patients with chronic gastritis. Daily food and nutrient intake, blood lipids, and antioxidant indicators in the urine, were compared between a group of 19 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and a control group of 27 subjects having normal gastroscopy. No significant differences were found ...

  20. Sources of vitamin D and calcium in the diets of preschool children in the UK and the theoretical effect of food fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, V L; Northstone, K; Hopkins, D; Emmett, P M

    2015-12-01

    Dietary intakes of vitamin D are very low in the UK. Dietary calcium is also necessary to promote bone health. The fortification of foods with vitamin D could be a safe and effective way of increasing intake. Diets of preschool children, 755 at 18 months and 3.5 years, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were assessed using dietary records completed by parents. Energy, vitamin D and calcium intakes were calculated. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for being in the highest/lowest quartile of intake. Intakes were recalculated to test different fortification regimes. Vitamin D intakes were low; all children were below the UK and US dietary recommendations. Calcium intakes decreased between the two ages as a result of reduced milk consumption. Children in the lowest quartile for vitamin D intake at 18 months were twice as likely to remain in that quartile at 3.5 years (odds ratio = 2.35; 95% confidence interval = 1.56-3.55). The majority of foods provide no vitamin D with fat spreads and milk as the main sources. The contribution from breakfast cereals increased, from 6% to 12%, as a result of the increased consumption of fortified cereals. Dairy foods provided the highest contribution to calcium at 18 months but were less important at 3.5 years. Theoretical intakes from different fortification regimens suggest that milk fortified at 2 μg 100 g(-1) vitamin D would provide most children with adequate but not excessive intakes. Dietary vitamin D intakes were very low and calcium intakes were mostly adequate. Fortification of milk with vitamin D could be a good way to boost intakes. © 2014 Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Dietetic Association.

  1. Black Tea Source, Production, and Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks of Fluoride Intake in New Zealand

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    Declan T. Waugh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In countries with fluoridation of public water, it is imperative to determine other dietary sources of fluoride intake to reduce the public health risk of chronic exposure. New Zealand has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of black tea internationally and is one of the few countries to artificially fluoridate public water; yet no information is available to consumers on the fluoride levels in tea products. In this study, we determined the contribution of black tea as a source of dietary fluoride intake by measuring the fluoride content in 18 brands of commercially available products in New Zealand. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode and the contribution of black tea to Adequate Intake (AI and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was calculated for a range of consumption scenarios. We examined factors that influence the fluoride content in manufactured tea and tea infusions, as well as temporal changes in fluoride exposure from black tea. We review the international evidence regarding chronic fluoride intake and its association with chronic pain, arthritic disease, and musculoskeletal disorders and provide insights into possible association between fluoride intake and the high prevalence of these disorders in New Zealand.

  2. The longitudinal effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on bone mass accrual across stages of pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Joan M; Watson, Patrice; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Oberfield, Sharon; Shepherd, John; Winer, Karen K; Zemel, Babette

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of bone mineral content (BMC) accrual that may have long-term consequences for osteoporosis in adulthood. Adequate dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity are important for maximizing BMC accrual. However, the relative effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on BMC accrual throughout the continuum of pubertal development in childhood remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of self-reported dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual across the five stages of pubertal development in a large, diverse cohort of US children and adolescents. The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood study was a mixed longitudinal study with 7393 observations on 1743 subjects. Annually, we measured BMC by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), physical activity and calcium intake by questionnaire, and pubertal development (Tanner stage) by examination for up to 7 years. Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess physical activity and calcium intake effects on BMC accrual at each Tanner stage. We found that self-reported weight-bearing physical activity contributed to significantly greater BMC accrual in both sexes and racial subgroups (black and nonblack). In nonblack males, the magnitude of the activity effect on total body BMC accrual varied among Tanner stages after adjustment for calcium intake; the greatest difference between high- and low-activity boys was in Tanner stage 3. Calcium intake had a significant effect on bone accrual only in nonblack girls. This effect was not significantly different among Tanner stages. Our findings do not support differential effects of physical activity or calcium intake on bone mass accrual according to maturational stage. The study demonstrated significant longitudinal effects of weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual through all stages of pubertal development. © 2014 American

  3. Avaliação do consumo alimentar de crianças de 0 a 24 meses com cardiopatia congênita Assessment of food intake in infants between 0 and 24 months with congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais Cleto Lopes Vieira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As crianças com cardiopatia congênita geralmente são desnutridas e apresentam algum grau de comprometimento funcional e/ou estrutural dos orgãos. Existe, ainda, uma deficiência na ingestão de nutrientes, corroborada pelo controle hídrico, que limita o aporte nutricional de alguns cardiopatas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o consumo alimentar de crianças com cardiopatia congênita internadas na Unidade de Pediatria Cardiológica de hospital-escola público. MÉTODOS: O consumo de alimentos e nutrientes foi calculado pelo consumo alimentar de três dias (método direto de pesagem e o cálculo das calorias e nutrientes foi feito pelo software Virtual Nutri. RESULTADOS: O consumo de calorias/kg peso, de proteínas diárias, de sódio e de vitamina A esteve dentro do recomendado (p BACKGROUND: Children with congenital heart disease are usually malnourished and present some degree of functional and/or structural impairment of organs. There is also deficiency in nutrient intake, due to the control of fluids required by some patients which restrains the nutrient intake of some cardiac children. OBJECTIVE: To assess the food intake of children with congenital heart disease hospitalized in the pediatric heart unit of a "Public Teaching Hospital". METHODS: The intake of food and nutrients was calculated based on the food consumed during three days (direct weighting method and the calories and nutrients were calculated using the Virtual Nutri software. RESULTS: The intake of calories per kilogram of body weight, of daily proteins, sodium and vitamin A was within the recommended levels (p < 0.05. However, the intake of daily calories, fats, fiber, potassium and iron was below the recommended levels (p < 0.05 and the intake of proteins per kilogram, carbohydrates, calcium and vitamin C was above the recommended levels (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Children with congenital cardiopathy have inadequate diets, and therefore, need nutritional guidance to foster

  4. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  5. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  6. A Review of the Impact of Dietary Intakes in Human Pregnancy on Infant Birthweight

    OpenAIRE

    Grieger, Jessica A.; Clifton, Vicki L

    2014-01-01

    Studies assessing maternal dietary intakes and the relationship with birthweight are inconsistent, thus attempting to draw inferences on the role of maternal nutrition in determining the fetal growth trajectory is difficult. The aim of this review is to provide updated evidence from epidemiological and randomized controlled trials on the impact of dietary and supplemental intakes of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, zinc, folate, iron, calcium, and vitamin D, as well as dietary ...

  7. Impact of food intake on in vivo VOC concentrations in exhaled breath assessed in a caprine animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sina; Bergmann, Andreas; Steffens, Markus; Trefz, Phillip; Ziller, Mario; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen S; Köhler, Heike; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-12-15

    Physiological processes within the body may change emitted volatile organic compound (VOC) composition, and may therefore cause confounding biological background variability in breath gas analyses. To evaluate the effect of food intake on VOC concentration patterns in exhaled breath, this study assessed the variability of VOC concentrations due to food intake in a standardized caprine animal model. VOCs in (i) alveolar breath gas samples of nine clinically healthy goats and (ii) room air samples were collected and pre-concentrated before morning feeding and repeatedly after (+60 min, +150 min, +240 min) using needle trap microextraction (NTME). Analysis of VOCs was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Only VOCs with significantly higher concentrations in breath gas samples compared to room air samples were taken into consideration. Six VOCs that belonged to the chemical classes of hydrocarbons and alcohols were identified presenting significantly different concentrations before and after feeding. Selected hydrocarbons showed a concentration pattern that was characterized by an initial increase 60 min after food intake, and a subsequent gradual decrease. Results emphasize consideration of physiological effects on exhaled VOC concentrations due to food intake with respect to standardized protocols of sample collection and critical evaluation of results.

  8. Thin Slice Ratings of Client Characteristics in Intake Assessments: Predicting Symptom Change and Dropout in Cognitive Therapy for Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Sasso, Katherine E.; Strunk, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Thin slice ratings of personality have been shown to predict a number of outcomes, but have yet to be examined in the context of psychotherapy. In a sample of 66 clients participating in cognitive therapy for depression, we examined the predictive utility of thin slice rated pre-treatment client traits. On the basis of short video clip excerpts (i.e., thin slices) of intake assessments, trained observers rated clients on personality characteristics and specific personality disorder (PD) trait...

  9. Clinical and Radiographic Assessment of the Efficacy of Calcium Silicate Indirect Pulp Capping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, D.; Mannocci, F.; Patel, S.; Manoharan, A.; Brown, J.E.; Watson, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of calcium silicate cement (Biodentine) versus glass ionomer cement (GIC; control group) as indirect pulp capping materials in patients with reversible pulpitis and to compare the effectiveness of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) versus periapical (PA) radiographs in detecting PA changes at baseline (T0) and at 12 mo (T12) postoperatively. Seventy-two restorations (36 Biodentine, 36 Fuji IX) were placed randomly in 53 patients. CBCT/PA radiographs were taken at T0 and T12. Two calibrated examiners assessed the presence/absence and increase/decrease in the size of existing PA radiolucencies under standardized conditions. The Kappa coefficient evaluated statistically the effectiveness of CBCT versus PA radiographs in detecting PA changes. Chi-square/Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate the association between PA changes in CBCT with various clinical measures. Significance was predetermined at α = 0.05. Clinical success rates for Biodentine and Fuji IX GIC were 83.3%. CBCT was significantly more effective in detecting PA radiolucencies compared with radiographs (P = 0.0069). Of the teeth, 65.4% and 90.4% were deemed healthy using CBCT and PA radiographs, respectively, at T12. Healing/healed rates were 17.3%/0%, while new/progressed radiolucency were 30.8%/9.6% with CBCT/PA radiographs, respectively. Seventy-one percent of healed lesions had received Biodentine; 88% of new/progressed lesions received Fuji IX GIC. Teeth presenting with an initial CBCT PA lesion had a failure rate of 63%, whereas teeth with no initial lesion had a failure rate of 16%. Although no statistically significant difference was detected in the clinical efficacy of Biodentine/Fuji IX when used as indirect pulp capping materials in patients with reversible pulpitis, CBCT showed a significant difference in that most healed CBCT lesions had received Biodentine while most that did not heal received Fuji IX. Longer-term follow-up is

  10. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Closer look at calcium absorption and the benefits and risks of dietary versus supplemental calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Anna; Camacho, Pauline

    2013-11-01

    To perform a thorough search of the literature on calcium research and specifically address the topic of calcium absorption. PubMed and Ovid were the main engines used for primary literature searches; textbooks, review articles, and book chapters are examples of the other sources used for supplemental information. Regarding calcium absorption, it seems apparent that the absorption efficiency of all calcium salts, regardless of solubility, is fairly equivalent and not significantly less than the absorption efficiency of dietary calcium. However, dietary calcium has been shown to have greater impact in bone building than supplemental calcium. This is likely due to improved absorption with meals and the tendency of people to intake smaller amounts more frequently, which is more ideal for the body's method of absorption. In addition, the cardiovascular risks of excessive calcium intake appear to be more closely related to calcium supplements than dietary calcium; this relationship continues to be controversial in the literature. We conclude that further studies are needed for direct comparison of supplemental and dietary calcium to fully establish if one is superior to the other with regard to improving bone density. We also propose further studies on the cardiovascular risk of long-term increased calcium intake and on physician estimates of patients' daily calcium intake to better pinpoint those patients who require calcium supplementation.

  12. Assessing Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Status of HIV Seropositive Patients Attending Clinic at Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Christine Onyango

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective. To assess the nutrient intake and nutrient status of HIV seropositive patients attending an AIDS outpatient clinic, to improve the nutritional management of HIV-infected patients. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Comprehensive care clinic in Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya. Subjects. 497 HIV sero-positive adults attending the clinic. Main Outcome Measures. Evaluation of nutrient intake using 24-hour recall, food frequency checklist, and nutrient status using biochemical assessment indicators (haemoglobin, creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate (SGPT and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. Results. Among the 497 patients recruited (M : F sex ratio: 1.4, mean age: 39 years ± 10.5 y, Generally there was inadequate nutrient intake reported among the HIV patients, except iron (10.49 ± 3.49 mg. All the biochemical assessment indicators were within normal range except for haemoglobin 11.2 g/dL (11.4 ± 2.60 male and 11.2 ± 4.25 female. Conclusions. Given its high frequency, malnutrition should be prevented, detected, monitored, and treated from the early stages of HIV infection among patients attending AIDS clinics in order to improve survival and quality of life.

  13. Assessment of Japanese iodine intake based on seaweed consumption in Japan: A literature-based analysis

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    Zava Theodore T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Japanese iodine intake from edible seaweeds is amongst the highest in the world. Predicting the type and amount of seaweed the Japanese consume is difficult due to day-to-day meal variation and dietary differences between generations and regions. In addition, iodine content varies considerably between seaweed species, with cooking and/or processing having an influence on iodine content. Due to all these factors, researchers frequently overestimate, or underestimate, Japanese iodine intake from seaweeds, which results in misleading and potentially dangerous diet and supplementation recommendations for people aiming to achieve the same health benefits seen by the Japanese. By combining information from dietary records, food surveys, urine iodine analysis (both spot and 24-hour samples and seaweed iodine content, we estimate that the Japanese iodine intake--largely from seaweeds--averages 1,000-3,000 μg/day (1-3 mg/day.

  14. Relative validity and reproducibility of a parent-administered semi-quantitative FFQ for assessing food intake in Danish children aged 3-9 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Andersen, Tine; Perez-Cueto Eulert, Federico Jose Armando; Toft, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the semi-quantitative FFQ (SFFQ) applied in the evaluation of a community intervention study, SoL-Bornholm, for estimating food intakes. DESIGN: The reference measure was a 4 d estimated food record. The SFFQ was completed two times...... with the food records, especially for vegetables. For most intakes, the mean difference increased with increasing intake. Gross misclassification was on average higher for energy and nutrients (17 %) than for foods (8 %). Spearman correlation coefficients were significant for twelve out of fourteen intakes......, ranging from 0·29 to 0·63 for foods and from 0·12 to 0·48 for energy and nutrients. Comparing the repeated SFFQ administrations, the intakes of the first SFFQ were slightly higher than those of the second SFFQ. Gross misclassification was low for most intakes; on average 6 % for foods and 8 % for energy...

  15. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self......Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children...... by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...

  16. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion...... of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study......) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest...

  17. Assessment of Coronary Artery Calcium on Low-Dose Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography With Iterative Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braber, Thijs L; Willemink, Martin J; Bohté, Elzemiek H; Mosterd, Arend; Leiner, Tim; Velthuis, Birgitta K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate whether coronary calcium scoring (CCS) is also feasible using low-radiation-dose coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in combination with iterative reconstruction. METHODS: Forty-three individuals without known coronary artery disease underwent both

  18. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Huh

    Full Text Available Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans.We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010. The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI and fatty liver index (FLI. BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD.The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P < 0.001. Further, subjects with hepatic fibrosis as assessed by BARD score and FIB-4 in NAFLD patients had higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium values.High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  19. Effect of anionic salts in concentrate mixture on some blood and urine minerals, acid-base balance and feed intake of dry pregnant cows on grass silage based feeding with high calcium intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAURIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of anionic salts in a concentrate mixture on some blood and urine minerals, acid-base balance and intake of Ayrshire cows fed a grass silage based diet. Eighteen nonlactating, pregnant Ayrshire cows were divided randomly into two groups according to their expected calving date. Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB, calculated as milliequivalents [(Na+ + K+ - (Cl- + S2-] of the two diets was +410 mEq/kg of dietary dry matter (DM in the high DCAB group and +81 mEq/kg of the dietary DM in the low DCAB group, respectively. The DCAB was formulated using NH4Cl, (NH42SO4 and MgCl2 as anionic salts. Cows received grass silage (5.2 kg DM, hay (0.8 kg DM and a concentrate mixture (1.7 kg DM until calving. Both diets were supplemented with 100 g CaCO3 to achieve a high Ca intake (82 g Ca/d. Blood and urine samples were collected 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before the expected calving date, at calving, the day after calving and 1 week following calving. Current data indicated that it may be difficult to formulate a diet with a negative DCAB, if the K content of grass silage is over 30 g/kg DM. As a result, no increase in blood Ca2+ and a relatively high urinary pH were observed. Furthermore, it may advantageous to increase Mg intakes above current Finnish recommendations when dietary Ca concentrations are high, since 28% of experimental cows experienced hypomagnaesemia at parturition.;

  20. Baseline Assessment of Net Calcium Carbonate Accretion Rates on U.S. Pacific Reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Vargas-Ángel

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive quantitative baseline assessment of in situ net calcium carbonate accretion rates (g CaCO3 cm(-2 yr(-1 of early successional recruitment communities on Calcification Accretion Unit (CAU plates deployed on coral reefs at 78 discrete sites, across 11 islands in the central and south Pacific Oceans. Accretion rates varied substantially within and between islands, reef zones, levels of wave exposure, and island geomorphology. For forereef sites, mean accretion rates were the highest at Rose Atoll, Jarvis, and Swains Islands, and the lowest at Johnston Atoll and Tutuila. A comparison between reef zones showed higher accretion rates on forereefs compared to lagoon sites; mean accretion rates were also higher on windward than leeward sites but only for a subset of islands. High levels of spatial variability in net carbonate accretion rates reported herein draw attention to the heterogeneity of the community assemblages. Percent cover of key early successional taxa on CAU plates did not reflect that of the mature communities present on surrounding benthos, possibly due to the short deployment period (2 years of the experimental units. Yet, net CaCO3 accretion rates were positively correlated with crustose coralline algae (CCA percent cover on the surrounding benthos and on the CAU plates, which on average represented >70% of the accreted material. For foreeefs and lagoon sites combined CaCO3 accretion rates were statistically correlated with total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a; a GAM analysis indicated that SiOH and Halimeda were the best predictor variables of accretion rates on lagoon sites, and total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a for forereef sites, demonstrating the utility of CAUs as a tool to monitor changes in reef accretion rates as they relate to ocean acidification. This study underscores the pivotal role CCA play as a key benthic component and supporting actively calcifying reefs; high Mg-calcite exoskeletons

  1. Baseline Assessment of Net Calcium Carbonate Accretion Rates on U.S. Pacific Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ángel, Bernardo; Richards, Cristi L; Vroom, Peter S; Price, Nichole N; Schils, Tom; Young, Charles W; Smith, Jennifer; Johnson, Maggie D; Brainard, Russell E

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive quantitative baseline assessment of in situ net calcium carbonate accretion rates (g CaCO3 cm(-2) yr(-1)) of early successional recruitment communities on Calcification Accretion Unit (CAU) plates deployed on coral reefs at 78 discrete sites, across 11 islands in the central and south Pacific Oceans. Accretion rates varied substantially within and between islands, reef zones, levels of wave exposure, and island geomorphology. For forereef sites, mean accretion rates were the highest at Rose Atoll, Jarvis, and Swains Islands, and the lowest at Johnston Atoll and Tutuila. A comparison between reef zones showed higher accretion rates on forereefs compared to lagoon sites; mean accretion rates were also higher on windward than leeward sites but only for a subset of islands. High levels of spatial variability in net carbonate accretion rates reported herein draw attention to the heterogeneity of the community assemblages. Percent cover of key early successional taxa on CAU plates did not reflect that of the mature communities present on surrounding benthos, possibly due to the short deployment period (2 years) of the experimental units. Yet, net CaCO3 accretion rates were positively correlated with crustose coralline algae (CCA) percent cover on the surrounding benthos and on the CAU plates, which on average represented >70% of the accreted material. For foreeefs and lagoon sites combined CaCO3 accretion rates were statistically correlated with total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a; a GAM analysis indicated that SiOH and Halimeda were the best predictor variables of accretion rates on lagoon sites, and total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a for forereef sites, demonstrating the utility of CAUs as a tool to monitor changes in reef accretion rates as they relate to ocean acidification. This study underscores the pivotal role CCA play as a key benthic component and supporting actively calcifying reefs; high Mg-calcite exoskeletons makes CCA

  2. Dietary intake in the dependent elderly: evaluation of the risk of nutritional deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Barrés, S; Martín, N; Canela, T; García-Barco, M; Basora, J; Arija, V

    2016-04-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent problem in elderly dependent patients and their prognosis is adversely affected. Assessment of food consumption and adequacy of energy and nutrient intake of dependent elderly is needed to plan any selected actions for this population. The study comprised a multicentre cross-sectional study of 190 users (≥65 years) of a home care programme provided by primary care centers in Tarragona (Spain), at nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment: 17-23.5 points). Food consumption was assessed using a semiquantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Energy intake was compared with the Spanish dietary reference intake (DRI) and nutritional intakes with the DRI of the American Institute of Medicine. Mean (SD) age was 85.0 (7.2) years (67.5% female). The food items consumed were varied but lower than the recommended portions for cereals, fruits, vegetables and legumes. Energy intake was 7454.2 (1553.9 kJ day(-1)) [1781.6 (371.4) kcal day(-1)] (97.7% of recommended dietary allowance; RDA) and protein intake was 1.0 (0.4) g kg(-1) of weight (121.4% of RDA). Proteins provided 13.3%, carbohydrates provided 39.9% and fats provided 45.8% of energy intake. The intakes of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E and folates were less than two-thirds of the RDA and their probability of inadequate intake was >85%. Dietary intakes of elderly dependent patients at nutritional risk were well balanced. In general, energy and protein intakes meet the recommendations. The diet was high in energy density, low in complex carbohydrates, high in simple carbohydrates and excessive in fats. The dependent elderly had inadequate intake of micronutrients often related to fragility, such as calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E and folates. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Human population intake fractions and environmental fate factors of toxic pollutants in life cycle impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Struijs, Jaap; Goedkoop, Mark; Heijungs, Reinout; Jan Hendriks, A.; Van De Meent, Dik

    2005-01-01

    The present paper outlines an update of the fate and exposure part of the fate, exposure and effects model USES-LCA. The new fate and exposure module of USES-LCA was applied to calculate human population intake fractions and fate factors of the freshwater, marine and terrestrial environment for 3393

  4. Assessment of the dietary intake of propylene glycol in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, EunA; Lee, Gun Young; Yun, Sang Soon; Kang, TaeSeok

    2016-08-01

    An improved method for the analysis of propylene glycol (PG) in foods using a gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID), with confirmation by GC-MS, was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The PG concentrations in 1073 products available in Korean markets were determined. PG was detected in 74.1% of the samples, in a concentration range from the limit of detection (n.d., 0.39 μg ml(-1)) to 12,819.9 mg kg(-1). The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2011-2013 reported the mean intake levels of PG from all sources by the general population and consumers were 26.3 mg day(-1) (0.52 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 34.3 mg day(-1) (0.67 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. The 95th percentile intake levels of the general population and consumers were 123.6 mg day(-1) (2.39 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 146.3 mg day(-1) (2.86 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. In all groups of the general population, breads were the main contributors to the total PG intake. These reports provide a current perspective on the daily intake of PG in the Korean population.

  5. Assessing usual dietary intake in complex sample design surveys: the National Dietary Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia dos Santos Barbosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Institute (NCI method allows the distributions of usual intake of nutrients and foods to be estimated. This method can be used in complex surveys. However, the user must perform additional calculations, such as balanced repeated replication (BRR, in order to obtain standard errors and confidence intervals for the percentiles and mean from the distribution of usual intake. The objective is to highlight adaptations of the NCI method using data from the National Dietary Survey. The application of the NCI method was exemplified analyzing the total energy (kcal and fruit (g intake, comparing estimations of mean and standard deviation that were based on the complex design of the Brazilian survey with those assuming simple random sample. Although means point estimates were similar, estimates of standard error using the complex design increased by up to 60% compared to simple random sample. Thus, for valid estimates of food and energy intake for the population, all of the sampling characteristics of the surveys should be taken into account because when these characteristics are neglected, statistical analysis may produce underestimated standard errors that would compromise the results and the conclusions of the survey.

  6. Dietary intake assessment and biochemical characteristics of blood and urine in patients with chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2015-04-01

    Chronic gastritis is a prevalent gastroentestinal disease in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate status of foods and nutrients intake and health related biochemical indicators in the patients with chronic gastritis. Daily food and nutrient intake, blood lipids, and antioxidant indicators in the urine, were compared between a group of 19 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and a control group of 27 subjects having normal gastroscopy. No significant differences were found in age, height, weight, body mass index, and blood pressure between the two groups. Daily energy intakes were 1900.6 kcal for the chronic gastritis patient group, and 1931.8 kcal for the normal control group without significant difference. No significant difference was found between the two groups in all nutrient intakes except for cholesterol. The chronic gastritis patients consumed lower amount of sugars and sweeteners but greater amount of starchy food groups such as potatoes and legumes than subjects of control group consumed. Also the chronic gastritis patients showed higher serum triglyceride concentration than the normal subjects. These results indicate that the dietary pattern of chronic gastritis patients may have relation to a change in the serum lipid level; however, more systematic research with a larger samples size is required.

  7. Comprehensive estimate of the theoretical maximum daily intake of pesticide residues for chronic dietary risk assessment in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Darío A; Signorini, Marcelo L; Michlig, Nicolás; Repetti, María R; Sigrist, Mirna E; Beldomenico, Horacio R

    2017-04-03

    A chronic dietary risk assessment for pesticide residues was conducted for four age groups of the Argentinian population following the procedure recommended by the WHO. The National Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake (NTMDI) for 308 pesticides was calculated for the first time, using the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) from several Argentinean regulations and food consumption data from a comprehensive National Nutrition and Health Survey. The risk was estimated by comparing the TMDI with the Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI) identified by various sources. Furthermore, for each of the compounds with a TMDI >65% of the ADI, a probabilistic analysis was conducted to quantify the probability of exceeding the ADI. In this study 27, 22, 10, and 6 active ingredients (a.i.) were estimated to exceed the 100% of the ADI for the different population groups: 6-23 month-old children, 2-5 year-old children, pregnant women, and 10-49 year-old women, respectively. Some of these ADI-exceeding compounds (carbofuran, diazinon, dichlorvos, dimethoate, oxydemeton-methyl and methyl bromide) were found in all four of these groups. Milk, apples, potatoes, and tomatoes were the foods that contributed most to the intake of these pesticides. The study is of primary importance for the improvement of risk assessment, regulations, and monitoring activities.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF TWO FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES TO ASSESS GLUTEN INTAKE IN CHILDREN UP TO 36 MONTHS OF AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Escobar, Paula; Calvo Lerma, Joaquim; Hervas Marin, David; Donat Aliaga, Ester; Masip Simó, Etna; Polo Miquel, Begoña; Ribes Koninckx, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    precise information on gluten consumption is crucial for specifically studying the impact of gluten introduction and gluten intake in celiac disease development. Our aim was to develop and validate tools (food frequency questionnaires, FFQs) for the assessment of gluten consumption in Spanish children aged 7-36 months. a total of 342 children, who attended primary healthcare centers for routine health surveys or La Fe Hospital for minor health problems as well as healthy children (recruited in nurseries and primary schools) participated in this survey. We have developed two different FFQs (one for 7-12 months and other for 13-36 months). For validation, results from two FFQs were compared with results of 2-day food records and also with the gold standard 7-day records. The mean gluten intake obtained by the 2DR vs. FFQ and the 7DR vs. FFQ, were compared using the Bland Altman plot method and also Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. we found a good agreement between our FFQs and the 2DR and 7DR according to the results of both the Bland-Altman plots and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. our two new FFQs are therefore the only validated questionnaires available to determine gluten consumption in Spanish children. They are user-friendly and offer excellent instruments to assess gluten intake in children up to 36 months of age. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of food composition tables and direct chemical analysis for the assessment of macronutrient intake in a military community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, G; Bernini Carri, E; Gatti, G; Severi, S; Poli, M; Ferrari, F; Battistini, N

    1999-01-01

    Food composition tables (FCT) were validated against chemical analysis (CA) to assess energy, carbohydrate, lipid, protein and fibre content of the food consumed by Italian Army cadets. The absolute difference between FCT and CA in 2 separate weeks was < or = 0.7% for energy, < or = 4.1% for carbohydrates, < or = 2.9% for lipids, < or = 6.2% for proteins and < or = 31.6% for fibre. It is concluded that FCT can be used to assess energy, carbohydrate, lipid and protein but not fibre intake in this military community.

  10. The 24-hour recall for the assessment of dietary calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D intakes in stunted children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Aline Lopes; Czepielewski, Mauro Antônio

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Verificar em que medida o Recordatório Alimentar de 24 horas como instrumento de avaliação do consumo alimentar contribui para a avaliação de parâmetros biológicos envolvidos no metabolismo de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 59 crianças e adolescentes com baixa estatura do Ambulatório de Baixa Estatura do Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Causas orgânicas, genéticas e endócrinas de ...

  11. Monitoring and assessment of ingestive chewing sounds for prediction of herbage intake rate in grazing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, J R; Cangiano, C A; Pece, M A; Larripa, M J; Milone, D H; Utsumi, S A; Laca, E A

    2017-10-10

    Accurate measurement of herbage intake rate is critical to advance knowledge of the ecology of grazing ruminants. This experiment tested the integration of behavioral and acoustic measurements of chewing and biting to estimate herbage dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows offered micro-swards of contrasting plant structure. Micro-swards constructed with plastic pots were offered to three lactating Holstein cows (608±24.9 kg of BW) in individual grazing sessions (n=48). Treatments were a factorial combination of two forage species (alfalfa and fescue) and two plant heights (tall=25±3.8 cm and short=12±1.9 cm) and were offered on a gradient of increasing herbage mass (10 to 30 pots) and number of bites (~10 to 40 bites). During each grazing session, sounds of biting and chewing were recorded with a wireless microphone placed on the cows' foreheads and a digital video camera to allow synchronized audio and video recordings. Dry matter intake rate was higher in tall alfalfa than in the other three treatments (32±1.6 v. 19±1.2 g/min). A high proportion of jaw movements in every grazing session (23 to 36%) were compound jaw movements (chew-bites) that appeared to be a key component of chewing and biting efficiency and of the ability of cows to regulate intake rate. Dry matter intake was accurately predicted based on easily observable behavioral and acoustic variables. Chewing sound energy measured as energy flux density (EFD) was linearly related to DMI, with 74% of EFD variation explained by DMI. Total chewing EFD, number of chew-bites and plant height (tall v. short) were the most important predictors of DMI. The best model explained 91% of the variation in DMI with a coefficient of variation of 17%. Ingestive sounds integrate valuable information to remotely monitor feeding behavior and predict DMI in grazing cows.

  12. Quail performance and egg quality at the end of production fed with varying levels of calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Santos de Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of dietary calcium on performance, egg quality, and the amount of calcium retained in the meat and excreted by Japanese quails at the final production. Four hundred 46-58-week-old Japanese quails were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of five calcium level treatments: T1 = 2.95%, T2 = 3.25%, T3 = 3.55%, T4 = 3.85% and T5 = 4.15% calcium. The performance variables included feed intake (g bird-1 day-1, egg production (%, feed conversion by egg mass and per dozen eggs, egg mass (g, and viability. For egg quality, we assessed egg weight, percentage of albumen, yolk weight, percentage of shell, and shell thickness. We also evaluated the amount of calcium present in the meat and the amount of calcium excreted by quails. Increasing levels of calcium linearly influenced feed conversion, weight of yolk, and percentage of eggshell. Shell thickness increased up to the 3.85% calcium treatment. Calcium content of the meat differed among the quails; the quails fed the lowest level of calcium (2.95% showed higher calcium content in meat, whereas calcium excretion increased with increasing levels of calcium in the diet. In conclusion, the addition of 3.85% of calcium in quail feed at the end of production improved eggshell quality, and maintained internal quality and performance within the recommended standards for the production phase tested in quails. Levels higher than 3.85% calcium negatively influenced the parameters analyzed.

  13. Assessment of bone healing ability of calcium phosphate cements loaded with platelet lysate in rat calvarial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Pedro S; Carvalho, Pedro P; Santo, Vítor E; Faria, Susana; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L

    2016-11-01

    Injectable calcium phosphate cements have been used as a valid alternative to autologous bone grafts for bone augmentation with the additional advantage of enabling minimally invasive implantation procedures and for perfectly fitting the tissue defect. Nevertheless, they have low biodegradability and lack adequate biochemical signaling to promote bone healing and remodeling. In previous in vitro studies, we observed that the incorporation of platelet lysate directly into the cement paste or loaded in hyaluronic acid microspheres allowed to modulate the cement degradation and the in vitro expression of osteogenic markers in seeded human adipose derived stem cells. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of this system in new bone formation when implanted in calvarial bilateral defects in rats. Different formulations were assessed, namely plain calcium phosphate cements, calcium phosphate cements loaded with human platelet lysate, hybrid injectable formulations composed of the calcium phosphate cement incorporating hyaluronin acid non-loaded microparticles (20% hyaluronin acid) or with particles loaded with platelet lysate. The degradability and new bone regrowth were evaluated in terms of mineral volume in the defect, measured by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis upon 4, 8 and 12 weeks of implantation. We observed that the incorporation of hyaluronin acid microspheres induced an overly rapid cement degradation, impairing the osteoconductive properties of the cement composites. Moreover, the incorporation of platelet lysate induced higher bone healing than the materials without platelet lysate, up to four weeks after surgery. Nevertheless, this effect was not found to be significant when compared to the one observed in the sham-treated group. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Recent nutritional trends of calcium and vitamin D in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Ohta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake may play an important role on bone health. The recent national nutritional survey in Japan revealed the gradual decrease in calcium intake to around 480 mg/day. In addition, the patients with low level of vitamin D become too large in proportion. The present perspective proposes to increase calcium intake in Asian population.

  15. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Ah Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM I value (5 μg/L among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001. The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.79–5.95 and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79 times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  16. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  17. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  18. Assessing potential targets of calcium action in light-modulated gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    Light, through the mediation of the pigment phytochrome, modulates the gravitropic response of the shoots and roots of many plants. The transduction of both light and gravity stimuli appears to involve Ca(2+)-regulated steps, one or more of which may represent points of intersection between the two transduction chains. To be confident that Ca2+ plays a critical role in stimulus-response coupling for gravitropism, it will be important to identify specific targets of Ca2+ action whose function can be clearly linked to the regulation of growth. Calcium typically exerts its influence on cell metabolism through binding to and activating key regulatory proteins. The three best characterized of these proteins in plants are the calmodulins, calcium-dependent protein kinases, and annexins. In this review we summarize what is known about the structure and function of these proteins and speculate on how their activation by Ca2+ could influence the differential growth response of gravitropism.

  19. Dietary intake in Black British adults; an observational assessment of nutritional composition and the role of traditional foods in UK Caribbean and West African diets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goff, Louise M; Timbers, Louise; Style, Hannah; Knight, Annemarie

    ... differences according to ethnicity and duration of residence. Observational study. Dietary intake was assessed using multiple, standardised triple-pass 24 h recalls and analysed using a nutritional composition database...

  20. Adequacy of nutrient intakes in elite junior basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikic, Marina; Pedišic, Željko; Šatalic, Zvonimir; Jakovljevic, Saša; Venus, Danielle

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the nutrient intakes of elite junior basketball players in comparison with nonathletes. A previously designed food frequency questionnaire was undertaken by 57 male elite junior basketball players 15 to 16 years of age and 53 nonathlete peers. Mean estimated energy intake was more than 700 kcal higher in basketball players than in the nonathletes (p = .002). In both groups estimated energy intake was ~14% from protein, 38% from fat, and ~48% from carbohydrates. For the basketball players, estimated protein intake was below 1.4 g/kg in 32% of the group and above 1.7 g/ kg in 51%, while carbohydrate intake was below 6 g/kg in 56%. Percentages of participants who apparently failed to meet the estimated average requirement for micronutrients were higher in the nonathlete group. The nutrients most likely to fail to meet the recommendations for nutrient density were vitamin A (~70%), zinc (49% in basketball players and 30% in nonathletes), niacin and calcium (~30% for both micronutrients in both groups). Within the limitations of the survey methodology, elite junior basketball players appear to consume higher absolute energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intakes than nonathletes, but the contribution of macronutrients to daily energy intake and the nutrient density of food choices was similar for both groups. Elite junior basketball players might benefit from nutrition education targeting carbohydrate and protein intake. Dietary modifications that increase intakes of vitamin A, zinc, calcium and niacin in the diets of both groups might also be of value.

  1. Use of a urinary sugars biomarker to assess measurement error in self-reported sugars intake in the nutrition and physical activity assessment study (NPAAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha; Midthune, Douglas; Tinker, Lesley F; Potischman, Nancy; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L; Beasley, Jeannette M; Van Horn, Linda; Prentice, Ross L; Kipnis, Victor

    2014-12-01

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may be obscuring the association between sugars and cancer risk in nutritional epidemiologic studies. We used 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose as a predictive biomarker for total sugars, to assess measurement error in self-reported sugars intake. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS) is a biomarker study within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study that includes 450 postmenopausal women ages 60 to 91 years. Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ), four-day food records (4DFR), and three 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) were collected along with sugars and energy dietary biomarkers. Using the biomarker, we found self-reported sugars to be substantially and roughly equally misreported across the FFQ, 4DFR, and 24HR. All instruments were associated with considerable intake- and person-specific bias. Three 24HRs would provide the least attenuated risk estimate for sugars (attenuation factor, AF = 0.57), followed by FFQ (AF = 0.48) and 4DFR (AF = 0.32), in studies of energy-adjusted sugars and disease risk. In calibration models, self-reports explained little variation in true intake (5%-6% for absolute sugars and 7%-18% for sugars density). Adding participants' characteristics somewhat improved the percentage variation explained (16%-18% for absolute sugars and 29%-40% for sugars density). None of the self-report instruments provided a good estimate of sugars intake, although overall 24HRs seemed to perform the best. Assuming the calibrated sugars biomarker is unbiased, this analysis suggests that measuring the biomarker in a subsample of the study population for calibration purposes may be necessary for obtaining unbiased risk estimates in cancer association studies. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Reliability and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food group intakes in New Zealand adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Jyh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the absence of a current and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for use in New Zealand adolescents, there is a need to develop one as a cost-effective way to assess adolescents’ food patterns. This study aims to examine the test-retest reliability and relative validity of the New Zealand Adolescent FFQ (NZAFFQ to assess food group intake in adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Methods A non-quantitative (without portion size, 72-item FFQ was developed and pretested. Fifty-two participants (aged 14.9 ± 0.8 years completed the NZAFFQ twice within a two-week period for test-retest reliability. Forty-one participants (aged 15.1 ± 0.9 years completed a four-day estimated food record (4DFR in addition to the FFQs to enable assessment of validity. Spearman’s correlations and cross-classification analyses were used to examine relative validity while intra-class correlations were additionally used for test-retest reliability. Results Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 34 food groups. The median Spearman’s correlation coefficient (SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.71. SCCs ranged from 0.46 for fruit juice or cordial to 0.87 for non-standard milk. The median intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC between FFQ administrations was 0.69. The median SCC between food groups from the FFQ and the 4DFR was 0.40 with the highest SCC seen for standard milk (0.70. The exact agreement between the methods in ranking participants into thirds was highest for meat alternatives (78%, but lowest for red or yellow vegetables and potatoes (27%. The mean percent of participants misclassified into extreme thirds for food group intake was 12%. Conclusions Despite a small sample size, the NZAFFQ exhibited good to excellent short-term test-retest reliability and reasonable validity in ranking the majority of the food group intakes among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. The comparability of the

  3. Assessment of energy and macronutrient intake in young men: a comparison of 4-day food record and 24-hour dietary recall

    OpenAIRE

    Liberato, Selma Coelho; Bressan, Josefina; Hills, Andrew Peter

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the quantitative agreement between a 4-day food record and a 24-hour dietary recall in young men. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy men aged 18-25 years had their food intake estimated by 4-day food record within one week following 24-hour dietary recall in a cross-sectional study. Resting metabolic rate was assessed by indirect calorimetry and Energy Expenditure was estimated by physical activity records completed simultaneously with food intake records. The...

  4. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    , no significant effect was found for organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroids, whereas the number of samples with residues of benzilates, phenylamids and triazoles was insufficient to demonstrate any significant effects. An intake calculation showed that the average intake from Italian grapes was 3.9 mu g day......The differences in residue pattern between Italy and South Africa, the main exporters of table grapes to the Danish market, were investigated. The results showed no major differences with respect to the number of samples with residues, with residues being found in 54-78% of the samples. Exceedances...... of the European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) were found in five samples from Italy. A number of samples were rinsed to study the possible reduction of residues. For copper, iprodione, procymidone and dithiocarbamates a significant effect of rinsing was found (20-49% reduction of residues). However...

  5. Assessment of daily intake of organochlorine pesticides from milk in different regions of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Agata; Mituniewicz-Małek, Anna; Dmytrów, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    The common occurrence of organochlorine compounds in the environment, food and human tissues may constitute a serious threat to human health. The method of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used to determine the content of pesticides in 15 samples of raw cow's milk from different regions of Poland. The results revealed high levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, heptachlor and aldrin. The studied milk contained lindane in average concentrations within the maximum limits. Although in 20% of all samples tested, the concentration of lindane exceeded permissible limits, while in 15% of samples the content of Σ DDT was too high. But the average daily consumption of milk containing organochlorine pesticides poses no direct threat to human health, because daily intake (DI) for all compounds were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Attention should be paid to the exposure of consumers to pesticide residues from other dairy foods.

  6. Nutrient intake of adolescents in rural area of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Khandelwal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nutrient requirements during adolescence are higher than at any other stage of life. Inadequate nutrient intake leads to poor growth, delayed sexual maturation, slow linear growth, anaemia and osteomalacia. Aim &Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of adolescents in 13-15 years belonging to rural area of Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh. Material & Methods: A school based cross-sectional study was conducted during 2014 - 2015 in rural area of Shimla district. Thirty clusters were identified using population proportionate to size sampling method.  A total of 170 adolescents in the age group of 13-15 years studying in government schools were enrolled. Dietary assessment was done using 24h dietary recall method. Results: The percentage deficit in boys for calorie, iron, zinc and calcium intake was found 37.9%, 53.7%, 35.5% and 22.4% respectively as compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA. The girls had percentage deficit for calorie, iron, zinc and calcium intake as 47.7%, 61.5%, 53.6%, and 43.6 % respectively as compared to RDA. Conclusion: The findings of present study indicate that the nutrient intake of adolescents aged 13-15 years was inadequate.

  7. Human population intake fractions and environmental fate factors of toxic pollutants in life cycle impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbregts, Mark A J; Struijs, Jaap; Goedkoop, Mark; Heijungs, Reinout; Jan Hendriks, A; van de Meent, Dik

    2005-12-01

    The present paper outlines an update of the fate and exposure part of the fate, exposure and effects model USES-LCA. The new fate and exposure module of USES-LCA was applied to calculate human population intake fractions and fate factors of the freshwater, marine and terrestrial environment for 3393 substances, including neutral organics, dissociating organics and inorganics, emitted to 7 different emission compartments. The human population intake fraction is on average 10(-5)-10(-8) for organics and 10(-3)-10(-4) for inorganics, depending on the emission compartment considered. Chemical-specific human population intake fractions can be 1-2.7 orders of magnitude higher or lower compared to the typical estimates. For inorganics, the human population intake fractions highly depend on the assumption that exposure via food products can be modelled with constant bioconcentration factors. The environmental fate factor is on average 10(-11)-10(-18) days m(-3) for organics and 10(-10)-10(-12) days m(-3) for inorganics, depending on the receiving environment and the emission compartment considered. Chemical-specific environmental fate factors can be 1-8 orders of magnitude higher or lower compared to the typical estimates. The largest differences between the new and old version of USES-LCA are found for emissions to air and soil. This is caused by a significant change in the structure of the air and soil compartments in the new version of USES-LCA, i.e. the distinction between rural and urban air, including rain-no rain conditions and including soil depth dependent intermedia transport.

  8. Assessing vitamin status in large population surveys by measuring biomarkers and dietary intake – two case studies: folate and vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Pfeiffer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES provides the most comprehensive assessment of the health and nutrition status of the US population. Up-to-date reference intervals on biomarkers and dietary intake inform the scientific and public health policy communities on current status and trends over time.The main purpose of dietary assessment methods such as the food-frequency questionnaire, food record (or diary, and 24-hr dietary recall is to estimate intake of nutrients and, together with supplement usage information, describe total intake of various foods or nutrients. As with all self-reporting methods, these tools are challenging to use and interpret. Yet, they are needed to establish dietary reference intake recommendations and to evaluate what proportion of the population meets these recommendations. While biomarkers are generally expensive and, to some degree, invasive, there is no question as to their ability to assess nutrition status. In some cases biomarkers can also be used to assess intake or function, although rarely can one biomarker fulfill all these purposes. For example, serum folate is a good indicator of folate intake, red blood cell (RBC folate is a good status indicator, and plasma total homocysteine is a good functional indicator of one-carbon metabolism.Using folate and vitamin D – two vitamins that are currently hotly debated in the public health arena – as two case studies, we discuss the complexities of using biomarkers and total intake information to assess nutrition status. These two examples also show how biomarkers and intake provide different information and how both are needed to evaluate and set public health policy. We also provide guidance on general requirements for using nutrition biomarkers and food and supplement intake information in longitudinal, population-based surveys.

  9. Assessment of the acrylamide intake of the Belgian population and the effect of mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, W; Baert, K; Mestdagh, F; Vercammen, J; Daenens, P; De Meulenaer, B; Maghuin-Rogister, G; Huyghebaert, A

    2010-09-01

    The acrylamide (AA) intake of the Belgian consumer was calculated based on AA monitoring data of the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) and consumption data of the Belgian food consumption survey coordinated by the Scientific Institute for Public Health (3214 participants of 15 years or older). The average AA exposure, calculated probabilistically, was 0.4 microg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) (P97.5 = 1.6 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), the main contributors to the average intake being chips (23%), coffee (19%), biscuits (13%), and bread (12%). Additionally, the impact of a number of AA mitigation scenarios was evaluated (German minimization concept, scenarios for mitigation from the literature, signal values), which is an important issue for public health as well as for policy-makers. Specific actions in cooperation with the food industry to reduce the AA content of foods seems to be a more efficient strategy than mere implementation of signal values. Considering that an important share of the AA intake is due to prepared meals, the catering industry as well as consumers need to be better informed on the various possibilities for keeping the AA content of meals as low as possible.

  10. Estimate of dietary intake of chloropropanols (3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP and health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavesi Arisseto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloropropanols, including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP, comprise a group of chemical contaminants with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. They have been found in a variety of processed foods and food ingredients, such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein, soy sauce, cereal-based products, malt-derived ingredients, and smoked foods. This study aimed to assess the dietary exposure to 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Brazil and verify whether the presence of these substances in foods could represent health risks. The intake was calculated by combining data on food consumption, provided by the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2008-2009, with the levels of contaminant occurrence determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The exposure to 3-MCPD ranged from 0.06 to 0.51 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 considering average and high consumers, while the intake of 1,3-DCP was estimated to be 0.0036 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 in the worst case scenario evaluated. Based on these results, it was verified that the Brazilians' exposure to chloropropanols does not present a significant health risk. However, the consumption of specific foods containing high levels of 3-MCPD could exceed the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg.kg bw-1 established for this compound and, therefore, represent a potential concern.

  11. Effects of nutritional intake on disease severity in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandese, Valentina; Marotti, Francesca; Bedetti, Luca; Bigi, Elena; Palazzi, Giovanni; Iughetti, Lorenzo

    2016-04-30

    Children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) may show growth failure in comparison to healthy peers. Many factors as hematological status, endocrine and/or metabolic dysfunction, and nutritional status, may play an important role in growth failure. The aim of this study was to assess whether impaired growth and nutritional intake can affect SCD severity during childhood. We conducted an observational study on children with SCD referring to our clinic for routine follow-up visits in a 6-month period. We collected information on weight, height and body mass index (BMI) and calculated their respective standardized scores (z). The nutritional intake was assessed through the last 24-h recall intake of total calories, macro- (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) and micronutrients (calcium, iron, phosphorus, vitamins B1, PP, A, C, B2). Disease severity was assessed through total hemoglobin (Hb) and fetal hemoglobin (HbF), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, and through the total number and days of hospitalizations, as well as the lifetime episodes of acute chest syndrome (ACS). Twenty nine children (14 males, 15 females) with SCD were enrolled; their mean age was 9.95 years (SD 3.50, min 3.72, max 17.18). Z-weight and z-BMI were significantly directly related to total Hb. Food intake resulted significantly unbalanced in terms of total calorie intake, macro- and micronutrients, especially calcium, iron, vitamin B1 and C. Low intake of calcium and vitamin B1 were significantly inversely correlated with number and days of hospitalizations per year. Protein, lipid, phosphorus, and vitamin PP intakes resulted adequate but were inversely correlated with number and days of hospitalizations. Carbohydrate, lipid, iron, phosphorus, vitamins B1 and B2 intakes were significantly inversely correlated to HbF levels. This study showed that, in our population, inadequate nutritional intake, weight and BMI have a significant impact on SCD severity indices.

  12. Reliability and Validity of Food Frequency Questions to Assess Beverage and Food Group Intakes among Low-Income 2- to 4-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E

    2016-06-01

    Fruits, vegetables, sweetened foods, and beverages have been found to have positive and negative associations with obesity in early childhood, yet no rapid assessment tools are available to measure intake of these foods among preschoolers. This study examines the test-retest reliability and validity of a 10-item Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire designed to assess fruits, vegetables, and sweetened foods and beverages intake among 2- to 4-year-old children. The Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire was developed for use in periodic phone surveys conducted with low-income families with preschool-aged children. Seventy primary caregivers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed two Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaires within a 2-week period for test-retest reliability. Participants also completed three 24-hour recalls to allow assessment of validity. Intraclass correlations were used to examine test-retest reliability. Spearman rank correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots, and linear regression analyses were used to examine validity of the Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire compared with three 24-hour recalls. Intraclass correlations between Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire administrations ranged from 0.48 for sweetened drinks to 0.87 for regular sodas. Intraclass correlations for fruits, vegetables, and sweetened food were 0.56, 0.49, and 0.56, respectively. Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranged from 0.15 to 0.59 for beverages, with 0.46 for sugar-sweetened beverages. Spearman rank correlation coefficients for fruits, vegetables, and sweetened food were 0.30, 0.33, and 0.30, respectively. Although observation of the Bland-Altman plots and linear regression analyses showed a slight upward trend in mean differences, with increasing mean intake for five beverage groups, at least 90% of data plots fell within the limits of agreement for all food/beverage groups. The Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire

  13. Effects of Adding Chymosin to Milk on Calcium Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif

    2014-01-01

    either chymosin or similar placebo was added. Compared with placebo, chymosin did not affect 24-h urinary calcium, calcium/creatinine ratio, plasma parathyroid hormone, calcitonin or ionized calcium levels. However, during the first 4 h after intake of milk with chymosin, urinary calcium-creatinine ratio...

  14. Exposure Assessment and Inflammatory Response Among Workers Producing Calcium Carbonate Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ling

    Problem: Nanotechnology is one of the most rapidly growing fields of science and engineering, and its applications have expanded to numerous research and industrial sectors, from consumer products to medicine to energy. Nano-materials and nanotechnology promise substantial benefits. However, there are many uncertainties and concerns regarding human health and the environment. Numerous toxicological studies on animals and cells in vitro have demonstrated that nanomaterials could cause various adverse health effects, including inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and mutagenesis in the lungs, and cardiovascular and nervous system impairment. Objectives: The overall objective of this study was to characterize particulate exposures in a calcium carbonate nanoparticle manufacturing facility, investigate possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects, and explore the plausibility of an inflammatory mechanism. The associations between exposure level and various health outcomes were investigated. Methodology: Each job was characterized by mass, number and surface area concentration. Job classification was performed based on ranking of the exposure level and statistical models. Lung function tests, exhaled NO and blood pressure (BP) were measured before and after the workshift in the year of 2011. Inflammatory cytokines from induced sputum were measured cross-sectionally in the year of 2011. Data of lung function tests and blood pressure were collected cross-sectionally in the year of 2012. The associations between each exposure metric and health measures in 2012 were investigated. Only mass concentration was linked to both 2011 and 2012 health outcomes. Results: The sampling and analytic methodology used in the study presents the potential to characterize nanoparticle exposure for a variety of operational processes. We found the highest mass exposure occurred at bagging job whereas the highest number and surface area concentration was found at modification

  15. The relation between dietary protein, calcium and bone health in women: results from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikert, Cornelia; Walter, Dietmar; Hoffmann, Kurt; Kroke, Anja; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner

    2005-01-01

    The role of dietary protein in bone health is controversial. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between protein intake, dietary calcium, and bone structure measured by broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA). Our analysis includes 8,178 female study participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Potsdam Study. Ultrasound bone measurements were performed on the right os calcis, and BUA was determined. Dietary intake was assessed by a standardized food frequency questionnaire. We applied linear regression models to estimate the association between dietary protein and BUA. After multivariate adjustment, high intake of animal protein was associated with decreased BUA values (beta = -0.03; p = 0.010) whereas high vegetable protein intake was related to an increased BUA (beta = 0.11; p = 0.007). The effect of dietary animal protein on BUA was modified by calcium intake. High consumption of protein from animal origin may be unfavourable, whereas a higher vegetable protein intake may be beneficial for bone health. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that high calcium intake combined with adequate protein intake based on a high ratio of vegetable to animal protein may be protective against osteoporosis. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Vitamin D and Calcium Status in South African Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Fein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate vitamin D and calcium are essential for optimal adolescent skeletal development. Adolescent vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and poor calcium intake have been reported worldwide. Heavy alcohol use impacts negatively on skeletal health, which is concerning since heavy adolescent drinking is a rising public health problem. This study aimed to examine biochemical vitamin D status and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in 12–16 year-old adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD, but without co-morbid substance use disorders, compared to adolescents without AUD. Substance use, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD concentrations, energy, calcium and vitamin D intakes were assessed in heavy drinkers (meeting DSM-IV criteria for AUD (n = 81 and in light/non-drinkers without AUD (non-AUD (n = 81, matched for age, gender, language, socio-economic status and education. Lifetime alcohol dose was orders of magnitude higher in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. AUD adolescents had a binge drinking pattern and “weekends-only” style of alcohol consumption. Significantly lower (p = 0.038 s-25(OHD (adjusted for gender, smoking, vitamin D intake were evident in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. High levels of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (s-25(OHD < 29.9 ng/mL were prevalent in both groups, but was significantly higher (p = 0.013 in the AUD group (90% compared to the non-AUD group (70%. All participants were at risk of inadequate calcium and vitamin D intakes (Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Both groups were at risk of inadequate calcium intake and had poor biochemical vitamin D status, with binge drinking potentially increasing the risk of the latter. This may have negative implications for peak bone mass accrual and future osteoporosis risk, particularly with protracted binge drinking.

  17. Vitamin D and calcium status in South African adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, Celeste E; Carey, Paul D; Laubscher, Ria; Fein, George; Senekal, Marjanne

    2012-08-01

    Adequate vitamin D and calcium are essential for optimal adolescent skeletal development. Adolescent vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and poor calcium intake have been reported worldwide. Heavy alcohol use impacts negatively on skeletal health, which is concerning since heavy adolescent drinking is a rising public health problem. This study aimed to examine biochemical vitamin D status and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in 12-16 year-old adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD), but without co-morbid substance use disorders, compared to adolescents without AUD. Substance use, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) concentrations, energy, calcium and vitamin D intakes were assessed in heavy drinkers (meeting DSM-IV criteria for AUD) (n = 81) and in light/non-drinkers without AUD (non-AUD) (n = 81), matched for age, gender, language, socio-economic status and education. Lifetime alcohol dose was orders of magnitude higher in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. AUD adolescents had a binge drinking pattern and "weekends-only" style of alcohol consumption. Significantly lower (p = 0.038) s-25(OH)D (adjusted for gender, smoking, vitamin D intake) were evident in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. High levels of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (s-25(OH)D risk of inadequate calcium and vitamin D intakes (Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method). Both groups were at risk of inadequate calcium intake and had poor biochemical vitamin D status, with binge drinking potentially increasing the risk of the latter. This may have negative implications for peak bone mass accrual and future osteoporosis risk, particularly with protracted binge drinking.

  18. Heavy metal and metalloids intake risk assessment in the diet of a rural population living near a gold mine in the Peruvian Andes (Cajamarca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenys, Marta; Boix, Nuria; Farran-Codina, Andreu; Palma-Linares, Imma; Montserrat, Roser; Curto, Ariadna; Gomez-Catalan, Jesus; Ortiz, Pedro; Deza, Nilton; Llobet, Juan M

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the diet composition of a rural population near a gold mine in the Cajamarca district of Peru. The main consumed items by this population were tubers and cereals, and the mean energy intake (1990 kcal) was shown not to cover the recommended intake values for the male population. The concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn, Al, Cr and, Cu in drinking water and food samples of items contributing to 91% of this diet (145 samples, 24 different items) were determined and used to calculate their daily intakes for risk assessment. The As, Cd and Pb daily intakes exceeded the limit values established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), entailing serious concerns for the population's health. Moreover, the intake values of As and Pb were shown to be higher, the closer to the gold mine the studied population was. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of food consumption and nutrient intake assessed with three dietary assessment methods: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straßburg, Andrea; Eisinger-Watzl, Marianne; Krems, Carolin; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-11-30

    Comparison of food consumption, nutrient intake and underreporting of diet history interviews, 24-h recalls and weighed food records to gain further insight into specific strength and limitations of each method and to support the choice of the adequate dietary assessment method. For 677 participants (14-80 years) of the German National Nutrition Survey II confidence intervals for food consumption and nutrient intake were calculated on basis of bootstrapping samples, Cohen's d for the relevance of differences, and intraclass correlation coefficients for the degree of agreement of dietary assessment methods. Low energy reporters were identified with Goldberg cut-offs. In 7 of 18 food groups diet history interviews showed higher consumption means than 24-h recalls and weighed food records. Especially mean values of food groups perceived as socially desirable, such as fruit and vegetables, were highest for diet history interviews. For "raw" and "cooked vegetables", the diet history interviews showed a mean consumption of 144 and 109 g/day in comparison with 68 and 70 g/day in 24-h recalls and 76 and 75 g/day in weighed food records, respectively. For "fruit", diet history interviews showed a mean consumption of 256 g/day in comparison with 164 g/day in 24-h recalls and 147 g/day in weighed food records. No major differences regarding underreporting of energy intake were found between dietary assessment methods. With regard to estimating food consumption and nutrient intake, 24-h recalls and weighed food records showed smaller differences and better agreement than pairwise comparisons with diet history interviews.

  20. Energy intake in short bowel syndrome: assessment by 24-h dietary recalls compared with the doubly labelled water method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassini, Priscila G; Das, Sai Krupa; Pfrimer, Karina; Suen, Vivian M M; Sérgio Marchini, Júlio; Ferriolli, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) represents a serious intestinal absorption disorder, and patients may be prone to severe malnutrition. Dietetic therapy is critically important both for immediate prognosis and successful long-term rehabilitation. To maintain energy balance, an accurate assessment of energy intake is required. Our objective was to compare energy intake (EI) assessed by 24-h dietary recalls (EIrecall), a standard clinical assessment, with the total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labelled water (TEEdlw) method in SBS patients and matched controls. A total of twenty-two participants (eleven each in the SBS and control groups (CG), six female and five male) were evaluated; CG were matched to SBS patients on the basis of age, BMI and sex. TEE was measured by DLW and compared with EI determined by four 24-h dietary recalls using the USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Bland-Altman plots and paired Student's t test were used to compare EIrecall with TEEdlw (Penergy needs in SBS patients and affect nutritional status in the long term.

  1. Calcium in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis: EMAS clinical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Antonio; Chedraui, Peter; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Lopes, Patrice; Mishra, Gita; Mueck, Alfred; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Rees, Margaret; Lambrinoudaki, Irene

    2018-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a highly prevalent disease. Prevention through lifestyle measures includes an adequate calcium intake. Despite the guidance provided by scientific societies and governmental bodies worldwide, many issues remain unresolved. To provide evidence regarding the impact of calcium intake on the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and critically appraise current guidelines. Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. The recommended daily intake of calcium varies between 700 and 1200mg of elemental calcium, depending on the endorsing source. Although calcium can be derived either from the diet or supplements, the former source is preferred. Intake below the recommended amount may increase fragility fracture risk; however, there is no consistent evidence that calcium supplementation at, or above, recommended levels reduces risk. The addition of vitamin D may minimally reduce fractures, mainly among institutionalised people. Excessive intake of calcium, defined as higher than 2000mg/day, can be potentially harmful. Some studies demonstrated harm even at lower dosages. An increased risk for cardiovascular events, urolithiasis and even fractures has been found in association with excessive calcium intake, but this issue remains unresolved. In conclusion, an adequate intake of calcium is recommended for general bone health. Excessive calcium intake seems of no benefit, and could possibly be harmful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Model of personalised risk assessment of phytoestrogen intake based on 11 SNP in ESR1 and ESR2 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Zidek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens can induce biological responses in vertebrates by mimicking or modulating the action or production of endogenous hormones, and because of their structural similarity with estradiol they have the ability to cause estrogenic or anti-estrogenic effects. Risk assessment of phytoestrogens intake may therefore provide important information useful in the adjustment of nutrients composition, as one of nutrigenomics approaches. Proper risk assessment is an essential part of good nutrient composition. The current risk assessment procedures does use an additive effect of genes, but the accumulation of relevant factors do not count with the distribution of risk in the European population. A combination of approaches based on genetic score, along with the use of the data bases like 1000 genomes and dbSNP is a powerful tool for population risk modelling that would provide reasonable results without needs of as testing a representative number of individual genetic profiles.

  3. Assessment of intake of iron and nutrients that affect bioavailability of daily food rations of girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Broniecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND AIM In a human body iron occurs at a level of 3 to 5 g, 60-70 % of which are in hemoglobin, ca. 10% in myoglobin, and ca. 3% are accumulated in enzymes of cellular respiration or enzymes degrading toxic hydrogen peroxide. The other part of iron is accumulated in liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. The dietary deficiency of iron appears at its insufficient level in a diet and at impaired absorption of iron ions present in food products by a body. Groups at an especially high risk of iron deficiencies include, among others, menstruating girls in the pubescence period and women with heavy and irregular menstruations, as well as vegetarians and patients with chronic enteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of iron and nutrients that affect its bioavailability from daily food rations of girls. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 159 girls aged 17-18, students of high schools in the city of Wroclaw. The study was conducted between November 2010 and ay 2011. Girls were divided into 3 subgroups according to the BMI score. Girls’ diets were analyzed with the method of a direct interview of the last 24 hours before the test and the interview was repeated seven times. RESULTS The present study demonstrated that the intake of iron from food rations of almost all the girls surveyed was below the requirements defined for this age group. Statistically significant differences were noted in the intake of energy and nutrients among the three distinguished subgroups of girls. CONCLUSIONS Food rations of the surveyed girls were characterized by a low, compared to dietary allowances, calorific value, which resulted in deficiencies of nutrients increasing iron bioavailability.

  4. Assessment of intake of iron and nutrients that affect bioavailability of daily food rations of girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniecka, Anna; Wyka, Joanna; Bronkowska, Monika; Piotrowska, Ewa; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    In a human body iron occurs at a level of 3 to 5 g, 60-70 % of which are in hemoglobin, ca. 10% in myoglobin, and ca. 3% are accumulated in enzymes of cellular respiration or enzymes degrading toxic hydrogen peroxide. The other part of iron is accumulated in liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. The dietary deficiency of iron appears at its insufficient level in a diet and at impaired absorption of iron ions present in food products by a body. Groups at an especially high risk of iron deficiencies include, among others, menstruating girls in the pubescence period and women with heavy and irregular menstruations, as well as vegetarians and patients with chronic enteritis. To evaluate the intake of iron and nutrients that affect its bioavailability from daily food rations of girls. The study included 159 girls aged 17-18, students of high schools in the city of Wroclaw. The study was conducted between November 2010 and ay 2011. Girls were divided into 3 subgroups according to the BMI score. Girls' diets were analyzed with the method of a direct interview of the last 24 hours before the test and the interview was repeated seven times. RESULTS The present study demonstrated that the intake of iron from food rations of almost all the girls surveyed was below the requirements defined for this age group. Statistically significant differences were noted in the intake of energy and nutrients among the three distinguished subgroups of girls. CONCLUSIONS Food rations of the surveyed girls were characterized by a low, compared to dietary allowances, calorific value, which resulted in deficiencies of nutrients increasing iron bioavailability.

  5. Assessment of time interval between tramadol intake and seizure and second drug-induced attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol is a synthetic drug which is prescribed in moderate and severe pain. Tramadol overdose can induce severe complications such as consciousness impairment and convulsions. This study was done to determine the convulsions incidence after tramadol use until one week after hospital discharge. Methods: This prospective study was done in tramadol overdose patients without uncontrolled epilepsy and head injury history. All cases admitted in Loghman and Rasol Akram Hospitals, Tehran, Iran from 1, April 2011 to 1, April 2012 were included and observed for at least 12 hours. Time interval between tramadol intake and first seizure were record. Then, patients with second drug-induced seizure were recognized and log time between the first and second seizure was analyzed. The patients were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU if clinical worsening status observed. One week after hospital discharge, telephone follow-up was conducted. Results: A total of 150 patients with a history of tramadol induced seizures (141 men, 9 women, age: 23.23±5.94 years were enrolled in this study. Convulsion was seen in 104 patients (69.3%. In 8 out of 104 patients (7.6% two or more convulsion was seen. Time interval between tramadol use and the onset of the first and second seizure were 0.93±0.17 and 2.5±0.75 hours, respectively. Tramadol induced seizures are more likely to occur in males and patients with a history of drug abuse. Finally, one hundred forty nine patients (99.3% were discharged with good condition and the only one patient died from tramadol overdose. Conclusion: The results of the study showed tramadol induced seizure most frequently occurred within the first 4 hours of tramadol intake. The chance of experiencing a second seizure exists in the susceptible population. Thus, 4 hours after drug intake is the best time for patients to be hospital discharged.

  6. Safety assessments of subcutaneous doses of aragonite calcium carbonate nanocrystals in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaji, Alhaji Zubair; Zakaria, Zuki Abu Bakar; Mahmud, Rozi; Loqman, Mohamad Yusof; Hezmee, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Abba, Yusuf; Isa, Tijani; Mahmood, Saffanah Khuder

    2017-05-01

    Calcium carbonate nanoparticles have shown promising potentials in the delivery of drugs and metabolites. There is however, a paucity of information on the safety of their intentional or accidental over exposures to biological systems and general health safety. To this end, this study aims at documenting information on the safety of subcutaneous doses of biogenic nanocrystals of aragonite polymorph of calcium carbonate derived from cockle shells (ANC) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. ANC was synthesized using the top-down method, characterized using the transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope and its acute and repeated dose 28-day trial toxicities were evaluated in SD rats. The results showed that the homogenous 30 ± 5 nm-sized spherical pure aragonite nanocrystals were not associated with mortality in the rats. Severe clinical signs and gross and histopathological lesions, indicating organ toxicities, were recorded in the acute toxicity (29,500 mg/m2) group and the high dose (5900 mg/m2) group of the repeated dose 28-day trial. However, the medium- (590 mg/m2 body weight) and low (59 mg/m2)-dose groups showed moderate to mild lesions. The relatively mild lesions observed in the low toxicity dosage group marked the safety margin of ANC in SD rats. It was concluded from this study that the toxicity of CaCO3 was dependent on the particulate size (30 ± 5 nm) and concentration and the route of administration used.

  7. Systemic Assessment of Calcium and Phosphorus Level after Implantation of Porous Iron in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siallagan, S. F.; Amelia, F.; Utami, N. D.; Ulum, M. F.; Boediono, A.; Estuningsih, S.; Hermawan, H.; Noviana, D.

    2017-07-01

    One of important aspects in bone healing process is physiological level of calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) that can be altered by implantation of biodegradable porous iron. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the concentration of Ca, P and Ca/P ratio in the peripheral blood during the implantation period up to 4 months. Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used and divided into 3 groups receiving different pore size of iron implants (pore size 450, 580, 800μm) and one group of sham. The implants (5x2x0.5mm) were inserted into flat bone defects at latero-medial of femoral bone. Blood sample was taken from ventral tail artery before and after 4 month of implantation. Calcium and P concentrations in the blood were determined by BA-88A Semi-Auto Chemistry Analyzer. Results showed that concentration of Ca and P are slightly higher after implantation than before implantation, except for the 450μm group. The Ca/P ratio before and after implantation was increased in the sham group, and decreased in the 450 and 800μm groups. Concentration of Ca, P and Ca/P ratio insignificantly change between before and 4 months after surgery in some groups.

  8. Pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizel, Raquel; Godois, Allan da Mata; Coqueiro, Audrey Yule; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Tirapegui, Julio; Ravagnani, Fabricio Cesar de Paula; Coelho-Ravagnani, Christianne de Faria

    2017-01-01

    Despite the well-documented importance of nutrition in optimizing performance and health, the dietary intake of soccer players has attracted little attention. We aimed to assess the pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players and its adequacy in macro and micronutrients. The pre-season dietary intake of 19 male athletes was assessed using a semi-structured 3-day food record. To determine dietary adequacy and excess, energy and macronutrient intake were compared with the Brazilian dietary reference values for athletes, and micronutrients were compared with the Estimated Average Requirement - EAR (minimum recommendation) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level - UL (maximum recommendation). Mean daily energy intake (40.74±12.81 kcal/kg) was adequate. However, there was a low carbohydrate intake (5.44±1.86 g/kg/day) and a high amount of protein and fat (1.91±0.75 and 1.27±0.50 g/kg/day, respectively). Sodium intake (3141.77±939.76 mg/day) was higher than UL (2300 mg/day), while the majority of players showed daily intake of vitamin A (74%), vitamin D (100%), folate (58%), calcium and magnesium (68%) below the EAR (625, 10 and 320 µg/day, 800 and 330 mg/day, respectively). The dietary intake of professional soccer players was adequate in energy, but inadequate in macro and micronutrients, which suggests the need to improve nutritional practices to sustain the physical demands of soccer during pre-season.

  9. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  10. The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Soo Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiative, and many other studies included in the meta-analysis obtained data from calcium-replete subjects and it is not clear whether the same risk profile would be observed in populations with low calcium intakes. Dietary calcium intake varies widely throughout the world and it is especially low in East Asia, although the risk of cardiovascular events is less prominent in this region. Therefore, clarification is necessary regarding the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events following calcium supplementation and whether this relationship can be generalized to populations with low calcium intakes. Additionally, the skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are greater in subjects with low calcium intakes and, therefore, the risk-benefit ratio of calcium supplementation is likely to differ based on the dietary calcium intake and risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases of various populations. Further studies investigating the risk-benefit profiles of calcium supplementation in various populations are required to develop population-specific guidelines for individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, and risk profiles around the world.

  11. Evaluation of dietary intake of vitamins and minerals in 13-15-years-old boys from a sport school in Warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Beata; Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga; Wajszczyk, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals, in teenagers engaged in physical activity increases the risk of health disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate selected vitamins and minerals intake in 13-15-year-old boys from sport school. The study of dietary intake was conducted among 44 boys from the School of Sport Championship (SSC). Nutritional data was collected using 24-hour recall for 3 days of week. Daily intake of minerals: sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, iodine and vitamins: A, E, D, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, folate and niacin was estimated. The probability of insufficient intake of nutrients in relation to the standard levels: Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) as well as excessive intake of them in relation to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) were assessed. The highest percentage of insufficient intake concerned vitamin D (100%), potassium (69%), folate (53%), and calcium (50%), slightly lower of magnesium (27%), vitamins C (24%) and E (15%). The risk of inadequate intake of other minerals: sodium, copper, iron, zinc, phosphorus, iodine and vitamins: B6, B1, B2, A, B12, niacin, was relatively lower and amounted from 0.3% to 5.4%. The disturbingly high probability of exceeding the UL for sodium (99.5%) was observed. A significant disproportion between the mean intake and the percentage of inadequate diets indicates a large diversity in the intake of vitamins and minerals in the group of studied boys, what was the reason of unbalanced diet. The insufficient intake concerns especially vitamin D, potassium, folate, calcium and a lesser extent magnesium, vitamins C and E. Sodium intake was disturbingly high. In order to avoid nutritional mistakes in the future education on the rational nutrition among students, their parents, and teachers is necessary.

  12. Risk assessment of patulin intake through apple-based food by infants and preschool children in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torović, Ljilja; Dimitrov, Nina; Assunção, Ricardo; Alvito, Paula

    2017-11-01

    This study reports for the first time in Serbia the occurrence of patulin in apple-based food and the risk assessment associated with patulin intake by infants and preschool children. In total, 214 samples of infant fruit juices (48), infant purée (66), and juices for children (small package with straw, 100) were collected over 3 years (2013-15) and analysed using HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Patulin was found in 43.8% of infant juices and 16.7% of infant purée, with all values below the legal limit of 10 μg kg-1 (maximum 8.3 and 7.7 μg kg-1, respectively). The proportion of contaminated samples among fruit juices for children was 43.0%, with the highest patulin concentration at 30.2 μg kg-1, not exceeding the maximum allowed level of 50 μg kg-1. Risk assessment of patulin intake by Serbian infants and preschool children, conducted by deterministic and probabilistic approaches, revealed a hazard quotient well below 1, indicating a tolerable exposure level and no health concern.

  13. Extracellular Calcium and Magnesium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The cause of preeclampsia remains unknown and calcium and magnesium supplement are being suggested as means of prevention. The objective of this study was to assess magnesium and calcium in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of Nigerian women with preedamp sia and eclampsia. Setting was ...

  14. Micronutrients intake associated with DNA damage assessed by in a human biomonitoring study

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    Carina Ladeira

    2015-05-01

    Retinol was positively correlated with oxidative DNA damage in controls. The study by van Helden et al. (2009 demonstrated that vitamin A enhances OH radical formation in the Fenton reaction, showing that vitamin A can act as pro-oxidant or antioxidant, depending on the type of radicals involved, and may lead to DNA oxidative damage (Alakhras et al., 2011. Azqueta & Collins (2012 clearly distinguished between effects of vitamin A, pro-vitamin A carotenoids, and non-vitamin A carotenoids; being the latter group almost invariably reported to protect against DNA damage, whether endogenous or induced by exogenous agents, the pro-vitamin A carotenoids show a wider spectrum of effects, sometimes protecting and sometimes enhancing DNA damage. Vitamin E was found to be positively correlated with % DNA in tail. Watters et al. (2007 also found a positive association of vitamin E and oxidative DNA damage in a healthy, non-smoking population of young adults. A possible explanation for this result stems from some evidence that in the presence of copper or in smokers with a fat rich diet, vitamin E can act as a strong pro-oxidant, nevertheless it remains an unexpected result. Results found a positive correlation between iron and % DNA in tail, meaning that higher intake of iron associates with higher DNA damage. Oxidative lesions, and more specifically 8-OHdG, is one of the most prevalent lesions induced by iron containing substances (Prá et al., 2012, however the FPG biomarker was not statistically associated with iron. There is sound evidence that iron deficiency increases genome instability, among other mechanisms, by impairing enzymes involved in antioxidant and nuclei acid metabolism (Prá et al., 2012. Results presented herein found that the amount of calories ingested was negatively correlated with both biomarkers assessed by comet assay. This was somewhat unexpected, as calories restriction reduces metabolic rate and oxidative stress, meaning that lower calories

  15. Bioaccessibility of four calcium sources in different whey-based dairy matrices assessed by in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorieau, Lucie; Le Roux, Linda; Gaucheron, Frédéric; Ligneul, Amandine; Hazart, Etienne; Dupont, Didier; Floury, Juliane

    2018-04-15

    Numerous calcium sources are available to enrich food, but their behavior during digestion is still unknown. This study focused on the influence of the gastro-intestinal pH, the food structure and the calcium source on the bioaccessibility of the nutrient. Four calcium sources were studied: calcium carbonate, calcium citrate malate, calcium phosphate and calcium bisglycinate. These were added to dairy matrices, containing cream and whey proteins, of different forms (liquid or gel). The kinetics of solubility and ionic calcium concentration during in vitro digestion were studied, as function of gastro-intestinal pH. All calcium sources were almost fully soluble in the gastric compartment, and then became insoluble in the intestinal phase. The level of calcium insolubilisation in the intestinal phase was not significantly influenced by the matrix structure (liquid or gel), but was more dependent on the calcium source, this effect leading to different final calcium bioaccessibility from 36% to 20%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing peripheral blood cell profile of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpetile, Z; Young, J M; Gabler, N K; Dekkers, J C M; Tuggle, C K

    2015-03-01

    The cost of feed is a serious issue in the pork industry, contributing about 65 to 75% of the total production cost. To prevent economic losses and decreased productivity of the herd, it is important to select for animals that eat less for the same lean gain, or more efficient animals. Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between observed feed intake and expected feed intake based on estimated maintenance and production requirements. Selection for decreased RFI, or more efficient animals, is a potential solution to higher feed costs in pig production. However, animals that are highly selected for decreased RFI may have reduced energy input to the immune system and fail to withstand diseases and stressors after infection that negatively impact profitability. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in circulating blood cell profiles at a young age between 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for RFI as well as the heritability of these traits, to investigate effects of selection for RFI on immune system parameters, and to identify potential biomarkers for feed efficiency. Previous work has shown that the 2 lines had diverged for IGF-1 in serum in young pigs and, therefore, this stage was investigated for other potential physiological differences. Blood samples were drawn for a complete blood count (CBC) analysis from 517 gilts and barrows, ages 35 to 42 d, across the 2 lines. In general, the low-RFI line had lower numbers of specific types of white blood cells but higher hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell volume compared to the high-RFI line. No significant correlations were found between CBC traits and RFI across and within the lines (0.05 < < 0.1). Of the 15 CBC traits that were measured, 3 were highly heritable (0.56 < < 0.62), 9 were moderately heritable (0.12 < < 0.47), and 3 were lowly heritable ( < 0.12), suggesting a substantial genetic component for CBC traits and that selection for CBC traits could be

  17. Assessment of coronary atherosclerosis by cardiac image: complementary amount of the calcium score to myocardial perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitola, Joao Vicente; Cerci, Rodrigo J.; Zapparoli, Marcello, E-mail: joaovitola@quantamn.com.br [Quanta Diagnostico Nuclear, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    Over the last decades we have witnessed significant advances on diagnostic tools and management of patients with or suspected cardiovascular disease, and consequently a significant reduction in mortality. Nevertheless, cardiovascular disease remains the leader cause of death in many countries, including Brazil. Identifying the high risk patient is important, so we can intensify prevention strategies. Non invasive diagnostic tools have been developed to identify the high risk patient in need of a myocardial revascularization, notably using myocardial scintigraphy. However, many clinicians still question, what is the best management for a patient with traditional risk factors, who has a positive treadmill test result and a completely normal myocardial scintigraphy? What is the literature showing in relation to the role of coronary calcium score for these patients? In this article we will reflect over these issues which are so frequently encountered in daily cardiology practice. (author)

  18. Assessing Energy Intake in Daily Life: Signal-Contingent Smartphone Application Versus Event-Contingent Paper and Pencil Estimated Diet Diary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Wouters

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Investigating between-meal snack intake and its associated determinants such as emotions and stress presents challenges because both vary from moment to moment throughout the day. A smartphone application (app, was developed to map momentary between-meal snack intake and its associated determinants in the context of daily life. The aim of this study was to compare energy intake reported with the signal-contingent app and reported with an event-contingent paper and pencil diet diary. Methods: In a counterbalanced, cross-sectional design, adults (N = 46 from the general population reported between-meal snack intake during four consecutive days with the app and four consecutive days with a paper and pencil diet diary. A 10-day interval was applied between the two reporting periods. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to compare both instruments on reported momentary and daily energy intake from snacks.  Results: Results showed no significant difference (B = 11.84, p = .14 in momentary energy intake from snacks between the two instruments. However, a significant difference (B = –105.89, p < .01 was found on energy intake from total daily snack consumption. Conclusions: As at momentary level both instruments were comparable in assessing energy intake, research purposes will largely determine the sampling procedure of choice. When momentary associations across time are the interest of study, a signal-contingent sampling procedure may be a suitable method. Since the compared instruments differed on two main features (i.e. the sampling procedure and the device used it is difficult to disentangle which instrument was the most accurate in assessing daily energy intake.

  19. Aplicação das Dietary Reference Intakes na avaliação da ingestão de nutrientes para indivíduos Application of Dietary Reference Intakes for assessment of individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação do estado nutricional é uma das práticas clínicas fundamentais para tomar-se a decisão quanto ao diagnóstico nutricional de um indivíduo e à conduta dietética a ser-lhe prescrita. A adequação da ingestão de nutrientes é um dos componentes da avaliação nutricional e é feita a partir de valores de referência que se constituem em estimativas das necessidades fisiológicas desses nutrientes e metas de ingestão dos mesmos. Colocam-se hoje à disposição dos profissionais um novo conjunto de valores de referência que constituem um avanço importante no modo de interpretar a adequação dietética: as Dietary Reference Intakes. Este artigo aborda os métodos propostos para avaliação da adequação da ingestão de nutriente às necessidades do indivíduo, utilizando os novos valores de referências.The nutritional status assessment is one of the fundamental clinical approaches in making a decision about nutritional diagnosis and dietetic behavior, in order to prescribe an adequate diet therapy. The evaluation of nutrient intakes is a component of the nutritional assessment and it is made from estimates of nutrient physiological needs and goals for good nutrition, known as reference values. A new group of reference values is recently available for health professionals: the Dietary Reference Intakes, which represent an important progress in the field of dietary assessment interpretation. This paper discusses the proposed methods for the individual nutrient intake assessment, using the Dietary Reference Intakes.

  20. Evaluation of a digital method to assess evening meal intake in a free-living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Poulsen, Sanne; Andersen, Lotte Ernst

    2010-01-01

    of the method for recording evening meal intake over a prolonged period of time. Design: The digital method was compared against weighed records of 19 participants’ usual evening meals for five consecutive days. Two trained image analysts independently estimated the weight of individual foods within the meals...... the digital method and weighed records were found for all measured food categories and nutrients. Comparable means and acceptable limits of agreement (mean difference +/− 2 SD) were found with regard to macronutrient distribution (e.g. fat content −5 to 6 E%), energy density (−75 to 91 kJ/100 g), and energy......-adjusted foods (e.g. fruit and vegetable content −241 to 236 g/10 MJ). The majority of the participants expressed satisfaction with the method and were willing to record their evening meals for 1 month or more using the digital method. Conclusion: The digital method is valid and feasible for evening meal...

  1. Relative Validity of Three Food Frequency Questionnaires for Assessing Dietary Intakes of Guatemalan Schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Marcinkevage

    Full Text Available To determine the relative validity of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs compared with results from 24-hour dietary recalls for measuring dietary intakes in Guatemalan schoolchildren.A cross-sectional study of primary caregivers (mothers or grandmothers of 6-11 year-old children. Caregivers completed one of three constructed FFQs to measure the child's dietary consumption in the last week: FFQ1 did not incorporate portion sizes; FFQ2 provided portion sizes; and FFQ3 incorporated pictures of median portion sizes. During the same week, each caregiver also completed three 24-hour dietary recalls. Results from the FFQ were compared with corresponding results from the 24-hour dietary recalls.Santa Catarina Pinula, peri-urban Guatemala City.Caregivers (n = 145 of 6-11 year-old children: 46 completed FFQ1, 49 completed FFQ2, and 50 completed FFQ3.The mean values for all nutrients obtained from the 24-hour dietary recall were lower than for those obtained from the FFQs, excluding folic acid in FFQ3, cholesterol and zinc in FFQ2, and cholesterol, folic acid, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and zinc in FFQ1. Energy-adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.07 (protein to 0.54 (cholesterol for FFQ1 and from 0.05 to 0.74 for FFQ2 and FFQ3. Agreement by both methods (FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls of classifying children into the same or adjacent quartiles of energy-adjusted nutrient consumption ranged from 62.0% for cholesterol to 95.9% for vitamin B12 across all three FFQs.Our FFQs had moderate to good relative validity in measuring energy and nutrient intakes for 6-11 year-old Guatemalan children. More evidence is needed to evaluate their reproducibility and applicability in similar populations.

  2. Process of formulating USDA's Expanded Flavonoid Database for the Assessment of Dietary intakes: a new tool for epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Seema A; Haytowitz, David B; Wasswa-Kintu, Shirley I; Pehrsson, Pamela R

    2015-08-14

    The scientific community continues to be interested in potential links between flavonoid intakes and beneficial health effects associated with certain chronic diseases such as CVD, some cancers and type 2 diabetes. Three separate flavonoid databases (Flavonoids, Isoflavones and Proanthocyanidins) developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service since 1999 with frequent updates have been used to estimate dietary flavonoid intakes, and investigate their health effects. However, each of these databases contains only a limited number of foods. The USDA has constructed a new Expanded Flavonoids Database for approximately 2900 commonly consumed foods, using analytical values from their existing flavonoid databases (Flavonoid Release 3.1 and Isoflavone Release 2.0) as the foundation to calculate values for all the twenty-nine flavonoid compounds included in these two databases. Thus, the new database provides full flavonoid profiles for twenty-nine predominant dietary flavonoid compounds for every food in the database. Original analytical values in Flavonoid Release 3.1 and Isoflavone Release 2.0 for corresponding foods were retained in the newly constructed database. Proanthocyanidins are not included in the expanded database. The process of formulating the new database includes various calculation techniques. This article describes the process of populating values for the twenty-nine flavonoid compounds for every food in the dataset, along with challenges encountered and resolutions suggested. The new expanded flavonoid database released on the Nutrient Data Laboratory's website would provide uniformity in estimations of flavonoid content in foods and will be a valuable tool for epidemiological studies to assess dietary intakes.

  3. Assessment of membrane protection by /sup 31/P-NMR effects of lidocaine on calcium-paradox in myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hirosumi; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Teragaki, Masakazu; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Takeda, Takeda; Ikata, Mari; Ishikawa, Makoto; Miura, Iwao

    1989-01-01

    In studying calcium paradox, perfused rat hearts were used to investigate the myocardial protective effects of lidocaine. Intracellular contents of phosphates were measured using the /sup 31/P-NMR method. In hearts reexposed to calcium, following 3 minute calcium-free perfusion, a rapid contracture occurred, followed by rapid and complete disappearance of intracellular phosphates with no resumption of cardiac function. In hearts where lidocaine was administered from the onset of the calcium-free perfusion until 2 minutes following the onset of reexposure to calcium, both intracellular phosphates and cardiac contractility were maintained. Therefore, it can be said that cell membranes were protected by lidocaine.

  4. Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and acidified coproducts on dry matter intake, serum calcium, and performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, D J; Block, E; Weber, D; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2014-02-01

    Two products designed to deliver supplemental anions were evaluated for their effects on DMI, total serum Ca, and performance of transition dairy cows relative to a control diet that did not contain supplemental anions. Diets differed in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and anion source. Treatments were diets including a control (CON; DCAD +17.7 meq/100 g DM; n = 13), Bio-Chlor (BC; DCAD +2.5 meq/100 g DM; n = 14), and SoyChlor (SC, DCAD +0.4 meq/100 g DM; n = 15). Treatments began 21 d before expected calving dates and continued through parturition (mean treatment length 20.98 d); on calving, all animals received the same diet. Milk yield was measured through 21 d in milk, and milk samples were collected daily between 5 and 21 d in milk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. Prepartum DMI was 9.0, 8.5, and 7.5 ± 0.6 kg/d for CON, BC, and SC treatments, respectively, and tended to be lower for SC than CON (P = 0.07). Postpartum DMI and milk yields were similar among treatments. Milk protein, lactose, and urea nitrogen concentrations were highest for SC and lowest for BC, with CON being intermediate. Plasma glucose, measured on d 5, 10, and 21 postpartum, tended to be different among treatments (P = 0.06; 66.7, 57.1, and 63.8 ± 3.1 mg/dL for CON, BC, and SC, respectively). Serum total Ca concentrations did not differ among dietary treatments and only tended to change over time; values were not indicative of clinical hypocalcemia. With limited sample size, no significant effects of treatment were detected for incidence of postpartum health disorders or plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. Although DMI tended to be depressed in the prepartum period by SC, this intake depression was not accompanied by negative effects on performance or health in the postpartum period. Results suggest that cows were not adequately stressed to cause hypocalcemia or that DCAD values near 0 were insufficient to improve postpartum health and performance

  5. The effect of cation-anion difference on calcium requirement, feed intake, body weight gain, and blood gasses and mineral concentrations of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J A; Akay, V; Franklin, S T; Aaron, D K

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of two diets with different cation-anion differences on Ca requirements in the growing calf. Holstein calves (n = 48, 24 males) were blocked at 56 to 70 d after birth (80+/-10 kg of body weight) according to sex and birth date and assigned randomly in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments containing cation-anion differences as meq (Na + K) - (Cl + S)/kg of diet dry matter and Ca content of 1) 0 and 0.35%, 2) 0 and 0.50%, 3) 0 and 0.65%, 4) 200 and 0.35%, 5) 200 and 0.50%, and 6) 200 and 0.65%. Feed intake and average daily gain did not differ among treatment groups. Plasma pH and Ca were unaffected by dietary Ca content or dietary cation-anion difference. Plasma Cl and P decreased linearly with increasing Ca content in the diet. Plasma HCO3 increased linearly with increased dietary Ca content. Plasma HCO3 and partial pressure of CO2 were higher in calves fed the 200 compared with calves fed the 0 cation-anion difference diets. Plasma Cl was, however, lower in calves fed the 200 compared with calves fed the 0 meq diets. An interaction of Ca content and dietary cation-anion difference was detected for plasma P content. Urinary pH increased linearly with increasing dietary Ca content. Calves fed the 200 meq dietary cation-anion difference had higher urinary pH values than those fed the 0 meq diet. Urinary P excretion was not altered by dietary cation-anion difference or Ca content of the diet. Calves fed the 0 meq diet had higher urinary cocnentrations of Ca and Cl when compared with those fed the 200 meq diet. Bone ash, P, Ca, Mg, and K content of the 10th rib were not affected by dietary treatments. Breaking strength of the seventh and ninth ribs increased quadratically with increasing dietary Ca content. Dietary cation-anion difference had no effect on the breaking strength of the seventh and ninth ribs. Varying the dietary cation-anion difference from 0 to 200 meq/kg of dietary dry matter had no effect on Ca

  6. Vitamin D intake is inadequate in spinal muscular atrophy type I cohort: correlations with bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aton, Jennifer; Davis, Rebecca Hurst; Jordan, Kristine C; Scott, Charles B; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2014-03-01

    Children with type I spinal muscular atrophy commonly demonstrate reduced bone mineral density. Our objectives were to evaluate and assess adequacy of vitamin D intake, serum levels, and association with bone mineral density. Assessments were completed using 3-day food records and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. The spinal muscular atrophy type I cohort included 22 males and 18 females (N = 40), with a mean age of 18.6 months. Data collection occurred from 2001 to 2011. Seventy-five percent of patients had inadequate intake of vitamin D at the initial visit. Using mixed-effects analyses, vitamin D and calcium intakes correlated positively with bone mineral density (r = 0.31 and r = 0.53, respectively). Increased vitamin D and calcium consumption were associated with an increase in bone mineral density (P = .04 and P = .01, respectively). Vitamin D intake correlated positively with serum levels (r = 0.65). Further study is needed to determine optimal intakes of vitamin D and calcium in the spinal muscular atrophy type I population.

  7. [Trends in energy and nutrient intake by adolescents in public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 2003-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Thais Meirelles de; Veiga, Gloria Valeria da; Sichieri, Rosely; Pereira, Rosângela Alves

    2016-08-29

    The study analyzed variations in energy and nutrient intake by adolescents enrolled in public schools, examined in two school-based cross-sectional surveys, in 2003 and 2008. Food consumption was assessed with three food records. Weight was classified according to World Health Organization criteria. A total of 433 adolescents were studied in 2003 and 510 in 2008. Prevalence of excess weight was 17% in 2003 and 22% in 2008 (p > 0.05). There was a reduction in the intake of saturated fats and vitamin A in boys. Girls showed an increase in the intake of energy, carbohydrates, and calcium and a reduction in protein and iron. Both boys and girls reduced their intake of vitamin E and lipids and increased their sodium. Adolescents with excess weight showed an increase in calcium intake and a decrease in saturated fat and vitamin A. The nutritional quality of the adolescents' diet declined over the course of the five years.

  8. Nutritional status as assessed by nutrient intakes and biomarkers among women of childbearing age--is the burden of nutrient inadequacies growing in America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Deshanie; Bird, Julia K; McBurney, Michael I; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding nutrient intakes among women of childbearing age within the USA is important given the accumulating evidence that maternal body weight gain and nutrient intakes prior to pregnancy may influence the health and well-being of the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to ascertain the influence of ethnicity and income on nutrient intakes. Nutritional status was assessed using data on nutrient intakes through foods and supplements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Biomarker data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to assess nutritional status for selected nutrients. Poverty-income ratio was used to assess family income. White (n 1560), African-American (n 889) and Mexican-American (n 761) women aged 19-30 and 31-50 years were included. A nationally representative sample of non-pregnant women of childbearing age resident in the USA. African-American women had the lowest intakes of fibre, folate, riboflavin, P, K, Ca and Mg. Women (31-50 years) with a poverty-income ratio of ≤ 1.85 had significantly lower intakes of almost all nutrients analysed. Irrespective of ethnicity and income, a significant percentage of women were not consuming the estimated recommended amounts (Estimated Average Requirement) of several key nutrients: vitamin A (~80%), vitamin D (~78%) and fibre (~92%). Nutrient biomarker data were generally reflective of nutrient intake patterns among the different ethnic groups. Women of childbearing age in the USA are not meeting nutrient intake guidelines, with differences between ethnic groups and socio-economic strata. These factors should be considered when establishing nutrition science advocacy and policy.

  9. A importância do consumo dietético de cálcio e vitamina D no crescimento The importance for growth of dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline L. Bueno

    2008-10-01

    (genetic and metabolic and extrinsic factors (environmental factors such as diet, health, hygiene, housing and access to health services. Among the nutritional factors are vitamin and oligoelement deficiencies which may be associated with malnutrition or caused by insufficient absorption. Since calcium is one of the main mineral components of bone tissue, it is essential for adequate bone formation and, considering that vitamin D plays an important role in calcium metabolism, a diet with insufficient quantities of these nutrients can impact on the formation of the skeleton and on the process of growth and development. CONCLUSIONS: In children and adolescents, low intake or low absorption of calcium and vitamin D may limit their statural growth, and it is necessary to supply sufficient quantities of both during the critical growth phases.

  10. Food and nutrient intake of Irish community-dwelling elderly subjects: who is at nutritional risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, S E; Jeffery, I B; Ross, R P; Stanton, C; O'Toole, P W; O'Connor, E M; Fitzgerald, G F

    2014-01-01

    To assess the dietary intakes of Irish community-dwelling elderly individuals, participating in the ELDERMET project. Cross-sectional study. Cork city and county region of southern Ireland. Two hundred and eight (94 males, 114 females) community-dwelling subjects aged 64-93 yrs. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometric data were recorded. Nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). A high rate of overweight/obesity was observed in this population group. Consumption of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods was excessive among this population group. Older elderly subjects (≥75 yrs) consumed significantly (Pelderly (64-74 yrs). Intakes of dietary fat and saturated fat were high while dairy food consumption was inadequate in both males and females. Elderly females typically had a more nutrient-dense diet than males. A considerable proportion of subjects, particularly males, had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, folate, zinc and vitamin C. The data indicate that the diet of Irish community-dwelling elderly individuals is sub-optimal with respect to nutrient intake, and excessive in terms of fat intake, with implications for the health status of this population group. Reductions in dietary fat and increased low fat dairy food intakes are recommended for the prevention of diet-related disease in older persons. In addition, strategies to improve a number of sub-optimal micronutrient intakes need to be developed and implemented, particularly among elderly males.

  11. Dietary zinc intake of vegetarian and nonvegetarian patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, R; Birmingham, C L; Aeberhardt, L; Goldner, E M

    1993-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and zinc deficiency, found most frequently in young females, have a number of symptoms in common. These include weight loss, alterations in taste and appetite, depression, and amenorrhea. Approximately half of anorexia nervosa patients (ANs) are vegetarian (VANs), a practice that may increase their risk for zinc deficiency. This study compared the dietary intake of zinc and related nutrients in 9 outpatient VANs with that of 11 outpatient nonvegetarian patients with anorexia nervosa (NVANs). VANs reported significantly lower (p < .05) dietary intakes of zinc, fat, and protein, and a significantly higher (p < .05) intake of calories from carbohydrates than NVANs. There were no significant differences between the groups in dietary intake of calories, calcium, copper, iron, or magnesium. These findings indicate that zinc intake should be routinely assessed in VANs and that zinc supplementation of their diets may be indicated.

  12. The inverse effect of meal intake on controlled attenuation parameter and liver stiffness as assessed by transient elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratchatasettakul, Kanittha; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Promson, Kwannapa; Sringam, Pranee; Sobhonslidsuk, Abhasnee

    2017-04-13

    Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness (LS) measured by transient elastography (TE, Fibroscan®) have been used for steatosis and fibrosis assessment. We evaluated the effect of meal intake on CAP and LS values. Forty patients who had had a liver biopsy within the previous month were recruited. The biopsy was graded for fibrosis (F) and steatosis (S) stagings. TE was performed after overnight fasting (baseline values) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min following the intake of a standard commercial formula meal, and every 30 min until LS and CAP values returned to baseline. The effect of meal intake on CAP and LS values was analyzed with a multilevel mixed model approach. The mean age was 53.1 ± 11.2 years old. The mean (SD) BMI was 25.6 ± 4.5 kg/m(2). F0, F1, F2, F3 and F4 fibrosis stages were found in 17 (42.5%), 9 (22.5%), 4 (10.0%), 8 (20.0%) and 2 (5.0%), respectively. S0, S1, S2 and S3 steatosis stages were seen in 22 (55.0%), 11 (27.5%), 4 (10.0%) and 3 (7.5%), respectively. The mean (SD) CAP and median (IQR) LS values at baseline were 249.7 ± 58.1 dB/m and 11.9 (6-18.1) kPa. A significant decrease in CAP values was observed in all patients 15 to 120 min after meals, with the CAP peak value at 60 min and the mean post-meal delta reduction of 18.1 dB/min. CAP values declined after meals at early fibrosis stages and across all stages of steatosis. A significant increase in LS values after meal intake was observed within 15 to 120 min, with the LS peak value at 15 min and the mean post-meal delta increase of 2.4 kPa. Post-meal CAP and LS values returned to baseline within 150 min following meals. Following a meal, patients' CAP values declined with the peak value at 60 min, contrasting with the rising of LS values with the peak value at 15 min. The post-meal CAP and LS values returned to baseline by 150 min. A fasting period of more than 150 min after a meal is recommended for patients undergoing TE.

  13. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Roman-Viñas, Blanca; Ngo, Joy; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Williamson, Gary; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2011-12-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as cancer. The aim of this paper is to examine the PFS market structures in European Community (EC) Member States as well as to examine issues addressing methodologies and consumption data relating to PFS use in Europe. A revision of recent reports on market data, trends and main distribution channels, in addition an example of the consumption of PFS in Spain, is presented. An overview of the methods and administration techniques used to assess individual food consumption as a starting point, including their uses and limitations, as well as some examples of studies that collect Food Supplement (FS) information, including herbal/botanical/plant-derived products are also discussed. Additionally, the intake estimation process of food nutrients is described and used to propose the PFS ingredients intake estimation process. Nationally representative PFS consumption data is scarce in Europe. The majority of studies have been conducted in Scandinavia and the UK. However the heterogeneity of definitions, study design and objectives make it difficult to compare results and extrapolate conclusions.

  14. Specialized food composition dataset for vitamin D content in foods based on European standards: Application to dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milešević, Jelena; Samaniego, Lourdes; Kiely, Mairead; Glibetić, Maria; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul

    2018-02-01

    A review of national nutrition surveys from 2000 to date, demonstrated high prevalence of vitamin D intakes below the EFSA Adequate Intake (AI) (d vitamin D) in adults across Europe. Dietary assessment and modelling are required to monitor efficacy and safety of ongoing strategic vitamin D fortification. To support these studies, a specialized vitamin D food composition dataset, based on EuroFIR standards, was compiled. The FoodEXplorer™ tool was used to retrieve well documented analytical data for vitamin D and arrange the data into two datasets - European (8 European countries, 981 data values) and US (1836 data values). Data were classified, using the LanguaL™, FoodEX2 and ODIN classification systems and ranked according to quality criteria. Significant differences in the content, quality of data values, missing data on vitamin D 2 and 25(OH)D 3 and documentation of analytical methods were observed. The dataset is available through the EuroFIR platform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Computer-based assessments of expected satiety predict behavioural measures of portion-size selection and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura L; Hinton, Elanor C; Fay, Stephanie H; Ferriday, Danielle; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2012-12-01

    Previously, expected satiety (ES) has been measured using software and two-dimensional pictures presented on a computer screen. In this context, ES is an excellent predictor of self-selected portions, when quantified using similar images and similar software. In the present study we sought to establish the veracity of ES as a predictor of behaviours associated with real foods. Participants (N=30) used computer software to assess their ES and ideal portion of three familiar foods. A real bowl of one food (pasta and sauce) was then presented and participants self-selected an ideal portion size. They then consumed the portion ad libitum. Additional measures of appetite, expected and actual liking, novelty, and reward, were also taken. Importantly, our screen-based measures of expected satiety and ideal portion size were both significantly related to intake (p.05). In addition, consistent with previous studies, the majority (90%) of participants engaged in plate cleaning. Of these, 29.6% consumed more when prompted by the experimenter. Together, these findings further validate the use of screen-based measures to explore determinants of portion-size selection and energy intake in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of text messaging and paper-and-pencil for ecological momentary assessment of food craving and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Elliot T; Giuliani, Nicole R; Pruitt, Alicia K

    2014-10-01

    Electronic devices such as mobile phones are quickly becoming a popular way to gather participant reports of everyday thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, including food cravings and intake. Electronic devices offer a number of advantages over alternative methods such as paper-and-pencil (PNP) assessment including automated prompts, on-the-fly data transmission, and participant familiarity with and ownership of the devices. However, only a handful of studies have systematically compared compliance between electronic and PNP methods of ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and none have examined eating specifically. Existing comparisons generally find greater compliance for electronic devices than PNP, but there is variability in the results across studies that may be accounted for by differences across research domains. Here, we compared the two EMA methods in an unexamined domain - eating - in terms of response rate and response latency, and their sensitivity to individual difference variables such as body mass index (BMI). Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to report on their food craving, food intake, and hunger four times each day for 2 weeks using either a PNP diary (N = 19) or text messaging (TXT; N = 25). Response rates were higher for TXT than PNP (96% vs. 70%) and latencies were faster (29 min vs. 79 min), and response rate and latency were less influenced by BMI in the TXT condition than in the PNP condition. These results support the feasibility of using text messaging for EMA in the eating domain, and more broadly highlight the ways that research domain-specific considerations (e.g., the importance of response latency in measuring short-lived food craving) interact with assessment modality during EMA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intake of game birds in the UK: assessment of the contribution to the dietary intake of lead by women of childbearing age and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2014-05-01

    Concern has recently been expressed about Pb levels in Pb-shot game meat. Our aim was to determine the consumption of game birds in a representative sample population in the UK, and in children and women of childbearing age in particular. Population-based cross-sectional cohort study. Data from 4 d diet diaries from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS; 2008-2010) were extracted to analyse data on game bird consumption in the sample population, in women of childbearing age (15-45 years old) and in children ≤6 years old. Home-based study in representative areas of the UK. Participants in the NDNS (2008-2010; n 2126, age 1·5 to >65 years). Fifty-eight participants (2·7 %) reported eating game birds. The mean intake was 19·5 (sd 18·1) g/d (median 15·6, range 1·3-92·9 g/d). In women of childbearing age (15-45 years), 11/383 (2·9 %) reported eating game birds, with a mean intake of 22·4 (sd 25·8) g/d (median 15·6, range 2·0-92·9 g/d). In children aged ≤6 years old, 3/342 (0·9 %) were reported as eating game birds, with a mean intake of 6·8 (sd 9·7) g/d (median 2·4, range 1·3-23·2 g/d). The prevalence of consumption of game birds by women of childbearing age and children ≤6 years old was relatively low and intakes were small. However, any exposure to Pb in these two groups is undesirable. As are uncertainties about the ability of the diet diary method to capture the consumption of food items that are infrequently consumed, alternative methods of capturing these data should be used in future studies.

  18. The effect of restriction of dietary calcium on trabecular and cortical bone mineral density in the rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Changsun; Park, Dongho

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate effects of restricted calcium intake on cortical and trabecular bone density in white rats. Low Ca diet was fed for six weeks, and bone density and bone metabolism parameters were assessed in blood. This study was carried out on 12 male white rats aged 12 weeks (Sprague-Dawley; SD). These rats were bred for 1 week and randomly assigned to the standard calcium diet group (SCa group, n = 6) and the low calcium diet group (LCa group; n = 6). The SCa group was give...

  19. Nanostructured calcium silicate hydrate seeds accelerate concrete hardening: a combined assessment of benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräu, Michael; Ma-Hock, Lan; Hesse, Christoph; Nicoleau, Luc; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Wiench, Karin; Landsiedel, Robert; Wohlleben, Wendel

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology creates new possibilities to control and improve material properties for civil infrastructure. Special focus in this area is put on Portland cement and gypsum. Together their annual production is by far larger than for any other material worldwide. Nanomodification of these materials can be done during the few hours between dissolution and hardening, especially by nucleation of the re-crystallization with suitable colloids. Here we report first results in homogeneous seeding of the precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates within a real Portland cement composition. The occupational safety during the production phase and during mixing of concrete paste is addressed in detail by in vivo testing. We perform 5-day inhalation with 21-day recovery in rats and analyze organ-specific toxicity and 71 endpoints from bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) and blood. In BALF parameters, no test-related changes were observed, indicating the generally low toxicity of the test material. Some mild lesions were observed in larynx level. In the lungs, all animals of the 50 mg/m³ concentration group revealed a minimal to mild increase in alveolar macrophages, which recovered back to control level.

  20. Assessment of dietary intake of 10 intense sweeteners by the Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Mistura, Lorenza; Goscinny, Séverine; Janvier, Steven; Cuypers, Koenraad; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Catasta, Giovina; Ferrari, Marika; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Van Loco, Joris; Turrini, Aida

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the consumption of foods containing intense sweeteners present on the Italian food market and to investigate whether the Italian general population (aged >3-65+) was at risk for exceeding the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 10 intense sweeteners. A food label survey was performed in Rome (Italy), using market share data to identify the brands more representative of the market. A sample of 326 foods (table-top sweeteners included), beverages and food supplements containing intense sweeteners was collected and analyzed in order to establish the concentration levels. Intense sweeteners were only found in foods belonging to 8 sugar-free food categories out of 37 regulated. The dietary exposure was estimated using the tiered approach. Food consumption data from the last Italian national survey (INRAN-SCAI 2005-06) were combined with Maximum Levels at Tier 2, and with the actual concentration of sweeteners in the collected food products at Tier 3. The estimated exposure among consumers of sweeteners in Italy was well below the ADIs, in both tiers; non-alcoholic beverages, table-top sweeteners and food supplements were main contributors to exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Furan in commercial baby foods from the Spanish market: estimation of daily intake and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaki, M Soubhi; Santos, F Javier; Puignou, Lluis; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2017-05-01

    The occurrence of furan in commercial baby food samples from the Spanish market was evaluated using an automated headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). A total of 76 baby food samples including infant formula, baby cereals, fruit in cans and/or jars, vegetables, meat, and fish, were surveyed for furan content. The lowest concentration of this compound was found in infant formula (baby food containing fish showed the highest concentrations (19-84 ng g -1 ). Following recommendation of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the effect on furan content was evaluated of consumer home preparation of foods, heating and handling. Furan concentrations were reduced by up to 35% when samples were heated in a dish using microwave oven and by up to 53% when a hot water bath was used. Finally, we estimated the furan intake from baby food consumption (0.002-1.18 µg kg -1 body weight day -1 ) and we calculated the margin of exposure (MOE) from samples as purchased and also after home preparation of the food. For infant formula and cereal baby foods, the MOEs (26,278-412,776) indicated no infant health concern or priority, while for meat and fish-based baby foods the values pointed to a potential public health risk, even considering the furan losses during preparation at home.

  2. Mycotoxins in wheat flour and intake assessment in Shandong province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenghua; Jiang, Dafeng; Zhou, Jingyang; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei; Zheng, Fengjia

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the occurrence and contamination levels of eight mycotoxins were investigated in wheat flour samples (n = 359) from Shandong Province of China. Samples were determined using a multi-mycotoxin method based on isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the most frequently found mycotoxins were deoxynivalenol (DON) (97.2%), nivalenol (40.4%) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (33.4%), and mean contamination levels in positive samples were 86.7, 3.55 and 3.34 µg kg(-1), respectively. The obtained data were further used to estimate the daily intake of the local population, and indicated that wheat flour consumption contributes little to DON exposure. However, with the aim to keep the contamination levels under control and to establish a more precise evaluation of the mycotoxin burden in Shandong Province, more sample data from different harvest years and seasons are needed in the future.

  3. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  4. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05. Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  5. Food group and micronutrient intake adequacy among children, adults and elderly women in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-03-11

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%-44.1% and 4.2%-7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  6. [Nuclear techniques in nutrition: assessment of body fat and intake of human milk in breast-fed infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallaro, Anabel; Tarducci, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The application of nuclear techniques in the area of nutrition is safe because they use stable isotopes. The deuterium dilution method is used in body composition and human milk intake analysis. It is a reference method for body fat and validates inexpensive tools because of its accuracy, simplicity of application in individuals and population and the background of its usefulness in adults and children as an evaluation tool in clinical and health programs. It is a non-invasive technique as it uses saliva, which facilitates the assessment in pediatric populations. Changes in body fat are associated with non-communicable diseases; moreover, normal weight individuals with high fat deposition were reported. Furthermore, this technique is the only accurate way to determine whether infants are exclusively breast-fed and validate conventional methods based on surveys to mothers.

  7. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided.

  8. Assessment of glycemic load and intake of carbohydrates in the diet of Wroclaw Medical University students (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Dorota; Kawicka, Anna; Konikowska, Klaudia; Salomon, Agnieszka; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Szuba, Andrzej; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    Glycemic Load (GL) is one of the indicators that can be used to assess the nutritional value of the diet. The results of numerous studies have shown that high glycemic index and/or high GL diets were associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate dietary GL, intake of food products which are source of carbohydrates and contribution of particular carbohydrates in students' diets. The study group consisted of 140 female students from Wroclaw (Poland) aged 21±1.6 years. The dietary assessment was performed using food frequency-questionnaire. The GL of daily food ration (DFR) was considered low for values 120 g. The mean GL of the diets was 120.7±42 g. DFR of 12.1% of the students had low GL, 46.6% - medium, and 39.3% - high. Diets in the 4th quartile of GL were characterized by the highest energy value, total carbohydrate, sucrose, starch and fiber content and energy contribution from carbohydrates when compared with lower quartiles. Higher percentage of energy from protein and fats in the diets was related with lower dietary GL. The highest correlation coefficient between GL and weight of the consumed food was observed for sweets (r=0.67), cereal products (r=0.52), juices and sweetened beverages (r=0.50), vegetables (r=0.45) and fruits (r=0.44). In the study, cereal products, fruits, sweets, vegetables and juices and sweetened beverages consumed by the female subjects constituted respectively 26.6%, 12.8%, 11.4%, 9.1% and 8.8% of the total dietary GL. Lower dietary GL in the female students participating in the study can be achieved by limiting the intake of sweets and sweet beverages as well as consuming cereal products with a low GI. glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, students, diet.

  9. [Assessment of stimulant use especially caffeine intake in selected group of the breastfeeding women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pituch, Aleksandra; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Zdanowski, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Taking into account the negative impact of stimulants, including alcohol, nicotine and excessive consumption of caffeine on the baby and his mother, a very important is to stop or to restrict their use, especially during pregnancy and lactation. Purpose of the study was to evaluate alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, tobacco smoke exposure and caffeine consumption in breastfeeding women from Masovian Province. The survey was conducted from September 2010 till March 2011. The study group consisted of 102 breastfeeding women aged 19-38 years. Information on alcohol consumption, smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke was obtained by questionnaire interview. The results about caffeine intake were obtained using 3-day dietary records method and food frequency questionnaire method. Source of information about the caffeine content in products were the published literature, in the case of energy drinks the manufacturer's label. Among all women surveyed (n = 102), up 17% of respondents declared alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking of 6% and 15% of passive exposure to tobacco smoke. The average caffeine consumption in a group called "caffeine consumers" (n = 94) was 127.4 +/- 76.0 mg/person/day for 3-day dietary records method and 163.4 +/- 100.6 mg/person/day for the food frequency questionnaire method. The correlation coefficient between the used methods was r = 0.71 (p caffeine, regardless of the method of data collection were: black tea, which provided about 60% of caffeine and ground coffee (about 20%) and instant coffee (about 13%). Despite general knowledge about the harmful effects of smoking cigarette/tobacco smoke exposure and the consumption of alcohol and foods high in caffeine, some respondents did not halt the use of these stimulants during lactation, indicating a need for an education in this field.

  10. Dietary intake of minerals in relation to depressive symptoms in Japanese employees: the Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Takako; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Kurotani, Kayo; Ito, Rie; Akter, Shamima; Kashino, Ikuko; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Kabe, Isamu; Kawakami, Norito; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Nanri, Akiko

    2015-05-01

    Although intake of minerals has been suggested to be beneficial against depression, epidemiologic data from free-living settings are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the cross-sectional associations between the intake of magnesium, calcium, iron, and zinc and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Japanese employees. Participants were 1792 men and 214 women ages 19 to 69 y. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Participants with depressive symptoms were defined as those with a scale score of ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 27.8%. Intakes of magnesium, calcium, iron, and zinc were inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having depressive symptoms were 0.63 (0.44-0.91), 0.64 (0.47-0.88), 0.59 (0.40-0.87), and 0.63 (0.45-0.87) in the highest versus lowest tertiles of magnesium, calcium, iron, and zinc, respectively. Results suggest that higher dietary intake of magnesium, calcium, iron, and zinc is associated with lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in Japanese employees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55–75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m2, and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student’s t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland–Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of −0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R2 = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  12. Calcium supplementation and prevention of preeclampsia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Dall'asta, Andrea; Gizzo, Salvatore; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Piantelli, Giovanni; Jasonni, Valerio Maria; Modena, Alberto Bacchi

    2012-12-01

    Since the early 1980s, epidemiological evidence has suggested a connection between low calcium intake and preeclampsia The purpose of this meta-analysis is to summarize current evidence regarding calcium supplementation during pregnancy in predicting preeclampsia and associated maternal-fetal complications. Literature revision of all RCT (random allocation of calcium versus placebo) available in MEDLINE/PUBMED up to 2/29/2012 regarding calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing preeclampsia. We used the Mantel-Haenszel's Method for four subgroup of patients: Adequate calcium intake; Low calcium intake; Low risk of preeclampsia; High risk of preeclampsia. We considered p prevention of preeclampsia, (2) other/adverse/long-term effects of calcium supplementation in pregnancy. Preeclampsia is likely to be a multifactorial disease. However, inadequate calcium intake represents a factor associated with an increased incidence of hypertensive disease. The results of our meta-analysis demonstrate that the additional intake of calcium during pregnancy is an effective measure to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia, especially in populations at high risk of preeclampsia due to ethnicity, gender, age, high BMI and in those with low baseline calcium intake.

  13. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if

  14. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7-12 years. A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that ethnic children aged 7-12 years in Malaysia.

  15. Development and validation of two food portion photograph books to assess dietary intake among adults and children in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amougou, Norbert; Cohen, Emmanuel; Mbala, Marie L; Grosdidier, Basile; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2016-03-14

    Owing to nutritional transition in Cameroon, one in two adults is overweight and one in five is obese, and 8·1% of children are overweight and 2·1% are obese. Given this phenomenon, dietary intake assessment is needed to establish appropriate preventive nutrition-sensitive strategies. Our aim was to develop and test the validity of two food portion photograph books (FPPB) to be used as visual aids for adults and children taking part in a 24-h dietary recall. To design FPPB, interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with women to obtain consensus on the local categorisation of foods. For each cooked and weighed food, three photographs of the average small, medium and large serving portion sizes were taken, and four intermediary portion sizes were calculated. To validate the FPPB, a sample of adults (361) and children (224) were asked, at meal times, to self-serve a food portion prepared in the household and the portion sizes were weighed; 24 h after the measurement, the same subjects were shown the appropriate FPPB and were asked to indicate the food and the portion they consumed. In adults, of the 821 portions tested, 77% were accurately estimated, whereas in children 74% of the 556 portions tested were accurately estimated. For both groups, the small- and medium-sized portions were frequently selected and accurately estimated (>70%). Our findings suggest that the adult and children's FPPB can be used in Cameroon to estimate food portion sizes, and thus nutritional intake in the frame of the 24-h dietary recall.

  16. A critical assessment of some biomarker approaches linked with dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crews, H.; Alink, G.; Andersen, R.; Braesco, V.; Holst, B.; Maiani, G.; Ovesen, L.; Scotter, M.; Solfrizzo, M.; Berg, R. van den; Verhagen, H.; Williamson, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this review many examples are given of the complexities involved in using some biomarkers in relation to assessing the effects of dietary exposure, when there is frequently a need to determine changes following long-term low level exposure to dietary components. These range from understanding why

  17. Avaliação da ingestão de nutrientes de crianças de uma creche filantrópica: aplicação do Consumo Dietético de Referência Assessment of nutrients intake of children in a charity daycare center: application of Dietary Reference Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Moreira Sampaio Barbosa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar a adequação aparente da ingestão dos nutrientes utilizando os valores de referência "Consumo Dietético de Referência" (Dietary Reference Intake-DRIs de 35 crianças de uma creche filantrópica, em dois momentos, no ato da matrícula (momento 1 e após seis meses de freqüência na creche (momento 2. MÉTODOS: A avaliação sócio-demográfica foi realizada através de questionário abordando renda, escolaridade, condições de moradia e saneamento básico. Para avaliação do consumo alimentar, no ato da matrícula, a história dietética foi determinada em entrevista com o responsável, com o propósito de obter informações sobre consumo habitual da criança na sua residência. Após o período de seis meses foi utilizado o método de pesagem direta de alimentos (na creche complementando com o consumo alimentar da criança na residência. A análise dos nutrientes como proteínas, ferro, cálcio e vitamina C, além das fibras alimentares, foi realizada através um programa computacional. Para comparar a adequação dos nutrientes nos dois momentos do estudo utilizou-se o teste t de Student para dados pareados (p OBJECTIVES: to compare nutrients intake apparent adequacy through reference values of Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs of 35 children of a charity daycare center in two instances, when they enrolled (instance 1 and six months after (instance 2. METHODS: socio-demographic assessment was performed through a questionnaire collecting information pertaining to income, school level, living conditions and basic sanitation. To assess food consumption at enrollment, dietary history was informed through an interview with the parent, family member or guardian on the usual intake of the child at home. Following a six month period the weighed food record method (in the daycare center was performed complemented by the food intake of the child at home. Nutrient analysis such as proteins, iron, calcium and vitamin C in

  18. Assessment of postcrumble addition of limestone and calcium-specific appetite in broilers during the starter phase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Angel, R.; Kim, S.-W.; Jiménez-Moreno, E.; Proszkowiec-Weglarz, M.; Iglesias, B. F.; Wilkinson, S. J.; Cowieson, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    A study was done to determine whether broilers can regulate Ca intake when limestone is provided separately or mixed with a crumbled feed of variable Ca and P content, and the influence of this on performance and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of Ca and P (AIDP). Twelve crumbled diets were fed from 10 to 20 d of age (8 replicates, 8 broilers/replicate). Diets A to D contained 0.28% nonphytate P (nPP) and 0.27, 0.51, 0.77, and 1.02% Ca, respectively. Diets E to H contained 0.48% nPP and 0.41, 0.51, 0.77, and 1.02% Ca, respectively. A large particle size limestone was mixed manually to the crumbled diet on a daily basis to achieve 1.02% total Ca in diets A to H. Diets I to L had the same Ca and nPP as diets A to D, but limestone was provided in a separate feeder to assess spatial importance of limestone supply. Limestone consumption, provided in a separate feeder, decreased as Ca concentration increased in the crumble diet (P limestone was added to diets containing 0.28% nPP postcrumble, Ca intake (6.38 g/bird), tibia ash (717 mg/bone), and AIDP (39.78%) were not affected by crumbled diet Ca concentration or consumed Ca. Broilers fed diets containing 0.48% nPP and limestone mixed with the crumble, Ca intake changed (5.96, 6.93, 6.59, and 6.04 g/bird for crumble diet with 0.41, 0.51, 0.77, and 1.02% Ca, respectively). Increasing Ca concentration in the crumble from 0.41 to 1.02% resulted in greater tibia ash (875 mg/bone) but lower AIDP (P limestone was provided ad libitum, the ability of broilers to select for Ca was not sufficient to meet their requirement when crumble Ca was less than 0.77%. The AIDP was highest in birds fed the 0.27% Ca concentration diet. PMID:25085931