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Sample records for assessing calcium intake

  1. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

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    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  2. [Calcium intake and glucose and lipids concetrations in overweight and obese patients].

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    Pachocka, Lucyna M; Nowak, Agnieszka; Targosz, Urszula; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina; Stolarska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    Well-balanced diet is one of the determinants of the health and wellbeing. Inadequate nutrients' intake can promote disease development. The purpose of this study was to assess the intake of calcium, phosphorus and protein and relation between calcium intake and lipids and glucose serum concentration in patients with obesity. The studied group consisted of 57 subjects, aged 21-63 years. Dietary assessment was based on 3-d dietary record. Serum lipids concentrations were assessed by enzymatic methods, serum calcium concentrations were assessed by Vitros 250. The mean calcium intake in men was 588.8 mg/d, in women 549.3 mg/d. Calcium intake was statistically significant correlated with glucose concentration in women and men, but not with lipids concentrations. Dietary calcium intake in studied group was below the RDA. Calcium intake could be one of determinants of glucose concentration in obese persons.

  3. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

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    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  4. Assessment of intake of calcium and vitamin D and sun exposure in the context of osteoporosis risk in a study conducted on perimenopausal women

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    Anna Kopiczko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The results of many epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease and develops mainly in women during menopause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diet with particular emphasis on calcium and vitamin D intake and sun exposure in premenopausal women in terms of risk of osteoporosis. Material and methods : The study involved 300 women aged 45-55 years from Warsaw. The method used was a questionnaire assessing the frequency of consumption from the last three months. Exposure to the sun evaluated using a questionnaire prepared in cooperation with the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw. For the purpose of the project, profiles of attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis were developed. Results : Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D among the majority of women surveyed was confirmed. The highest percentage of women represented profile VIII: attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis, characterized by insufficient exposure to sunlight and a diet deficient in both calcium and vitamin D. Conclusions: In the diets of women surveyed significant deficiencies of calcium and vitamin D were found, which confirms previous reports on the lack of nutritional support for normal women’s bone mineralization. Among the surveyed women the majority reported insufficient exposure to sunlight as a source of vitamin D additional to food. There is a need for health education of these women in the prevention of osteoporosis and especially paying attention to the proper intake of calcium and more vitamin D in their diet. At the same time, adequate exposure to the sun is vital as it is the main source of vitamin D for the body coming not from the food consumed.

  5. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: The Framingham Study

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    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification...

  6. Calcium intake and calcium deficiency in toddlers in a slum population of Bhubaneswar

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    Sonali Kar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When considering their children's nutrition, parents often think more about fat grams, carbs, and calories, and forget about calcium, a mineral that is important to help build strong and healthy bones and collagen structures like teeth. The RDI recommendation for 1-3 years is minimum 400mg/day. Calcium is selectively present in milk and milk products besides vegetables like spinach and fruits like orange. The current study was undertaken in the urban field practice area of KIMS that caters to a slum population of nearly 20,000. Aims & Objectives: To assess the knowledge of mothers regarding calcium rich foods and its deficiency and their sociodemographic conditions; to assess the average intake of Calcium using the 7 day recall method; to find the prevalence of possible calcium deficiency in the study population ie 1-3 years of age. Methods: All the mothers with children in the age group 1-3 years were recruited in the study after due informed consent, the final sample being nearly 284. The male female child ratio was 56:44. Mostly women i.e. 83% had some formal education and out of the total nearly 65% had heard never heard of calcium and of those who had heard only 30% could say that milk was the best source of calcium. Result: Average daily Calcium intake was poor i.e. 288mg/d which was worse for the female child 233mg/d. Teeth eruption defects or infections and bone deformities were taken as a proxy for calcium deficiency and were detected in 69.2% and 32% respectively. Diarrhea and skin infections were more in those whose calcium intake was less than 220mg/d which was mildly significant. Conclusion: The study suggests more emphasis on dietary calcium intake and probably recommend calcium supplements for the socioeconomically compromised class who probably cannot afford dietary sources of calcium

  7. Calcium intake and cows' milk free diets.

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    Devlin, J; Stanton, R H; David, T J

    1989-01-01

    In children with atopic eczema on elimination diets, the calcium intake was below the estimated requirement in 15 out of 20 who avoided cows' milk and received no milk substitute, and in three out of 26 who avoided cows' milk but were provided with a soya or casein hydrolysate formula.

  8. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia

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    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. Scope A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Findings Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Conclusion Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance. PMID:28182142

  9. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

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    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs and adequate intake (AI values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006. Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032. When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086 and fluorine (p = 0.503. These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  10. First quantification of calcium intake from calcium-dense dairy products in Dutch fracture patients (the Delft cohort study).

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    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M M; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2014-06-23

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  11. Association between calcium intake, parathormone levels and blood pressure during pregnancy

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    Anibal Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the association between calcium intake from diet, calciotropic hormones (PTH, PTH-rp, vasoactive regulators (endothelin, nitric oxide and blood pressure levels during pregnancy, birth and puerperium.Method: In a prospective study 149 healthy normotensive primigravidas were followed-up from 15 weeks of gestation to puerperium. Daily calcium intake, calciuria, PTH, PTH-rp, endothelin, nitrite-nitrate, and Holter Test were assessed. Linear regression models were performed to evaluate the association between calcium intake, blood pressure levels and the laboratory tests. Multivariate regression models were performed to control potential confounders.Results: A significant increase of calcium intake during pregnancy was observed (931±301 mg/day to 1,195±467 mg/day, p<0.001. Plasma PTH-rp, endothelin, and nitrite-nitrate levels did not change during pregnancy. Among the women 38 (25.4% had low calcium intake (<800 mg/day with a larger increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure during pregnancy (p=0.04 birth (p=0.006 and puerperium (p=0.01. After adjusting for other factors the multivariate analyses showed statistical association between low calcium intake, high parathormone levels and high systolic blood pressure levels during pregnancy (p=0.002.Conclusion: Low calcium intake during pregnancy is associated with a larger increase of systolic blood pressure and high parathormone levels.

  12. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

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    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...... were tested in 18 subjects according to a randomized crossover design. The test meals contained high (HC meal: 172 mg/MJ), medium (MC meal: 84 mg/MJ), or low (LC meal: 15 mg/MJ) amounts of calcium from dairy products or a high amount of calcium given as a calcium carbonate supplement (Suppl meal: 183...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...

  13. Calcium intake and prostate cancer among African Americans: effect modification by vitamin D receptor calcium absorption genotype.

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    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    High dietary intake of calcium has been classified as a probable cause of prostate cancer, although the mechanism underlying the association between dietary calcium and prostate cancer risk is unclear. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key regulator of calcium absorption. In the small intestine, VDR expression is regulated by the CDX-2 transcription factor, which binds a polymorphic site in the VDR gene promoter. We examined VDR Cdx2 genotype and calcium intake, assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, in 533 African-American prostate cancer cases (256 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 277 with localized stage) and 250 African-American controls who participated in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study. We examined the effects of genotype, calcium intake, and diet-gene interactions by conditional logistic regression. Compared with men in the lowest quartile of calcium intake, men in the highest quartile had an approximately twofold increased risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40, 3.46), with a significant dose-response. Poor absorbers of calcium (VDR Cdx2 GG genotype) had a significantly lower risk of advanced prostate cancer (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.90). The gene-calcium interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Among men with calcium intake below the median (680 mg/day), carriers of the G allele had an approximately 50% decreased risk compared with men with the AA genotype. These findings suggest a link between prostate cancer risk and high intestinal absorption of calcium.

  14. Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

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    Abbas, S.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Peeters, P.H.; Engel, P.; Brustad, M.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European

  15. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

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    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  16. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

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    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-07-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested /sup 47/Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003), and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation.

  17. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

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    Gábor Speer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665±7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P=0.045, whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P=0.041, but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558±6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r=0.024, P=0.049, but not with femur BMD (r=0.021, P=0.107. The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients.

  18. Effectiveness of a theory-driven nutritional education program in improving calcium intake among older Mauritian adults.

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    Bhurosy, Trishnee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low calcium intake, a risk factor of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures, has been previously reported among post-menopausal women in Mauritius. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention in improving the calcium intake, self-efficacy, and knowledge of older Mauritians. Methodology. The study was conducted as a pre- and post-test design which was evaluated through a baseline, immediate postintervention, and 2-month follow-up assessments. Participants were adults (n = 189) aged ≥40 years old from 2 urban community-based centres. The intervention group (IG) (n = 98) participated in 6 weekly interactive lessons based on the health belief model (HBM). The main outcome measures were calcium intake, HB scale scores, knowledge scores, and physical activity level (PAL). Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. Results. The IG significantly increased its baseline calcium intake, knowledge and self-efficacy (P adults when compared to the CG (P older community-based Mauritian adults.

  19. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

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    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  20. Calcium intake and serum concentration in relation to risk of cardiovascular death in NHANES III.

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    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular death remains controversial. By assessing dietary intake, use of supplements, and serum levels of calcium, we aimed to disentangle this link in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. METHODS: Mortality linkage of NHANES III to death certificate data for those aged 17 years or older (n = 20,024 was used to estimate risk of overall cardiovascular death as well as death from ischemic heart disease (IHD, acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure (HF, and cerebrovascular disease (CD with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: About 10.0% of the population died of cardiovascular disease and the majority (5.4% died of IHD. There was increased risk of overall CVD death for those in the bottom 5% of serum calcium compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.03-2.22. For women there was a statistically significant increased risk of IHD death for those with serum calcium levels in the top 5% compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.72 (95%CI: 1.13-2.61, whereas in men, low serum calcium was related to increased IHD mortality (HR: 2.32 (95% CI 1.14-3.01, Pinteraction: 0.306. No clear association with CVD death was observed for dietary or supplemental calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium as assessed by serum concentrations is involved in cardiovascular health, though differential effects by sex may exist. No clear evidence was found for an association between dietary or supplementary intake of calcium and cardiovascular death.

  1. Phytate intake and molar ratios of phytate to zinc, iron and calcium in the diets of people in China

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    Ma, G.; Li, Y.; Jin, Y.; Zhai, F.; Kok, F.J.; Yang, X.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the phytate intake and molar ratios of phytate to calcium, iron and zinc in the diets of people in China. Design: 2002 China Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey is a cross-sectional nationwide representative survey on nutrition and health. The information on dietary intakes w

  2. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets.

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    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-11-01

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption.

  3. Effect of dietary calcium intake on its retention by caged broiler breeder hens

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    John Cassius Moreki,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important mineral in bone development and egg shell formation of broiler breeder hens. A study was undertaken to further examine the effect of dietary calcium intake on calcium retention of broiler breeder hens and to investigate the relationship between calcium retention and egg characteristics. Ninety broiler breeder hens were obtained from a previous study and allocated to three dietary treatments, 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% calcium level. Feeds were isocaloric and isonitrogenous but differed only in calcium and phosphorus contents. Birds were fed and caged individually with metal trays placed below cages for excreta collection. Excreta samples (30 birds per treatment were collected for calcium and phosphorus determinations during a 7-day period at 3-weekly intervals, i.e., 27, 33, 36 and 42 weeks of age. Other parameters measured included calcium intake of hens, hen day production, egg mass, egg weight, shell weight, shell percentage, shell thickness, egg surface area, shell weight per unit surface area, total calcium retention, shell calcium excretion, shell calcium as a percentage of calcium intake and faecal calcium as percentage of calcium intake. These results showed that dietary calcium level had significant (P<.0001 effect on calcium intake and retention. Dietary calcium level had significant effect on all parameters except egg weight and shell calcium excretion as a percentage of calcium intake. Calcium retention of hens was correlated with age, calcium intake and eggshell characteristics. Age was significantly correlated with all traits except daily calcium intake, calcium retention and shell percentage. The net effect of calcium intake and total calcium excretion was that the 2.5% calcium level (3.8 g calcium /hen/day exhibit a significant (P<.05 higher calcium retention compared to 1.5% calcium level. This suggests that the calcium level of 2.5% and intake of 3.8 g/hen/day is adequate to support egg production, good shell

  4. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

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    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified...

  5. Intake of dairy calcium and tooth loss among Danish men and women

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    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Twetman, Svante; Christensen, Lisa B

    2011-01-01

    and 1988 through 1993 and 1994. Total calcium intake, estimated by a 7-d food record or a a diet history interview, was divided into dairy and non-dairy forms of calcium. RESULTS: In men, a 10-fold increase in dairy calcium intake was significantly associated with a decreased risk of tooth loss (incidence...

  6. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

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    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  7. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. Scope A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent...

  8. Dietary patterns are associated with calcium and vitamin D intake in an adult Mexican population

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    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition research has traditionally promoted a nutrient-based approach; however, to evaluate population compliance with dietary recommendations, researchers have increasingly used dietary pattern analysis. Objective: To assess the relationship between dietary patterns and vitamin D and calcium intake in an adult Mexican population. Methods: We characterized the dietary patterns of 8,456 men and women aged 20-80 years who were participating in the Health Workers Cohort Study. Information on participants' sociodemographic conditions and physical activity was collected via self-administered questionnaires. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess diet. In a cross-sectional analysis, we examined dietary patterns in relation to vitamin D and calcium consumption. Results: Factor analysis revealed 3 major dietary patterns. Pattern 1, labeled as "prudent pattern", was characterized by high positive loads for the consumption of fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, whole grains, oils, and legumes. The second dietary pattern, named as "dairy and fish pattern", was positively correlated with intake of dairy foods, fish and other seafood, milk and whole grains. Finally, dietary pattern 3 was associated with higher intake of red meat, soft drinks, fats, eggs, white meat and alcoholic beverages. Of these, the "dairy and fish pattern" was positively and significantly associated with vitamin D and calcium consumption (r = 0.42, p < 0.001; and r = 0.20, p < 0.001 respectively. Conversely, the third dietary pattern was negatively associated with vitamin D and calcium intake (r = -0.28, p < 0.001; and r = -0.41, p < 0.001, respectively. Conclusions: In summary, our findings show that dietary patterns represented by high consumption of milk, dairy products, whole grains, fish are associated with higher consumption of vitamin D and calcium in Mexican adult population. Additionally, our results highlight the importance of following an appropriate

  9. Mineral Intake in Urban Pregnant Women from Base Diet, Fortified Foods, and Food Supplements: Focus on Calcium, Iron, and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai Xian; Han, Jun Hua; Li, Hu Zhong; Liang, Dong; Deng, Tao Tao; Chang, Su Ying

    2016-12-01

    In the Chinese national nutrition surveys, fortified foods were not investigated separately from the base diet, and the contribution of fortified foods to micronutrients intake is not very clear. This study investigated the diet, including fortified foods and food supplements, of urban pregnant women and analyzed the intake of calcium, iron, and zinc to assess the corresponding contributions of fortified foods, food supplements, and the base diet. The results demonstrated that the base diet was the major source of calcium, iron, and zinc, and was recommended to be the first choice for micronutrients intake. Furthermore, consumption of fortified foods and food supplements offered effective approaches to improve the dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc in Chinese urban pregnant women.

  10. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Laura E. Monnat; Rose, Angela M; Julie A. Kennel; Holloman, Christopher H.; Gail L. Kaye; Gunther, Carolyn W

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers) compared to those lacking access in...

  11. Influence of estrous and circadian cycles on calcium intake of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Anna; Tordoff, Michael G

    2013-03-15

    The food, water and sodium intake of laboratory rats fluctuates over the circadian and estrous cycles. Blood calcium and calcium-regulating hormones also wax and wane in response to these cycles, raising the possibility that the same might be true of calcium intake. To investigate this, we monitored the fluid intakes of female Long-Evans rats given a choice between water and 10mM CaCl2 solution for two consecutive estrous cycles. We found that calcium solution intake changed over the circadian cycle in a similar manner to water intake; the preference scores for CaCl2 solution remained stable. We did not detect any changes in calcium solution intake or preference scores during the estrous cycle despite a decrease in fluid intake at estrus. Thus, fluctuations in intake of calcium solution during the circadian cycle appear to be nonspecific and probably the result of changes in fluid balance. Estrous changes either do not influence calcium intake or their effects are masked by other factors, resulting in stable levels of calcium intake.

  12. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Keiko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41–50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Results Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose–response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend = 0.01. The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend = 0.07, 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend = 0.07, and 0.50 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend = 0.08, respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. Conclusion These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  13. Calcium intake in health maintenance – a systematic review

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    Kirsti Uusi-Rasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca is an essential nutrient for the human body. Despite lively research, there is uncertainty about Ca requirements in terms of desirable health outcomes including an upper intake level above which the potential for harm increases. Objectives: The aim was to conduct a review to update requirements and desirable or harmful health effects of Ca on the current scientific evidence. Methods: We searched Medline and Swemed from January 2000 to December 2011 and included all systematic reviews that reported Ca supplementation or usual Ca intake on health outcomes. Meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and cohort studies were included in the second search between May 2009 and March 2011 and an additional search covering studies till the end of 2011. This review concentrated on studies reporting independent effects of Ca, although a few recent trials report sole effects of Ca on health outcomes, most trials use Ca in combination with vitamin D vs. placebo. Results: In total, we reviewed 38 studies addressing the effects of Ca on bone, pregnancy-related outcomes, cancers, cardiovascular outcomes, obesity, and mortality. There was a lot of heterogeneity in the study protocols, which made it difficult to draw any strong conclusions. According to the literature, high Ca intake seems to have a small positive effect on bone mineral content (BMC or bone mineral density (BMD in children and postmenopausal women. We did not find any consistent evidence on the effects of Ca on bone health in premenopausal women or men. Also, the evidence that Ca supplementation reduces fracture incidence is scarce and inconsistent. Maternal diet may influence the peak bone mass of offspring but more studies are required. There was no overall effect of Ca intake on cancers. Ca was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer and a slightly increased risk of prostate cancer in two of the three studies. No associations were found with other cancers. We

  14. Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate calcium intake in Puerto Ricans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; Segarra, Adelaida; Trak, Maria Angélica; Colón, Ixian

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY The objective of the study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a short semi-quantitative calcium specific FFQ in a convenience Puerto Rican sample. Reproducibility was tested by the difference between calcium intakes from the FFQ completed twice, with a one month difference: validity was assessed against 6-day diet records (DR) in a sample of students, employees and faculty of the Medical Sciences Campus of the University of Puerto Rico. The statistical analyses performed were Pearson correlations, paired t-test. Bland-Altman plots, cross-classification analysis. Willett’s surrogate categories, specificity, sensitivity and predictive value. A total of 93 subjects were included in the study (mean age 28.8±10.1 years, BMI 25.7±6.1 kg/m2). Mean estimated calcium intakes were 846.4±356.9 mg/day for the first FFQ, 801.1±423.7 mg/day for the repeated FFQ and 845.4±377.5 mg/day for 6-day DR. No statistical difference was observed between the means by paired t-test (p>0.05), with significant correlations between means (p<0.05). The FFQ was found to have a specificity of 65.2%, a sensitivity of 73.5%, a positive predictive value of 86.2% and a negative predictive value of 45.5%. In conclusion, the short FFQ is a valid tool that could be used in the future to assess calcium intake in epidemiological surveys in this group. PMID:24617021

  15. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in mature human milk: influence of calcium intake, age and socioeconomic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítolo, M R; Valente Soares, L M; Carvalho, E B; Cardoso, C B

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations of calcium and magnesium were measured in mature milk, collected between 30 and 90 days after childbirth, from a group of 90 mothers between 14 and 39 years of age, exclusively breastfeeding. The group was divided into three sub-groups: low socioeconomic-level adolescents (LSAd), low socioeconomic-level adults (LSA), and high socioeconomic-level adults (HSA). Each mother's nutritional status was determined using the body-mass index (BMI) and her eating habits, obtained on the basis of a 24-h dietary recall. Adolescent and adult mothers in the low socioeconomic-level group had lower average calcium intake (LSAd = 618.4 +/- 555.2 mg and LSA = 679.4 +/- 411.4 mg) than adult mothers in the higher socioeconomic-level group (853.6 +/- 415.5 mg). The average concentration of calcium in the adolescent mothers' milk (LSAd) was significantly lower (5.30 +/- 1.42 mmol Ca/L, P = 0.01) than that of the two adult groups (LSA = 5.82 +/- 1.55 mmol Ca/L and HSA = 6.40 mmol Ca/L). The average magnesium concentrations for all groups did not show significant differences (LSAd = 1.06 +/- 0.18, LSA = 1.16 +/- 0.23 and HSA = 1.11 +/- 0.23 mmol Mg/L, for P= 0.16). These results indicate that magnesium concentrations in mature human milk do not seem to depend on maternal nutritional status. The condition of adolescence, however, associated with lower calcium intake by the mother, resulted in lower calcium concentrations in the milk secreted when compared to that of adult mothers.

  16. Assessment of Pre-Pregnancy Dietary Intake with a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Alberta Women

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    Stephanie M. Ramage

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pre-pregnancy is an under-examined and potentially important time to optimize dietary intake to support fetal growth and development as well as maternal health. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which dietary intake reported by non-pregnant women is similar to pre-pregnancy dietary intake reported by pregnant women using the same assessment tool. Methods: The self-administered, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was adapted from the Canadian version of the Diet History Questionnaire, originally developed by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Pregnant women (n = 98 completed the FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the year prior to pregnancy. Non-pregnant women (n = 103 completed the same FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the previous year. Energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients: long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D and iron were examined. Results: Dietary intake between groups; reported with the FFQ; was similar except for saturated fat; trans fat; calcium; and alcohol. Pregnant women reported significantly higher intakes of saturated fat; trans fat; and calcium and lower intake of alcohol in the year prior to pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women who reported intake in the previous year. Conclusions: Despite limitations; a FFQ may be used to assist with retrospective assessment of pre-pregnancy dietary intake.

  17. Theory-Driven Intervention Improves Calcium Intake, Osteoporosis Knowledge, and Self-Efficacy in Community-Dwelling Older Black Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, Oyinlola T.; Himburg, Susan P.; Newman, Frederick L.; Campa, Adriana; Dixon, Zisca

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an osteoporosis education program to improve calcium intake, knowledge, and self-efficacy in community-dwelling older Black adults. Design: Randomized repeated measures experimental design. Setting: Churches and community-based organizations. Participants: Men and women (n = 110) 50 years old and older…

  18. Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Intakes and Risk of Stroke in Male Smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, S.C.; Virtanen, M.J.; Mars, M.; Mannisto, S.; Pietinen, P.; Albanes, D.; Virtamo, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background A high intake of magnesium, calcium, and potassium and a low intake of sodium have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of stroke. However, prospective data relating intake of these minerals to risk of stroke are inconsistent. Methods We examined the relationship of dietary magnesium, cal

  19. PROVISION OF VITAMINS AND CALCIUM IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: ESTIMATION OF INTAKE AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS

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    V. N. Khodyrev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the actual intake of vitamins and calcium and their provision in rheumatoid arthritis (RA in the Middle Urals. Subjects and methods. The case-control method was used to form 150 pairs of RA patients aged 55.31±11.3 years. Their actual nutrition was studied from the frequency of food intake for a month, by applying a questionnaire. Based on the obtained food consumption data, the authors calculated the daily intake of vitamins A, B2, C, E, β-carotene, and calcium. The plasma levels of these factors were measured in 40% of the random patient sample and in 68 (45% control persons. A complete clinical examination included the evaluation of patients' general health and articular status, inflammatory activity assessment with DAS28, laboratory tests (general blood and urine analyses, estimation of the levels of transaminases, creatinine, electrolytes, C-reactive protein, and rheumatoid factor, and instrumental examination, involving electrocardiography and joint X-ray. Results and discussion. The study demonstrated that actual nutrition was depleted of vitamins A, C, and B2 in the patients with RA as compared to the controls. Inadequate provision of vitamin C, β-carotene, riboflavin, and calcium was found in RA. The inconsistency between the consumption of vitamins C, B2, and β-carotene and their plasma levels could suggest increased demands for these nutrients in RA. The findings should undergo detailed studies; first of all, this concerns the comparison of intake of the nutrients and their provision with the most important clinical characteristics of RA, such as duration, progression, activity, X-ray stage, and the presence of rheumatoid factor. The knowledge of these matters could, in our opinion, improve the results of therapy and prognosis in RA.

  20. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cro...

  1. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Monnat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers compared to those lacking access in their dormitory (non-milk vending consumers. Milk vending machines were installed in two dormitories, and two dormitories having non-milk beverage vending served as comparison sites. Students completed a calcium intake questionnaire at the point of milk (n = 73 or non-milk (n = 79 beverage vending purchases. Mean total calcium intake was higher in milk vending consumers (1245 + 543 mg/d compared to non-milk vending consumers (1042 + 447 mg/d (p = 0.01. Adjusting for gender and milk vending consumer status, there was a positive association between past month milk vending purchases and daily calcium intake from milk (p < 0.001. Fifty-seven students without in-dormitory access to milk vending reported an interest in milk vending if made available. Milk vending may serve as a novel approach for improving calcium intake in college students.

  2. Patterns of dietary calcium intake in south Indian rural, urban and metropolitan city subjects

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    Harinarayan CV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate dietary calcium intake favours bone mineral accrual. Sparse published data are available on dietary calcium intake of metropolitan city population from south India. Methods: We recorded the dietary intake of calcium and phytates of 524 healthy subjects from Bengaluru, a metropolitan city, by recalling the diet consumed in the previous 5 to 7 days and compared it with dietary intake of calcium of 325 healthy subjects from rural areas around Tirupati, and 508 healthy subjects from urban Tirupati. Results: The dietary calcium intake of the Tirupati rural subjects was the least compared to that of the urban and metropolitan city subjects. In the metropolitan and urban groups the diet was high in calories, milk, milk products and vegetables compared to rural subjects. Dietary calcium intake was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in the rural subjects compared to the urban and metropolitan city subjects. The dietary phytate were significantly different in both the rural, urban as well as the metropolitan city groups (p<0.0001. The dietary phytate/calcium ratio was significantly higher in rural subjects compared to urban and metropolitan city group (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Improving the quality of diet by reducing the phytate and enriching/supplementing with calcium will be of benefit for maintaining bone health.

  3. Dairy calcium intake and lifestyle risk factors for bone loss in hiv-infected and uninfected mediterranean subjects

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    Vecchi Valentina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the reported high prevalence of osteoporosis in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-population, there have been no previous studies examining dairy calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD in HIV-subjects. We assessed the prevalence of low BMD in HIV-infected and uninfected subjects and analyzed the effects of calcium intake, lifestyle and HIV-related risk factors on BMD. Methods One hundred and twelve HIV-infected subjects were consecutively enrolled. Seventy- six HIV-uninfected subjects matched for age and sex were enrolled as the control group. The HIV-subjects were interviewed about lifestyle habits and completed a weekly food-frequency questionnaire to estimate calcium intake. HIV-RNA, CD4+ T-cell count and data on antiretroviral therapy were also recorded. Both biochemical bone turnover markers and BMD, assessed by dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry (DXA were recorded in the HIV-cases and controls. We also calculated the 10-year fracture risks using the WHO FRAX equation. Results Osteoporosis prevalence was significantly higher in the HIV-cases than controls (p p p BMI values were significantly correlated with dairy intake quartiles (p p p p p p p Conclusions Among the foods rich in calcium, yogurt was a protective predictor of BMD in HIV-subjects. HIV/HCV co-infection, nadir CD4 + T-cell count

  4. Higher Dietary Acidity is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Iranian Women, Independent of Dietary Calcium Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati-Bafghi, Seyedeh-Elaheh; Nosrat-Mirshekarlou, Elaheh; Karamati, Mohsen; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Findings of studies on the link between dietary acid-base balance and bone mass are relatively mixed. We examined the association between dietary acid-base balance and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of Iranian women, hypothesizing that a higher dietary acidity would be inversely associated with BMD, even when dietary calcium intake is adequate. In this cross-sectional study, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs of 151 postmenopausal women aged 50-85 years were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Renal net acid excretion (RNAE), an estimate of acid-base balance, was then calculated indirectly from the diet using the formulae of Remer (based on dietary intakes of protein, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium; RNAERemer) and Frassetto (based on dietary intakes of protein and potassium; RNAEFrassetto), and was energy adjusted by the residual method. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable adjusted means of the lumbar spine BMD of women in the highest tertiles of RNAERemer and RNAEFrassetto were significantly lower than those in the lowest tertiles (for RNAERemer: mean difference -0.084 g/cm2; P=0.007 and for RNAEFrassetto: mean difference -0.088 g/cm2; P=0.004). Similar results were observed in a subgroup analysis of subjects with dietary calcium intake of >800 mg/day. In conclusion, a higher RNAE (i. e. more dietary acidity), which is associated with greater intake of acid-generating foods and lower intake of alkali-generating foods, may be involved in deteriorating the bone health of postmenopausal Iranian women, even in the context of adequate dietary calcium intake.

  5. Calcium, vitamin D, and dairy product intake and prostate cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Yi; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Stram, Daniel O; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2007-12-01

    High intakes of calcium and dairy products have been suggested to be related to prostate cancer risk. Such associations were examined in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (1993-2002) among 82,483 men who completed a detailed quantitative food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 8 years, 4,404 total cases of prostate cancer were identified. In Cox proportional hazards models, no association was found between calcium and vitamin D intake and total, advanced, or high-grade prostate cancer risk, whether for total intake, intake from foods, or intake from supplements, among all male participants or among nonusers of supplemental calcium. No association of calcium or vitamin D intake was seen across racial/ethnic groups. In analyses of food groups, dairy product and total milk consumption were not associated with prostate cancer risk. However, low-/nonfat milk was related to an increased risk and whole milk to a decreased risk of total prostate cancer; after stratification, these effects were limited to localized or low-grade tumors. Although the findings from this study do not support an association between the intakes of calcium and vitamin D and prostate cancer risk, they do suggest that an association with milk consumption may vary by fat content, particularly for early forms of this cancer.

  6. Quantitative analysis of efficacy and associated factors of calcium intake on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Xu, L; Lv, Y; Dong, L; Zheng, Q; Li, L

    2017-03-23

    A model-based meta-analysis method was performed to quantitatively analyze the efficacy characteristics of calcium intake in BMD increase among postmenopausal women. We found that age and calcium intake dose were key factors affecting the efficiency and onset of BMD change, and daily 1200 mg calcium was suggested to be a beneficial dosage.

  7. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  8. Initial amino acid intake influences phosphorus and calcium homeostasis in preterm infants--it is time to change the composition of the early parenteral nutrition.

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    Francesco Bonsante

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN, consisting of caloric and nitrogen intake soon after birth, is currently proposed for the premature baby. Some electrolyte disturbances, such as hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, considered unusual in early life, were recently described while using this PN approach. We hypothesize that, due to its impact on cell metabolism, the initial amino acid (AA amount may specifically influence the metabolism of phosphorus, and consequently of calcium. We aim to evaluate the influence of AA intake on calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and to create a calculation tool to estimate phosphorus needs. METHODS: Prospective observational study. Phosphate and calcium plasma concentrations and calcium balance were evaluated daily during the first week of life in very preterm infants, and their relationship with nutrition was studied. For this purpose, infants were divided into three groups: high, medium and low AA intake (HAA, MAA, LAA. A calculation formula to assess phosphorus needs was elaborated, with a theoretical model based on AA and calcium intake, and the cumulative deficit of phosphate intake was estimated. RESULTS: 154 infants were included. Hypophosphatemia (12.5% and hypercalcemia (9.8% were more frequent in the HAA than in the MAA (4.6% and 4.8% and in the LAA group (0% and 1.9%; both p<0.001. DISCUSSION: Calcium-phosphorus homeostasis was influenced by the early AA intake. We propose to consider phosphorus and calcium imbalances as being part of a syndrome, related to incomplete provision of nutrients after the abrupt discontinuation of the placental nutrition at birth (PI-ReFeeding syndrome. We provide a simple tool to calculate the optimal phosphate intake. The early introduction of AA in the PN soon after birth might be completed by an early intake of phosphorus, since AA and phosphorus are (along with potassium the main determinants of cellular growth.

  9. Modeling of the parathyroid hormone response after calcium intake in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Eun; Jeon, Sangil; Lee, Jongtae; Han, Seunghoon; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2014-06-01

    Plasma ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations are tightly regulated in the body and maintained within a narrow range; thus it is challenging to quantify calcium absorption under normal physiologic conditions. This study aimed to develop a mechanistic model for the parathyroid hormone (PTH) response after calcium intake and indirectly compare the difference in oral calcium absorption from PTH responses. PTH and Ca(2+) concentrations were collected from 24 subjects from a clinical trial performed to evaluate the safety and calcium absorption of Geumjin Thermal Water in comparison with calcium carbonate tablets in healthy subjects. Indirect response models (NONMEM Ver. 7.2.0) were fitted to observed Ca(2+) and PTH data, respectively, in a manner that absorbed but unobserved Ca(2+) inhibits the secretion of PTH. Without notable changes in Ca(2+) levels, PTH responses were modeled and used as a marker for the extent of calcium absorption.

  10. A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwalka, Neha J; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Mughal, M Zulf; Sayyad, Mehmood G; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Shirole, Shilpa C; Divate, Uma P; Bhandari, Dhanshari R

    2010-01-01

    Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adolescence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689-1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.

  11. O recordatório de 24 horas como instrumento na avaliação do consumo alimentar de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura The 24-hour recall for the assessment of dietary calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D intakes in stunted children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lopes Bueno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar em que medida o Recordatório Alimentar de 24 horas como instrumento de avaliação do consumo alimentar contribui para a avaliação de parâmetros biológicos envolvidos no metabolismo de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 59 crianças e adolescentes com baixa estatura do Ambulatório de Baixa Estatura do Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Causas orgânicas, genéticas e endócrinas de baixa estatura foram excluídas da avaliação. Foram dosados cálcio, fósforo, creatinina, vitamina D, paratormônio fosfatase alcalina no soro e cálcio, fósforo, creatinina e sódio em urina de Recordatório Alimentar de 24h foi empregado para estimar o consumo dietético. RESULTADOS: Foi constatada ingestão reduzida de cálcio e vitamina D, em relação ao recomendado para idade e sexo. Verificou-se correlação negativa entre paratormônio e vitamina D dietética (r= -0,46; pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify the extent to which the 24 hour recall, used as a tool to assess dietary intake, contributes to the assessment of biological parameters involved in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in stunted children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 59 stunted children and adolescents seen at the outpatient clinic that specializes in stunting of the Endocrinology Service of Hospital das Clínicas in Porto Alegre, were assessed. Organic, genetic and endocrine causes of stunting were excluded from the assessment. Serum calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, vitamin D, parathormone and alkaline phosphatase and urine calcium, phosphorus, creatinine and sodium were measured. The 24 hour recall was used to determine dietary intake of these nutrients. RESULTS: Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low according to the values recommended for the two genders and studied age groups. There was a negative correlation

  12. Impact of High Calcium Intake from Calcium Carbonate or Dairy on Cardiovascular Function, Coronary Artery Calcification and Coronary Artery Disease Burden in Ossabaw Miniature Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Alyssa K.

    2013-01-01

    Recent secondary analyses have associated supplemental calcium use with increased risk for myocardial infarction and cardiovascular-related death in healthy, older adults. Subsequent concern over the safety of calcium supplements has spurred a calcium controversy, because calcium is a shortfall essential nutrient that is critical for bone health and a mainstay of osteoporosis prevention and treatment. The proposed mechanism by which calcium intake may detriment cardiovascular health is throug...

  13. Calcium Intake and Body Composition in African-American Children and Adolescents at Risk for Overweight and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Tylavsky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of calcium intake on body composition in 186 African-American adolescents at risk for overweight and obesity. The average weight of 89.8 kg ± 23.6 (SD had a mean BMI z score of 2.2. Females with a calcium intake of < 314 mg/day had higher percent fat mass compared to those with the highest calcium intakes that were ≥ 634 mg/day. Compared to those with a low calcium intake (< 365 mg/day, those with the highest calcium intake of > 701 mg/day had higher intake of thiamin, folate, cobalamin, vitamin D, phosphorus, iron, zinc.

  14. Dietary calcium intake in a cohort of elderly patients already in drug therapy for osteoporosis. Is it possible and how to modify the eating habits before calcium supplementation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Manzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate intake of calcium via the diet is very common in patients taking drugs for osteoporosis. We have evaluated 302 consecutive elderly patients (68.6 median age attending our Rheumatological and Orthopedic Outpatient Clinics using a questionnaire for evaluation of dietary calcium intake. Two hundred and forty of these had a questionnaire score 7 in 205/240 after an average period of 3-6 months. In the 35 patients in which this was not possible, the exact knowledge of calcium dietary intake (poor or absent has allowed a tailored calcium supplementation.

  15. The relationship between habitual dietary phosphorus and calcium intake, and bone mineral density in young Japanese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sanae; Ishida, Hiromi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus and calcium are essential for bone health. There is a concern that a low calcium/phosphorus intake ratio resulting from low calcium intake coupled with high phosphorus intake may have a negative effect on bone mineral status, especially in Western countries. The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectionally the influence of habitual phosphorus and calcium intake and the calcium/phosphorus intake ratio on the bone mineral density (BMD) in 441 young Japanese women (aged 18-22) whose calcium/phosphorus intake ratio was assumed to be lower than young Western women. We also ascertained the relationship between dietary intake and serum or urinary measurements of phosphorus and calcium. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) were also examined for 214 of the 441 subjects. Phosphorus and calcium intake and the calcium/phosphorus intake ratio had significant positive correlations with urinary phosphorus. Calcium intake and the calcium/phosphorus intake ratio independently had positive and significant associations with BMD in the distal radius adjusted for postmenarcheal age, body mass index, and physical activity. There were no significant associations with BMD in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. These results indicate that in young Japanese women, phosphorus intake did not have a significantly negative effect on bone mineral density, and calcium intake and calcium/phosphorus intake ratio had a small but significant association only in a site-specific manner with BMD.

  16. Dairy products, calcium intake, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-Xia; Ho, Suzanne C; Fu, Jian-Hua; Cheng, Shou-Zhen; Chen, Yu-Ming; Lin, Fang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The results of dairy food consumption and breast cancer risk are conflicting, and their relationship has not previously been studied in China. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dairy products, calcium intake, and breast cancer risk among Chinese women. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted among Chinese women in the Guangdong province from June 2007 to August 2008. Four hundred and thirty-eight consecutively recruited cases with primary breast cancer were frequency-matched to 438 controls on age and residence. Dietary intake information was collected by interviewers using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression adjusted for various potential confounders. We observed a statistically significant inverse association of dietary calcium intake with breast cancer risk, with the adjusted OR (95% CI) of 0.35 (0.22-0.56) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. No significant association was found between dairy products measured either by dry weight of dairy product or dairy product protein intake and breast cancer risk. Our study supports a protective effect of high intake of dietary calcium on breast cancer risk, and no association with dairy product intake.

  17. Protein intake and calcium absorption – Potential role of the calcium sensor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary protein induces calcium excretion but the source of this calcium is unclear. Evidence from short-term studies indicates that protein promotes bone resorption, but many epidemiologic studies do not corroborate this. Evidence is also mixed on weather protein promotes calcium absorption. Stud...

  18. The influence of calcium intake and physical activity on bone mineral content and bone size in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Christian; Thomsen, B. Lykke; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents, Bone area, Bone minral content, Calcium intake, Children, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Physical activity, Size-adjusted......Adolescents, Bone area, Bone minral content, Calcium intake, Children, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Physical activity, Size-adjusted...

  19. Calcium intake is weakly but consistently negatively associated with iron status in girls and women in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Charzewska, J.; Rotily, M.; Charles, P.; Maggiolini, M.; Ando, S.; Väänänen. K.; Wajszczyk, B.; Heikkinen, J.; Deloraine, A.; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Several studies indicate that intake of calcium can inhibit iron absorption especially when taken simultaneously. In the CALEUR study, a cross-sectional study among girls (mean 13.5 y) and young women (mean 22.0 y) in six European countries, the association between calcium intake and iron status was

  20. Effect of maternal calcium intake during pregnancy on children's blood pressure: A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Aluisio JD

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium supplementation during pregnancy has been shown to reduce the incidence of hypertension in the mother, but the effects on the offspring are uncertain. Assessing the impact on the offspring is very important given the now large body of evidence indicating that blood pressure levels in childhood and young adulthood can be influenced by factors operating during fetal life. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to summarize the evidence supporting an association between maternal dietary calcium intake during pregnancy and blood pressure in the offspring. Methods A systematic review was performed to identify randomized, quasi-randomized and cohort studies reporting the relationship between offspring blood pressure or incidence of hypertension and levels of maternal dietary calcium intake during pregnancy, either from supplements (i.e. pills or food. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library Registry were searched for relevant trials. Results Two randomized trial and three observational studies were identified and included in this review. In 4 of the 5 studies, loss to follow-up was a serious concern. There was heterogeneity between the studies, particularly those conducted on children below 12 month of age. Results were more consistent among the studies including older children (1 to 9 years where a higher maternal calcium intake was associated with a reduction of -1.92 mm Hg (95% CI -3.14 to -0.71 in offspring systolic blood pressure. One large randomized trial found a clinically and statistically significant reduction in the incidence of hypertension in 7-year-old children (RR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.90. Conclusion There is evidence in the literature to support an association between maternal calcium intake during pregnancy and offspring blood pressure. However, more research is needed to confirm these finding given the small sample sizes and the methodological problems in many of the studies conducted so

  1. Rankings of iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in relation to maternal characteristics of pregnant Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Weiler, Hope A; Dubois, Lise; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Dodds, Linda; Massarelli, Isabelle; Vigneault, Michel; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D

    2016-07-01

    Iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in the prenatal period are important determinants of maternal and fetal health. The objective of this study was to examine iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes from diet and supplements in relation to maternal characteristics. Data were collected in a subsample of 1186 pregnant women from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a cohort study including pregnant women recruited from 10 Canadian sites between 2008 and 2011. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to obtain rankings of iron, calcium, and vitamin D intake (16-21 weeks of pregnancy). Intakes from supplements were obtained from a separate questionnaire (6-13 weeks of pregnancy). Women were divided into 2 groups according to the median total intake of each nutrient. Supplement intake was an important contributor to total iron intake (median 74%, interquartile range (IQR) 0%-81%) and total vitamin D intake (median 60%, IQR 0%-73%), while the opposite was observed for calcium (median 18%, IQR 0%-27%). Being born outside of Canada was significantly associated with lower total intakes of iron, vitamin D, and calcium (p ≤ 0.01 for all). Consistent positive indicators of supplement use (iron, vitamin D, and calcium) were maternal age over 30 years and holding a university degree. In conclusion, among Canadian women, the probability of having lower iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes is higher among those born outside Canada; supplement intake is a major contributor to total iron and vitamin D intakes; and higher education level and age over 30 years are associated with supplement intake.

  2. Initial Amino Acid Intake Influences Phosphorus and Calcium Homeostasis in Preterm Infants – It Is Time to Change the Composition of the Early Parenteral Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsante, Francesco; Iacobelli, Silvia; Latorre, Giuseppe; Rigo, Jacques; De Felice, Claudio; Robillard, Pierre Yves; Gouyon, Jean Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Background Early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN), consisting of caloric and nitrogen intake soon after birth, is currently proposed for the premature baby. Some electrolyte disturbances, such as hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, considered unusual in early life, were recently described while using this PN approach. We hypothesize that, due to its impact on cell metabolism, the initial amino acid (AA) amount may specifically influence the metabolism of phosphorus, and consequently of calcium. We aim to evaluate the influence of AA intake on calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and to create a calculation tool to estimate phosphorus needs. Methods Prospective observational study. Phosphate and calcium plasma concentrations and calcium balance were evaluated daily during the first week of life in very preterm infants, and their relationship with nutrition was studied. For this purpose, infants were divided into three groups: high, medium and low AA intake (HAA, MAA, LAA). A calculation formula to assess phosphorus needs was elaborated, with a theoretical model based on AA and calcium intake, and the cumulative deficit of phosphate intake was estimated. Results 154 infants were included. Hypophosphatemia (12.5%) and hypercalcemia (9.8%) were more frequent in the HAA than in the MAA (4.6% and 4.8%) and in the LAA group (0% and 1.9%); both pnutrition at birth (PI-ReFeeding syndrome). We provide a simple tool to calculate the optimal phosphate intake. The early introduction of AA in the PN soon after birth might be completed by an early intake of phosphorus, since AA and phosphorus are (along with potassium) the main determinants of cellular growth. PMID:23977367

  3. Dairy Product, Calcium Intake and Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Xu; Yao, Qinghua; Qin, Liqiang; Xu, Chao

    2016-02-15

    The effects of dairy products on human health have been studied for years. However, the relationship between dairy products as well as calcium intake and the risk of lung cancer is still inconclusive. A total of 32 studies regarding this association were identified from the PubMed and Web of Science databases through April 1, 2015, including 12 cohort studies and 20 case-control studies. After pooling the results of individual studies, the summary RRs (relative risks) of lung cancer for the highest versus lowest intake were 1.05 (95%CI: 0.84-1.31) and 1.08 (95%CI: 0.80-1.46) for total dairy products and milk, respectively. The results on the consumption of cheese, yogurt and low-fat milk were also negative, and the RRs for total and dietary calcium intakes were 0.99 (95%CI: 0.70-1.38) and 0.85 (95%CI: 0.63-1.13), respectively. After stratifying by potential confounders, the results remained consistent in most subgroup analyses. Our study indicates that intake of dairy products or calcium was not statistically associated with the risk of lung cancer. This negative finding provides a conclusive answer to the disease association issue based on current evidence, and suggests that further efforts should be made to find other nutritional risk factors for lung cancer.

  4. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Suriawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs. Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC.

  5. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriawati, A. A.; Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs). Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females) were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher) with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC. PMID:27783041

  6. Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Kelly Aparecida; Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Loureiro, Laís Monteiro Rodrigues; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; de Novaes, Juliana Farias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. DATA SOURCE: The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: ''children'' and ''calcium'' or ''children'' and ''vitamin D'' associated with the descriptors: ''obesity'', ''adiposity'' or ''body fat'' for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, as well as clinical trials, were included. Review articles or those that that have not addressed the association of interest were excluded. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight articles were part of this review, five of which were related to calcium and three to vitamin D. Most studies had a longitudinal design. The analyzed studies found an association between calcium intake and obesity, especially when age and sex were considered. Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D and measures of adiposity in children has been observed and this association was influenced by the sex of the patient and by the seasons of the year. CONCLUSIONS: The studies reviewed showed an association between calcium and vitamin D with childhood obesity. Considering the possible protective effect of these micronutrients in relation to childhood obesity, preventive public health actions should be designed, with emphasis on nutritional education. PMID:25890445

  7. Calcium/magnesium intake ratio, but not magnesium intake, interacts with genetic polymorphism in relation to colorectal neoplasia in a two-phase study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangzhu; Shrubsole, Martha J; Ness, Reid M; Hibler, Elizabeth A; Cai, Qiuyin; Long, Jirong; Chen, Zhi; Li, Guoliang; Jiang, Ming; Hou, Lifang; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Zhang, Bing; Smalley, Walter E; Edwards, Todd L; Giovannucci, Edward L; Zheng, Wei; Dai, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Some studies suggest that the calcium to magnesium ratio intakes modify the associations of calcium or magnesium with risk of colorectal adenoma, adenoma recurrence, and cancer. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a key role in the regulation of homeostasis for both calcium and magnesium. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in PTH and 13 other genes may modify the association between the calcium/magnesium intake ratio and colorectal neoplasia risk. We conducted a two-phase study including 1336 cases and 2891 controls from the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study. In Phase I, we identified 19 SNPs that significantly interacted with the calcium/magnesium intake ratio in adenoma risk. In Phase II, rs11022858 in PTH was replicated. In combined analysis of phases I and II, we found high calcium/magnesium intake ratio tended to be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal adenoma (P for trend, 0.040) among those who carried the TT genotype in rs11022858. In stratified analyses, calcium intake (≥ 1000 mg/d) was significantly associated with 64% reduced adenoma risk (OR = 0.36 (95% CI : 0.18-0.74)) among those homozygous for the minor allele (TT genotype) (P for trend, 0.012), but not associated with risk in other genotypes (CC/TC). Conversely, we found that highest magnesium intake was significantly associated with 27% reduced risk (OR = 0.73 (95% CI : 0.54-0.97)) of colorectal adenoma (P for trend, 0.026) among those who possessed the CC/TC genotypes, particularly among those with the TC genotype, whereas magnesium intake was not linked to risk among those with the TT genotype. These findings, if confirmed, will help for the development of personalized prevention strategies for colorectal cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Better knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in older people is associated with a higher serum vitamin D level and a higher daily dietary calcium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Oudshoorn (Christian); K.A. Hartholt (Klaas); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); E.M. Colin (Edgar); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional surv

  9. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  10. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS, DAIRY PRODUCTS AND CALCIUM INTAKES ON RISK FACTORS OF OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION IN FEMALE STUDENTS OF ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY OF DAMAVAND, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Rehmani Ghobadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand in Iran. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 280 healthy female university students aged between 18 to 24 years old who were selected randomly from the university students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran. Subjects completed an informed consent form, health history questionnaire; food questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intakes and physical activity questionnaire (Baecke. Result: The result shows that Increase in physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake with a decrease in BMI, and increase in BMD. Also results shows that there were significant negative correlations between the physical activity levels, diary product consumption, the calcium intake and risk factors of osteoporosis. Conclusions: Increased physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake is associated with an increase in BMD and a concomitant decrease in BMI. These findings suggest that population-level interventions to increase physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake would favorably impact bone and other health outcomes. Thus, dietary pattern coupled with higher education levels and greater physical activity favored bone health and osteoporosis prevention in middle school females.

  11. [Calcium intake and adiposity in adolescents aged 12-16 years in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Gabriela; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Bárbara; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio

    2013-06-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the association between calcium (Ca) intake and adiposity in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 125 adolescents 12 to 16 years. Ca intake was evaluated by 24-hour recall dietary surveys and food frequency consumption. Adiposity was measured by anthropometric methods and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The association between Ca intake and adiposity was identified by simple correlation and multivariate models adjusted to energy consumption, age, sex and menarche. Mean age of adolescents was 13.5 +/- 0.8 years. A negative correlation was identified between Ca intake and anthropometric indicators weight, skinfolds, body mass index, fat mass and percentage of fat (the latter two by BIA and only in women). Multivariate analysis, including energy consumption showed no association between Ca intake and adiposity. In conclusion, Ca consumption does not associate with adiposity in adolescents; multivariate models showed that energy intake and menarche are the variables that show a higher association with adiposity at this stage of life.

  12. Effect of supplementation with barley and calcium hydroxide on intake of Mediterranean shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Skobic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Maquis plant communities are one of the most varied vegetation types in the Mediterranean region and an important habitat for wild and domestic herbivores. Although the majority of these shrubs are nutritious, the secondary compounds are main impediments that reduce their forage value. In five experiments we determined the effect of supplementing goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley, and barley alone on intake of five dominant shrubs (Quercus ilex, Erica multiflora, Arbutus unedo, Viburnum tinus and Pistacia lentiscus of the Mediterranean maquis community. The combination of calcium hydroxide plus barley and barley alone increased utilization of all five investigated Mediterranean shrubs; therewith that intake of Arbutus unedo and Viburnum tinus was not statistically significant. Supplemented goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley or barley alone could be effective in controlling secondary compounds-rich Mediterranean shrubs where their abundance threatens biodiversity. This control can be facilitated by browsing dominant Mediterranean shrubs, which has been shown to be effective in managing Mediterranean maquis density. Calcium hydroxide and barley (energy enhance use of secondary compounds-containing plants, which may increase production of alternate forages and create a more diverse mix of plant species in the Mediterranean maquis plant community.

  13. Prenatal calcium and vitamin D intake, and bone mass in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Elizabeth M; Moon, Rebecca J; Dennison, Elaine M; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2014-06-01

    The aging population will result in an increasing burden of osteoporotic fractures, necessitating the identification of novel strategies for prevention. There is increasing recognition that factors in utero may influence bone mineral accrual, and, thus, osteoporosis risk. The role of calcium and vitamin D has received much attention in recent years, and in this review, we will survey available studies relating maternal calcium and vitamin D status during pregnancy to offspring bone development. The evidence base supporting a positive influence on intrauterine skeletal growth appears somewhat stronger for maternal 25(OH)-vitamin D concentration than for calcium intake, and the available data point toward the need for high-quality randomized controlled trials in order to inform public health policy. It is only with such a rigorous approach that it will be possible to delineate the optimal strategy for vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy in relation to offspring bone health.

  14. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p

  15. Effects of vitamin D deficiency and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Seung Joo; Koh, Yae Kyu; Heo, Jin Young; Lee, Jinae; Kim, Min Kyoung; Yun, Bo Hyon; Lee, Byung Seok

    2017-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the combined effects of vitamin D and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study consisting of 1,921 Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years without thyroid dysfunction, from the 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified into six groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and daily calcium intake. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at femur and at lumbar spine, and the serum vitamin D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results The BMD divided according to serum 25(OH)D and daily calcium intakes were not statistically different among the groups. However, when both daily calcium intake and serum 25(OH)D were not sufficient, risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis showed significant increase in both femur neck and lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR] 2.242, P=0.006; OR 3.044, P=0.001; respectively). Although daily calcium intake was sufficient, risks of osteopenia and osteoporosis significantly increased in lumbar spine group if serum 25(OH)D is <20 ng/mL (OR 2.993, P=0.006). Conclusion The combined effects of insufficient daily calcium intake and vitamin D deficiency may cause low BMD and increase in prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years. PMID:28217672

  16. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  17. Associations of dietary calcium intake with metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density among the Korean population: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Chon, S J; Noe, E B; Roh, Y H; Yun, B H; Cho, S; Choi, Y S; Lee, B S; Seo, S K

    2017-01-01

    Excessive amount of calcium intake increased risk for metabolic syndrome in men. However, modest amount decreased the risk of metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Modest amount of calcium also increased bone mineral density (BMD) in both men and postmenopausal women.

  18. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides improve magnesium absorption in adolescent girls with a low calcium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Brouns, F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Consumption of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) has been shown to improve mineral absorption in the short term, but no long-term effects were studied in girls with a low calcium intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that short- and long-term consumption of short-chain FOS (sc-FOS) improves calcium and mag

  19. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. Growth performance, skeletal health and intake arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, E J; Wilkinson, S J; Cronin, G M; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in broiler nutrition and skeletal health is highly complex with many factors influencing their digestion, absorption and utilisation. The use of an investigative model such as the geometric framework allows a graphical approach to explore these complex interactions. A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated to one of 15 dietary treatments with five replicates and eight birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were formulated to one of three total densities of total Ca+nPP; high (15 g/kg), medium (13.5 g/kg) and low (12 g/kg) and at each density there were five different ratios of Ca : nPP (4, 2.75, 2.1, 1.5 and 1.14 : 1). Weekly performance data was collected and at the end of the experiment birds were individually weighed and the right leg removed for tibia ash analysis. Skeletal health was assessed using the latency to lie (LTL) at day 27. At low Ca and high nPP as well as high Ca and low nPP diets, birds had reduced feed intake, BW gain, poorer feed efficiency and lower tibia ash, resulting in a significant interaction between dietary Ca and nPP (P<0.05). LTL times were negatively influenced by diets having either a broad ratio (high Ca, low nPP) or too narrow a ratio (low Ca, high nPP) indicating that shorter LTL times may be influenced by the ratio of Ca : nPP rather than absolute concentrations of either mineral. The calculated intake arrays show that broilers more closely regulate Ca intake than nPP intake. Broilers are willing to over consume nPP to defend a Ca intake target more so than they are willing to over consume Ca to defend an nPP target. Overall dietary nPP was more influential on performance metrics, however, from the data it may appear that birds prioritise Ca intake over nPP and broadly ate to meet this requirement. As broilers are more willing to eat to a Ca intake target rather than an nPP intake target, this emphasises the importance of formulating

  20. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Dias Batista

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Methods: Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and analyzed items were: total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium. The software used was Avanutri Online®. To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and pain threshold were used. Results: 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Conclusion: Women with FM showed a lower qualitatively and quantitatively intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain.

  1. Association of dietary calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium intake with caries status among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han-Shan; Lin, Jia-Rong; Hu, Suh-Woan; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between caries experience and daily intake of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), and Ca/P ratio. A total of 2248 schoolchildren were recruited based on a population-based survey. Each participant received a dental examination and questionnaire interviews about the 24-hour dietary recalls and food frequency. The daily intake of Ca, P, Mg, and Ca/P ratio were inversely associated with primary caries index, but only the Ca/P ratio remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. According to the Taiwanese Dietary Reference Intakes, the Ca/P ratio was related to both caries in primary teeth (odds ratio = 0.52, p = 0.02) and in permanent teeth (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.02). The daily intakes of Ca/P ratio remained an important factor for caries after considering potential confounding factors.

  2. Calcium intake is associated with decreased prevalence of periodontal disease in young Japanese women

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationships between calcium intake and the prevalence of periodontal disease. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1162 women with a mean age of 31.5 years. Information on dietary factors was collected using a diet history questionnaire during pregnancy. Oral examinations were performed between one and twelve months postpartum. Periodontal disease was defined as positive if a woman had at least one tooth with a pocket depth of 4.0 mm or deeper. Adjustme...

  3. Intake of phytate and its effect on the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) and calcium in Chinese preschool children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Sian; Liu Shengjie (Beijing Pediatric Research Inst. (China))

    1991-03-15

    A metabolic balance experiment of 2 periods was conducted. In period 1, foods were eaten as usual. Intakes of phytic acid, Zn and calcium were 538 {plus minus} 18 mg/day, 829 {plus minus} 0.4 mg/day and 341 {plus minus} 8 mg/day respectively. The molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn and calcium were 14 {plus minus} 2% and 29 {plus minus} 9%. According to the usual diet of children in rural areas of China, products of corn and soybean were added in period 2. Before period 2, subjects had been adapted to the diet for one week. Intakes of phytic acid, Zn and calcium were 826 {plus minus} 26 mg/day, 7.7 {plus minus} 0.16 mg/day and 343 {plus minus} 6 mg/day respectively. The molar ratios of phytic acid to Zn and calcium were 10.64 and 0.14. The absorption of Zn and calcium were 13 {plus minus} 2% and 16 {plus minus} 2%. In summary intake of Chinese children was 80% of US RDA and calcium was 43% of US RDA. The absorption of Zn and calcium were low. Phytic acid was one of the factors affecting the bioavailability of calcium while inhibitory effect of phytic acid could not be found on Zn absorption in current dietary condition of Chinese children.

  4. Calcium, magnesium and potassium intake and mortality in women with heart failure: the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Emily B; Shikany, James M; Ahmed, Ali; Snetselaar, Linda G; Martin, Lisa W; Curb, J David; Lewis, Cora E

    2013-07-14

    Although diet is thought to affect the natural history of heart failure (HF), nutrient intake in HF patients has not been well studied. Based on prior research linking high intake of Ca, Mg and K to improved cardiovascular health, we hypothesised that these nutrients would be inversely associated with mortality in people with HF. Of the 161 808 participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), we studied 3340 who experienced a HF hospitalisation. These participants were followed for post-hospitalisation all-cause mortality. Intake was assessed using questionnaires on food and supplement intake. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics, physical function, co-morbidities and dietary covariates. Over a median of 4·6 years of follow-up, 1433 (42·9 %) of the women died. HR across quartiles of dietary Ca intake were 1·00 (referent), 0·86 (95 % CI 0·73, 1·00), 0·88 (95 % CI 0·75, 1·04) and 0·92 (95 % CI 0·76, 1·11) (P for trend = 0·63). Corresponding HR were 1·00 (referent), 0·86 (95 % CI 0·71, 1·04), 0·88 (95 % CI 0·69, 1·11) and 0·84 (95 % CI 0·63, 1·12) (P for trend = 0·29), across quartiles of dietary Mg intake, and 1·00 (referent), 1·20 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·43), 1·06 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·32) and 1·16 (95 % CI 0·90, 1·51) (P for trend = 0·35), across quartiles of dietary K intake. Results were similar when total (dietary plus supplemental) nutrient intakes were examined. In summary, among WHI participants with incident HF hospitalisation, intakes of Ca, Mg and K were not significantly associated with subsequent mortality.

  5. Lactase gene c/t(-13910) polymorphism, calcium intake, and pQCT bone traits in Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Sanna; Laaksonen, Marika; Mikkilä, Vera; Sievänen, Harri; Mononen, Nina; Räsänen, Leena; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho J

    2011-02-01

    Genetic lactase nonpersistence may influence calcium intake and thereby bone health. We investigated in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finn Study whether young adults aged 31-46 years with the C/C(-13910) genotype are more susceptible to reduced bone phenotypes, low-energy fractures, and low calcium intake than subjects with other lactase genotypes. We also analyzed the gene-environment interactions on bone with calcium intake and physical activity. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography bone traits were measured from the distal and shaft sites of the radius and tibia. The total number of those subjects whose nondominant forearm was measured and the lactase genotype was defined was 1551. Information on diet, lifestyle factors, and fractures was collected with questionnaires. The mean intake of calcium was the lowest in men with the C/C(-13910) genotype (P = 0.001). Men with the T/T(-13910) genotype had ~3% higher trabecular density at the distal radius and distal tibia compared to other lactase genotypes (P = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). In women, we found no evidence of the gene effect at the radius and tibia. No major interactions of the C/T(-13910) polymorphism with calcium intake or physical activity on bone phenotypes were found in either sex. In conclusion, the C/T(-13910) polymorphism was associated with trabecular density at the distal radius and tibia in men. These differences may be due to the differences in calcium intake between the lactase genotypes.

  6. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g....../d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same...... study of DANHES 2007-2008. RESULTS: Intakes of Ca within recommendations (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.58, 0.99), whey ≥9.6 g/d (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) and casein ≥32 g/d (OR=0.75 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) were associated with lower likelihood of severe periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education...

  7. Dietary calcium intake, serum copper concentration and bone density in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strause, L.; Andon, M.B.; Howard, G.; Smith, K.T.; Saltman, P. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States) Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Data from experimental animal nutrition and animal husbandry indicate that several trace minerals, including copper (Cu) are involved in bone metabolism. In addition, a large body of data suggests that low dietary calcium (Ca) intake is a risk factor for age related bone loss. The authors measured the serum (Cu), dietary Ca intake (dCa) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine of 225 postmenopausal women. The median dCa and serum (Cu) were 562 mg/d and 9.73 umoles/L, respectively. Serum (Cu) but, not dCa, was greater in subjects with a history of estrogen therapy (ERT). BMD was higher in subjects with above median dCa and serum (Cu) (group 1) compared to those with below median values (group 2). BMD was intermediate for subjects with either Low serum (Cu):High dCa or High serum (Cu):Low dCa. This relationship was observed in the subject group as a whole, as well as in subgroups partitioned according to history of ERT. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in basic demographic characteristics such as age, age at menopause, body weight and height. These data support the hypothesis that Ca and Cu nutriture are determinants of skeletal health in postmenopausal women.

  8. Estimated intake and food sources of vitamin A, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium, iron, and zinc for Guamanian children aged 9 to 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobocik, Rebecca S; Richer, Jennifer J

    2002-09-01

    This study describes the nutrient intake and food sources of select vitamins and minerals for children on Guam. Food records (n = 954) from public school students aged nine to twelve of all regions on Guam were analyzed for nutrient content and compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). Individual foods were condensed into 194 food aggregates and food lists representing 84% to 91% of the major vitamins and minerals in the diet of the children were developed by frequency analysis. Median intake of calcium, vitamin E, folate were less than 50% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and mean intake of these nutrients was 60% RDA or less. Mean and median vitamin A intake was 107% and 76% RDA, respectively. Both mean and median intake of Vitamin C, iron and zinc were present at levels above 100% RDA. Rice, meat, fruit drink from powder, milk, and fortified cereals are foods that provide substantial contributions to the vitamin and mineral content of the diets. Traditional, nutrient dense foods, such as fish, yams, papaya, and mango had minor contributions because of low frequently of consumption. Information from this study can be used to develop specific diet assessment instruments and culturally appropriate nutrition education.

  9. Parents' Calcium Knowledge Is Associated with Parental Practices to Promote Calcium Intake among Parents of Early Adolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Carolyn W.; Rose, Angela M.; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Reicks, Marla; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Boushey, Carol J.; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here aimed to identify the relationship of parents' calcium knowledge with diet-related parental practices and determinants of calcium knowledge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted measuring parental practices, calcium knowledge, and demographics. A convenience sample of 599 racially/ethnically diverse parents of children…

  10. Estradiol valerate and alcohol intake: dose-response assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirarte, Gina L; Reid, Larry D; de la Teja, I Sofía Ledesma; Reid, Meta L; Sánchez, Marco A; Díaz-Trujillo, Arnulfo; Aguilar-Vazquez, Azucena; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A

    2007-01-01

    Background An injection of estradiol valerate (EV) provides estradiol for a prolonged period. Recent research indicates that a single 2.0 mg injection of EV modifies a female rat's appetite for alcoholic beverages. This research extends the initial research by assessing 8 doses of EV (from .001 to 2.0 mg/female rat), as well assessing the effects of 2.0 mg EV in females with ovariectomies. Results With the administration of EV, there was a dose-related loss of bodyweight reaching the maximum loss, when it occurred, at about 4 days after injections. Subsequently, rats returned to gaining weight regularly. Of the doses tested, only the 2.0 mg dose produced a consistent increase in intake of ethanol during the time previous research indicated that the rats would show enhanced intakes. There was, however, a dose-related trend for smaller doses to enhance intakes. Rats with ovariectomies showed a similar pattern of effects, to intact rats, with the 2 mg dose. After extensive histories of intake of alcohol, both placebo and EV-treated females had estradiol levels below the average measured in females without a history of alcohol-intake. Conclusion The data support the conclusion that pharmacological doses of estradiol can produce enduring changes that are manifest as an enhanced appetite for alcoholic beverages. The effect can occur among females without ovaries. PMID:17335585

  11. Effect of oligofructose-enriched inulin on bone metabolism in girls with low calcium intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Corrêa de Souza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present clinical study, the effect of oligofructose-enriched inulin was studied on bone metabolism in girls from 9 to 12 years old, with low habitual calcium intakes, who attended public schools. Two calcium-enriched formulations, supplemented with oligofructose-enriched inulin (test drink or without (standard drink were made. Sixty pre-pubertal girls were randomized into a double-blind and crossover design, divided into three groups and received one daily portion of either the standard drink (group 1 or test drink (group 2 during 11 weeks, followed by a three-week washout period. Group control did not receive any supplementation. Biochemical evaluations of serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone - iPTH - and bone alkaline phosphatase - BAP - were performed at baseline and after 4, 8 and 11 weeks of each intervention period. In group 1, a significant increase in serum calcium and BAP and a reduction of iPTH were observed after consumption of the test drink.No presente ensaio clínico, o efeito de oligofrutose enriquecida com inulina foi estudado no metabolismo ósseo de meninas de 9 a 12 anos com baixa ingestão habitual de cálcio, matriculadas em escolas públicas. Duas formulações foram suplementadas ou não (bebida padrão com oligofrutose enriquecida com inulina (bebida teste. Sessenta meninas pré-púberes foram aleatorizadas em estudo duplo cego crossover e divididas em três grupos e receberam uma porção diária da bebida padrão (grupo 1 ou teste (grupo 2 durante 11 semanas, seguidos por um período de intervalo de três semanas. O grupo controle não recebeu nenhuma suplementação. As avaliações bioquímicas de cálcio sérico, paratormônio intacto - PTHi e fosfatase alcalina fração óssea - FAO foram executadas ao início e após 4, 8 e 11 semanas de cada período de intervenção. No grupo 1, um aumento significante no cálcio sérico e FAO e uma redução no PTHi foram observadas após o consumo da bebida teste.

  12. The relationship between sodium intake and some bone minerals and osteoporosis risk assessment instrument in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafa, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Sepideh; Zayeri, Farid; Niroomand, Mahtab; Najarzadeh, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The results of the studies on the effects of sodium on bone metabolism have been inconsistent. There is no definitive answer to the question of whether sodium restriction can be associated with a lower incidence of osteoporosis. What reinforces the necessity of designing this study is the lack of findings with the approach of examining the effects of sodium on bone in our country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 185 retired female teachers aged 45 to 70. Sodium intake was evaluated using two methods: A 24-hour recall and a 12-hour urine sample. To assess bone health, ORAI index was calculated for each individual. Urinary calcium, phosphorus, potassium and serum vitamin D and PTH were measured as laboratory variables. To compare the general characteristics of the participants across tertiles of urinary sodium, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for quantitative variables and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Results: Phosphorous, calcium and potassium urinary excretion rate increased with the increase in urinary sodium (p<0.05). However, the changes in serum vitamin D, and PTH levels across tertiles of urinary sodium were not significant. Changes in urinary sodium levels were not significant (p=0.933) in ORAI groups (sorted by rating). The relationship between urinary calcium and sodium was apparent in low calcium intake (r=0.415, p<0.001), but not in higher calcium intake (r=0.144, p=0.177). Conclusion: Although urinary calcium and potassium increased with the increase in sodium intake, no relationship was found between sodium and ORAI. PMID:27493921

  13. The effect of increasing dairy calcium intake of adolescent girls on changes in body fat and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Joan M; McMahon, Donald J; Laughlin, Ann; Hanson, Corrine; Desmangles, Jean Claude; Begley, Margaret; Schwartz, Misty

    2017-03-15

    Background: Overweight is epidemic in adolescents and is a major concern because it tracks into adulthood. Evidence supports the efficacy of high-calcium, high-dairy diets in achieving healthy weight in adults. However, no randomized controlled trials of the effect of dairy food on weight and body fat in adolescents have been reported to our knowledge.Objective: The aim was to determine whether increasing calcium intake to recommended amounts with dairy foods in adolescent girls with habitually low calcium intakes would decrease body fat gain compared with girls who continued their low calcium intake. Participants had above-the-median body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)).Design: We enrolled 274 healthy postmenarcheal 13- to 14-y-old overweight girls who had calcium intakes of ≤600 mg/d in a 12-mo randomized controlled trial. Girls were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 1 of 2 groups within each of 3 BMI percentiles: 50th to dairy, which included low-fat milk or yogurt servings providing ≥1200 mg Ca/d or 2) control, which included the usual diet of ≤600 mg Ca/d.Results: We failed to detect a statistically significant difference between groups in percentage of body fat gain over 12 mo (mean ± SEM: dairy 0.40% ± 0.53% > control; P dairy group gained body fat similar to the control group provide no support for dairy food as a stratagem to decrease body fat or weight gain in overweight adolescent girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01066806.

  14. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. PMID:28230782

  15. Effects of a high intake of unsaturated and saturated oils on intestinal transference of calcium and calcium mobilization from bone in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, S; Islam, N; Ghosh, T K; Mitra, C

    1999-06-01

    Intestinal transference of calcium and rate of bone turnover were evaluated in ovariectomized rats fed for 15 days with a high amount (30%) of lipid enriched with monounsaturated (groundnut oil), polyunsaturated (sunflower oil) and saturated (coconut oil) fatty acids. The results were compared with those for sham-operated control and ovariectomized groups fed a normal diet (7% groundnut oil). Irrespective of the saturation and unsaturation characteristics, all lipids (edible oils) used in our study considerably decreased the rate of in situ intestinal transference of calcium. Likewise, the activities of intestinal mucosal enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and calcium ATPase (Ca2+-ATPase) were decreased significantly in all the segments of the small intestine in a descending gradient. Significant changes in bone turnover and bone calcium (Ca) mobilization were confirmed in these animals by marked alterations in plasma AP activity, urinary calcium and phosphate excretion and calcium to creatinine (Ca:creatinine) ratio. Lipid supplementation (30%) in such ovariectomized rats using groundnut oil (monounsaturated), sunflower oil (polyunsaturated) or coconut oil (saturated) for 15 days further enhanced all of the above observed parameters. These results suggest that the intake of high amounts of lipids with different unsaturation and saturation characteristics may be an important factor in determining bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

  16. DIETARY INTAKE LEVEL OF CALCIUM, IRON AND ZINC OF STUDENTS FROM ONE UNIVERSITY IN HENAN PROVINCE ASSESSED BY THE DUPLICATE DIET TECHNIQUE%应用双份饭法研究测定河南省某高校学生膳食钙、铁、锌摄入水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付鹏钰; 张光明; 张书芳; 张丁; 吕全军; 叶冰; 詹瑄; 钞凤; 吴绍彬; 王中州

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解河南省某高校学生膳食钙、铁、锌的摄入水平.[方法]随机抽取在校大学生20人,采用.双份饭法收集被调查对象3 d内摄入的所有食物,实验室测定钙、铁、锌的含量.[结果]大学生膳食钙、铁、锌的平均摄入量分别为510.71 mg/d、29.14 mg/d、13.57 mg/d.其中男性每日锌膳食摄入量明显高于女性(P=0.01)[结论]大学生膳食钙的摄入明显偏低,应引起相关部门的重视,采取综合措施,开展多种形式的营养知识宣传教育,引导学生合理膳食,及时纠正不合理的膳食结构,并采取适当的措施进行营养干预.%[Objective] To evaluate the dietary intake levels of calcium, iron and zinc in students from one university in Henan Province. [Methods] 3-days duplicate diets from 20 students who were randomly selected in one university in Henan Province were collected. The levels of calcium, iron and zinc were determined by laboratory detection. [Results] The dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc for the students were 510.71mg/d, 29.14mg/d, and 13.57mg/d, respectively. The dietary intake of zinc among male students was statistically higher than that among female students (P = 0.01). [Conclusion] The dietary intake level of calcium among students is obviously low, which should be noticed. It need take general measures to develop nutritional knowledge propaganda, conduct nutritional intervention, and guide the students to a reasonable dietary pattern.

  17. The effect of different amounts of calcium intake on bone metabolism and arterial calcification in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Umon; Park, Jong-Hoon; Hattori, Satoshi; Iimura, Yuki; Ezawa, Ikuko; Akimoto, Takayuki; Omi, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Low calcium (Ca) intake is the one of risk factors for both bone loss and medial elastocalcinosis in an estrogen deficiency state. To examine the effect of different amounts of Ca intake on the relationship between bone mass alteration and medial elastocalcinosis, 6-wk-old female SD rats were randomized into ovariectomized (OVX) control or OVX treated with vitamin D(3) plus nicotine injection (VDN) groups. The OVX treated with VDN group was then divided into 5 groups depending on the different Ca content in their diet, 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.6%, 1.2%, and 2.4% Ca intakes. After 8 wk of experimentation, the low Ca intake groups of 0.01% and 0.1% showed a low bone mineral density (BMD) and bone properties significantly different from those of the other groups, whereas the high Ca intake groups of 1.2% and 2.4% showed no difference compared with the OVX control. Only in the 0.01% Ca intake group, a significantly higher Ca content in the thoracic artery was found compared with that of the OVX control. Arterial tissues of the 0.01% Ca intake group showed an increase of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) activity, a marker of bone mineralization, associated with arterial Ca content. However, the high Ca intake did not affect arterial Ca content nor arterial BAP activity. These results suggested that a low Ca intake during periods of rapid bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency might be one possible cause for the complication of both bone loss and medial elastocalcinosis.

  18. Dietary intake assessment using integrated sensors and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Junqing; Pepin, Eric; Johnson, Eric; Hazel, David; Teredesai, Ankur; Kristal, Alan; Mamishev, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The area of dietary assessment is becoming increasingly important as obesity rates soar, but valid measurement of the food intake in free-living persons is extraordinarily challenging. Traditional paper-based dietary assessment methods have limitations due to bias, user burden and cost, and therefore improved methods are needed to address important hypotheses related to diet and health. In this paper, we will describe the progress of our mobile Diet Data Recorder System (DDRS), where an electronic device is used for objective measurement on dietary intake in real time and at moderate cost. The DDRS consists of (1) a mobile device that integrates a smartphone and an integrated laser package, (2) software on the smartphone for data collection and laser control, (3) an algorithm to process acquired data for food volume estimation, which is the largest source of error in calculating dietary intake, and (4) database and interface for data storage and management. The estimated food volume, together with direct entries of food questionnaires and voice recordings, could provide dietitians and nutritional epidemiologists with more complete food description and more accurate food portion sizes. In this paper, we will describe the system design of DDRS and initial results of dietary assessment.

  19. The Impact of Different Amounts of Calcium Intake on Bone Mass and Arterial Calcification in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Umon; Park, Jong-Hoon; Hattori, Satoshi; Aikawa, Yuki; Kakutani, Yuya; Ezawa, Ikuko; Akimoto, Takayuki; Omi, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Reduced estrogen secretion and low calcium (Ca) intake are risk factors for bone loss and arterial calcification in female rodents. To evaluate the effects of Ca intake at different amounts on bone mass changes and arterial calcification, 8-wk-old female Wistar rats were randomly placed in ovariectomized (OVX) control and OVX with vitamin D3 plus nicotine (VDN) treatment groups. The OVX with VDN rats were then divided into six groups to receive different amounts of Ca in their diets: 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 1.2%, or 2.4% Ca. After 8 wk of administration, low Ca intake groups with 0.01% and 0.1% Ca diets had significantly reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mechanical properties as compared with those of the other groups, whereas high Ca intake groups with 1.2% and 2.4% Ca diets showed no differences as compared with the 0.6% Ca intake group. For both the 0.01% and 2.4% Ca intake groups, Ca levels in their thoracic arteries were significantly higher as compared with those of the 0.6% Ca diet group, and that was highly correlated with serum PTH levels. An increase in relative BMP-2 mRNA expression in the arterial tissues of the 0.01% and 2.4% Ca diet groups was also observed. These results suggested that extremely low Ca intake during periods of estrogen deficiency may be a possible risk for the complications of reduced BMD and arterial calcification and that extremely high Ca intake may promote arterial calcification with no changes in BMD.

  20. Development and Testing of a Mobile Phone App for Self-Monitoring of Calcium Intake in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    Background Interventions to prevent osteoporosis by increasing dairy intake or physical activity in young women have been limited to increasing osteoporosis knowledge and awareness. However, findings have shown that this does not always lead to a change in behaviors. Self-monitoring using mobile devices in behavioral interventions has yielded significant and positive outcomes. Yet, to our knowledge, mobile self-monitoring has not been used as an intervention strategy to increase calcium intake, particularly in young women, for better bone health outcomes. Objective As development and testing of mobile app–based interventions requires a sequence of steps, our study focused on testing the acceptability and usability of Calci-app, a dietary app to self-monitor calcium consumption, before it is used in a behavioral change intervention in young women aged 18-25 years. Methods Calci-app development followed 4 steps: (1) conceptualization, (2) development and pretesting, (3) pilot testing, and (4) mixed methods evaluation. Results We present the development process of Calci-app and evaluation of the acceptability and usability of the app in young women. Overall, 78% (31/40) of study participants completed the 5-day food record with high compliance levels (defined as more than 3 days of full or partial completion). There was a significant reduction in the proportion of participants completing all meal entries over the 5 days (P=.01). Participants generally found Calci-app easy and convenient to use, but it was time-consuming and they expressed a lack of motivation to use the app. Conclusions We present a detailed description of the development process of Calci-app and an evaluation of its usability and acceptability to self-monitor dietary calcium intake. The findings from this preliminary study demonstrated acceptable use of Calci-app to self-monitor calcium consumption. However, for regular and long-term use the self-monitoring function in Calci-app could be expanded

  1. Associations of intakes of magnesium and calcium and survival among women with breast cancer: results from Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Meng-Hua; Dai, Qi; Millen, Amy E; Nie, Jing; Edge, Stephen B; Trevisan, Maurizio; Shields, Peter G; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) antagonizes each other in (re) absorption, cell cycle regulation, inflammation, and many other physiologic activities. However, few studies have investigated the association between magnesium and calcium intakes and breast cancer survival, and the interaction between calcium and magnesium intake. In a cohort of 1,170 women with primary, incident, and histologically confirmed breast cancer from Western New York State, we examined the relationship between intakes of these two minerals and survival. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Mean follow-up time was 87.4 months after breast cancer diagnosis; there were 170 deaths identified. After adjustment for known prognostic factors, and intakes of energy, total vitamin D and total calcium, higher dietary intake of magnesium was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.28-0.90 for highest vs. lowest tertile; p trend = 0.02). Likewise, a marginal association was found for total Magnesium intake from foods and supplements combined (HR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.31-1.08; p trend = 0.09). The inverse association of higher total magnesium intake with all-cause mortality was primarily presented among postmenopausal women and was stronger among women who had a high Ca:Mg intake ratio (>2.59). There were no clear associations for prognosis with intake of calcium. We found that magnesium intake alone may improve overall survival following breast cancer, and the association may be stronger among those with high Ca:Mg intake ratio.

  2. Assessment of daily food and nutrient intake in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using dietary reference intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2013-06-26

    Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40-79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

  3. Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM, especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1 assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2 characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1 the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2 excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3 excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

  4. The calcium and phosphorus intakes of rural Gambian women during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, A; Laskey, M A; Shaw, J; Hudson, G J; Day, K C; Jarjou, L M; Dibba, B; Paul, A A

    1993-05-01

    The Ca and P intakes of 148 pregnant and lactating women in a rural village in The Gambia, West Africa, have been estimated by direct weighing of food on a total of 4188 d. The Ca and P contents of local foods were determined by analysis of raw ingredients, snack foods and prepared dishes. Information about the contribution of mineral-rich seasonings was obtained. Efforts were made to discover unusual sources of Ca that might not be perceived as food by subject or observer. The main contributors to daily Ca intake were shown to be leaves, fish, cereals, groundnuts and local salt. Cow's milk accounted for only 5% of Ca intake. Unusual sources of Ca were discovered, namely baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit and selected earths, but these were consumed infrequently and their contributions to Ca intakes were small. Cereals and groundnuts were the main sources of P. Ca and P intakes (mg/d) were shown to average 404 (SD 110) and 887 (SD 219) respectively. Seasonal changes in the availability of leaves, cereals and groundnuts resulted in variations in Ca and P intakes. The rainy season was associated with increased Ca intakes (by 16%) but decreased P consumption (by 15%). No difference was observed in Ca intake between pregnant and lactating women but P intake in lactation was 11% higher than that in pregnancy during the post-harvest season. The implications of these low Ca intakes require investigation.

  5. Calcium Supplements Might Raise Older Women's Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nutrient," she said. "For example, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium all are typically looked at for their effects ... which was not originally designed to assess calcium intake," MacKay noted. "Further, the new analysis included only ...

  6. Relation of thoracic aortic and aortic valve calcium to coronary artery calcium and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nathan D; Sciammarella, Maria; Arad, Yadon; Miranda-Peats, Romalisa; Polk, Donna; Hachamovich, Rory; Friedman, John; Hayes, Sean; Daniell, Anthony; Berman, Daniel S

    2003-10-15

    Aortic calcium, aortic valve calcium (AVC), and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have been associated with cardiovascular event risk. We examined the prevalence of thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) and AVC in relation to the presence and extent of CAC, cardiovascular risk factors, and estimated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In 2,740 persons without known CHD aged 20 to 79 years, CAC was assessed by electron beam- or multidetector-computed tomography. We determined the prevalence of TAC and AVC in relation to CAC, CHD risk factors, and predicted 10-year risk of CHD. A close correspondence of TAC and AVC was observed with CAC. TAC and AVC increased with age; by the eighth decade of life, the prevalence of TAC was similar to that of CAC (>80%), and 36% of men and 24% of women had AVC. Age, male gender, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were directly related to the likelihood of CAC, TAC, and AVC; higher diastolic blood pressure and cigarette smoking additionally predicted CAC. Body mass index and higher systolic and lower diastolic blood pressures were also related to TAC, and higher body mass index and lower diastolic blood pressure were related to AVC. Calculated risk of CHD increased with the presence of AVC and TAC across levels of CAC. TAC and AVC provided incremental value over CAC in association with the 10-year calculated risk of CHD. If longitudinal studies show an incremental value of aortic and aortic valve calcium over that of CAC for prediction of cardiovascular events, future guidelines for risk assessment incorporating CAC assessment may additionally incorporate the measurement of aortic and/or aortic valve calcium.

  7. Low calcium intake is related to increased risk of tooth loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    (30-60 y) with information on dietary Ca intake and number of teeth and a subset of 511 participants with information on tooth loss from 1987-88 to 1993-94. Ca intake less than the recommendations, estimated by a 7-d food record or a diet history interview in 1982-83, was more frequent among females...

  8. Greater Calcium Intake is Associated with Better Bone Health Measured by Quantitative Ultrasound of the Phalanges in Pediatric Patients Treated with Anticonvulsant Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Vera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate and compare the effects of chronic antiepileptic therapy on bone health in pediatric patients using quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges (QUS and controlling for potential confounding factors, particularly nutrient intake. The amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS was measured in 33 epileptic children and 32 healthy children aged 6.5 ± 3.1 and 6.3 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD years, respectively. There were no significant differences in the demographics such as age, weight and height between epileptic children and the control group children. None of the children in the epileptic or the treatment group were found to have a vitamin D deficiency. There were no significant differences in laboratory tests between groups. Lower QUS figures were found in the epileptic children (p = 0.001. After further adjustment for potential confounders such age, height, weight, calcium intake, vitamin D intake, physical activity and sex, the differences remained significant (p < 0.001. After further classification of the participants based on the tertile of calcium intake, no significant differences were found between patients and healthy controls in the greatest tertile of calcium intake (p = 0.217. We conclude that anticonvulsant therapy using valproate may lead to low bone mass in children and that an adequate intake of calcium might counteract such deleterious effects.

  9. Female White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus) Trade Off Offspring Skeletal Quality for Self-Maintenance When Dietary Calcium Intake is Low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christina M; Hood, Wendy R

    2016-11-01

    During gestation and lactation in mammals, calcium and other minerals are transferred from female to offspring to support skeletal ossification. To meet mineral requirements, females commonly mobilize mineral from their own skeleton to augment dietary intake. Because the fitness costs of bone loss are expected to limit the amount of endogenous mineral that females transfer to their young, the amount of mineral allocated to offspring is predicted to be influenced by the availability of mineral in the female's diet. Calcium is the most abundant element in bone, and exogenous calcium appears to be limiting for many species. Thus, we expected that females would adjust mineral allocation to offspring relative to calcium abundance in the diet. We provided breeding female white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) with a low-calcium (0.1% Ca) or a standard diet (0.85% Ca) for approximately 1 year. Body mass and skeletal size of pups did not differ between diets. Relative to pups from females on the standard diet, pups from females on the low-calcium diet had less calcium and phosphorus in their femurs and humeri, less body calcium content, reduced mass of their femurs and humeri, and had femurs with a reduced width. Reproducing white-footed mice mobilize more bone when calcium intake is low; however, our results suggest that this does not completely compensate for a reduction in calcium intake. Thus, it appears that when calcium availability is low, female white-footed mice reduce the quantity of mineral allocated per offspring as a means of maintaining their own skeletal condition.

  10. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  11. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  12. Assessment of pyridoxine and folate intake in migraine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sadeghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Migraine patients had lower dietary intake of folate, compared with non-migraine group subjects. There was no significant association between folate and pyridoxine intake with the frequency of migraine attacks. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  13. Milk intake, calcium and vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation: effects on maternal, fetal and infant bone in low- and high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone growth and maintenance. Among the bone-forming minerals, dietary calcium supply is close to biological requirements and may be limiting in some parts of the world where there are few rich dietary sources of calcium, particularly for children and women during pregnancy and lactation. Animal milk is a rich source of calcium and, in countries where milk is fortified with vitamin D, a contributor to dietary vitamin D intake. Current evidence indicates that, in the human, there are physiological mechanisms that support the necessary calcium fluxes across the placenta and mammary gland and that are unresponsive to increases in calcium intake. This applies across the range of dietary calcium intakes recorded in healthy individuals. In contrast, although there is unlikely to be an additional requirement for vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation, many women have poor vitamin D status. This places them at risk of osteomalacia and their infants at risk of rickets, osteomalacia, compromised skeletal growth and other outcomes. There needs to be increased awareness among policy makers, health professionals and the public about the importance of safe UVB sunshine exposure and consumption of dietary vitamin D by women of reproductive age at risk of vitamin D deficiency.

  14. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  15. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler starters...... assigned to 10 dietary treatments. Birds were also provided with a source of Ca in a separate feed trough. Increasing dietary Ca concentration decreased (P supplemented......, but the total Ca intake in phytase-supplemented diets were similar (P > 0.05). Birds fed 1.3 g Ca/kg diet showed the lowest (P 0.05) to the diets with 4.3 g Ca/kg. No significant (P > 0.05) effect of dietary Ca concentration on the CAID of starch, fat and GE was found...

  16. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding.

  17. Vitamin D, calcium and dairy intake, and risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Helen G; Murray, Liam J; Anderson, Lesley A; Cantwell, Marie M

    2011-09-01

    Evidence is accumulating that vitamin D may be protective against carcinogenesis, although exceptions have been observed for some digestive tract neoplasms. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between dietary vitamin D and related nutrients and the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor conditions, Barrett's oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis. In an all-Ireland case-control study conducted between March 2002 and July 2005, 218 oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients, 212 Barrett's oesophagus patients, 208 reflux oesophagitis patients and 252 population-based controls completed a 101-item FFQ, and provided lifestyle and demographic information. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the association between dietary intake and disease risk. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk was significantly greater for individuals with the highest compared with the lowest tertile of vitamin D intake (OR 1·99, 95 % CI 1·03, 3·86; P for trend = 0·02). The direct association could not be attributed to a particular vitamin D food source. Vitamin D intake was unrelated to Barrett's oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis risk. No significant associations were observed for Ca or dairy intake and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's oesophagus or reflux oesophagitis development. High vitamin D intake may increase oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk but is not related to reflux oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus. Ca and dairy product intake did not influence the development of these oesophageal lesions. These findings suggest that there may be population subgroups at an increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma if advice to improve vitamin D intake from foods is implemented. Limited work has been conducted in this area, and further research is required.

  18. [Calcium pros and cons significance and risk of phosphorus supplementation. The risk of dietary phosphorus intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Akiko; Nomura, Kengo; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus (Pi) is an important determinant of Pi balance in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a reduced GFR. High dietary Pi burden may promote vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Recently, Ohnishi and Razzaque suggest that phosphate toxicity accelerates the mammalian aging process and that reducing the phosphate burden can delay the aging (FASEB J 24, 3562, 2010) . Dietary Pi is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives. Accurate information on the Pi content of foods is needed to achieve a low Pi intake and effectively manage CKD and the aging. In this review, we discuss the risk of dietary Pi intake in CKD and the aging.

  19. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake.

  20. Dependence of dietary intake estimates on the time frame of assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.; Kistemaker, C.

    1999-01-01

    Food chemical risk management needs, among other things, assessment of exposure. For dietary intake food consumption surveys are the data source to be used. One complicating factor in the usage of these data is the dependence of dietary intake estimates on the time frame of assessment. Central to th

  1. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  2. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, SG; Thompson, DR; Barton, BA; Franko, DL; Daniels, [No Value; Obarzanek, E; Schreiber, GB; Striegel-Moore, RH

    2005-01-01

    Objective To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Design Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal

  3. Nutrition education based on health belief model improves dietary calcium intake among female students of junior high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Shakerinejad, Ghodratollah; Lourizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hajinajaf, Saeedeh; Jarvandi, Farzaneh

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a nutrition education programme based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dietary calcium in female students. In this interventional study, 188 students were placed into intervention (95) and control (93) groups. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. Students in both the groups completed KAP and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after two and three months of follow-up respectively. The data were analyzed by independent and paired t-tests. Those who received the intervention were found to have better attitude (p=0.049) and practice (p=0.005) scores compared to the controls. The HBM constructs, including perceived susceptibility (p=0.006), perceived severity (p=0.001), perceived benefits (p=0.002), perceived barriers (p=0.001), and taking health action (p=0.02) scores, were also significantly higher. The findings support the effectiveness of nutrition education based on the HBM in improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice relating to calcium intake among adolescent students.

  4. Effect of maternal calcium intake during pregnancy on children's blood pressure: A systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Aluisio JD; Bergel Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Calcium supplementation during pregnancy has been shown to reduce the incidence of hypertension in the mother, but the effects on the offspring are uncertain. Assessing the impact on the offspring is very important given the now large body of evidence indicating that blood pressure levels in childhood and young adulthood can be influenced by factors operating during fetal life. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to summarize the evidence supporting an assoc...

  5. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuelle Dias Batista; Aline Andretta; Renata Costa de Miranda; Jéssica Nehring; Eduardo dos Santos Paiva; Maria Eliana Madalozzo Schieferdecker

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Methods: Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM) seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT) with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and ana...

  6. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra R. Keast

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008. Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of <1, 1 to <2, or 2+ dairy servings, and yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  7. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prerna P.; Patel, Pinal A.; Zulf, M. Mughal; Yagnik, Bhrugu; Kajale, Neha; Mandlik, Rubina; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Phanse, Supriya; Patwardhan, Vivek; Joshi, Priscilla; Patel, Ashish; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a) prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES) and (b) association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90), from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India). Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall) and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd). Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis); no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05). Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01) as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937) and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825) did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  8. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis.

  9. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna P Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES and (b association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90, from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis; no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05. Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01 as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937 and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825 did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  10. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillegonds, Darren J [Oakland, CA; Vogel, John S [San Jose, CA; Fitzgerald, Robert L [Encinitas, CA; Deftos, Leonard J [Del Mar, CA; Herold, David [Del Mar, CA; Burton, Douglas W [San Diego, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  11. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  12. Assessment of nutrient and water intake among adolescents from sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P sports. Total energy intake was only significantly higher among endurance-engaged females (P = 0.05). Protein intake of males was above the guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.

  13. Ingesta y fuentes de calcio en una muestra representativa de escolares españoles Food sources and average intake of calcium in a representative sample of Spanish schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Ortega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La adecuación de la ingesta de calcio de la población infantil española ha sido objeto de debate y controversia, pues algunos estudios señalan que puede ser inadecuada en un porcentaje variable de escolares, mientras que algunos documentos insisten en el peligro de una ingesta excesiva en un amplio porcentaje de la población escolar. Objetivos: Valorar la ingesta de calcio y las fuentes alimentarias de este nutriente en una muestra representativa de niños españoles, analizando también la adecuación del aporte a la cobertura de las ingestas recomendadas. Métodos: Se estudiaron 903 escolares (de 7 a 11 años de diez provincias españolas: Tarragona, Cáceres, Burgos, Guadalajara, Valencia, Salamanca, Córdoba, Vizcaya, Lugo y Madrid, que constituyen una muestra representativa de la población española de dicha edad. La ingesta de energía y nutrientes se determinó utilizando un registro del consumo de alimentos durante 3 días, incluyendo un domingo. El aporte de calcio se comparó con las Ingestas Recomendadas (IR marcadas para dicho mineral. Los parámetros antropométricos estudiados fueron el peso y la talla, lo que permitió calcular el índice de masa corporal (IMC. Resultados: En el colectivo estudiado (55,3% de niñas y 44,7% de niños, un 30,7% presentó exceso de peso (sobrepeso-23,3% y obesidad-7,4%. La ingesta de calcio de los niños estudiados (859,9 ± 249,2 mg/día supuso un 79,5% de lo recomendado, observándose la existencia de un 76,7% de niños con ingestas menores de las recomendadas y un 40,1 con ingestas Introduction: There is controversy about the adequacy of calcium intake to that recommended in Spanish schoolchildren. Some studies indicate that the intake is inadequate in a variable percentage of children, while others insist on the danger of an excessive intake in a huge percentage of this population. Aim: To assess calcium intake and food sources of this nutrient in a representative sample of

  14. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  15. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx, which is a biomarker of bone resorption. The association between calcium ingestion and bone resorption was analyzed using random effects models; non-linear associations were explored using generalized additive models. RESULTS: Progressive increases in NTx levels were observed during pregnancy; with mean and standard deviation (SD values during the first, second and third trimester of 76.50 (SD=38, 101.02 (SD=48.86 and 144.83 (SD=61.33 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine, respectively. Higher dietary calcium intake was associated with lower bone resorption (β=-0.015; pEl metabolismo de calcio es modificado durante el embarazo debido a la mineralización del esqueleto del feto. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre la ingesta de calcio y la desmineralización ósea durante el embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se administró un Cuestionario de Frecuencia de Consumo de alimentos en cada trimestre del embarazo para evaluar el consumo de calcio en una cohorte de 206 mujeres residentes de la Ciudad de México. Se recolectaron muestras de orina para medir los niveles de N-telopéptido de colágeno tipo I (NTx, biomarcador de resorción. Se hicieron modelos de efectos aleatorios; se estudiaron asociaciones no lineales utilizando modelos aditivos generalizados. RESULTADOS: Se observó aumento progresivo en los niveles de NTx durante el embarazo. El mayor consumo de calcio se asoció con una menor resorción ósea (β=- 0.015, p<0

  16. 膳食钙和奶类的摄入同肥胖关系的病例对照研究%Relationship of dietary calcium intake and dairy consumption with risk of obesity: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炜; 蔡东联

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship of dietary calcium intake and dairy consumption with risk of obesity in a case-control study design. Methods Cases were 119 obese or overweight female Chinese college students aged 18 to 22 years, who were pre-screening volunteers for a weight loss program, recruited from April to October, 2011. Control subjects were pair matched at 1 :1 ratio by age, gender and body height. Anthropometric data were collected and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was performed with each participant. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify predictive factors related to calcium or dairy intake for obesity. Pearson correlations were performed in the total sample of subjects between body fat percentage and dairy (or calcium ) intake. Results Significant protective effects were obtained for calcium intake ( OR = 0. 19, 0. 05, P < 0. 01). Quartiles of dairy consumption did not reach statistical significance, however, it seemed to have protective effects for obesity with the 3rd and 4th quartiles( OR = 0. 36, 0.16, P < 0. 01). The consumption of dairy, or calcium intake, was proven to be inversely related to BMI (r = - 0.25, - 0. 38, P < 0. 01, respectively) and body fat (r = - 0. 37, P < 0. 01, respectively). Conclusion In the present study, dietary calcium intake and dairy consumption are important predictive factors for obesity. In addition, dietary calcium show a significant negative association with adiposity.%目的 通过研究膳食钙和奶类的摄入量与肥胖的关系,旨在为进一步研究肥胖的发病机制和干预手段提供依据.方法 以2011年4-9月期间进入一项肥胖干预试验筛选阶段的119名大专院校女生为病例组,年龄18~22周岁;同时选择同性别、同年龄、同身高,体重正常的同校健康学生作为对照组,以1∶1配对.对病例组和对照组进行食物频率调查及人体测量.采用条件Logistic回归法,分析不同钙和奶类摄入量对肥胖

  17. Weight-bearing physical activity, calcium intake, systemic glucocorticoids, chronic inflammation, and body constitution as determinants of lumbar and femoral bone mineral in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaniemi, A; Savolainen, A; Kröger, H; Kautiainen, H; Isomäki, H

    1999-01-01

    The associations between the lumbar and femoral bone mineral and several body constitutional, lifestyle, and disease related variables were studied in 111 children with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) by factor and multiple linear regression analyses. In addition to the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), bone width and bone mineral volumetric density (BMDvol) were determined by dual-x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Factor analysis of 13 explanatory variables yielded six non-correlating factors, named as body size, physical activity, calcium intake, glucocorticoids, disease duration, and disease activity. These six factors were used as new variables to explain BMD, BMDvol, and bone width by multiple linear regression analyses. These showed body size, physical activity, and calcium intake as significant positive and disease activity and glucocorticoids as significant negative determinants of BMD in JCA. The analyses revealed also considerable differences in the relationships between factors and BM Dvol or bone width.

  18. Assessment of cardiac function in mice lacking the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Kira M; Pan, Xin; Liu, Julia C; Menazza, Sara; Liu, Jie; Nguyen, Tiffany T; Pan, Haihui; Parks, Randi J; Anderson, Stasia; Noguchi, Audrey; Springer, Danielle; Murphy, Elizabeth; Finkel, Toren

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondrial calcium is thought to play an important role in the regulation of cardiac bioenergetics and function. The entry of calcium into the mitochondrial matrix requires that the divalent cation pass through the inner mitochondrial membrane via a specialized pore known as the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Here, we use mice deficient of MCU expression to rigorously assess the role of mitochondrial calcium in cardiac function. Mitochondria isolated from MCU(-/-) mice have reduced matrix calcium levels, impaired calcium uptake and a defect in calcium-stimulated respiration. Nonetheless, we find that the absence of MCU expression does not affect basal cardiac function at either 12 or 20months of age. Moreover, the physiological response of MCU(-/-) mice to isoproterenol challenge or transverse aortic constriction appears similar to control mice. Thus, while mitochondria derived from MCU(-/-) mice have markedly impaired mitochondrial calcium handling, the hearts of these animals surprisingly appear to function relatively normally under basal conditions and during stress.

  19. Chronic ethanol intake modifies pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity in mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes under resting and K+ -stimulated conditions: role of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; García-López, María Jesús; Carrera, María Pilar; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2008-07-04

    Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase (Pcp) is an omega peptidase that removes pyroglutamyl N-terminal residues of peptides such as thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is one of the neuropeptides that has been localized into many areas of the brain and acts as an endogenous neuromodulator of several parameters related to ethanol (EtOH) consumption. In this study, we analysed the effects of chronic EtOH intake on Pcp activity on mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes and their corresponding supernatant under basal and K+ -stimulated conditions, in presence and absence of calcium (Ca2+) to know the regulation of Pcp on TRH. In basal conditions, chronic EtOH intake significantly decreased synaptosomes Pcp activity but only in absence of Ca2+. However, supernatant Pcp activity is also decreased in presence and absence of calcium. Under K+-stimulated conditions, chronic EtOH intake decreased synaptosomes Pcp activity but only in absence of Ca2+, whereas supernatant Pcp activity was significantly decreased only in presence of Ca2+. The general inhibitory effect of chronic EtOH intake on Pcp activity suggests an inhibition of TRH metabolism and an enhancement of TRH neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions, which could be related to putative processes of tolerance to EtOH in which TRH has been involved. Our data may also indicate that active peptides and their degrading peptidases are released together to the synaptic cleft to regulate the neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions of these peptides, through a Ca2+ -dependent mechanism.

  20. An assessment of dietary intake and state of nutritional in hypertensive patients from rural and urban areas of Greater Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Duda, Grażyna; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Piątek, Jacek; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional factors connected with the prevalence of hypertension in rural and urban areas of Greater Poland. The study consisted of 308 people aged 35-62, with essential hypertension but without any other coexisting disorders. The studied group consisted of 154 residents of Poznań (79 women and 75 men) and 152 inhabitants of rural areas in Greater Poland (78 women and 74 men). Participants were randomly assigned to the study. Nutritional state assessment was based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage. Dietary intake were assessed with a 24-hour nutritional survey from 3 consecutive days. Analysis of anthropometric examination results showed a large prevalence of obesity in the studied group. Moreover people living in rural areas had a significantly higher BMI and body fat percentage than those living in a city. It has been proved that the patients with hypertension consume food with an excess of fat and a shortage of fibre, antioxidant vitamins, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The total food rations of rural dwellers consisted of larger amounts of fat, cholesterol and vitamin A compared to those of city dwellers. Present studies have shown incorrect dietary intake among patients with hypertension, often related to the coexistence of overweight and obesity. Obtained results indicate significantly worse eating habits and state of nutrition among rural inhabitants.

  1. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavra Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9 or a weighed food record (wFR (n = 9, recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR (p > 0.05. Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  2. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mavra; Mandic, Iva; Lou, Wendy; Goodman, Len; Jacobs, Ira; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9) or a weighed food record (wFR) (n = 9), recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR) (p > 0.05). Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR) with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR) and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel. PMID:28264428

  3. Cálcio dietético: estratégias para otimizar o consumo Dietary calcium: strategies to optimize intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle A. P. Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O cálcio é um nutriente essencial necessário em diversas funções biológicas. Estudos têm demonstrado a associação entre o baixo consumo de cálcio e doenças crônicas, entre elas osteoporose, câncer de colón, hipertensão arterial e obesidade. Entretanto, grande parte da população brasileira apresenta consumo de cálcio abaixo do recomendado. Este artigo objetiva revisar os fatores endógenos (idade e estado hormonal e exógenos (fitatos, oxalatos, sódio, compostos bioativos e vitamina D que influenciam a absorção do cálcio, bem como as principais metodologias utilizadas para avaliar a absorção e biodisponibilidade desse nutriente. Discorre-se sobre os possíveis fatores para o baixo consumo de cálcio: 1 Hábito alimentar - substituição de leite por bebidas com baixo teor de cálcio como o refrigerante, refeições realizadas fora de casa e a não realização de refeições como o café da manhã; 2 Alto custo dos alimentos fontes de cálcio. Além disso, este artigo discute as estratégias para otimizar o consumo do cálcio, que incluem: 1 Aumentar o conhecimento sobre a importância do consumo de cálcio para a saúde e as principais fontes alimentares desse nutriente; 2 Aumentar a disponibilidade de alimentos fortificados com cálcio; 3 Uso de suplementos em grupos específicos - quando e como administrar os sais de cálcio.Calcium is an essential nutrient required for numerous biological functions. Studies have demonstrated an association between low calcium intake and chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis, colon cancer, hypertension, and obesity. However, most Brazilians do not meet the adequate intake for calcium. This review focuses on the endogenous (age, hormonal state and exogenous (phytate, oxalate, sodium, bioactive compounds and vitamin D factors that can influence calcium absorption. The main methods used for evaluating calcium absorption and bioavailability. The potential factors for the low calcium intake

  4. Health Risk Assessment of Dietary Cadmium Intake: Do Current Guidelines Indicate How Much is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarug, Soisungwan; Vesey, David A.; Gobe, Glenda C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cadmium (Cd), a food-chain contaminant, is a significant health hazard. The kidney is one of the primary sites of injury after chronic Cd exposure. Kidney-based risk assessment establishes the urinary Cd threshold at 5.24 μg/g creatinine, and tolerable dietary intake of Cd at 62 μg/day per 70-kg person. However, cohort studies show that dietary Cd intake below a threshold limit and that tolerable levels may increase the risk of death from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Objective: We evaluated if the current tolerable dietary Cd intake guideline and urinary Cd threshold limit provide sufficient health protection. Discussion: Staple foods constitute 40–60% of total dietary Cd intake by average consumers. Diets high in shellfish, crustaceans, mollusks, spinach, and offal add to dietary Cd sources. Modeling studies predict the current tolerable dietary intake corresponding to urinary Cd of 0.70–1.85 μg/g creatinine in men and 0.95–3.07 μg/g creatinine in women. Urinary Cd levels of protection from this pervasive toxic metal. Citation: Satarug S, Vesey DA, Gobe GC. 2017. Health risk assessment of dietary cadmium intake: do current guidelines indicate how much is safe? Environ Health Perspect 125:284–288; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP108 PMID:28248635

  5. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  6. An Internal Dose Assessment Associated with Personal Food Intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joeun; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Wontae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection), Therefore, had recommended the concept of 'Critical Group'. Recently the ICRP has recommended the use of 'Representative Person' on the new basic recommendation 103. On the other hand the U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) has adopted more conservative concept, 'Maximum Exposed Individuals (MEI)' of critical Group. The dose assessment in Korea is based on MEI. Although dose assessment based on MEI is easy to receive the permission of the regulatory authority, it is not efficient. Meanwhile, the internal dose by food consumption takes an important part. Therefore, in this study, the internal dose assessment was performed in accordance with ICRP's new recommendations. The internal dose assessment was performed in accordance with ICRP's new recommendations. It showed 13.2% decreased of the annual internal dose due to gaseous effluents by replacing MEI to the concept of representative person. Also, this calculation based on new ICRP's recommendation has to be extended to all areas of individual dose assessment. Then, more accurate and efficient values might be obtained for dose assessment.

  7. [Assessment of fruit and vegetable intake among the 50-year-old population of Wroclaw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilow, Rafał; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena; Misiewicz, Dominika; Rózańska, Dorota; Kowalisko, Alicja; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2011-01-01

    Intake of fruit and vegetable among 50-year-old population of Wroclaw and the impact of education level on the consumption of fruits and vegetables was assessed. The study group was 50-year-old, 1520 inhabitants of Wroclaw (879 women and 641 men), who participated in 2008 in the Cardiovascular Diseases Prevention Program organized by the Health Division of the Municipal Office in Wroclaw. To assess fruit and vegetable intake Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used. The mean daily intake of vegetables and fruit was 289,4 g for women and 209,1 g for men. Women consumed significantly more vegetables, fruits, and the amounts of fruits and vegetables compared with men. The impact of educational level on fruit and vegetable consumption in the study group was found.

  8. Intake and performance of feedlot cattle fed diets based on high and low Brix sugar cane with or without calcium oxide and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate low and high Brix diets, treated or not with 5 g of calcium oxide per kg of natural matter, and corn silage on intake, digestibility and performance of beef cattle. Forty cattle with initial body weight (BW of 350 kg were used: five composed the control group, 30 were distributed into random blocks (control and the other five were distributed in a 5 × 5 incomplete Latin square, with the objective of determining digestibility. The 30 animals evaluated for performance were slaughtered and empty body weight (EPW, carcass dressing and meat cuts were determined. The diet with corn silage (CS presented the best intake of the other ingredients and the best weight gain, except for neutral detergent fiber intake in g/kg of BW. Only carcass dressing, in relation to BW and EBW, was not affected by the treatments, and the others were greater for animals fed diets with sugar cane silage. Animals fed diets with high brix sugar cane silage and treated high brix sugar cane silage presented lower intake of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (g/kg of BW in relation to diets with low and high brix sugar cane silage, respectively. Animals fed diets with corn silage presented higher digestibility, except for crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Animals subjected to diets with corn silage presented low excretion of nitrogen compounds and higher microbial crude protein synthesis. Animals fed sugar cane silage present greater intake, performance and digestibility. The use of lime during 15 or 20º Brix sugar cane ensilage does not alter intake, digestibility or performance of beef cattle.

  9. Intake of dairy products, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in childhood and age at menarche in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and phosphorus (P with menarcheal age were also examined. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes. RESULTS: The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.03-5.05], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.39-7.42], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12-5.27] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.44-7.87 after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1. Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche.

  10. Mapping to assess feasibility of using subsurface intakes for SWRO, Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2013-11-19

    Use of subsurface intakes for seawater reverse osmosis desalination (SWRO) systems is known to improve raw water quality, reduce use of chemicals, improve operational reliability, and reduce the life cycle cost of desalination. A key issue in planning for the development of a SWRO facility that would potentially use a subsurface intake is the characterization of the coastal and nearshore geology of a region to ascertain the types of subsurface intakes that could be used and their respective costs. It is the purpose of this research to document a new methodology that can be used for planning and assessment of the feasibility of using subsurface intake systems for SWRO facilities at any location in the world. The Red Sea shoreline and nearshore area of Saudi Arabia were mapped and sediments were sampled from the Yemen border north of the Jordan border, a distance of about 1,950 km. Seventeen different coastal environments were defined, mapped, and correlated to the feasibility of using various types of subsurface intake systems. Six environments were found to have favorable characteristics for development of large-scale subsurface intakes. The most favorable of these coastal environments includes: (1) beaches and nearshore areas containing carbonate or siliciclastic sands with minimum mud concentrations and environmentally sensitive bottom community biota or fauna (A1, A2, and A3), limestone rocky shorelines with an offshore carbonate or siliciclastic sand bottom underlain by soft limestone and a barren area lying between the shoreline and the offshore reef (B1, B5), and wadi sediments on the beach (mixture of pebbles, gravel, and sand) with a corresponding nearshore area containing either siliciclastic sand and/or a marine hard ground (soft limestone or sandstone) (C2). It was found that seabed galleries were the subsurface intake type with the highest feasibility for development of large-capacity intakes. The geological characteristics of the offshore sea bottom

  11. Performance of Short Food Questions to Assess Aspects of the Dietary Intake of Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Single dietary questions are used as a rapid method of monitoring diet. The aim of this investigation was to assess the performance of questions to measure population group intake compared to the mean of two 24-h recalls. Data from the Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2007 was used (n = 4487. Children reported their intake on three questions relating to usual serves of fruit, vegetables and type of milk. Age, gender and body weight status were assessed as modifiers of the relationship between methods. There was a stepwise increase in fruit and vegetable intake (p < 0.001 measured by recall when grouped by response category of the short question. By recall, fruit consumption decreased with age (F = 12.92, p < 0.001 but this trend was not detectable from the short question (F = 2.31, p = 0.075. The difference in fruit intake between methods was greatest for obese children. Almost 85% of children who consumed whole milk by short question consumed mainly whole fat milk by recall, but agreement was lower for other milk types. Saturated fat and volume of milk was highest in whole milk consumers. Ease of administration suggests that short questions, at least for some aspects of diet, are a useful method to monitor population intakes for children.

  12. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess folate intake of Dutch elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Durga, J.; Verhoef, P.; Boonstra, A.; Brants, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Folate is required for 1-carbon metabolism and deficiency in folate leads to megaloblastic anemia. Low levels of folate have been associated with increased risk of vascular disease. To investigate whether RDA of folate are met, habitual folate intake needs to be assessed reliably. We developed a FFQ

  13. Development, validation and implementation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess habitual vitamin D intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiely, M.; Collins, A.; Lucey, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A well-designed, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) could offer an efficient and cost-effective method for assessing habitual vitamin D intake. The present study aimed to describe the development, validation and implementation of a vitamin D FFQ. Methods National...... food consumption survey data obtained from Irish adults (18–64 years) were used to identify foods that contribute 95% of vitamin D intake. A winter-based validation study was carried out for the resulting FFQ in 120 females, including 98 women [mean (SD) 65.0 (7.3) years] and 22 girls [12.2 (0.8) years......], using a 14-day diet history (DH) as a comparator. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were analysed. Validity coefficients were calculated using the method of triads. Cross-classification and Bland–Altman analysis were also performed. Results Median (interquartile range) vitamin D intakes (including...

  14. Assessment of Nutritional Intake During Space Flight and Space Flight Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Barbara L.; Dlouhy, Holly; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maintaining adequate nutrient intake in microgravity is important not only to meet health maintenance needs of astronauts but also to help counteract the negative effects of space flight. Beyond this, food provides psychosocial benefits throughout a mission. Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss dietary intake data from multiple space programs, including Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Description: These data arise from medical monitoring of both dietary intake and crew health, as well as research protocols designed to assess the role of diet in counteracting bone loss and other health concerns. Ground-based studies are conducted to better understand some of the negative issues related to space flight. Examples of these analog studies are extended bed rest studies, vitamin D supplementation studies in Antarctica, and saturation diving missions on the floor of the ocean. Methods and findings will be presented describing the use of weighed records, diet diaries, and food frequency questionnaires in these various environments. Provision of food and nutrients in spaceflight is important for many body systems including cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and others. Some key areas of concern are loss of body mass, bone and muscle loss, radiation exposure, nutrient intakes during spacewalks, depletion of nutrient stores, and inadequate dietary intake. Initial experimental research studies using food and nutrition as a countermeasure to aid in mitigating these concerns are underway. Conclusion: Beyond their importance for the few individuals leaving the planet, these studies have significant implications for those remaining on Earth.

  15. Duodenal calcium absorption in vitamin D receptor-knockout mice: functional and molecular aspects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromphaut, S.J. van; Dewerchin, M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Stockmans, I.; Herck, E. van; Kato, S.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Collen, D.; Carmeliet, P.; Bouillon, R.; Carmeliet, G.

    2001-01-01

    Rickets and hyperparathyroidism caused by a defective vitamin D receptor (VDR) can be prevented in humans and animals by high calcium intake, suggesting that intestinal calcium absorption is critical for 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] action on calcium homeostasis. We assessed the rate of s

  16. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Steenfeldt, S.; Bootwalla, S.M.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler starter

  17. Cumulative risk assessment of the intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in the Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A. F.; Petersen, Annette; Granby, Kit

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides that act through a common mechanism of toxicity, and to assess the long- and short-term risks for the Danish population. The intake estimates are based on dietary intake data collected...... in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction...... of pesticide levels by rinsing and peeling, were applied in the exposure assessment. The "Toxicity Equivalence Factor" (TEF) approach was used to normalise the toxicity of the different organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Cumulative chronic exposure of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides via...

  18. Lack of association of dairy food, calcium, and vitamin D intake with the risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Fukushima, W; Sasaki, S; Kiyohara, C; Tsuboi, Y; Yamada, T; Oeda, T; Miki, T; Kawamura, N; Sakae, N; Fukuyama, H; Hirota, Y; Nagai, M

    2011-02-01

    Three previous cohort studies in the USA reported that dairy product consumption was significantly associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in men, but not in women. We examined the relationship between consumption of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and the risk of PD using data from a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Japan. Included were 249 cases within 6 years of onset of PD based on the UK PD Society Brain Bank clinical diagnostic criteria. Controls were 368 inpatients and outpatients without a neurodegenerative disease. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for sex, age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, years of education, body mass index, and dietary factors including cholesterol, dietary glycemic index, vitamin E, β-carotene, vitamin B(6), caffeine, iron, and alcohol. Total dairy product consumption was not materially associated with the risk of PD (P for trend = 0.62). No evident relationships were observed between intake of milk, yogurt, cheese, or ice cream and the risk of PD (P for trend = 0.75, 0.63, 0.59, and 0.35, respectively). There were no measurable associations between consumption of calcium or vitamin D and PD (P for trend = 0.37 and 0.69, respectively). No significant interactions were observed between the dietary exposures and sex regarding PD. Our results suggest that intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D was not related to PD, regardless of sex. However, such null relationships might be a consequence of PD.

  19. Assessment of dietary intake and nutritional status (MNA) in Polish free-living elderly people from rural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, Joanna; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta; Piotrowska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the global population is rapidly increasing. Their nutritional status indicates many deficiencies that are risky to health. The aim of this paper was to assess the nutrition and nutritional status in elderly individuals above 60 years old living in their family houses in rural areas. Dietary intake and nutritional status were measured in 174 elderly women and 64 men living in the rural areas of Oleśnica (near Wrocław, SW Poland). Energy intake, consumption of nutrients, selected anthropometric and biochemical indicators, were measured in two groups: one at risk of malnutrition and one with adequate nutrition. Using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) questionnaire, 238 persons over 60 years of age were qualified according to their nutritional status. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. The group of women at risk of malnutrition (n=30) showed a statistically significantly lower energy intake in their diet (1,127 kcal) compared to women with adequate nutrition (1,351 kcal). The entire group of examined individuals showed a too low consumption of fiber, calcium, vitamins C and D, and folates. Most of the examined women had a too high body mass index (BMI) (on average 28.8), waist circumference was 96.3 cm, and the triceps skinfold (TSF) was 25.2mm thick. Women at a risk of malnutrition had statistically significantly lower lipid parameters than those with adequate nutrition (respectively: TC 191.1 vs. 219.1m/dl, pnutrition. According to the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), 8.2% of person with adequate nutrition had poor prognostic indicator for overall survival. All the examined individuals showed many significant nutritional deficiencies. The group with nutritional risk had more pronounced nutritional deficiencies. Despite a too low energy value of foods among individuals with correct nutrition, their anthropometric parameters paradoxically showed the presence of excessive fatty tissue. The most frequent

  20. Chronic ethanol intake-induced changes in open-field behavior and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅳ expression in nucleus accumbens of rats: naloxone reversal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Wei-liang BIAN; Gui-qin XIE; Sheng-zhong CUI; Mei-ling WU; Yue-hua LI; Ling-li QUE; Xiao-ru YUAN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of chronic ethanol intake on the locomotor activity and the levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅳ (CaM kinase Ⅳ) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats. Simultaneously, the effects of non-selective opioid antagonist (naloxone) on the CaM kinase Ⅳ expression in the NAc and ethanol consumption of rats were also observed. Methods: Ethanol was administered in drinking water at the concentrations of 6% (v/v), for 28 d. The locomotor activity of rats was investigated in the open-field apparatus. CaM kinase Ⅳ levels in the NAc were analyzed using Western blotting. Results: Rats consuming ethanol solution exhibited a significant decrease of ambulation activity, accompanied by a reduced frequency of explorative rearing in an open-field task on d 7 and d 14 of chronic ethanol ingestion, whereas presumed adaptation to the neurological effects of ethanol was observed on d 28. Chronic ethanol intake elicited a significant decrease of the CaM kinase Ⅳ expression in the nuclei, but not in the cytoplasm of the NAc on d 28. Naloxone treatment significantly attenu-ated ethanol intake of rats and antagonized the decrease of CaM kinase Ⅳ in the nuclei of NAc neurons. The cytosolic CaM kinase Ⅳ protein levels of the NAc also increased in rats exposed to ethanol plus naloxone. Conclusion: Chronic ethanol intake-induced changes in explorative behavior is mediated at least partly by changes in CaM kinase Ⅳ signaling in the nuclei of the NAc, and naloxone attenuates ethanol consumption through antagonizing the downregulation of CaM kinase Ⅳ in the NAc.

  1. Relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Meyboom, S.; Beekman, M.; Craen, A.J.M.; Slagboom, P.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Invalid information on dietary intake may lead to false diet-disease associations. This study was conducted to examine the relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study. Methods - A total of 128 men and women part

  2. Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners - a risk benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husøy, T; Mangschou, B; Fotland, T Ø; Kolset, S O; Nøtvik Jakobsen, H; Tømmerberg, I; Bergsten, C; Alexander, J; Frost Andersen, L

    2008-09-01

    A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and sales volumes provided by the manufactures. The daily intake of sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid were estimated for children (1- to 13-years-old) and adults according to the current intake level and a substitution scenario where it was assumed that all consumed beverages contained intense sweeteners. The change from sugar sweetened to diet beverages reduced the total intake of added sugar for all age groups but especially for adolescent. This change did not result in intake of intense sweeteners from beverages above the respective ADIs. However, the intake of acesulfame K approached ADI for small children and the total intake of benzoic acid was increased to above ADI for most age groups. The highest intake of benzoic acid was observed for 1- to 2-year-old children, and benzoic acid intake in Norwegian children is therefore considered to be of special concern.

  3. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DIETARY INTAKE OF PATIENTS ATTENDING THE PRE-DIALYSIS ASSESSMENT CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor nutrition status at the start of dialysis is associated with morbidity and mortality. Timely management of patients with ESKD pre-dialysis including providing nutrition intervention is important. The aim of this study was to describe the baseline nutritional status and dietary intake of patients attending the pre-dialysis assessment clinic. Of the 210 patient assessed, 60.5% were male; mean age was 65.7±13.6 years and mean GFR was 17.0±4.2 ml/min. 17.1% were underweight (BMI26 kg/m2. 39.5% were rated as malnourished (SGA score B&C and 18.5% were overweight/obese and malnourished. 26.7% had MAMC 10% less than 50th percentile of the standard. Mean energy and protein intakes were 23.4±6.9 kcal/kg IBW/d and 1.16±0.43 g/kg IBW/d with 65.5% and 15.6% did not meet the recommended intake of energy and protein respectively. 48% of patients experienced symptoms (e.g. poor appetite and nausea affecting dietary intake while 15.7% of patients self-imposed dietary restriction inappropriately due to misconception of nutrition requirements in ESKD. 41.4% and 85.2% did not consume adequate fruit and vegetables of 2 and 5 serves per day respectively based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Nutrient intake (prevalence % below the Recommended Daily Intake (DRI levels were: VitB1 (36.5%, VitB2 (43.5%, Niacin (3.9%, VitC (202%, VitE (41.0%, folate (83.2%, VitA (50.5%, Mg (94.5%, Fe (36.1%, Zn (70.8% and dietary fibre (83.3%. In conclusion, patients attended the current pre-dialysis assessment clinic presented with parameters indicative of poor nutritional health. This clinic may provide an opportunity to optimise nutritional status of ESKD patients before dialysis is required.

  4. Energy intake and expenditure assessed 'in-season' in an elite European rugby union squad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Warren J; Cavanagh, Bryce; Douglas, William; Donovan, Timothy F; Twist, Craig; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union (RU) is a complex high-intensity intermittent collision sport with emphasis placed on players possessing high lean body mass and low body fat. After an 8 to 12-week pre-season focused on physiological adaptations, emphasis shifts towards competitive performance. However, there are no objective data on the physiological demands or energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) for elite players during this period. Accordingly, in-season training load using global positioning system and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), alongside six-day assessments of EE and EI were measured in 44 elite RU players. Mean weekly distance covered was 7827 ± 954 m and 9572 ± 1233 m with a total mean weekly sRPE of 1776 ± 355 and 1523 ± 434 AU for forwards and backs, respectively. Mean weekly EI was 16.6 ± 1.5 and 14.2 ± 1.2 megajoules (MJ) and EE was 15.9 ± 0.5 and 14 ± 0.5 MJ. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 3.5 ± 0.8 and 3.4 ± 0.7 g.kg(-1) body mass, protein intake was 2.7 ± 0.3 and 2.7 ± 0.5 g.kg(-1) body mass, and fat intake was 1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.3 g.kg(-1) body mass. All players who completed the food diary self-selected a 'low' CHO 'high' protein diet during the early part of the week, with CHO intake increasing in the days leading up to a match, resulting in the mean EI matching EE. Based on EE and training load data, the EI and composition seems appropriate, although further research is required to evaluate if this diet is optimal for match day performance.

  5. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  6. Duplicate portion sampling combined with spectrophotometric analysis affords the most accurate results when assessing daily dietary phosphorus intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Zambrano, Esmeralda; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Agil, Ahmad; Olalla, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    The assessment of daily dietary phosphorus (P) intake is a major concern in human nutrition because of its relationship with Ca and Mg metabolism and osteoporosis. Within this context, we hypothesized that several of the methods available for the assessment of daily dietary intake of P are equally accurate and reliable, although few studies have been conducted to confirm this. The aim of this study then was to evaluate daily dietary P intake, which we did by 3 methods: duplicate portion sampling of 108 hospital meals, combined either with spectrophotometric analysis or the use of food composition tables, and 24-hour dietary recall for 3 consecutive days plus the use of food composition tables. The mean P daily dietary intakes found were 1106 ± 221, 1480 ± 221, and 1515 ± 223 mg/d, respectively. Daily dietary intake of P determined by spectrophotometric analysis was significantly lower (P < .001) and closer to dietary reference intakes for adolescents aged from 14 to 18 years (88.5%) and adult subjects (158.1%) compared with the other 2 methods. Duplicate portion sampling with P analysis takes into account the influence of technological and cooking processes on the P content of foods and meals and therefore afforded the most accurate and reliable P daily dietary intakes. The use of referred food composition tables overestimated daily dietary P intake. No adverse effects in relation to P nutrition (deficiencies or toxic effects) were encountered.

  7. A genetic risk tool for obesity predisposition assessment and personalized nutrition implementation based on macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Leticia; Cuervo, Marta; Milagro, Fermín I; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    There is little evidence about genetic risk score (GRS)-diet interactions in order to provide personalized nutrition based on the genotype. The aim of the study was to assess the value of a GRS on obesity prediction and to further evaluate the interactions between the GRS and dietary intake on obesity. A total of 711 seekers of a Nutrigenetic Service were examined for anthropometric and body composition measurements and also for dietary habits and physical activity. Oral epithelial cells were collected for the identification of 16 SNPs (related with obesity or lipid metabolism) using DNA zip-coded beads. Genotypes were coded as 0, 1 or 2 according to the number of risk alleles, and the GRS was calculated by adding risk alleles with such a criterion. After being adjusted for gender, age, physical activity and energy intake, the GRS demonstrated that individuals carrying >7 risk alleles had in average 0.93 kg/m(2) of BMI, 1.69 % of body fat mass, 1.94 cm of waist circumference and 0.01 waist-to-height ratio more than the individuals with ≤7 risk alleles. Significant interactions for GRS and the consumption of energy, total protein, animal protein, vegetable protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates and fiber intake on adiposity traits were found after adjusted for confounders variables. The GRS confirmed that the high genetic risk group showed greater values of adiposity than the low risk group and demonstrated that macronutrient intake modifies the GRS association with adiposity traits.

  8. A simple dietary assessment tool to monitor food intake of hospitalized adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiningsari D

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dwi Budiningsari,1,2 Suzana Shahar,1 Zahara Abdul Manaf,1 Susetyowati Susetyowati2 1Dietetic Programme, School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Health Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Background/objectives: Monitoring food intake of patients during hospitalization using simple methods and minimal training is an ongoing problem in hospitals. Therefore, there is a need to develop and validate a simple, easy to use, and quick tool that enables staff to estimate dietary intake. Thus, this study aimed to develop and validate the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT.Subjects and methods: A total of 37 health care staff members consisting of dietitians, nurses, and serving assistants estimated 130 breakfast and lunch meals consumed by 67 patients using PDAT. PDAT was developed based on the hospital menu that consists of staple food (rice or porridge, animal source protein (chicken, meat, eggs, and fish, and non-animal source protein (tau fu and tempeh, with a total of six pictorials of food at each meal time. Weighed food intake was used as a gold standard to validate PDAT. Agreement between methods was analyzed using correlations, paired t-test, Bland–Altman plots, kappa statistics, and McNemar’s test. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic were calculated to identify whether patients who had an inadequate food intake were categorized as at risk by the PDAT, based on the food weighing method. Agreement between different backgrounds of health care staff was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient and analysis of variance test.Results: There was a significant correlation between the weighing food method and PDAT for energy (r=0.919, P<0.05, protein (r=0.843, P<0.05, carbohydrate (r=0.912, P<0.05, and fat (r=0.952; P<0.05. Nutrient intakes as assessed using

  9. Assessment of the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria: I. Nutrient intake and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabayek, Magda M

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria city, on the basis of nutrient intake and food consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics and dietary data were determined in a sample of 231 disabled children chosen randomly from five specialized day care centers. Results showed that the age of the sample ranged from less than 7 to 24 years with a mean age of 12.6 +/- 4.7 years. Mental retardation represents the highest proportion of subjects followed by Down's syndrome and then Autism Male subjects were found to consume higher nutrients than females at all ages except age under seven years. The intake of both gender was less than the recommended for energy, calcium, vitamin A, niacin and zinc. While the intake of protein and vitamin C was more than the RDA Iron intake was below the recommended for females at all ages and within the acceptable level for male. The results also showed that there is a relationship between nutrient intake and disability type. Down syndrome children were found to consume more nutrients than mentally retarded and autistic subjects.

  10. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  11. A simple dietary assessment tool to monitor food intake of hospitalized adult patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiningsari, Dwi; Shahar, Suzana; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Susetyowati, Susetyowati

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Monitoring food intake of patients during hospitalization using simple methods and minimal training is an ongoing problem in hospitals. Therefore, there is a need to develop and validate a simple, easy to use, and quick tool that enables staff to estimate dietary intake. Thus, this study aimed to develop and validate the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT). Subjects and methods A total of 37 health care staff members consisting of dietitians, nurses, and serving assistants estimated 130 breakfast and lunch meals consumed by 67 patients using PDAT. PDAT was developed based on the hospital menu that consists of staple food (rice or porridge), animal source protein (chicken, meat, eggs, and fish), and non-animal source protein (tau fu and tempeh), with a total of six pictorials of food at each meal time. Weighed food intake was used as a gold standard to validate PDAT. Agreement between methods was analyzed using correlations, paired t-test, Bland–Altman plots, kappa statistics, and McNemar’s test. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic were calculated to identify whether patients who had an inadequate food intake were categorized as at risk by the PDAT, based on the food weighing method. Agreement between different backgrounds of health care staff was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient and analysis of variance test. Results There was a significant correlation between the weighing food method and PDAT for energy (r=0.919, P0.05). The PDAT and food weighing method showed a satisfactory agreement beyond chance (k) (0.81 for staple food and animal source protein; 0.735 for non-animal source protein). Intraclass correlation coefficient ranged between 0.91 and 0.96 among respondents. There were no differences in energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat intake estimated among health care staff (P=0.967; P=0.951; P=0.888; P=0.847, respectively). Conclusion In conclusion, PDAT provides

  12. Validity and Reliability of a Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Vitamin K Intake in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Misung; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess vitamin K intake in clinical and research settings based on data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V). We collected a subset of data on informative food items using the 24-hour recall method from adults aged 19 to 64 years from KNHANES V. The cumulative percent contribution and cumulative multiple regression coefficients for vitamin K intake from each food were computed. Twenty-five foods items were selected for the FFQ to assess vitamin K intake. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day food record (5DR) (n = 48). To assess the reliability of the FFQ, participants completed the self-administered FFQ (FFQ1) and a second FFQ (FFQ2) after a 6-month period (n = 54). Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, the cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots. Mean intakes were similar for vitamin K between the FFQ and dietary records, with significant correlations observed (r = 0.652), and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman plots showed no serious systematic bias between the administrations of the two dietary assessment methods over the range of mean intakes. FFQ reliability was high, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.560. This pilot study shows promising validation and reliability evidence for the use of this FFQ, which is focused on vitamin K intake in adults, as an efficient screening tool in clinical and research settings.

  13. Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements.

  14. Chronic high fructose intake reduces serum 1,25 (OH)2D3 levels in calcium-sufficient rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douard, Veronique; Patel, Chirag; Lee, Jacklyn; Tharabenjasin, Phuntila; Williams, Edek; Fritton, J Christopher; Sabbagh, Yves; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2014-01-01

    Excessive fructose consumption inhibits adaptive increases in intestinal Ca2+ transport in lactating and weanling rats with increased Ca2+ requirements by preventing the increase in serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic fructose intake decreases 1,25(OH)2D3 levels independent of increases in Ca2+ requirements. Adult mice fed for five wk a high glucose-low Ca2+ diet displayed expected compensatory increases in intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression and activity, in renal CYP27B1 (coding for 1α-hydroxylase) expression as well as in serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, compared with mice fed isocaloric glucose- or fructose-normal Ca2+ diets. Replacing glucose with fructose prevented these increases in Ca2+ transporter, CYP27B1, and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels induced by a low Ca2+ diet. In adult mice fed for three mo a normal Ca2+ diet, renal expression of CYP27B1 and of CYP24A1 (24-hydroxylase) decreased and increased, respectively, when the carbohydrate source was fructose instead of glucose or starch. Intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter activity and expression did not vary with dietary carbohydrate. To determine the time course of fructose effects, a high fructose or glucose diet with normal Ca2+ levels was fed to adult rats for three mo. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased and of FGF23 increased significantly over time. Renal expression of CYP27B1 and serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 still decreased in fructose- compared to those in glucose-fed rats after three mo. Serum parathyroid hormone, Ca2+ and phosphate levels were normal and independent of dietary sugar as well as time of feeding. Thus, chronically high fructose intakes can decrease serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in adult rodents experiencing no Ca2+ stress and fed sufficient levels of dietary Ca2+. This finding is highly significant because fructose constitutes a substantial portion of the average diet of Americans already deficient in vitamin D.

  15. Estudio nutricional para evaluar el aporte de calcio sobre la dieta de una leche fermentada enriquecida en calcio y vitamina D (Densia® en mujeres postmenopáusicas Nutritional trial to evaluate calcium intake in postmenopausic women on a diet of fermented milk enriched in calcium and vitamin D (Densia®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª E. González Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el aporte de calcio sobre la dieta de una unidad de leche fermentada enriquecida en Calcio y vitamina D sobre los niveles diarios de ingesta de Calcio en mujeres postmenopáusicas. Población del estudio: 261 mujeres postmenopáusicas. Método: Estudio nutricional exploratorio de 28 días de duración. A los individuos de la muestra se les proporcionó recomendaciones dietéticas para aumentar el aporte de calcio en la dieta y pautas de ejercicio físico junto con una unidad diaria de leche fermentada enriquecida en Calcio y vitamina D (Densia® que consumieron diariamente durante los 28 días de duración del estudio. Se valoró la ingesta dietética de calcio pre y post intervención mediante encuesta dietética. Resultados: La cantidad media en miligramos de Calcio ingerida fue superior después de la intervención frente a la media al inicio del estudio, aumentando incluso el porcentaje de mujeres que llegaban a las recomendaciones diarias de calcio para su franja de edad. Conclusión: El aporte de calcio diario a través de medidas dietéticas y el consumo de una unidad diaria de leche fermentada enriquecida en calcio y vitamina D incrementa el aporte dietético diario de calcio. No obstante, un porcentaje de la muestra seguía presentando valores de aporte diario de calcio por debajo de las recomendaciones dietéticas, indicando la necesidad de adoptar medidas mas intensivas para alcanzar las recomendaciones de ingesta diaria de calcio.Aim: To analyse the calcium contribution of one unit of fermented milk enriched with calcium and vitamin D in the daily calcium intake for postmenoupausic women. Subjects: 261 postmenoupausic women. Methods: 28 day duration of exploratoy, nutritional trial. All subjects received dietary advice on how to increase calcium intake in the daily diet and excercise recommendations with a unit of a fermented milk enriched with calcium and vitamin D (Densia® which was comsumed daily for the 28 day

  16. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 – 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement

  17. Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%. Height, weight, fat mass (FM, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2 (overall obesity; WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І and waist hip ratio (WHR ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П. The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P0.05. Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.

  18. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  19. GLOBOX: A spatially differentiated global fate, intake and effect model for toxicity assessment in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener Sleeswijk, Anneke; Heijungs, Reinout

    2010-06-15

    GLOBOX is a model for the calculation of spatially differentiated LCA toxicity characterisation factors on a global scale. It can also be used for human and environmental risk assessment. The GLOBOX model contains equations for the calculation of fate, intake and effect factors, and equations for the calculation of LCA characterisation factors for human toxicity and ecotoxicity. The model is differentiated on the level of 239 countries/territories and 50 seas/oceans. Each region has its own set of homogeneous compartments, and the regions are interconnected by atmospheric and aquatic flows. Multimedia transport and degradation calculations are largely based on the EUSES 2.0 multimedia model, and are supplemented by specific equations to account for the advective air and water transport between different countries and/or seas. Metal-specific equations are added to account for speciation in fresh and marine surface water. Distribution parameters for multimedia transport equations are differentiated per country or sea with respect to geographic features, hydrology, and climate. The model has been tested with nitrobenzene as a test chemical, for emissions to all countries in the world. Spatially differentiated characterisation factors turn out to show wide ranges of variation between countries, especially for releases to inland water and soil compartments. Geographic position, distribution of lakes and rivers and variations in environmental temperature and rain rate are decisive parameters for a number of different characterisation factors. Population density and dietary intake play central roles in the variation of characterisation factors for human toxicity. Among the countries that show substantial deviations from average values of the characterisation factors are not only small and remote islands, but also countries with a significant economic production rate, as indicated by their GDPs. It is concluded that spatial differentiation between countries is an important

  20. Inadequate calcium intake is a significant determinant on generalised osteopenia in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis%膳食钙不足对香港青少年先天性脊柱侧凸全身骨质密度偏低的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德强; 郑振耀; 张笑; 郭霞; 秦岭; 何雪鹦; 刘德辉

    2003-01-01

    (Norland XR 36) and pQCT (Densiscan 1000) respectively. Calcium and other nutrients intakes were assessed by a foodfrequency method.The results showed that absolute calcium intake of the s ubjects were low (<500mg/d). Mean calcium intake of AIS girls was significantly higher than that of controls[(441±344)mg/d vs.(390±281)mg/d,P=0.015]. BMD of AIS was significantly lower than that of controls at most skeletal sites fro m age 11-16 years (P≤0.05). The percentage difference in BMD increased wit h age between the AIS and control group. Furthermore, calcium intake was significantl y correlated with BMD at most skeletal sites from age 1516 years. However, thi s ass ociation was not found in the controls. Calcium intake was an independent determ inant to predict variation of BMD after controlling for confounding variables in multivariate analysis. It is suggested that absolute calcium intake of AIS was low. BMD at various skeletal sites of the AIS was consistently lower than those of contr ols across different adolescent years, and that the correlation between calcium intake and BMD occurs only in AIS but not in healthy control girls implying the importance of calcium in bone mineral gain among the AIS, and it also reflected an abnormal mechanism of calcium homeostasis and bone turnover in AIS. Further c alcium interventional study is warranted to confirm the effect of calcium on BMD acquisition in AIS.

  1. Validation of a web-based questionnaire to assess the dietary intake of Brazilian children aged 7-10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food Intake and Physical Activity of School Children (CAAFE) comprises an online questionnaire to self-report diet and physical activity of Brazilian schoolchildren. The present study aimed to assess the validity (matches, omissions and intrusions) and moderating factors of the CAAFE. Direct obs...

  2. 78 FR 20672 - Literature Review Approach “Identifying Research Needs for Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Literature Review Approach ``Identifying Research Needs for... Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of Folic Acid,'' for review of the pertinent literature. The document is... discussion at the workshop. As background for the workshop, a literature review document on these...

  3. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

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    Eysteinsdottir Tinna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71. A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33. The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61. An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37. Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between

  4. Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2009-03-01

    The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake.

  5. Picky/fussy eating in children: Review of definitions, assessment, prevalence and dietary intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Wernimont, Susan M; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline M

    2015-12-01

    Picky eating (also known as fussy, faddy or choosy eating) is usually classified as part of a spectrum of feeding difficulties. It is characterised by an unwillingness to eat familiar foods or to try new foods, as well as strong food preferences. The consequences may include poor dietary variety during early childhood. This, in turn, can lead to concern about the nutrient composition of the diet and thus possible adverse health-related outcomes. There is no single widely accepted definition of picky eating, and therefore there is little consensus on an appropriate assessment measure and a wide range of estimates of prevalence. In this review we first examine common definitions of picky eating used in research studies, and identify the methods that have been used to assess picky eating. These methods include the use of subscales in validated questionnaires, such as the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and the Child Feeding Questionnaire as well as study-specific question(s). Second, we review data on the prevalence of picky eating in published studies. For comparison we present prevalence data from the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in children at four time points (24, 38, 54 and 65 months of age) using a study-specific question. Finally, published data on the effects of picky eating on dietary intakes (both variety and nutrient composition) are reviewed, and the need for more health-related data and longitudinal data is discussed.

  6. Impact of calcium and TOC on biological acidification assessment in Norwegian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Susanne C

    2011-02-15

    Acidification continues to be a major impact in freshwaters of northern Europe, and the biotic response to chemical recovery from acidification is often not a straightforward process. The focus on biological recovery is relevant within the context of the EU Water Framework Directive, where a biological monitoring system is needed that detects differences in fauna and flora compared to undisturbed reference conditions. In order to verify true reference sites for biological analyses, expected river pH is modeled based on Ca and TOC, and 94% of variability in pH at reference sites is explained by Ca alone, while 98% is explained by a combination of Ca and TOC. Based on 59 samples from 28 reference sites, compared to 547 samples from 285 non-reference sites, the impact of calcium and total organic carbon (TOC) on benthic algae species composition, expressed as acidification index periphyton (AIP), is analyzed. Rivers with a high Ca concentration have a naturally higher AIP, and TOC affects reference AIP only at low Ca concentrations. Four biological river types are needed for assessment of river acidification in Norway based on benthic algae: very calcium-poor, humic rivers (CaTOC>2 mg/l); very calcium-poor, clear rivers (CaTOC4 mg/l). A biological assessment system for river acidification in Norway based on benthic algae is presented, following the demands of the Water Framework Directive.

  7. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake of women living in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNÁNDEZ-AVILA MAURICIO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the reproducibility and validity of a 116 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, designed to assess the relation between dietary intake and chronic diseases. Material and methods. To test the reproducibility of the FFQ questionnaire, the FFQ was administered twice to 134 women residing in Mexico City at an interval of approximately one year; to assess the validity we compared results obtained by the FFQs with those obtained by four 4-day 24-hour recalls at three month intervals. Validity and reproducibility were evaluated using regression analysis and Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients of log-e and calorie-adjusted nutrient scores. Results. Mean values for intake of most nutrients assessed by the two food frequency questionnaires were similar. However, means for the 24-hr recall were significantly lower. Intraclass correlation coefficients for nutrient intakes, assessed by questionnaires, administered one year apart, ranged from 0.38 for cholesterol to 0.54 for crude fiber. Correlation coefficients between energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, measured by diet recalls, and the first FFQ ranged from 0.12 for polyunsaturated fatty acids to 0.67 for saturated fatty acids. Regression coefficients between 24-hr recall and FFQ,s were all significant were significant for all nutrients, except for polyunsaturated fat, folic acid, vitamin E and Zinc. Conclusions. These data indicate that this semi-quantitative FFQ is reproducible and provides a useful estimate by which to categorize individuals by level of past nutrient intake. However, its application outside Mexico City or in different age and gender populations will require additional modifications and validation efforts.

  8. A short food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of seafood and n-3 supplements: validation with biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl Lisbeth

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seafood intake is associated with beneficial effects for human health. Seafood provides a number of nutrients beyond the traditionally known long chain marine n-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA, such as protein, vitamin D, iodine, selenium and vitamin B12. Valid assessment of dietary seafood and n-3 supplement intakes are becoming increasingly crucial when giving recommendations to populations as seafood consumption is regarded as an important part of a healthy and balanced diet. Methods The aim was to validate a short FFQ developed for assessment of dietary intake of seafood and n-3 supplements using the biomarkers marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and 25(OHD in serum. Results Fifty-three healthy Norwegians aged 30-64 years with a mean BMI of 25 kg/m2 were compliant with the study protocol. 70% reported eating seafood for dinner one to two times per week, and 45% reported to eat seafood as spread, in salads or as snack meal three to five times or more per week. The FFQ correlated significantly with both the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (r = 0.73, p Conclusion The present short FFQ predicted strongly the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes, and predicted fairly good the level of serum 25(OHD and may therefore be a valid method for assessment of seafood and n-3 supplements intake among adults.

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in foods from China: levels, dietary intake, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Xiaowei; Wen, Sheng; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Yongning

    2013-07-03

    A national survey of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners in various foodstuffs from the Chinese total diet study (TDS) performed in 2007 was conducted for the first time. Meats and aquatic foods had the highest average sum PBDEs (192.5 and 190.6 pg g⁻¹ fresh weight, respectively). For indicator PCBs, the highest average concentration was found in aquatic foods (628.7 pg g⁻¹ fresh weight). On the basis of measured PBDE and indicator PCB levels, the dietary intake estimate was subsequently calculated for the nonoccupationally exposed population in China. For adults, average estimated dietary intakes of PBDEs and indicator PCBs were 0.76 and 2.34 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, respectively. Health risk assessment of PBDEs using a MOE approach recommended by EFSA suggested unlikely health concern with respect to current dietary intake of PBDEs in China.

  10. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    , no significant effect was found for organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroids, whereas the number of samples with residues of benzilates, phenylamids and triazoles was insufficient to demonstrate any significant effects. An intake calculation showed that the average intake from Italian grapes was 3.9 mu g day...

  11. Assessing U.S. sodium intake through dietary data and urine biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium intake is directly related to blood pressure, a primary risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Reducing intake is estimated to save billions in U.S. health care dollars annually. Current public health recommendations and efforts targeting sodium reductions make accurate monitoring of pop...

  12. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method accurately assesses sodium intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate and practical methods to monitor sodium intake of the U.S. population are critical given current sodium reduction strategies. While the gold standard for estimating sodium intake is the 24 hour urine collection, few studies have used this biomarker to evaluate the accuracy of a dietary ins...

  13. The Role of Calcium in Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Osteoporosis results from several factors. Calcium deficiency is only one, and high calcium intake will prevent only those cases in which calcium is the limiting factor. Calcium cannot reverse, but only arrest, bone loss. A high calcium intake for every member of the population is advocated. (Author/MT)

  14. The effects of dietary calcium and protein intake on bone mass in adolescents in Beijing%青春期学生膳食钙和蛋白质对骨量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴非同; 胡小琪; 檀倩影; 左娇蕾; 王晓君; 卢佳希; 黄振武; 张倩

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索北京郊区青春期学生的膳食钙及蛋白质摄入与全身和股骨颈骨量之间的关系.方法 多层随机整群抽样的方法,选取北京怀柔区342名12~16岁学生(男生170人,女生172人).采用3d24h膳食回顾调查问卷了解膳食摄人情况.采用双能X线骨密度测量仪(Dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry,DXA)测量全身及股骨颈骨量.结果 研究对象平均每天膳食钙和蛋白质摄人量分别为316mg和70g.多元逐步回归分析发现:无论低钙组或高钙组中,体重和身高都是全身和股骨颈骨密度(bone mineral density,BMD)、骨矿物含量(bone mineral content,BMC)的主要影响因素,其他影响因素还包括性别、年龄、能量和钙、蛋白质、脂肪、碳水化合物及铁等营养素.调整性别、年龄、身高等混杂因素时,全身BMD、BMC在高钙低蛋白组最高(分别为0.804 g/m2,2010 g),而在低钙高蛋白组最低(分别为0.708 g/m2,1660 g;P <0.05).股骨BMD在高钙低蛋白组(0.809 g/m2)最高,BMC在低钙低蛋白组(3.8g)最高,而两者均在高钙高蛋白组最低(0.752 g/m2,3.51g;P <0.05).进一步调整体重后,上述差异的显著性消失.结论 除性别和年龄等不可控因素外,对北京郊区学生全身和股骨颈骨量影响最大的是体重和身高.对于钙摄入量不足的北京郊区青春期少年,高蛋白质、低钙饮食通过影响体重的变化间接地对全身和股骨颈BMD、BMC产生不利影响.%Objective To explore the relationship between dietary calcium and protein intake and bone mass of the total body and the femur in adolescents of rural area of Beijing. Methods A total of 342 12-16-year-old students (170 boys and 172 girls) in Huairou district, Beijing, were selected using multi-layer random cluster sampling method. A consecutive 3-day-food questionnaire was used to understand the dietary intake. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA ) was used to measure the bone mass of total body and the femur

  15. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  16. Intake of radioactive materials as assessed by the duplicate diet method in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Osamu; Nonaka, Shunkichi; Tada, Jun Ichiro

    2013-12-01

    A large quantity of radioactive materials was released from Reactor-II of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP). People living in the area affected by the release are concerned about internal exposures from the daily intakes of contaminated foodstuffs. In order to assess whether the people should be concerned, Co-op Fukushima (Consumer Co-operative in Fukushima Prefecture) conducted a broad survey of radiocaesium in daily meals for which local inhabitants voluntarily provided a set of duplicate meals. Analyses by the duplicate diet method were conducted from November 2011 to March 2012 and from June 2012 to September 2012, each covering 100 families throughout the prefecture. Among the 200 meals thus analysed, 12 were found to have (134)Cs and/or (137)Cs concentrations exceeding 1 Bq kg(-1). Even with the largest radiocaesium value in our survey, daily consumption of such meals throughout a year gave an annual committed effective dose that did not exceed 0.1 mSv.

  17. Cross-sectional analysis of calcium intake for associations with vascular calcification and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes from the Diabetes Heart Study123

    OpenAIRE

    Raffield, Laura M; Agarwal, Subhashish; Cox, Amanda J.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Carr, J Jeffrey; Barry I Freedman; Xu, Jianzhao; Donald W. Bowden; Vitolins, Mara Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of calcium supplements to prevent declines in bone mineral density and fractures is widespread in the United States, and thus reports of elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in users of calcium supplements are a major public health concern. Any elevation in CVD risk with calcium supplement use would be of particular concern in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) because of increased risks of CVD and fractures observed in this population.

  18. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  19. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2014-01-01

    is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults....... Design: In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6...

  20. Use and impact of usual intake models on dietary exposure estimate and risk assessment of chemical substances: a practical example for cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Sirot, Véronique; Busani, Luca; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Hulin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    To estimate of food and nutrient intakes, 24-h recalls are frequently used in dietary assessment. However intake data collected for a short period are a limited estimator of long-term usual intake. An important limitation of such data is that the within-person variability tends to inflate the intake distribution leading to a biased estimation of extreme percentiles. Statistical models, named usual-intake models, that separate the within-person variability from the between-persons variability, have lately been implemented. The main objectives of this study were to highlight the potential impact that usual-intake models can have on exposure estimate and risk assessment and to point out which are the key aspects to be considered in order to run these models properly and be sure to interpret the output correctly. To achieve the goal we used the consumption data obtained by the French dietary survey INCA2 and the concentration data collected during the French TDS2, using Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software, release 8.0. For the three substances included in this study (cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites), the exposure of the upper percentiles was significantly reduced when using usual-intake models in comparison with the results obtained in the observed individual mean models, even if in terms of risk assessment the impact of using usual-intake models was limited. From the results it appears that the key aspects to consider when using usual-intake models are: (1) the normality of the log-transformed intake distribution, (2) the contribution per single food group to the total exposure, and (3) the independency of food consumption data on multiple days. In conclusion, usual-intake models may have an impact on exposure estimates although, referring to the results, it did not bring any changes in terms of risk assessment, but further investigations are needed.

  1. 膳食钙、骨密度与儿童肥胖相关代谢异常的关系%Effects of dietary calcium intake on bone mineral density and obesity-related metabolic disorders in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮慧娟; 汤庆娅

    2009-01-01

    越来越多研究支持增加钙摄入可减少代谢综合征的发生率,儿童时期的牛奶摄入水平及保持饮用牛奶的习惯与成年后骨密度呈正相关,有助于获得更高的骨峰值.本文总结了膳食钙摄入量对骨密度和儿童肥胖相关代谢异常之间的关系.%More studies have shown that dietary calcium intake can decrease the incidence of metabolic syndrome. Milk consumption in childhood and the habit of milk drinking are positively correlated with bone mineral density in adult-hood. This article summarizes the relationship between dietary calcium and bone mineral density and obesity-related metabolic disorder in children.

  2. Factors affecting calcium balance in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ailing; Du, Weijing; Wang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng

    2010-01-01

    Chinese dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for calcium were developed mainly from studies conducted amongst Caucasians, yet a recent review showed that reference calcium intakes for Asians are likely to be different from those of Caucasians (Lee and Jiang, 2008). In order to develop calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents, it is necessary to explore the characteristics and potential influencing factors of calcium metabolic balance in Chinese adolescents. A total of 80 students (15.1+/-0.8 years) were recruited stratified by gender from a 1-year calcium supplementation study. Subjects were randomly designed to four groups and supplemented with calcium carbonate tablets providing elemental calcium at 63, 354, 660, and 966 mg/day, respectively. Subjects consumed food from a 3-day cycle menu prepared by staff for 10 days. Elemental calcium in samples of foods, feces, and urine was determined in duplicates by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The total calcium intake ranged from 352 to 1323 mg/day. The calcium apparent absorption efficiency and retention in boys were significantly higher than that in girls (68.7% vs. 46.4%, 480 mg/day vs. 204 mg/day, PCalcium retention increased with calcium intakes, but did not reach a plateau. Calcium absorption efficiency in boys increased with calcium intake up to 665 mg/day, and decreased after that. In girls, calcium absorption efficiency decreased with calcium intake. Calcium absorption efficiency increased within 1 year after first spermatorrhea in boys, but decreased with pubertal development in girls. Sex, calcium intake, age, and pubertal development were the most important determinants of calcium absorption (R(2)=0.508, Pcalcium intake, age, and pubertal development are important factors for calcium retention and absorption during growth, which should be considered for the development of calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents.

  3. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  4. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  5. Probabilistic intake assessment of multiple compounds as a tool to quantify the nutritional-toxicological conflict related to seafood consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; Verdonck, Frederik; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Willems, Jan; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2008-04-01

    Seafood represents a natural source of valuable nutrients (e.g., long chain omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs), vitamin D, and iodine), but the favourable health perception is troubled by the presence of contaminants (e.g., PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, and (methyl) mercury (MeHg)). This dualism forms the basis for an important public health conflict. The objective of this study was to calculate and evaluate the simultaneous intake of multiple beneficial and harmful compounds (LC n-3 PUFAs, vitamin D, iodine, (Me)Hg, PCBs, and dioxin-like compounds) via seafood consumption in Belgium. A methodology and a software module were developed for executing probabilistic assessments of the simultaneous intake of multiple compounds leading to better insight in the problematic nature of food items involving both health benefits and risks. The simulations concerning seafood consumption in Belgium predicted that, as far as only seafood consumption is concerned, the considered populations do not reach a sufficiently high intake for the three nutrients considered (LC n-3 PUFAs, vitamin D, and iodine). Regarding the contaminants, (Me)Hg contamination of seafood on the Belgian market does not seem to be an issue of major toxicological concern. In contrast, for dioxin-like compounds the tolerable daily intake is reached by people with high seafood consumption.

  6. Bone metabolism in postmenopausal women and effect of calcium intake on their fracture risk%绝经后妇女的骨代谢及钙摄入对骨折风险的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏代敏; 郁琦

    2011-01-01

    绝经后妇女一方面由于骨转化速率加快,矿化不足,骨矿含量降低;另一方面由于需要矿化的骨基质增加,导致机体对钙的需求量增加。同时,由于雌激素水平降低,导致肠道对钙的吸收能力及肾脏对钙的重吸收能力降低,导致钙吸收降低而排泄增加。因此,保证充足钙摄入对维持绝经后妇女骨骼结构具有重要意义。目前各国制定的钙参考摄入量不同。我国2000年制定的50岁以上妇女的适宜摄入量为元素钙1000 mg/d。增加饮食来源钙摄入是最佳的预防骨质疏松的方法。钙剂补充对增加绝经后妇女骨密度具有一定的有利作用,但对骨折风险的影响尚缺乏一致性的结论,对心血管疾病的影响尚不明确。目前的证据表明:联合补充钙剂与维生素D不增加心血管疾病的风险。%The rate of bone turnover in postmenopausal women accelerates and the newly formed osteoid is poorly mineralized, resulting in the loss of bone mineral content. Meanwhile, the requirement for calcium increases as more bone matrix needs to be mineralized. On the other hand, the reduction of serum estrogen level impairs the absorption of calcium in intestinal tract and the reabsorption in kidney, resulting in the decreased absorption and increased excretion of calcium. Therefore, sufficient calcium intake is critical for maintaining the bone structure in postmenopausal women. The reference intake of calcium differs greatly among different countries. In 2000, China established the adequate intake of calcium for Chinese women aged 50 years and older as 1000 mg/d. Diets provide the optimal source of calcium to prevent osteoporosis. Although calcium supplements have been demonstrated to be beneficial for the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, its impact on fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases remains controversial. Available evidences suggest that calcium supplements combined with vitamin

  7. Calcium balance in young adults on a vegan and lactovegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg-Mueller, Kathrin; Raschka, Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    For people in Western countries, the vegan diet has the advantage of low energy intake, but the calcium status of this strictly plant-based diet is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the calcium balance of individuals on a vegan diet in comparison with a lactovegetarian diet in a short-term investigation. Seven women and one man, ranging in age from 19 to 24 years, received during the first 10 days a vegan diet based on plant foods and calcium-rich mineral water and a lactovegetarian diet during the following 10 days. Portion size was adapted to the subjects' individual energy requirements. Calcium status was assessed by means of calcium intake in food and calcium output in feces and urine as measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition, deoxypyridinoline was measured in urine as a marker of bone resorption. The results show a significantly smaller daily calcium intake with an average of 843 +/- 140 mg in the vegan versus 1322 +/- 303 mg in the lactovegetarian diet. Apparent calcium absorption rates were calculated as 26% +/- 15% in the vegan and 24% +/- 8% in the lactovegetarian group (NS). The calcium balance was positive both in the vegan diet (119 +/- 113 mg/day) and in the lactovegetarian diet (211 +/- 136 mg/day) (NS). Deoxypyridinoline excretion showed no significant difference between the two diets (105 +/- 31 and 98 +/- 23 nmol/day). The present results indicate that calcium balance and a marker of bone turnover are not affected significantly when calcium is provided either solely by plant foods or by a diet including dairy products, despite the significantly different calcium intake levels in the diets. We conclude that a well-selected vegan diet maintains calcium status, at least for a short-term period.

  8. Assessing Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Status of HIV Seropositive Patients Attending Clinic at Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Christine Onyango

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective. To assess the nutrient intake and nutrient status of HIV seropositive patients attending an AIDS outpatient clinic, to improve the nutritional management of HIV-infected patients. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Comprehensive care clinic in Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya. Subjects. 497 HIV sero-positive adults attending the clinic. Main Outcome Measures. Evaluation of nutrient intake using 24-hour recall, food frequency checklist, and nutrient status using biochemical assessment indicators (haemoglobin, creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate (SGPT and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. Results. Among the 497 patients recruited (M : F sex ratio: 1.4, mean age: 39 years ± 10.5 y, Generally there was inadequate nutrient intake reported among the HIV patients, except iron (10.49 ± 3.49 mg. All the biochemical assessment indicators were within normal range except for haemoglobin 11.2 g/dL (11.4 ± 2.60 male and 11.2 ± 4.25 female. Conclusions. Given its high frequency, malnutrition should be prevented, detected, monitored, and treated from the early stages of HIV infection among patients attending AIDS clinics in order to improve survival and quality of life.

  9. Relative validity and reproducibility of a parent-administered semi-quantitative FFQ for assessing food intake in Danish children aged 3-9 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Andersen, Tine; Perez-Cueto Eulert, Federico Jose Armando; Toft, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the semi-quantitative FFQ (SFFQ) applied in the evaluation of a community intervention study, SoL-Bornholm, for estimating food intakes. DESIGN: The reference measure was a 4 d estimated food record. The SFFQ was completed two times...... with the food records, especially for vegetables. For most intakes, the mean difference increased with increasing intake. Gross misclassification was on average higher for energy and nutrients (17 %) than for foods (8 %). Spearman correlation coefficients were significant for twelve out of fourteen intakes......, ranging from 0·29 to 0·63 for foods and from 0·12 to 0·48 for energy and nutrients. Comparing the repeated SFFQ administrations, the intakes of the first SFFQ were slightly higher than those of the second SFFQ. Gross misclassification was low for most intakes; on average 6 % for foods and 8 % for energy...

  10. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40 were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day. The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages at a temperature of 24°±2ºC, light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours, and deionized water available ad libitum. On the 8th week of the experiment, food consumption was measured and 24-hour urine and 4-day feces were collected to determine calcium balance [Balance=Ca intake-(Urinary Ca+Fecal Ca]. RESULTS: Animals with adequate calcium intake presented higher balances and rates of calcium absorption and retention (p<0.05 than those with inadequate calcium intake, regardless of caffeine intake (p<0.05. Caffeine intake did not affect urinary calcium excretion but increased balance (p<0.05 in the groups with adequate calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Adequate calcium intake attenuated the negative effects of estrogen deficiency and improved calcium balance even in the presence of caffeine.

  11. Increased calcium absorption from synthetic stable amorphous calcium carbonate: Double-blind randomized crossover clinical trial in post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium supplementation is a widely recognized strategy for achieving adequate calcium intake. We designed this blinded, randomized, crossover interventional trial to compare the bioavailability of a new stable synthetic amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) with that of crystalline calcium carbonate (C...

  12. Assessing usual dietary intake in complex sample design surveys: the National Dietary Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia dos Santos Barbosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Institute (NCI method allows the distributions of usual intake of nutrients and foods to be estimated. This method can be used in complex surveys. However, the user must perform additional calculations, such as balanced repeated replication (BRR, in order to obtain standard errors and confidence intervals for the percentiles and mean from the distribution of usual intake. The objective is to highlight adaptations of the NCI method using data from the National Dietary Survey. The application of the NCI method was exemplified analyzing the total energy (kcal and fruit (g intake, comparing estimations of mean and standard deviation that were based on the complex design of the Brazilian survey with those assuming simple random sample. Although means point estimates were similar, estimates of standard error using the complex design increased by up to 60% compared to simple random sample. Thus, for valid estimates of food and energy intake for the population, all of the sampling characteristics of the surveys should be taken into account because when these characteristics are neglected, statistical analysis may produce underestimated standard errors that would compromise the results and the conclusions of the survey.

  13. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-09-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  14. Low calcium-phosphate intakes modulate the low-protein diet-related effect on peak bone mass acquisition: a hormonal and bone strength determinants study in female growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, C; Rizzoli, R; Ammann, P

    2014-11-01

    Peak bone mass acquisition is influenced by environmental factors including dietary intake. A low-protein diet delays body and skeletal growth in association with a reduction in serum IGF-1 whereas serum FGF21 is increased by selective amino acid deprivation. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) are also key nutrients for skeletal health, and inadequate intakes reduce bone mass accrual in association with calciotropic hormone modulation. Besides, the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mass in prepubertal children appears to be influenced by protein intake. To further explore the interaction of dietary protein and Ca-P intake on bone growth, 1-month-old female rats were fed with an isocaloric 10%, 7.5%, or 5% casein diet containing normal or low Ca-P for an 8-week period (6 groups). Changes in tibia geometry, mineral content, microarchitecture, strength, and intrinsic bone quality were analyzed. At the hormonal level, serum IGF-1, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), PTH, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), and FGF23 were investigated as well as the Ghr hepatic gene expression. In normal dietary Ca-P conditions, bone mineral content, trabecular and cortical bone volume, and bone strength were lower in the 5% casein group in association with a decrease in serum IGF-1 and an increase in FGF21 levels. Unexpectedly, the low-Ca-P diet attenuated the 5% casein diet-related reduction of serum IGF-1 and Ghr hepatic gene expression, as well as the low-protein diet-induced decrease in bone mass and strength. However, this was associated with lower cortical bone material level properties. The low-Ca-P diet increased serum calcitriol but decreased FGF23 levels. Calcitriol levels positively correlated with Ghr hepatic mRNA levels. These results suggest that hormonal modulation in response to a low-Ca-P diet may modify the low-protein diet-induced effect on Ghr hepatic mRNA levels and consequently the impact of low protein intakes on IGF-1 circulating levels and skeletal

  15. Assessing vitamin status in large population surveys by measuring biomarkers and dietary intake – two case studies: folate and vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Pfeiffer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES provides the most comprehensive assessment of the health and nutrition status of the US population. Up-to-date reference intervals on biomarkers and dietary intake inform the scientific and public health policy communities on current status and trends over time.The main purpose of dietary assessment methods such as the food-frequency questionnaire, food record (or diary, and 24-hr dietary recall is to estimate intake of nutrients and, together with supplement usage information, describe total intake of various foods or nutrients. As with all self-reporting methods, these tools are challenging to use and interpret. Yet, they are needed to establish dietary reference intake recommendations and to evaluate what proportion of the population meets these recommendations. While biomarkers are generally expensive and, to some degree, invasive, there is no question as to their ability to assess nutrition status. In some cases biomarkers can also be used to assess intake or function, although rarely can one biomarker fulfill all these purposes. For example, serum folate is a good indicator of folate intake, red blood cell (RBC folate is a good status indicator, and plasma total homocysteine is a good functional indicator of one-carbon metabolism.Using folate and vitamin D – two vitamins that are currently hotly debated in the public health arena – as two case studies, we discuss the complexities of using biomarkers and total intake information to assess nutrition status. These two examples also show how biomarkers and intake provide different information and how both are needed to evaluate and set public health policy. We also provide guidance on general requirements for using nutrition biomarkers and food and supplement intake information in longitudinal, population-based surveys.

  16. Development and reliability of an observation method to assess food intake of young children in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Sarah C; Benjamin, Sara E; Ward, Dianne S

    2007-04-01

    To our knowledge, a direct observation protocol for assessing dietary intake among young children in child care has not been published. This article reviews the development and testing of a diet observation system for child care facilities that occurred during a larger intervention trial. Development of this system was divided into five phases, done in conjunction with a larger intervention study; (a) protocol development, (b) training of field staff, (c) certification of field staff in a laboratory setting, (d) implementation in a child-care setting, and (e) certification of field staff in a child-care setting. During the certification phases, methods were used to assess the accuracy and reliability of all observers at estimating types and amounts of food and beverages commonly served in child care. Tests of agreement show strong agreement among five observers, as well as strong accuracy between the observers and 20 measured portions of foods and beverages with a mean intraclass correlation coefficient value of 0.99. This structured observation system shows promise as a valid and reliable approach for assessing dietary intake of children in child care and makes a valuable contribution to the growing body of literature on the dietary assessment of young children.

  17. Estimate of dietary intake of chloropropanols (3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP and health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavesi Arisseto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloropropanols, including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP, comprise a group of chemical contaminants with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. They have been found in a variety of processed foods and food ingredients, such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein, soy sauce, cereal-based products, malt-derived ingredients, and smoked foods. This study aimed to assess the dietary exposure to 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Brazil and verify whether the presence of these substances in foods could represent health risks. The intake was calculated by combining data on food consumption, provided by the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2008-2009, with the levels of contaminant occurrence determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The exposure to 3-MCPD ranged from 0.06 to 0.51 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 considering average and high consumers, while the intake of 1,3-DCP was estimated to be 0.0036 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 in the worst case scenario evaluated. Based on these results, it was verified that the Brazilians' exposure to chloropropanols does not present a significant health risk. However, the consumption of specific foods containing high levels of 3-MCPD could exceed the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg.kg bw-1 established for this compound and, therefore, represent a potential concern.

  18. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). Design......: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Population study, Denmark. Subjects: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. Interventions: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food...... record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. Main outcome measure: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages...

  19. Comparison between Dietary Assessment Methods for Determining Associations between Nutrient Intakes and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Vanessa A.; Harris, Margaret; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.; Thomson, Cynthia; Weber, Judith L; Houtkooper, Linda B.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to identify the role of nutrition in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. The goal of this study is to compare the equivalency of nutrient intakes assessed by diet records (DR) and the Arizona Food Frequency Questionnaire (AFFQ) and the associations of these nutrients with bone mineral density (BMD). This is a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data that was analyzed from 6 cohorts (Fall 1995–Fall 1997) of postmenopausal women (n=244; 55.7±4.6 years) participating ...

  20. Assessment of the dietary intake of total flavan-3-ols, monomeric flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Kuhnle, Gunter G C

    2014-04-28

    Dietary interventions with flavan-3-ols have shown beneficial effects on vascular function. The translation of these findings into the context of the health of the general public requires detailed information on habitual dietary intake. However, only limited data are currently available for European populations. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the habitual intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins (PA) and theaflavins in the European Union (EU) and determined their main food sources using the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. Data for adults aged 18-64 years were available from fourteen European countries, and intake was determined using the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition Database, developed for the present study and based on the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases. The mean habitual intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, theaflavins and PA ranged from 181 mg/d (Czech Republic) to 793 mg/d (Ireland). The highest intakes of flavan-3-ol monomers and theaflavins were observed in Ireland (191/505 mg/d) and the lowest intakes in Spain (24/9 mg/d). In contrast, the daily intake of PA was highest in Spain (175 mg/d) and lowest in The Netherlands (96 mg/d). Main sources were tea (62%), pome fruits (11%), berries (3%) and cocoa products (3%). Tea was the major single contributor to monomer intake (75%), followed by pome fruits (6%). Pome fruits were also the main source of PA (28%). The present study provides important data on the population-based intake of flavanols in the EU and demonstrates that dietary intake amounts for flavan-3-ol monomers, PA and theaflavins vary significantly across European countries. The average habitual intake of flavan-3-ols is considerably below the amounts used in most dietary intervention studies.

  1. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual

    OpenAIRE

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward; Wysolmerski, John

    2013-01-01

    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate ...

  2. Conservation of body calcium by increased dietary intake of potassium: A potential measure to reduce the osteoporosis process during prolonged exposure to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechay, Bohdan R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1988 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, it was proposed that the loss of skeletal calcium upon prolonged exposure to microgravity could be explained, in part, by a renal maladjustment characterized by an increased urinary excretion of calcium. It was theorized that because the conservation of body fluids and electrolytes depends upon the energy of adenosine triphosphate and enzymes that control the use of its energy for renal ion transport, an induction of renal sodium and potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na + K ATPase) by oral loading with potassium would increase the reabsorption of sodium directly and that of calcium indirectly, leading to improved hydration and to reduced calcium loss. Preliminary studies showed the following. Rats drinking water containing 0.2 M potassium chloride for six to 13 days excreted in urine 22 muEq of calcium and 135 muEq of sodium per 100 grams of body weight per day. The corresponding values for control rats drinking tap water were 43 muEq and 269 muEq respectively. Renal Na + K ATPase activity in potassium loaded rats was higher than in controls. Thus, oral potassium loading resulted in increased Na + K ATPase activity and diminished urinary excretion of calcium and of sodium as predicted by the hypothesis. An extension of these studies to humans has the potential of resulting in development of harmless, non-invasive, drug-free, convenient measures to reduce bone loss and other electrolyte and fluid problems in space travelers exposed to prolonged periods of microgravity.

  3. Calcium supplementation does not augment bone gain in young women consuming diets moderately low in calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger-Lux, M Janet; Davies, K Michael; Heaney, Robert P

    2005-10-01

    In earlier observational work, the dietary calcium:protein ratio was directly related to bone accrual in healthy postadolescent women. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that augmented calcium intake would increase postadolescent skeletal consolidation, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design. We recruited 152 healthy young women (age 23.1 +/- 2.7 y, BMI 22.5 +/- 3.0 kg/m2); their usual diets, as assessed by 7-d food diaries, were low in calcium (605 +/- 181 mg/d; 15.1 +/- 4.5 mmol/d) and in the calcium:protein ratio (10.1 +/- 2.0 mg/g). The subjects were randomly assigned to supplemental calcium [500 mg calcium (12.5 mmol) as the carbonate, 3 times/d, with meals] or placebo capsules identical in appearance; all participants also took a daily multivitamin, and they were followed for up to 36 mo with bone densitometry (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; DXA) at 6-mo intervals. A total of 121 subjects remained in the study for at least 12 mo (median time in the study, 35 mo), with a mean compliance level (observed/expected tablet consumption) of 87.7%. DXA data for these 121 subjects indicated modest but significant mean rates of increase (i.e., 0.24 to 1.10%/y) in bone mineral content (BMC; total body, total hip, and lumbar spine) and in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) but no change in total hip BMD. None of these rates of change differed by group, i.e., calcium supplementation did not have any measurable effect on bone mass accrual. By midstudy, the calcium content of the subjects' usual diets for both groups had risen by approximately 15%. The combined effect of improved intakes of dietary calcium and the small amount of calcium added by the multivitamin tablets resulted in a mean calcium intake for the control group > 800 mg (20 mmol)/d, possibly at or near the threshold beyond which additional calcium has no further effect on bone accrual.

  4. [Phosphorus intake and osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, N; Ezawa, I

    2001-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for bone metabolism, such as calcium. In general, P intake is usually adequate in our daily diet, and there is a risk of over-consumption from processed food. On the other hand, Ca intake is not always adequate from the Japanese daily diet. When Ca/P is taken from the daily diet at a level of 0.5 - 2.0, the P intake level dose not affect intestinal Ca absorption. Therefore, it is important not only to pay attention to preventing the over-consumption of P, but also to obtain a sufficient intake of Ca. For the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to consume sufficient Ca and to maintain and appropriate Ca/P balance from diet.

  5. Dietary intake of calcium and magnesium and the metabolic syndrome in the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) 2001-2010 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Schiltz, Laura; Albert, Jeffrey M; Singer, Mendel E; Swain, James; Nock, Nora L

    2015-09-28

    Higher dietary intakes of Mg and Ca, individually, have been associated with a decreased risk for the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Experimental studies suggest that a higher intra-cellular ratio of Ca:Mg, which may be induced by a diet high in Ca and low in Mg, may lead to hypertension and insulin resistance. However, no previous epidemiological studies have examined the effects of the combined intake of Mg and Ca on MetSyn. Thus, we evaluated the association between dietary intakes of Ca and Mg (using 24-h recalls), independently and in combination, and MetSyn in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study 2001-2010 data, which included 9148 adults (4549 men and 4599 women), with complete information on relevant nutrient, demographic, anthropometric and biomarker variables. We found an inverse association between the highest (>355 mg/d) v. the lowest (intakes in the highest quartile for Mg (≥ 386 mg/d) and Ca (≥ 1224 mg/d) had a lower odds of MetSyn (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.59, 0.93). Our results suggest that women who meet the RDA for Mg and Ca have a reduced odds of MetSyn but men may require Ca levels higher than the RDA to be protected against MetSyn.

  6. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake.

  7. ASUPAN KALSIUM DAN VITAMIN D PADA ANAK INDONESIA USIA 2 – 12 TAHUN [Calcium and Vitamin D Intake of Indonesian Children 2-12 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Valentina*

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food consumption is playing an important role for nutritional status of children 2-12 years old. During growth and development phase, body needs macro and micro nutrients even more than later phase. The process can not be catched up at later stage therefore it is very important to pay attention to food consumption during this phase. This study used secondary data of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS 2011-2012 which was covered recapitulation profile data of 300 children age 2-12 years old representative of 48 districts in Indonesia. The study showed that Indonesian children consuming less calcium and vitamin D-rich foods than the recommended daily allowance (RDA. It does not reflects on the result of anthropometry data, vitamin D on the blood and bone mass density since the dietary recall 24 hours shows only food consumption in that specific day while nutritional status shows a result of longer process. However, vitamin D in blood has a significant correlation with bone mass density of tibia bone (p<0.05. Deficiency of calcium and mainly vitamin D is a new finding at this time. Therefore, the study showed that fortification of calcium and vitamin min D in food become important to improve nutritional status of Indonesian children. 20% of RDA per serving size twice a day is recommended as well for fortification level of Calcium and Vitamin D.

  8. Assessment of intake of iron and nutrients that affect bioavailability of daily food rations of girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Broniecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND AIM In a human body iron occurs at a level of 3 to 5 g, 60-70 % of which are in hemoglobin, ca. 10% in myoglobin, and ca. 3% are accumulated in enzymes of cellular respiration or enzymes degrading toxic hydrogen peroxide. The other part of iron is accumulated in liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. The dietary deficiency of iron appears at its insufficient level in a diet and at impaired absorption of iron ions present in food products by a body. Groups at an especially high risk of iron deficiencies include, among others, menstruating girls in the pubescence period and women with heavy and irregular menstruations, as well as vegetarians and patients with chronic enteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of iron and nutrients that affect its bioavailability from daily food rations of girls. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 159 girls aged 17-18, students of high schools in the city of Wroclaw. The study was conducted between November 2010 and ay 2011. Girls were divided into 3 subgroups according to the BMI score. Girls’ diets were analyzed with the method of a direct interview of the last 24 hours before the test and the interview was repeated seven times. RESULTS The present study demonstrated that the intake of iron from food rations of almost all the girls surveyed was below the requirements defined for this age group. Statistically significant differences were noted in the intake of energy and nutrients among the three distinguished subgroups of girls. CONCLUSIONS Food rations of the surveyed girls were characterized by a low, compared to dietary allowances, calorific value, which resulted in deficiencies of nutrients increasing iron bioavailability.

  9. Assessment of time interval between tramadol intake and seizure and second drug-induced attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol is a synthetic drug which is prescribed in moderate and severe pain. Tramadol overdose can induce severe complications such as consciousness impairment and convulsions. This study was done to determine the convulsions incidence after tramadol use until one week after hospital discharge. Methods: This prospective study was done in tramadol overdose patients without uncontrolled epilepsy and head injury history. All cases admitted in Loghman and Rasol Akram Hospitals, Tehran, Iran from 1, April 2011 to 1, April 2012 were included and observed for at least 12 hours. Time interval between tramadol intake and first seizure were record. Then, patients with second drug-induced seizure were recognized and log time between the first and second seizure was analyzed. The patients were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU if clinical worsening status observed. One week after hospital discharge, telephone follow-up was conducted. Results: A total of 150 patients with a history of tramadol induced seizures (141 men, 9 women, age: 23.23±5.94 years were enrolled in this study. Convulsion was seen in 104 patients (69.3%. In 8 out of 104 patients (7.6% two or more convulsion was seen. Time interval between tramadol use and the onset of the first and second seizure were 0.93±0.17 and 2.5±0.75 hours, respectively. Tramadol induced seizures are more likely to occur in males and patients with a history of drug abuse. Finally, one hundred forty nine patients (99.3% were discharged with good condition and the only one patient died from tramadol overdose. Conclusion: The results of the study showed tramadol induced seizure most frequently occurred within the first 4 hours of tramadol intake. The chance of experiencing a second seizure exists in the susceptible population. Thus, 4 hours after drug intake is the best time for patients to be hospital discharged.

  10. Macronutrient and calcium intakes of rural left-behind children living in Ziyang%资阳市农村留守儿童宏量营养素和钙摄入现况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝刚; 张瑞; 张莎; 封平; 尹开武; 周欢

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解农村留守儿童营养素摄人情况以及相关影响因素,为开展营养干预、改善农村儿童营养状况提供依据.方法 分层整群抽取四川省资阳市2所农村小学二~五年级学生共计472名,使用调查问卷收集家庭构成,并采用7d连续膳食个人食物登记法收集调查对象的饮食状况.结果 非留守、双亲留守、单亲留守儿童的总能量摄入量与推荐值之比分别为0.57,0.56,0.52,总能量、脂肪、钙的摄入量差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);回归分析显示,留守类别、吃零食情况是影响农村儿童总能量摄入的重要因素.结论 农村留守儿童膳食营养素中的总能量、蛋白质、脂肪、钙的摄人量均不足.应着重针对留守儿童及其吃零食行为等方面进行膳食营养干预.%Objective To investigate the macronutrient and calcium intake status and related factors among left-behind children living in rural areas.Methods By applying the stratified cluster sampling,472 children and adolescents in grade 2-5were enrolled in rural areas to complete the questionnaires about general status and nutrient intake status.Results The ratios of gross energy intake and its RNIs for no-left-behind children,left-behind children with parents,and left-behind children with single parent were 0.57,0.56 and 0.52,and variance analysis showed that the difference was statistically significant(P < 0.05),same were the fat and calcium's intake.Regression analysis showed that the main related factors were left type,the conditions of eating snacks and so on.Conclusion The nutrient intake status of rural children especially in gross energy,fat and calcium was worrying,especially for left-behind children.So the nutrition intervention should focus on left-behind children and their behavior of eating snacks.

  11. A probabilistic assessment of calcium carbonate export and dissolution in the modern ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Gianna; Steinacher, Marco; Joos, Fortunat

    2016-05-01

    The marine cycle of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is an important element of the carbon cycle and co-governs the distribution of carbon and alkalinity within the ocean. However, CaCO3 export fluxes and mechanisms governing CaCO3 dissolution are highly uncertain. We present an observationally constrained, probabilistic assessment of the global and regional CaCO3 budgets. Parameters governing pelagic CaCO3 export fluxes and dissolution rates are sampled using a Monte Carlo scheme to construct a 1000-member ensemble with the Bern3D ocean model. Ensemble results are constrained by comparing simulated and observation-based fields of excess dissolved calcium carbonate (TA*). The minerals calcite and aragonite are modelled explicitly and ocean-sediment fluxes are considered. For local dissolution rates, either a strong or a weak dependency on CaCO3 saturation is assumed. In addition, there is the option to have saturation-independent dissolution above the saturation horizon. The median (and 68 % confidence interval) of the constrained model ensemble for global biogenic CaCO3 export is 0.90 (0.72-1.05) Gt C yr-1, that is within the lower half of previously published estimates (0.4-1.8 Gt C yr-1). The spatial pattern of CaCO3 export is broadly consistent with earlier assessments. Export is large in the Southern Ocean, the tropical Indo-Pacific, the northern Pacific and relatively small in the Atlantic. The constrained results are robust across a range of diapycnal mixing coefficients and, thus, ocean circulation strengths. Modelled ocean circulation and transport timescales for the different set-ups were further evaluated with CFC11 and radiocarbon observations. Parameters and mechanisms governing dissolution are hardly constrained by either the TA* data or the current compilation of CaCO3 flux measurements such that model realisations with and without saturation-dependent dissolution achieve skill. We suggest applying saturation-independent dissolution rates in Earth system

  12. Micronutrients intake associated with DNA damage assessed by in a human biomonitoring study

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    Carina Ladeira

    2015-05-01

    Retinol was positively correlated with oxidative DNA damage in controls. The study by van Helden et al. (2009 demonstrated that vitamin A enhances OH radical formation in the Fenton reaction, showing that vitamin A can act as pro-oxidant or antioxidant, depending on the type of radicals involved, and may lead to DNA oxidative damage (Alakhras et al., 2011. Azqueta & Collins (2012 clearly distinguished between effects of vitamin A, pro-vitamin A carotenoids, and non-vitamin A carotenoids; being the latter group almost invariably reported to protect against DNA damage, whether endogenous or induced by exogenous agents, the pro-vitamin A carotenoids show a wider spectrum of effects, sometimes protecting and sometimes enhancing DNA damage. Vitamin E was found to be positively correlated with % DNA in tail. Watters et al. (2007 also found a positive association of vitamin E and oxidative DNA damage in a healthy, non-smoking population of young adults. A possible explanation for this result stems from some evidence that in the presence of copper or in smokers with a fat rich diet, vitamin E can act as a strong pro-oxidant, nevertheless it remains an unexpected result. Results found a positive correlation between iron and % DNA in tail, meaning that higher intake of iron associates with higher DNA damage. Oxidative lesions, and more specifically 8-OHdG, is one of the most prevalent lesions induced by iron containing substances (Prá et al., 2012, however the FPG biomarker was not statistically associated with iron. There is sound evidence that iron deficiency increases genome instability, among other mechanisms, by impairing enzymes involved in antioxidant and nuclei acid metabolism (Prá et al., 2012. Results presented herein found that the amount of calories ingested was negatively correlated with both biomarkers assessed by comet assay. This was somewhat unexpected, as calories restriction reduces metabolic rate and oxidative stress, meaning that lower calories

  13. Obesity coexists with malnutrition?: adequacy of food consumption by severely obese patients to dietary reference intake recommendations

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    Jaqueline Driemeyer Correia Horvath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess the adequacy of food intake in severely obese patients and describe their main nutritional deficiencies on the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. Patients on a waiting list for bariatric surgery were sequentially recruited from March 2010 to November 2011. All subjects underwent nutritional status assessment (anthropometry, dietary recall and semi-structured interview, socioeconomic evaluation (Brazilian Association of Research Companies criteria and laboratory testing (glucose/hormone/lipid panel. A total of 77 patients were assessed, 50 of whom (76.6% were female. Mean age was 44.48±12.55 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (72.4%, binge eating disorder (47.4%, type 2 diabetes mellitus (32.9%, sleep apnea (30.3% and dyslipidemia (18.4%. Macronutrient intake was largely adequate, in view of the high calorie intake. However, some micronutrient deficiencies were present. Only 19.5% of patients had an adequate intake of potassium, 26.0% of calcium, and 66.2% of iron. All subjects consumed more than the minimum recommended intake of sodium, with 98.7% reaching the upper limit. B-complex vitamin intake was satisfactory (adequate in >80% of subjects, but lipid-soluble vitamin (A, D, E intake often fell short of the RDI. The diet of severely obese patients is unbalanced, with high calorie intake paralleled by insufficient micronutrient intake. When these patients are assessed and managed, qualitative dietary changes should be considered in addition to routine caloric restriction.

  14. Assessment of ion diffusion from a calcium hydroxide-propolis paste through dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Corazza Montero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of ions from a non-alcoholic calcium hydroxide-propolis paste to diffuse through dentinal tubules. Thirty-six single-rooted bovine teeth were used. The tooth crowns were removed, and the root canals were instrumented and divided into 3 groups: Group 1 - calcium hydroxide-propylene glycol paste; Group 2 - calcium hydroxide-saline solution paste; Group 3 - calcium hydroxide-propolis paste. After the root canal dressings were applied, the teeth were sealed and placed in containers with deionized water. The pH of the water was measured after 3, 24, 72 and 168 hours to determine the diffusion of calcium hydroxide ions through the dentinal tubules. All of the pastes studied promoted the diffusion of calcium hydroxide ions through the dentinal tubules. Associating propolis to calcium hydroxide resulted in a pH increase, which occurred with greater intensity after 72 hours. The calcium hydroxide-propolis paste was able to diffuse in dentin.

  15. Trace element intakes and (phytate)/(zinc) and (phytate)(calcium)/(zinc) millimolar ratios of some peri-urban pregnant Guatemalan women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, S.; Gibson, R.S.; Thompson, L.; Quan de Serrano, J.; Portocarrero, L.; Zepeda, E.; Lopez, C.Y. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Center for Studies on Sensory Impairment, Aging and Metabolism, Guatemala City (Guatemala))

    1991-03-15

    Repeated 24-hr recalls were conducted on 52 peri-urban Guatemalan women aged 25 {plus minus} 5 years during the third trimester of pregnancy from which trace element intakes and millimolar ratios of phytate (Ph)/(Zn) and (Ph)(Ca)/(Zn) were calculated. Food composition values for trace elements and phytate were based on chemical analysis and the literature. Mean intakes were: Zn 11.3 {plus minus} 2.7; Cu 1.3 {plus minus} 0.3; Mn 2.8 {plus minus} 0.6; Ca 727 {plus minus} 163; Ph 2,254 {plus minus} 773; dietary fiber (g/d) 27.6 {plus minus} 8.0. 94% of the women had Zn intakes below the WHO recommendations. Tortillas were a major source of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ca, and phytate; only 19% of Zn was from animal foods. Mean ({plus minus}SD) mM ratios of (Ph)/(Zn), and (Ph)(Ca)/(Zn) per 4.2 MJ were 18.8 {plus minus} 4.2 and 168 {plus minus} 51, respectively. Of the women, 79% and 38% had (Ph)/(Zn) > 15 and > 20 respectively, whereas 94% had mM ratios (Ph)(Ca)/(Zn) per 4.2 MJ > 91. The high prevalence of dietary (Ph)/(Zn) and (Ph)(Ca)/(Zn) mM ratios per 4.2 MKJ above suggested critical values may comprise the zinc status of these pregnant women.

  16. Essential Nutrient Interactions: Does Low or Suboptimal Magnesium Status Interact with Vitamin D and/or Calcium Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanoff, Andrea; Dai, Qi; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-01-01

    Although much is known about magnesium, its interactions with calcium and vitamin D are less well studied. Magnesium intake is low in populations who consume modern processed-food diets. Low magnesium intake is associated with chronic diseases of global concern [e.g., cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and skeletal disorders], as is low vitamin D status. No simple, reliable biomarker for whole-body magnesium status is currently available, which makes clinical assessment and interpretation of human magnesium research difficult. Between 1977 and 2012, US calcium intakes increased at a rate 2-2.5 times that of magnesium intakes, resulting in a dietary calcium to magnesium intake ratio of >3.0. Calcium to magnesium ratios 2.8 can be detrimental, and optimal ratios may be ∼2.0. Background calcium to magnesium ratios can affect studies of either mineral alone. For example, US studies (background Ca:Mg >3.0) showed benefits of high dietary or supplemental magnesium for CVD, whereas similar Chinese studies (background Ca:Mg vitamin D is widely recommended in US age-sex groups with low dietary magnesium. Magnesium is a cofactor for vitamin D biosynthesis, transport, and activation; and vitamin D and magnesium studies both showed associations with several of the same chronic diseases. Research on possible magnesium and vitamin D interactions in these human diseases is currently rare. Increasing calcium to magnesium intake ratios, coupled with calcium and vitamin D supplementation coincident with suboptimal magnesium intakes, may have unknown health implications. Interactions of low magnesium status with calcium and vitamin D, especially during supplementation, require further study.

  17. Relative Validity of Three Food Frequency Questionnaires for Assessing Dietary Intakes of Guatemalan Schoolchildren.

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    Jessica Marcinkevage

    Full Text Available To determine the relative validity of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs compared with results from 24-hour dietary recalls for measuring dietary intakes in Guatemalan schoolchildren.A cross-sectional study of primary caregivers (mothers or grandmothers of 6-11 year-old children. Caregivers completed one of three constructed FFQs to measure the child's dietary consumption in the last week: FFQ1 did not incorporate portion sizes; FFQ2 provided portion sizes; and FFQ3 incorporated pictures of median portion sizes. During the same week, each caregiver also completed three 24-hour dietary recalls. Results from the FFQ were compared with corresponding results from the 24-hour dietary recalls.Santa Catarina Pinula, peri-urban Guatemala City.Caregivers (n = 145 of 6-11 year-old children: 46 completed FFQ1, 49 completed FFQ2, and 50 completed FFQ3.The mean values for all nutrients obtained from the 24-hour dietary recall were lower than for those obtained from the FFQs, excluding folic acid in FFQ3, cholesterol and zinc in FFQ2, and cholesterol, folic acid, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and zinc in FFQ1. Energy-adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.07 (protein to 0.54 (cholesterol for FFQ1 and from 0.05 to 0.74 for FFQ2 and FFQ3. Agreement by both methods (FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls of classifying children into the same or adjacent quartiles of energy-adjusted nutrient consumption ranged from 62.0% for cholesterol to 95.9% for vitamin B12 across all three FFQs.Our FFQs had moderate to good relative validity in measuring energy and nutrient intakes for 6-11 year-old Guatemalan children. More evidence is needed to evaluate their reproducibility and applicability in similar populations.

  18. Total calcium absorption is similar from infant formulas with and without prebiotics and exceeds that in human milk-fed infants

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    Hicks Penni D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1 To evaluate calcium absorption in infants fed a formula containing prebiotics (PF and one without prebiotics (CF. 2 To compare calcium absorption from these formulas with a group of human milk-fed (HM infants. Methods A dual tracer stable isotope method was used to assess calcium absorption in infants exclusively fed CF (n = 30, PF (n = 25 or HM (n = 19. Analysis of variance was used to analyze calcium intake, fractional calcium absorption, and the amount of calcium absorbed. Results Calcium intake (Mean ± SEM for PF was 534 ± 17 mg/d and 557 ± 16 mg/d for CF (p = 0.33. Fractional calcium absorption was 56.8 ± 2.6 % for PF and 59.2 ± 2.3 % for CF (p = 0.49. Total calcium absorbed for PF was 300 ± 14 mg/d and 328 ± 13 mg/d for CF (p = 0.16. For HM infants calcium intake was 246 ± 20 mg/d, fractional calcium absorption was 76.0 ± 2.9 % and total calcium absorbed was 187 ± 16 mg/d (p Conclusions Despite lower fractional calcium absorption of CF and PF compared to HM, higher calcium content in both led to higher total calcium absorption compared to HM infants. No significant effect of prebiotics was observed on calcium absorption or other markers of bone mineral metabolism.

  19. Guidance for the assessment of a chronic intake of workers in a nuclear fuel facility in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, A.M.; Spinella, M.R. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires - Republica Argentina (Argentina); Gomez Parada, I. [Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccio, Buenos Aires - Republica Argentina (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Todays trend for the design of internal dose monitoring programmes of workers applying the ICRP respiratory tract model requires taking into account the specific absorption parameters of the compounds and the physical data of the workplace aerosols. The aim of this analysis is to determine the specific ALIs and to establish reference levels for the assessment of chronic intake of workers, using the data from individual monitoring (pulmonary burden and urinary and fecal excretion) for natural uranium and uranium with 3.5 % and 20 % enrichment. In this paper the I.M.B.A. and AIDE software were used applying the respiratory tract model and the uranium biokinetic model published by ICRP taking into consideration the specific parameters of the uranium compounds. On the basis of this analysis, the relevance of lung, urine and faeces measurements in the individual monitoring of workers for internal dosimetry purposes is discussed It is concluded that these monitoring methods are useful for confirming that ALIs have not been exceeded and to assure that daily intakes are below the toxicological limits (2 mg/d) but it is necessary considering practical limitations of each method. (authors)

  20. Assessing potential diagenetic alteration of primary iodine-to-calcium ratios in carbonate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, D. S.; Lu, Z.; Swart, P. K.; Planavsky, N.; Gill, B. C.; Loyd, S. J.; Lyons, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    We have evaluated iodine-to-calcium (I/Ca) ratios from a series of carbonate samples with well-constrained histories of diagenetic alteration to assess the likelihood of overprints on primary water column-derived signals. Because only the oxidized iodine species, iodate, is incorporated during carbonate precipitation, I/Ca ratios have strong potential as proxies for both marine redox and carbon cycling. This utility lies with the combination of iodate's redox sensitivity as well as the close association between iodine and marine organic matter. However, despite the possibility of large pore water iodine enrichments relative to overlying seawater, carbonate alteration under reducing diagenetic conditions, and iodate-to-iodide reduction, no study has assessed the prospect of diagenetic alteration of primary I/Ca ratios. Here, we evaluated aragonite-to-calcite transformations and dolomitization within the Key Largo Limestone of South Florida and the Clino and Unda drill cores of the Bahamas Bank. Also, early burial diagenesis was studied through analysis of I/Ca ratios in short cores from a variety of shallow settings within the Exuma Bay, Bahamas. Further, we evaluated authigenic carbonates through analysis of iodine in concretions constrained to have formed during varying stages of evolving pore fluid chemistry. In all cases, I/Ca ratios show the potential for diagenetic iodine loss relative to water-column derived values, consistent with observations of quantitative reduction of dissolved iodate to iodide in pore waters before or synchronous with carbonate alteration. In no case, however, did we observe an increase in I/Ca during diagenetic transformation. Our results suggest both that primary I/Ca values and trends can be preserved but that maximum I/Ca ratios should be considered a minimum estimate of seawater iodate. We recommend that ancient carbonates with distinct I/Ca trends not indicative of diagenetic iodine loss reflect preservation of or very early

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

  2. The effects of calcium hydroxide-treated whole-plant and fractionated corn silage on intake, digestion, and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D E; Bender, R W; Shinners, K J; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate, in dairy cattle, the effects of calcium hydroxide treatment of whole-plant corn and a treatment applied to the bottom stalk fraction of the corn plant, achieved by harvesting corn in 2 crop streams. The treatments were calcium hydroxide-treated corn silage (TRTCS), toplage supplemented with calcium hydroxide-treated stalklage (TPL), a positive control of brown midrib corn silage (BMR), and a negative control of conventional whole-plant corn silage (WPCS). The toplage was harvested at a height of 82 cm with 2 of the 6 rows set as ear-snapping to incorporate higher tissues into the stalklage. Stalklage was harvested at 12 cm, and other corn silages were harvested at 27 cm. Sixteen pens, each with 8 Holstein cows averaging 70±25 d in milk and 46±11 kg of milk d(-1), were assigned 4 per treatment in a completely randomized design. The diet was approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate on a dry matter basis. A 2-wk covariate period with conventional corn silage was followed by an 8-wk treatment period in which the 4 corn silage treatments were the only effective difference in diets. Cows fed TPL and TRTCS consumed more (1.9 and 1.4 kg of organic matter d(-1), respectively) than did cows fed WPCS. Milk yield was greater for cows fed BMR, TPL, and TRTCS. Cows fed BMR and TPL produced 2.9 and 2.7 kg d(-1), respectively, more energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows fed WPCS, and cows fed TRTCS had the greatest ECM production (4.8 kg of ECM d(-1) greater than cows fed WPCS). No differences in body weight or body condition scored were observed. Milk fat concentration was similar among treatments and milk protein concentration was reduced for TRTCS. Starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were greater for cows fed TRTCS.

  3. Involvement of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in nicotinic calcium responses in dystrophic myotubes assessed by near-plasma membrane calcium measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Olivier; Boittin, François-Xavier; Dorchies, Olivier M; Chatton, Jean-Yves; van Breemen, Cornelis; Ruegg, Urs T

    2004-11-05

    In skeletal muscle cells, plasma membrane depolarization causes a rapid calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors triggering contraction. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a lethal disease that is caused by the lack of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, the cytosolic calcium concentration is known to be increased, and this increase may lead to cell necrosis. Here, we used myotubes derived from control and mdx mice, the murine model of DMD, to study the calcium responses induced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation. The photoprotein aequorin was expressed in the cytosol or targeted to the plasma membrane as a fusion protein with the synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25, thus allowing calcium measurements in a restricted area localized just below the plasma membrane. The carbachol-induced calcium responses were 4.5 times bigger in dystrophic myotubes than in control myotubes. Moreover, in dystrophic myotubes the carbachol-mediated calcium responses measured in the subsarcolemmal area were at least 10 times bigger than in the bulk cytosol. The initial calcium responses were due to calcium influx into the cells followed by a fast refilling/release phase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In addition and unexpectedly, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor pathway was involved in these calcium signals only in the dystrophic myotubes. This surprising involvement of this calcium release channel in the excitation-contraction coupling could open new ways for understanding exercise-induced calcium increases and downstream muscle degeneration in mdx mice and, therefore, in DMD.

  4. Assessment of consumers' level of engagement in following recommendations for lowering sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Julio Ernesto; Schram, Grietje Anna; Arcand, Joanne; Henson, Spencer; L'abbe, Mary

    2013-10-25

    Population-wide sodium reduction strategies encourage consumer participation in lowering dietary sodium. This study aims to measure and rank consumers' level of engagement in following 23 recommendations to reduce dietary sodium and to compare variation in level of consumers' engagement by sociodemographic sub-groups. The study included 869 randomly selected participants of an online food panel survey from Ontario during November and December 2010. Rasch modelling was used for the analysis. Consumers were less likely to be engaged in 9 out of the 23 recommendations, in particular those related to avoiding foods higher in sodium and implementing sodium reduction strategies while eating in restaurants. Higher level of consumers' engagement was observed in relation to food preparation practices, including use of low sodium ingredients. In comparison to the relevant reference group, men, older individuals, with lower educational level, single, and those who do not prepare food from scratch showed an overall lower level of engagement in following recommendations to lowering dietary sodium, particularly related to avoiding processed foods. These data provide novel insights and can inform public education campaigns, and highlight the need for interventions and programs targeted at the food supply that can assist consumers in lowering their sodium intake.

  5. Assessment of consumers’ level of engagement in following recommendations for lowering sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Julio Ernesto; Schram, Grietje Anna; Arcand, JoAnne; Henson, Spencer; L'Abbe, Mary

    2014-02-01

    Population-wide sodium reduction strategies encourage consumer participation in lowering dietary sodium. This study aims to measure and rank consumers’ level of engagement in following 23 recommendations to reduce dietary sodium and to compare variation in level of consumers’ engagement by sociodemographic sub-groups. The study included 869 randomly selected participants of an online food panel survey from Ontario during November and December 2010. Rasch modelling was used for the analysis. Consumers were less likely to be engaged in 9 out of the 23 recommendations, in particular those related to avoiding foods higher in sodium and implementing sodium reduction strategies while eating in restaurants. Higher level of consumers’ engagement was observed in relation to food preparation practices, including use of low sodium ingredients. In comparison to the relevant reference group, men, older individuals, with lower educational level, single, and those who do not prepare food from scratch showed an overall lower level of engagement in following recommendations to lowering dietary sodium, particularly related to avoiding processed foods. These data provide novel insights and can inform public education campaigns, and highlight the need for interventions and programs targeted at the food supply that can assist consumers in lowering their sodium intake.

  6. Assessment of {sup 226}Ra age-dependent dose from water intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porntepkasemsan, Boonsom [Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: boonsom@oaep.go.th; Srisuksawad, Kanitha [Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2008-11-15

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of {sup 226}Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. {sup 226}Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L{sup -1}. The highest {sup 226}Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated {sup 226}Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1}). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1} from water intake of 2 L day{sup -1}.

  7. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55–75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m2, and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student’s t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland–Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of −0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R2 = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  8. Semiquantitative Assessment of Bowel Habits and Its Relation with Calcium Metabolism after Gastric Bypass Surgery: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Aarts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Calcium malabsorption after bariatric surgery may be harmful to skeletal health and demands for optimal skeletal management. Methods. 103 Patients were evaluated retrospectively at 12 months after surgery. The evaluation included a questionnaire about stool frequency and consistency and laboratory assessments. Results. 103 Patients, 27 males and 76 females, were included in the study. 83 Patients had an alimentary limb of 100 cm and 20 patients one of 150 cm. At 12 months after surgery, 77.7% reported changes of bowel habits, albumin adjusted calcium levels were normal in all but 2 patients, and PTH levels were increased in 35%. Correlations between semiquantified bowel scores (fecal scores and data from the laboratory demonstrated increasing PTH values along with more frequent and softer/watery stools (RR 30.5, CI 6.2–149.2, P<.001. There was a trend for higher PTH levels in patients with an alimentary limb of 150 cm. Normal PTH levels were more frequently found in case of calcium and vitamin D3 use (RR 14.3, CI 3.6–56.5, P<.001. Conclusion. This study demonstrates interrelationships between semi-quantified fecal scores, PTH levels, and the compliance of taking calcium/vitamin D3 suppletion. However, prospective randomized studies are necessary to show causal relationships.

  9. Probabilistic intake assessment and body burden estimation of dioxin-like substances in background conditions and during a short food contamination episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, B; De Henauw, S; Dewettinck, K; Talloen, W; Goeyens, L; De Backer, G; Willems, J L

    2002-07-01

    The objective was to perform a dioxin body burden estimate based on a probabilistic intake assessment of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs because of the so-called 1999 'Belgian dioxin incident'. Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used to combine detailed 7-day food intake data on the individual level from a sample of 14-18-year-old adolescents with 'background' and 'incident-related' food contamination data. In background conditions, 3% of the adolescents had an intake dioxin-like contaminants, while fish constituted the main source at the higher percentiles of intake. During the dioxin incident, the estimated median dioxin intake showed a moderate increase. At the 99th percentile, the highest intake level, and the 95% upper bound uncertainty level, peak body burden-23.73 ng TEQ kg(-1) bw-remained below body burdens that in the experimental animal or in man are accompanied by a population-based observable increase in the incidence of adverse effects. The 1999 Belgian dioxin incident most likely did not affect public health in Belgium in a measurable way, although exceptions remain possible on the individual level.

  10. Assessment of viability and acrosomal status of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus sperm after treatment with calcium ionophore and heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sa-ardrit

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the acrosomal status of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus sperm is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability and acrosomal status of Asian elephant sperm following induction by calcium ionophore and heparin using propidium iodide (PI and fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA. Semen samples were collected from elephant bulls by manual stimulation. Semen was diluted with extender, cooled to 4°C and transported to a laboratory for the experiment. Sperm cells were incubated in modified Tyrode's medium containing either 1mM calcium ionophore or 10 mg/mℓ heparin for 5 h at 39°C. Sperm recovered at the onset (0 h, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h of incubation were simultaneously assessed for the viability and acrosomal status using dual staining of FITC-PNA and PI. Results were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. A progressive increase in the proportion of live-acrosome reacted sperm was observed within 3 h of incubation in both treatment groups which slightly decreased at 4 to5 h of incubation. At 1 to 3 h of incubation, the percentage of live-acrosome reacted sperm induced by calcium ionophore was higher (P < 0.05 than those induced by heparin and the control. However, there were no statistical differences at 4 to 5 h of incubation. A progressive reduction of the percentage of motile sperm was observed in the control as well as both treatment groups. Sperm motility decreased sharply when they were incubated in calcium ionophore compared with incubation in heparin and control groups. These results indicate that the occurrence of live-acrosome reacted sperm in the Asian elephant was induced by calcium ionophore at a rate higher than that induced by heparin.

  11. Clinical and Radiographic Assessment of the Efficacy of Calcium Silicate Indirect Pulp Capping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, D.; Mannocci, F.; Patel, S.; Manoharan, A.; Brown, J.E.; Watson, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of calcium silicate cement (Biodentine) versus glass ionomer cement (GIC; control group) as indirect pulp capping materials in patients with reversible pulpitis and to compare the effectiveness of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) versus periapical (PA) radiographs in detecting PA changes at baseline (T0) and at 12 mo (T12) postoperatively. Seventy-two restorations (36 Biodentine, 36 Fuji IX) were placed randomly in 53 patients. CBCT/PA radiographs were taken at T0 and T12. Two calibrated examiners assessed the presence/absence and increase/decrease in the size of existing PA radiolucencies under standardized conditions. The Kappa coefficient evaluated statistically the effectiveness of CBCT versus PA radiographs in detecting PA changes. Chi-square/Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate the association between PA changes in CBCT with various clinical measures. Significance was predetermined at α = 0.05. Clinical success rates for Biodentine and Fuji IX GIC were 83.3%. CBCT was significantly more effective in detecting PA radiolucencies compared with radiographs (P = 0.0069). Of the teeth, 65.4% and 90.4% were deemed healthy using CBCT and PA radiographs, respectively, at T12. Healing/healed rates were 17.3%/0%, while new/progressed radiolucency were 30.8%/9.6% with CBCT/PA radiographs, respectively. Seventy-one percent of healed lesions had received Biodentine; 88% of new/progressed lesions received Fuji IX GIC. Teeth presenting with an initial CBCT PA lesion had a failure rate of 63%, whereas teeth with no initial lesion had a failure rate of 16%. Although no statistically significant difference was detected in the clinical efficacy of Biodentine/Fuji IX when used as indirect pulp capping materials in patients with reversible pulpitis, CBCT showed a significant difference in that most healed CBCT lesions had received Biodentine while most that did not heal received Fuji IX. Longer-term follow-up is

  12. Vitamin D intake, month the mammogram was taken and mammographic density in Norwegian women aged 50-69.

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    Merete Ellingjord-Dale

    Full Text Available The role of vitamin D in breast cancer etiology is unclear. There is some, but inconsistent, evidence that vitamin D is associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density (MD. We evaluated the associations of MD with month the mammogram was taken, and with vitamin D intake, in a population of women from Norway--a country with limited sunlight exposure for a large part of the year.3114 women aged 50-69, who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP in 2004 or 2006/07, completed risk factor and food frequency (FFQ questionnaires. Dietary and total (dietary plus supplements vitamin D, calcium and energy intakes were estimated by the FFQ. Month when the mammogram was taken was recorded on the mammogram. Percent MD was assessed using a computer assisted method (Madena, University of Southern California after digitization of the films. Linear regression models were used to investigate percent MD associations with month the mammogram was taken, and vitamin D and calcium intakes, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI, study year, estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT, education, parity, calcium intakes and energy intakes.There was no statistical significant association between the month the mammogram was taken and percent MD. Overall, there was no association between percent MD and quartiles of total or dietary vitamin D intakes, or of calcium intake. However, analysis restricted to women aged <55 years revealed a suggestive inverse association between total vitamin D intake and percent MD (p for trend = 0.03.Overall, we found no strong evidence that month the mammogram was taken was associated with percent MD. We found no inverse association between vitamin D intake and percent MD overall, but observed a suggestive inverse association between dietary vitamin D and MD for women less than 55 years old.

  13. Assessment of Dietary Intakes of Filipino-Americans: Implications for Food Frequency Questionnaire Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn; Matt, Georg E.; Rock, Cheryl L.; de la Rosa, Ruth; Conway, Terry L.; Romero, Romina A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe food consumption practices of Filipino-American adults, to describe how they respond to a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as a function of acculturation and sex, and to suggest modifications to the FFQ to improve dietary assessment among Filipino-Americans. Methods: Twenty-one…

  14. A stochastic exposure assessment model to estimate vanadium intake by beef cattle used as sentinels for the South African vanadium mining industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gummow, B.; Kirsten, W.F.A.; Gummow, R.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental exposure assessment model for estimating chronic intake of vanadium (a transition metal) by cattle farmed extensively in areas contaminated by vanadium pollutants. The exposure model differs from most other models in several ways: (1) it does not rely heavily on

  15. Monitoring dietary intake and physical activity electronically: Feasibility, usability, and ecological validity of a mobile-based ecological momentary assessment tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spook, J.E.; Paulussen, T.; Kok, G.; Empelen, P. van

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing body of research on complex lifestyle behaviors (eg, Dietary Intake [DI] and Physical Activity [PA]), monitoring of these behaviors has been hampered by a lack of suitable methods. A possible solution to this deficiency is mobile-based Ecological Momentary Assessment

  16. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  17. Dose assessment for inhalation intakes in complex, energetic environments: experience from the US Capstone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmette, Raymond A; Parkhurst, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Because of the lack of existing information needed to evaluate the risks from inhalation exposures to depleted uranium (DU) aerosols of US soldiers during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the US Department of Defense funded an experimental study to measure the characteristics of DU aerosols created when Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles are struck with large-caliber DU penetrators, and a dose and risk assessment for individuals present in such vehicles. This paper describes some of the difficulties experienced in dose assessment modelling of the very complex DU aerosols created in the Capstone studies, e.g. high concentrations, heterogeneous aerosol properties, non-lognormal particle size distributions, triphasic in vitro dissolution and rapid time-varying functions of both DU air concentration and particle size. The approaches used to solve these problems along with example results are presented.

  18. Avaliação da ingestão de nutrientes de crianças de uma creche filantrópica: aplicação do Consumo Dietético de Referência Assessment of nutrients intake of children in a charity daycare center: application of Dietary Reference Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Moreira Sampaio Barbosa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar a adequação aparente da ingestão dos nutrientes utilizando os valores de referência "Consumo Dietético de Referência" (Dietary Reference Intake-DRIs de 35 crianças de uma creche filantrópica, em dois momentos, no ato da matrícula (momento 1 e após seis meses de freqüência na creche (momento 2. MÉTODOS: A avaliação sócio-demográfica foi realizada através de questionário abordando renda, escolaridade, condições de moradia e saneamento básico. Para avaliação do consumo alimentar, no ato da matrícula, a história dietética foi determinada em entrevista com o responsável, com o propósito de obter informações sobre consumo habitual da criança na sua residência. Após o período de seis meses foi utilizado o método de pesagem direta de alimentos (na creche complementando com o consumo alimentar da criança na residência. A análise dos nutrientes como proteínas, ferro, cálcio e vitamina C, além das fibras alimentares, foi realizada através um programa computacional. Para comparar a adequação dos nutrientes nos dois momentos do estudo utilizou-se o teste t de Student para dados pareados (p OBJECTIVES: to compare nutrients intake apparent adequacy through reference values of Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs of 35 children of a charity daycare center in two instances, when they enrolled (instance 1 and six months after (instance 2. METHODS: socio-demographic assessment was performed through a questionnaire collecting information pertaining to income, school level, living conditions and basic sanitation. To assess food consumption at enrollment, dietary history was informed through an interview with the parent, family member or guardian on the usual intake of the child at home. Following a six month period the weighed food record method (in the daycare center was performed complemented by the food intake of the child at home. Nutrient analysis such as proteins, iron, calcium and vitamin C in

  19. Prenatal diet, nutrient intake and pregnancy outcome in urban Ecuadorian primiparas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M M; Nárváez, W M; López, A; Félix, C; López, P

    1991-03-01

    A nutritional survey was conducted in an urban public maternity hospital, Hospital Gineco-Obstétrico Isidro Ayora (HGOIA), located in Quito, Ecuador. Seventy-four primiparas in the third trimester of pregnancy were recruited to assess the influence of sociedemographic factors on food patterns and nutrient intake, and the interrelationship between prenatal nutrient intake, maternal weight gain and pregnancy outcome. Results of the regression analysis indicated that maternal education was the factor most strongly associated with nutrient intake, followed by monthly per capita income. Maternal nutrient intake was next analyzed and compared with the WHO (1974, 1985) and NRC (1980) recommended daily allowances. Results also indicated the average daily intake of energy, protein, phosphorus, vitamins C and A, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin met or exceeded the recommended daily allowances. Dietary calcium and iron intake, however, were below recommendations. Sodium and fat intake were both relatively high. Higher dietary fat intake was associated with increased birth weight, while lower protein intake was associated with increased risk of delivering a low-birth weight baby. Maternal weight gain during the third trimester predicted baby birth weight and height but not head circumference.

  20. Assessment of dietary intake of flavouring substances within the procedure for their safety evaluation: advantages and limitations of estimates obtained by means of a per capita method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, D; Leclercq, C

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for the safety evaluation of flavourings adopted by the European Commission in order to establish a positive list of these substances is a stepwise approach which was developed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and amended by the Scientific Committee on Food. Within this procedure, a per capita amount based on industrial poundage data of flavourings, is calculated to estimate the dietary intake by means of the maximised survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) method. This paper reviews the MSDI method in order to check if it can provide conservative intake estimates as needed at the first steps of a stepwise procedure. Scientific papers and opinions dealing with the MSDI method were reviewed. Concentration levels reported by the industry were compared with estimates obtained with the MSDI method. It appeared that, in some cases, these estimates could be orders of magnitude (up to 5) lower than those calculated considering concentration levels provided by the industry and regular consumption of flavoured foods and beverages. A critical review of two studies which had been used to support the statement that MSDI is a conservative method for assessing exposure to flavourings among high consumers was performed. Special attention was given to the factors that affect exposure at high percentiles, such as brand loyalty and portion sizes. It is concluded that these studies may not be suitable to validate the MSDI method used to assess intakes of flavours by European consumers due to shortcomings in the assumptions made and in the data used. Exposure assessment is an essential component of risk assessment. The present paper suggests that the MSDI method is not sufficiently conservative. There is therefore a clear need for either using an alternative method to estimate exposure to flavourings in the procedure or for limiting intakes to the levels at which the safety was assessed.

  1. Baseline Assessment of Net Calcium Carbonate Accretion Rates on U.S. Pacific Reefs.

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    Bernardo Vargas-Ángel

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive quantitative baseline assessment of in situ net calcium carbonate accretion rates (g CaCO3 cm(-2 yr(-1 of early successional recruitment communities on Calcification Accretion Unit (CAU plates deployed on coral reefs at 78 discrete sites, across 11 islands in the central and south Pacific Oceans. Accretion rates varied substantially within and between islands, reef zones, levels of wave exposure, and island geomorphology. For forereef sites, mean accretion rates were the highest at Rose Atoll, Jarvis, and Swains Islands, and the lowest at Johnston Atoll and Tutuila. A comparison between reef zones showed higher accretion rates on forereefs compared to lagoon sites; mean accretion rates were also higher on windward than leeward sites but only for a subset of islands. High levels of spatial variability in net carbonate accretion rates reported herein draw attention to the heterogeneity of the community assemblages. Percent cover of key early successional taxa on CAU plates did not reflect that of the mature communities present on surrounding benthos, possibly due to the short deployment period (2 years of the experimental units. Yet, net CaCO3 accretion rates were positively correlated with crustose coralline algae (CCA percent cover on the surrounding benthos and on the CAU plates, which on average represented >70% of the accreted material. For foreeefs and lagoon sites combined CaCO3 accretion rates were statistically correlated with total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a; a GAM analysis indicated that SiOH and Halimeda were the best predictor variables of accretion rates on lagoon sites, and total alkalinity and Chlorophyll-a for forereef sites, demonstrating the utility of CAUs as a tool to monitor changes in reef accretion rates as they relate to ocean acidification. This study underscores the pivotal role CCA play as a key benthic component and supporting actively calcifying reefs; high Mg-calcite exoskeletons

  2. Vitamin D and Calcium Status in South African Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Fein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate vitamin D and calcium are essential for optimal adolescent skeletal development. Adolescent vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and poor calcium intake have been reported worldwide. Heavy alcohol use impacts negatively on skeletal health, which is concerning since heavy adolescent drinking is a rising public health problem. This study aimed to examine biochemical vitamin D status and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in 12–16 year-old adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD, but without co-morbid substance use disorders, compared to adolescents without AUD. Substance use, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD concentrations, energy, calcium and vitamin D intakes were assessed in heavy drinkers (meeting DSM-IV criteria for AUD (n = 81 and in light/non-drinkers without AUD (non-AUD (n = 81, matched for age, gender, language, socio-economic status and education. Lifetime alcohol dose was orders of magnitude higher in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. AUD adolescents had a binge drinking pattern and “weekends-only” style of alcohol consumption. Significantly lower (p = 0.038 s-25(OHD (adjusted for gender, smoking, vitamin D intake were evident in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. High levels of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (s-25(OHD < 29.9 ng/mL were prevalent in both groups, but was significantly higher (p = 0.013 in the AUD group (90% compared to the non-AUD group (70%. All participants were at risk of inadequate calcium and vitamin D intakes (Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Both groups were at risk of inadequate calcium intake and had poor biochemical vitamin D status, with binge drinking potentially increasing the risk of the latter. This may have negative implications for peak bone mass accrual and future osteoporosis risk, particularly with protracted binge drinking.

  3. A study on first intake assessments of in-patient referrals to psychiatric rehabilitation services

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    Geetha Desai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric rehabilitation is an important component in mental health services. The rehabilitation needs of patients with mental illness have been highlighted in various studies. The studies on in-patient referrals to rehabilitation services however are sparse. This study describes the clinical and demographic details and the reasons for referrals to rehabilitation services during the in-patients stay. Materials and Methods: A semi-structured pro forma was used for the assessment of in-patients referred for the psychiatric rehabilitation services. The pro forma included socio-demographic details such as background, family resources, illness related details such as symptom status, risk assessment, medication details. The total number of referrals for a period of 5 months was collected and coded. Results: The total number of referrals for a period of 5 months was 216 and there were 197 forms available for the study. The mean age of the sample was 31.48 ± 10.46 years. Vocational rehabilitation was the commonest reason for referral to the in-patient services. Severe mental disorders were the most common diagnosis of patients refereed to the services. Conclusions: Patients with severe mental illness were most often referred to the in-patient services. This indicates that we need include to rehabilitation in the management plan at the earliest. Vocational rehabilitation is the most common reason for referrals and there is a need to develop services to cater to these needs.

  4. Risk assessment on mixture toxicity of arsenic, zinc and copper intake from consumption of milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskål), cultured using contaminated groundwater in Southwest Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Chao

    2009-07-01

    Studies on bioaccumulation of arsenic, zinc, and copper in freshwater-cultured milkfish were carried out to assess the risks on human health. The arsenic, zinc, and copper levels in milkfish showed significant positive correlations to the arsenic, zinc, and copper concentrations in pond water. The hazard index of arsenic, zinc, and copper mixture for intake of milkfish (1.75 +/- 0.65) demonstrated that intake of in this way contaminated milkfish will result in non-carcinogenic risk. The target cancer risk of arsenic for intake of the milkfish (2.74 x 10(-4) +/- 1.18 x 10(-4)) indicated that the inhabitants were exposed to arsenic pollution with carcinogenic risk.

  5. Can thyroid size still be considered as a useful tool for assessing iodine intake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Zygmunt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has always been very difficult to precisely define a goitre. For years, the borderline values have been sought which could be universally used in such evaluations. However, presented reference values were very often disappointing as they proved to be either too restrictive or too liberal. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess the two methods of goitre evaluation: 1 traditional, based on ultrasound reference ranges for the thyroid size, 2 based on the analysis of thyroid volume (V referred to the body surface area (BSA. Materials and Method. For this purpose, the study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of goitre and ioduria among 102 school-aged children in Opoczno, Poland. The study group comprised 59 girls and 43 boys; age range: 8–12 years. Results. The incidence of goitre among the examined children varied from 1.0–11.8% in relation to the age, and from 0–14.5% in relation to the BSA, depending on the references ranges used. Conclusion. Analysis of V/BSA ratio is a better estimation of the size of the thyroid gland than the evaluation of thyroid size based on traditional ultrasound reference values. Summing up, relating the size of the thyroid gland to BSA is a good, sensitive tool for such analysis, and can be used for comparisons of different populations, as well as surveys conducted at different time points.

  6. Taking Advantage of the Strengths of 2 Different Dietary Assessment Instruments to Improve Intake Estimates for Nutritional Epidemiology

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2012-01-24

    With the advent of Internet-based 24-hour recall (24HR) instruments, it is now possible to envision their use in cohort studies investigating the relation between nutrition and disease. Understanding that all dietary assessment instruments are subject to measurement errors and correcting for them under the assumption that the 24HR is unbiased for usual intake, here the authors simultaneously address precision, power, and sample size under the following 3 conditions: 1) 1-12 24HRs; 2) a single calibrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and 3) a combination of 24HR and FFQ data. Using data from the Eating at America\\'s Table Study (1997-1998), the authors found that 4-6 administrations of the 24HR is optimal for most nutrients and food groups and that combined use of multiple 24HR and FFQ data sometimes provides data superior to use of either method alone, especially for foods that are not regularly consumed. For all food groups but the most rarely consumed, use of 2-4 recalls alone, with or without additional FFQ data, was superior to use of FFQ data alone. Thus, if self-administered automated 24HRs are to be used in cohort studies, 4-6 administrations of the 24HR should be considered along with administration of an FFQ.

  7. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  8. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es

    2015-10-15

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. - Highlights: • First assessment of the dietary intake of POPs in pet animals. • Intake levels of pollutants are more than double in dogs than in cats. • Proportionality between intake of PAHs and their plasma levels in both species. • Lower levels of organochlorines in dog plasma

  9. Assessing the underlying breast cancer risk of Chinese females contributed by dietary intake of residual DDT from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Zhao, Meirong; Zhou, Shanshan; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    The greatest concern over DDT exposure in China arose since the early 1990s for the rising breast cancer incidence, and the cause still remains to be elucidated. An extensive survey of DDT background in agricultural soils, covered the entire region of China, was conducted. DDT at concentrations greater than 100 ng/g (the China's Farmland Environmental Quality Evaluation Standards for Edible Agricultural Products) was found to impact 42.3 million Chinese population. Considering the geographical differences with diverse DDT contributions and different diet products and habits, the average daily dietary intake was modeled and estimated to be 0.34 μg/kg p,p'-DDE (the main bioactive constituent in DDT). Population attributable fraction derived from a case-control study from 78 women with breast cancer and 72 controls was used to assess the DDT exposure risk to breast cancer. Based on the estimated population attributable fraction with a median value of 0.6% (IQR 0.23-2.11%), the excess annual breast cancer incidence rate attributable to p,p'-DDE exposure averaged 0.06×10(-5) with significant spatial variations varying from 0.00021×10(-5) to 11.05×10(-5) in Chinese females. Exposure to DDT is a contributor to breast cancer, but the overall limited relative risk and population attributable fraction imply confounding factors for breast cancer in Chinese females. Exposure risk in a regional scale helps understand the cause and prevention of breast cancer. Our mapping and modeling method could be used to assess other environmental carcinogens and related cancer diseases.

  10. Estimated Daily Intake and Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates in the General Taiwanese after the 2011 DEHP Food Scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung-Wei; Lee, Ching-Chang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chou, Wei-Chun; Huang, Han-Bin; Chiang, Hung-Che; Huang, Po-Chin

    2017-03-01

    A food scandal occurred in Taiwan in 2011 because the DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) had been intentionally used in food products. We assessed the daily intakes (DIs) and cumulative risk of phthalates in Taiwan’s general population after the scandal. The DIs of 6 phthalates, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and DEHP, were evaluated using urinary phthalate metabolites. Hazard quotients of phthalates classified as affecting the reproductive (HQrep) and hepatic (HQhep) systems were assessed using cumulative approach. The creatinine-based model showed that the highest DI values in children 7-to 12- years-old were for DEHP (males: median: 4.79 μg/kg bw/d; females: median: 2.62 μg/kg bw/d). The 95th percentile (P95) of HQrep values were all >1 in the 7- to 12-year-old and 18- to 40-year-old male groups. The P95 of HQhep values were all >1 in the 7- to 18- year-old male groups. Most of the HQrep was attributable to the HQs of DnBP and DiBP (53.9–84.7%), and DEHP contributed most to HQhep (83.1–98.6%), which reveals that DnBP, DiBP and DEHP were the main risk of phthalate exposure for Taiwanese. Taiwan’s general population is widely exposed to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP, especially for young children.

  11. Exposure Assessment and Inflammatory Response Among Workers Producing Calcium Carbonate Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ling

    Problem: Nanotechnology is one of the most rapidly growing fields of science and engineering, and its applications have expanded to numerous research and industrial sectors, from consumer products to medicine to energy. Nano-materials and nanotechnology promise substantial benefits. However, there are many uncertainties and concerns regarding human health and the environment. Numerous toxicological studies on animals and cells in vitro have demonstrated that nanomaterials could cause various adverse health effects, including inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and mutagenesis in the lungs, and cardiovascular and nervous system impairment. Objectives: The overall objective of this study was to characterize particulate exposures in a calcium carbonate nanoparticle manufacturing facility, investigate possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects, and explore the plausibility of an inflammatory mechanism. The associations between exposure level and various health outcomes were investigated. Methodology: Each job was characterized by mass, number and surface area concentration. Job classification was performed based on ranking of the exposure level and statistical models. Lung function tests, exhaled NO and blood pressure (BP) were measured before and after the workshift in the year of 2011. Inflammatory cytokines from induced sputum were measured cross-sectionally in the year of 2011. Data of lung function tests and blood pressure were collected cross-sectionally in the year of 2012. The associations between each exposure metric and health measures in 2012 were investigated. Only mass concentration was linked to both 2011 and 2012 health outcomes. Results: The sampling and analytic methodology used in the study presents the potential to characterize nanoparticle exposure for a variety of operational processes. We found the highest mass exposure occurred at bagging job whereas the highest number and surface area concentration was found at modification

  12. Food intake and nutritional status after gastrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisballe, S; Buus, S; Lund, B

    1986-01-01

    Food intake and nutritional status was studied in 67 patients, who had had a gastrectomy 2-30 years earlier, and in a randomly selected, matched group of healthy persons. The gastrectomized patients weighed less than the control persons (women 56.4 +/- 9.5 vs 61.4 +/- 6.9 kg; P less than 0.05; men.......01). The serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase was raised and the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol reduced in the gastrectomized group. None of these results could be explained from the nutritional study as both the intake of energy and protein and the intake of calcium...

  13. A importância do consumo dietético de cálcio e vitamina D no crescimento The importance for growth of dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline L. Bueno

    2008-10-01

    (genetic and metabolic and extrinsic factors (environmental factors such as diet, health, hygiene, housing and access to health services. Among the nutritional factors are vitamin and oligoelement deficiencies which may be associated with malnutrition or caused by insufficient absorption. Since calcium is one of the main mineral components of bone tissue, it is essential for adequate bone formation and, considering that vitamin D plays an important role in calcium metabolism, a diet with insufficient quantities of these nutrients can impact on the formation of the skeleton and on the process of growth and development. CONCLUSIONS: In children and adolescents, low intake or low absorption of calcium and vitamin D may limit their statural growth, and it is necessary to supply sufficient quantities of both during the critical growth phases.

  14. The Selection and Prevalence of Natural and Fortified Calcium Food Sources in the Diets of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Design: Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Setting and Participants: Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology…

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  16. New considerations regarding the risk assessment on Tartrazine An update toxicological assessment, intolerance reactions and maximum theoretical daily intake in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhkim, Mostafa Ould; Héraud, Fanny; Bemrah, Nawel; Gauchard, Françoise; Lorino, Tristan; Lambré, Claude; Frémy, Jean Marc; Poul, Jean-Michel

    2007-04-01

    Tartrazine is an artificial azo dye commonly used in human food and pharmaceutical products. Since the last assessment carried out by the JECFA in 1964, many new studies have been conducted, some of which have incriminated tartrazine in food intolerance reactions. The aims of this work are to update the hazard characterization and to revaluate the safety of tartrazine. Our bibliographical review of animal studies confirms the initial hazard assessment conducted by the JECFA, and accordingly the ADI established at 7.5mg/kg bw. From our data, in France, the estimated maximum theoretical intake of tartrazine in children is 37.2% of the ADI at the 97.5th percentile. It may therefore be concluded that from a toxicological point of view, tartrazine does not represent a risk for the consumer. It appears more difficult to show a clear relationship between ingestion of tartrazine and the development of intolerance reactions in patients. These reactions primarily occur in patients who also suffer from recurrent urticaria or asthma. The link between tartrazine consumption and these reactions is often overestimated, and the pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. The prevalence of tartrazine intolerance is estimated to be less than 0.12% in the general population. Generally, the population at risk is aware of the importance of food labelling, with the view of avoiding consumption of tartrazine. However, it has to be mentioned that products such as ice creams, desserts, cakes and fine bakery are often sold loose without any labelling.

  17. Dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent female aesthetic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soric, Maroje; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Pedisic, Zeljko

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent girls competing in 3 aesthetic sports (artistic and rhythmic gymnastics and ballet). Because physiological demands of ballet training are similar to those in other aesthetic sports, ballet dancers were, for the purpose of this study, regarded as athletes. The sample consisted of 39 athletes (median age, 11 years, range 9-13) and 15 controls (median age, 11 years, range 10-12). Dietary intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and body composition, by means of anthropometry. There was no significant difference in total energy intake between groups, but there was a significant difference in energy substrate distribution. Artistic gymnasts reported significantly higher carbohydrate and lower fat contribution to total energy (57% +/- 6% and 29% +/- 5%, respectively) than rhythmic gymnasts (48% +/- 6% and 36% +/- 5%), ballet dancers (51% +/- 4% and 34% +/- 3%), or controls (51% +/- 5% and 34% +/- 4%). Relative to body weight, artistic gymnasts reported higher intake of carbohydrates (9.1 +/- 4.2 g/kg) than rhythmic gymnasts (5.6 +/- 3.1 g/kg), ballet dancers (6.6 +/- 2.5 g/kg), or controls (5.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg). Artistic gymnasts also had the lowest body-fat percentage among the groups. In all the groups mean reported daily intakes of most nutrients were higher than the current daily recommended intakes. The exceptions were dietary fiber and calcium. The proportion of athletes with an inadequate reported intake was highest for phosphorus (33%), followed by vitamin A and niacin (18%) and zinc (13%).

  18. Glycoalkaloids (α-chaconine and α-solanine) contents of selected Pakistani potato cultivars and their dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Abdul; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Asghar, Ali; Yasin, Muhammad; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2012-03-01

    Glycoalkaloids (α-solanine and α-chaconine) are naturally occurring toxic compounds in potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) that cause acute intoxication in humans after their consumption. Present research was conducted to evaluate α-chaconine, α-solanine, and total glycoalkaloids (TGAs) contents in the peel and flesh portions by high-performance liquid chromatography method in selected Pakistani potato cultivars. The α-solanine content varies 45.98 ± 1.63 to 2742.60 ± 92.97 mg/100 g of dry weight (DW) in peel and from 4.01 ± 0.14 to 2466.56 ± 87.21 mg/100 g of DW in flesh. Similarly, α-chaconine content varied from 4.42 ± 0.16 to 6818.40 ± 211.07 mg/100 g of DW in potato peel and from 3.94 ± 0.14 to 475.33 ± 16.81 mg/100 g DW in flesh portion. The TGA concentration varied from 177.20 ± 6.26 to 5449.90 ± 192.68 mg/100 g of DW in peel and from 3.08 ± 0.11 to 14.69 ± 0.52 mg/100 g of DW in flesh portion of all the potato cultivars tested. All the potato cultivars contained lower concentration of TGA than the limits recommended as safe, except 2 cultivars, that is FD8-3 (2539.18 ± 89.77 mg/100 g of DW) and Cardinal (506.16 ± 17.90 mg/kg). The dietary intake assessment of potato cultivars revealed that Cardinal, FD 35-36, FD 8-3, and FD 3-9 contained higher amount of TGA in whole potato, although FD 8-3 only possessed higher content of TGA (154.93 ± 7.75) in its flesh portion rendering it unfit for human consumption. Practical Application:  This paper was based on the research conducted on toxic compounds present in all possible potato cultivars in Pakistan. Actually, we quantify the toxic compounds (glycoalkaloids) of potato cultivars through HPLC and their dietary assessment. This paper revealed safety assessment and their application in food industries especially potato processing.

  19. Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05. Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05. The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups.

  20. Elevated BMI and Male Sex Are Associated with Greater Underreporting of Caloric Intake as Assessed by Doubly Labeled Water12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Palmrose, Christina A; Burger, Kyle S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inaccuracies in energy intake (EI) measurement hinder identification of risk factors that predict weight gain and evaluation of obesity prevention and treatment interventions. Research has used objective measures of EI to identify underreporting correlates, producing mixed results, suggesting the need to examine novel potential correlates. Objective: With the use of an objective measure of EI from doubly labeled water (DLW) this report examined multiple potential underreporting correlates. Methods: Adolescents from 2 studies (study 1, n = 91; mean age: 18.4 ± 0.58 y; 100% female; study 2, n = 162; mean age: 15.2 ± 1.99 y; 82 female adolescents; 80 male adolescents) completed a DLW assessment of EI, a food-frequency questionnaire, and measures of perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, food-cue reactivity, eating disorder symptoms, socioeconomic status, and neural response to food; BMI (in kg/m2) was measured over a 2-y follow-up. Results: Elevated BMI correlated with underreported EI in study 1 (r = 0.26, P Underreporting correlated negatively (r = −0.29; uncorr P Underreporting did not predict future change in BMI in either study. Conclusions: Findings document marked underreporting and replicate evidence that BMI correlates positively with underreporting and extends this literature by revealing that several novel factors were unrelated to underreporting and further that neural responsivity to food correlated with underreporting, suggesting that adolescents who showed reduced responsivity in a motor control region to food receipt and elevated responsivity of gustatory regions to anticipated palatable food receipt showed greater underreporting. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00433680 and NCT02084836. PMID:26338886

  1. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, A; Hirvonen, T; Mensik, GBM

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent European Union regulation requires setting of maximum amount of micronutrients in dietary supplements or foods taking into account the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) established by scientific risk assessment and population reference intakes. Objective: To collect and evalu......Background: Recent European Union regulation requires setting of maximum amount of micronutrients in dietary supplements or foods taking into account the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) established by scientific risk assessment and population reference intakes. Objective: To collect...... and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E...... consume considerably less than the UL with exceptions being retinol, zinc, iodine, copper and magnesium. The major contributor to intakes for all nutrients and in all countries is from foods in the base diet. The patterns of food supplements and voluntary fortification vary widely among countries...

  2. Magnesium intake mediates the association between bone mineral density and lean soft tissue in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Monteiro, Cristina P; Vasco, Ana M; Baptista, Fátima; Sardinha, Luís B; Laires, Maria J; Silva, Analiza M

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been associated with bone disorders. Physical activity is also crucial for bone mineralization. Bone mass loss has been observed to be accelerated in subjects with low Mg intake. We aim to understand if Mg intake mediates the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and lean soft tissue (LST) in elite swimmers. Seventeen elite swimmers (eight males; nine females) were evaluated. Bone mineral content, BMD, LST, and fat mass were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed during a seven-day period and analyzed with Food Processor SQL. Males presented lower values than the normative data for BMD. Mg, phosphorus (P) and vitamin D intake were significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. A linear regression model demonstrated a significant association between LST and BMD. When Mg intake was included, we observed that this was a significant, independent predictor of BMD, with a significant increase of 24% in the R(2) of the initial predictive model. When adjusted for energy, vitamin D, calcium, and P intake, Mg remained a significant predictor of BMD. In conclusion, young athletes engaged in low impact sports, should pay special attention to Mg intake, given its potential role in bone mineral mass acquisition during growth.

  3. Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnit Kaur Grewal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three. The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection.

  4. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Nithya; Whitton, Clare; Seah, Sharna; Koh, Hiromi; Rebello, Salome A; Lim, Jia Yi; Chen, Shiqi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-08-27

    Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18-79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%-47%; and pork dishes, 0%-50%). The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

  5. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Neelakantan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18–79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%–47%; and pork dishes, 0%–50%. The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

  6. Dietary Intake according to Gender and Education: A Twenty-Year Trend in a Swiss Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Rousi, Eirini; Paccaud, Fred; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia; Guessous, Idris

    2015-11-18

    We assessed trends in dietary intake according to gender and education using repeated cross-sectional, population-based surveys conducted between 1993 and 2012 in Geneva, Switzerland (17,263 participants, 52.0 ± 10.6 years, 48% male). In 1993-1999, higher educated men had higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), carotene and vitamin D intakes than lower educated men, and the differences decreased in 2006-2012. In 1993-1999, higher educated women had higher fiber, iron, carotene, vitamin D and alcohol intakes than lower educated women, and the differences decreased in 2006-2012. Total energy, polyunsaturated fatty acids, retinol and alcohol intakes decreased, while mono/disaccharides, MUFA and carotene intake increased in both genders. Lower educated men had stronger decreases in saturated fatty acid (SFA) and calcium intakes than higher educated men: multivariate-adjusted slope and 95% confidence interval -0.11 (-0.15; -0.06) vs. -0.03 (-0.08; 0.02) g/day/year for SFA and -5.2 (-7.8; -2.7) vs. -1.03 (-3.8; 1.8) mg/day/year for calcium, p for interaction day/year, p for interaction = 0.002. We conclude that, in Switzerland, dietary intake evolved similarly between 1993 and 2012 in both educational groups. Educational differences present in 1993 persisted in 2012.

  7. Use of Transportable Radiation Detection Instruments to Assess Internal Contamination from Intakes of Radionuclides Part II: Calibration Factors and ICAT Computer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anigstein, Robert; Olsher, Richard H; Loomis, Donald A; Ansari, Armin

    2016-12-01

    The detonation of a radiological dispersion device or other radiological incidents could result in widespread releases of radioactive materials and intakes of radionuclides by affected individuals. Transportable radiation monitoring instruments could be used to measure radiation from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the body for triaging individuals and assigning priorities to their bioassay samples for in vitro assessments. The present study derived sets of calibration factors for four instruments: the Ludlum Model 44-2 gamma scintillator, a survey meter containing a 2.54 × 2.54-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Captus 3000 thyroid uptake probe, which contains a 5.08 × 5.08-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Transportable Portal Monitor Model TPM-903B, which contains two 3.81 × 7.62 × 182.9-cm polyvinyltoluene plastic scintillators; and a generic instrument, such as an ionization chamber, that measures exposure rates. The calibration factors enable these instruments to be used for assessing inhaled or ingested intakes of any of four radionuclides: Co, I, Cs, and Ir. The derivations used biokinetic models embodied in the DCAL computer software system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The three physical instruments were represented by MCNP models that were developed previously. The affected individuals comprised children of five ages who were represented by the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory pediatric phantoms, and adult men and adult women represented by the Adult Reference Computational Phantoms described in Publication 110 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These calibration factors can be used to calculate intakes; the intakes can be converted to committed doses by the use of tabulated dose coefficients. These calibration factors also constitute input data to the ICAT computer program, an interactive Microsoft Windows-based software package that estimates intakes of

  8. Assessment of Intakes and Patterns of Cooked Oatmeal Consumption in the U.S. Using Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Musa-Veloso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S. and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI. To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES. We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003–2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight and NHANES cycle (2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, 2009–2010, 2011–2012, age category (3–11 years, 12–18 years, 19–44 years, 45 years+, gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese, using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3% and older female adults (11.1%. Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies.

  9. Assessment of Intakes and Patterns of Cooked Oatmeal Consumption in the U.S. Using Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Fallah, Shafagh; O'Shea, Marianne; Chu, YiFang

    2016-08-17

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S.) and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI). To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003-2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight) and NHANES cycle (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012), age category (3-11 years, 12-18 years, 19-44 years, 45 years+), gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese), using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3%) and older female adults (11.1%). Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies.

  10. Dietary intake and nutritional status of HIV-1-infected children and adolescents in Florianopolis, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesheim, Elaine; Lima, Luiz R A; Silva, Rosane C R; Trindade, Erasmo B S M

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the nutritional status and dietary intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents and the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The sample was composed of 49 subjects aged 7-17 years and living in Florianópolis, Brazil. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age and body mass index-for-age. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Spearman correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between energy, nutrient intake and body mass index-for-age and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The mean body mass index-for-age and height-for-age values were -0.26 ± 0.86 and -0.56 ± 0.92, respectively. The energy intake was 50.8% above the estimated energy requirement and inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, fibre, calcium and vitamin C was present in 100%, 57.1%, 40.8%, 61.2% and 26.5% of the sample, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that energy intake was correlated with CD4+ T-cell count (r = 0.33; p = 0.028) and viral load (r = -0.35; p = 0.019). These data showed low body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores, high energy intake and inadequate intake of important nutrients for immune function, growth and control of chronic diseases. A lower energy intake was correlated with viral suppression and immune preservation.

  11. Assessment of coronary atherosclerosis by cardiac image: complementary amount of the calcium score to myocardial perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitola, Joao Vicente; Cerci, Rodrigo J.; Zapparoli, Marcello, E-mail: joaovitola@quantamn.com.br [Quanta Diagnostico Nuclear, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    Over the last decades we have witnessed significant advances on diagnostic tools and management of patients with or suspected cardiovascular disease, and consequently a significant reduction in mortality. Nevertheless, cardiovascular disease remains the leader cause of death in many countries, including Brazil. Identifying the high risk patient is important, so we can intensify prevention strategies. Non invasive diagnostic tools have been developed to identify the high risk patient in need of a myocardial revascularization, notably using myocardial scintigraphy. However, many clinicians still question, what is the best management for a patient with traditional risk factors, who has a positive treadmill test result and a completely normal myocardial scintigraphy? What is the literature showing in relation to the role of coronary calcium score for these patients? In this article we will reflect over these issues which are so frequently encountered in daily cardiology practice. (author)

  12. An Assessment of the Potential Impact of Fortification of Staples and Condiments on Micronutrient Intake of Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leyvraz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has experienced rapid economic growth and achieved major health improvements in the past decade, but malnutrition rates remain high. A nationally representative study conducted in 2011 assessed the dietary habits of 841 children 24–59 months old, 1428 children 6–14 years old, and 1412 nonpregnant, nonlactating women. The study’s objective was to assess dietary intakes of key micronutrients and the consumption pattern of potentially fortifiable foods, and then to model the potential impact of the fortification of key staple foods. The current intakes of several micronutrients—namely, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin B12—were found to be insufficient to meet the needs of Bangladesh’s children and women. The fortification of rice with iron and zinc and edible oil with vitamin A has the potential to fill a significant part of the nutrient gap, as these are consumed widely and in significant amounts. Wheat flour and sugar are not as promising food vehicles in the Bangladeshi context, as they were consumed by a smaller portion of the population and in smaller amounts. In conclusion, fortification of rice and oil is recommended to address the large gap in micronutrient intakes.

  13. An Assessment of the Potential Impact of Fortification of Staples and Condiments on Micronutrient Intake of Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyvraz, Magali; Laillou, Arnaud; Rahman, Sabuktagin; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Alam, Nurul; Ireen, Santhia; Panagides, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh has experienced rapid economic growth and achieved major health improvements in the past decade, but malnutrition rates remain high. A nationally representative study conducted in 2011 assessed the dietary habits of 841 children 24–59 months old, 1428 children 6–14 years old, and 1412 nonpregnant, nonlactating women. The study’s objective was to assess dietary intakes of key micronutrients and the consumption pattern of potentially fortifiable foods, and then to model the potential impact of the fortification of key staple foods. The current intakes of several micronutrients—namely, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin B12—were found to be insufficient to meet the needs of Bangladesh’s children and women. The fortification of rice with iron and zinc and edible oil with vitamin A has the potential to fill a significant part of the nutrient gap, as these are consumed widely and in significant amounts. Wheat flour and sugar are not as promising food vehicles in the Bangladeshi context, as they were consumed by a smaller portion of the population and in smaller amounts. In conclusion, fortification of rice and oil is recommended to address the large gap in micronutrient intakes. PMID:27598197

  14. Intake of dairy products in relation to periodontitis in older danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Christensen, Lisa B; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided...... of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings....... into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss =3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from...

  15. Assessment of vitamin D and vitamin A intake by female students at the United Arab Emirates University based on self-reported dietary and selected fortified food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laleye, Louis C; Kerkadi, Abdel Hamid; Wasesa, Abdulkadar Ah; Rao, Madduri V; Aboubacar, Adam

    2011-06-01

    In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), many adolescent girls and women (especially the UAE citizens) are not adequately exposed to sunlight and their dietary intake of vitamin D is insufficient to fulfill the required recommended daily allowance of the vitamin. In the present study, the problem of vitamin D and vitamin A insufficiency in female students of UAE University was investigated through a dietary intake assessment of the vitamins. Results indicated that over 70% of female students constituting the survey population did not consume enough milk and other vitamin-D-rich foods, and many showed poor food habits. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among the population studied indicated that 37% of the total population was considered vitamin D insufficient and 40% of the female students residing in the hostels also had vitamin D insufficiency ( food consumption.

  16. Repercusiones del consumo de mezclas calentadas de glucosa-lisina y glucosa-metionina sobre el calcio óseo Effects of intake of heated mixtures of glucose-lysine and glucose-methionine on bone calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delgado-Andrade

    2005-02-01

    interfere with mineral bioavailability because of modifications of their physical-chemical moiety in the food or the lumen, disrupting the absorption process or its normal metabolism. In this study, we sought to investigate MRP influence on issues related to Ca bioavailability in vitro and in vivo. Equimolar mixtures of glucose-lysine (GL and glucose-methionine (GM (40% moisture were heated at 150º C for 90 minutes (samples GL90 and GM90, respectively. In vitro solubility was measured by additioning each samples to a 3.75 mM Ca solution at intestinal pH and ionic strength; after shaking and centrifugation, soluble and insoluble calcium was determined. Three percent of GL90 and GM90 were individually added to the AIN93-G diet to obtain D-GL90 and D-GM90 diets. Three Wistar rats groups were fed for 21 days with both diets and with AIN93-G as control, carrying out calcium balance during last week and extirpating various organs after sacrifice. GM90 did not affect calcium solubility; GL90 reduced it slightly, remaining in both cases more than 94% soluble. D-GL90 and D-GM90 did not modify calcium bioavailability, with as effective usage as with the control diet (57.6 ± 1.3%, 57.8 ± 2.3% and 63.9 ± 2.6% in control diet, D-GL90 and D-GM90, respectively. MRP intake produced, however, metabolic changes that decreased bone calcium, accumulating compensatorily in other organs.

  17. Calcium and magnesium status is not impaired in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Vivianne S; Lavanda, Ivana; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Ruano, Rodrigo; Zugaib, Marcelo; Colli, Célia

    2012-07-01

    Deficiencies in calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are associated with various complications during pregnancy. To test the hypothesis that the status of these minerals is inadequate in pregnancy, a cross-sectional study was conducted of the dietary intake and status of Ca and Mg in pregnant women (n = 50) attending a general public university hospital in Brazil. Dietary intake was assessed from 4-day food records; levels of plasma Mg, erythrocyte Mg, and urinary Ca and Mg excretion were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy; and type I collagen C-telopeptides were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Probabilities of inadequate Ca and Mg intake were exhibited by 58 and 98% of the study population, respectively. The mean levels of urinary Ca and Mg excretion were 8.55 and 3.77 mmol/L, respectively. Plasma C-telopeptides, plasma Mg, and erythrocyte Mg were within normal levels. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed positive relationships among urinary Ca excretion, Ca intake (P = .002) and urinary Mg excretion (P < .001) and between erythrocyte Mg and Mg intake (P = .023). It is concluded that the Ca and Mg status of participants was adequate even though the intake of Ca and Mg was lower than the recommended level.

  18. Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2010-07-01

    Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (δ 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 ± 0.08‰ higher δ 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower δ 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 ± 0.22‰, and the humans have a greater δ 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal δ 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human δ 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.

  19. Analysis of nutritional habits and intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids in veterans with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Emily V; Bartel, Kevin; Chong, Karen C; Alley, Hugh F; Conte, Michael S; Owens, Christopher D; Grenon, S Marlene

    2015-10-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake may contribute to the development and progression of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This study's aim was to assess intake of essential fatty acids and nutrients among veterans with PAD. All 88 subjects had ankle-brachial indices of Heart Association (AHA) and American College of Cardiology (ACC), as well as the AHA/ACC endorsed Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. The mean age was 69 ± 8 years. Compared to the AHA/ACC guidelines, subjects with PAD had an inadequate intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA; 59% consumed >1 gram daily). Our subjects with PAD had an increased intake of cholesterol (31% met the cut-off established in the DASH plan), total fat (5%) and sodium (53%). They had an inadequate intake of magnesium (3%), calcium (5%), and soluble fiber (3%). Dietary potassium intake met the recommended guidelines. In our subjects with PAD, intake of critical nutrients deviated substantially from the recommended amounts. Further prospective studies should evaluate whether PAD patients experience clinical benefit if diets are modified to meet the AHA/ACC recommendations.

  20. Protein intake and nitrogen balance in male non-active adolescents and soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau, N; Le Creff, C; Loyens, M; Poortmans, J R

    2002-12-01

    Recommendations for the requirements for protein intake amount usually to 0.8-1.0 g x kg(-1) body mass x day(-1) in adolescents without any reference to the undertaking of acute exercise or to the training status. The present investigation intended to determine the nitrogen balance and protein intake in 8 healthy male non-active adolescents and 11 adolescent soccer players, both groups aged about 15 years. An assessment of nutrient intake was obtained by analysing 7 day food records collected by a questionnaire. Nitrogen excretion rate was determined and nitrogen balance was calculated from the mean daily protein intake and the urinary excretion. The results showed that the nutritional status of the two groups was similar. Nevertheless, we found that their diets were quite inappropriate in terms of the intakes of carbohydrate, some minerals (zinc, calcium, magnesium), vitamins (A, B6, D) and fibre. A positive nitrogen balance was observed from a mean protein intake of 1.57 g x kg(-1) body mass x day(-1) in these adolescents, whether they were non-active or athletes. Thus, the present investigation indicated that the growth and development in non-active adolescents and in adolescent soccer-players give rise to a need for a higher protein intake than is usually recommended. However, the higher protein requirements did not seem to be related only to the increased energy expenditure imposed by the exercise training in the soccer-player group.

  1. Nanostructured calcium silicate hydrate seeds accelerate concrete hardening: a combined assessment of benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräu, Michael; Ma-Hock, Lan; Hesse, Christoph; Nicoleau, Luc; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Wiench, Karin; Landsiedel, Robert; Wohlleben, Wendel

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology creates new possibilities to control and improve material properties for civil infrastructure. Special focus in this area is put on Portland cement and gypsum. Together their annual production is by far larger than for any other material worldwide. Nanomodification of these materials can be done during the few hours between dissolution and hardening, especially by nucleation of the re-crystallization with suitable colloids. Here we report first results in homogeneous seeding of the precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates within a real Portland cement composition. The occupational safety during the production phase and during mixing of concrete paste is addressed in detail by in vivo testing. We perform 5-day inhalation with 21-day recovery in rats and analyze organ-specific toxicity and 71 endpoints from bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) and blood. In BALF parameters, no test-related changes were observed, indicating the generally low toxicity of the test material. Some mild lesions were observed in larynx level. In the lungs, all animals of the 50 mg/m³ concentration group revealed a minimal to mild increase in alveolar macrophages, which recovered back to control level.

  2. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova, E-mail: ddv@geo.au.dk [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Zhang, Chaosheng [GIS Centre and School of Geography and Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kristiansen, Søren Munch [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L{sup −1} (mean 14.4 μg L{sup −1}, median 11.9 μg L{sup −1}). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L{sup −1} originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the

  3. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  4. Message framing, it does a body good: effects of message framing and motivational orientation on young women's calcium consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Melissa A

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effects of gain-framed versus loss-framed messages and motivational orientation on calcium consumption. After completing a motivational orientation scale (behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system), undergraduate women (N = 141) were randomly assigned to read a gain-framed or loss-framed pamphlet promoting calcium consumption. Calcium consumption was assessed 1 month later. For calcium supplement behavior, a gain-framed advantage was observed for behavioral activation system-oriented individuals, whereas a loss-framed advantage was observed for behavioral inhibition system-oriented individuals. For dietary calcium intake, a gain-framed advantage was observed among behavioral activation system-oriented individuals; however, no framing effect emerged for behavioral inhibition system-oriented individuals. The success of framed messages depends on the message recipient's motivational orientation.

  5. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T.; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population. PMID:26927146

  6. [Health benefits and demerits of calcium nutrition or supplementation in older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Masataka

    2015-10-01

    The benefit of calcium nutrition for health has been believed for a long time. In fact, higher calcium intake is associated with reduction of blood pressure, rate of bone loss after menopause and mild risk reduction of fracture. Since calcium intake from food has not been achieved to be the recommended level, calcium supplementation is widely used especially in the US. However, calcium supplementation has been reported to increase in vascular events, recently. On the other hand, calcium nutrition from foods have not been reported any harmful effect on health. Therefore, calcium effects on health seemed to be composite effects of other nutrients taking together with calcium.

  7. Quantitative assessment of root canal roughness with calcium-based hypochlorite irrigants by 3D CLSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana Santos; Raucci Neto, Walter; Faria, Natália Spadine de; Fernandes, Fernanda Silva; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Abi Rached-Junior, Fuad Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Chemical solutions play important roles in endodontic treatment and promote ultrastructural changes in dentin surface. The aim of this study was to quantify root canal roughness at different concentrations of calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Fifty-two human mandibular premolars were sectioned and randomly organized into thirteen groups (n=8): saline (control); 1%, 2.5% and 5% NaOCl; 1%, 2.5% and 5% Ca(OCl)2; the hypochlorite groups were further divided into with or without EDTA. The chlorine concentrations of the different solutions were measured by iodine titration (%). The superficial roughness (Sa) was quantified by CLSM. Ca(OCl)2 presented substantial decrease in chlorine concentration that differed from the package indication, but without compromising the dentin ultrastructure changes. There were no significant differences in dentin roughness between Ca(OCl)2 or NaOCl at all studied concentrations. The combination with EDTA provided similar roughness values among the solutions (p>0.05). The 5% Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl solutions significantly increased dentin roughness and did not differ from the EDTA association (p>0.05). Ca(OCl)2 promoted similar dentin roughness as the NaOCl at the same concentrations and combined with EDTA. It may be concluded that Ca(OCl)2 modified the root canal dentin roughness similarly to NaOCl, at the same concentrations and EDTA combinations used in this study. Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl, both at 5%, significantly altered dentin roughness, overcoming EDTA association, thus Ca(OCl)2 concentrations ranging from 1% to 2.5% may be suitable solutions for root canal irrigation protocols.

  8. Impact of the Bolsa Família Program on energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes: Study of the Northeast and Southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara SPERANDIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on the energy and nutrient intakes of beneficiaries from the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Methods: The study used data from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamento Famíliar, which assessed individual food intake on two nonconsecutive days of individuals aged more than 10 years. Based the personal information booklet, food intake values were transformed into nutritional values (energy and nutrients. Analysis of the impact measure was preceded by propensity score matching, a technique that matches some socioeconomic characteristics of beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries. Once the score was calculated, the impact of the Bolsa Família Program was estimated by nearest neighbor matching. Results: The program increased energy and macronutrient intakes and decreased calcium and vitamin A, D, E, and C intakes of adolescent beneficiaries in both regions. Adult beneficiaries from the Southeast region increased their fiber, iron, and selenium intakes, and those from the Northeast region decreased their energy, lipid, added sugar, sodium, zinc, vitamin E, and pyridoxine intakes. Conclusion: The results show a positive impact of the program on the energy and macronutrient intakes, and a negative impact on the intakes of most study micronutrients, especially in adolescents, which reinforce the importance of implementing intersectoral actions to improve the nutritional quality of the Bolsa Família Program beneficiaries' diet.

  9. Dietary intake of nutrients and its correlation with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Bitarafan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of nutrition in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS and related complications such as fatigue has been reported by several studies. The aim of this study is the assessment of nutritional status and its relationship with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients.This is a cross-sectional study, in which 101 relapsing-remitting MS patients were enrolled. The fatigue status was determined using the validated Persian version of of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record questionnaire and compared to dietary reference intake (DRI values. Association between variables was determined using Pearson Correlation Coefficient.In the preset study, 25 men and 76 women (total = 101 were enrolled. Analysis of dietary intake showed that daily intake of vitamin D, folate, calcium, and magnesium were significantly lower than DRI in all of patients. In men, zinc intake was significantly lower than DRI; while, in women, iron was significantly below the DRI level. After adjusting for energy, MFIS and its physical subscale were highly correlated with intake of folate and magnesium.Our findings support that lower magnesium and folate diets are correlated with higher fatigue scores in MS patients.

  10. Toxaphene levels in retail food from the Pearl River Delta area of South China and an assessment of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, YouSheng; Liu, ZhiBin; Wu, DongTing; Zhang, JianQing; Zhou, Jian; Li, ShengNong; Lu, LinGeng; Lin, XiaoShi; Lu, ShaoYou; Peng, JinLing

    2016-06-01

    Limited literature exists on toxaphene contamination in food worldwide, particularly in mainland China. In this study, three toxaphene congeners, Parlar 26 (B8-1413), Parlar 50 (B9-1679) and Parlar 62 (B9-1025), were analyzed in five different food categories from the Pearl River Delta Area in China using isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), and toxaphene levels in food were reported and toxaphene dietary intake by local residents estimated. The results showed that fish contained the highest toxaphene level with a median of 12.87 pg/g wet weight (ww), followed by poultry meat, egg products, livestock meat and vegetable, which had median levels of 5.8, 2.2, 1.89 and 0.67 pg/g ww, respectively. Parlar 50 and Parlar 26 were the predominant characteristic congeners in fish, and Parlar 26 was the predominant congener not only in poultry products and eggs, but also in livestock and vegetable. The estimated average daily intake found by local residents was 35.57 pg/kg body weight/day. Overall toxaphene levels and estimated dietary intake in the Pearl River Delta Area of South China are far lower than the European Maximum Residue Limits (EU MRLs), the German MRL for fish, and other international literature data. Therefore, the risk of adverse health effects from dietary intakes of toxaphene for the local residents is not considerable at the current time, but follow-ups are warranted to study dynamic changes of toxaphene in food in this area.

  11. Establishment of the Korean Tolerable Daily Intake of Bisphenol A Based on Risk Assessments by an Expert Committee

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chan-Woong; Jeong, Ji-Yoon; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Jung, Ki-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Hyo-Min

    2010-01-01

    Recently, reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been documented, and thus a review was requested for BPA management direction by the government. Therefore, this study was performed to establish a Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI) for BPA. An expert committee, consisting of specialists in fields such as toxicology, medicine, pharmacology, and statistics, was asked to evaluate BPA health based guidance values (HbGVs) . Although many toxicological studies were revi...

  12. The e-EPIDEMIOLOGY Mobile Phone App for Dietary Intake Assessment: Comparison with a Food Frequency Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Bejar, Luis Maria; Sharp, Brett Northrop; García-Perea, María Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a great necessity for new methods of evaluation of dietary intake that overcome the limitations of traditional self-reporting methods. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a new method, based on an app for mobile phones called e-EPIDEMIOLOGY, which was designed to collect individual consumption data for a series of foods/drinks, and to compare this app with a previously validated paper food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Methods University students >18 year...

  13. Determination of Nutrient Intakes by a Modified Visual Estimation Method and Computerized Nutritional Analysis for Dietary Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    reported that trained data collectors can estimate average energy intake at a meal with an accuracy of + 2%. 2 JPI%.V] It is generally agreed that weighing...GINGER ALE# PALE DRY 04070 1. 04090 1. CARBONATED, ARTIFICIALLY SWEETENED 04090 1. 10 V...information on population patterns of food consumption and not for metabolic studies, a small difference in reliability scores is not as critical

  14. Nitrate content in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from organic and conventional origin: intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenjak, Alenka Hmelak; Koležnik, Urška Rizman; Cencič, Avrelija

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the actual intake of nitrate by consumption of different lettuce varieties, 52 samples of lettuce of different origins and dandelion from 15 different areas of northeast Slovenia were analysed. For determination of actual nitrate content, a continuous flow method was used. The lowest nitrate content was detected in dandelion, with a mean value of 195 mg kg(-1) (ranging 47-487 mg kg(-1)). Nitrate content in lettuce of different origins ranged 85-3237 mg kg(-1), with a mean value of 1196 mg kg(-1). The mean nitrate content in organically cultivated lettuce was 890 mg kg(-1), which was considerably lower than the nitrate level in conventionally cultivated lettuce (1298 mg kg(-1)). Consumption of 100 g of dandelion would result in a maximal nitrate intake corresponding to 22% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), with values up to seven times higher for lettuce.

  15. Use of retailer fidelity card schemes in the assessment of food additive intake: Sunset Yellow a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, M; Haldemann, Y; Nordmann, H; Bottex, B; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tennant, D; Howlett, J; Jasti, P R

    2010-11-01

    The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated using the Swiss retailer MIGROS's Cumulus Card and the example of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E 110). Information held within the card scheme was used to identify a sample of households purchasing foods containing Sunset Yellow over a 15 day period. A sample of 1204 households was selected for interview, of which 830 households were retained in the study following interview. Interviews were conducted to establish household structure, patterns of consumption by different individuals within the household, and the proportion of foods containing Sunset Yellow habitually purchased at the retailer and/or consumed outside the home. Information provided by the retailer on levels of Sunset Yellow in the foods was combined with the information obtained at interview to calculate the per-capita intake of Sunset Yellow by members of participating households. More than 99% of consumers (n = 1902) of foods containing Sunset Yellow were estimated to consume less than 1 mg Sunset Yellow kg(-1) body weight day(-1). The method proved to be a simple and resource-efficient approach to estimate food additive intake on the basis of actual consumer behaviour and thus reports results more closely related to the actual consumption of foods by individuals.

  16. Low levels of vitamin D in professional basketball players after wintertime: relationship with dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium Bajos niveles de vitamina D en jugadores profesionales de baloncesto después del invierno: relación con la ingesta oral de vitamina D y calcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bescós García

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although vitamin D deficiency has a high worldwide prevalence among the general population, very little is known about vitamin status in athletes. Aim: To investigate serum vitamin D (25[OH]D levels after wintertime in male elite basketball players, and to relate these levels to the dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Methods: Subjects were 21 players from the same professional Spanish team. Blood samples to assess 25(OHD levels were collected after wintertime during the 2008/2009 (April and 2009/2010 (March seasons. In addition, athletes completed 4-day dietary records to estimate energy consumption and a food frequency questionnaire to determine dietary vitamin D and calcium intake. Serum 25(OHD levels were 47.8 ± 21.8 nmol/L, with twelve subjects (57% being vitamin D deficient (Introducción: Aunque la deficiencia de vitamina D es muy prevalente en todo el mundo en la población general, se sabe muy poco acerca del estado vitamínico en los atletas. Objetivo: investigar las concentraciones séricas de vitamina D (25[OH]D después del invierno en baloncestitas masculinos de élite, y relacionar estas concentraciones con el aporte dietético de vitamina D y calcio. Métodos: se estudió a 21 jugadores del mismo equipo profesional español. Se recogieron las muestras de sangre para evaluar las concentraciones de 25(OHD después del invierno durante las temporadas de 2008/2009 (abril y 2009/2010 (marzo. Además, los atletas completaron unos registros de 4 días para estimar el consumo de energía y un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos para determinar el aporte dietético de vitamina D y calcio. Las concentraciones séricas de 25(OHD fueron 47,8 ± 21,8 nmol/L, estando 12 individuos (57% con deficiencia de vitamina D (< 50 nmol/L. Resultados: el consumo de vitamina D fue 139 ± 78 IU/día y el de calcio de 948 ± 419 mg/día. Las concentraciones séricas de 25(OHD se correlacionaban con el aporte diet

  17. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if

  18. Comparison of estimated energy intake in children using a Web-based Dietary Assessment Software with accelerometer-estimated energy expenditure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Hjort, Mads F.; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    -induced thermogenesis. WebDASC's usability was assessed using a questionnaire. Parents could help their children record their diet and answer the questionnaire. Results Evaluated against TEE as derived from the accelerometers worn at the same time, the WebDASC performed just as well as other traditional methods...... in Denmark. Dietary assessment was carried out using a program known as WebDASC (Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children) to collect data from the children. Objective To compare the energy intake (EI) of schoolchildren aged 8–11 estimated using the WebDASC system against the total energy...... expenditure (TEE) as derived from accelerometers worn by the children during the same period. A second objective was to evaluate the WebDASC's usability. Design Eighty-one schoolchildren took part in what was the pilot study for the OPUS project, and they recorded their total diet using WebDASC and wore...

  19. Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana Draft Supplement to the 26 April 2010 Environmental Assessment and Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    February 8, 2013 Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana...Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana Draft Supplement to the...Intake Project IEPR Final IEPR Report Intake Project IEPR Final IEPR Report Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the

  20. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razif Shahril

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG or control group (CG according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students.

  1. Dairy food intake, peripheral bone structure, and muscle mass in elderly ambulatory women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Zhu, Kun; Lewis, Joshua R; Prince, Richard L

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that dairy intake may be associated with reduced bone and muscle loss with aging, but there are limited data in the very old. We evaluated the association between intake of dairy foods and peripheral bone structure and muscle mass in 564 elderly women aged 80 to 92 (mean 84.7) years, who were participants of the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study/CAIFOS Aged Extension Study (CAIFOS/CARES) cohort and attended the 10-year follow-up. Assessments included dairy consumption (milk, yogurt, and cheese) by a validated food frequency questionnaire, 15% tibia bone mass, area and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and appendicular bone and skeletal muscle mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Women were categorized according to tertiles of dairy intake: first tertile (≤ 1.5 servings/d), second tertile (1.5 to 2.2 servings/d) and third tertile (≥ 2.2 servings/d). Controlling for confounding factors, pQCT assessment at the 15% tibia showed that compared with those in the first tertile of dairy intake, women in the third tertile had 5.7% greater total bone mass (p = 0.005), principally because of an increase in cortical and subcortical bone mass (5.9%, p = 0.050), resulting in a 6.2% increase in total vBMD (p = 0.013). Trabecular but not cortical and subcortical vBMD was also higher (7.8%, p = 0.044). DXA assessment showed that women in the third tertile of dairy intake had greater appendicular bone mass (7.1%, p = 0.007) and skeletal muscle mass (3.3%, p = 0.014) compared with tertile 1. The associations with bone measures were dependent on dairy protein and calcium intakes, whereas the association with appendicular muscle mass was not totally dependent on dairy protein intake. Our results suggest a positive association of dairy intake with appendicular bone mineralization and muscle mass in elderly women. Because many fractures in this age group are of the appendicular skeleton

  2. Ramjet Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique ) 14. ABSTRACT Intake design for supersonic engines, in common...straightener. The annular gap at the inner diameter of the straightener feeds air to a centrally located pilot flame and the proportion that passes to...integrated with the missile forebody. A central air transfer duct feeds the Odin engine at the rear. The central schematic in figure 10 shows the

  3. Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage.

  4. Assessing soil calcium depletion following growth and harvesting of Sitka spruce plantation forestry in the acid sensitive Welsh uplands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Reynolds

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple mass balance has been used to estimate soil calcium depletion during the growth of a 50 year old Sitka spruce crop on acid, base-poor peaty podzol soils in upland Wales. Growth of the crop will deplete the soil calcium reserve by an amount (205 kg Ca ha-1 approximately equivalent to the exchangeable calcium pool to the bottom of the profile and equal to 14% of the total soil calcium reserve to the bottom of the B horizon. Despite these predictions, measurements of exchangeable calcium show no differences beneath mature forest and acid grassland, implying that i weathering rates in forest soils are greater than long-term estimates and predictions by the PROFILE soil chemistry model ii the trees can access other sources of calcium or iii there are significant errors in the mass balance. Following stem-only harvesting, growth of a 50 year old second rotation crop will lead to further depletion of soil calcium, but this amount (79 kg Ca ha-1, is less than for a second rotation crop following whole-tree harvesting (197 kg Ca ha-1. After the first crop, stem-only harvesting would allow a further 18 rotations before depletion of the total calcium reserve to the bottom of the B horizon. Whole-tree harvesting would allow for seven rotations after the first crop. These calculations assume that all sources of calcium are equally available to the crop. This can only be resolved by dynamic modelling of the calcium cycle at the ecosystem scale based on appropriate field measurements. The potential for significant soil acidification is therefore greater following whole-tree harvesting and, in line with current recommendations (Nisbet et al., 1997, this technique should probably be avoided on acidic, nutrient-poor soils unless remedial measures are included to enhance the soil base cation status.

  5. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not help. Always tell your provider and pharmacist if you are taking extra calcium. Calcium supplements ... 2012:chap 251. The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF). Clinician's Guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis . National ...

  6. Residues and dissipation kinetics of carbendazim and diethofencarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and intake risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huidong; du, Hongxia; Fang, Liping; Dong, Zhan; Guan, Shuai; Fan, Wenjing; Chen, Zilei

    2016-06-01

    Dissipation behaviors and residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb in combination in tomato were investigated. The half-lives were 2.1-3.4 days for carbendazim, and 1.8-3.2 days for diethofencarb at a dose of 1.5 times of the recommended dosage. The residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China one day after application of the combination. The ultimate residues were significantly lower than the maximum permissible intake (MPI) in China at the recommended high dose for both child and adult. The values of the maximum dietary exposure for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 0.26 and 0.27 mg per person per day, respectively. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) values for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 1.5 and 0.5 mg/day, respectively. The dietary exposure was lower than the MPI, which indicates the harvested tomato samples under the experimental conditions (open field) are safe for human consumption at the recommended high dosage of the wettable powder.

  7. Comparative validity of the ASSO–Food Frequency Questionnaire for the web-based assessment of food and nutrients intake in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garden Tabacchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new web-based food frequency questionnaire (the ASSO–FFQ was developed within the ASSO Project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. Objective: The aim of the present study is to assess the validity of the ASSO–FFQ at food groups, energy, and nutrients level. Design and subjects: The validation study compared the ASSO–FFQ against a weighted food record (WFR measuring foods, beverages and supplements intake, compiled during the week following the ASSO–FFQ administration. Ninety-two subjects aged 14–17, recruited from secondary schools in Palermo (Italy, completed the ASSO–FFQ and WFR. The intake of 24 food groups, energy, and 52 nutrients were taken as main outcomes. Tests for paired observations, Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficients (cc, kappa statistics and classification in quintiles, Bland–Altman plots and multiple regressions, on untransformed and transformed data were used for the statistical analysis. Results: High cc (≥0.40 were found for soft drinks, milk, tea/coffee, vegetables, and lactose; fair energy-adjusted cc (0.25–0.40 for water, alcoholic drinks, breakfast cereals, fishery products, savory food, fruit juice, eggs, and 19 nutrients. The subjects classified in the same or adjacent quintile for food groups ranged from 40% (alcoholic drinks to 100% (dried fruit; for energy and nutrients from 43% (phosphorus, thiamin, niacin to 77% (lactose. Mean differences were not significant for water, soft drinks, meat, sweets, animal fats, milk and white bread, and vitamin B12 and folate. Limits of Agreement were broad for all food groups and nutrients. School, gender, alcohol consumption and between meals mainly affected most food groups’ intake differences. Gender stratification showed females had increased Pearson's cc for energy and 28 nutrients, such as almost all fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Conclusions: The ASSO–FFQ could be applied in epidemiological studies for the

  8. Significance of noncalcified coronary plaque in asymptomatic subjects with low coronary artery calcium score: assessment with coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dong Hyun; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Sang Il; Kim, Jeong A; Jin, Kwang Nam; Yeon, Tae-Jin; Choi, Dong-Ju

    2011-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and severity of noncalcified coronary plaques (NCP) using coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and analyze predictors of significant coronary stenosis by NCP in asymptomatic subjects with low coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and all patients gave written, informed consent. The presence of plaque, severity of stenosis, plaque characteristics, and CACS were assessed in 7,515 asymptomatic subjects. We evaluated the prevalence and severity of NCP in subjects having low CACS (707 subjects; men with CACS from 1 to 50 and women from 1 to 10) in comparison to those having 0 CACS (6,040 subjects) as the reference standard. Conventional risk factors were assessed for predictors of NCP and significant stenosis by NCP. We also investigated the cardiac events of the patients through medical records. Compared to subjects with 0 CACS, those with low CACS showed higher prevalence of NCP (6.9% vs. 31.5%, P NCP (0.8% vs. 7.5%, P NCP included diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (all P NCP were classified into the low to intermediate risk according to Framingham Risk Score. At the median follow up of 42 months (range: 3-60 months), cardiac events were significantly higher in the low CACS group compared to the 0 CACS group (2.6% vs. 0.27%, P NCP were higher as compared to subjects having zero CACS and predictors of significant stenosis by NCP were DM, hypertension and LDL-Cholesterol. Therefore, CCTA may be useful for risk stratification of coronary artery disease as added value over CACS in selected populations with low CACS who have predictors of significant NCP.

  9. Adequacy of Usual Vitamin and Mineral Intake in Spanish Children and Adolescents: ENALIA Study

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    Ana M. López-Sobaler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Dietary Survey on the Child and Adolescent Population in Spain (ENALIA provides data to assess the usual micronutrient intake among Spanish infants, children, and adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional survey (November 2012–July 2014 of a representative sample of Spanish children and adolescents (six months–17 years (n = 1862. Dietary information was collected using two non-consecutive one-day food diaries (six months–10 years old or two 24 h dietary recalls (11 years and older separated by at least 14 days. Estimates were calculated using the Iowa State University method and PC-SIDE software (version 1.0, department of statistics, center for agricultural and rural development, Ames, IA, USA to account for within- and between-person variation. Results: Usual intake of vitamin D was insufficient in practically all individuals. Vitamin E, folate, and calcium were insufficient, especially from nine years of age, and magnesium and iodine from 14 years of age. The percentage of subjects with insufficient intakes was higher among females. Sodium intake was excessive in a considerable percentage of the population, especially in males, and it increased with age. Finally, over half of children under four years of age had zinc usual intakes that exceeded the Tolerable Upper Level. Conclusion: Vitamin and mineral intake in Spain should be improved, especially in late childhood and adolescence. Nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating habits and correct micronutrient inadequacies in Spanish children and adolescents.

  10. Associations of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake with Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

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    Margaret Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was analyzed from 6 cohorts (Fall 1995–Fall 1997 of postmenopausal women (n=266; 56.6±4.7 years participating in the Bone Estrogen Strength Training (BEST study (a 12-month, block-randomized, clinical trial. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at femur neck and trochanter, lumbar spine (L2–L4, and total body BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs intakes were assessed using 8 days of diet records. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between dietary PUFAs and BMD. Covariates included in the models were total energy intake, body weight at year 1, years after menopause, exercise, use of hormone therapy (HT, total calcium, and total iron intakes. In the total sample, lumbar spine and total body BMD had significant negative associations with dietary PUFA intake at P<0.05. In the non-HT group, no significant associations between dietary PUFA intake and BMD were seen. In the HT group, significant inverse associations with dietary PUFA intake were seen in the spine, total body, and Ward’s triangle BMD, suggesting that HT may influence PUFA associations with BMD. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00000399.

  11. Development and implementation of the National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey to assess correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope O Erinosho

    Full Text Available Low fruit and vegetable (FV intake is a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally as well as in the United States. Much of the population does not consume the recommended servings of FV daily. This paper describes the development of psychosocial measures of FV intake for inclusion in the U.S. National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey.This was a cross-sectional study among 3,397 adults from the United States. Scales included conventional constructs shown to be correlated with fruit and vegetable intake (FVI in prior studies (e.g., self-efficacy, social support, and novel constructs that have been measured in few- to- no studies (e.g., views on vegetarianism, neophobia. FVI was assessed with an eight-item screener. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and regression analyses were conducted.Psychosocial scales with Cronbach's alpha ≥0.68 were self-efficacy, social support, perceived barriers and benefits of eating FVs, views on vegetarianism, autonomous and controlled motivation, and preference for FVs. Conventional scales that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI were self-efficacy, social support, and perceived barriers to eating FVs. Novel scales that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI were autonomous motivation, and preference for vegetables. Other single items that were associated (p<0.05 with FVI included knowledge of FV recommendations, FVI "while growing up", and daily water consumption.These findings may inform future behavioral interventions as well as further exploration of other potential factors to promote and support FVI.

  12. [Vitamin D intake and the prevention of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2005-08-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis in Japan is increasing. Osteoporotic fractures have been causes of "bedridden" status among the elderly in recent years, and vitamin D has the potential to decrease the incidence of these health problems of osteoporosis. This article tried to clarify the preventive effect of increased vitamin D intake on osteoporosis in Japan. Vitamin D intake of 700-800 IU/day together with sufficient calcium intake is recommended to prevent fractures in the elderly, and vitamin D intake of 400 IU/day is recommended to prevent bone loss in adult women. The author also discusses the importance of increasing vitamin D intake in public health in Japan.

  13. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns among University Students in Lebanon: a focus on gender differences and overweight correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale eSalameh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Unhealthy dietary habits are a major risk factor for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early adulthood. In a study conducted on a large sample of university students from both public and private universities in Lebanon, we observed differences in obesity prevalence between males and females. Given this difference, the objective of this analysis was to define the different dietary patterns among university students, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI. Methods : A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. Results : Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely, vegetarian/low calorie diet (mainly plant food while avoiding ‘western’ food, composite dishes, and bread; mixed diet (high consumption of plant food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food, and finally the westernized diet (high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes. We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa=1.69; p<0.001, while males were more likely to adopt a westernized diet (ORa=1.51; p<0.001, seemingly in private universities (p=0.053. Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (P<0.05. Conclusion: Male university students, despite having a higher BMI, reported a higher consumption of food according to a westernized dietary pattern as compared to female university students in Lebanon, while the latter reported a higher adoption of a vegetarian diet. Health promotion programs are needed among university youth in Lebanon to address their

  14. Evaluation of a digital method to assess evening meal intake in a free-living adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl Lassen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years new applications of technologies, including digital images, to capture dietary behaviour in real time have been explored. Objectives: To validate a digital method for estimating evening meal intake in a free-living adult population, and to examine the feasibility of the method for recording evening meal intake over a prolonged period of time. Design: The digital method was compared against weighed records of 19 participants’ usual evening meals for five consecutive days. Two trained image analysts independently estimated the weight of individual foods within the meals into major food categories, and the nutrient content was calculated. A second study included interviews with 28 participants recording their evening meals on weekdays for three consecutive weeks to get their perspective on the feasibility of the method. Results: High correlation coefficients between the digital method and weighed records were found for all measured food categories and nutrients. Comparable means and acceptable limits of agreement (mean difference +/− 2 SD were found with regard to macronutrient distribution (e.g. fat content −5 to 6 E%, energy density (−75 to 91 kJ/100 g, and energy-adjusted foods (e.g. fruit and vegetable content −241 to 236 g/10 MJ. The majority of the participants expressed satisfaction with the method and were willing to record their evening meals for 1 month or more using the digital method. Conclusion: The digital method is valid and feasible for evening meal estimation in real-time where a prolonged recording period of participants’ meals is needed.

  15. The acceptability of repeat Internet-based hybrid diet assessment of previous 24-h dietary intake: administration of the Oxford WebQ in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Julieta; Adamska, Ligia; Young, Alan; Young, Heather; Littlejohns, Thomas J; Gallacher, John; Allen, Naomi

    2016-02-28

    Although dietary intake over a single 24-h period may be atypical of an individual's habitual pattern, multiple 24-h dietary assessments can be representative of habitual intake and help in assessing seasonal variation. Web-based questionnaires are convenient for the participant and result in automatic data capture for study investigators. This study reports on the acceptability of repeated web-based administration of the Oxford WebQ--a 24-h recall of frequency from a set food list suitable for self-completion from which energy and nutrient values can be automatically generated. As part of the UK Biobank study, four invitations to complete the Oxford WebQ were sent by email over a 16-month period. Overall, 176 012 (53% of those invited) participants completed the online version of the Oxford WebQ at least once and 66% completed it more than once, although only 16% completed it on all four occasions. The response rate for any one round of invitations varied between 34 and 26%. On most occasions, the Oxford WebQ was completed on the same day that they received the invitation, although this was less likely if sent on a weekend. Participants who completed the Oxford WebQ tended to be white, female, slightly older, less deprived and more educated, which is typical of health-conscious volunteer-based studies. These findings provide preliminary evidence to suggest that repeated 24-h dietary assessment via the Internet is acceptable to the public and a feasible strategy for large population-based studies.

  16. Dietary mineral intake and lung cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka (Taulant); B. Kraja (Bledar); R. Ruiter (Rikje); L. Lahousse (Lies); C.E. de Keyser (Catherina Elisabeth); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Limited data are available on the role of mineral intake in the development of lung cancer (LC). We investigated whether dietary calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium and zinc intake were associated with LC risk. Methods: We analyzed data from 5435 participants of the Rot

  17. The role of calcium in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, M L; Heaney, R P; Kalkwarf, H J; Pitkin, R M; Repke, J T; Tsang, R C; Schulkin, J

    1999-12-01

    Skeletal fragility at the end of the life span (osteoporosis) is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Adequate calcium intake from childhood to the end of the life span is critical for the formation and retention of a healthy skeleton. High intakes of calcium and vitamin D potentiate the bone loss prevention effects of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. Pregnancy and lactation are not risk factors for skeletal fragility, although lactation is associated with a transient loss of bone that cannot be prevented by calcium supplementation. Low calcium intake has been implicated in the development of hypertension, colon cancer, and premenstrual syndrome, and it is associated with low intakes of many other nutrients. Encouragement of increased consumption of calcium-rich foods has the potential to be a cost-effective strategy for reducing fracture incidence later in life and for increasing patients' dietary quality and overall health.

  18. Calcium channel as a potential anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriazhev, L

    2009-11-01

    Anticancer treatment in modern clinical practices includes chemotherapy and radiation therapy with or without surgical interventions. Efficiency of both methods varies greatly depending on cancer types and stages. Besides, chemo- and radiotherapy are toxic and damaging that causes serious side effects. This fact prompts the search for alternative methods of antitumor therapy. It is well known that prolonged or high increase of intracellular calcium concentration inevitably leads to the cell death via apoptosis or necrosis. However, stimulation of cell calcium level by chemical agents is hardly achievable because cells have very sophisticated machinery for maintaining intracellular calcium in physiological ranges. This obstacle can be overridden, nevertheless. It was found that calcium channels in so called calcium cells in land snails are directly regulated by extracellular calcium concentration. The higher the concentration the higher the calcium intake is through the channels. Bearing in mind that extracellular/intracellular calcium concentration ratio in human beings is 10,000-12,000 fold the insertion of the channel into cancer cells would lead to fast and uncontrollable by the cells calcium intake and cell death. Proteins composing the channel may be extracted from plasma membrane of calcium cells and sequenced by mass-spectrometry or N-terminal sequencing. Either proteins or corresponding genes could be used for targeted delivery into cancer cells.

  19. Health risk assessment of trace elements via dietary intake of 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and egg) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nazma; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Tukun, Avonti Basak; Islam, Saiful; M A Rahim, Abu Torab

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of six trace elements [chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As)] were assessed in 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and eggs) to evaluate contamination level and human health risks in Bangladesh. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and As in the investigated foodstuffs was 1.24-2.17, 1.29-2.56, 0.92-2.31, 0.12-0.44, 0.15-0.48 and 0.14-0.57 mg kg fresh weight(-1), respectively. The estimated mean levels of most of the elements were higher than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for dietary foods. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of Cr and Cd were higher than the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) for children, indicating that they are more susceptible to toxic elements through food consumption. The target hazard quotients (THQs) and target carcinogenic risk (TCR) of As (THQ > 1 and TCR > 10(-4)) for both the adults and children suggest that the consumers of non-piscine foodstuffs (especially cow milk and chicken meat) are exposed chronically to metal pollution with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health consequences.

  20. Assessing the intake of obesity-related foods and beverages in young children: comparison of a simple population survey with 24 hr-recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Andrew C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing focus on obesity prevention there is a need for simple, valid tools to assess dietary indicators that may be the targets of intervention programs. The objective of this study was to determine the relative validity of previous day dietary intake using a newly developed parent-proxy questionnaire (EPAQ for two to five year old children. Methods A convenience sample of participants (n = 90 recruited through preschools and the community in Geelong, Australia provided dietary data for their child via EPAQ and interviewer-administered 24-hour dietary recall (24 hr-recall. Comparison of mean food and beverage group servings between the EPAQ and 24 hr-recall was conducted and Spearman rank correlations were computed to examine the association between the two methods. Results Mean servings of food/beverage groups were comparable between methods for all groups except water, and significant correlations were found between the servings of food and beverages using the EPAQ and 24-hr recall methods (ranging from 0.57 to 0.88. Conclusion The EPAQ is a simple and useful population-level tool for estimating the intake of obesity-related foods and beverages in children aged two to five years. When compared with 24-hour recall data, the EPAQ produced an acceptable level of relative validity and this short survey has application for population monitoring and the evaluation of population-based obesity prevention interventions for young children.

  1. Voluntary food fortification with folic acid in Spain: predicted contribution to children's dietary intakes as assessed with new food folate composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego-Vaesken, M L; Alonso-Aperte, E; Varela-Moreiras, G

    2013-10-01

    The Spanish market offers a significant number of folic acid (FA) voluntarily fortified foods. We analysed FA and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid ((6S)-5-CH3-H4PteGlu) content in ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (n=68) and cow's milk (n=25) by a previously validated affinity chromatography-HPLC method. Contribution to potential FA intakes for children aged 2-13years, was assessed using food consumption data from a representative nationwide study, folate Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDI), and Upper Levels (UL). Results showed that at all food fortification levels obtained, fortified products provided more than tenfold FA than (6S)-5-CH3-H4PteGlu. For RTEC, the high fortification level provided 6-21%, per serving, of RDI and ⩽32% of ULs at 90th percentile of RTEC consumption (P90). Milk products fortified at the higher level reached on average 54-136% of RDI per serving and only exceeded UL at P90 of milk consumption in children aged 2-5years.

  2. Calcium supplement ingestion may alter lumbar spine bone mineral density measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Diane; Checovich, Mary; Gemar, Dessa; Wei, Xiaodan; Binkley, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Densitometry centers commonly request patients abstain from ingesting calcium supplements prior to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination to avoid interference with bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. However, it is not clear that this practice is necessary. This study assessed the impact of recent calcium supplement intake on lumbar spine BMD measurement. The phase 1 experiment demonstrated BMD differences when placing a supplement over various areas of two encapsulated phantoms. To determine whether these results were clinically relevant, the phase 2 study enrolled 36 subjects who received spine scans before and after random assignment to ingest one Citracal, OsCal or People's Choice tablet providing 315, 500, and 600 mg of elemental calcium, respectively. The phase 3 study evaluated 15 subjects that had three spine scans with repositioning between to establish BMD precision, and then ingested a calcium carbonate tablet. Post-dosing scans were performed 15 and 30 minutes after tablet ingestion. The difference in L1-L4 BMD on subsequent scans was compared with the study derived least significant change (LSC) of 0.028 g/cm(2). In phase 2, L1-L4 BMD changes outside the LSC occurred in 36% of subjects with 47% having visualized tablets. Similarly, 33% of the phase 3 subjects demonstrated changes outside the LSC after calcium ingestion and 53% of the subjects in phase 3 had tablets visualized. Visualization of calcium tablets was not associated with BMD changes. In conclusion, calcium tablet intake may affect measured L1-L4 BMD within 30 minutes of ingestion. As such, it is appropriate to request patients abstain from calcium tablet ingestion prior to a spine DXA examination.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF DIETARY PURINE INTAKE IN CHINESE RESIDENTS%中国居民膳食嘌呤摄入量评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣胜忠; 邹立娜; 崔新宇; 李淼晶; 潘洪志; 杨月欣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess dietary purine intake in Chinese residents.MethodsUsing data from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 1982, 1992 and 2002 and food purine database, we calculated purine intake in Chinese residents.ResultsThe average total purine intake per reference man per day 216.7, 274.4 and 319.0 mg in 1982, 1992 and 2002, respectively. The average purine intake per reference man per day from plant food were 130.1, 115.5, 120.4mg and from animal food were 9.5, 152.0, 192.8 mg in 1982, 1992 and 2002, respectively. Livestock and poultry, fish and shrimps, light vegetables, rice and rice products, dark vegetables, flour and flour products and legumes and legume products provided about 43.1%, 17.0%, 9.9%, 7.4%, 6.3%, 3.6% and 5.4% of dietary purine in 2002, respectively. ConclusionOur findings suggest that from 1982 to 2002, the average total purine intake and animal food purine intake per reference man per day are increasing.Livestock and poultry, fish and shrimps contribute more purine.%目的评估中国居民每日膳食嘌呤平均摄入量。方法利用1982、1992和2002年中国居民营养与健康状况调查中各类食物的消费数据和已测定的食物中嘌呤含量资料计算中国居民膳食嘌呤摄入量。结果中国居民每标准人日(18岁轻体力活动男子)在1982、1992和2002年嘌呤的总摄入量分别为每标准人日216.7、274.4和319.0mg,来源于植物性食品的嘌呤摄入量分别为每标准人日130.1、115.5和120.4mg,来源于动物性食品的嘌呤摄入量分别为每标准人日79.5、152.0和192.8 mg;2002年调查中,不同食物嘌呤贡献率分别为:畜禽类(43.1%)、鱼虾类(17.0%)、浅色蔬菜(9.9%)、米类及其制品(7.4%)、深色蔬菜(6.3%)、面粉及其制品(3.6%)和干豆类及制品(5.4%)。结论中国居民每日膳食嘌呤总摄入量和动物性食物嘌呤摄入量在1982、1992和2002年逐年增加;2002年膳食嘌呤主

  4. Longitudinal assessment of micronutrient intake among African-American and white girls : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, Sandra G.; Thompson, Douglas R.; Franko, Debra L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Barton, Bruce A.; Schreiber, George B.; Schmidt, Marcia; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Low intakes of micronutrients among adolescents may be linked to long-term health risks, especially in African-American girls. This report describes intake of key micronutrients relative to the Dietary Reference Intakes in a sample of African-American and white girls. Design Longitudinal a

  5. Bioavailability of enteric-coated microencapsulated calcium during pregnancy: A randomized crossover trial in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal calcium and iron supplements are recommended in settings of low dietary calcium intake and high prevalence of anemia. However, calcium administration may inhibit iron absorption. To overcome calcium-iron interactions, we developed a multi-micronutrient powder containing iron (60 mg), folic ...

  6. 21 CFR 101.72 - Health claims: calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... osteoporosis. 101.72 Section 101.72 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....72 Health claims: calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis. (a) Relationship between calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis. An inadequate intake of calcium or calcium and vitamin D contributes to low...

  7. Levels and congener distributions of PCDDs, PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs in Belgian foodstuffs--assessment of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focant, J F; Eppe, G; Pirard, C; Massart, A C; André, J E; De Pauw, E

    2002-07-01

    Congener-specific analyses of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 4 non-ortho (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyls (cPCBs) were performed on 197 foodstuffs samples of animal origin from Belgium during years 2000 and 2001. All investigated matrices (except horse) present background levels lower than the Belgian non-commercialization value of 5 pg TEQ/g fat. Pork was the meat containing the lowest concentration of both PCDD/Fs and cPCBs. The mean background concentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent in milk was 1.1 pg/g of fat, with a congener distribution typical of non-contaminated milk. The relative contribution of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF to the PCDD/Fs TEQ was 85+/-7.9% for all investigated matrices. The cPCBs contribution to the total TEQ was 47+/-19.0% for products of terrestrial species and 69+/-20.0% for aquatic species. Once the contribution of cPCBs was added to the TEQ, few foodstuffs such as horse, sheep, beef, eggs and cheese presented levels above the future European guidelines that currently only include PCDD/Fs but will be re-evaluated later in order to include 'dioxin-like' PCBs. Based on levels measured in the samples, the estimation of the dietary intake was 65.3 pg WHO-TEQ/day for PCDD/Fs only (1.00 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, for a 65 kg person) and 132.9 pg WHO-TEQ/day if cPCBs were included (2.04 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, for a 65 kg person). Meat (mainly beef), dairy products, and fish each account for roughly one third of the intake.

  8. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  9. Development and Validation of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Dietary Intake of Turkish School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş Fatma Esra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ on the dietary intake of Turkish school-aged children. Fifty randomly selected students aged 7–12 from urban areas of Istanbul were included in this study. An FFQ, containing a list of 138 frequently consumed foods was developed. Dietary records (DRs including three days, and FFQs were collected during autumn and spring. Daily consumption of each food group was assessed and the nutrient compositions of diet were calculated. The Pearson correlation coefficient, weighted kappa, the Bland-Altman scatter plots between averages of the reported (FFQ and the references method (DR were used as validity coefficient.

  10. Methylmercury Concentration in Fish and Risk-Benefit Assessment of Fish Intake among Pregnant versus Infertile Women in Taiwan.

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    Hsing-Cheng Hsi

    Full Text Available This study examined methylmercury (MeHg concentrations in fish, the daily MeHg exposure dose, and the risk-benefit of MeHg, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA related to fish intake among pregnant and infertile women in Taiwan. The measured MeHg concentrations in fish did not exceed the Codex guideline level of 1 mg/kg. Swordfish (0.28 ± 0.23 mg/kg and tuna (0.14 ± 0.13 mg/kg had the highest MeHg concentrations. The MeHg concentration in the hair of infertile women (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/kg was significantly greater than that of pregnant women (1.24 ± 0.18 mg/kg. In addition, 80% of infertile women and 68% of pregnant women had MeHg concentrations in hair that exceeded the USEPA reference dose (1 mg/kg. The MeHg concentrations in hair were significantly and positively correlated with the estimated daily MeHg exposure dose. Based on the risk-benefit evaluation results, this paper recommends consumption of fish species with a low MeHg concentration and high concentrations of DHA + EPA and ω-3 PUFA (e.g., salmon, mackerel, and greater amberjack.

  11. Association between Dietary Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Postmenopausal Women: The Yokogoshi Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Harumi; Kitamura, Kaori; Saito, Toshiko; Kobayashi, Ryosaku; Iwasaki, Masanori; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Watanabe, Yumi; Oshiki, Rieko; Nishiwaki, Tomoko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Diet and food intake play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. However, apart from calcium and vitamin D, how nutrients affect bone status is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between dietary intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in Japanese postmenopausal women. This 5-year cohort study included 600 community-dwelling women aged 55-74 years at baseline in 2005. Information on demographics, nutrition, and lifestyle was obtained through interviews, and nutritional and dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. BMD measurements were performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. In 2010, 498 women underwent follow-up BMD examinations. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine associations of predictor variables with BMD, adjusting for confounders. In cross-sectional analyses, coffee or black tea consumption was positively associated with lumbar spine (P = 0.004) and total hip (P = 0.003) BMD, and alcohol intake was positively associated with femoral neck (P = 0.005) and total hip (P = 0.001) BMD. In longitudinal analyses, vitamin K (P = 0.028) and natto (fermented soybeans) (P = 0.023) were positively associated with lumbar spine BMD, and meat or meat product consumption was inversely associated with total hip (P = 0.047) BMD. In conclusion, dietary factors other than calcium and vitamin D intake are predictors of bone mass and bone loss in Japanese postmenopausal women. In particular, natto intake is recommended for preventing postmenopausal bone loss on the basis of current evidence.

  12. The Relationship Between Dietary Intakes of Amino Acids and Bone Mineral Density Among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

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    Hadis Sabour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The effect of dietary protein intake on bone mineral density (BMD has not been explained in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI. In this study, we looked at the relationship between BMD and higher protein intake in patients with SCI while controlling for possible confounders. Methods: Patients with SCI, who were referred to the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center between November 2010 and April 2012, were included in the study. In total, the dietary intakes of 103 patients were assessed by 24–hour dietary recall interviews. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure BMD in the femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, hip, and lumbar vertebras. Results: Eighty-six men and 17 women participated in this study. Protein intake was negatively associated with the BMD of lumbar vertebrae (p = 0.001, r = –0.37 for T-score and p = 0.030, r = –0.24 for Z-score. The BMD of lumbar vertebrae were negatively associated with intake of tryptophan, isoleucine, lysine, cysteine, and tyrosine (p = 0.007, 0.005, 0.009, 0.008, and 0.008 for T-score, respectively. Higher intakes of threonine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine were related to a lower BMD of lumbar vertebrae (p = 0.006, 0.010, 0.009, 0.010, 0.009, and 0.008 respectively for T-scores. Conclusions: We found that high protein intake led to a lower BMD of lumbar vertebrae in patients with SCI after controlling for confounders including demographic and injury-related characteristics and calcium intake. No relationship between higher amino acids intake and BMD of the femur and hip was detected. Intake of alanine, arginine, and aspartic acid were not related to BMD.

  13. Comparison of Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® software systems for the assessment of nutrient intake before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

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    Mariane Marques da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The assessment of nutritional intake before and after bariatric surgery assists in identifying eating disorders, nutritional deficiencies and weight loss/maintenance. The 7-day record is the gold standard for such an assessment and is interpreted using specialized software. This study sought to compare the Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® software systems in assessing nutrient intake in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. METHODS: Nutritional intake was assessed in 10 obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus before and 3 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The 7-day record was used to assess food intake and then, the Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® software systems were used to calculate calorie, macronutrient and micronutrient intake based on validated food chemical composition databases. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01251016. RESULTS: During the preoperative period, deficits in the ingestion of total fiber and 15 out of 22 estimated micronutrients were observed when using the Virtual Nutri Plus®, compared to deficiencies in total fiber and 4 micronutrients when using the Dietpro 5i®. During the postoperative period, both the Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® systems detected deficits in the ingestion of total fiber, carbohydrates and 19 micronutrients, but only the Virtual Nutri Plus® detected deficits in complex B vitamins (except B12 and minerals. CONCLUSION: Virtual Nutri Plus® was more sensitive than Dietpro 5i® for the identification of deficits in nutrient intake in obese, type 2 diabetes mellitus patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  14. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

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    K S Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  15. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults

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    Philip J. Klemmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.

  16. Effects of Adding Chymosin to Milk on Calcium Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake and absorption is important for bone health. In a randomized double-blind cross-over trial, we investigated effects of adding chymosin to milk on the intestinal calcium absorption as measured by renal calcium excretion and indices of calcium homeostasis. The primary outcome...... of the study was 24-h renal calcium excretion that is considered a proxy measure of the amount of calcium absorbed from the intestine. We studied 125 healthy men and women, aged 34 (25-45) years on two separate days. On each day, a light breakfast was served together with 500 ml of semi-skimmed milk to which...

  17. Dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada: a growing concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arctic populations are at an increased risk of vitamin D inadequacy due to geographic latitude and a nutrition transition. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of dietary vitamin D and calcium among women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada. METHODS: This study collected data from 203 randomly selected women of child-bearing age (19-44 years in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Arctic Canada. Cross-sectional surveys using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire were analysed to determine the dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium and summarize the top foods contributing to vitamin D and calcium intake among traditional food eaters (TFE and non-traditional food eaters (NTFE. RESULTS: The response rate was between 69-93% depending on the community sampled. Mean BMIs for both TFE and NTFE were above the normal range. Traditional food eaters had a significantly higher median vitamin D intake compared with non-traditional eaters (TFE=5.13 ± 5.34 µg/day; NTFE=3.5 ± 3.22 µg/day, p=0·004. The majority of women (87% were below the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR for vitamin D. Despite adequate median daily calcium intake in both TFE (1,299 ± 798 mg/day and NTFE (992 ± 704 mg/day; p=0.0005, 27% of the study population fell below the EAR for calcium. Dairy products contributed the most to intake of vitamin D (TFE=30.7%; NTFE=39.1% and calcium (TFE=25.5%; NTFE=34.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate dietary vitamin D intake is evident among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada. Promotion of nutrient-rich sources of traditional foods, supplementation protocols and/or expanded food fortification should be considered to address this nutrition concern.

  18. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

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    S. Kismiati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources. Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individual battery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5% eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feed experiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, protein intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Results of the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. The use of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was that the use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestone or mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  19. No association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk in chinese community-dwelling older men and women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R; Leung, J; Woo, J

    2012-05-01

    Data on the association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk are limited among Chinese. This study examined such an association in community-dwelling elderly in Hong Kong. We present data from 2,944 subjects (1,605 men, 1,339 women) who participated in a prospective cohort study. Baseline dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K were assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Data on incident hip fracture and nonvertebral fracture during a median of 6.9 follow-up years were collected from a hospital database. Cox regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age, education attainment, smoking status, alcohol use, body mass index, hip bone mineral density, physical activity, use of calcium supplement, and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. There were 29 (1.8 %) men and 19 (1.4 %) women with incident hip fractures and 97 (6.0 %) men and 88 (6.6 %) women with nonvertebral fractures. The median (interquartile range) of dietary vitamin K intake was 241.8 (157.5-360.8) and 238.9 (162.4-343.6) μg/day in men and women, respectively. Similar dietary vitamin K intakes were observed between subjects with hip or nonvertebral fractures and subjects without hip or nonvertebral fractures. In both men and women, dietary vitamin K intake was not associated with fracture risks at all measured sites in either crude or adjusted models. In Chinese community-dwelling elderly, hip or nonvertebral fracture risk was not associated with dietary vitamin K intake. The high dietary vitamin K intake of the studied group may have limited the ability to detect the association between vitamin K intake and fracture risk.

  20. Assessing phytochemical intake in a group of Mexican women Estimación de la ingesta de fitoestrógenos en un grupo de mujeres mexicanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia V Galvan-Portillo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the content of selected phytochemicals (PHYs in Mexican foods and evaluate the reliability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in assessing PHYs intake among Mexican women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Values for PHYs content were obtained from four different data sets. PHYs intake was assessed in 50 women of reproductive age enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study. Values were obtained from a FFQ administered twice, one year apart in order to evaluate its reliability. Selected PHYs included flavonol (FOL, flavones (FES, flavanol (FAL, secoisolariciresinol (SE, matairesinol (MA, lariciresinol (LA, pinoresinol (PI, cynamic acid (CA and coumestrol (CU. RESULTS: Daily PHYs intake ranged from 1.3 µg ± 0.9 for MA to 116.3 ± 43.8 mg for CA. The adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from 0.17 for FAL to 0.47 for LA. Pinto beans, oranges, hot sauce, broccoli, apples and onions were the main sources of the selected PHYs daily intake. DISCUSSION: The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the consumption of PHYs in the Mexican diet, and would help evaluate their potential health impact.OBJETIVO: Crear una base de datos con el contenido de nueve fitoestrógenos (FIT presentes en alimentos mexicanos y calcular su ingestión y reproducibilidad en 50 mujeres participantes en un estudio de cohorte en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los FIT seleccionados incluyeron flavonol (FOL, flavones (FES, flavanol (FAL, secoisolariciresinol (SE, matairesinol (MA, lariciresinol (LA, pinoresinol (PI, ácido cinámico (CA y coumestrol (CU. El contenido de estos compuestos se obtuvo de cuatro diferentes fuentes de datos. La ingestión diaria se estimó a través de un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, aplicado en dos oportunidades con una diferencia de un año a cada participante. La reproducibilidad en el reporte de cada FIT se estimó mediante coeficientes de correlación intraclase ajustados por residuales de energ

  1. Sodium chloride intake: is lower always better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerspink, Hiddo Lambers; Ritz, Eberhard

    2012-07-01

    Current treatment of kidney disease is not completely satisfactory, particularly when initiated in the late stages of renal progression. There is an urgent need for additional interventions, especially reduction of salt intake, which is rather high in the Western world. In this commentary we provide a critical assessment of post hoc analyses of recent interventional and observational studies on the effect of salt intake on renal and cardiovascular outcomes. To evaluate the mechanisms and safety of reduced salt intake, studies specifically designed to assess salt intake as an endpoint are needed. This approach will have implications for health care policies and labeling of the salt content of purchased foods.

  2. A stochastic exposure assessment model to estimate vanadium intake by beef cattle used as sentinels for the South African vanadium mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummow, B; Kirsten, W F A; Gummow, R J; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2006-10-17

    This paper presents an environmental exposure assessment model for estimating chronic intake of vanadium (a transition metal) by cattle farmed extensively in areas contaminated by vanadium pollutants. The exposure model differs from most other models in several ways: (1) it does not rely heavily on extrapolating information from the point source (e.g. stack height, exit velocity, exit diameter) to the point of exposure. (2) It incorporates the physiological constraints of the species exposed. (3) It takes into account oral as well as inhalation exposure. (4) It addresses terrain, by using measurements at the point of exposure. (5) It accounts for existing background concentrations of pollutants and pollutants from multiple sources. (6) It uses a stochastic process with distribution functions to account for variability in the data over time. Environmental inputs into the model included aerial fall-out sample vanadium (n=566), unwashed grass sample vanadium (n=342) and soluble soil sample vanadium (n=342). Physiological cattle inputs were derived from two cohorts of Brahman-cross sentinel cattle (n=30). The model provided an estimate of the chronic external exposure dose of vanadium for two separate groups of cattle grazing over a 5-year period (1999-2004) immediately adjacent (median dose=2.14mg vanadium/kg body weight/day) and 2km away (median dose=1.07mg/kg/day) from a South African vanadium-processing plant, respectively. The final output of the model is a distribution curve of the probable vanadium intake based on the variability within the inputs over the 5-year period of the study. The model is adaptable enough for application to other transition metals and species (including man), and could be used as an alternative to plume-dispersion modelling.

  3. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...... their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self......-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (P

  4. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND DIETARY INTAKE IN NON-CIRRHOTIC ADULT CHRONIC HEPATITIS C PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina B A GOTTSCHALL

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe hepatitis C virus is one of the main causes of liver disease worldwide and may develop nutritional deficiencies.ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to assess and compare different nutritional status methods of adult patients with chronic hepatitis C virus, and to describe inadequacies in dietary intake.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted with adult outpatients with hepatitis C virus at a Brazilian hospital. Nutritional assessment included the 24-hour dietary recall, anthropometry (body weight, height, body mass index, triceps skinfold, mid-upper arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, mid-upper arm muscle area, adductor policis muscle, Subjective Global Assessment, Royal Free Hospital Global Assessment and handgrip strength.ResultsA total of 94 outpatients (ages 30 to 76 years, was included, 46 were men. The prevalence of malnutrition as measured by the different methods was 6.4% (body mass index; 60.6% (handgrip strength, and 53.2% (Royal Free Hospital Global Assessment. There was correlation between mid-upper arm circumference and mid-arm muscle circumference (r=0.821, mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skinfold (r=0.575 and mid-upper arm circumference and mid-upper arm muscle area (r=0.781. Energy and protein intakes were below recommended levels in 49 (52.1% and 44 (46.8% of patients, respectively. Inadequate calcium, potassium, zinc and vitamin C intakes occurred in 92.6%, 97.9%, 63.8% and 60.6% of patients. There was an association between dietary energy and protein intake with Royal Free Hospital Global Assessment (P<0.001 and a tendency for them to be associated with handgrip strength (P=0.076 and P=0.054.ConclusionMalnutrition is frequently in hepatitis C virus patients. They have high prevalence of inadequate energy, protein and micronutrients intake, even in the absence of cirrhosis.

  5. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P.; Wood, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and...

  6. The Role iNDF in the Regulation of Feed Intake and the Importance of Its Assessment in Subtropical Ruminant Systems (the Role of iNDF in the Regulation of Forage Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Harper

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The intake and digestibility of forages is largely influenced by the fibre content and specifically the neutral detergent fibre (NDF. Currently, the focus in commercial diet formulation and the modelling of animal performance is on the total NDF so as to achieve higher ruminant feed intakes, higher production performance and rumen health. Rations are often formulated for a specific level of NDF in the diet assuming that the digestibility of NDF operates over a narrow range. Forage NDF, particularly in C4 forages, varies greatly in potential digestibility within the rumen. This potential digestibility is defined as the NDF fraction which disappears after a long incubation period and the remaining indigestible component of NDF (iNDF is unavailable for microbial digestion. It is hypothesized that this dietary iNDF has an important role in contributing to rumen digesta load and voluntary intake. Formulating a diet to a specific level of NDF without reference to the iNDF could markedly affect the resulting intake, digestibility and metabolisable energy (ME content of the diet. It is concluded that nutritional models need to be modified to accept directly determined iNDF.

  7. Impact of calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies on serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density: analysis of the 4th & 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative contributions of calcium and vitamin D to calcium metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) have been examined previously, but not in a population with very low calcium intake. To determine the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concent...

  8. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D is needed to help your body use calcium. Milk is fortified with vitamin D for this reason. ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ...

  9. Impact of lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on energy and nutrient intake among moderately underweight 8-18-month-old children participating in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M; Ashorn, Per; Phuka, John C; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Maleta, Kenneth M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrition interventions have an effect on growth, energy and nutrient intake, and development, but there are mixed reports on the effect of supplementation of energy-dense foods on dietary intake. This substudy aimed at assessing the effect of supplementation with corn-soy blend (CSB) or lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) on energy and nutrient intake in moderately underweight children participating in a clinical trial. A total of 188 children aged 8-18 months participated and received daily either 284 kcal from CSB or 220 kcal from LNS and no supplements (control). An interactive 24-h recall method was used to estimate energy and nutrient intakes in the groups. Total mean energy intake was 548 kcal, 551 kcal and 692 kcal in the control, CSB and LNS groups, respectively (P = 0.011). The mean (95% confidence interval) intake of energy and protein were 144 (37-250; P Energy intake from non-supplement foods was significantly lower in the CSB group compared with the control group, but not in the LNS group, suggesting a lower displacement of non-supplement foods with LNS. Both CSB and LNS supplementation resulted in higher intakes of calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin C compared with controls (all P ≤ 0.001). This study indicates that LNS might be superior to CSB to supplement underweight children as it results in higher energy intake, but this requires confirmation in other settings.

  10. [Calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in drinking water and status biomarkers of these minerals among elder people from Warsaw region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Dawid; Kaluza, Joanna; Antonik, Anna; Brzozowska, Anna; Roszkowski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc contents in drinking water on chosen parameters of nutritional status of these minerals in 164 elder people, 75-80 age, living in Warsaw region. Blood, hair and saliva were collected to assess the calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc nutritional status, while the samples of drinking water were collected to determine these minerals in water Mineral concentrations in blood, hair saliva and water were assessment using the atomic spectrophotometer absorption method It was showed that contribution of drinking water to calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc intake was: 15%, 4%, 5%, 9%, respectively. The relationship between the contents of these minerals in drinking water and their levels in the blood, hair and saliva had low correlation coefficients. It probably showed that homeostasis was maintained in the human body and other factors such as demographic or lifestyle factors were important.

  11. Is Excess Calcium Harmful to Health?

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Robin M.; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    Most current guidelines recommend that older adults and the elderly strive for a total calcium intake (diet and supplements) of 1,000 to 1,300 mg/day to prevent osteoporosis and fractures. Traditionally, calcium supplements have been considered safe, effective and well tolerated, but their safety has recently been questioned due to potential adverse effects on vascular disease which may increase mortality. For example, the findings from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (current...

  12. Assessment of the Pozzolanic Activity of a Spent Catalyst by Conductivity Measurement of Aqueous Suspensions with Calcium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Velázquez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The pozzolanic activity of the spent catalyst produced by fluid catalytic cracking (FCC has been studied by various methods in recent years. However, no quick and easy method has been reported for this activity based on the associated studies. In this work, the pozzolanic activity of a spent catalyst was investigated by measuring its electrical conductivity in aqueous suspensions of pozzolan/calcium hydroxide. The behavior of the FCC catalyst residue was compared to that of reactive and inert materials of similar chemical compositions. Further, the influence of temperature on the suspension was studied, and also, a new method was proposed in which the pozzolan/calcium hydroxide ratio was varied (with the initial presence of solid Ca(OH2 in the system. It was concluded that the method is effective, fast and simple for evaluating the high reactivity of the catalyst. Therefore, this method is an alternative for the evaluation of the reactivity of pozzolanic materials.

  13. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L;

    2010-01-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100....../d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  14. Assessment of caregiver’s knowledge, complementary feeding practices, and adequacy of nutrient intake from homemade foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motuma A Abeshu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6 month onwards. Homemade complementary foods, however, are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver’s complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6 – 23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia.A cross sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver’s knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households.Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2% children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6% were fed 3 or more times per day. Daily energy intake however was significantly lower (P<0.05 than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77 and 364.76 (kcal/dayfor 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (mg/day were below the daily requirements (p=0.000, with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p=0.000 was observed among the 6-8 and 9-11months (3.25, 4.17mg/day, respectively, even accounting for high bioavailability.The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn and Fe (except 12 – 23 months intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements.

  15. Assessment of Caregiver's Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6-23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver's complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver's knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6-8 and 9-11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12-23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements.

  16. Role of calcium and vitamin D in the treatment of muscle pain

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Raymond CR

    1985-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D deficiencies are associated with abnormal muscular functions including non-specific pain and weakness. A diet survey of a patient complaining of back pain showed a low calcium intake. Clinically patients may have low utilization of dietary calcium. In addition to the normal chiropractic treatments, the patient was given calcium and vitamin D supplements. These supplements greatly improved the recovery of the patient. The nutritional status of calcium and vitamin D in the...

  17. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Residents of Villages Surrounding Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ebrahimof

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major health problem because of the large health care costs associated with its clinical consequences. It is therefore of great importance to identify modifiable risk factors. We investigated association between fruit and vegetables intake and bone mineral density in rural population of Tehran surroundings. Subjects were a subgroup of a large study on prevalence and causes of vitamin D deficiency in rural population surrounding Tehran, capital of Iran. Fruit and vegetable intake of 82 subjects whose bone mineral density (BMD was measured and had a 24 hour food recall, was assessed. Weight and height were measured by standard methods. BMD was measured by Dual X-Ray (DXL (Calscan method at the heels. Osteopenia and osteoporosis rate in women older than 50 years were 55.5% and 33.3% and in men were 69.2% and 7.7%, respectively. Fruit intake was not correlated with BMD. Vegetable intake was positively associated with BMD just in women. According to interquartile range of vegetable intake women were grouped as those consuming less than 1.5 servings of vegetables per day and those consuming more. The women reported consuming more than 1.5 serving of vegetables had significantly higher T-score (-1.1±0.8 compared with -1.9±1.0, P<0.01. Those consumed more vegetables had high intake of some nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin A, potassium, magnesium, zinc, folate, iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus but none of them except for vitamin A (r= 0.03, P<0.05 was correlated with BMD. High consumption of vegetables positively affected bone mineral density in rural women and daily intake of at least 1.5 servings of vegetables could positively affect osteoporosis prevention.

  18. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  19. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone ...

  20. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  1. Estimated protein intakes of toddlers: predicted prevalence of inadequate intakes in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, G H; Calloway, D H; Murphy, S P

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents a probability assessment of the adequacy of protein intakes of toddlers (aged 18-30 mo) in study communities in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico judged in relation to FAO/WHO/UNU estimates of requirements. Effects of supplementing amino acid intakes, or of assuming lower bioavailability for lysine are also considered. In Egypt and Mexico existing protein intakes of toddlers were adequate. In Kenya existing intakes were marginal. Total protein intake was low and often lysine or tryptophan concentration was low. If Kenyan intakes met estimated energy requirements, protein intakes would be adequate. We conclude that protein intake is unlikely to be a primary limiting factor for toddler growth and development, and the benefit to be expected from increasing the intake of limiting amino acids is marginal. Reported associations of animal-source protein and energy with growth, size, and psychologic function of these toddlers are unlikely to be causally attributable to inadequacy of protein intakes.

  2. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years in Valencia (Spain: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Morales-Suárez-Varela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs. The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain. Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR or adequate intake (AI. Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls, 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity. We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016, zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017, and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies.

  3. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  4. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-12-18

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies.

  5. Milk intake and total dairy consumption: associations with early menarche in NHANES 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Wiley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche. METHODS/FINDINGS: This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20-49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9-12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5-12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake β = -0.32, P<0.10; "sometimes/variable milk intake" β = -0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never. Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk "sometimes/varied" or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively. Among the 9-12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06. Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively, while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05 than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03, but not after controlling for overweight. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche.

  6. Effects of biological molecules on calcium mineral formation associated with wastewater desalination as assessed using small-angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipich, Vitaliy; Dahdal, Yara; Rapaport, Hanna; Kasher, Roni; Oren, Yoram; Schwahn, Dietmar

    2013-06-25

    Calcium phosphate scale formation on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes is one of the main limitations on cost-effective desalination of domestic wastewater worldwide. It has been shown that organic agents affect mineralization. In this study, we explored mineralization in the presence of two biofilm-relevant organic compounds, the proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme, in a simulated secondary effluent (SSE) solution using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and applied the results to analyses of mineral precipitation in RO desalination of secondary effluents of wastewater. The two proteins are prominent members of bacterial extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), forming biofilms that are frequently associated with RO-membrane fouling during wastewater desalination. Laboratory experiments showed that both proteins in SSE solution are involved in complex mineralization processes. Only small portions of both protein fractions are involved in mineralization processes, whereas most of the protein fractions remain as monomers in solution. Contrast variation showed that composite particles of mineral and protein are formed instantaneously to a radius of gyration of about 300 Å, coexisting with particles of about μm size. After about one day, these large particles start to grow again at the expense of the 300 Å particles. The volume fraction of the 300 Å particles is of the order of 2 × 10(-4), which is too large to represent calcium phosphate such as hydroxyapatite as the only mineral present. Considering the data of mineral volume fraction obtained here as well as the solubility product of possible mineral polymorphs in the SSE solution, we suggest the formation of protein-mineral particles of hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate during scale formation.

  7. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: Importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most passerines depend on the intake of calcium-rich material in addition to their normal food for proper eggshell formation and skeletal growth. A large proportion of Great Tits (Pants major) in forests on nutrient-poor soils in the Netherlands produce eggs with defective shells as a result of calc

  8. Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as phosphorus binders in patients on chronic haemodialysis: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, T; Nielsen, C; Andersen, S P; Behrens, J K; Sodemann, B; Kornerup, H J

    1993-01-01

    The first reported double-blind cross-over comparison between the phosphorus binders calcium carbonate and calcium acetate was undertaken in 15 stable patients on chronic maintenance haemodialysis. Detailed registration of diet and analysis of the protein catabolic rate suggested an unchanged phosphorus intake during the study. It was found that predialytic serum phosphate concentration was significantly decreased by 0.11 mmol/l (0.34 mg/dl) (P = 0.021, 95% confidence limits 0.02-0.21 mmol/l; 0.06-0.65 mg/dl) during calcium acetate treatment. The calcium phosphate product was insignificantly decreased during treatment with calcium acetate whereas we could not exclude the possibility that calcium concentration had increased.

  9. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. PMID:27775598

  10. The use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sunyecz, John A

    2008-01-01

    John A SunyeczMenopauseRx, Inc., Uniontown, PA, USAAbstract: Osteoporosis poses a significant public health issue, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Calcium and vitamin D utilization in the optimization of bone health is often overlooked by patients and health care providers. In addition, the optimal standard of care for osteoporosis should encompass adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. Dietary intake or supplementation with calcium and vitamin D will be reviewed, including recen...

  11. Effect of dephytinization on bioavailability of iron, calcium and zinc from infant cereals assessed in the Caco-2 cell model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carmen Frontela; Maria Laura Scarino; Simonetta Ferruzza; Gaspar Ros; Carmen Martínez

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To test the effect of the dephytinization of three different commercial infant cereals on iron, calcium,and zinc bioavailability by estimating the uptake, retention,and transport by Caco-2 cells.METHODS: Both dephytinized (by adding an exogenous phytase) and non-dephytinized infant cereals were digested using an in vitro digestion protocol adapted to the gastrointestinal conditions of infants younger than 6 mo. Mineral cell retention, transport,and uptake from infant cereals were measured using the soluble fraction of the simulated digestion and the Caco-2 cells.RESULTS: Dephytinization of infant cereals significantly increased ( P < 0.05) the cell uptake efficiency (from 0.66%-6.05% to 3.93%-13%), retention (from 6.04%-16.68% to 14.75%-20.14%) and transport efficiency (from 0.14%-2.21% to 1.47%-6.02%), of iron, and the uptake efficiency (from 5.0%-35.4% to 7.3%-41.6%) and retention (from 4.05%-20.53% to 14.45%-61.3%) of zinc, whereas calcium only cell uptake showed a significant increase ( P < 0.05) after removing phytate from most of the samples analyzed.A positive relationship ( P < 0.05) between mineral solubility and the cell uptake and transport efficiencies was observed.

  12. Assessing the Association between Natural Food Folate Intake and Blood Folate Concentrations: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Trials and Observational Studies

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    Claire M. Marchetta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Folate is found naturally in foods or as synthetic folic acid in dietary supplements and fortified foods. Adequate periconceptional folic acid intake can prevent neural tube defects. Folate intake impacts blood folate concentration; however, the dose-response between natural food folate and blood folate concentrations has not been well described. We estimated this association among healthy females. A systematic literature review identified studies (1 1992–3 2014 with both natural food folate intake alone and blood folate concentration among females aged 12–49 years. Bayesian methods were used to estimate regression model parameters describing the association between natural food folate intake and subsequent blood folate concentration. Seven controlled trials and 29 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. For the six studies using microbiologic assay (MA included in the meta-analysis, we estimate that a 6% (95% Credible Interval (CrI: 4%, 9% increase in red blood cell (RBC folate concentration and a 7% (95% CrI: 1%, 12% increase in serum/plasma folate concentration can occur for every 10% increase in natural food folate intake. Using modeled results, we estimate that a natural food folate intake of ≥450 μg dietary folate equivalents (DFE/day could achieve the lower bound of an RBC folate concentration (~1050 nmol/L associated with the lowest risk of a neural tube defect. Natural food folate intake affects blood folate concentration and adequate intakes could help women achieve a RBC folate concentration associated with a risk of 6 neural tube defects/10,000 live births.

  13. Calcium, magnesium, and potassium in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biochemical and physiological functions and consequences of deficient intakes, which show the nutritional importance of calcium, magnesium and potassium for humans, are reviewed. The dietary recommendations and food sources for these essential mineral elements for humans are presented. Factors t...

  14. Adolescence: How do we increase intestinal calcium absorption to allow for bone mineral mass accumulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An increase in calcium absorptive efficiency (fractional absorption of dietary calcium) during adolescence is associated with a rapid increase in total body bone mineral mass (BMM) accumulation. This increase occurs across a range of calcium intakes. It appears to be principally mediated by hormonal...

  15. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  16. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

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    Jennifer Hilger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps.

  17. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-04-07

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain.

  18. Validity of a multipass, web-based, 24-hour self-administered recall for assessment of total energy intake in blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Ang, Alfonso; Jardack, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    To date, Web-based 24-hour recalls have not been validated using objective biomarkers. From 2006 to 2009, the validity of 6 Web-based DietDay 24-hour recalls was tested among 115 black and 118 white healthy adults from Los Angeles, California, by using the doubly labeled water method, and the results were compared with the results of the Diet History Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire developed by the National Cancer Institute. The authors performed repeated measurements in a subset of 53 subjects approximately 6 months later to estimate the stability of the doubly labeled water measurement. The attenuation factors for the DietDay recall were 0.30 for blacks and 0.26 for whites. For the Diet History Questionnaire, the attenuation factors were 0.15 and 0.17 for blacks and whites, respectively. Adjusted correlations between true energy intake and the recalls were 0.50 and 0.47 for blacks and whites, respectively, for the DietDay recall. For the Diet History Questionnaire, they were 0.34 and 0.36 for blacks and whites, respectively. The rate of underreporting of more than 30% of calories was lower with the recalls than with the questionnaire (25% and 41% vs. 34% and 52% for blacks and whites, respectively). These findings suggest that Web-based DietDay dietary recalls offer an inexpensive and widely accessible dietary assessment alternative, the validity of which is equally strong among black and white adults. The validity of the Web-administered recall was superior to that of the paper food frequency questionnaire.

  19. Vitamin D status, dietary intake, and bone turnover in female Soldiers during military training: a longitudinal study

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    Lutz Laura J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for maintaining bone health, to include protecting against stress fracture during periods of rapid bone turnover. The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to assess vitamin D status, biomarkers of bone turnover, and vitamin D and calcium intake in female Soldiers (n = 91 during US Army basic combat training (BCT. Methods Anthropometric, biological and dietary intake data were collected at wk 0, 3, 6, and 9 of the 10 wk BCT course. Mixed models repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess main effects of time, race, and time-by-race interactions. Results White volunteers experienced a decrease in serum 25(OHD levels, whereas non-white volunteers experienced an increase during BCT. However, serum 25(OHD levels were lower in non-whites than whites at all timepoints (P-interaction  Conclusions These findings demonstrate that female Soldiers experience dynamic changes in vitamin D status coupled with increased bone turnover and potentially inadequate vitamin D and calcium intake during military training.

  20. Using metabolomics to evaluate food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manach, Claudine; Brennan, Lorraine; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    Improving dietary assessment is essential for modern nutritional epidemiology. This chapter discusses the potential of metabolomics for the identification of new biomarkers of intake and presents the first candidate biomarkers discovered using this approach. It then describes the challenges that ...

  1. Dietary intake and stress fractures among elite male combat recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Daniel S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate and sufficient dietary intake is one of the main requirements for maintaining fitness and health. Inadequate energy intake may have a negative impact on physical performance which may result in injuries among physically active populations. The purpose of this research was to evaluate a possible relationship between dietary intake and stress fracture occurrence among combat recruits during basic training (BT. Methods Data was collected from 74 combat recruits (18.2 ± 0.6 yrs in the Israeli Defense Forces. Data analyses included changes in anthropometric measures, dietary intake, blood iron and calcium levels. Measurements were taken on entry to 4-month BT and at the end of BT. The occurrence of stress reaction injury was followed prospectively during the entire 6-month training period. Results Twelve recruits were diagnosed with stress fracture in the tibia or femur (SF group. Sixty two recruits completed BT without stress fractures (NSF. Calcium and vitamin D intakes reported on induction day were lower in the SF group compared to the NSF group-38.9% for calcium (589 ± 92 and 964 ± 373 mg·d-1, respectively, p -1, respectively, p Conclusions The development of stress fractures in young recruits during combat BT was associated with dietary deficiency before induction and during BT of mainly vitamin D and calcium. For the purpose of intervention, the fact that the main deficiency is before induction will need special consideration.

  2. A systematic review on the effects of maternal calcium supplementation on offspring′s blood pressure

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    Fahimeh Jamshidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence proposes that maternal calcium (Ca supplement during pregnancy may be inversely associated with the off spring′s blood pressure (BP level. It is suggested that increased maternal Ca intake during pregnancy may result in lower BP in the off spring. The reduction in the incidence of hypertension in mothers is documented but the effects on the off spring are uncertain. Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to summarize the evidence supporting an association between maternal dietary Ca intake during pregnancy and the BP in the off spring. In this systematic review, relevant papers were selected in three phases. After quality assessment, a reviewer extracted the data while the other one checked the extracted data. We summarized the information regarding the association of maternal Ca intake either by food or supplements with BP in the off spring. Results: Four randomized trials and three observational studies were included in this review. The results were more consistent among the studies including older children (1-9 years where a higher maternal Ca intake was associated with a reduction in the off spring′s systolic BP. One large randomized trial found a clinically and statistically significant reduction in the incidence of elevated BP in 7-year-old children [relative risk (RR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.39-0.90]. Conclusion: Overall, our findings confirm the beneficial effects of maternal Ca intake during pregnancy for the off spring′s BP level.

  3. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  4. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Jessy El; Egeland, Grace; Weiler, Hope

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N). Materials and methods Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296). Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall) and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin). Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.). Results Children divided by speed of sound (SoS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) quartiles were not different for age (years), sex (M/F), calcium (mg/d) and vitamin D intake (µg/d) and plasma 25(OH)D concentration (nmol/L). However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF) and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required. PMID:22789515

  5. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy El Hayek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N. Materials and methods. Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296. Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin. Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.. Results. Children divided by speed of sound (SoS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA quartiles were not different for age (years, sex (M/F, calcium (mg/d and vitamin D intake (µg/d and plasma 25(OHD concentration (nmol/L. However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.

  6. Calcium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if a person has symptoms of a parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , or an overactive thyroid. A total calcium level is often measured as part of a routine health screening. It is included in the comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) and the basic metabolic panel (BMP) , ...

  7. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease or stomach conditions.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor.

  8. Magnesium intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G-C; Pang, Z; Liu, Q-F

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that magnesium intake may be associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to assess this association by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective studies. We performed a literature search on PubMed database through July 2012 to identify prospective studies of magnesium intake in relation to CRC risk. Reference lists of the retrieved articles were also reviewed. A random-effects model was used to compute the summary risk estimates. Eight prospective studies containing 338,979 participants and 8000 CRC cases met the inclusion criteria. The summary relative risk (RR) for the highest vs lowest category of magnesium intake for CRC was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79-1.00), with little evidence of heterogeneity. Restricting the analysis to six studies that have adjusted for calcium intake yielded a similar result. For colon and rectal cancer, the pooled RR was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.93) and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.72-1.24), respectively. In the dose-response analyses, the summary RRs for an increment of magnesium intake of 50 mg/day for colorectal, colon and rectal cancer were, respectively, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.89-1.00), 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.83-1.04), and there was some evidence of heterogeneity; omitting one study that substantially contributed to the heterogeneity yielded generally similar results, but with low heterogeneity. We detected no indication of publication bias. On the basis of the findings of this meta-analysis, a higher magnesium intake seems to be associated with a modest reduction in the risk of CRC, in particular, colon cancer.

  9. Consumo alimentar de micronutrientes entre pré-escolares no domicílio e em escolas de educação infantil do município de Caxias do Sul (RS Dietary micronutrient intake of preschool children at home and in kindergartens of the municipality of Caxias do Sul (RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rombaldi Bernardi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ingestão alimentar de micronutrientes em pré-escolares no domicílio e em escolas de educação infantil públicas e particulares. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 362 pré-escolares entre dois e seis anos de idade, em Caxias do Sul (RS Brasil, em 2007. A ingestão alimentar na escola foi avaliada por meio do método de pesagem direta individual, e no domicílio, por meio de registro alimentar realizado pelos pais ou responsáveis. Foi calculada a ingestão alimentar de cálcio, ferro, folato, vitamina A, vitamina C e zinco de acordo com o local da refeição e tipo de escola. RESULTADOS: Houve maior ingestão de alimentos contendo ferro, folato e vitamina C durante o período em que as crianças permaneceram na escola infantil, e maior ingestão de cálcio, vitamina A e zinco no domicílio. Houve significativamente maior ingestão de alimentos contendo ferro (p=0,03, folato (p=0,03, vitamina A (pOBJECTIVE: This study assessed the adequacy of preschool children's dietary micronutrient intake at home and in public and private kindergartens. METHODS: This cross-sectional study done in 2007 included 362 preschool children aged 2-6 years from Caxias do Sul (RS, Brazil. Food intake at school was assessed by the individual direct weighing method and at home by food records kept by the parents or caregivers. Dietary intakes of calcium, iron, folate, vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc were calculated according to meal location and type of school. RESULTS: Dietary iron, folate and vitamin C intakes were higher in kindergartens and dietary intakes of calcium, vitamin A and zinc were higher at home. Dietary intakes of iron (p=0.03, folate (p=0.03, vitamin A (p<0.01 and vitamin C (p<0.01 were significantly higher in private kindergartens and dietary intakes of calcium (p<0.01 and zinc (p<0.01 were significantly higher in public kindergartens. Intakes of iron, folate, vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc were adequate but only 67.4% of

  10. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  11. Statement on the exposure assessment of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate including exposure resulting from extension of the authorisation of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Following a request by the European Commission, the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS carried out an exposure assessment of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 481 and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 482 as a food additive, including an extension of the uses to use the additives in emulsified cooked meat products (e.g. mortadella, paté. Reflecting the data on actual use levels provided by food industry, the combined exposure to sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate is in the range 6-55 mg/kg bw/day for toddlers, 14-54 mg/kg bw/day for children, 13-27 mg/kg bw/day for adolescents, 4-16 mg/kg bw/day for adults, and 3-13 mg/kg bw/day for the elderly at the mean level. For exposure at high levels, ranges of 22-109 mg/kg bw/day for toddlers, 28-107 mg/kg bw/day for children, 21-46 mg/kg bw/day for adolescents, 15-33 mg/kg bw/day for adults, and 9-30 mg/kg bw/day were calculated for the elderly. The extension of the authorisation for the use of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate in emulsified cooked meat products (e.g. mortadella, paté would not lead to an increase of exposure based on the approach taken for the exposure assessment for the two food additives.

  12. Magnesium intake is not related to depression risk in Spanish university graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derom, Marie-Laure; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Sayón-Orea, Maria del Carmen; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Beunza, Juan J; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2012-06-01

    Magnesium is the second most predominant intracellular cation and it is an important cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions. It is a calcium antagonist and a voltage-dependent blocker of the N-methyl-D-aspartate channel, which plays a role in the entrance of calcium into the neuron. Other mechanisms also add biological plausibility to neuro-protective properties for magnesium, including an inverse association with major depression. A higher magnesium intake has been related to lower depressive symptoms. However, epidemiological evidence on this issue is scarce. Our aim was to prospectively evaluate the association between dietary magnesium intake and depression incidence in a cohort of 12,939 Spanish university graduates initially free of depression (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Cohort Study). Total magnesium intake was assessed with a validated, semiquantitative FFQ and incident depression was ascertained through self-reports of a new clinical diagnosis of depression done by a medical doctor and/or the habitual use of antidepressive drugs. The self-report was validated against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) criteria in a subsample of the cohort. Cox regression models were used to obtain HR of incident depression during follow-up according to baseline quintiles of magnesium intake using the lowest quintile as the reference category. After a median follow-up of 6.3 y, 737 new cases of depression were identified. No association between magnesium intake and depression was found, with multivariate-adjusted HR = 1 (reference), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.78-1.27), 1.00 (0.76-1.31), 0.95 (0.70-1.30), and 1.11 (0.77-1.59) for increasing categories (quintiles 1-5) of total magnesium intake. No dose-response relationship was found (P-trend = 0.59). Results were robust through different sensitivity analyses, including nutrient density or residual models. In conclusion, our findings do not suggest an inverse association between magnesium

  13. Sodium intake status in United States and potential reduction modeling: an NHANES 2007–2010 analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Sanjiv; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limiting dietary sodium intake has been a consistent dietary recommendation. Using NHANES 2007–2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007–2010 data were used to assess current sodium intake. The National Cancer Institute method was used for usual intake determination. Suggested sodium reductions using SODA‐LO ® Salt Microspheres ranged from 20% to 30% in 953 foods and usual intakes ...

  14. Breast Cancer and DNA Repair Capacity: Association With Use of Multivitamin and Calcium Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Yeidyly; Matta, Jaime; Morales, Luisa; Vargas, Wanda; Alvarez-Garriga, Carolina; Bayona, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Context Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women, with over 1 million new cases diagnosed every year worldwide. Over recent decades, considerable interest has emerged regarding whether vitamins and/or other supplements can lower the risk of BC. However, previous epidemiologic studies that investigated the association between intake of multivitamin and supplements of single vitamins and minerals and BC risk have reported conflicting results. Whether vitamins can actually reduce BC risk is still controversial. Objective This study examined whether multivitamin and calcium use was associated with BC incidence and DNA repair capacity (DRC). Design The research team designed an observational, case-control study. Setting All work was performed at the Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences under the direct supervision of principal investigator Dr Jaime Matta. Participants Participants were 836 women recruited primarily from the private practices of oncologists, gynecologists, and surgeons in Puerto Rico. Intervention(s) A total of 312 individuals in the breast cancer (BC) group and 524 individuals in the control group were compared for their multivitamin and calcium intake, DRC levels, and other covariates. Outcome Measure(s) Odds ratios (OR), adjusted using both crude analysis and multiple logistic regression, were used as measures of association between BC and DRC and other selected variables. Results The BC group had 30% reduced odds of taking multivitamins and calcium as compared to controls: (1) OR = 0.7 (95% CI, 0.4–1.0; P = .073) for multivitamins and (2) OR = 0.7 (95% CI, 0.4–1.2; P = .167) for calcium. Women with low DRC had 50% lower odds of taking calcium and 30% lower odds of currently taking vitamins OR = 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4–0.7; P = .001) for calcium and (2) OR = 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5–0.9.1; P = .047) for vitamins. Conclusions Although this study is a case-control study in which the risk of BC could not be assessed, results suggest that

  15. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods. The objective ...

  16. Quantitative relationship between coronary calcium content and coronary flow reserve as assessed by integrated PET/CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curillova, Zelmira [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); VA Boston Healthcare System, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, West Roxbury, MA (United States); Yaman, Bettina F.; Sitek, Arkadius; El Fakhri, Georges [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Dorbala, Sharmila [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kwong, Raymond Y. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Di Carli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and coronary vasodilator function. We evaluated 136 patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing vasodilator stress {sup 82}Rb PET/CT and CAC scoring who showed normal myocardial perfusion. The CAC score, resting and hyperemic myocardial blood flow (MBF), coronary flow reserve (CFR) and coronary vascular resistance were analyzed. Global and regional CAC scores showed significant but weak inverse correlations with hyperemic MBF (r=-0.31 and r=-0.26, p{<=}0.0002 respectively) and CFR (r=-0.28 and r=-0.2, p{<=}0.001 respectively). With increasing CAC score, there was a modest stepwise decline in CFR on a per-patient basis (1.8{+-}0.5 vs 1.7{+-}0.5 vs 1.5{+-}0.4, p=0.048, with total CAC=0, 1-400 and >400, respectively) and on a per-vessel basis. In multivariable modeling only body mass index and CAC score were predictive of CFR. In patients with an intermediate likelihood of, but without overt, CAD, there is a statistically significant but weak inverse correlation between CAC content and coronary vasodilator function. The strength of this association weakens after adjusting CAC scores for age, gender and coronary risk factors. This suggests that CAC and coronary vasodilator function provide biologically different information regarding atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of Caregiver’s Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6–23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D.; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver’s complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6–23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver’s knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6–8 and 9–11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12–23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements. PMID:27574604

  18. [Comparative study of the short-term effect of mineral water on calcium metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Arcidiacono, Teresa; Puzzovio, Maria; Mora, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Mineral water may be a useful means to achieve optimal dietary calcium intake, but the effect of different mineral waters on calcium metabolism is unknown. We therefore evaluated calcium excretion in 24-hour urine in 10 healthy individuals (5 women and 5 men) after two weeks of drinking at least 1500 mL/day of mineral water with a low electrolyte content or 1500 mL/day of mineral water rich in calcium and bicarbonate but with a different sodium content. The low-sodium water Sangemini was one of these two mineral waters. Calcium excretion did not significantly increase after intake of the Sangemini mineral water in comparison with the baseline period of low-electrolyte mineral water intake. Conversely, the calcium excretion increased significantly after intake of the second mineral water. The plasma concentration of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and the urinary phosphate excretion decreased after intake of the second mineral water in comparison with the baseline period, whereas they did not decrease after intake of Sangemini water. Therefore, phosphate excretion was higher after drinking Sangemini water than the other studied mineral water. Drinking Sangemini water may have a slight effect on calcium excretion and may not inhibit bone turnover in the short term. The lesser effect of Sangemini water on calcium excretion could be useful in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  19. Radiolead (210)Pb and (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratios in calcium supplements and the assessment of their possible dose to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2016-08-23

    This paper presents the results of pioneer study of the most popular calcium supplements as a potential additional source of radiolead (210)Pb in human diet. The analyzed calcium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic calcium compounds; some came from natural sources as mussels' shells, fish extracts, or sedimentary rocks. The idea was to investigate the naturally occurring (210)Pb activity in different calcium supplements and calculate the annual effective radiation dose from radiolead (210)Pb decay in consumed calcium supplement. The results showed (210)Pb concentrations in natural origin calcium supplements (especially sedimentary rocks) were significantly higher. The highest (210)Pb activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from dolomite - 2.97 ± 0.18 mBq g(-1), while the lowest was observed in organic calcium compounds - both calcium lactate - 0.08 ± 0.01 and 0.13 ± 0.01 mBq g(-1). The highest annual radiation dose from (210)Pb taken with 1 tablet of calcium supplement per day was calculated for soluble calcium lactate sample - 1.19 ± 0.03 µSv year(-1), while the highest annual radiation dose from (210)Pb taken daily with 1 g of pure Ca for dolomite - 5.57 ± 0.34 µSv year(-1).

  20. Intake of ruminant trans-fatty acids, assessed by diet history interview, and changes in measured body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2016-01-01

    composition (body fat percentage). DESIGN: A 6-year follow-up study. Information on dietary intake was collected through diet history interviews, and anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements were obtained by trained technicians at baseline (1987-1988) and at follow-up (1993-1994). Multiple...

  1. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Maresz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate calcium intake can lead to decreased bone mineral density, which can increase the risk of bone fractures. Supplemental calcium promotes bone mineral density and strength and can prevent osteoporosis. Recent scientific evidence, however, suggests that elevated consumption of calcium supplements may raise the risk for heart disease and can be connected with accelerated deposit of calcium in blood-vessel walls and soft tissues. In contrast, vitamin K2 is associated with the inhibition...

  2. CT coronary angiography is feasible for the assessment of coronary artery disease in chronic dialysis patients, despite high average calcium scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály K de Bie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Significant obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD is common in asymptomatic dialysis patients. Identifying these high risk patients is warranted and may improve the prognosis of this vulnerable patient group. Routine catheterization of incident dialysis patients has been proposed, but is considered too invasive. CT-angiography may therefore be more appropriate. However, extensive coronary calcification, often present in this patient group, might hamper adequate lumen evaluation. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of CT-angiography in this patient group. METHODS: For this analysis all patients currently participating in the ICD2 trial (ISRCTN20479861, with no history of PCI or CABG were included. The major epicardial vessels were evaluated on a segment basis (segment 1-3, 5-8, 11 and 13 by a team consisting of an interventional and an imaging specialist. Segments were scored as not significant, significant and not interpretable. RESULTS: A total of 70 dialysis patients, with a mean age of 66±8 yrs and predominantly male (70% were included. The median calcium score was 623 [79, 1619]. Over 90% of the analyzed segments were considered interpretable. The incidence of significant CAD on CT was 43% and was associated with cardiovascular events during follow-up. The incidence of cardiovascular events after 2-years follow-up: 36% vs. 0% in patients with no significant CAD (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Despite the high calcium scores CT-angiography is feasible for the evaluation of the extent of CAD in dialysis patients. Moreover the presence of significant CAD on CT was associated with events during follow-up.

  3. Semen quality in relation to antioxidant intake in a healthy male population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zareba, Piotr; Colaci, Daniela S; Afeiche, Myriam;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males.......To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males....

  4. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium.

  5. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Karessa L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dolislager, Fredrick G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bellamy, Michael B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency s (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV s). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  6. Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  7. Dietary Intake of Some Essential Micronutrients in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Based on the data collected in the 1992 national nutrition survey in China, the food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated, and the consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated. Method Dietary data were obtained by using a three days' inventory change plus food weighing in combination with 24 hours recall method for three consecutive days. The food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated in accordance with the Chinese food composition table. The consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated in reference to the Chinese RDAs. Results The average intakes of niacin, ascorbic acid and vitamin E were sufficient, whereas that of zinc, selenium and thiamin were between 80% and 90% RDAs. The consumption of calcium, retinol equivalent and riboflavin was low compared with the Chinese RDAs. Calcium was the most insufficient nutrient in Chinese diet. Conclusion Food fortification seems necessary for improving the nutritional status of some micronutrients in China.

  8. [Folic acid intake in daily food rations of 20-25 years old women from Wroclaw and assessment of knowledge about its importance for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, Joanna; Mikołajczak, Jolanta

    2007-01-01

    The mean folic acid content in the diets of 50 young women from Wroclaw was 282 mcg and complied in 70.5% of recommended intake in prophylactic of neural tube defects. Only 8% of women used peri-conceptional folate supplementation every day. In the examined group low knowledge about importance of folic acid in health was noticed. Educational interventions are required to inform women at childbearing age of the benefits resulting from supplementation of diet with folic acid.

  9. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people: a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the

  10. A 24-hour dietary recall for assessing the intake pattern of choline among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatabdi Goon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal choline intake during the third trimester of human pregnancy can modify systemic and local epigenetic marks in fetal-derived tissues, promoting better pregnancy outcomes, increased immunity, as well as improved mental and physical work capacity with proper memory and cognitive development. 103 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care of Azimpur Maternity Hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh in their third trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected for this cross sectional study exploring dietary intake patterns of choline. A dietary recall form was administered to estimate frequency and amount of food consumption of foods for the previous 24 hours. Most women reported diets that delivered less than the recommended choline intake (mean ± SD; 189.5 ± 98.2 providing only 42.72% of total RDA value. The results of this study may indicate that dietary choline among pregnant, Bangladeshi women may not be adequate to meet the needs of both, the mother and fetus. Further studies are warranted to determine clinical implications. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  11. Cereal foods are the major source of betaine in the Western diet--analysis of betaine and free choline in cereal foods and updated assessments of betaine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Zangger, Alicia; Guiraud, Seu Ping

    2014-02-15

    Betaine and its precursor choline are important components of one-carbon metabolism, remethylating homocysteine into methionine and providing methyl groups for DNA methylation. Cereals are the main source of betaine in the diet, though there is little literature available on the content of betaine in cereal products, nor on betaine intake from cereals. Betaine and free-choline concentrations were measured by liquid-chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in a wide range of commercially available cereal foods and cereal fractions. Whole grain wheat and related fractions were the best overall common source of betaine, while the pseudocereal quinoa had the highest amount of betaine measured (3900 μg/g). Based on estimates of dietary intake data cereal foods provide approximately 60-67% of betaine in Western diets, and 20-40% of betaine in South-East Asian diets. Average intake of betaine was 131 mg/d, well below those used in intervention studies using betaine to lower blood homocysteine.

  12. Consumo de fibra dietética, sodio, potasio y calcio y su relación con la presión arterial en hombres adultos normotensos Dietary fiber, energy, sodium, potassium and calcium intake and its relationship to blood pressure in normotensive male adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nydia Ballesteros-Vásquez

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética, energía, sodio, potasio y calcio sobre la presión arterial de un grupo de adultos normotensos, tomando en cuenta indicadores tales como la edad, el sexo, la actividad física y la obesidad. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron 38 sujetos del sexo masculino de 30 a 45 años de edad, normotensos, aparentemente sanos y residentes de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se midió la presión arterial y se realizó una evaluación dietética, antropométrica y de actividad física. Resultados. La dieta resultó ser alta en fibra y en grasa. El sodio estaba 56% por arriba de la recomendación en 87% de los casos y fue la variable que más efecto mostró sobre la presión diastólica. De los sujetos estudiados, 36.9% tenían sobrepeso y obesidad, y se encontró una asociación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal y la presión diastólica y sistólica. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación significativa entre la hipertensión arterial y el alto consumo de sodio, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en sujetos normotensos.Objective. To evaluate the effect of dietary fiber, energy, sodium, calcium and potassium intake on the blood pressure of a group of normotensive adults. Material and methods. Subjects were 38 healthy normotensive adult males aged 30-45 years, resident of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Blood pressure, diet, anthropometric data and physical activity were recorded. Results. Their diet was high in fiber and fat. Sodium intake was 56% above the recommended values in 87% of the subjects, and the variable with the highest correlation to diastolic blood pressure. Of the subjects, 36.9% were overweight and obese, and a significant statistic association was found between BMI and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions. A significant relationship was found between hypertension and high consumption of sodium, overweight and obesity in healthy adult normotensive males.

  13. Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood concentrations and bone quality of commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood profile and bone quality of commercial layers. A total of 576 birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x4 factorial arrangement (calcium levels of 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and clinoptilolite levels of 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%, into 12 treatments with six replicates of eight birds per cage (experimental unit. The experimental period was 112 days. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. Blood uric acid was significantly influenced by the interaction of the evaluated factors. Clinoptilolite levels significantly increased blood calcium levels. There was no effect of dietary calcium levels on any of the evaluated characteristics. It was concluded that feeding layers with up to 0.50% clinoptilolite does not benefit blood uric acid and calcium concentrations and does not affect their bone quality. When layers at the end of the first laying cycle are fed ad libitum and present 119.50g/hen/day average feed intake, 3.1% dietary calcium promotes 3.7g/hen/day calcium intake, which is sufficient to maintain adequate calcium blood levels and bone quality.

  14. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  15. Calcium requirements for Chinese adults by cross-sectional statistical analyses of calcium balance studies: an individual participant data and aggregate data meta-regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Aiping; Li Keji; Shi Haoyu; He Jingjing; Li He

    2014-01-01

    Background Chinese dietary reference intakes for calcium are largely based on foreign studies.We undertook metaregression to estimate calcium requirements for Chinese adults derived from calcium balance data in Chinese adults.Methods We searched PubMed,Cochrane CENTRAL,and SinoMed from inception to March 5,2014,by using a structured search strategy.The bibliographies of any relevant papers and journals were also screened for potentially eligible studies.We extracted a standardized data set from studies in Chinese adults that reported calcium balance data.The relationship between calcium intake and output was examined by an individual participant data (IPD) and aggregate data (AD) meta-regression.Results We identified 11 metabolic studies in Chinese adults within 18-60 years of age.One hundred and forty-one IPD (n=35) expressed as mg/d,127 IPD (n=32) expressed as mg·kg body wt-1·d-1,and 44 AD (n=132) expressed as mg/d were collected.The models predicted a neutral calcium balance (defined as calcium output (Y) equal to calcium intake (C)) at intakes of 460 mg/d (Y=0.60C+183.98) and 8.27 mg·kg body wt-1·d-1 (Y=0.60C+3.33)for IPD,or 409 mg/d (Y=0.66C+139.00) for AD.Calcium requirements at upper intakes were higher than that at lower intakes in all these models.Conclusion Calcium requirement for Chinese adults 18-60 years of age approximately ranges between 400 mg/d and 500 mg/d when consuming traditional plant-based Chinese diets.

  16. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  17. Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Growth, Nutrient Digestibility and Fecal Lactobacilli in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yuangklang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Based on earlier studies in veal calves and rats, the hypothesis tested was that high calcium intakes by ruminating dairy calves reduce fat digestibility, but do not affect growth performance due to enhanced colonization of the intestine with lactobacilli. Approach: In dairy calves that were fed on a combination of milk replacer, concentrate on grass hay, the effects of supplemental calcium on growth, nutrient digestibility and fecal lactobacilli were studied. Four concentrates with different levels of calcium were used. Results: Final body weight and weight gain were raised by the calcium level in the concentrate in a dose-dependent, linear fashion. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and crude fat were not influenced by the level of calcium in the concentrate. The number of fecal lactobacilli was significantly increased by higher dietary calcium levels, the effect having a linear trend. Calcium intake did not change the number of fecal E. coli. The apparent absorptions of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were lowered in a linear, dose-dependent fashion by the calcium level in the concentrate. Conclusion: Increased calcium intakes stimulate weight gain in dairy calves fed a combination of milk replacer, concentrate and grass hay. This calcium effect may be related to an enhanced colonization of the intestine with lactobacilli.

  18. Diseño de un cuestionario de frecuencia para evaluar ingesta alimentaria en la Universidad de Antioquía, Colombia Development of questionnaire to assess food intake in the University of Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M.ª Monsalve Álvarez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Diseñar un cuestionario de frecuencia de ingesta alimentaria (CFIA semicuantitativo y autoreportado para valorar la ingesta usual de alimentos y macronutrientes en lacomunidad académica de la Universidad de Antioquia (UdeA. Metodología: El diseño del cuestionario se realizó a partir de la revisión y el análisis de estudios de ingesta previos y de los lineamientos establecidos para la venta de productos alimentarios en la UdeA. Para la selección de los alimentos y la definición del tamaño de porción, se aplicó el criterio de patrón de ingesta y el peso o tamaño de porción de mayor frecuencia por cada alimento según lo reportado en estudios previos. Con el CFIA se realizó un estudio descriptivo exploratorio con 154 personas de la UdeA. El análisis incluyó la comprensión, aplicabilidad y exhaustividad del instrumento para los participantes, así como el cálculo de medidas descriptivas en el componente exploratorio. Resultados: Un CFIA semicuantitativo compuesto por 144 alimentos clasificados en 9 grupos, con tamaños de porción reconocidos por la población y con 9 categorías de opciones de frecuencia de ingesta usual en el último año. El estudio exploratorio evidenció diferencias en el patrón de ingesta en los grupos poblacionales analizados. Conclusión: El CFIA diseñado fue adecuado para la población objeto de estudio, dado que fue de fácil comprensión y aplicación y permitió valorar la ingesta usual de la comunidad de la UdeA.Objective: To design a self-reported semi-quantitative questionnaire of frequency of food intake (QFFI to assess the usual intake of foods and macronutrients of the academic community from the University of Antioquia (UoA. Methodology: The design of the questionnaire was done by reviewing and analyzing previous studies on food intake and the established linings for the selling of dietary products at the UoA. For selecting the foods and defining the serving size, we applied the

  19. Vitamin D supplementation and depression in the women's health initiative calcium and vitamin D trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Powers, Sally I; Spangler, Leslie; Larson, Joseph; Michael, Yvonne L; Millen, Amy E; Bueche, Maria N; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Brunner, Robert L; Ockene, Ira; Ockene, Judith K; Liu, Simin; Manson, Joann E

    2012-07-01

    While observational studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency increases risk of depression, few clinical trials have tested whether vitamin D supplementation affects the occurrence of depression symptoms. The authors evaluated the impact of daily supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin D(3) combined with 1,000 mg of elemental calcium on measures of depression in a randomized, double-blinded US trial comprising 36,282 postmenopausal women. The Burnam scale and current use of antidepressant medication were used to assess depressive symptoms at randomization (1995-2000). Two years later, women again reported on their antidepressant use, and 2,263 completed a second Burnam scale. After 2 years, women randomized to receive vitamin D and calcium had an odds ratio for experiencing depressive symptoms (Burnam score ≥0.06) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.56) compared with women in the placebo group. Supplementation was not associated with antidepressant use (odds ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.92, 1.12) or continuous depressive symptom score. Results stratified by baseline vitamin D and calcium intake, solar irradiance, and other factors were similar. The findings do not support a relation between supplementation with 400 IU/day of vitamin D(3) along with calcium and depression in older women. Additional trials testing higher doses of vitamin D are needed to determine whether this nutrient may help prevent or treat depression.

  20. 深圳市常住居民膳食结构与营养素摄入状况评价%ASSESSMENT OF DIETARY PATTERN AND NUTRIENTS INTAKE STATUS OF THE RESIDENTS IN SHENZHEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小立; 袁雪丽; 卓志鹏; 宋金萍; 池洪珊; 徐健

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand current status of dietary pattern, nutrient intakes of the residents in Shenzhen, and provide scientific basis for developing hygiene policy and intervention strategy. Methods A sampling method of multiple stage probability proportional to the population size was used in this study. In stage one, 12 communities were randomly selected from 8 districts of Shenzhen based on population proportion from Feb. 2011 to Jul. 2011. In the second stage, 75 households (settled down in Shenzhen for 5 years or more) were randomly selected from each community. In each household, 15 years old or older members were enrolled to take dietary survey and health questionnaire. Results The average daily intakes of cereal, potato, beans, vegetables and eggs were 257.8, 336.7, 31.3g per person respectively, that reached the recommended intakes; while those of fruits, aquatic products, milk, legumes and nuts were 97.9, 59.9, 43.3, 15.5g, respectively, that were below the recommended intakes; but those of meat, oil and salt were 159.8, 41.8, 10.9g respectively, which were much higher than the recommended intakes. The average daily intakes per person of energy, and intakes of protein, fat, carbohydrate were 8.55 MJ (2043.7 kcal) 71.2, 88.3, 239.3g respectively. The energy ratio of protein, fat, and carbohydrate was 13.9%, 39.2%, 46.9% respectively. The energy ratio from cereal, animal foods and bean products were 35.4%, 23.0%, 4.0%respectively. The average daily intakes of nicotinic acid and vitamin E were sufficient while vitamin A, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2 were deficient. The average daily intakes of phosphorus, sodium, iron, manganese were sufficient and selenium, potassium were slightly lower than the Chinese Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNIs). The intaks of calcium,magnesium, zinc and copper were lower than RNIs. Conclusion The dietary pattern of the residents in Shenzhen has changed to some extent compared to the previous years. However, the intakes of fruits

  1. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients.

  2. An Assessment of Engineered Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation on Plant Growth and Development as a Step toward Evaluating Its Use to Enhance Plant Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of new approaches to control chewing insects has been sought not only for direct use in reducing crop loss but also in managing resistance to the pesticides already in use. Engineered formation of calcium oxalate crystals is a potential strategy that could be developed to fulfill both these needs. As a step toward this development, this study investigates the effects of transforming a non-calcium oxalate crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, into a crystal accumulating plant. Calcium oxalate crystal accumulating A. thaliana lines were generated by ectopic expression of a single bacterial gene encoding an oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme. Biochemical and cellular studies suggested that the engineered A. thaliana lines formed crystals of calcium oxalate in a manner similar to naturally occurring crystal accumulating plants. The amount of calcium oxalate accumulated in leaves also reached levels similar to those measured in the leaves of Medicago truncatula in which the crystals are known to play a defensive role. Visual inspection of the different engineered lines, however, suggested a phenotypic consequence on plant growth and development with higher calcium oxalate concentrations. The restoration of a near wild-type plant phenotype through an enzymatic reduction of tissue oxalate supported this observation. Overall, this study is a first to provide initial insight into the potential consequences of engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in non-crystal accumulating plants.

  3. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  4. Dietary magnesium, not calcium, prevents vascular calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgels, Theo; Waarsing, Jan; Wolf, Anneke; Brink, Jacoline; Loves, Willem; Bergen, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable disorder characterized by ectopic calcification of connective tissue in skin, Bruch's membrane of the eye, and walls of blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene, but the exact etiology is still unknown. While observations on patients suggest that high calcium intake worsens the clinical symptoms, the patient organization PXE International has published the dietary advice to increase calcium intake in combination with...

  5. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET® database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week; n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week; n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week; n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  6. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-12-08

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010-2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min-max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0-180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake.

  7. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-10-01

    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  8. Selected micronutrient intake and status in men with differing meat intakes, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D; Sinclair, A J; Mann, N J; Turner, A; Ball, M J

    2000-03-01

    Dietary factors play a critical role in human health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine micronutrient intake and status of subjects who were habitual meat eaters eating different quantities of meat with those who were habitual vegetarians or vegans. One hundred and thirty-nine healthy male subjects (vegan, n = 18; ovolacto-vegetarian, n = 46; moderate meat-eater, n = 65; and high meat-eater, n = 18) aged 20-55 years were recruited in metropolitan Melbourne. Each volunteer completed a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and gave a fasting venous blood sample. Dietary sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower and vitamin C, fibre and iron intakes were higher in vegetarians than in meat-eaters. High meat-eaters had a significantly higher calcium, retinol and zinc intake than did the other three dietary groups; moderate meateaters had the lowest mean intake of fibre, vitamin C and β-carotene. Vegans had a significantly higher β-carotene intake than did the other groups. Serum ferritin and vitamin B12 levels, and haemoglobin concentration were significantly lower in vegetarians than in meat-eaters. Vegans had a significantly higher serum folate concentration than did ovolacto-vegetarian and moderate meat-eater groups. There was no significant difference in serum α-tocopherol concentration. There are differences between the four diet groups that have potential to affect the subjects' health and susceptibility to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Based on the present data, high meat-eaters may particularly benefit from altering their dietary pattern to reduce their sodium and saturated fat intake, and moderate meat-eaters from increasing their fibre and antioxidant consumption. Vegetarians, especially vegans, may need to increase their vitamin B12 and zinc intakes.

  9. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. O'Sullivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01. Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01. Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01, due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health.

  10. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cart Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is ... the-counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D ...

  11. Bone density in premenopausal women: effects of age, dietary intake, physical activity, smoking, and birth-control pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazess, R B; Barden, H S

    1991-01-01

    The effects of age, calcium, smoking, and physical activity on appendicular and axial bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated in a 2-y study of 200-300 healthy young women aged 20-39 y. There was no cross-sectional change of BMD with age or longitudinal change with bone loss. No effect of birth-control pills on BMD was seen. There also was no association of calcium intake with BMD and/or with BMD changes. Current calcium intake was not a significant influence on BMD in this age group. Daily activity had no effect on BMD and there was no apparent additive interaction of activity and calcium intake on BMD. Smokers had significantly lower spine BMD and a tendency for lower BMD at other sites. Body weight was a better predictor of BMD than was any other factor. There was no association of BMD or BMD changes with both urinary calcium and hydroxyproline normalized for creatinine.

  12. Effect assessment of salt intake reduction intervention among residents in Baoshan District, Shanghai%上海市宝山区减少居民食盐摄入干预效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡忠元; 陈婷

    2011-01-01

    评价上海市宝山区减少居民食盐摄入干预效果,为控盐干预工作提供依据.方法 采用免费派发控盐勺等方法 对上海市宝山区居民实施控盐干预,分别于干预前、干预后半年、1年和2年对160户家庭及家庭成员进行调查,分析人均日食盐摄入量及居民控盐知信行变化.结果 2年中,社区居民4项盐与健康知识平均知晓率由58.5%上升至79.2%;3项控盐态度平均形成率由72.2%上升至77.4%;平时能劝阻家人烧菜时减少食盐用量的比例由60.7%上升至68.4%,上述指标差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),且存在1年内持续上升,1年后有所下降的变化趋势.人均日食盐摄入量干预前和干预后半年、1年、2年分别为8.00克、7.94克、7.41克和7.78克,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在摄入的盐中,隐形盐人均日摄入达1.65克;食用低钠盐的家庭仅占3.7%.结论 控盐干预活动取得了一定的效果,但没有产生食盐摄入量的变化,因此控盐工作要持之以恒,同时要积极倡导食用低钠盐.%Objective To assess the effect of the intervention on the residents' salt intake reduction in Baoshan District, Shanghai, and to provide evidence for further salt intake interventions. Methods Investigators distributed the salt control spoons to the residents. A sample of 160 families were assessed pre-intervention, and six months, one year, and two years after the interventions on the daily salt consumption and knowledge, belief, and practice of salt intake (KABP). Results Two years after the interventions, the average awareness rate of four knowledge items about the relations between slat and health had risen from 58. 5% to 79. 2%. The average of three salt control acceptance rates had increased from 72.2% to 77.4%. The percent of those who persuaded other family members to use less salt when cooking had increased from 60. 7% to 68.4%. All the presented improvements were statistically

  13. Is Excess Calcium Harmful to Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M. Daly

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most current guidelines recommend that older adults and the elderly strive for a total calcium intake (diet and supplements of 1,000 to 1,300 mg/day to prevent osteoporosis and fractures. Traditionally, calcium supplements have been considered safe, effective and well tolerated, but their safety has recently been questioned due to potential adverse effects on vascular disease which may increase mortality. For example, the findings from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (currently published in abstract form only revealed that the use of calcium supplements was associated with an ~30% increased risk of myocardial infarction. If high levels of calcium are harmful to health, this may alter current public health recommendations with regard to the use of calcium supplements for preventing osteoporosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the latest information from human observational and prospective studies, randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses related to the effects of calcium supplementation on vascular disease and related risk factors, including blood pressure, lipid and lipoprotein levels and vascular calcification.

  14. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  15. Assessment of the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on postoperative sensitivity associated with in-office vital tooth whitening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghaireh, G A; Alzraikat, H; Guidoum, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth mousse containing 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) in reducing tooth sensitivity associated with in-office vital tooth whitening. In-office tooth whitening was performed for 51 participants using 35% hydrogen peroxide gel in a single visit. After the procedure, each participant was randomly assigned to one of three groups: gel without desensitizing agent (n=17), gel with 2% sodium fluoride (n=17), gel with 10% CPP-ACP (n=17). A small amount of the desensitizing gel assigned for each participant was applied directly on the labial surfaces of teeth and left undisturbed for three minutes. The participants were asked to apply the gel assigned to them for three minutes twice daily after brushing their teeth, and to continue this for 14 days. The participants were asked to return for follow-up visits after 24 hours and on days 3, 7, and 14, at which time teeth shade changes were assessed by one evaluator using a value-oriented Vita classic shade guide. The incidence, duration, and intensity of tooth sensitivity experienced was self-assessed on a daily basis for the 14-day study period using a visual analog scale (VAS). The effect of the three gels on tooth sensitivity was assessed using one-way analysis of variance and a χ (2) test (α=0.05). The general linear model was used to compare intensity-level differences in the three studied groups and for shade stability over the follow-up period. The results of this study showed that all three gels decreased the intensity of sensitivity associated with tooth whitening. The intensity of sensitivity was lower in the fluoride group than in the other two groups; however, it was not statistically significant (p=0.112 and p=0.532 on day 1 and day 2, respectively). The average shade change was 6.8. None of the tested materials affected the efficacy of tooth whitening, but the shade change among the fluoride group showed more color stability

  16. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, T E; Bischoff, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Marquezini, G H L; Dilorenzo, N; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Maddock, T D; Lamb, G C

    2013-05-01

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-yr-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered facility and fed similar forage-based diets, and individual feed intakes, BW, BCS, chute scores (CS), exit velocities (EV), and pen scores (PS) were collected throughout the 70-d feeding trials. In Phase 2, cows were milked on trial d 14 (lactation d 28 ± 3.5) and trial d 70 (lactation d 84 ± 3.5) to determine energy-corrected milk (ECM) production. Ultrasonic backfat thickness (BF), and ribeye area (REA) were evaluated on d 0 and 70 of the trial in Phase 2. Heifers were ranked by RFI and placed into Low (0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 24) RFI groups. Body weight, BCS, and ADG were similar among all RFI groups; however, daily DMI differed for all groups (P 0.1) between RFI and temperament. Phase 1 CS was negatively associated with ADG in Phase 1 (r = -0.28; P = 0.02) and 2 (r = -0.32; P = 0.01), and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.24; P = 0.04) and 70 (r = 0.25; P = 0.03) ECM. Phase 2 CS was negatively associated with Phase 2 ADG (r = -0.29; P = 0.01) and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.46; P = 0.001) and 70 (r = 0.33; P = 0.004) ECM. Phase 2 PS also tended to be negatively associated with DMI in Phase 1 (r = -0.20; P = 0.096) and 2 (r = -0.20; P = 0.08). In this study, heifers that were most feed efficient subsequently consumed less feed as lactating cows and maintained similar performance. Feed efficiency was not associated with differences in temperament; however, more excitable females had poorer BW gains and tended to have reduced feed intakes but produced more ECM.

  17. Imaging calcium in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienberger, Christine; Konnerth, Arthur

    2012-03-08

    Calcium ions generate versatile intracellular signals that control key functions in all types of neurons. Imaging calcium in neurons is particularly important because calcium signals exert their highly specific functions in well-defined cellular subcompartments. In this Primer, we briefly review the general mechanisms of neuronal calcium signaling. We then introduce the calcium imaging devices, including confocal and two-photon microscopy as well as miniaturized devices that are used in freely moving animals. We provide an overview of the classical chemical fluorescent calcium indicators and of the protein-based genetically encoded calcium indicators. Using application examples, we introduce new developments in the field, such as calcium imaging in awake, behaving animals and the use of calcium imaging for mapping single spine sensory inputs in cortical neurons in vivo. We conclude by providing an outlook on the prospects of calcium imaging for the analysis of neuronal signaling and plasticity in various animal models.

  18. OSTEOPOROSIS IN CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CRYSTAL DEPOSITION DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Vladimirov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of osteoporosis (OP in patients with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPCDD. Subjects and methods. Eighty patients with CPCDD were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD of the forearm, lumbar spine, and femoral neck was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Laboratory diagnosis involved determination of the blood levels of C-reactive protein, parathyroid hormone, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus and the daily urinary excretion of calcium and phosphates. Results. The patients with OP were significantly older than those with normal BMD and osteopenia. Forearm bones were the most common isolated location of OP and osteopenia. Injuries in the history, traumatic fractures, and the intake of diuretics were somewhat more common in the patients diagnosed with OP. The incidence of hyperparathyroidism did not differ significantly in the groups.

  19. Effect of High-Calcium Diet on Coronary Artery Disease in Ossabaw Miniature Swine With Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; McKenney-Drake, Mikaela L; Bahls, Martin; Newcomer, Sean C; Radcliffe, John S.; Wastney, Meryl E; Van Alstine, William G; Jackson, George; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Martin, Berdine R.; Sturek, Michael; Weaver, Connie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Calcium is a shortfall essential nutrient that has been a mainstay of osteoporosis management. Recent and limited findings have prompted concern about the contribution of calcium supplementation to cardiovascular risk. A proposed mechanism is through the acceleration of coronary artery calcification. Determining causality between calcium intake and coronary artery calcification has been hindered by a lack of sensitive methodology to monitor early vascular calcium accumulation. The ...

  20. Impact assessment on DFS supplementation Post NHE on nutrient intake of critically anemic pregnant mothers in a tribal set up of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nair

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adequate nutrition is essential during pregnancy to ensure optimal fetal growth. Especially maternal Iron and Iodine deficiency have negative and irreversible effects of the developing fetus. Double Fortified Salt (DFS with both iodine and iron was later proposed by NIN to be simple and inexpensive public health strategy to control iron and iodine deficiencies. Efficacy trials were run by Nair et al., 2007 using DFS showed a beneficial effect on population by an increase of 4-5% change in the iron status of the highly malnourished subjects.  Objectives: The study has focused on the impact of DFS along with nutrient intake on critically anemic pregnant mothers in tribal areas of Jhagadia with 58% of preterm deliveries. Materials and Methods: Present study was carried out in Bharuch District. From this area 135 pregnant mothers were enrolled. NHE regarding consumption of DFS and dietary improvement was provided. Reinforcement was carried out after 1 month of supplementation with DFS. Results: Out of 135 subjects, 40% were UIC deficient, 75% were moderately anemic, 15% and 10% were mild and severely anemic respectively.  DFS (1mg iron and 40ppm iodine/g supplementation and Nutrition Health Education for 2 months showed statistical non-significant change in UIE and iron status of the pregnant mothers. Significant increment in both macro and micro nutrient intake from pre to post intervention period was observed. Conclusion: Owing to the fact that dietary contribution of Iron was only 7mg/day, it is clearly evident that even DFS and IFA supplementation showed no significant improvement in iron status. Dense nutrition is the key element for improving maternal nutritional status.

  1. Biofunctional activity of tortillas and bars enhanced with nopal. Preliminary assessment of functional effect after intake on the oxidative status in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Maldonado Luz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prickly pear cactus stem (nopal has been used in folk medicine and a raw material since ancien