WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing behavioral effects

  1. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist: A Behavior Rating Scale for the Assessment of Treatment Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development of a scale to assess drug and other treatment effects on severely mentally retarded individuals is described. Separate factor analyses of the data from two samples resulted in a five-factor scale: (1) Irritability, Agitation, Crying; (2) Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; (3) Stereotypic Behavior; (4) Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; and…

  2. Behavioral assay for assessing effects of pollutants on fish chemoreception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemly, A.D.; Smith, R.J.

    1986-04-01

    Behavioral assays are sensitive to sublethal levels of pollution but they usually require highly trained personnel and long observation periods. We describe a system that combines the sensitivity of a behavioral assay with commercially available automated monitoring equipment. The observation system consists of a special aquarium coupled to a recirculating water system, and an Opto-Varimex-Aqua activity tracking meter (Columbus Instruments, Columbus, Ohio) interfaced to a microcomputer. The tracking meter forms an intersecting, planar grid of light beams which, when interrupted by fish movements, is translated into a digitized signal and fed to the computer. The assay is based on the response of fish to natural chemical stimuli such as food odors or pheromones. When these stimulus solutions are injected into the water circulation the response of the fish is monitored by the computer system, which is capable of discriminating and quantifying changes in eight parameters. Normal responses to stimuli are compared with the response of fish that have been exposed to pollutants. We have successfully used this technique to examine effects of reduced pH on the response of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, to chemical feeding stimuli. The system should be easily adapted to any laboratory concerned with testing for effects of toxic substances, and will identify effects of pollution that have thus far been difficult or impossible to assess.

  3. The Effect of Emotional Feedback on Behavioral Intention to Use Computer Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Vasileios; Moridis, Christos N.; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces emotional feedback as a construct in an acceptance model. It explores the effect of emotional feedback on behavioral intention to use Computer Based Assessment (CBA). A female Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) with empathetic encouragement behavior was displayed as emotional feedback. More specifically, this research aims…

  4. Using multiple risk factors to assess the behavioral, cognitive, and affective effects of learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, K J

    1994-03-01

    Rather than examining the effect of the pessimistic explanatory style on an outcome variable reflecting a single domain, I studied the effects of multiple learned-helplessness risk factors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective variables. Undergraduate students completed the Learned Helplessness Scale (Quinless & McDermott-Nelson, 1988) as a measure of their expectation of uncontrollability and the Explanatory Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982) to determine their explanations for both positive and negative events. Results revealed a significant effect for risk level, with students at greater risk of helplessness reporting significantly more procrastination, lower grade point averages, and more dysphoria. These results support the use of multiple risk factors representing all learned-helplessness precursors and the assessment of learned-helplessness deficits drawn simultaneously from behavioral, cognitive, and affective domains. PMID:8189396

  5. Female alternative reproductive behaviors: the effect of female group size on mate assessment and copying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Bernard J; Flaxman, Samuel M; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2008-08-01

    Extensive theoretical and empirical research has focused on male alternative reproductive tactics. In comparison, female alternative tactics have attracted little attention, and further theoretical and empirical research are needed. Using a game theoretical model, we examine female choice alternatives (1) by considering assessment errors in a novel and more realistic manner than done previously, and (2) for the first time, by highlighting the formation of groups of females as an important consequence of copying behavior. We consider two alternatives: direct assessment of male quality by females and female copying of the choice of other females. Assessment and copying are predicted to coexist under a wide variety of circumstances and copying is favored when females make assessment errors, when high-quality males are either common or very rare, and when female fitness declines with the number of other females choosing the same male. We also find that the frequency of copying at equilibrium is predicted to decrease when the presence of other females mating with the same male has a positive effect on female fitness (e.g. through increased male parental effort, decreased predation risk or cooperation among females). Female alternative choice tactics also influence the potential for sexual selection. In our model, when the frequency of copying females is low, the potential for sexual selection can be higher than in the absence of female copying. However, contrary to previous theory, we find that as copying females become more common than assessing females, the potential for sexual selection will be low as more females copy the mate choice of other copiers without assessment. PMID:18511084

  6. Predicting safe sex: Assessment of autoregressive and cross-lagged effects within the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Eggers, Sander M.; Taylor, Myra; Sathiparsad, Reshma; Bos, Arjan ER; de Vries, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Despite its popularity, few studies have assessed the temporal stability and cross-lagged effects of the Theory of Planned Behavior factors: Attitude, subjective norms and self-efficacy. For this study, 298 adolescent learners from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, filled out a Theory of Planned Behavior questionnaire on teenage pregnancy at baseline and after 6 months. Structural equation modeling showed that there were considerable cross-lagged effects between attitude and subjective norms. Temp...

  7. Positive reinforcement training as a technique to alter nonhuman primate behavior: quantitative assessments of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapiro, Steven J; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Laule, Gail E

    2003-01-01

    Many suggest that operant conditioning techniques can be applied successfully to improve the behavioral management of nonhuman primates in research settings. However, relatively little empirical data exist to support this claim. This article is a review of several studies that discussed applied positive reinforcement training techniques (PRT) on breeding/research colonies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and measured their effectiveness. Empirical analyses quantified the amount of time required to train rhesus monkeys to come up, station, target, and stay. Additionally, a study found that time spent affiliating by female rhesus was changed as a function of training low affiliators to affiliate more and high affiliators to affiliate less. Another study successfully trained chimpanzees to feed without fighting and to come inside on command. PRT is an important behavioral management tool that can improve the care and welfare of primates in captivity. Published empirical findings are essential for managers to assess objectively the utility of positive reinforcement training techniques in enhancing captive management and research procedures.

  8. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna

    2016-08-01

    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25981179

  9. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna

    2016-08-01

    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The effect of recording interval length on behavioral assessment using the forced swimming test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Álvarez-Suárez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The forced swimming test is a method used in the assessment of depressive-like behavior in rodents. Changes in the original forced swimming test procedure developed by Porsolt et al. and their influence in the results is a controversial issue and has been discussed in many studies. Animal’s behavior is usually recorded by partial interval recording, dividing the total recording time into equal intervals and manually recording the predominant behavior. Despite the influence of the recording method in the subsequent results, this issue has not been further studied nor normalized. The aim of this study was to assess whether the representativeness of the data is influenced by the recording interval length, by recording behaviors (immobility, swim and climbing in the same subjects at 3, 5 and 10 s recording intervals. We used a non-pathological sample of male and female adult Wistar rats. Our results show no differences in the use of these three recording intervals in the registration method of the forced swimming test, for the main three behaviors measured.

  11. Effects of Coaching on the Implementation of Functional Assessment-Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Angel; Schultz, Tia R.; Sreckovic, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of coaching on the implementation of functional assessment--based parent intervention in reducing children's challenging behaviors. A multiple baseline across participants design was used with three parent-child dyads with children between the ages of 2 and 5 years. The intervention consisted of training and delayed…

  12. Assessing substrates underlying the behavioral effects of antidepressants using the modified rat forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, John F; Valentino, Rita J; Lucki, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely prescribed antidepressant class today and exert their antidepressant-like effects by increasing synaptic concentrations of serotonin (5-HT). The rat forced swim test (FST) is the most widely used animal test predictive of antidepressant action. Procedural modifications recently introduced by our laboratory have enabled SSRI-induced behavioral responses to be measured in the modified FST. The use of this model to understand the pharmacological and physiological mechanisms underlying the role of 5-HT in the behavioral effects of antidepressant drugs is reviewed. Although all antidepressants reduced behavioral immobility, those antidepressants that increase serotonergic neurotransmission predominantly increase swimming behavior whereas those that increase catacholaminergic neurotransmission increase climbing behavior. The 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B/1D) and 5-HT(2C) receptors are the 5-HT receptors most important to the therapeutic effects of SSRIs, based on extensive evaluation of agonists and antagonists of individual 5-HT receptor subtypes. Studies involving chronic administration have shown that the effects of antidepressants are augmented following chronic treatment. Other studies have demonstrated strain differences in the response to serotonergic compounds. Finally, a physiological model of performance in the rat FST has been proposed involving the regulation of 5-HT transmission by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF).

  13. Is functional behavioral assessment functional?

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Traditional methods of discipline, like punishment, suspension, and expulsion have in the past seemed beneficial, on a short-term basis, against problem behavior in schools. Four schools in Norway have recently implemented Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) as part of a pilot project, to test the School-Wide Positive Behavioral Support (SW-PBS). A completed FBA procedure reveals the setting events, the antecedents and the consequences around the problem behavior, which provides ...

  14. Predicting safe sex: Assessment of autoregressive and cross-lagged effects within the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Sander M; Taylor, Myra; Sathiparsad, Reshma; Bos, Arjan Er; de Vries, Hein

    2015-11-01

    Despite its popularity, few studies have assessed the temporal stability and cross-lagged effects of the Theory of Planned Behavior factors: Attitude, subjective norms and self-efficacy. For this study, 298 adolescent learners from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, filled out a Theory of Planned Behavior questionnaire on teenage pregnancy at baseline and after 6 months. Structural equation modeling showed that there were considerable cross-lagged effects between attitude and subjective norms. Temporal stability was moderate with test-retest correlations ranging from 0.37 to 0.51 and the model was able to predict intentions to have safe sex (R2 = 0.69) Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  15. Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    2007-01-01

    This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

  16. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    1996-04-01

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Developmental effects of aggressive behavior in male adolescents assessed with structural and functional brain imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Heinecke, Armin; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Knutson, Kristine M.; Meer, Elke van der; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common during adolescence. Although aggression-related functional changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and frontopolar cortex (FPC) have been reported in adults, the neural correlates of aggressive behavior in adolescents, particularly in the context of structural neurodevelopment, are obscure. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the blood oxygenation level-depended signal and cortical thickness. In a block-desi...

  18. Increasing Active Student Responding in a University Applied Behavior Analysis Course: The Effect of Daily Assessment and Response Cards on End of Week Quiz Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Paul R.; Sweeney, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The study compared the effects of daily assessment and response cards on average weekly quiz scores in an introduction to applied behavior analysis course. An alternating treatments design (Kazdin 1982, "Single-case research designs." New York: Oxford University Press; Cooper et al. 2007, "Applied behavior analysis." Upper Saddle River:…

  19. Preliminary Psychometric Properties of an Observation System to Assess Teachers' Use of Effective Behavior Support Strategies in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.; Greiner, Andrew; Gera, Shradha; Linke, Stuart; Gormley, Matt; Buck, Melina

    2014-01-01

    Challenging behaviors are one of the most common concerns of early educators, and preschool teachers continue to report feeling unprepared to meet the needs of children displaying challenging behaviors. Overall, traditional standardized classroom assessments have evaluated global classroom quality, but they may not capture the reciprocal and…

  20. Neurobehavioral conditions and effects of gender, weight and severity in preterm infants according to the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Álvarez-García

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of preterm babies in recent years has raised interest in studying the consequences of prematurity as a risk factor. In the present paper, 30 preterm babies (at 40 weeks of gestational age were assessed using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and the results were compared with those of a control group of 28 full term babies. Moreover, the influence of weight, sex and gestational age was analyzed considering the Brazelton results in the preterm group. The preterm group showed significantly lower scores than the control group for 9 of the 28 behavioral items in the Scale and for 2 of the 5 clusters. However, preterm babies performed better in habituation to disturbing stimuli (light and noise during sleep. In relation to the influence of sex, premature girls performed better in the Social-Interactive cluster. The preterm group has lower neurobehavioral conditions than the full term group, probably due to the abrupt interruption of their intrauterine maturation. In contrast, they showed a better ability of habituation, maybe as a consequence of a learning effect due to earlier additional extrauterine exposition.

  1. Using Self-Management Interventions to Address General Education Behavioral Needs: Assessment of Effectiveness and Feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briesch, Amy M.; Daniels, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive self-management intervention was utilized to increase the on-task behavior of three African American students within an urban middle-school setting. The intervention was designed to necessitate minimal management on the part of the general education classroom teacher by utilizing an electronic prompting device, as well as a…

  2. Incremental Validity and Informant Effect from a Multi-Method Perspective: Assessing Relations between Parental Acceptance and Children's Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Sotorrío, Eva; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P; Carrasco, Miguel Á

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between perceived parental acceptance and children's behavioral problems (externalizing and internalizing) from a multi-informant perspective. Using mothers, fathers, and children as sources of information, we explore the informant effect and incremental validity. The sample was composed of 681 participants (227 children, 227 fathers, and 227 mothers). Children's (40% boys) ages ranged from 9 to 17 years (M = 12.52, SD = 1.81). Parents and children completed both the Parental Acceptance Rejection/Control Questionnaire (PARQ/Control) and the check list of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Statistical analyses were based on the correlated uniqueness multitrait-multimethod matrix (model MTMM) by structural equations and different hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed a significant informant effect and a different incremental validity related to which combination of sources was considered. A multi-informant perspective rather than a single one increased the predictive value. Our results suggest that mother-father or child-father combinations seem to be the best way to optimize the multi-informant method in order to predict children's behavioral problems based on perceived parental acceptance. PMID:27242582

  3. Behavior model for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result

  4. Behavior model for performance assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borwn-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-07-23

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.

  5. Validating a behavioral economic approach to assess food demand: effects of body mass index, dietary restraint, and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reslan, Summar; Saules, Karen K; Greenwald, Mark K

    2012-10-01

    Behavioral economic theory is a useful framework for analyzing factors influencing choice, but the majority of human behavioral economic research has focused on drug choice. The behavioral economic choice paradigm may also be valuable for understanding food-maintained behavior. Our primary objective was two-fold: (1) Validate a human laboratory model of food-appetitive behavior, and (2) Assess the contribution of individual level factors that may differentially impact food choice behavior. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, female subjects (N=17) participated in two consecutive food choice experimental sessions, whereas in Study 2, female subjects (N=21) participated in one concurrent food choice experimental session. During consecutive choice sessions (Study 1), demand for the more palatable food (i.e., high-sugar/high-fat) was more inelastic than the less palatable (i.e., low-sugar/low-fat) option. During concurrent choice sessions, demand for the more palatable food (i.e., high-sugar/high-fat) was more inelastic for restrained vs. unrestrained eaters, and for those who were overweight vs. normal weight. Demand for both palatable and less palatable choices was more elastic for high-impulsive vs. low-impulsive subjects. These findings suggest that the behavioral economic framework can be used successfully to develop a human laboratory model of food-appetitive behavior. PMID:22659562

  6. Validating a behavioral economic approach to assess food demand: effects of body mass index, dietary restraint, and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reslan, Summar; Saules, Karen K; Greenwald, Mark K

    2012-10-01

    Behavioral economic theory is a useful framework for analyzing factors influencing choice, but the majority of human behavioral economic research has focused on drug choice. The behavioral economic choice paradigm may also be valuable for understanding food-maintained behavior. Our primary objective was two-fold: (1) Validate a human laboratory model of food-appetitive behavior, and (2) Assess the contribution of individual level factors that may differentially impact food choice behavior. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, female subjects (N=17) participated in two consecutive food choice experimental sessions, whereas in Study 2, female subjects (N=21) participated in one concurrent food choice experimental session. During consecutive choice sessions (Study 1), demand for the more palatable food (i.e., high-sugar/high-fat) was more inelastic than the less palatable (i.e., low-sugar/low-fat) option. During concurrent choice sessions, demand for the more palatable food (i.e., high-sugar/high-fat) was more inelastic for restrained vs. unrestrained eaters, and for those who were overweight vs. normal weight. Demand for both palatable and less palatable choices was more elastic for high-impulsive vs. low-impulsive subjects. These findings suggest that the behavioral economic framework can be used successfully to develop a human laboratory model of food-appetitive behavior.

  7. A Quantitative Assessment of the Effect of Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports on Math Achievement: A Middle School Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Marilyn N.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation between implementation of Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (PBIS) and academic achievement in middle school math as measured by the Maryland State Assessment (MSA). In particular, the correlation of academic achievement in mathematics, grouped by PBIS implementation status to race, socioeconomic status…

  8. Using Functional Behavior Assessment to Develop Behavior Interventions for Students in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Elizabeth M.; Nelson, C. Michael

    2009-01-01

    A withdrawal design repeated across three children enrolled in two Head Start classrooms was used to investigate the effectiveness of functional assessment-based interventions to decrease inappropriate behavior. The two questions addressed in the study were (a) Will a behavior intervention plan based on functional behavior assessment conducted in…

  9. Longitudinal Outcomes of Functional Behavioral Assessment--Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lee; Gallagher, Patricia; Starosta, Kristin; Hickman, Wesley; George, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A critical measure of intervention effectiveness is durability over time. Still, few studies have examined the long-term outcomes of support derived from a functional behavioral assessment as well as enablers and barriers that contribute to or impede successful outcomes. In the current study, a functional behavioral assessment was conducted with a…

  10. The effect of thermal quality on the thermoregulatory behavior of the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps: influences of methodological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Viviana; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic functions are generally optimized within a narrow range of body temperatures (T(b)'s), conferring thermoregulation great importance to the survival and fitness of an animal. In lizards, T(b) regulation is mainly behavioral, and the metabolic costs associated with behavioral thermoregulation are primarily locomotory. In reptiles, however, it has been proposed that they thermoregulate less precisely when the associated costs, metabolic or otherwise, are high. Such a strategy enhances fitness by allowing lizards to be more flexible to changing environmental conditions while maximizing the benefits of maintaining a high T(b) and minimizing energy expenditure. We evaluated the behavioral thermoregulation of inland bearded dragons Pogona vitticeps under various thermal quality conditions requiring different locomotory investment for thermoregulation. The selected ambient temperature and preferred T(b) ranges increased at lower environmental thermal qualities, indicating a decrease in thermoregulatory precision in environments where the costs associated with thermoregulation were high. The level of thermoregulation was also affected, exhibiting a decrease in preferred T(b) of approximately 2 degrees C at the lowest-thermal-quality treatment. These data provide important implications for the procedural assessment of preferred T(b) and a better understanding of thermal set points in reptiles in general. Our results emphasize that the precise maintenance and assessment of preferred T(b) is contingent on the quality of the environment, laboratory or natural, that the animal inhabits. PMID:19323642

  11. Assessment of Social Interaction Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Lipina, Tatiana; Vukobradovic, Igor; Roder, John; Woodgett, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions are a fundamental and adaptive component of the biology of numerous species. Social recognition is critical for the structure and stability of the networks and relationships that define societies. For animals, such as mice, recognition of conspecifics may be important for maintaining social hierarchy and for mate choice 1. A variety of neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by disruptions in social behavior and social recognition, including depression, autism spectru...

  12. Examination of Eco-Behavioral Assessments Designed for Understanding Complex Behaviors and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie L.; McGough, Sarah M.; Vilardo, Laura; Tankersley, Melody

    2006-01-01

    Second-generation intervention research requires methods for overcoming challenges to understanding complex learning ecologies and interactions of students. Eco-behavioral assessments (EBAs) are one solution to past intervention research challenges. EBAs record the effects of ecological variables in students' behavior and daily interactions. The…

  13. [A tool for assessing eating behaviors: ESSCA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Isabelle; Kruseman, Maaike; Chappuis, Mathilde; Schmutz, Noémi; Volery, Magali

    2016-03-23

    Eating behaviors are key when considering overweight or obesity management. Many issues varying in severity can interfere with the treatment. This article provides a semi-structured interview to address the determinants of food intake--hunger food craving--problematic eating behaviors--snacking, emotional eating--and eating disorders particularly related to overweight. Convenient for healthcare practitioners, this instrument comes with an interview guide to standardize its use. The relatively complete picture of the patient's eating behavior resulting from this assessment contributes to the treatment proposal. PMID:27188052

  14. Gender Differences in Depression: Assessing Mediational Effects of Overt Behaviors and Environmental Reward through Daily Diary Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ryba, Marlena M.; Hopko, Derek R.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of depression are well documented. To further explore the relation between gender and depression, this study used daily diaries to examine gender differences within thirteen behavioral domains and whether differential frequency of overt behaviors and environmental reward mediated the relationship between gender and depression severity. The sample included 82 undergraduate students [66% females; 84% Caucasian; Mean age = 20.2 years]. Overall, females engage...

  15. Assessment of Biochemical and Behavioral Effects of Carbaryl and Methomyl in Brown-Norway Rats from Preweaning to Sensecence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factors impacting life stage-specific sensitivity to chemicals include toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic changes. To evaluate age-related differences in the biochemical and behavioral impacts of two typical N-methyl carbamate pesticides, we systematically compared their dose-respo...

  16. The d-amphetamine-treated Göttingen miniature pig: an animal model for assessing behavioral effects of antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staay, van der F.J.; Pouzet, B.; Mahieu, M.; Nordquist, R.E.; Schuurman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Rodents are usually used to assess the ability of antipsychotic drugs to antagonize hyperlocomotion induced by dopamine agonists, such as the psychostimulant d-amphetamine. However, the substantial differences between rodents and humans may hinder extrapolation of experimental results to h

  17. The effects of behavioral health reform on safety-net institutions: a mixed-method assessment in a rural state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Cathleen E; Sommerfeld, David H; Aarons, Gregory A; Waitzkin, Howard

    2014-03-01

    In July 2005, New Mexico initiated a major reform of publicly-funded behavioral healthcare to reduce cost and bureaucracy. We used a mixed-method approach to examine how this reform impacted the workplaces and employees of service agencies that care for low-income adults in rural and urban areas. Information technology problems and cumbersome processes to enroll patients, procure authorizations, and submit claims led to payment delays that affected the financial status of the agencies, their ability to deliver care, and employee morale. Rural employees experienced lower levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions under the reform when compared to their urban counterparts.

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF DIALECTICAL BEHAVIOR THERAPY VERSUS COLLABORATIVE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF SUICIDALITY TREATMENT FOR REDUCTION OF SELF-HARM IN ADULTS WITH BORDERLINE PERSONALITY TRAITS AND DISORDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Kate; Krogh, Jesper; Wenneberg, Christina;

    2016-01-01

    were: severity of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, suicide ideation, and self-esteem. RESULTS: At 28 weeks, the number of participants with new self-harm in the DBT group was 21 of 57 (36.8%) versus 12 of 51 (23.5%) in the CAMS treatment (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 0.80-4.40; P = .14......BACKGROUND: Many psychological treatments have shown effect on reducing self-harm in adults with borderline personality disorder. There is a need of brief psychotherapeutical treatment alternative for suicide prevention in specialized outpatient clinics. METHODS/DESIGN: The DiaS trial was designed...... behavior therapy (DBT) versus up to 16 weeks of collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) treatment. The primary composite outcome was the number of participants with a new self-harm (nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI] or suicide attempt) at week 28 from baseline. Other exploratory outcomes...

  19. Assessing the Effectiveness of First Step to Success: Are Short-Term Results the First Step to Long-Term Behavioral Improvements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, W. Carl; Woodbridge, Michelle W.; Javitz, Harold S.; Thornton, S. Patrick; Wagner, Mary; Rouspil, Kristen; Yu, Jennifer W.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.; Golly, Annemieke; Small, Jason W.; Feil, Edward G.; Severson, Herbert H.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the effectiveness of First Step to Success, a secondary-level intervention appropriate for students in early elementary school who experience moderate to severe behavior problems and are at risk for academic failure. The authors demonstrate the intervention's short-term effects on multiple behavioral and academic outcomes…

  20. Habitat Utilization Assessment - Building in Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Blume, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Habitability, and the associated architectural and design attributes of an environment, is a powerful performance shaping factor. By identifying how inhabitants use an area, we can draw conclusions about what design or architectural attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance. We are analyzing how a crew uses a long duration habitat and work environment during a four-day underwater mission and identifying certain architectural and design attributes that are related to, and potential enablers of, certain crew behaviors. By identifying how inhabitants use the habitat, we can draw conclusions about what habitability attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance (applicable to NASA's Bioastronautics Human Behavior and Performance Critical Path Roadmap question 6.12). This assessment replicates a methodology reported in a chapter titled "Sociokinetic Analysis as a Tool for Optimization of Environmental Design" by C. Adams.' That study collected video imagery of certain areas of a closed habitat during a 91 day test and from that data calculated time spent in different volumes during the mission, and characterized the behaviors occurring in certain habitat volumes thus concluding various rules for design of such habitats. This study assesses the utilization of the Aquarius Habitat, an underwater station, which will support six Aquanauts for a fourteen-day mission during which the crew will perform specific scientific and engineering studies. Video is recorded for long uninterrupted periods of time during the mission and from that data the time spent in each area is calculated. In addition, qualitative and descriptive analysis of the types of behaviors in each area is performed with the purpose of identifying any behaviors that are not typical of a certain area. If a participant uses an area in a way different from expected, a subsequent analysis of the features of that area may result in

  1. Assessment and Treatment of Deviant Behavior in Children - Section Four: Evaluation of Three Experimental and One Control Strategy in Facilitating Generalization and Maintenance of Treatment Effects Following Two Months of Treatment in a Token Economy. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Hill M.; Buckley, Nancy K.

    The document is section four of a six part report on the assessment and treatment of deviant behavior in children. The effects of three experimental strategy were investigated to facilitate generalization of treatment effects following 2 months in a token economy classroom. Forty four subjects were assigned to one of three experimental strategies,…

  2. When to Use Functional Behavioral Assessment? Best Practice vs. Legal Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ravensberg, Heidi; Blakely, Allison

    2014-01-01

    When to conduct a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is a question answered by both best practice and the law. The special education field continues to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the functional behavioral assessment, an evidence-based technology that is the basis of a behavior intervention plan (BIP) and a cornerstone of the…

  3. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. PMID:22608867

  4. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  5. Effect of host immunity on metastatic potential in renal cell carcinoma: the assessment of optimal in vivo models to study metastatic behavior of renal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Morita, Tatsuo; Chun, Nicole A L; Matsui, Aya; Takahashi, Masafumi; Murakami, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    There has been little information about metastatic behavior of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells because human cancers metastasize only rarely in immunodeficient mice. Moreover, it is difficult to know the effect of host immunity on RCC metastasis due to lack of such RCC cells as transplantable in not only xenograft models but also counterparts with intact immunity. Therefore, we scrutinized in vivo metastasis of RCC cells to seek for the optimal preclinical model to study metastatic behavior. The luciferase-expressing three representative human RCC cell lines (Caki-1, A498, and 786-O) and rat ACI-RCC cell which were established in our laboratory were transplanted into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice or immunocompetent ACI rats by intracardiac injection as well as orthotopic inoculation. Metastasis was monitored using a bioluminescent imaging technique. Metastasis was rare in the three human RCC cells even when they were directly disseminated into systemic circulation under the condition least susceptible to host immune attack in NOD/SCID mice. In contrast, ACI-RCC cells spontaneously metastasized to pulmonary tissue from orthotopic tumor sites and systemically spread via intracardiac route. Metastases were more extensive when the cells were inoculated into an immunodeficient host, implying suppressive effect of host immunity on colonization of RCC cells. These results suggest that the representative human RCC cells are not adequate resource to study metastasis but that the luciferase-labeled ACI-RCC cell characterized by its luminescent stability, enhanced tumorigenicity, and widespread metastatic potential provides a useful in vivo model for preclinical assessment of cancer progression and potential therapies against RCC.

  6. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  7. Validation of a behavioral observation tool to assess pig welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, D; Verbeke, G; Mormède, P; Geers, R

    2006-10-30

    Accurately measuring and monitoring of animal behavior is an important factor when assessing on-farm animal welfare. First we developed a feasible and simple method aiming at consistently on-farm measuring of pig's behavior. This test should cover a broad range of welfare-related pig behavior. The reaction towards a novel object, startling, tail and ear biting, play and aggressive behavior, stereotypies, coughing, sneezing, skin lesions, defecation, urination and cleanliness of body and pen are included. The development of accurate measures of on-farm behavior first requires the reliability assessment of the procedure. Therefore, the methodology was tested in a first part by three observers scoring simultaneously and independently pre-defined behavioral characteristics of 108 group-housed fattening pigs. The inter-observer repeatability of the measures was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 1. In a second part, the objective was to validate the behavioral characteristics against salivary cortisol, urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine and production traits. Salivary cortisol concentrations significantly increased in ear-bitten pigs and in pigs with tail lesions. Growth rate significantly dropped when cortisol levels rose. An age effect was also found. The percentage of animals approaching the novel object is positively correlated with the urinary epinephrine concentration. Pigs defecating during the test showed significantly higher epinephrine levels. Urinary norepinephrine concentration decreased significantly with age. Faster growing animals and animals with tail lesions showed significantly higher levels of norepinephrine. Pen dirtiness and number of animals per pen were associated with higher norepinephrine concentrations. Finally, barrows had higher norepinephrine concentrations than sows. PMID:16904137

  8. Behavioral assessment in youth sports: coaching behaviors and children's attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R E; Zane, N W; Smoll, F L; Coppel, D B

    1983-01-01

    To define the characteristics and dimensional patterning of coaching behaviors, 15,449 behaviors of 31 youth basketball coaches were coded in terms of a 10-category system. Post-season attitude and self-esteem data were obtained from players on 23 teams and were related to the behavioral measures. Compared with rates of reinforcement, encouragement, and technical instruction, punitive responses occurred relatively infrequently. Factor analysis of the coaching behaviors indicated that supportive and punitive behavioral dimensions were orthogonal or statistically independent of one another rather than opposite ends of the same dimension. Punitive and instructional categories were part of the same behavior cluster. The relationship between coaching behaviors and the various player attitudes were highly specific in nature. Coaching behaviors accounted for about half of the variance in post-season attitudes toward the coach and the sport, but for significantly less variance in measures of team solidarity and self-esteem. Surprisingly, the rate of positive reinforcement was unrelated to any of the attitudinal measures. Punishment was negatively related to liking for the coach. In general, technical instruction categories were the strongest predictors of basketball player attitudes. PMID:6621307

  9. Positive Behavior Support Assessment Guide: Creating Student-Centered Behavior Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Stephen D.; Phillips, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Educators from four states participated in a pilot study to enhance and field-test an assessment guide for assisting teams in creating student-centered behavior plans. The assessment guide attempts to consciously match the multi-layered tenets of positive behavior support with the behavioral intervention and support process for maximum…

  10. Assessing the importance of natural behavior for animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Hopster, H.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the context of the scientific framework for welfare assessment. Natural behavior may be defined as behavior that animals have a tendency to exhibit under natural conditions, because these behaviors are pleasurable and promote biological functioning. A...

  11. An assessment of the effectiveness of tobacco control measures on behavior changes related to tobacco use among adolescents and young adults in a district in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    W D De Silva; D N Sinha; A Kahandawaliyanag

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Sri Lanka became a signatory to the WHO Frame Work Convention on Tobacco Control in September 2003, and this was ratified in November 2003. With a view to reduce the use of tobacco in Sri Lanka, the National Authority on Tobacco and Alcohol Act (NATA) No. 27 of 2006 was implemented. Aim: To assess the behavior changes related to tobacco use among adolescents and young adults following exposure to tobacco control measures were implemented by NATA. Materials and Methods: A case-co...

  12. A Proposed Model for Selecting Measurement Procedures for the Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Linda A; Raetz, Paige B; Sellers, Tyra P; Carr, James E

    2016-03-01

    Practicing behavior analysts frequently assess and treat problem behavior as part of their ongoing job responsibilities. Effective measurement of problem behavior is critical to success in these activities because some measures of problem behavior provide more accurate and complete information about the behavior than others. However, not every measurement procedure is appropriate for every problem behavior and therapeutic circumstance. We summarize the most commonly used measurement procedures, describe the contexts for which they are most appropriate, and propose a clinical decision-making model for selecting measurement produces given certain features of the behavior and constraints of the therapeutic environment. PMID:27606232

  13. Behavioral Identification and Assessment of Gifted and Talented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Brown, E. F.

    2006-01-01

    Forty-five gifted students and 45 regular education students without identified exceptionalities were rated by teachers and administrators on the Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB), a third-party behavior rating scale that rates students' adaptive and behavior problems. The gifted students in this study were rated significantly higher on three…

  14. Functional Assessment of Problem Behaviors in Adults with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclawskyj, Theodosia R.; Kurtz, Patricia F.; O'Connor, Julia T.

    2004-01-01

    Functional assessment has significantly improved the success of behavioral treatment of problem behaviors in adults with mental retardation. Functional assessment methods (i.e., techniques that yield a hypothesis of functional relationships) include direct observation, interviews, and checklists. Functional analysis consists of empirical methods…

  15. LSCI in Functional Behavior Assessment and Positive Behavioral Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, John R.

    2001-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandated a shift from reactive strategies toward proactive interventions with students who experience both disability and behavioral challenges. The author describes how the methodology of Life Space Crisis Intervention can provide a source of data for functional assessment…

  16. Using the Effective Behavior Supports Survey to Guide Development of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    As the use of school-based positive behavior support (PBS) spreads nationwide, the development of assessment strategies to identify intervention priorities becomes more critical. This study addresses the validity of the Effective Behavior Supports Survey (Lewis & Sugai, 1999) by examining reliability, determining whether rating differences exist…

  17. Developmental behavior assessment in school by using Direct Behavior Rating (DBR: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Huber

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The developmental assessment of behavior problems in school is an important but challenging task for psychologists, teachers and other experts. The current paper (first gives a short summary of conventional methods of behavior assessment. Second the Method of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR as an alternative method of developmental behaviour assessment is introduced. Based on this, a review of empirical works with focus on the test quality of DBR is given. 17 studies are discussed. Results of the reviewed studies suggest a moderate to good criterion-related validity and interrater reliability. Further the studies found that test-quality could be improved, when a set of five DBR-measurements are resumed and the target behavior is defined in a more global way. Further, findings suggest that test quality is varying with the target behavior. The results of all studies are summarized and their relevance for the developmental assessment of behavior in daily school life is discussed.

  18. An assessment of the effectiveness of tobacco control measures on behavior changes related to tobacco use among adolescents and young adults in a district in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W D De Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sri Lanka became a signatory to the WHO Frame Work Convention on Tobacco Control in September 2003, and this was ratified in November 2003. With a view to reduce the use of tobacco in Sri Lanka, the National Authority on Tobacco and Alcohol Act (NATA No. 27 of 2006 was implemented. Aim: To assess the behavior changes related to tobacco use among adolescents and young adults following exposure to tobacco control measures were implemented by NATA. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted on 42 adolescent (aged 13-19 years and 156 young adult (aged 20-39 years men living in Anuradhapura Divisional Secretary area in Sri Lanka. Cases (current quitters and controls (current smokers were compared to ascertain the outcome following the exposure to tobacco control measures. A self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions were used to ascertain the exposure status in cases and controls. Confounding was controlled by stratification and randomization. Univariate analysis was performed by Backward Stepwise (Likelihood Ratio method. Results: Among 198 respondents, 66 (27.3% adolescents and 72.7% young adults were quitters, while 132 smokers (18.2% adolescents and 81.8% young adults were current smokers. Exposure to the anti-smoking media messages revealed that TV was the strongest media that motivated smokers to quit smoking. Majority (66% of cases and control were not exposed to tobacco promotion advertisements, while 47% of the cases and 50% of the control had never seen tobacco advertisements during community events. All cases (66 as well as 89% (118 of the control had not noticed competitions or prizes sponsored by tobacco industry during last year ( P = 0.13. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures implemented by NATA had a favorable influence on behavior change related to smoking among quitters and current smokers.

  19. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  20. Development of a Brief Rating Scale for the Formative Assessment of Positive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressey, James M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide effective social, emotional, and behavioral supports to all students, there is a need for formative assessment tools that can help determine the responsiveness of students to intervention. Schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) is one framework that can provide evidence-based intervention within a 3-tiered model to reach…

  1. Behavioral Risk Assessment of the Guarded Suicidal Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Robert I.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…

  2. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  3. Assessing the Moderating Effect of the End User in Consumer Behavior: The Acceptance of Technological Implants to Increase Innate Human Capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrín-Borondo, Jorge; Reinares-Lara, Eva; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Garcia-Sierra, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Today, technological implants are being developed to increase innate human capacities, such as memory or calculation speed, and to endow us with new ones, such as the remote control of machines. This study's aim was two-fold: first, to introduce a Cognitive-Affective-Normative (CAN) model of technology acceptance to explain the intention to use this technology in the field of consumer behavior; and second, to analyze the differences in the intention to use it based on whether the intended implant recipient is oneself or one's child (i.e., the moderating effect of the end user). A multi-group analysis was performed to compare the results between the two groups: implant "for me" (Group 1) and implant "for my child" (Group 2). The model largely explains the intention to use the insideable technology for the specified groups [variance explained (R (2)) of over 0.70 in both cases]. The most important variables were found to be "positive emotions" and (positive) "subjective norm." This underscores the need to broaden the range of factors considered to be decisive in technology acceptance to include variables related to consumers' emotions. Moreover, statistically significant differences were found between the "for me" and "for my child" models for "perceived ease of use (PEU)" and "subjective norm." These findings confirm the moderating effect of the end user on new insideable technology acceptance. PMID:26941662

  4. Assessing the moderating effect of the end user in consumer behavior: the acceptance of technological implants to increase innate human capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge ePelegrín-Borondo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, technological implants are being developed to increase innate human capacities, such as memory or calculation speed, and to endow us with new ones, such as the remote control of machines. This study’s aim was twofold: first, to introduce a Cognitive-Affective-Normative model of technology acceptance to explain the intention to use this technology in the field of consumer behavior; and second, to analyze the differences in the intention to use it based on whether the intended implant recipient is oneself or one’s child (i.e., the moderating effect of the end user. A multi-group analysis was performed to compare the results between the two groups: implant for me (Group 1 and implant for my child (Group 2. The model largely explains the intention to use the insideable technology for the specified groups (variance explained (R2 of over 0.70 in both cases. The most important variables were found to be positive emotions and (positive subjective norm. This underscores the need to broaden the range of factors considered to be decisive in technology acceptance to include variables related to consumers’ emotions. Moreover, statistically significant differences were found between the for me and for my child models for perceived ease of use and subjective norm. These findings confirm the moderating effect of the end user on new insideable technology acceptance.

  5. Assessing the Moderating Effect of the End User in Consumer Behavior: The Acceptance of Technological Implants to Increase Innate Human Capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrín-Borondo, Jorge; Reinares-Lara, Eva; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Garcia-Sierra, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Today, technological implants are being developed to increase innate human capacities, such as memory or calculation speed, and to endow us with new ones, such as the remote control of machines. This study's aim was two-fold: first, to introduce a Cognitive-Affective-Normative (CAN) model of technology acceptance to explain the intention to use this technology in the field of consumer behavior; and second, to analyze the differences in the intention to use it based on whether the intended implant recipient is oneself or one's child (i.e., the moderating effect of the end user). A multi-group analysis was performed to compare the results between the two groups: implant "for me" (Group 1) and implant "for my child" (Group 2). The model largely explains the intention to use the insideable technology for the specified groups [variance explained (R (2)) of over 0.70 in both cases]. The most important variables were found to be "positive emotions" and (positive) "subjective norm." This underscores the need to broaden the range of factors considered to be decisive in technology acceptance to include variables related to consumers' emotions. Moreover, statistically significant differences were found between the "for me" and "for my child" models for "perceived ease of use (PEU)" and "subjective norm." These findings confirm the moderating effect of the end user on new insideable technology acceptance.

  6. Probabilistic assessment for nuclear fuel rods behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BACO is a code for the simulation of the thermo-mechanical and fission gas behavior of a cylindrical fuel rod under operation conditions. Input parameters and, therefore, output ones may include statistical dispersion. In this paper, experimental CANDU fuel rods irradiated at the NRX reactor together with experimental MOX fuel rods and the IAEA'CRP FUMEX cases are used in order to determine the sensitivity of BACO code predictions. We analyze the CARA and CAREM fuel rods relation between predicted performance and statistical dispersion in order of enhanced their original designs. These exercises show the sensitivity of the predictions concerning such parameters and the extended features of the BACO code for a probability study. (author)

  7. Gestalt Effect of Self Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Defining self assessment as the involvement of students in identifying standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and making judgements about the extent to which they have met these criteria and standards, this paper seeks to highlight the gestalt effect of self assessment. The total effect of self assessment on the learner is greater than…

  8. Automated Behavior and Cohesion Assessment Tools Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important consideration of long duration space flight operations is interpersonal dynamics that effect crew cohesion and performance. Flight surgeons have stated...

  9. The Effects of Failure and Recovery on Customer Purchase Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Heumann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The present dissertation empirically assesses the effects of failure, complaints, and recovery on actual purchase behavior. Using a unique data set incorporating retail purchase data over three years and repeated survey measures capturing customer pre- and postfailure relationship perceptions, this thesis investigates the effects of failure resolution and perceived justice on postfailure purchase behavior. Interactional justice assumes a salient role as outcome determinant. Moreover, the find...

  10. Implications of Current Research on the Use of Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Support Planning in School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Av-Gay, Hadas

    2007-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment and function-based support have increasingly been used in school settings in the past decade. This increased use has come under scrutiny from some experts who have argued in the past that function-based support has not yet been proven to be effective in typical school settings with students without severe…

  11. Assessing Counter-Terrorism field training with multiple behavioral measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, V Alan; Johnston, Joan H

    2013-09-01

    Development of behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills is an essential element of Counter-Terrorism training, particularly in the field. Three classes of behavioral measures were collected in an assessment of skill acquisition during a US Joint Forces Command-sponsored course consisting of Combat Tracking and Combat Profiling segments. Measures included situational judgment tests, structured behavioral observation checklists, and qualitative assessments of the emergence of specific knowledge-skills-attitudes over the course of the training. The paper describes statistical evidence across the three types of measures that indicate that behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills were successfully acquired by most students (a mix of Army and civilian law enforcement personnel) during the field training exercises. Implications for broader training of these critical skills are also discussed.

  12. Computerized Assessment of Social Approach Behavior in Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Damon T.; Kuti, Orsolya J.

    2009-01-01

    Altered sociability is a core feature of a variety of human neurological disorders, including autism. Social behaviors may be tested in animal models, such as mice, to study the biological basis of sociability and how this is altered in neurodevelopmental disorders. A quantifiable social behavior frequently used to assess sociability in the mouse is the tendency to approach and interact with an unfamiliar mouse. Here we present a novel computer-assisted method for scoring social approach beha...

  13. Assessment of the Quality of an Organizational Citizenship Behavior Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokturk, Soheyda

    2011-01-01

    Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has been associated with organizational effectiveness in many studies. Therefore, it is important to learn more about how these behaviors can be improved in schools. Creating a reliable and valid measure of OCB that has conceptual equivalence across cultures is a first step in understanding and…

  14. Assessing Problem Behaviors by Videotape: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; And Others

    A methodology that will allow teachers to assess a child's behavior problems within both Disruptive (D) and Nondisruptive (ND) contexts was developed, and a questionnaire that would attend to the issues of Manageability and Contagion, as well as Tolerance and Severity, was prepared. Initial questionnaire research using the Devereux Elementary…

  15. Personality assessment and behavioral prediction at first impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vartanian, O; Stewart, K; Mandel, D. R.; Pavlovic, N.; McLellan, L.; Taylor, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated high levels of consensus and self-other agreement for extraversion and conscientiousness. However, the mechanisms whereby these assessments contribute to accuracy in behavioral predictions remain unclear. In this study, two judges rated targets on Big Five personality facto

  16. The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.; Greenwood, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing…

  17. Computerized assessment of social approach behavior in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon T Page

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Altered sociability is a core feature of a variety of human neurological disorders, including autism. Social behaviors may be tested in animal models, such as mice, to study the biological bases of sociability and how this is altered in neurodevelopmental disorders. An easily quantifiable social behavior frequently used to assess sociability in the mouse is the tendency to approach and interact with an unfamiliar mouse. Here we present a novel computer-assisted method for scoring social approach behavior in mice using a three-chambered apparatus. We find consistent results between data scored using the computer assisted method and a human observer, making computerized assessment a reliable, low cost, high-throughput method for testing sociability.

  18. Multisurface Interpersonal Assessment in a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Sindes; Pincus, Aaron L

    2016-01-01

    The interpersonal paradigm of personality assessment provides a rich nomological net for describing and assessing constructs of interpersonal functioning. The aim of this article is to demonstrate for clinicians how the use of a multisurface interpersonal assessment (MSIA) battery can augment psychotherapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy). We present 2 clinical case examples and specify interpretative guidelines for MSIA that integrate multiple circumplex profiles (e.g., problems, traits, sensitivities, strengths, values, and efficacies) for each patient. Subsequently, we demonstrate how this approach provides a context to better understand patient symptoms and difficulties, and discuss how it can inform case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention. PMID:27070943

  19. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Parents and children completed measures that assessed children's behavior problems and depression. Children had experienced abuse, witnessed spouse abuse, experienced and witnessed abuse, or experienced no domestic violence. Reports of effects of domestic violence on children varied, depending on the type of violence and the person reporting it.…

  20. ORGANIZATIONAL ASSESSMENT: EFFECTIVENESS VS. EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Bartuševičienė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Organizational assessment has always been the key element of the discussion among scientists as well as business people. While managers are striving for better performance results, scientists are reaching for best ways to evaluate the organization. One of the most common ways to assess the performance of the entity is to measure the effectiveness or the efficiency of the organization. Those two concepts might look synonymous, yet as the findings revealed they have a distinct meaning. The purpose of this article is to reveal those differences and explore organizational assessment within effectiveness and efficiency plane. Design/methodology/approach – Scientific literature analysis, comparative and summarization methods will be used during the research to better understand the challenges of the issue. Findings – Effectiveness and efficiency are exclusive performance measures, which entities can use to assess their performance. Efficiency is oriented towards successful input transformation into outputs, where effectiveness measures how outputs interact with the economic and social environment. Research limitations/implications –In some cases effectiveness concept is being used to reflect overall performance of the organization, since it is a broader concept compared to the efficiency. It gets challenging to explore the efficiency factor if it is included under effectiveness assessment. Practical implications – The assessment of the organizational performance helps companies to improve their reports, assures smoother competition in the global market and creates a sustainable competitive advantage. Originality/Value – The paper revealed that organization can be assessed either within effectiveness or efficiency perspective. Organization striving for excellent performance should be effective and efficient, yet as the findings revealed, inefficient, yet effective organization can still survive yet at a high cost. Keywords

  1. Concurrent neurological and behavioral assessment of number line estimation performance in children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Joseph Michael

    2013-01-01

    Children who struggle to learn math are often identified by their poor performance on common math learning activities, such as number line estimations. While such behavioral assessments are useful in the classroom, naturalistic neuroimaging of children engaged in real-world math learning activities has the potential to identify concurrent behavioral and neurological correlates to poor math performance. Such correlates may help pinpoint effective teaching strategies for atypical learners, and ...

  2. Assessment of Elementary School Students’ Sun Protection Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Seft; Wells, Kristen J.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Boulware, David; Love-Jackson, Kymia; Abdulla, Rania; Roetzheim, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Emerging studies suggest that excessive sun exposure in childhood contributes to the development of skin cancer later in life. Children rarely wear a wide-brimmed hat when outside although these hats offer the best protection to the areas on the face where children are most likely to be sunburned. The current study explores 4th grade student assessment of their sun protection behaviors outside at school and at times other than when they are at school. Method This study utilized baseline data collected in the Fall of 2006 for the Sun Protection for Florida’s Children (SPF) project. In brief, the SPF project is a group randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a school based intervention promoting sun protection in general, and hat use in particular. The project targets all 4th grade students in Hillsborough County Schools, FL. The data reported in this study were collected at baseline before any intervention activities was initiated. Approximately 2,086 4th grade students completed self-report surveys evaluating sun protection behaviors. Trained research assistants carried out 99 direct observations of physical education classes over a five week period during Fall 2006 in Tampa, Florida. Results In general, the self-reported use of various methods of sun protection was low. Approximately one third of students reported that they wore sunscreen (32.8%) or sunglasses (32.3%) before leaving home for school. Only a small percentage of students wore long sleeves (15.0%) or a hat with a brim (16.4%) before leaving for school. In addition, few students wore a hat with a wide brim when outside but not at school (16.4%). Students spent an average of 59.1 minutes per week outdoors while attending school and 35.5 minutes during peak sun exposure. In general, female students and Hispanic, African American, and students of other racial and ethnic groups were more likely to practice sun protection behaviors at school than white or male students. Students who

  3. Assessment of adolescents' victimization, aggression, and problem behaviors: Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Le, Anh-Thuy H

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, and other problem behaviors. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 5,532 adolescents from 37 schools at 4 sites. About half (49%) of participants were male; 48% self-identified as Black non-Hispanic; 21% as Hispanic, 18% as White non-Hispanic. Adolescents completed the PBFS and measures of beliefs and values related to aggression, and delinquent peer associations at the start of the 6th grade and over 2 years later. Ratings of participants' behavior were also obtained from teachers on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 7-factor model that differentiated among 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 2 forms of victimization (overt and relational), drug use, and other delinquent behavior. Support was found for strong measurement invariance across gender, sites, and time. The PBFS factors generally showed the expected pattern of correlations with teacher ratings of adolescents' behavior and self-report measures of relevant constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26372261

  4. Assessing Learners Behavior by Monitoring Online Tests through Data Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ramesh Babu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach and a system to let tutors monitor several important aspects related to online tests, such as learner behavior and test quality. The approach includes the logging of important data related to learner interaction with the system during the execution of online tests and exploits data visualization to highlight information useful to let tutors review and improve the whole assessment process. This paper has focused on the discovery of behavioral patterns of learners and conceptual relationships among test items. For this Characterization and summarization has been used. The Characterization and summarization is implemented efficiently using Attribute Oriented Induction algorithm which discovers patterns for accessing learners behavior. By analyzing the data visualization charts, we have detected several previously unknown test strategies used by the learners. Last, we have detected several correlations among questions, which gave us useful feedbacks on the test quality.

  5. Postpartum behavioral profiles in Wistar rats following maternal separation - altered exploration and risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loudin Daoura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The rodent maternal separation (MS model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15 and prolonged (360 min; MS360 periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24-25, i.e. just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis.

  6. Behavior assessments of pregnant adolescents using TFA Systems (tm)

    OpenAIRE

    Bundy, Patricia Pulliam

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the thoughts, feelings, and actions of pregnant teens at significant decision-making times: time of intercourse, confirmation of pregnancy, and six weeks post delivery. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and patterns of behavior were analyzed. Examination of the extant literature on adolescent pregnancy yielded insight into parental, socio-economic, and partner factors. The interview protocol emanated from the literature anal...

  7. Effects of a Positive Support Approach To Enhance Communicative Behaviors of Children with Mental Retardation Who Have Challenging Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzroni, Orit E.; Roth, Tali

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated effects of a positive behavior support plan accompanied by an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention on the reduction of challenging behaviors in four children with moderate and severe mental retardation. Functional assessment was followed by a positive AAC support plan designed by the school team to…

  8. Examining the Efficacy of a Basic Functional Behavioral Assessment Training Package for School Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Sheldon L.; Horner, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of manualized training in "Basic" functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for typical school professionals on the ability of these professionals to complete technically adequate FBAs. Twelve school professionals participated in four 1-hr training sessions using the Basic FBA training handbook. After…

  9. Hall Effect Sensors Design, Integration and Behavior Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Kayal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on various aspects regarding Hall Effect sensors’ design, integration, and behavior analysis. In order to assess their performance, different Hall Effect geometries were tested for Hall voltage, sensitivity, offset, and temperature drift. The residual offset was measured both with an automated measurement setup and by manual switching of the individual phases. To predict Hall sensors performance prior to integration, three-dimensional physical simulations were performed.

  10. Hall Effect Sensors Design, Integration and Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maher Kayal; Maria-Alexandra Paun; Jean-Michel Sallese

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on various aspects regarding Hall Effect sensors’ design, integration, and behavior analysis. In order to assess their performance, different Hall Effect geometries were tested for Hall voltage, sensitivity, offset, and temperature drift. The residual offset was measured both with an automated measurement setup and by manual switching of the individual phases. To predict Hall sensors performance prior to integration, three-dimensional physical simulations were perfor...

  11. Assessing the trends and effects of environmental parameters on the behavior of mercury in the lower atmosphere over cropped land over four seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Baya

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is released to the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources. Due to its persistence in the atmosphere, mercury is subject to long range transport and is thus a pollutant of global concern. The terrestrial ecosystem is an important atmospheric mercury sink as a significant portion of the mercury emitted can be accumulated on soil surfaces making terrestrial surfaces an important source of previously emitted and deposited mercury. Studying the factors and processes that influence the behavior of mercury from terrestrial sources is thus important for a better understanding of the role of natural ecosystems in the mercury cycling and emission budget.

    A one year study (July 2006–August 2007 was conducted at Elora, Ontario, Canada to measure total gaseous mercury (TGM, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and particulate bound mercury (HgP as well as TGM fluxes over different ground cover spanning the four seasons typical of a temperate climate zone. TGM concentrations were measured using a mercury vapour analyzer (Tekran 2537A while RGM and HgP were measured with the Tekran 1130/1135 speciation unit coupled to another mercury vapour analyzer. A micrometeorological approach was used for TGM flux determination using a continuous two-level sampling system for TGM concentration gradient measurement above the soil surface and crop canopy. The turbulent transfer coefficients were derived from meteorological parameters measured on site.

    A net TGM volatilization (6.31±33.98 ng m−2 h−1, annual average to the atmosphere was observed during the study. Average TGM concentrations and TGM fluxes showed significant seasonal differences and distinct diurnal patterns while no trends were observed for HgP or RGM. Highest TGM concentrations recorded in late spring and fall were due to meteorological changes such as increases in net radiation and air

  12. Assessing the trends and effects of environmental parameters on the behavior of mercury in the lower atmosphere over cropped land over four seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baya, A. P.; van Heyst, B.

    2010-02-01

    Mercury is released to the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources. Due to its persistence in the atmosphere, mercury is subject to long range transport and is thus a pollutant of global concern. The terrestrial ecosystem is an important atmospheric mercury sink as a significant portion of the mercury emitted can be accumulated on soil surfaces making terrestrial surfaces an important source of previously emitted and deposited mercury. Studying the factors and processes that influence the behavior of mercury from terrestrial sources is thus important for a better understanding of the role of natural ecosystems in the mercury cycling and emission budget. A one year study (July 2006-August 2007) was conducted at Elora, Ontario, Canada to measure total gaseous mercury (TGM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate bound mercury (HgP) as well as TGM fluxes over different ground cover spanning the four seasons typical of a temperate climate zone. TGM concentrations were measured using a mercury vapour analyzer (Tekran 2537A) while RGM and HgP were measured with the Tekran 1130/1135 speciation unit coupled to another mercury vapour analyzer. A micrometeorological approach was used for TGM flux determination using a continuous two-level sampling system for TGM concentration gradient measurement above the soil surface and crop canopy. The turbulent transfer coefficients were derived from meteorological parameters measured on site. A net TGM volatilization (6.31±33.98 ng m-2 h-1, annual average) to the atmosphere was observed during the study. Average TGM concentrations and TGM fluxes showed significant seasonal differences and distinct diurnal patterns while no trends were observed for HgP or RGM. Highest TGM concentrations recorded in late spring and fall were due to meteorological changes such as increases in net radiation and air temperature in spring and lower atmospheric mixing height in fall. Highest TGM fluxes (18.1 ng m-2 h-1, monthly average

  13. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  14. The effect of learning styles and study behavior on success of preclinical students in pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Asci; Esin Kulac; Mekin Sezik; F Nihan Cankara; Ekrem Cicek

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of learning styles and study behaviors on preclinical medical students′ pharmacology exam scores in a non-Western setting. Materials and Methods: Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Study Scale and a modified Study Behavior Inventory were used to assess learning styles and study behaviors of preclinical medical students (n = 87). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effect of gender, age, learning style, and study behavior on ph...

  15. Assessment and treatment of problem behavior maintained by mand compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluri, Zina; Andrade, Ivette; Trevino, Noemi; Mahmoud, Enad

    2016-06-01

    We modified functional analysis procedures to include a condition in which we reinforced problem behavior by complying with a child's mands. After identifying compliance with mands as a reinforcer, we evaluated the efficacy of a token system with a response-cost contingency and incorporated discriminative stimuli to signal when mands would be reinforced. The token system with response cost effectively reduced problem behavior. Similar procedures may be beneficial when continuous adult compliance is not possible, when adults want to control when they will comply with the child's mands, or to build a child's tolerance for adult-directed situations. PMID:26831251

  16. Test Review: Bracken, B. A., & Keith, L. K. (2004). "Clinical Assessment of Behavior." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Tanya N.

    2006-01-01

    The Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB) is designed to assess both adaptive and problematic behaviors of children and adolescents from age 2 to 18 years. It can be individually or group administered, measures behaviors in different contexts, and includes both parent and teacher forms. The test was developed to be consistent with current…

  17. Development, maternal effects, and behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Jill M

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral, hormonal, and genetic processes interact reciprocally, and differentially affect behavior depending on ecological and social contexts. When individual differences are favored either between or within environments, developmental plasticity would be expected. Parental effects provide a rich source for phenotypic plasticity, including anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits, because parents respond to dynamic cues in their environment and can, in turn, influence offspring accordingly. Because these inter-generational changes are plastic, parents can respond rapidly to changing environments and produce offspring whose phenotypes are well suited for current conditions more quickly than occurs with changes based on evolution through natural selection. I review studies on developmental plasticity and resulting phenotypes in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi), an ideal species, given the competing demands to avoid predation while gaining sufficient weight to survive an upcoming hibernation, and the need for young to learn their survival behaviors. I will show how local environments and perceived risk of predation influence not only foraging, vigilance, and anti-predator behaviors, but also adrenal functioning, which may be especially important for obligate hibernators that face competing demands on the storage and mobilization of glucose. Mammalian behavioral development is sensitive to the social and physical environments provided by mothers during gestation and lactation. Therefore, maternal effects on offspring's phenotypes, both positive and negative, can be particularly strong. PMID:24820855

  18. The Assessment of Hedge Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BUNEA-BONTAS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Earnings volatility can be a significant source of concern for a company, putting pressure on its capital base and share price. Prudent management of the company’s exposure to different risks typically involves hedging solutions. Hedging is important for corporate risk management, involving reducing the exposure of the company to specific risks. The aim of this paper is to examine the basic requirements for assessing the hedge effectiveness, this being a vital stage in applying hedge accounting, that gives the possibility to assess if the companies match the timing of the gains and losses of hedged items and their hedging derivatives. The article identifies some difficulties encountered by companies and choices that they must make in assessing hedge effectiveness.

  19. The Effect of Contracted Abstinence on College Students' Behavior toward Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Steven B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Assessed the relative effects of contracted abstinence and a class in alcoholism on college students' attitudes and behavior toward alcohol use. The alcohol class was effective in modifying self-reported drinking behavior,while contracted abstinence was an effective tool when used in the context of an alcohol class. (Author)

  20. Integrating Fire Behavior Models and Geospatial Analysis for Wildland Fire Risk Assessment and Fuel Management Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A. Ager

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildland fire risk assessment and fuel management planning on federal lands in the US are complex problems that require state-of-the-art fire behavior modeling and intensive geospatial analyses. Fuel management is a particularly complicated process where the benefits and potential impacts of fuel treatments must be demonstrated in the context of land management goals and public expectations. A number of fire behavior metrics, including fire spread, intensity, likelihood, and ecological risk must be analyzed for multiple treatment alternatives. The effect of treatments on wildfire impacts must be considered at multiple scales. The process is complicated by the lack of data integration among fire behavior models, and weak linkages to geographic information systems, corporate data, and desktop office software. This paper describes our efforts to build a streamlined fuel management planning and risk assessment framework, and an integrated system of tools for designing and testing fuel treatment programs on fire-prone wildlands.

  1. Vocal behavior and risk assessment in wild chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael L.; Hauser, Marc D.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2005-09-01

    If, as theory predicts, animal communication is designed to manipulate the behavior of others to personal advantage, then there will be certain contexts in which vocal behavior is profitable and other cases where silence is favored. Studies conducted in Kibale National Park, Uganda investigated whether chimpanzees modified their vocal behavior according to different levels of risk from intergroup aggression, including relative numerical strength and location in range. Playback experiments tested numerical assessment, and observations of chimpanzees throughout their range tested whether they called less frequently to avoid detection in border areas. Chimpanzees were more likely to call to playback of a stranger's call if they greatly outnumbered the stranger. Chimpanzees tended to reduce calling in border areas, but not in all locations. Chimpanzees most consistently remained silent when raiding crops: they almost never gave loud pant-hoot calls when raiding banana plantations outside the park, even though they normally give many pant-hoots on arrival at high-quality food resources. These findings indicate that chimpanzees have the capacity to reduce loud call production when appropriate, but that additional factors, such as advertising territory ownership, contribute to the costs and benefits of calling in border zones.

  2. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  3. Functional Assessment Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Children’s Challenging Behaviors: Exploratory Study of Group Training

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Fettig; Michaelene M. Ostrosky

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of group parent training on children’s challenging behaviors in home settings. Eight parents of young children with challenging behaviors were trained in a large group setting on using functional assessment to design interventions that fit the strengths and needs of individual families. The training included information sharing and collaborating with parents on designing functional-assessment based interventions. An Interrupted Time Series Design was used to ex...

  4. Assessment of factors affecting on immediate selling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abolghasem gholamreza tehrani

    2013-09-01

    Topics in descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of the questionnaire is used. The study of factors influencing buying behavior instantaneously evaluate the effect of component purchase immediate end to help promote marketing in the country has been conducted. Survey of the research and application of research descriptive survey are. Cross-sectional data from a questionnaire survey in 1391 by the city of Karaj passages have been collected from the sale of clothing and apparel. effect between knowledge and intention to purchase the new product is positive. than seven 9 Assumption accepted hypothesis and other hypotheses were rejected

  5. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  6. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  7. Eating disorders: scales to assess symptoms and risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monterrosa-Castro Álvaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: eating disorders are a group of syndromes that have in common,psychopathological traits that are largely determined by their physical appearance. Theyare much more common in women than in men, predominantly in young people. Thereis increased incidence of eating disorders, which are the result of improved knowledgeand the increasingly early implementation of better instruments for symptoms, riskfactors and the availability of well defined diagnostic criteria.Objective: to identify key validated scales to detect symptoms and risk behaviors foreating disorders in adolescents and adults.Methodology: thematic review of publications in which they occur, validate andanalyze different scales to assess symptoms and risk behaviors for ED. Electronicsearch was conducted from 1984 to 2011 in English and Spanish. We included all typesof publications. We reviewed the abstracts and full papers were selected that addressedscales to assess symptoms and risk factors for eating behavior disorders.Results: 539 abstracts were obtained on TCA. We reviewed 75 articles identified sixcomplete and validated scales to identify symptoms and risk behaviors. Scale SCOFF(Sick, Control, Outweigh, Fat, Food. Scale EDE-Q. (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire self-report. Scale EAT (Eating Attitudes Test in versions 40 and 26questions. Scale EDI (Eating Disorder Inventory. Scale BULIT (Bulimia Test andversion revised (BULIT-R. Scale BITE (Bulimia Test of Edinburg.Conclusion: the SCOFF scale stands out to be simple and easy to apply orally orin writing. EAT scale, in both versions, is considered the gold standard to identifysymptoms and risk behaviors for eating disorder behavior.RESUMEN:Introducción: los trastornos de comportamiento alimentario (TCA son un grupo desíndromes que tienen en común rasgos psicopatológicos fuertemente determinadospor la apariencia física. Son mucho más frecuentes en mujeres que en varones,predominando en jóvenes. Hay aumento

  8. Learning assessment for students with mental and behavioral disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    The session aims at presenting a learning-based model for how to conduct a comprehensive psychological evaluation of the learning resources and challenges amongst students with mental and behavioral disorders. In the learning assessment model the learning resources and challenges of the students...... are categorized according to 10 categories as a basis for addressing the development of the students learning competencies through the use of 7 types of methodical intervention. The model provides the opportunity to make a determined effort to improve the students’ opportunity to participate in the learning...... environment and learning processes of the educational setting. The objective of this session is to strengthen the educational awareness and conceptualization of students' relevant difficulties as learning difficulties...

  9. Teachers' Assessment Literacy and Washback Effect of Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niveen R. M. Elshawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessment literacy, as a term, is not well known in the educational field. This is unfortunate because teachers' assessment knowledge and competence can have an important influence on the way they teach and the way their students learn.  The relationship between the degree of assessment literacy a teacher has and the washback of this type of assessment is not clearly identified, especially in higher education context.  In view of this gap, this article attempts to examine important assessment literacy issues in relation to student learning: definition and importance of assessment literacy, assessment in higher education and assessment practices through reviewing related studies. The review pinpoints the harmful effects of being assessment illiterate for both teachers and students.Keywords: assessment, assessment literacy, student learning, washback

  10. Unpacking Links between Fathers' Antisocial Behaviors and Children's Behavior Problems: Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-01-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N = 261) was followed from age 3 through age…

  11. The Effects of a Peer-Mediated Positive Behavior Support Program on Socially Appropriate Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Lynnette; Young, K. Richard; Marchant, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the results of aligning functional behavioral assessment (FBA) information with positive behavior support plans (PBS plans) designed with consideration for teacher acceptability. The independent variable had the three major components of a package, including assessment and planning (FBA), training (teachers, students, and…

  12. Behavioral interventions--rationale, measurement, and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2005-06-01

    Effective STD and HIV prevention requires synergism of individual-based prevention behaviors and societal/structural supports that will promote and maintain these behaviors. We should also expect the unexpected. STD rates in gay men have risen after effective prevention of HIV/STD in gay men and effective antiretroviral therapy. New drugs of abuse, such as methamphetamine ("crystal meth"), have induced risky sexual behaviors in gay and heterosexual communities. Economic dislocation in Eastern Europe has resulted in trafficking of commercial sex workers to Europe, the Mideast, and Asia, all with the potential for STD and HIV spread. James Curran, formerly director of the HIV epidemiology and prevention effort at the CDC, has written: It is ironic that the two clearest examples of large-scale success in HIV prevention-reduction in HIV transmission in gay men in the United States and national declines in HIV incidence in Thailand-arise in societies/communities known in their own way for sexual openness....the openness in both communities provided the environment to make the powerful revolutionary changes needed. In Africa, the powerful voice of President Museveni of Uganda has also encouraged candor about sexual risk-taking and facilitated that nation's encouraging early success in reducing HIV prevalence...Unfortunately, most of the world remains unable or unwilling to deal frankly and consistently with sexuality despite the considerable risks of HIV infection in many communities. There is a worldwide sexual hangup hampering HIV prevention efforts. PMID:15963887

  13. Electrode Evaporation Effects on Air Arc Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingwen; CHEN Degui; LI Rui; WU Yi; NIU Chunping

    2008-01-01

    A numerical study of the effects of copper and silver vapours on the air arc behavior is performed. The commercial software FLUENT is adapted and modified to develop a two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) models of arc with the thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients, net emission coefficient for the radiation model of 99% ai-1% Cu, 99% air-1% Ag, and pure air, respectively. The simulation result demonstrates that vaporization of the electrode material may cool the arc center region and reduce the arc velocity. The effects of Ag vapour are stronger compared to those of Cu vapour.

  14. Assessment of Substance Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents’: Integration of Self-Control into Extended Parallel Process Model

    OpenAIRE

    de Witte, K.; E Mirzaee; AR Hidarnia; A KAZEMNEJAD; F Shafii; P. Azad Fallah; H Allahverdipour

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: An effective preventive health education program on drug abuse can be delivered by applying behavior change theories in a complementary fashion. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating self-control into Extended Parallel Process Model in drug substance abuse behaviors. A sample of 189 governmental high school students participated in this survey. Information was collected individually by completing researcher designed questionnaire and a uri...

  15. A novel automated behavioral test battery assessing cognitive rigidity in two genetic mouse models of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja ePuścian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive behaviors are a key feature of many pervasive developmental disorders, such as autism. As a heterogeneous group of symptoms, repetitive behaviors are conceptualized into two main subgroups: sensory/motor (lower-order and cognitive rigidity (higher-order. Although lower-order repetitive behaviors are measured in mouse models in several paradigms, so far there have been no high-throughput tests directly measuring cognitive rigidity. We describe a novel approach for monitoring repetitive behaviors during reversal learning in mice in the automated IntelliCage system. During the reward-motivated place preference reversal learning, designed to assess cognitive abilities of mice, visits to the previously rewarded places were recorded to measure cognitive flexibility. Thereafter, emotional flexibility was assessed by measuring conditioned fear extinction. Additionally, to look for neuronal correlates of cognitive impairments, we measured CA3-CA1 hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP. To standardize the designed tests we used C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, representing two genetic backgrounds, for induction of autism by prenatal exposure to the sodium valproate. We found impairments of place learning related to perseveration and no LTP impairments in C57BL/6 valproate-treated mice. In contrast, BALB/c valproate-treated mice displayed severe deficits of place learning not associated with perseverative behaviors and accompanied by hippocampal LTP impairments. Alterations of cognitive flexibility observed in C57BL/6 valproate-treated mice were related to neither restricted exploration pattern nor to emotional flexibility. Altogether, we showed that the designed tests of cognitive performance and perseverative behaviors are efficient and highly replicable. Moreover, the results suggest that genetic background is crucial for the behavioral effects of prenatal valproate treatment.

  16. Effects of tourists on behavior and demography of Olympic marmots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Suzanne C; Valois, Tanguy; Taper, Mark L; Scott Mills, L

    2007-08-01

    If changes in animal behavior resulting from direct human disturbance negatively affect the persistence of a given species or population, then these behavioral changes must necessarily lead to reduced demographic performance. We tested for the effects of human disturbance on Olympic marmots (Marmota olympus), a large ground-dwelling squirrel that has disappeared from several areas where recreation levels are high. We assessed the degree to which antipredator and foraging behavior and demographic rates (survival and reproduction) differed between sites with high recreation levels (high use) and those with little or no recreation (low use). Compared with the marmots at low-use sites, marmots at high-use sites displayed significantly reduced responses to human approach, which could be construed as successful accommodation of disturbance or as a decrease in predator awareness. The marmots at high-use sites also looked up more often while foraging, which suggests an increased wariness. Marmots at both types of sites had comparable reproductive and survival rates and were in similar body condition. Until now, the supposition that marmots can adjust their behavior to avoid negative demographic consequences when confronted with heavy tourism has been based on potentially ambiguous behavioral data. Our results support this hypothesis in the case of Olympic marmots and demonstrate the importance of considering demographic data when evaluating the impacts of recreation on animal populations. PMID:17650256

  17. Competency-Based Behavior Consultation Training: An Evaluation of Consultant Outcomes, Treatment Effects, and Consumer Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Kathy; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2004-01-01

    Assessments of consultants, clients, and consumer satisfaction were used to examine the effects of a competency-based consultation training program conducted over 4 years. Using a multiple-baseline framework to assess training effects on consultants and single-case study designs to evaluate changes in client behavior, a number of significant…

  18. A behavioral economic approach to assessing demand for marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand-purchases at lowest price; Omax-max. spent on marijuana; Pmax-price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants "purchased" high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2 weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax, and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine marijuana's reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

  19. Using Electronic and Other New Ways To Help Students Improve Their Behavior: Functional Behavioral Assessment at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Kim A.; Tobin, Tary J.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents two case examples to demonstrate how teachers can use functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design behavior support plans. FBA helps a second grade "class clown" to learn new ways to get attention and a first grade "class lawyer" to learn to stop arguing and stay on task (with the help of an electronic record keeping…

  20. Applying Positive Behavioral Support and Functional Behavioral Assessment in Schools. Technical Assistance Guide 1, Version 1.4.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, George; Horner, Robert H.; Dunlap, Glen; Hieneman, Meme; Lewis, Timothy J.; Nelson, C. Michael; Scott, Terrance; Liaupsin, Carl; Sailor, Wayne; Turnbull, Ann P.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Wickham, Donna; Ruef, Michael; Wilcox, Brennan

    This paper discusses how educators can apply positive behavioral support (PBS) to students with and without disabilities and conduct functional behavioral assessments (FBAs). It begins by describing the challenges that educators face in educating an increasingly heterogeneous population of students, including students with external and internal…

  1. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  2. Characterization of behavioral and endocrine effects of LSD on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leah; Utterback, Eli; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Chung, Kyung Min; Suciu, Christopher; Wong, Keith; Elegante, Marco; Elkhayat, Salem; Tan, Julia; Gilder, Thomas; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Cachat, Jonathan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-12-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogenic drug that strongly affects animal and human behavior. Although adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising neurobehavioral model, the effects of LSD on zebrafish have not been investigated previously. Several behavioral paradigms (the novel tank, observation cylinder, light-dark box, open field, T-maze, social preference and shoaling tests), as well as modern video-tracking tools and whole-body cortisol assay were used to characterize the effects of acute LSD in zebrafish. While lower doses (5-100 microg/L) did not affect zebrafish behavior, 250 microg/L LSD increased top dwelling and reduced freezing in the novel tank and observation cylinder tests, also affecting spatiotemporal patterns of activity (as assessed by 3D reconstruction of zebrafish traces and ethograms). LSD evoked mild thigmotaxis in the open field test, increased light behavior in the light-dark test, reduced the number of arm entries and freezing in the T-maze and social preference test, without affecting social preference. In contrast, LSD affected zebrafish shoaling (increasing the inter-fish distance in a group), and elevated whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our findings show sensitivity of zebrafish to LSD action, and support the use of zebrafish models to study hallucinogenic drugs of abuse.

  3. The Effects of Token Reinforcement on Delinquents' Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Michael M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The effects of a token reinforcement program on the classroom behavior of 19 delinquent boys in a correctional institution were investigated. Findings suggest that the use of global, composite measures may mask program effects on important component behaviors. (Author)

  4. Differential Effects of a Tier Two Behavior Intervention Based on Function of Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Campbell, Amy L.; Carter, Deborah Russell; Dickey, Celeste Rossetto

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a tier two daily behavior card intervention and differential effects based on function of problem behavior. The participants were 36 elementary school students nominated for additional intervention beyond universal School-Wide Positive Behavior Support. Measures included…

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacological Interventions for Hyperactive Boys: Comparative and Combined Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed the effects of two interventions on hyperactive children's (N=24) social behavior. Results indicated that both methylphenidate (Ritalin) and reinforced self-evaluation were superior to the contrast treatments. Medication plus cognitive-behavioral self-evaluation proved optimal, and placebo plus reinforcement alone was significantly worse…

  6. Setting Events and Challenging Behaviors in the Classroom: Incorporating Contextual Factors into Effective Intervention Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Fox, James J.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a model that deals with classroom behavior problems by incorporating contextual or setting events with traditional learning theory models. The paper discusses examples of setting events that affect children's aggression, ways to assess the effects of setting events on student behavior, and ways in which teachers can…

  7. Relative Effects of Daily Feedback and Weekly Feedback on Customer Service Behavior at a Gas Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Yongjoon; Lee, Kyehoon; Oah, Shezeen

    2013-01-01

    The relative effects of daily and weekly feedback on customer service behavior at a gas station were assessed using an ABC within-subjects design. Four critical service behaviors were identified and measured daily. After baseline (A), weekly feedback (B) was introduced, and daily feedback (C) was introduced in the next phase. The results indicated…

  8. The differential effects of depression on evoked and spontaneous pain behaviors in olfactory bulbectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Qi, Wei-Jing; XU, YANG; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Although it has been accepted that depression and pain are common comorbidities, their interaction is not fully understood. The current study was aimed to investigate the effects of depression on both evoked pain behavior (thermal-induced nociception) and spontaneous pain behavior (formalin pain) using an olfactory bulbectomy (OB) rat model of depression. Emotional behaviors were assessed by open field and Morris water maze tests. The results showed that the depressed rats exhibited stronger ...

  9. Using assessment-based curricular intervention to improve the classroom behavior of a student with emotional and behavioral challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, L; Childs, K E; Dunlap, G; Clarke, S; Falk, G D

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated a process of descriptive assessment, functional assessment, and assessment-based intervention with an elementary-school child who was described as having emotional and behavioral challenges, but who also exhibited above-average intelligence and communication skills. During a hypothesis-development phase, information was gathered from several sources including an interview that was conducted directly with the participant. Descriptive information collected during this phase produced five hypotheses about variables maintaining the problem behavior that were then tested experimentally in the classroom environment. The resulting functional assessment data supported the hypotheses. Intervention packages based on the hypotheses were implemented sequentially across English, spelling, and math classes. The interventions were successful in increasing on-task behavior, and the improvements were maintained for the remainder of the school year. PMID:8188564

  10. Quality assessment of stereoscopic 3D image compression by binocular integration behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsun; Wu, Ja-Ling

    2014-04-01

    The objective approaches of 3D image quality assessment play a key role for the development of compression standards and various 3D multimedia applications. The quality assessment of 3D images faces more new challenges, such as asymmetric stereo compression, depth perception, and virtual view synthesis, than its 2D counterparts. In addition, the widely used 2D image quality metrics (e.g., PSNR and SSIM) cannot be directly applied to deal with these newly introduced challenges. This statement can be verified by the low correlation between the computed objective measures and the subjectively measured mean opinion scores (MOSs), when 3D images are the tested targets. In order to meet these newly introduced challenges, in this paper, besides traditional 2D image metrics, the binocular integration behaviors-the binocular combination and the binocular frequency integration, are utilized as the bases for measuring the quality of stereoscopic 3D images. The effectiveness of the proposed metrics is verified by conducting subjective evaluations on publicly available stereoscopic image databases. Experimental results show that significant consistency could be reached between the measured MOS and the proposed metrics, in which the correlation coefficient between them can go up to 0.88. Furthermore, we found that the proposed metrics can also address the quality assessment of the synthesized color-plus-depth 3D images well. Therefore, it is our belief that the binocular integration behaviors are important factors in the development of objective quality assessment for 3D images.

  11. Training School Personnel to Identify Interventions Based on Functional Behavioral Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmeier, Chris; Loman, Sheldon L.; Hara, Motoaki; Rodriguez, Billie Jo

    2015-01-01

    Over 15 years after passage of legislation requiring the use of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to inform the development of positive behavior support plans (BSPs) in special education, schools are still struggling to implement BSPs based on FBA and the function of behavior. A primary concern is that school teams regularly fail to use…

  12. The Effect of Parenting Behaviors on Subsequent Child Behavior Problems in Autistic Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…

  13. The role of warning behaviors in threat assessment: an exploration and suggested typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Meloy, J; Hoffmann, Jens; Guldimann, Angela; James, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of warning behaviors offers an additional perspective in threat assessment. Warning behaviors are acts which constitute evidence of increasing or accelerating risk. They are acute, dynamic, and particularly toxic changes in patterns of behavior which may aid in structuring a professional's judgment that an individual of concern now poses a threat - whether the actual target has been identified or not. They require an operational response. A typology of eight warning behaviors for assessing the threat of intended violence is proposed: pathway, fixation, identification, novel aggression, energy burst, leakage, directly communicated threat, and last resort warning behaviors. Previous research on risk factors associated with such warning behaviors is reviewed, and examples of each warning behavior from various intended violence cases are presented, including public figure assassination, adolescent and adult mass murder, corporate celebrity stalking, and both domestic and foreign acts of terrorism. Practical applications and future research into warning behaviors are suggested. PMID:22556034

  14. Behavioral Treatment and Assessment of Childhood Cross-Gender Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekers, George A.; Lovaas, O. Ivar

    This study demonstrated reinforcement control over pronounced feminine behaviors in a male child. The clinical history of S paralleled the retrospective reports of adult transsexuals, including (a) cross-gender clothing preferences, (b) actual or imaginal use of cosmetic articles, (c) feminine behavior mannerisms, (d) aversion to masculine…

  15. Self-assessed dental health, oral health practices, and general health behaviors in Chinese urban adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin;

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: to describe perceived dental health status and oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in Chinese urban adolescents; to assess the associations of oral health variables with socio-economic status and school performance; and to analyse the relative...... effect of socio-behavioral risk factors on perceived dental health, perceived need for dental care, and experience of dental symptoms. A cross-sectional survey of 2662 adolescents was conducted in eight capital cities in China; the response rate was 92%. The study population was chosen by multistage...... cigarette smoking at least once, while 41% reported having tasted alcohol drinks. Multivariate regression analyses showed that perceived dental health status and needs were associated with gender, age, unhealthy lifestyles, poor school performance, and socio-economic status. The establishment of school...

  16. The effect of learning styles and study behavior on success of preclinical students in pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asci, Halil; Kulac, Esin; Sezik, Mekin; Cankara, F. Nihan; Cicek, Ekrem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of learning styles and study behaviors on preclinical medical students’ pharmacology exam scores in a non-Western setting. Materials and Methods: Grasha–Reichmann Student Learning Study Scale and a modified Study Behavior Inventory were used to assess learning styles and study behaviors of preclinical medical students (n = 87). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effect of gender, age, learning style, and study behavior on pharmacology success. Results: Collaborative (40%) and competitive (27%) dominant learning styles were frequent in the cohort. The most common study behavior subcategories were study reading (40%) and general study habits (38%). Adequate listening and note-taking skills were associated with pharmacology success, whereas students with adequate writing skills had lower exam scores. These effects were independent of gender. Conclusions: Preclinical medical students’ study behaviors are independent predictive factors for short-term pharmacology success. PMID:26997716

  17. Parental Stress and Child Behavior and Temperament in the First Year after the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pal, Sylvia; Maguire, Celeste M.; Le Cessie, Saskia; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.; Bruil, Jeanet

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial involving 128 infants born prematurely compared basic developmental care (nests and incubator covers) and the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) intervention (behavior observations and guidance by a trained developmental specialist) in relation to effects on parental stress and…

  18. Territorial Innovative Potential in Behavioral Assessments of the Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the essential and formalized definition of the potential of the territory is proved; its innovative part in the “subjectprocess-object” approach to its essential content and impact assessment is determined. The system of mechanisms and institutes of building the regional and territorial innovative potential is elaborated, the most productive directions of its using in the interests of spatial socio-economic development are allocated. Problems of high priority and requiring solutions that are able to increase the effectiveness of territory functioning are identified. The mentioned problems found their reflection and possible solutions at the Gaidar International Economic Forum in Moscow (2015 and at the representative XII Krasnoyarsk Economic Forum, as reflected by the analyses of some forum’s speeches presented in the paper. The shift of priorities in innovative global development during the second part of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century is shown. The results of research and practice of utilizing innovative solutions for the development of some collectives and territories, the spatial structure of regions and the Russian Federation as a whole are investigated and generalized in this paper. The development of the territory and its potential depends on different factors, but the growth of knowledge, intellectual resource and involvement of the population into management process by development and realization of different programs and projects plays the increasing role in current conditions. In the article, the positive sides of the business-project as the main mechanism of the program and project implementation with utilizing market institutes of the public-private partnership (PPP are analyzed. The role of collectives and the population in the increase of innovative activity and system territory development is assessed.

  19. Effective Classroom Assessment for Children's Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志红

    2004-01-01

    Formative assessment is a new concept introduced to the English teachers in China by the National English Curriculum (NEC). Its main feature is to provide quick feedback to promote learning and improve teaching, compared with summative assessment. Mostly, formative assessment is implemented during teaching practice. It should be a part of teaching and learning process. So far as it is concerned, teachers play a very important role. They should be able to decide or select what to be assessed and how to assess in classroom teaching. Thus, the focus of this article is to show them the practical ways to reach the goal, i.e. how to implement formative assessment more effectively.

  20. Risk assessment for infectious disease and its impact on voluntary vaccination behavior in social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We model a vaccination game from the standpoint of network reciprocity on 2 × 2 game. • We investigate the impacts of public information for infectious disease. • Effect of risk assessment based on public information depends on network structure. • Use of public information yields positive effect if vaccination cost is small. - Abstract: Achievement of the herd immunity is essential for preventing the periodic spreading of an infectious disease such as the flu. If vaccination is voluntary, as vaccination coverage approaches the critical level required for herd immunity, there is less incentive for individuals to be vaccinated; this results in an increase in the number of so-called “free-riders” who craftily avoid infection via the herd immunity and avoid paying any cost. We use a framework originating in evolutionary game theory to investigate this type of social dilemma with respect to epidemiology and the decision of whether to be vaccinated. For each individual in a population, the decision on vaccination is associated with how one assesses the risk of infection. In this study, we propose a new risk-assessment model in a vaccination game when an individual updates her strategy, she compares her own payoff to a net payoff obtained by averaging a collective payoff over individuals who adopt the same strategy as that of a randomly selected neighbor. In previous studies of vaccination games, when an individual updates her strategy, she typically compares her payoff to the payoff of a randomly selected neighbor, indicating that the risk for changing her strategy is largely based on the behavior of one other individual, i.e., this is an individual-based risk assessment. However, in our proposed model, risk assessment by any individual is based on the collective success of a strategy and not on the behavior of any one other individual. For strategy adaptation, each individual always takes a survey of the degree of success of a certain

  1. The impact of behavioral and mental health risk assessments on goal setting in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Alex H; Glasgow, Russell E; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Sabo, Roy T; Roby, Dylan H; Gorin, Sherri N Sheinfeld; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Estabrooks, Paul A; Ory, Marcia G; Glenn, Beth A; Phillips, Siobhan M; Kessler, Rodger; Johnson, Sallie Beth; Rohweder, Catherine L; Fernandez, Maria E

    2016-06-01

    Patient-centered health risk assessments (HRAs) that screen for unhealthy behaviors, prioritize concerns, and provide feedback may improve counseling, goal setting, and health. To evaluate the effectiveness of routinely administering a patient-centered HRA, My Own Health Report, for diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, drug use, stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep, 18 primary care practices were randomized to ask patients to complete My Own Health Report (MOHR) before an office visit (intervention) or continue usual care (control). Intervention practice patients were more likely than control practice patients to be asked about each of eight risks (range of differences 5.3-15.8 %, p set goals for six risks (range of differences 3.8-16.6 %, p controls, intervention patients felt clinicians cared more for them and showed more interest in their concerns. Patient-centered health risk assessments improve screening and goal setting.Trial RegistrationClinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01825746.

  2. Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldsen, David R; Eno, Cassie A; Okdie, Bradley M; Velez, John A; Guadagno, Rosanna E; DeCoster, Jamie

    2012-05-01

    Research on video games has yielded consistent findings that violent video games increase aggression and decrease prosocial behavior. However, these studies typically examined single-player games. Of interest is the effect of cooperative play in a violent video game on subsequent cooperative or competitive behavior. Participants played Halo II (a first-person shooter game) cooperatively or competitively and then completed a modified prisoner's dilemma task to assess competitive and cooperative behavior. Compared with the competitive play conditions, players in the cooperative condition engaged in more tit-for-tat behaviors-a pattern of behavior that typically precedes cooperative behavior. The social context of game play influenced subsequent behavior more than the content of the game that was played. PMID:22489544

  3. Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldsen, David R; Eno, Cassie A; Okdie, Bradley M; Velez, John A; Guadagno, Rosanna E; DeCoster, Jamie

    2012-05-01

    Research on video games has yielded consistent findings that violent video games increase aggression and decrease prosocial behavior. However, these studies typically examined single-player games. Of interest is the effect of cooperative play in a violent video game on subsequent cooperative or competitive behavior. Participants played Halo II (a first-person shooter game) cooperatively or competitively and then completed a modified prisoner's dilemma task to assess competitive and cooperative behavior. Compared with the competitive play conditions, players in the cooperative condition engaged in more tit-for-tat behaviors-a pattern of behavior that typically precedes cooperative behavior. The social context of game play influenced subsequent behavior more than the content of the game that was played.

  4. Effects of Prosocial, Neutral, and Violent Video Games on Children's Helpful and Hurtful Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muniba; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-01-01

    Recent research reveals that playing prosocial video games increases prosocial cognitions, positive affect, and helpful behaviors [Gentile et al., 2009; Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2009, 2010, 2011]. These results are consistent with the social-cognitive models of social behavior such as the general learning model [Buckley and Anderson, 2006]. However, no experimental studies have examined such effects on children. Previous research on violent video games suggests that short-term effects of video games are largely based on priming of existing behavioral scripts. Thus, it is unclear whether younger children will show similar effects. This research had 9-14 years olds play a prosocial, neutral, or violent video game, and assessed helpful and hurtful behaviors simultaneously through a new tangram measure. Prosocial games increased helpful and decreased hurtful behavior, whereas violent games had the opposite effects.

  5. Effects of Prosocial, Neutral, and Violent Video Games on Children's Helpful and Hurtful Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muniba; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-01-01

    Recent research reveals that playing prosocial video games increases prosocial cognitions, positive affect, and helpful behaviors [Gentile et al., 2009; Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2009, 2010, 2011]. These results are consistent with the social-cognitive models of social behavior such as the general learning model [Buckley and Anderson, 2006]. However, no experimental studies have examined such effects on children. Previous research on violent video games suggests that short-term effects of video games are largely based on priming of existing behavioral scripts. Thus, it is unclear whether younger children will show similar effects. This research had 9-14 years olds play a prosocial, neutral, or violent video game, and assessed helpful and hurtful behaviors simultaneously through a new tangram measure. Prosocial games increased helpful and decreased hurtful behavior, whereas violent games had the opposite effects. PMID:25363697

  6. The effects of token reinforcement on the behavior of delinquents in cottage settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T R; Holt, M

    1976-01-01

    A token economy designed to modify the behavior of 125 adolescent males committed to a state correctional institution was implemented in the boys' cottages, focusing on social behavior (peer interaction), rule following, and task completion. The program was sequentially introduced in a multiple-baseline design in three independent cottages; a fourth group served as a comparison cottage. Appropriate behavior increased when the token program was introduced in each cottage. Data were collected for 14 months. Thus, the long-term effects of initial behavior change were assessed.

  7. Assessment of behaviors modeling aspects of schizophrenia in Csmd1 mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret G Distler

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychotic disorder that affects up to 1.5% of the population worldwide. Two recent studies in humans identified genome-wide significant associations between schizophrenia and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in an intron of CSMD1. The effect of deleting CSMD1 on mouse behavior is unknown. The present study utilized mice with a mutant Csmd1 allele in which the first exon had been ablated (KO mice. All Csmd1 transcripts that included the first exon were absent in the brains of KO mice, but there was persistent expression of at least one other transcript that does not include the first exon. Wild type (WT, heterozygous (HET, and KO mice were assessed using several well-established behavioral paradigms that model aspects of schizophrenia. Csmd1 KO mice did not differ from wild-type littermates for sensorimotor gating (measured as prepulse inhibition, social interaction, anhedonia (measured by sucrose preference, or sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of the dopaminergic agent d-amphetamine. These data demonstrate that loss of Csmd1 transcripts that include the first exon does not alter multiple well-established behaviors that model aspects of schizophrenia. The SNP most strongly associated with schizophrenia in humans is between exons 3 and 4; therefore, ablation of exon 1 appeared to be a logical animal model. Nevertheless, future studies should consider alternative mouse models including gain-of-function mutations, and loss-of-function mutations that target alternative transcripts of Csmd1.

  8. Effects of Certain Counselor Behaviors on Perceived Expertness and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Azy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined effects and relative contribution of three counselor behaviors (nonverbal behavior, jargon, and attire) on perceived expertise and attractiveness. Results revealed that all three independent variables significantly affected the two rated dimensions. Nonverbal behavior accounted for most of the variance and differentially affected ratings…

  9. Exploring the Behavior of Highly Effective CIOs Using Video Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Komal; Wilderom, Celeste; Hillegersberg, van, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Although recently several studies have addressed the required skills of effective CIOs, little is known of the actual behavior successful CIOs. In this study, we explore the behavior of highly effective CIOs by video-recording CIOs at work. The two CIOs videotaped were nominated as CIO of the year. We analyze the data in an innovative and systematic way by developing and using a behavioral leadership coding scheme. The analysis indicates that highly effective CIOs are good listeners. They als...

  10. The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior of children using stronger statistical controls than earlier literature in this area; to examine whether the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior is nonlinear; and to investigate whether the effects of corporal punishment on antisocial…

  11. Assessing open-system behavior of 14C in terrestrial gastropod shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, J.A.; Pigati, J.S.; Lehmann, S.B.; McGimpsey, C.N.; Grimley, D.A.; Nekola, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to assess open-system behavior of radiocarbon in fossil gastropod shells, we measured the 14C activity on 10 aliquots of shell material recovered from Illinoian (~190-130 ka) and pre-Illinoian (~800 ka) loess and lacustrine deposits in the Midwestern USA. Eight of the 10 aliquots yielded measurable 14C activities that ranged from 0.25 to 0.53 percent modern carbon (pMC), corresponding to apparent 14C ages between 48.2 and 42.1 ka. This small level of open-system behavior is common in many materials that are used for 14C dating (e.g. charcoal), and typically sets the upper practical limit of the technique. Two aliquots of gastropod shells from the Illinoian-aged Petersburg Silt (Petersburg Section) in central Illinois, USA, however, yielded elevated 14C activities of 1.26 and 1.71 pMC, which correspond to apparent 14C ages of 35.1 and 32.7 ka. Together, these results suggest that while many fossil gastropods shells may not suffer from major (>1%) open-system problems, this is not always the case. We then examined the mineralogy, trace element chemistry, and physical characteristics of a suite of fossil and modern gastropod shells to identify the source of contamination in the Petersburg shells and assess the effectiveness of these screening techniques at identifying samples suitable for 14C dating. Mineralogical (XRD) and trace element analyses were inconclusive, which suggests that these techniques are not suitable for assessing open-system behavior in terrestrial gastropod shells. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), however, identified secondary mineralization (calcium carbonate) primarily within the inner whorls of the Petersburg shells. This indicates that SEM examination, or possibly standard microscope examination, of the interior of gastropod shells should be used when selecting fossil gastropod shells for 14C dating. ?? 2011 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  12. Treatment Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions for Children: An Assessment by Mothers of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Melanie L.; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Adams, Christina D.; Boggs, Stephen R.

    1998-01-01

    Study assesses the acceptability of six child-management interventions as rated by mothers (N=20) of children referred for treatment for a disruptive-behavior disorder. Positive reinforcement was rated as a more acceptable treatment than response time, time-out, differential attention, overcorrection, and spanking. Results validate findings of…

  13. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  14. Assessing grooming behavior of Russian honey bees toward Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grooming behavior of Russian bees was compared to Italian bees. Overall, Russian bees had significantly lower numbers of mites than the Italian bees with a mean of 1,937 ± 366 and 5,088 ± 733 mites, respectively. This low mite population in the Russian colonies was probably due to the increased ...

  15. Postpartum Behavioral Profiles in Wistar Rats Following Maternal Separation – Altered Exploration and Risk-Assessment Behavior in MS15 Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoura, Loudin; Hjalmarsson, My; Oreland, Sadia; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The rodent maternal separation (MS) model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15) and prolonged (360 min; MS360) periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24–25, i.e., just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis. PMID:20617189

  16. Assessment of Substance Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents’: Integration of Self-Control into Extended Parallel Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Witte

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An effective preventive health education program on drug abuse can be delivered by applying behavior change theories in a complementary fashion. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating self-control into Extended Parallel Process Model in drug substance abuse behaviors. A sample of 189 governmental high school students participated in this survey. Information was collected individually by completing researcher designed questionnaire and a urinary rapid immuno-chromatography test for opium and marijuana. Results: The results of the study show that 6.9% of students used drugs (especially opium and marijuana and also peer pressure was determinant factor for using drugs. Moreover the EPPM theoretical variables of perceived severity and perceived self-efficacy with self-control are predictive factors to behavior intention against substance abuse. In this manner, self-control had a significant effect on protective motivation and perceived efficacy. Low self- control was a predictive factor of drug abuse and low self-control students had drug abuse experience. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an integration of self-control into EPPM can be effective in expressing and designing primary preventive programs against drug abuse, and assessing abused behavior and deviance behaviors among adolescent population, especially risk seekers

  17. 利用斑马鱼成鱼建立致幻类化合物行为评价模型%Adult zebrafish as a model organism for assessing the effects of hallucinogenic drugs on behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜慧; 苏瑞斌; 宫泽辉

    2014-01-01

    Aims To establish several behavioral paradigms to characterize the psychotropic effects of hallucinogens which ze-brafish was utilized as a model animal, and then to investigate the effects of potent hallucinogenic drugs on these models. Methods With the video record and track system, the behavior was recorded and quantified automatically. In the experiments, the bottom dwelling test, social behavior and mirror test were performed to test the hallucinogenic effects of drugs. Metham-phetamine (METH, 2 mg·L-1) and ketamine (20 mg·L-1) were selected as experimental challenges. The 30 min pre-treat-ment time was chosen based on our prior experience in zebrafish models. Results Compared to the normal group, in dwelling test, acute exposure of zebrafish to METH and ketamine de-creased transitions significantly, and in mirror reflection test, the drug-treated fish changed the preference for mirror zone, and ex-hibited aggressive for their mirror images. The pretreatment of METH and ketamine significantly reduced the contact durations, and the ketamine inhibited the contact frequency each other, the results indicated that the social interaction of zebrafish was im-paired. Conclusion The results confirm high sensitivity of ze-brafish models to hallucinogenic compounds with complex behav-ioral and physiological effects.%目的:利用斑马鱼这一新型模式动物,建立致幻类化合物成鱼行为测试模型,并考察模型有效性。方法利用斑马鱼行为视频跟踪分析系统自动记录动物行为参数,以栖底性、镜像反射及社会交互行为作为评测指标,采用甲基苯丙胺浓度2 mg·L-1、氯胺酮浓度20 mg·L-1,分别急性暴露30 min后进行行为测试。结果与正常组相比,在成鱼自发活动方面,甲基苯丙胺与氯胺酮急性暴露对斑马鱼的运动距离无明显影响,而使垂直方向的穿越次数明显下降;在镜像反射方面,给予不同化合物均使斑马鱼在中央区的停留时间明显增

  18. Assessment of the effects of massage therapy on premenstrual syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Leily Ghaedi; Maryam Moradi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Premenstrual syndrome is characterized by the cyclic occurrence physical, psychological and behavioral symptoms during the luteal phase of the menstruation cycle and will be disappear within a few days of the onset of menstruation. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of massage therapy on premenstrual syndrome. Materials and Method: A randomized clinical trial was carried out on 30 volunteer students of Tehran University with PMS diagnosis. After surveying two menstr...

  19. [Effects of environmental change and others' behavior on cooperative behavior and solution preference in social dilemma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined how environmental change and others' behavior affected cooperative behavior and solution preference of the person in social dilemma situation. Participants in two experiments played an "environment game," in which gradual pollution in environment and reduction in profit rate were simulated. Information on behavior of other players was manipulated: in "free rider" condition, one person was an extreme free rider, and the others were cooperative; in "loafing" condition, everyone loafed. In both experiments, "Bad Apple Effect" was not observed clearly, and cooperative behavior increased as environmental pollution worsened. In Experiment 2, there was no main effect of others' behavior on solution preference. However, significant correlations were found among solution preference, motivation to control others' behavior, and perceived seriousness of the situation, only when an extreme free rider was among them. PMID:11883324

  20. The predictive validity of common risk assessment tools in men with intellectual disabilities and problematic sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, J Paul; Richards, Deborah; Ranger, Rebekah; Curry, Susan

    2016-10-01

    This CIHR-funded study examined whether certain current risk assessment tools were effective in appraising risk of recidivism in a sample of sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID). Fifty men with ID who had engaged in problematic sexual behavior (PSB) were followed for an average of 2.5 years. Recidivism was defined and measured as any illegal or problematic behavior, as well as any problematic but not necessarily illegal behavior. At the beginning of the study, each participant was rated on two risk assessment tools: the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG). During each month of follow-up, participants were also rated on the Short-Dynamic Risk Scale (SDRS), an assessment tool intended to measure the risk of future problematic behaviors. Data was analyzed using t-tests, Cohen's d and area under the curve (AUC) to test predictive validity of the assessment tools. Using the AUC, results showed that the VRAG was predictive of sexual (AUC=0.74), sexual and/or violent (AUC=0.71) and of any criminally chargeable event (AUC=0.69). The SORAG was only significantly predictive of sexual events (AUC=0.70) and the SDRS was predictive of violent events (AUC=0.71). The t-test and Cohen's d analyses, which are less robust to deviations from the assumptions of normal and continuous distribution than AUC, did not yield significant results in each category, and therefore, while the results of this study suggest that the VRAG and the SORAG may be effective tools in measuring the short term risk of sexual recidivism; and the VRAG and SDRS may be effective tools in appraising long term risk of sexual and/or violent recidivism in this population, it should be used with caution. Regardless of the assessment tool used, risk assessments should take into account the differences between sex offenders with and without ID to ensure effective measurement. PMID:27372881

  1. Effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    Previous research has documented that playing violent video games has various negative effects on social behavior in that it causes an increase in aggressive behavior and a decrease in prosocial behavior. In contrast, there has been much less evidence on the effects of prosocial video games. In the present research, 4 experiments examined the hypothesis that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increases helping behavior. In fact, participants who had played a prosocial video game were more likely to help after a mishap, were more willing (and devoted more time) to assist in further experiments, and intervened more often in a harassment situation. Results further showed that exposure to prosocial video games activated the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, which in turn promoted prosocial behavior. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games not only has negative effects on social behavior but has positive effects as well.

  2. Occurrence, behavior and effects of nanoparticles in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Bernd; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2007-11-01

    The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) in industrial and household applications will very likely lead to the release of such materials into the environment. Assessing the risks of these NP in the environment requires an understanding of their mobility, reactivity, ecotoxicity and persistency. This review presents an overview of the classes of NP relevant to the environment and summarizes their formation, emission, occurrence and fate in the environment. The engineered NP are thereby compared to natural products such as soot and organic colloids. To date only few quantitative analytical techniques for measuring NP in natural systems are available, which results in a serious lack of information about their occurrence in the environment. Results from ecotoxicological studies show that certain NP have effects on organisms under environmental conditions, though mostly at elevated concentrations. The next step towards an assessment of the risks of NP in the environment should therefore be to estimate the exposure to the different NP. It is also important to notice that most NP in technical applications are functionalized and therefore studies using pristine NP may not be relevant for assessing the behavior of the NP actually used. PMID:17658673

  3. Recent developments in assessment of long-term radionuclide behavior in the geosphere-biosphere subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G M; Smith, K L; Kowe, R; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Thorne, M; Thiry, Y; Read, D; Molinero, J

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on permitting, controlling and monitoring releases of radioactivity into the environment rely on a great variety of factors. Important among these is the prospective assessment of radionuclide behavior in the environment, including migration and accumulation among and within specific environmental media, and the resulting environmental and human health impacts. Models and techniques to undertake such assessments have been developed over several decades based on knowledge of the ecosystems involved, as well as monitoring of previous radionuclide releases to the environment, laboratory experiments and other related research. This paper presents developments in the assessment of radiation doses and related research for some of the key radionuclides identified as of potential significance in the context of releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities for solid radioactive waste. Since releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities involve transfers from the geosphere to the biosphere, an important aspect is the combined effects of surface hydrology, near-surface hydrogeology and chemical gradients on speciation and radionuclide mobility in the zone in which the geosphere and biosphere overlap (herein described as the geosphere-biosphere subsystem). In turn, these aspects of the environment can be modified as a result of environmental change over the thousands of years that have to be considered in radioactive waste disposal safety assessments. Building on the experience from improved understanding of the behavior of the key radionuclides, this paper proceeds to describe development of a generic methodology for representing the processes and environmental changes that are characteristic of the interface between the geosphere and the biosphere. The information that is provided and the methodology that is described are based on international collaborative work implemented through the BIOPROTA forum, www.bioprota.org.

  4. Assessing parental risk in parenting plan (child custody) evaluation cases involving internet sexual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Philip H.; Merdian, Hannah Lena; Connell, Mary; Douglas P. Boer

    2010-01-01

    One type of claim in parenting assessment (child custody)1 cases is that one parent, typically the father, is alleged to be engaging in improper or compulsive sexual behavior via the Internet. The sexual behavior at issue can range from frequent sexually explicit chats with other adults to compulsive viewing of adult pornography. In more extreme cases, the problematic behavior may involve viewing child pornography, and in some cases the parent faces actual criminal charges in this regard. The...

  5. Assessing base rates of sexual behavior using the unmatched count technique

    OpenAIRE

    Starosta, Amy J.; Earleywine, Mitch

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the prevalence of sexual behaviors is difficult because of self-report biases. This is particularly relevant in assessing high-risk sexual behaviors for the purpose of reducing the transmission and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS. The present study employed the unmatched count technique (UCT), which provides estimates of the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors without requiring participants to confess to socially undesirable or stigmatized behavi...

  6. Behavioral assessment of language brain processing in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetta, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    An up-to-date review of the behavioral assessments of language development in the first year of life is reported. After recalling the anatomical bases of the early development of the auditory system, the different stages of language development during the first year of life are considered: discrimination, transition and perception. The different kinds of behavioral assessment during the course of the first year are then described by stressing their indications and limitations.

  7. Assessment of Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Early Adult Depression

    OpenAIRE

    KOSTERMAN, RICK; HAWKINS, J. DAVID; Mason, W. Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Behavior and psychological problems assessed prospectively by teachers and parents and by youths’ self-reports through late childhood and adolescence were examined as possible predictors of early adult depression. Data were from 765 participants in the Seattle Social Development Project, a multiethnic and gender-balanced urban sample. Analyses examined 7 waves of data from ages 10 to 21, and included measures from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and assessments of past-year depressive ...

  8. Assessment and Treatment of Aggressive Behavior without a Clear Social Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringdahl, Joel E.; Call, Nathan A.; Mews, Jayme B.; Boelter, Eric W.; Christensen, Tory J.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of two individuals' aggressive behavior. Results of each of the initial functional analyses were inconclusive with respect to the role of social reinforcers in the maintenance of the behavior. Further assessment was conducted to clarify the role of social reinforcers. One individual's results suggested social…

  9. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  10. Emotional and Behavioral Profile Assessment Using the BASC-2 with Korean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myunghee Ahn, Christine; Ebesutani, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Korean middle school students are experiencing high rates of behavioral and emotional problems, suggesting a need for comprehensive screening instruments with strong psychometric properties in school settings. The present study investigated the utility of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 Self-Report of Personality, Adolescent Form…

  11. Behavioral Assessment of Gambling: An Application of the Timeline Followback Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.

    2004-01-01

    The Gambling Timeline Followback (G-TLFB), a measure of gambling behavior that uses the timeline followback methodology, was psychometrically evaluated with samples of frequent-gambling young adults. Seven dimensions of gambling behavior were assessed: type, frequency, duration, intent, risk, win-loss, and consumption of alcohol while gambling.…

  12. Assessment of Prosocial-Altruistic Behavior of Members and Non-Members of the Scout Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Olivares, Rosario; Pino, M. Jose; Herruzo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences in prosocial altruistic behavior between children and young students who belong to the scout movement and those who do not belong to this or any other similar movement. The prosocial altruistic behavior has been assessed with questionnaires for the school: self-evaluation, teacher, classmate,…

  13. Assessing Treatment Acceptability with Consumers of Outpatient Child Behavior Management Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Parents' and grandparents' ratings of alternative treatments for children with behavior disorders were assessed. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), time-out, response cost, spanking, and medication were applied to noncompliance, aggression, tantrums, and hyperactivity. DRO, response cost, and time-out were found significantly more…

  14. Recalled Behavior and Ease of Recall as Information in Self-Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Norbert; And Others

    In studies examining the influence of recall on judgments, social psychologists have generally concentrated on the content of recalled material rather than on the process of recall. To investigate the impact of recalled behaviors (content) and the ease with which these behaviors came to mind (process) on assessment of one's own assertiveness, 158…

  15. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  16. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  17. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    OpenAIRE

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit; Bond, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systemat...

  18. Assessment of Turkish junior male physicians’ exposure to mobbing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Bayram; Cetin, Mehmet; Cimen, Mesut; Yildiran, Nuri

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine the extent of Turkish junior male physicians’ exposure to mobbing behavior and its correlation with physicians' characteristics. Methods The study included physicians recruited for compulsory military service in April 2009. No sampling method was used, questionnaires were delivered to all physicians, and 278 of 292 (95%) questionnaires were returned. We used Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror including 45 items for data collection and structural equation model for data...

  19. Assessment of Turkish junior male physicians’ exposure to mobbing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Bayram; Cetin, Mehmet; Cimen, Mesut

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine the extent of Turkish junior male physicians’ exposure to mobbing behavior and its correlation with physicians’ characteristics. Methods The study included physicians recruited for compulsory military service in April 2009. No sampling method was used, questionnaires were delivered to all physicians, and 278 of 292 (95%) questionnaires were returned. We used Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror including 45 items for data collection and structural...

  20. Neuroimaging supports behavioral personality assessment: Overlapping activations during reflective and impulsive risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; M Ortner, Tuulia

    2016-09-01

    Personality assessment has been challenged by the fact that different assessment methods (implicit measures, behavioral measures and explicit rating scales) show little or no convergence in behavioral studies. In this neuroimaging study we address for the first time, whether different assessment methods rely on separate or overlapping neuronal systems. Fifty nine healthy adult participants completed two objective personality tests of risk propensity: the more implicit Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the more explicit Game of Dice Task (GDT). Significant differences in activation, as well as connectivity patterns between both tasks were observed. In both tasks, risky decisions yielded significantly stronger activations than safe decisions in the bilateral caudate, as well as the bilateral Insula. The finding of overlapping brain areas validates different assessment methods, despite their behavioral non-convergence. This suggests that neuroimaging can be an important tool of validation in the field of personality assessment. PMID:27373370

  1. Neuroimaging supports behavioral personality assessment: Overlapping activations during reflective and impulsive risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; M Ortner, Tuulia

    2016-09-01

    Personality assessment has been challenged by the fact that different assessment methods (implicit measures, behavioral measures and explicit rating scales) show little or no convergence in behavioral studies. In this neuroimaging study we address for the first time, whether different assessment methods rely on separate or overlapping neuronal systems. Fifty nine healthy adult participants completed two objective personality tests of risk propensity: the more implicit Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the more explicit Game of Dice Task (GDT). Significant differences in activation, as well as connectivity patterns between both tasks were observed. In both tasks, risky decisions yielded significantly stronger activations than safe decisions in the bilateral caudate, as well as the bilateral Insula. The finding of overlapping brain areas validates different assessment methods, despite their behavioral non-convergence. This suggests that neuroimaging can be an important tool of validation in the field of personality assessment.

  2. Exploring the Behavior of Highly Effective CIOs Using Video Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Komal; Wilderom, Celeste; Hillegersberg, van Jos

    2009-01-01

    Although recently several studies have addressed the required skills of effective CIOs, little is known of the actual behavior successful CIOs. In this study, we explore the behavior of highly effective CIOs by video-recording CIOs at work. The two CIOs videotaped were nominated as CIO of the year.

  3. Behavioral and biochemical effects of pharmacopuncture (ST 36 and ST 25) in obese rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pontes, Mariana Chiste; Heck, Lilian Cardoso; Coelho, Janice Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Acupuncture has been reported as a weight loss treatment for obese patients. The use of pharmacopuncture focusing on behavioral analyses has not yet been studied with the objective of treating obesity. Thus, this study aimed to assess the biochemical and behavioral effects of using pharmacopuncture techniques in obese Wistar rats. Methods The treatments consisted in applying pharmacopuncture at the Zusanli (ST 36) and Tianshu (ST 25) points. Results When treated with pharmacopunctu...

  4. Metabolic and behavioral effects of ractopamine at continuous low levels in rats under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Edna Lopes; Raimundo Vicente de Sousa; Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo; Andressa Naira de Jesus Pereira; Mariana de Resende Coelho; Matheus Soares da Silva Ferreira; Renato Ribeiro de Lima; Fernanda Klein Marcondes; Marcelo Henrique Napimoga; Luciano José Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of ractopamine (RAC) on metabolism, zootechnical performance, body composition, and behavior in Wistar rats submitted to acute and chronic restrain stress. The oral dose of 5 mg/kg of RAC was administered in periods of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The elevated plus-maze test (EPMT) was used for behavioral assessment. Blood, carcass and viscera characteristics were evaluated. Insulin-dependent glucose transporters (GLUT-4) were semi-quantified by Western...

  5. Teacher Perceptions of Level System Effectiveness on the Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Daniel T.; Smith, Stephen W.; Brownell, Mary T.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 172 teachers of students with emotional/behavioral disorders found that 71% reported they currently use level systems for behavioral management. Analysis notes similarities and differences between level system users and nonusers, characteristics common to level systems, and inconsistencies in perceptions of effectiveness and…

  6. The Effectiveness of Two Universal Behavioral Supports for Children with Externalizing Behavior in Head Start Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandra Covington; Lewis, Timothy J.; Stormont, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    To add to the emerging early intervention research on universal supports for children, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to increase teachers' use of two universal behavioral supports on target children's behavior. The children targeted for this study were at elevated risk for problem…

  7. Effectiveness of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment on the Social Behaviors of Children with Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Volker, Martin A.; Nida, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The current study presents preliminary data from an ongoing research project evaluating a summer treatment program for children with Asperger disorder (AD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program on the social behaviors of 6- to 13-year-old children with AD. Overall program…

  8. Behavioral treatment of pulsatile tinnitus and headache following traumatic head injury. Objective polygraphic assessment of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, M T; Martin, J B

    1998-10-01

    Pulsatile tinnitus is a disorder that can be extremely disabling. Nonetheless, it has not been well-researched in the fields of psychology or behavioral therapy. This article describes the evaluation and behavioral treatment of a gentleman with pulsatile tinnitus. The evaluation included polygraphic assessment of vasomotor and electromyographic function both before and after treatment. The results show that the combination of lifestyle modifications and specific behavioral interventions were successful in modifying not only self-report indices of functioning, but also the underlying physiology related to the disorder. The potential role of the various treatment components and the value of including polygraphic assessment for informing treatment and evaluating outcome are discussed.

  9. Evaluating Curriculum-Based Measurement from a Behavioral Assessment Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoin, Scott P.; Roof, Claire M.; Klubnick, Cynthia; Carfolite, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement Reading (CBM-R) is an assessment procedure used to evaluate students' relative performance compared to peers and to evaluate their growth in reading. Within the response to intervention (RtI) model, CBM-R data are plotted in time series fashion as a means modeling individual students' response to varying levels of…

  10. A Behavioral Economic Approach to Assessing Demand for Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, R. Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C.; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) complet...

  11. Assessment of Turkish junior male physicians’ exposure to mobbing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bayram; Cetin, Mehmet; Cimen, Mesut; Yildiran, Nuri

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine the extent of Turkish junior male physicians’ exposure to mobbing behavior and its correlation with physicians' characteristics. Methods The study included physicians recruited for compulsory military service in April 2009. No sampling method was used, questionnaires were delivered to all physicians, and 278 of 292 (95%) questionnaires were returned. We used Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror including 45 items for data collection and structural equation model for data analysis. Results A total of 87.7% of physicians experienced mobbing behavior. Physicians who worked more than 40 hours a week, single physicians, physicians working in university hospitals and private hospitals, and physicians who did not have occupational commitment were more exposed to mobbing (P Mobbing was not associated with specialty status, service period, age, and personality variables (P > 0.05). All goodness-of- fit indices of the model were acceptable (χ2 = 1.449, normed fit index = 0.955, Tucker Lewis index = 0.980, comparative fit index = 0.985, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.040). Conclusions Workplace mobbing is a critical problem for junior male physicians in Turkey. We suggest an introduction of a reporting system and education activities for physicians in high-risk groups. PMID:22911529

  12. Effects of a stepwise multidisciplinary intervention for challenging behavior in advanced dementia: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, M.J.C.; Francke, A.L.; Steen, J.T. van der; Scherder, E.J.A.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Kovach, C.R.; Achterberg, W.P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether implementation of a stepwise multicomponent intervention (STA OP!) is effective in reducing challenging behavior and depression in nursing home residents with advanced dementia. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting: Twenty-one clusters (single independe

  13. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  14. The Relationship between Functional Assessment and Treatment Selection for Aggressive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hile, Matthew G.; Desrochers, Marcie N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on functional assessment in the behavioral treatment of aggression in persons with mental retardation or developmental delays. Increased use of functional assessment and skill training is noted but no concomitant decrease in the use of intrusive procedures. (Author/DB)

  15. Integrative Consensus: A Systematic Approach to Integrating Comprehensive Assessment Data for Young Children with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shernoff, Elisa S.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive assessments that include parents and teachers are essential when assessing young children vulnerable to emotional and behavioral problems given the multiple systems and contexts that influence and support optimal development (U. Bronfenbrenner & P. A. Morris, 2006; M. J. Guralnick, 2011). However, more data complicate clinical…

  16. The exploratory behavior scale: assessing young visitors hands-on behavior in science museums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.P. van Schijndel; R.K. Franse; M.E.J. Raijmakers

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Exploratory Behavior Scale (EBS), a quantitative measure of young children's interactivity. More specifically, the EBS is developed from the psychological literature on exploration and play and measures the extent to which preschoolers explore their physical environme

  17. Ionizing radiation: effects upon acquisition and performance of behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study, using rats as subjects, attempted to assess the effects of multiple exposures to gamma radiation upon behavior in two procedures of a multiple schedule of repeated acquisition and performance. With an experimental chamber containing three levers displaced horizontally, left (l), center (c) and right (r), different levels of complexity were programmed for procedures A and B. In both procedures a new sequence of three responses was programmed for each session (lcr, lrc, clr, crl, rlc) for the acquisition component, whereas for the performance component the same sequence was maintained throughout the sessions. The completion of three sequences (nine responses) was followed by reinforcement and incorrect responses were followed by time-out without correction procedures. In procedure A the sequences consisted of one response in each lever (for example, crl→crl→crl→reinforcement) while in procedure B a sequence consisted of three response in the same lever, with the following three responses having to occur in a different lever (for example, ccc→rrr→lll→reinforcement). Six subjects were trained in each procedure. Base line data showed, by means of error percentage, that procedure B regardless of being more complex represented a lower difficulty level than procedure A: subjects in procedure B displayed, in general, a lower number of errors per session. After training in these procedures of repeated acquisition and performance, the subjects were exposed to doses of ionizing radiation of 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.0 Gy, with an interval of 45 days between exposures. With measurements of response rate and obtained reinforcers, the data showed a dose-response relation, with higher doses producing lower rates of responses and reinforcers. Percentage of errors was higher after doses of 6.0 and 8.0 Gy in the performance component, while changes in error patterns occurred in the acquisition component. The effects of radiation was more evident and orderly

  18. Report of the Task Group on Behavioral Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of the Task Group on Behavioral Effects is to examine effects on the mental health of the public and the workers directly involved in the accident at TMI-2. Of particular interest are the behavioral response of the workers under stress during the accident, and the behavioral response of the population under stress during the accident. In examining effects on mental health, a distinction is to be made between short term and long term effects. Attention is also to be paid to the possible impact [on] the affected populations and workers of a variety of studies either under way or planned

  19. The effect of unethical behavior on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Faezeh Rezazadeh Baei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the components of ethical behavior and their impacts on life insurance companies in province of Mazandaran, Iran. There were 367 insurance representatives and the study selects a sample of 187 ones based on Cochran formula and 2 questionnaires were distributed among them. The first questionnaire, unethical behavior, includes 8 items including Bribery, Cheating, Deception, Interact with colleagues, Act as social behavior, Uncommitted to firm and Irresponsibility. In addition, the questionnaire of brand equity contains three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined that the effects of cheating and deception on unethical behaviors were not confirmed but the effects of other factors, bribery, interact with colleagues, act as social behavior, uncommitted to firm and irresponsibility on unethical behavior were confirmed. In addition, three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty had positive relationship with brand equity.

  20. Behavioral Assessment of the Aging Mouse Vestibular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Victoria W. K.; Burton, Thomas J.; Dababneh, Edward; Quail, Stephanie L.; Camp, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    Age related decline in balance performance is associated with deteriorating muscle strength, motor coordination and vestibular function. While a number of studies show changes in balance phenotype with age in rodents, very few isolate the vestibular contribution to balance under either normal conditions or during senescence. We use two standard behavioral tests to characterize the balance performance of mice at defined age points over the lifespan: the rotarod test and the inclined balance beam test. Importantly though, a custom built rotator is also used to stimulate the vestibular system of mice (without inducing overt signs of motion sickness). These two tests have been used to show that changes in vestibular mediated-balance performance are present over the murine lifespan. Preliminary results show that both the rotarod test and the modified balance beam test can be used to identify changes in balance performance during aging as an alternative to more difficult and invasive techniques such as vestibulo-ocular (VOR) measurements. PMID:25045963

  1. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Boyle

    Full Text Available Captive African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants' behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans. There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants

  2. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah A; Roberts, Beth; Pope, Brittany M; Blake, Margaret R; Leavelle, Stephen E; Marshall, Jennifer J; Smith, Andrew; Hadicke, Amanda; Falcone, Josephine F; Knott, Katrina; Kouba, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Captive African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal) and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol) responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants' behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position) were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans) compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans). There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants. Cortisol

  3. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Masashi Hayakawa

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behavior before earthquakes. Abstract The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to characterize the unusual animal behavior; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence hist...

  4. The retention behavior of ginsenosides in HPLC and its application to quality assessment of Radix Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Luo, Guo-An; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Wang, Wan; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2009-05-01

    This study systematically investigated the retention behavior of seven neutral ginsenosides Rg(1), Re, Rf, Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, Rd, and an acidic ginsenoside R(0), the major pharmacologically active components of Radix Ginseng with RP-HPLC. The effects of solvent, pH value, ionic strength of the mobile phase, and column temperature were investigated using an octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica gel column. Based on the ginsenosides' retention characteristics, the concentration of acetonitrile and the gradient of the mobile phase needed to maintain the baseline separation of the major neutral ginsenosides in Radix Ginseng were theoretically predicted. Furthermore, the ionic strength of mobile-phase necessary to achieve good resolution of the neutral ginsenosides and acidic ginsenosides was carefully investigated. According to the results of the quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in eight batches of ginseng samples from different sources, the developed HPLC technique may be a valuable tool for the quality assessment of Radix Ginseng. PMID:19471880

  5. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed.

  6. Direct assessment of tensile stress-crack opening behavior of Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.

    2012-01-01

    -deformation behavior of these materials is therefore of great importance and is frequently carried out by characterizing the material tensile stress–strain behavior. In this paper an alternative approach to evaluate the tensile performance of SHCC is investigated. The behavior of the material in tension is studied at......The process of designing Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC) is driven by the need to achieve certain performance parameters in tension. These are typically the pseudo-strain hardening behavior and the ability to develop multiple cracks. The assessment of the tensile load...... the level of a single crack. The derived tensile stress-crack opening behavior is utilized to analyze and compare the influence of various composite parameters on the resulting tensile behavior. The deformations occurring during tensile loading are furthermore examined using a digital image...

  7. The independent effects of personality and situations on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ryne A; Rauthmann, John F; Brown, Nicolas A; Serfass, David G; Jones, Ashley Bell

    2015-11-01

    The joint influence of persons and situations on behavior has long been posited by personality and social psychological theory (Funder, 2006; Lewin, 1951). However, a lack of tools for real-time behavioral and situation assessment has left direct investigations of this sort immobilized. This study combines recent advances in situation assessment and experience sampling methodology to examine the simultaneous effects of personality traits and situation characteristics on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion in N = 210 participants. The results support an additive model such that both personality traits and situation characteristics independently predict real-time expressions of behavior and emotion. These results have implications for several prominent theoretical perspectives in personality, including both trait and cognitive theories.

  8. Effects of parent training on salivary cortisol in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Motamedi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Since adulthood antisocial, aggressive and delinquent behaviors often have their onset early in life, investigating the association between biological factors and disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents are important and are emphasized on in the recent years. Baseline cortisol level seems to be a valuable biological marker of individuals with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD. This study examined the effect of parent training on salivary cortisol levels of children with DBD.
    • METHODS: Saliva samples were assayed to determine cortisol levels in nineteen clinic-referred children with DBD (aged 8 through 13 years before and after an eight-session parent training program. Children’s disruptive behaviors were assessed by Child Behavior Check List before and after the intervention.
    • RESULTS: Children’s salivary cortisol increased significantly after parent training sessions. Children with DBD who had lower basal cortisol levels had more severe disruptive behaviors and a better response to intervention by parent training as assessed by changes in cortisol levels and disruptive behaviour scores. However, post-interventional reduction of disruptive behaviors and increase in cortisol level was significant for all levels of baseline cortisol.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Parent training is an effective method for behavioral modification in DBD. Salivary cortisol may be considered a predictive factor for severity of the child or adolescent's disruptive behaviors and also for response of those behaviors to parent training.
    • KEY WORDS: Disruptive behavior, child, adolescent, parent training.

  9. Differential Effects of Reinforcement on the Self-Monitoring of On-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Tiffany L.; Haut, Jillian M.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the differential effects of reinforcement on a self-monitoring intervention were evaluated. Three students nominated by their teachers for having a marked difficultly maintaining on-task behaviors participated in the study. Using an alternating treatments single-case design to assess self-monitoring with and without…

  10. Train the Trainer Effectiveness Trials of Behavioral Intervention for Individuals with Autism: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Yoshiko; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review examines train the trainer (TTT) effectiveness trials of behavioral interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Published methodological quality scales were used to assess studies including participant description, research design, intervention, outcomes, and analysis. Twelve studies including 9 weak…

  11. Alternative Seating for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effects on Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Denise Lynn; Schwartz, Ilene S.

    2004-01-01

    A single subject, withdrawal design was used to investigate the effects of therapy balls as seating on engagement and in-seat behavior of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In addition, social validity was assessed to evaluate teachers' opinions regarding the intervention. During baseline and withdrawal (A phases) participants…

  12. Effects of Team-Initiated Problem Solving on Decision Making by Schoolwide Behavior Support Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Anne W.; Horner, Robert H.; Newton, J. Stephen; Algozzine, Robert F.; Algozzine, Kate M.; Frank, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the problem-solving practices of school teams engaged in implementing and improving schoolwide behavior support implementation. A multiple baseline design across 4 elementary school teams was used to assess the effects of the Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) training program (1 day of team training plus 2 coached…

  13. Better Choices: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Behavior Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, Miguel T.

    2011-01-01

    Managing student behavior is often looked upon as a sidebar in teaching. The lack of formal classroom management training in teacher education programs reveals the low importance placed on this skill. As a result, teachers are often very well prepared to instruct, but in terms of effectively understanding the behavior of students--particularly…

  14. Effects of Nonverbal Behavior on Perceptions of Power Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Simonsen, Melissa M.; Pierce, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Manipulates three types of nonverbal behaviors and examines their effects on perceptions of power bases. Reports that a relaxed facial expression increased the ratings for five of the selected power bases; furthermore, direct eye contact yielded higher credibility ratings. Provides evidence that various nonverbal behaviors have only additive…

  15. Effects of Behavior and Family Structure on Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Effects of information about an adolescent's family structure and behavior on perceptions of education majors were studied for 45 male and 98 female college students. College students made subtle judgments based on this minimal information, but how strongly such judgments affect perceptions and behavior toward adolescents is not known. (SLD)

  16. Recent developments in assessment of long-term radionuclide behavior in the geosphere-biosphere subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decisions on permitting, controlling and monitoring releases of radioactivity into the environment rely on a great variety of factors. Important among these is the prospective assessment of radionuclide behavior in the environment, including migration and accumulation among and within specific environmental media, and the resulting environmental and human health impacts. Models and techniques to undertake such assessments have been developed over several decades based on knowledge of the ecosystems involved, as well as monitoring of previous radionuclide releases to the environment, laboratory experiments and other related research. This paper presents developments in the assessment of radiation doses and related research for some of the key radionuclides identified as of potential significance in the context of releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities for solid radioactive waste. Since releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities involve transfers from the geosphere to the biosphere, an important aspect is the combined effects of surface hydrology, near-surface hydrogeology and chemical gradients on speciation and radionuclide mobility in the zone in which the geosphere and biosphere overlap (herein described as the geosphere-biosphere subsystem). In turn, these aspects of the environment can be modified as a result of environmental change over the thousands of years that have to be considered in radioactive waste disposal safety assessments. Building on the experience from improved understanding of the behavior of the key radionuclides, this paper proceeds to describe development of a generic methodology for representing the processes and environmental changes that are characteristic of the interface between the geosphere and the biosphere. The information that is provided and the methodology that is described are based on international collaborative work implemented through the BIOPROTA forum, (www.bioprota.org). - Highlights: • Geological

  17. Behavioral effects of food-derived opioid-like peptides in rodents: Implications for schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Josh; Fletcher, Paul J; Nobrega, José N; Remington, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Dohan proposed that an overload of dietary peptides, such as those derived from wheat gluten and milk casein, could be a factor relevant to the development or maintenance of schizophrenia (SZ) symptoms in at least a subset of vulnerable individuals. Rodent behavioral models may offer insight into the plausibility of Dohan's exorphin hypothesis by providing a means to directly study the effects of such peptides. Accordingly, a review of the literature on the behavioral effects of food-derived opioid-like peptides in rodents was undertaken. Studies using a variety of behavioral tests to examine the effects of several classes of food-derived opioid-like peptides were identified and reviewed. Peptides derived from casein (β-casomorphins; BCMs, n=19), spinach (rubiscolins; RCs, n=4), and soy (soymorphins; SMs, n=1) were behaviorally active in various paradigms assessing nociception, spontaneous behavior, and memory. Surprisingly, only a single study evaluating a gluten-derived peptide (gliadorphin-7; GD-7, n=1) was identified and included in this review. In conclusion, food-derived peptides can affect rodent behavior, but more studies of GDs using diverse behavioral batteries are warranted. Assuming they occur in sufficient quantities during protein digestion and can access central opioid receptors (which entails crossing both the gastrointestinal and blood-brain barriers intact), these peptides may affect human behavior. Although BCMs and GDs may not be directly pathogenic in SZ, documented associations of casein and gluten sensitivity with SZ justify increased patient screening and dietary intervention where necessary. PMID:25661529

  18. Sensor-based assessment of herbicide effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streibig, Jens Carl; Rasmussen, Jesper; Andújar, D.;

    2014-01-01

    Non-destructive assessment of herbicide effects may be able to support integrated weed management. To test whether effects of herbicides on canopy variables could be detected by sensors, two crops were used as models and treated with herbicides at BBCH 20 using a logarithmic sprayer. Twelve days...

  19. Assessment of Innovation Effects of Mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Benjamin René

    2015-01-01

    Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Assessment of Innovation Effects of Mergers The adequate consideration of innovation effects of mergers in merger review was, and still is, one of the most controversially discussed issues between antitrust scholars. In this connection the question has been raised whether the traditional categories in competition law are sufficiently suitable for dealing with innovation aspects or whether new ...

  20. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  1. Functional Behavioral Assessments and Behavior Support Plans for Work-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelman, Angus; Wagner Bromley, Katherine; Mazzotti, Valerie L.

    2016-01-01

    Work experiences are linked to positive post-school outcomes for youth and young adults with disabilities. Unfortunately, students who struggle to manage conflict and challenges in work settings have a difficult time maintaining employment. Though ecological assessments are used to create supported work plans surrounding socially inappropriate…

  2. Evaluating the effectiveness of impact assessment instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Hilding-Ryedvik, Tuija;

    2010-01-01

    The central role of impact assessment instruments globally in policy integration initiatives has been cemented in recent years. Associated with this trend, but also reflecting political emphasis on greater accountability in certain policy sectors and a renewed focus on economic competitiveness...... to sharpen effectiveness evaluation theory for impact assessment instruments this article critically examines the neglected issue of their political constitution. Analytical examples are used to concretely explore the nature and significance of the politicisation of impact assessment. It is argued...... that raising awareness about the political character of impact assessment instruments, in itself, is a vital step in advancing effectiveness evaluation theory. Broader theoretical lessons on the framing of evaluation research are also drawn from the political analysis. We conclude that, at least within...

  3. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families.

  4. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families. PMID:25419913

  5. Establishing Behavioral and Assessment Criteria through the Use of a Behavioral Level System for Dealing with Self Contained EH Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann-Peper, Marcella

    This practicum was designed to establish behavioral and assessment criteria for dealing with seriously emotionally disturbed elementary students enrolled in self-contained emotionally handicapped (EH) units. A primary goal was to provide out-of-field EH teachers with an objective tool for continuously assessing students' individual behavioral and…

  6. Incentives for cost-effective physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, A

    1987-04-01

    The objective of the National Health Service is to maximise improvements in the health status of patients regardless of their willingness and ability to pay. To achieve this objective it is necessary to identify those procedures which maximise improvements in health or quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and direct scarce resources to those therapies with the best cost-QALY characteristics. Unfortunately in the NHS and elsewhere cost-QALY characteristics are largely unknown and the structure of the health service and its provider remuneration systems are such that objectives are vague, behavior perverse due to the haphazard construction of incentive systems, and health status outcomes often unknown due to the failure to evaluate input-outcome relationships. To reform the NHS, in particular ensure more efficient practice by physicians, existing perverse incentives will have to be replaced by the use of buyer (NHS) power and by budgeting mechanisms which induce economizing behavior. It is not clear which type of incentive mechanism will produce outcomes consistent with NHS goals. To remedy this ignorance experimentation with careful evaluation would seem appropriate. PMID:10312074

  7. Principles for Effective ClassroomAssessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Volante

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a synthesis of the research literature, seven principles for effective classroom assessment are presented. These principles included the need for classroom assessment to be student-centered, aligned with clear learning targets, based on multiple methods, able to account for a variety of student skills, aimed at reducing bias, reliable and valid, and efficient. The discussion addresses ways of promoting these principles at the pre-service and in-service levels and underscores the importance of changing the current Western zeitgeist that diminishes the central importance of classroom assessment data.

  8. Cognitive and Behavioral Effects of Topiramate Versus Carbamazepine Monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive and behavioral effects of topiramate (TPM versus carbamazepine (CBZ were evaluated in a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial at Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, and other university centers in Korea.

  9. Integrating Fire Behavior Models and Geospatial Analysis for Wildland Fire Risk Assessment and Fuel Management Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Alan A. Ager; Vaillant, Nicole M.; Finney, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Wildland fire risk assessment and fuel management planning on federal lands in the US are complex problems that require state-of-the-art fire behavior modeling and intensive geospatial analyses. Fuel management is a particularly complicated process where the benefits and potential impacts of fuel treatments must be demonstrated in the context of land management goals and public expectations. A number of fire behavior metrics, including fire spread, intensity, likelihood, and ecological risk m...

  10. Direct assessment of tensile stress-crack opening behavior of Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, E. N. B.; Fischer, G.; Barros, Joaquim A. O.

    2012-01-01

    The process of designing Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC) is driven by the need to achieve certain performance parameters in tension. These are typically the pseudo-strain hardening behavior and the ability to develop multiple cracks. The assessment of the tensile load-deformation of these materials is therefore of great importance and is frequently carried out by characterizing the material tensile stress-strain behavior. In this paper an alternative approach...

  11. Assessment of relationship between oral health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of dental students

    OpenAIRE

    Afsheen Lalani; Pralhad L Dasar; Sandesh, N.; Prashant Mishra; Sandeep Kumar; Swati Balsaraf

    2015-01-01

    Background: The behavior of oral health providers toward their own oral health reflects their understanding of the importance of preventive dental procedures and of improving the oral health of their target population. Aim: This study was done with an aim to assess the relationship between oral health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of third and final year dental students from a Dental College in Indore City, India. Methods: A total of 137 dental students participated in th...

  12. Separate and combined effects of methylphenidate and a behavioral intervention on disruptive behavior in children with mental retardation.

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, N J; Mauk, J E; McComas, J J; Mace, F C

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the separate and combined effects of a behavioral intervention and methylphenidate (Ritalin) on disruptive behavior and task engagement in 3 children with severe to profound mental retardation. The behavioral intervention involved differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior and guided compliance. All 3 children demonstrated decreased disruptive behavior and improved task engagement in response to the response to the behavioral intervention. Two of the 3 children demonst...

  13. Multistress effects on goldfish (Carassius auratus) behavior and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandar, Allison; Jean, Séverine; Canal, Julie; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Gilbert, Franck; Laffaille, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Crossed effects between climate change and chemical pollutions were identified on community structure and ecosystem functioning. Temperature rising affects the toxic properties of pollutants and the sensitiveness of organisms to chemicals stress. Inversely, chemical exposure may decrease the capacity of organisms to respond to environmental changes. The aim of our study was to assess the individual and crossed effects of temperature rising and pesticide contamination on fish. Goldfish, Carassius auratus, were exposed during 96 h at two temperatures (22 and 32 °C) to a mixture of common pesticides (S-metolachlor, isoproturon, linuron, atrazine-desethyl, aclonifen, pendimethalin, and tebuconazol) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (total concentrations MIX1 = 8.4 μg L(-1) and MIX2 = 42 μg L(-1)). We investigated the sediment reworking behavior, which has a major ecological functional role. We also focused on three physiological traits from the cellular up to the whole individual level showing metabolic status of fish (protein concentration in liver and muscle, hepatosomatic index, and Fulton's condition factor). Individual thermal stress and low concentrations of pesticides decreased the sediment reworking activity of fish and entrained metabolic compensation with global depletion in energy stores. We found that combined chemical and thermal stresses impaired the capacity of fish to set up an efficient adaptive response. Our results strongly suggest that temperature will make fish more sensitive to water contamination by pesticides, raising concerns about wild fish conservation submitted to global changes. PMID:26272290

  14. The Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Placement Outcomes of Biological Families in a State Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Sabrina B.; Mata, Francesca C.; Wofford, Erin; Briggs, Adam M.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Carr, James E.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral parent training has proven effective in improving the skill performance of foster caregivers and biological parents of dependent children during role-play assessments. To date, however, no studies have examined the impact of behavioral parenting skills training on child placement outcomes. We conducted a quasi-experimental archival…

  15. Assessing nest-building behavior of mice using a 3D depth camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayama, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2015-08-15

    We developed a novel method to evaluate the nest-building behavior of mice using an inexpensive depth camera. The depth camera clearly captured nest-building behavior. Using three-dimensional information from the depth camera, we obtained objective features for assessing nest-building behavior, including "volume," "radius," and "mean height". The "volume" represents the change in volume of the nesting material, a pressed cotton square that a mouse shreds and untangles in order to build its nest. During the nest-building process, the total volume of cotton fragments is increased. The "radius" refers to the radius of the circle enclosing the fragments of cotton. It describes the extent of nesting material dispersion. The "radius" averaged approximately 60mm when a nest was built. The "mean height" represents the change in the mean height of objects. If the nest walls were high, the "mean height" was also high. These features provided us with useful information for assessment of nest-building behavior, similar to conventional methods for the assessment of nest building. However, using the novel method, we found that JF1 mice built nests with higher walls than B6 mice, and B6 mice built nests faster than JF1 mice. Thus, our novel method can evaluate the differences in nest-building behavior that cannot be detected or quantified by conventional methods. In future studies, we will evaluate nest-building behaviors of genetically modified, as well as several inbred, strains of mice, with several nesting materials.

  16. Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Assessing the chemotaxis behavior of Physarum polycephalum to a range of simple volatile organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, Ben P J; Adamatzky, Andrew I

    2013-09-01

    The chemotaxis behavior of the plasmodial stage of the true slime mold Physarum Polycephalum was assessed when given a binary choice between two volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) placed in its environment. All possible binary combinations were tested between 19 separate VOCs selected due to their prevalence and biological activity in common plant and insect species. The slime mold exhibited positive chemotaxis toward a number of VOCs with the following order of preference:   Farnesene > β-myrcene > tridecane > limonene > p-cymene > 3-octanone > β-pinene > m-cresol > benzylacetate > cis-3-hexenylacetate. For the remaining compounds, no positive chemotaxis was observed in any of the experiments, and for most compounds there was an inhibitory effect on the growth of the slime mold. By assessing this lack of growth or failure to propagate, it was possible to produce a list of compounds ranked in terms of their inhibitory effect: nonanal > benzaldehyde > methylbenzoate > linalool > methyl-p-benzoquinone > eugenol > benzyl alcohol > geraniol > 2-phenylethanol. This analysis shows a distinct preference of the slime mold for non-oxygenated terpene and terpene-like compounds (farnesene, β-myrcene, limonene, p-cymene and β-pinene). In contrast, terpene-based alcohols such as geraniol and linalool were found to have a strong inhibitory effect on the slime mold. Both the aldehydes utilized in this study had the strongest inhibitory effect on the slime mold of all the 19 VOCs tested. Interestingly, 3-octanone, which has a strong association with a "fungal odor," was the only compound with an oxygenated functionality where Physarum Polycephalum exhibits distinct positive chemotaxis. PMID:24265848

  18. Effects of cocaine on maternal behavior and neurochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nephew, Benjamin C; Febo, Marcelo

    2012-03-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves drug seeking and abuse despite the negative social and health consequences. While the potential effects of cocaine on child development have been extensively studied over the last 30 years, few researchers have focused on the effects of cocaine on maternal behavior, which includes offspring care and maternal aggression towards an unfamiliar individual. In humans, maternal cocaine use can lead to child neglect, abuse, and disrupt the mother-child bond. While it has been argued the developmental effects of maternal cocaine use on children were initially overstated, it is clear that disruptions of typical maternal behavior (i.e. postpartum depression, anxiety disorders) are detrimental to the physical and emotional health of offspring. Cocaine use in mothers is commonly associated with psychological disorders, including depression and anxiety, and it is postulated that many of the negative effects of maternal cocaine use on offspring are mediated through changes in maternal behavior. This review will summarize research on cocaine and maternal behavior in animal and human studies, discuss potential mechanisms, and suggest therapeutic strategies for treating cocaine-affected maternal behavior which may improve the physical and behavioral health of both mother and child. The primary objective is to stimulate future communication, cooperation, and collaboration between researchers who use animals and humans to study cocaine and maternal behavior. PMID:22942878

  19. Field assessment of Bt cry1Ah corn pollen on the survival, development and behavior of Apis mellifera ligustica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ping-Li; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Hong-Juan; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Wei-Yu; Sun, Ji-Hu; Wu, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Ting

    2012-05-01

    Honeybees may be exposed to insecticidal proteins from transgenic plants via pollen. An assessment of the impact of such exposures on the honeybee is an essential part of the risk assessment process for transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn. A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of transgenic Bt cry1Ah corn on the honeybee Apis mellifera ligustica. Colonies of honeybees were moved to Bt or non-Bt corn fields during anthesis and then sampled to record their survival, development and behavior. No differences in immature stages, worker survival, bee body weight, hypopharyngeal gland weight, colony performance, foraging activity or olfactory learning abilities were detected between colonies that were placed in non-Bt corn fields and those placed in Bt corn fields. We conclude that cry1Ah corn carries no risk for the survival, development, colony performance or behavior of the honeybee A. mellifera ligustica. PMID:22364780

  20. The effect of dog-human interaction on cortisol and behavior in registered animal-assisted activity dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Zenithson Ying

    2013-01-01

    Background: The effect of animal-assisted activities (AAA) on the animal participants has been minimally investigated and the welfare of these animals has been questioned. Cortisol, in conjunction with stress-associated behavior, has been utilized as an objective assessment of animal welfare.Objective: Salivary cortisol and behavior in AAA dogs were measured to test the null hypothesis that salivary cortisol concentration and behavior are not different in an AAA environment compared to home o...

  1. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedgepeth, J (Tenera Environmental, LLC); Johnson, Gary E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J (BioSonics Inc.)

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  2. Effects of MAOA-Genotype, Alcohol Consumption, and Aging on Violent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Sjöberg, Rickard L.; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Background Environmental factors appear to interact with a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) in determining some forms of antisocial behavior. However, how MAOA-LPR modulates the effects of other factors such as alcohol consumption related to antisocial behavior is not completely understood. Methods This study examines the conjunct effect of MAOA-LPR, alcohol consumption, and aging on the risk for violent behavior. Recidivism in severe impulsive violent behavior was assessed after 7 to 15 years in a sample of 174 Finnish alcoholic offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial or borderline personality disorder or both, and featured impulsive temperament traits. Results The risk for committing new acts of violence increased by 2.3% for each kilogram of increase in yearly mean alcohol consumption (p = 0.004) and decreased by 7.3% for every year among offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype. In contrast, alcohol consumption and aging failed to affect violent behavior in the low activity MAOA genotyped offenders. MAOA-LPR showed no main effect on the risk for recidivistic violence. Conclusions Violent offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype differ in several ways from carriers with the low activity MAOA risk allele previously associated with antisocial behavior. Finnish high activity MAOA genotyped risk alcoholics exhibiting antisocial behavior, high alcohol consumption, and abnormal alcohol-related impulsive and uncontrolled violence might represent an etiologically distinct alcohol dependence subtype. PMID:19120058

  3. Stimulating cost effective behavior in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, D

    1987-04-01

    Types of influence on the delivery of medical care are divided into monetary and other. These incentives effect care at the system, hospital, care team, physician and patient levels. Selected examples, primarily from the USA, are discussed. PMID:10312075

  4. Evaluation of a training manual for the acquisition of behavioral assessment interviewing skills.

    OpenAIRE

    Miltenberger, R G; Fuqua, R W

    1985-01-01

    Two procedures were used to teach behavioral assessment interviewing skills: a training manual and one-to-one instruction that included modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. Two graduate students and two advanced undergraduates were trained with each procedure. Interviewing skills were recorded in simulated assessment interviews conducted by each student across baseline and treatment conditions. Each training procedure was evaluated in a multiple baseline across students design. The results show...

  5. Applying computer adaptive testing to optimize online assessment of suicidal behavior: a simulation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Beurs, D.P. de; Vries, A.L.M. de; Groot, M.H. de; Keijser, J. de; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is used increasingly for both suicide research and prevention. To optimize online assessment of suicidal patients, there is a need for short, good-quality tools to assess elevated risk of future suicidal behavior. Computer adaptive testing (CAT) can be used to reduce response burden and improve accuracy, and make the available pencil-and-paper tools more appropriate for online administration. Objective The aim was to test whether an item response–based computer adaptiv...

  6. Effects of switching behavior for the attraction on pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2014-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk i...

  7. Effect of DC voltage pulses on memristor behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2013-10-01

    Current knowledge of memristor behavior is limited to a few physical models of which little comprehensive data collection has taken place. The purpose of this research is to collect data in search of exploitable memristor behavior by designing and implementing tests on a HP Labs Rev2 Memristor Test Board. The results are then graphed in their optimal format for conceptualizing behavioral patterns. This series of experiments has concluded the existence of an additional memristor state affecting the behavior of memristors when pulsed with positively polarized DC voltages. This effect has been observed across multiple memristors and data sets. The following pages outline the process that led to the hypothetical existence and eventual proof of this additional state of memristor behavior.

  8. Role of behavioral and personality instruments in the improvement of team effectiveness in the organization

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Suman

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to consider the applicability of the behavioral and personality assessment instruments in recruitment, appraisal and development of organization’s teams’ effectiveness. It discusses the application of several widely accepted instruments: extended DiSC, MBTI and Belbin on the basis of the function to build the effective team. Each of the instruments provides insight into the team from the unique perspective and thus helps identifying team’s strong and weak points...

  9. Assessing the Carrying Capacity of Tourist Resorts: An Application of Tourists' Spatial Behavior Simulator Based on GIS and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ren-jun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the study of visitors' individual spatial behaviors, a tourists' spatial behavior simulator (TSBS) to assess the carrying capacity of tourist resorts was developed, TSBS employs GIS (Geographic Information System) to manage the spatial data, and Multi-Agent system to simulate the actions of individual visitors. By utilizing TSBS, visitors' travel patterns such as location, cost, and state can be analyzed and predicted. Based on this analysis and prediction, the model of assessing the carrying capacity of resorts is built. Our results show that TSBS will be an effective tool to accurately assess the carrying capacity of tourist resorts.

  10. Computational Methods for Tracking, Quantitative Assessment, and Visualization of C. elegans Locomotory Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Moy

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans provides a unique opportunity to interrogate the neural basis of behavior at single neuron resolution. In C. elegans, neural circuits that control behaviors can be formulated based on its complete neural connection map, and easily assessed by applying advanced genetic tools that allow for modulation in the activity of specific neurons. Importantly, C. elegans exhibits several elaborate behaviors that can be empirically quantified and analyzed, thus providing a means to assess the contribution of specific neural circuits to behavioral output. Particularly, locomotory behavior can be recorded and analyzed with computational and mathematical tools. Here, we describe a robust single worm-tracking system, which is based on the open-source Python programming language, and an analysis system, which implements path-related algorithms. Our tracking system was designed to accommodate worms that explore a large area with frequent turns and reversals at high speeds. As a proof of principle, we used our tracker to record the movements of wild-type animals that were freshly removed from abundant bacterial food, and determined how wild-type animals change locomotory behavior over a long period of time. Consistent with previous findings, we observed that wild-type animals show a transition from area-restricted local search to global search over time. Intriguingly, we found that wild-type animals initially exhibit short, random movements interrupted by infrequent long trajectories. This movement pattern often coincides with local/global search behavior, and visually resembles Lévy flight search, a search behavior conserved across species. Our mathematical analysis showed that while most of the animals exhibited Brownian walks, approximately 20% of the animals exhibited Lévy flights, indicating that C. elegans can use Lévy flights for efficient food search. In summary, our tracker and analysis software will help analyze the

  11. Computational Methods for Tracking, Quantitative Assessment, and Visualization of C. elegans Locomotory Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Kyle; Li, Weiyu; Tran, Huu Phuoc; Simonis, Valerie; Story, Evan; Brandon, Christopher; Furst, Jacob; Raicu, Daniela; Kim, Hongkyun

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans provides a unique opportunity to interrogate the neural basis of behavior at single neuron resolution. In C. elegans, neural circuits that control behaviors can be formulated based on its complete neural connection map, and easily assessed by applying advanced genetic tools that allow for modulation in the activity of specific neurons. Importantly, C. elegans exhibits several elaborate behaviors that can be empirically quantified and analyzed, thus providing a means to assess the contribution of specific neural circuits to behavioral output. Particularly, locomotory behavior can be recorded and analyzed with computational and mathematical tools. Here, we describe a robust single worm-tracking system, which is based on the open-source Python programming language, and an analysis system, which implements path-related algorithms. Our tracking system was designed to accommodate worms that explore a large area with frequent turns and reversals at high speeds. As a proof of principle, we used our tracker to record the movements of wild-type animals that were freshly removed from abundant bacterial food, and determined how wild-type animals change locomotory behavior over a long period of time. Consistent with previous findings, we observed that wild-type animals show a transition from area-restricted local search to global search over time. Intriguingly, we found that wild-type animals initially exhibit short, random movements interrupted by infrequent long trajectories. This movement pattern often coincides with local/global search behavior, and visually resembles Lévy flight search, a search behavior conserved across species. Our mathematical analysis showed that while most of the animals exhibited Brownian walks, approximately 20% of the animals exhibited Lévy flights, indicating that C. elegans can use Lévy flights for efficient food search. In summary, our tracker and analysis software will help analyze the neural basis of the

  12. A rapid murine coma and behavior scale for quantitative assessment of murine cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal model that more closely mimics the clinical features of human CM would be helpful in elucidating potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and evaluating new adjuvant therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative, rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS comprised of 10 parameters was developed to assess MCM manifested in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA. Using this method a single mouse can be completely assessed within 3 minutes. The RMCBS enables the operator to follow the evolution of the clinical syndrome, validated here by correlations with intracerebral hemorrhages. It provides a tool by which subjects can be identified as symptomatic prior to the initiation of trial treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since the RMCBS enables an operator to rapidly follow the course of disease, label a subject as affected or not, and correlate the level of illness with neuropathologic injury, it can ultimately be used to guide the initiation of treatment after the onset of cerebral disease (thus emulating the situation in the field. The RMCBS is a tool by which an adjuvant therapy can be objectively assessed.

  13. A structured assessment of motor function and behavior in patients with Kleefstra syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Nag, Heidi E; Hunn, Bente S; Houge, Gunnar; Hoxmark, Lise B

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to further our understanding of Kleefstra syndrome, especially regarding motor function and behavioral characteristics. In total, four males and four females between two and 27 years of age with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of Kleefstra syndrome and their parents participated in this study. Four patients had 9q34.3 deletions that caused Euchromatin Histone Methyl Transferase 1 (EHMT1) haplo-insufficiency, and four patients harbored EHMT1 mutations. The motor function was evaluated via systematic observation. Standardized assessments such as the Vineland Adapted Behavior Scales II (VABS II), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Child or Adult Behavior Checklist (CBCL, ABCL) were used for the behavioral assessment. All patients showed a delayed developmental status. Muscular hypotonia and its manifestations were present in all patients, regardless of their age. The mean values for all VABS II domains (communication, socialization, daily living skills, and motor skills) were significantly lower than the mean of the reference population (p Angelman syndrome. The results from the SCQ indicated that all patient values exceeded the cut-off value, suggesting the possibility of autism spectrum disorder. The behavioral and emotional problems assessed by CBCL and ABCL were less frequent. In conclusion, patients with Kleefstra syndrome present with a broad range of clinical problems in all age groups and are therefore in need of a multidisciplinary follow-up also after their transition into adulthood. PMID:26808425

  14. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  15. Effects of rubberized flooring on Asian elephant behavior in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Camie L; Croney, Candace C; Shepherdson, David

    2007-01-01

    Six Asian elephants at the Oregon Zoo were observed to determine the effects of a poured rubber flooring substrate on captive Asian elephant behavior. Room utilization also was evaluated in seven rooms used for indoor housing, including Front and Back observation areas. Data were collected in three phases. Phase I (Baseline Phase) examined elephant behavior on old concrete floors. In Phase II (Choice Phase), elephant behavior was observed in the Back observation area where room sizes were comparable and when a choice of flooring substrates was available. Phase III (Final Phase) examined elephant behavior when all rooms in both observation areas, Front and Back, were converted to rubberized flooring. Room use in both observation areas remained stable throughout the study, suggesting that flooring substrate did not affect room use choice. However, there was a clear pattern of decreased discomfort behaviors on the new rubber flooring. Normal locomotion as well as stereotypic locomotion increased on the new rubber flooring. In addition, resting behavior changed to more closely reflect the resting behavior of wild elephants, which typically sleep standing up, and spend very little time in lateral recumbence. Overall, these findings suggest that the rubber flooring may have provided a more comfortable surface for locomotion as well as standing resting behavior. It is suggested that poured rubber flooring may be a beneficial addition to similar animal facilities. Zoo Biol 0:1-11, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Behavioral effects of longitudinal training in cognitive reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Bryan T; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2014-04-01

    Although recent emotion regulation research has identified effective regulatory strategies that participants can employ during single experimental sessions, a critical but unresolved question is whether one can increase the efficacy with which one can deploy these strategies through repeated practice. To address this issue, we focused on one strategy, reappraisal, which involves cognitively reframing affective events in ways that modulate one's emotional response to them. With a commonly used reappraisal task, we assessed the behavioral correlates of four laboratory sessions of guided practice in down-regulating responses to aversive photos. Two groups received practice in one of two types of reappraisal tactics: psychological distancing and reinterpretation. A third no-regulation control group viewed images in each session without instructions to regulate. Three key findings were observed. First, both distancing and reinterpretation training resulted in reductions over time in self-reported negative affect. Second, distancing participants also showed a reduction over time in negative affect on baseline trials in which they responded naturally. Only distancing group participants showed such a reduction over and above the reduction observed in the no-regulation control group, indicating that it was not attributable to habituation. Third, only participants who distanced reported less perceived stress in their daily lives. The present results provide the first evidence for the longitudinal trainability of reappraisal in healthy adults using short courses of reappraisal practice, particularly using psychological distancing. PMID:24364856

  17. Effects of logging on orangutan behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Hardus; A.R. Lameira; S.B.J. Menken; S.A. Wich

    2012-01-01

    The human footprint is increasing across the world’s natural habitats, causing large negative impacts on the survival of many species. In order to successfully mitigate the negative effects on species’ survival, it is crucial to understand their responses to human-induced changes. This paper examine

  18. An Assessment of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Health Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michele L.; Jacobs, Sue C.; Page, Kyle S.; Porras, Claudia V.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (i.e., recognizing, expressing, monitoring, managing, and reflecting on emotions) (Presbury, Echterling, & McKee, 2007) and self-reported health behaviors among college students. A convenience sample of 418 undergraduates completed online surveys…

  19. Writing and Reading Skills as Assessed by Teachers in 7-Year Olds: A Behavioral Genetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A behavioral genetic analysis of general writing ability was conducted using teacher assessments based on UK National Curriculum criteria for a sample of 3296 same-sex pairs of 7-year-old twins. Writing was highly heritable within the normal range (0.66) and at the low extreme (0.70). Environmental influences were almost all non-shared, with…

  20. Early Identification of High-Ability Students: Clinical Assessment of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Brown, Elissa F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of teachers to accurately rate the cognitive and academic functioning of 1,375 students in kindergarten through the third grade on the Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB), as compared to two objective cognitive ability tests. CAB teacher ratings were compared for high-ability students who were currently…

  1. Problem behavior of individuals with down syndrome in a nationwide cohort assessed in late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M.; Fekkes, M.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Detmar, S.B.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess problem behavior in adolescents with Down syndrome and examine the association with sex and severity of intellectual disability. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional data of a Dutch nationwide cohort of Down syndrome children aged 16-19 years were collected using a written parental que

  2. A Framework for Assessing Violent Behaviors in Elementary School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardick, Angela D.; Bernes, Kerry B.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of preventing and intervening in bullying and other forms of school violence has been well established. This has resulted in the publication of numerous programs designed to prevent bullying and violence in schools. However, a missing piece revolves around the social worker's role in identifying and assessing violent behaviors in…

  3. Assessment of Adherence to Eating Habit and Exercise Components in a Behavioral Weight Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegman, Marilyn A.

    Although the augmental value of exercise to behavioral weight control programs has been suggested, demonstration of this value is dependent upon an assessment of adherence to change in eating habits and activity patterns. Self-report measures of adherence were obtained from overweight college women undergoing treatment that involved either dietary…

  4. Semantic Assessment of Shopping Behavior Using Trajectories, Shopping Related Actions, and Context Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Shan, C.; Gritti, T.; Wiggers, P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of automatic understanding of customers' shopping behavior and acting according to their needs is relevant in the marketing domain, attracting a lot of attention lately. In this work, we focus on the task of automatic assessment of customers' shoppingbehavior, by proposing a multi- l

  5. Retrospective Assessment of Behavioral Inhibition in Infants and Toddlers: Development of a Parent Report Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensthaler, A.; Mohler, E.; Resch, F.; Paulus, F.; Schwenck, C.; Freitag, C. M.; Goth, K.

    2013-01-01

    A behaviorally inhibited temperament in early childhood has been identified as a potential risk factor for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of our investigation was the development and evaluation of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the first retrospective parent report measure to assess behavioral…

  6. Effective viscoelastic behavior of particulate polymer composites at finite concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dan; HU Geng-kai

    2007-01-01

    Polymeric materials usually present some viscoelastic behavior. To improve the mechanical behavior of these materials, ceramics materials are often filled into the polymeric materials in form of fiber or particle. A micromechanical model was proposed to estimate the overall viscoelastic behavior for particulate polymer composites, especially for high volume concentration of filled particles. The method is based on Laplace transform technique and an elastic model including two-particle interaction. The effective creep compliance and the stress and strainrelation at a constant loading rate are analyzed. The results show that the proposed method predicts a significant stiffer response than those based on Mori-Tanaka's method at high volume concentration of particles.

  7. Effect of Teaching Behavior on Study Motivation in Generative Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉梅; 薛小莹

    2014-01-01

    Teaching behavior plays a vital role in students’study and has a great effect on their academic achievement.Study moti-vation is one of key essentials for students to focus themselves on their study. As a teacher,how to arouse students ’motivation and inspire students to study actively is a critical teaching behavior.How to change default teaching into generative teaching is al-so one of necessary teaching behaviors in English teaching.This paper will illustrate what measures should be taken and what prin-ciples should be followed in generative teaching.

  8. An analysis of choice making in the assessment of young children with severe behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, J W; Wacker, D P; Berg, W K; Cooper, L J; Asmus, J; Mlela, K; Muller, J

    1999-01-01

    We examined how positive and negative reinforcement influenced time allocation, occurrence of problem behavior, and completion of parent instructions during a concurrent choice assessment with 2 preschool-aged children who displayed severe problem behavior in their homes. The children were given a series of concurrent choice options that varied availability of parent attention, access to preferred toys, and presentation of parent instructions. The results showed that both children consistently allocated their time to choice areas that included parent attention when no instructions were presented. When parent attention choice areas included the presentation of instructions, the children displayed differential patterns of behavior that appeared to be influenced by the presence or absence of preferred toys. The results extended previous applications of reinforcer assessment procedures by analyzing the relative influence of both positive and negative reinforcement within a concurrent-operants paradigm.

  9. Studies on effect of stress preconditioning in restrain stress-induced behavioral alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajneet; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal

    2010-02-01

    Stress preconditioning has been documented to confer on gastroprotective effects on stress-induced gastric ulcerations. However, the effects of prior exposure of stress preconditioning episodes on stress-induced behavioral changes have not been explored yet. Therefore the present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of stress preconditioning in immobilization stress-induced behavioral alterations in rats. The rats were subjected to restrain stress by placing in restrainer (5.5 cm in diameter and 18 cm in length) for 3.5 h. Stress preconditioning was induced by subjecting the rats to two cycles of restraint and restrain-free periods of 15 min each. Furthermore, a similar type of stress preconditioning was induced using different time cycles of 30 and 45 min. The extent and severity of the stress-induced behavioral alterations were assessed using different behavioral tests such as hole-board test, social interaction test, open field test, and actophotometer. Restrain stress resulted in decrease in locomotor activity, frequency of head dips and rearing in hole board, line crossing and rearing in open field, and decreased following and increased avoidance in social interaction test. Stress preconditioning with two cycles of 15, 30 or 45 min respectively, did not attenuate stress-induced behavioral changes to any extent. It may be concluded that stress preconditioning does not seem to confer any protective effect in modulating restrain stress-induced behavioral alterations.

  10. A multiple-imputation based approach to sensitivity analysis and effectiveness assessment in longitudinal clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Teshome Ayele, Birhanu; Lipkovich, Ilya; Molenberghs, Geert; Mallinckrodt, Craig H

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the effects of a drug as actually taken (effectiveness) and when taken as directed (efficacy). The primary objective of this investigation was to assess the statistical performance of a method referred to as placebo multiple imputation (pMI) as an estimator of effectiveness and as a worst reasonable case sensitivity analysis in assessing efficacy. The pMI method assumes the statistical behavior of placebo- and drug-treated patients after dropout is the statistica...

  11. The Effect of Behavioral Codes and Gender on Honesty

    OpenAIRE

    Arbel, Yuval; Bar-El, Ronen; Siniver, Erez; Tobol, Yossi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of adherence to behavioral codes, as measured by the degree of religiosity, on the level of honesty by conducting under-the-cup die experiments. The findings suggest that behavioral codes, which prohibit lying, offset the monetary incentive to lie. The highest level of honesty is found among young religious females while the lowest is found among secular females. Moreover, when the monetary incentive to lie is removed, the tendency of secular subjects to lie disappears. ...

  12. EFFECT OF THICKENERS ON PAPER COATING VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Zhang; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang; Zhengnan Xuan

    2004-01-01

    Paper coating has a viscoelastic character, which affected by dissolved polymer in the aqueous phase.The different thickeners have different effects on Paper Coating viscoelasticity behavior. CMC, PVA and CMS are compared in this article, and CMC have the strongest effect than the others.

  13. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  14. Influenza knowledge, attitude, and behavior survey for grade school students: design and novel assessment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koep, Tyler H; Huskins, W Charles; Clemens, Christal; Jenkins, Sarah; Pierret, Chris; Ekker, Stephen C; Enders, Felicity T

    2014-12-01

    Despite the fact infectious diseases can spread readily in grade schools, few studies have explored prevention in this setting. Additionally, we lack valid tools for students to self-report knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. As part of an ongoing study of a curriculum intervention to promote healthy behaviors, we developed and evaluated age-appropriate surveys to determine students' understanding of influenza prevention. Surveys were adapted from adolescent and adult influenza surveys and administered to students in grades 2-5 (ages 7-11) at two Rochester public schools. We assessed student understanding by analyzing percent repeatability of 20 survey questions and compared percent "don't know" (DK) responses across grades, gender, and race. Questions thought to be ambiguous after early survey administration were investigated in student focus groups, modified as appropriate, and reassessed. The response rate across all surveys was >87%. Survey questions were well understood; 16 of 20 questions demonstrated strong pre/post repeatability (>70%). Only 1 question showed an increase in DK response for higher grades (p < .0001). Statistical analysis and qualitative feedback led to modification of 3 survey questions and improved measures of understanding in the final survey administration. Grade-school students' knowledge, attitudes and behavior toward influenza prevention can be assessed using surveys. Quantitative and qualitative analysis may be used to assess participant understanding and refine survey development for pediatric survey instruments. These methods may be used to assess the repeatability and validity of surveys to assess the impact of health education interventions in young children.

  15. Effects of Infantile Repeated Hyperglycemia on Behavioral Alterations in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Moghadami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety symptoms have been reported to be present in many patients with diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about the effects of hyperglycemia in critical periods of the central nervous system development. We assessed locomotive, exploratory, and anxiety behaviors in adult rats that remained from infantile repeated hyperglycemia by the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Our findings showed significant hypo activity, reduced locomotive/exploratory activities, increased fear related behaviors, and anxiety state between hyperglycemic and control adult males and the same differences were observed among females. In addition, no significant behavioral alterations between male and female animals were observed. This study determined that repeated increments in daily blood sugar levels in newborns may affect neuronal functions and provide behavioral abnormalities in adults.

  16. Comparison of the long-term behavioral effects of neonatal exposure to retigabine or phenobarbital in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Sari; Medvedeva, Natalia; Gutherz, Samuel; Kulick, Catherine; Kondratyev, Alexei; Forcelli, Patrick A

    2016-04-01

    Anticonvulsant drugs, when given during vulnerable periods of brain development, can have long-lasting consequences on nervous system function. In rats, the second postnatal week approximately corresponds to the late third trimester of gestation/early infancy in humans. Exposure to phenobarbital during this period has been associated with deficits in learning and memory, anxiety-like behavior, and social behavior, among other domains. Phenobarbital is the most common anticonvulsant drug used in neonatology. Several other drugs, such as lamotrigine, phenytoin, and clonazepam, have also been reported to trigger behavioral changes. A new generation anticonvulsant drug, retigabine, has not previously been evaluated for long-term effects on behavior. Retigabine acts as an activator of KCNQ channels, a mechanism that is unique among anticonvulsants. Here, we examined the effects retigabine exposure from postnatal day (P)7 to P14 on behavior in adult rats. We compared these effects with those produced by phenobarbital (as a positive control) and saline (as a negative control). Motor behavior was assessed by using the open field and rotarod, anxiety-like behavior by the open field, elevated plus maze, and light-dark transition task, and learning/memory by the passive avoidance task; social interactions were assessed in same-treatment pairs, and nociceptive sensitivity was assessed via the tail-flick assay. Motor behavior was unaltered by exposure to either drug. We found that retigabine exposure and phenobarbital exposure both induced increased anxiety-like behavior in adult animals. Phenobarbital, but not retigabine, exposure impaired learning and memory. These drugs also differed in their effects on social behavior, with retigabine-exposed animals displaying greater social interaction than phenobarbital-exposed animals. These results indicate that neonatal retigabine induces a subset of behavioral alterations previously described for other anticonvulsant drugs and extend

  17. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Bibliographic Information to Assess Pet Suitability of Mammal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul; de Mol, Rudi M; Ipema, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Which mammal species are suitable to be kept as pet? For answering this question many factors have to be considered. Animals have many adaptations to their natural environment in which they have evolved that may cause adaptation problems and/or risks in captivity. Problems may be visible in behavior, welfare, health, and/or human-animal interaction, resulting, for example, in stereotypies, disease, and fear. A framework is developed in which bibliographic information of mammal species from the wild and captive environment is collected and assessed by three teams of animal scientists. Oneliners from literature about behavioral ecology, health, and welfare and human-animal relationship of 90 mammal species are collected by team 1 in a database and strength of behavioral needs and risks is assessed by team 2. Based on summaries of those strengths the suitability of the mammal species is assessed by team 3. Involvement of stakeholders for supplying bibliographic information and assessments was propagated. Combining the individual and subjective assessments of the scientists using statistical methods makes the final assessment of a rank order of suitability as pet of those species less biased and more objective. The framework is dynamic and produces an initial rank ordered list of the pet suitability of 90 mammal species, methods to add new mammal species to the list or remove animals from the list and a method to incorporate stakeholder assessments. A model is developed that allows for provisional classification of pet suitability. Periodical update of the pet suitability framework is expected to produce an updated list with increased reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, the framework could be further developed to assess the pet suitability of additional species of other animal groups, e.g., birds, reptiles, and amphibians. PMID:27243023

  18. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using bibliographic information to assess pet suitability of mammal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eKoene

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Which mammal species are suitable to be kept as pet? For answering this question many factors have to be considered. Animals have many adaptations to their natural environment in which they have evolved that may cause adaptation problems and/or risks in captivity. Problems may be visible in behavior, welfare, health and/or human-animal interaction, resulting for example in stereotypies, disease and fear. A framework is developed in which bibliographic information of mammal species from the wild and captive environment is collected and assessed by three teams of animal scientists. Oneliners from literature about behavioral ecology, health, and welfare and human-animal relationship (HAR of 90 mammal species are collected by team 1 in a database and strength of behavioral needs and risks is assessed by team 2. Based on summaries of those strengths the suitability of the mammal species is assessed by team 3. Involvement of stakeholders for supplying bibliographic information and assessments was propagated. Combining the individual and subjective assessments of the scientists using statistical methods makes the final assessment of a rank order of suitability as pet of those species less biased and more objective. The framework is dynamic and produces an initial rank ordered list of the pet suitability of 90 mammal species, methods to add new mammal species to the list or remove animals from the list and a method to incorporate stakeholder assessments. A model is developed that allows for provisional classification of pet suitability. Periodical update of the pet suitability framework is expected to produce an updated list with increased reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, the framework could be further developed to assess the pet suitability of additional species of other animal groups, e.g. birds, reptiles and amphibians.

  19. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Bibliographic Information to Assess Pet Suitability of Mammal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul; de Mol, Rudi M.; Ipema, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Which mammal species are suitable to be kept as pet? For answering this question many factors have to be considered. Animals have many adaptations to their natural environment in which they have evolved that may cause adaptation problems and/or risks in captivity. Problems may be visible in behavior, welfare, health, and/or human–animal interaction, resulting, for example, in stereotypies, disease, and fear. A framework is developed in which bibliographic information of mammal species from the wild and captive environment is collected and assessed by three teams of animal scientists. Oneliners from literature about behavioral ecology, health, and welfare and human–animal relationship of 90 mammal species are collected by team 1 in a database and strength of behavioral needs and risks is assessed by team 2. Based on summaries of those strengths the suitability of the mammal species is assessed by team 3. Involvement of stakeholders for supplying bibliographic information and assessments was propagated. Combining the individual and subjective assessments of the scientists using statistical methods makes the final assessment of a rank order of suitability as pet of those species less biased and more objective. The framework is dynamic and produces an initial rank ordered list of the pet suitability of 90 mammal species, methods to add new mammal species to the list or remove animals from the list and a method to incorporate stakeholder assessments. A model is developed that allows for provisional classification of pet suitability. Periodical update of the pet suitability framework is expected to produce an updated list with increased reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, the framework could be further developed to assess the pet suitability of additional species of other animal groups, e.g., birds, reptiles, and amphibians. PMID:27243023

  20. Affective and Cognitive Information Behavior: Interaction Effects in Internet Use

    OpenAIRE

    Nahl, Diane

    2005-01-01

    The presence and influence of affective variables in information behavior was studied. Affective load (AL), a compound variable consisting of uncertainty and technophobia measures, was found to be present in a variety of simple and complex information tasks integrated into upper-division, disciplinary coursework. Affective load was higher in those who reported low values of affective coping skills and who had either high or low cognitive assessment scores. Affective coping skills (ACS) consi...

  1. Assessment of fire behavior and management options in subalpine vegetation on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Jarrod M.; Jacobi, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a major threat to habitat for the endangered Palila (Loxioides bailleui) within subalpine vegetation on Mauna Kea volcano, Hawai‘i. The presence of large amounts of fine fuel from grasses, dry climate, and human ignition sources produces a significant risk of wildfire in this area year-round. The purpose of this report is to provide information on fuels and potential fire behavior that will contribute to fire management of Palila habitat. Recommended actions will contribute to the conservation of these native forests and facilitate restoration in degraded areas. To assess the effects of grass invasion on fuel conditions and potential fire danger, we quantified vegetation and fuels across an elevation gradient from grasslands into sub-alpine forests on the west slope of Mauna Kea. Our results indicated that grass cover was reduced under tree canopy in plots below ~2,500 m elevation, but at higher elevations grass cover was higher under trees than in the open. However, tree canopy cover below 2,500 m elevation was not high enough overall (~25% on average) to result in significant reductions in fine fuels at the landscape level. Sampling directly under and away from tree crowns at multiple elevations suggested that below ~2,500 m, the presence of tree canopy cover can reduce grass fuels significantly. Furthermore, moisture content of live surface fuels was increased under tree canopy compared with open areas. These results suggest that restoration of forest cover may have the potential to alter grass fuels in ways that decrease the threat of fire in some subalpine forests. Fire behavior estimates based on fuel data from grasslands, mixed forest and māmane forest indicated the need for fuelbreaks of at least 20-30 m to limit fire spread in most areas. In many cases, breaks as wide as 40 m are required to limit fire spread risk under extreme weather conditions.

  2. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHINYL ESTRADIOL (EE) AND BISPHENOL A (BPA) ON REPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR IN FEMALE AND MALE LONG EVANS HOODED RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic estrogens are pervasive in the environment. Although the effects of these 'xenoestrogens' are controversial in humans, some fish species are adversely affected in contaminated ecosystems. The current project focuses on the effects of developmental exposure to two ...

  3. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHINYL ESTRADIOL (EE) AND BISPHENOL A (BPA) ON REPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR IN THE FEMALE LONG EVANS HOODED RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic estrogens are pervasive in the environment. The effects of these 'xenoestrogens' are controversial in humans, although there is a clear indication that some fish species are adversely affected in contaminated ecosystems. The current project focuses on the effects ...

  4. Affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events: the moderating effect of religiosity on avoidance behavior among students studying under a high level of terror event exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Zukerman, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the development of affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events among Israeli students studying under a high level of terror event exposure and to assess the effects of religiosity on those changes development. A questionnaire was administered to 770 students in the Ariel University Center in Judea and Samaria. Higher levels of terror exposure were associated with higher levels of avoidance behavior, subjective feelings of insecurity, and emotional distress. Higher religiosity moderated avoidance behavior, even when controlling for the level of objective exposure to terror events exposure, but had no influence on subjective sense of insecurity, or the level of emotional distress. These findings suggest that religiosity moderates behavioral changes development after traumatic event exposure mainly by reducing avoidance behavior. PMID:21660614

  5. Affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events: the moderating effect of religiosity on avoidance behavior among students studying under a high level of terror event exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Zukerman, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the development of affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events among Israeli students studying under a high level of terror event exposure and to assess the effects of religiosity on those changes development. A questionnaire was administered to 770 students in the Ariel University Center in Judea and Samaria. Higher levels of terror exposure were associated with higher levels of avoidance behavior, subjective feelings of insecurity, and emotional distress. Higher religiosity moderated avoidance behavior, even when controlling for the level of objective exposure to terror events exposure, but had no influence on subjective sense of insecurity, or the level of emotional distress. These findings suggest that religiosity moderates behavioral changes development after traumatic event exposure mainly by reducing avoidance behavior.

  6. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill).

  7. Complex effects of reward upshift on consummatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annicchiarico, Ivan; Glueck, Amanda C; Cuenya, Lucas; Kawasaki, Katsuyoshi; Conrad, Shannon E; Papini, Mauricio R

    2016-08-01

    Exposing rats to an upshift from a small reward to a larger reward sometimes yields evidence of consummatory successive positive contrast (cSPC), an effect that could be a suitable animal model of positive emotion. However, cSPC is an unreliable effect. Ten experiments explored the effects of an upshift in sucrose or saccharin concentration on consummatory behavior under several conditions. There was occasional evidence of cSPC, but mostly a combination of increased consummatory behavior relative to preshift reward concentrations and a reduced behavioral level relative to unshifted controls. Such a pattern is consistent with processes causing opposite changes on behavior. Reward upshift may induce processes that suppress behavior, such as taste neophobia (induced by an intense sucrose taste) and generalization decrement (induced by novelty in reward conditions after the upshift). An experiment tested the role of such novelty-related effects by preexposing animals to either the upshift concentration (12% sucrose) or water during three days before the start of the experiment. Sucrose-preexposed animals drank significantly more than water-preexposed animals during the upshift, but just as much as unshifted controls (i.e., no evidence of cSPC). These results suggest that cSPC may be difficult to obtain reliably because reward upshift induces opposing processes. However, they also seriously question the ontological status of cSPC. PMID:27298234

  8. Teachers' Assessment Literacy and Washback Effect of Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Niveen R. M. Elshawa; Chan Swee Heng; Ain Nadzimah Abdullah; Sabariah Md. Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Assessment literacy, as a term, is not well known in the educational field. This is unfortunate because teachers' assessment knowledge and competence can have an important influence on the way they teach and the way their students learn.  The relationship between the degree of assessment literacy a teacher has and the washback of this type of assessment is not clearly identified, especially in higher education context.  In view of this gap, this article attempts to examine important assessmen...

  9. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. PMID:26910772

  10. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare.

  11. Pressure effects on dynamics behavior of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebian, Taha [Faculty of Engineering, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The dynamic behavior of Multiwall boron nitride nanotubes (MWBNNTs) is investigated by employing multiple elastic shells model. The influences of van der Waals interactions on layers are shown as nonlinear functions of the interlayer distance of MWBNNTs. Governing equations are solved by using the developed finite element method and by employing time history diagrams. The radial wave speed from the outermost layer to the innermost layer is computed. The effects of geometrical factors such as diameter-to-thickness ratio on dynamic behavior of MWBNNTs are determined. The magnification aspects of MWBNNTs are computed, and the effects of surrounding pressures on wave speed and magnification aspect of MWBNNTs are discussed.

  12. Effects of Nicotine on the Neurophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Ketamine in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Mathalon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its associated neurocognitive impairments. The high rate of cigarette smoking in schizophrenia raises questions about how nicotine modulates putative NMDA receptor hypofunction in the illness. Accordingly, we examined the modulatory effects of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR stimulation on NMDA receptor hypofunction by examining the interactive effects of nicotine, a nAChR agonist, and ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on behavioral and neurophysiological measures in healthy human volunteers.Methods: From an initial sample of 17 subjects (age range 18 - 55 years, 8 subjects successfully completed 4 test sessions, each separated by at least 3 days, during which they received ketamine or placebo and two injections of nicotine or placebo in a double-blind, counterbalanced manner. Schizophrenia-like effects (PANSS, perceptual alterations (CADSS, subjective effects (VAS and auditory event-related brain potentials (mismatch negativity, P300 were assessed during each test session.Results: Consistent with existing studies, ketamine induced transient schizophrenia-like behavioral effects. P300 was reduced and delayed by ketamine regardless of whether it was elicited by a target or novel stimulus, while nicotine only reduced the amplitude of P3a. Nicotine did not rescue P300 from the effects of ketamine; the interactions of ketamine and nicotine were not significant. While nicotine significantly reduced MMN amplitude, ketamine did not. Conclusion: Nicotine failed to modulate ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like effects in this preliminary study. Interestingly, ketamine reduced P3b amplitude and nicotine reduced P3a amplitude, suggesting independent roles of NMDA receptor and nAChR in the generation of P3b and P3a, respectively.

  13. Media effects on the audience attitudes and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Marques Carriço Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a bibliographical review of the development of the literature on media effects and it presents a nuanced history of the development of the studies on media effects. This text intends to recover the classical demarcation of literature belonging to the era of (1 unlimited effects, in which the media have complete power over its audience, to the period in which the studies (2 evoked potentially intervening variables in media effects (in determining limited effects, and to the (returning era of (3 significant effects. The perspective taken in this study focuses on researches that approach the media influence on the attitudes and behaviors of the audience.

  14. Taurine and ethanol interactions: behavioral effects in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Lamb, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the brain that shares pharmacological effects and similar potency with ethanol. Recently, taurine-containing beverages have been reported to enhance the euphoric effects of ethanol, though the extent of this effect and the role of taurine remain speculative. The present study was designed to explore interactions between taurine and ethanol on several behaviors including locomotion, ataxia, and loss of righting. Two strains of mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice...

  15. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Correlation of brain MRI findings with behavioral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan Lal, Tamanna R; Kliewer, Mark A; Lopes, Thelma; Rebsamen, Susan L; O'Connor, Julia; Grados, Marco A; Kimball, Amy; Clemens, Julia; Kline, Antonie D

    2016-06-01

    Neurobehavioral and developmental issues with a broad range of deficits are prominent features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder due to disruption of the cohesin protein complex. The etiologic relationship of these clinical findings to anatomic abnormalities on neuro-imaging studies has not, however, been established. Anatomic abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system specific to CdLS have been observed, including changes in the white matter, brainstem, and cerebellum. We hypothesize that location and severity of brain abnormalities correlate with clinical phenotype in CdLS, as seen in other developmental disorders. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated brain MRI studies of 15 individuals with CdLS and compared these findings to behavior at the time of the scan. Behavior was assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), a validated behavioral assessment tool with several clinical features. Ten of fifteen (67%) of CdLS patients had abnormal findings on brain MRI, including cerebral atrophy, white matter changes, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enlarged ventricles. Other findings included pituitary tumors or cysts, Chiari I malformation and gliosis. Abnormal behavioral scores in more than one behavioral area were seen in all but one patient. All 5 of the 15 (33%) patients with normal structural MRI studies had abnormal ABC scores. All normal ABC scores were noted in only one patient and this was correlated with moderately abnormal MRI changes. Although our cohort is small, our results suggest that abnormal behaviors can exist in individuals with CdLS in the setting of relatively normal structural brain findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Combined Norepinephrine / Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibition: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Aggression and Oxytocin in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Thomas Cox

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior, although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent maternal behavior in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on maternal behavior, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days one and six respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day seven. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease maternal behavior and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. RESULTS: Amitriptyline and desiprimine differentially reduced maternal behavior, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in

  17. [Effects of psychotropic drugs on lateral hypothalamic self-stimulation behavior in rats: correlation between self-stimulation behavior inhibition and striatal dopaminergic blockade by neuroleptic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, T; Tsumagari, T

    1984-06-01

    The effects of neuroleptic drugs on self-stimulation behavior were investigated in rats with electrodes chronically implanted in the lateral hypothalamus. Except for sulpiride and carpipramine, the neuroleptic drugs chlorpromazine, thioridazine, perphenazine, haloperidol, floropipamide, pimozide, clocapramine and oxypertine all suppressed self-stimulation behavior dose-dependently. The anti-anxiety drugs chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, clotiazepam and etizolam facilitated this behavior. The antidepressant drugs imipramine and amitriptyline suppressed this behavior slightly at the dose of 40 mg/kg. The alpha-antagonist phenoxybenzamine also suppressed this behavior, but the slope of its dose-response curve was gentle compared with those of the neuroleptic drugs. The inhibition produced by the neuroleptic drugs is considered to be mediated primarily at the dopaminergic receptors. Turning behavior induced by methamphetamine in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the caudate nucleus was used to assess the striatal dopaminergic blocking potency of the neuroleptic drugs. No correlation was found between the ED50 values for the turning behavior inhibition and the ED50 values for the self-stimulation behavior inhibition produced by these drugs, so the dopaminergic receptors in the striatum are apparently not involved in the mediation of self-stimulation behavior. PMID:6149172

  18. Clinical, behavioral and antinociceptive effects of crotalphine in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Cristina Bueno do Prado Guirro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Crotalphine is a novel analgesic peptide that acts on kappa opioid and delta receptors, causing powerful analgesia in rats submitted to inflammatory, neuropathic or oncologic models of pain. This study evaluated clinical, behavioral and antinociceptive effects caused by crotalphine in horses, employing 18 Arabian horses and it was divided in three phases. In Phase I, "clinical and behavioral effects", crotalphine did not change the latency to urinate and defecate; did not modify the values of cardiac or respiratory rates, intestinal motility and rectal temperature; and did not cause significant ataxia, head, eye and lip ptosis. In Phase II, "antinociceptive effect on intact skin at scapular or ischial region", crotalphine did not cause significant analgesia. In Phase III, "antinociceptive effect on incised skin at scapular or ischial region", crotalphine promoted effective antinociceptive effects for six hours and inhibited hyperalgesia state for three days in the ischial region of horses submitted to incisional model of inflammatory pain, but crotalphine did not evoke relevant analgesic effect on the scapular region. Concluding, intravenous injection of a single dose of crotalphine (3.8ngkg-1 did not cause important clinical or behavioral changes and promotes antinociceptive effect on incised ischial region for seven days in horses. Moreover, crotalphine did not evoke relevant anti nociceptive effect on the scapular region or in intact skin of horses.

  19. Behavioral Effects and Pharmacokinetics of (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) after Intragastric Administration to Baboons

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Amy K.; Mueller, Melanie; Shell, Courtney D.; Ricaurte, George A.; Ator, Nancy A

    2013-01-01

    (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) is a popular drug of abuse. We aimed to characterize the behavioral effects of intragastric MDMA in a species closely related to humans and to relate behavioral effects to plasma MDMA and metabolite concentrations. Single doses of MDMA (0.32–7.8 mg/kg) were administered via an intragastric catheter to adult male baboons (N = 4). Effects of MDMA on food-maintained responding were assessed over a 20-hour period, whereas untrained behaviors...

  20. Assessment of neonatal nurses' behaviors that prevent overstimulation in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Marilyn; Goulet, Céline

    2003-04-01

    This study assessed the adoption by neonatal nurses of behaviors that prevent visual, auditory, and tactile overstimulations in preterm infants, as well as the intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms related to the adoption of these behaviors. The convenience sample consisted of 54 neonatal nurses working in three Montreal region teaching hospitals. A multiple-choice questionnaire, composed on the basis of a review of the literature and the Theory of Reasoned Action, was used for data collection. The results revealed that the nurses often adopted behaviors that prevented tactile overstimulation, and that their intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms all favored the adoption of such behaviors. However, more than the half of the nurses did not frequently adopt behaviors that prevent visual and auditory overstimulations, nor did their intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms favor the adoption of these behaviors. Findings suggest that neonatal nurses lack specific knowledge in this area and that they would benefit from the completion of an evidence-based educational program on the prevention of overstimulation of preterm infants prior to their employment in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

  1. The effects of proton exposure on neurochemistry and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Szprengiel, A.; Pluhar, J.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Future space missions will involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, where astronauts will be exposed to radiation hazards such as those that arise from galactic cosmic rays. Galactic cosmic rays are composed of protons, α particles, and particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles). Research by our group has shown that exposure to HZE particles, primarily 600 MeV/n and 1 GeV/n 56Fe, can produce significant alterations in brain neurochemistry and behavior. However, given that protons can make up a significant portion of the radiation spectrum, it is important to study their effects on neural functioning and on related performance. Therefore, these studies examined the effects of exposure to proton irradiation on neurochemical and behavioral endpoints, including dopaminergic functioning, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, and spatial learning and memory as measured by the Morris water maze. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a dose of 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 4.0 Gy of 250 MeV protons at Loma Linda University and were tested in the different behavioral tests at various times following exposure. Results showed that there was no effect of proton irradiation at any dose on any of the endpoints measured. Therefore, there is a contrast between the insignificant effects of high dose proton exposure and the dramatic effectiveness of low dose (<0.1 Gy) exposures to 56Fe particles on both neurochemical and behavioral endpoints.

  2. Analysis of the Effect of Customer Citizenship Behavior on Repurchase Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Grillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, customer citizenship behavior (CCB is assessed as a manifestation of value co-creation in the costumer-organization relations. Considering the extant marketing literature proposition that postulates that value co-creation, in the long run, is translated to the organization into customer purchase and repurchase behavior, as explained by the relation between value-in-use and value-in-exchange, this article aims to analyze the effect of CCB upon repurchase intention. In order to conduct such analysis, the CCB scale developed by Yi and Gong (2013 was adapted to the Brazilian context. The assessments of the adapted scale and of the relation between CCB and repurchase intention were conducted with structural equation modeling. Results indicate a lack of consistency of one of the CCB dimensions proposed by Yi and Gong (2013 and suggest that CCB is a determinant that presents an expressive effect upon repurchase intention.

  3. Effect of Chronic Lead Intoxication on Risky Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mohammadyar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With industrialization of human societies, pollutants like lead have entered in the life cycle, causing harmful effects on body organs. No sufficient studies have been done on the effects of pollutants on behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of lead on some measurable behaviors of an animal model. Methods: Forty eight male adult mice were divided into 4 groups of 12 each. Lead acetate was added at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, or 500 ppm to the drinking water of the animals for 4 weeks (28 days. On day 29, animals were placed on an Elevated Plus maze (EPM for 5 min and the time in sec spent was measured on closed arms, open arms and the end 1/3rd of the open arms. Increased time on open arms, particularly the end 1/3rd was considered to reflect an enhanced risk-accepting behavior. Results: In this study, it was shown that lead exposure caused an increased number of entrance (P=0.006 and time spent (P=0.034 by mice on open arms of the EPM. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of lead acetate and those two effects. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that lead poisoning may decrease normal anxiety in mice and increase risky behavior in this species. Clinical studies on human subjects with risky behavior are strongly suggested in order to find a possible relation between chronic exposures to lead as well as plasma concentration of lead with the extent of this kind of behavior.

  4. On the establishing and reinforcing effects of termination of demands for destructive behavior maintained by positive and negative reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, C C; Hanley, G P; Fisher, W W; Ruyter, J M; Gulotta, C S

    1998-01-01

    The results of functional analyses suggested that the destructive behavior of two individuals was sensitive to escape and attention as reinforcement. In an instructional context, we evaluated the effects of reinforcing compliance with functional reinforcers when destructive behavior produced a break. For one participant we also evaluated the effects of reinforcing compliance with functional reinforcers when destructive behavior produced no differential consequence (escape extinction). We hypothesized that destructive behavior failed to decrease in an instructional context when compliance resulted in a break because presentation of a break evoked attention-maintained destructive behavior. The results of a reinforcer assessment supported this hypothesis by demonstrating that demands functioned as positive reinforcement when no alternative activities were available. These results are discussed in terms of the importance of establishing operations in determining the appetitive or aversive properties of stimuli when destructive behavior is multiply controlled.

  5. Children's Exposure to Violence: The Underlying Effect of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms on Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan; Steigerwald, Stacey; Holmes, Megan R; Perzynski, Adam T

    2016-02-01

    In this study we investigated whether witnessing violence and violence victimization were associated with children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in these relationships. Secondary data analysis was conducted using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Path analyses were conducted to test direct and indirect effects of violence exposure on behavior problems, using 2,064 children (ages 8-15 years) reported to Child Protective Services for maltreatment. Being a victim of violence in the home was directly associated with more internalizing (β = .06, p = .007) and externalizing behavior problems (β = .07, p = .002), whereas witnessing violence was not directly related to either internalizing (β = .04, p = .056) or externalizing behavior problems (β = .03, p = .130). PTS symptoms mediated the effects of witnessing violence and violence victimization on internalizing behavior problems (β = .02, p = .002). Our findings suggest that PTS symptoms may be a mechanism underlying the association between violence exposure and internalizing behavior problems (R(2) = .23), underscoring the potential importance of assessing PTS symptoms and providing targeted trauma-focused interventions for children exposed to violence at home. PMID:26748761

  6. Dressed for Success? The Effect of School Uniforms on Student Achievement and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Gentile; Imberman, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Uniform use in public schools is rising, but we know little about how they affect students. Using a unique dataset from a large urban school district in the southwest United States, we assess how uniforms affect behavior, achievement and other outcomes. Each school in the district determines adoption independently, providing variation over schools and time. By including student and school fixed-effects we find evidence that uniform adoption improves attendance in secondary grades, while in el...

  7. Effectiveness of Using a Portable Video Game for Promoting Healthy Dietary Behavior among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shiba, Eri

    2009-01-01

    Currently the use of new technologies takes on a growing importance in education. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 2-week intervention using portable video game machine "Nintendo DS" and the software "Koharu no DS Uchigohan (Koharu' s DS home cooking)" to increase knowledge and consciousness of cooking and to promote healthier dietary behavior among college students. A pretest was administered to participants before the intervention. In addition to the same test, the questionnaire a...

  8. The Hidden Cost of Tourism: Detecting Long-term Effects of Tourism Using Behavioral Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lusseau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, whales and dolphins are the focus of tourism activities in many coastal locations. Although these activities can affect individuals and populations of cetaceans, the biological significance and hence the cost of these impacts are as yet largely unknown. This study assessed the effects of boat interactions on the behavioral budget of two populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tersiops truncatus living in similar fjords but exposed to different levels of tourism activities. This comparison makes it possible to assess the costs of short-term avoidance strategies and the threshold at which those strategies are no longer effective. The effects of boat interactions were the same in both fjords. The resting state was the most sensitive to interactions; socializing was less sensitive. Short-term displacement was a typical response to boat exposure: dolphins were more likely to travel after an interaction with a vessel. Although the behavioral budgets of these populations were significantly altered during interactions with boats, their overall behavioral budgets were unchanged. Dolphins in Milford Sound actively avoided boat interactions, possibly to maintain their overall behavioral budget unchanged. This active avoidance led to avoidance of the area. Characteristics of dolphin-boat interactions in Milford Sound suggest that the advantages gained by short-term avoidance are lost if, on average, fewer than 68 min elapse between successive interactions with boats. If dolphin-boat interactions were more frequent than this, the dolphins switched to a longer-term response: area avoidance.

  9. The Cognition Battery of the NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function: Validation in an Adult Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Weintraub, Sandra; Dikmen, Sureyya S.; Heaton, Robert K.; Tulsky, David S.; Zelazo, Philip David; Slotkin, Jerry; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Fox, Nathan; Havlik, Richard; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Mungas, Dan; Manly, Jennifer J.; Moy, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a special series on validity studies of the Cognition Battery (CB) from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIHTB) (R. C. Gershon et al., 2013) in an adult sample. This first paper in the series describes the sample, each of the seven instruments in the NIHTB-CB briefly, and the general approach to data analysis. Data are provided on test-retest reliability and practice effects, and raw scores (mean, ...

  10. Assessing Students' Understanding of Human Behavior: A Multidisciplinary Outcomes Based Approach for the Design and Assessment of an Academic Program Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Bruce; Meese, Michael J.; Efflandt, Scott; Malinowski, Jon C.; LeBoeuf, Joseph; Gallagher, Martha; Hurley, John; Green, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Presents a strategy for the curricular design and assessment of one multidisciplinary program goal: understanding human behavior. Discusses how to assess a desired outcome based on four specific areas: (1) organizational context; (2) articulation of a learning model; (3) program design and implementation; and (4) outcomes assessment. (Author/KDR)

  11. The Effects of a Team Charter on Student Team Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Joshua R.; McDowell, William C.; Herdman, Andrew O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors contribute to growing evidence that team charters contribute positively to performance by empirically testing their effects on key team process outcomes. Using a sample of business students in a team-based task requiring significant cooperative and coordinative behavior, the authors compare emergent team norms under a variety of team…

  12. The Effects of a Brushing Procedure on Stereotypical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; Durand, Shannon; Chan, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the effects of a brushing protocol on stereotyped behavior of a young boy with autism. First, a functional analysis was conducted which showed that the participant's stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Next, the Wilbarger Protocol, a brushing intervention, was implemented. An ABA design was implemented…

  13. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Lochbuehler; M. Peters; R.H.J. Scholte; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  14. The Behavioral Effects of Crowding: Definitions and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Larry M.; And Others

    Crews of 18 U.S. Navy combat vessels rated their living and working conditions aboard ship, including degree of crowding. In order to better understand the behavioral effects of crowding, three different types of measures, corresponding to different definitions of crowding, were constructed. These separate crowding measures correlated uniquely…

  15. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this e

  16. Effect of Maternal Depression on Child Behavior: A Sensitive Period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maternal depression during the child's first year of life (i.e., sensitive period) on subsequent behavior problems. Method: Participants were 175 mothers participating in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) who met lifetime diagnostic criteria for major depressive…

  17. Effects of Academic Experience and Prestige on Researchers’ Citing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a bibliometric study of the measurable effects of experience and prestige on researchers' citing behavior. All single authors from two econometrics journals over a 10-year time period form the basis of the analysis of how experience and prestige affect the num...

  18. Effects of Behavioral and Social Class Information on Social Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Reuben M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the role of disconfirming behavioral information and the limits on social class schema effects. Using a Bayesian model of social perception, it was found that unambiguous, relevant stimulus information influenced judgments. Although social class information did not affect relevant stimulus information, it did sway judgments in…

  19. Assessing influence of stimulation on mood and aberrant behavior of persons with multiple disabilities during brief treadmill sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, G E; O'Reilly, M F; Singh, N N; Oliva, D; Piazzolla, G; Groeneweg, J

    2004-12-01

    This study assessed the influence of favorite stimuli on indices of happiness, e.g., smiling or excited vocalizations, and aberrant behavior, e.g., cantilena-like vocalizations or hand waving, of two young adults with multiple disabilities during 5-min. treadmill sessions. Several favorite stimuli, e.g., music and vibratory events, were available for the participants. The stimuli were presented in a rotation fashion during the sessions. To control for the effects of the stimuli, treadmill sessions without stimuli were also conducted. Analysis showed that the treadmill sessions with stimuli led to higher indices of happiness and lower aberrant behavior for both participants, compared to the treadmill sessions without stimuli. PMID:15648490

  20. Assessing the chemotaxis behavior of Physarum polycephalum to a range of simple volatile organic chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    de Lacy Costello, Ben P.J.; Adamatzky, Andrew I.

    2013-01-01

    The chemotaxis behavior of the plasmodial stage of the true slime mold Physarum Polycephalum was assessed when given a binary choice between two volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) placed in its environment. All possible binary combinations were tested between 19 separate VOCs selected due to their prevalence and biological activity in common plant and insect species. The slime mold exhibited positive chemotaxis toward a number of VOCs with the following order of preference:   Farnesene > β-myr...

  1. Assessment of Human Bio-Behavior During Gait Process Using LifeMOD Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rogozea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a set of observations concerning the
    analysis and assessment of human bio-behavior during gait process. In the first part of the paper the fundamental and theoretical considerations of the gait process are approached and aspects connected to malfunctions are expressed. In the second part of the paper we present the modeling methodology using
    the LifeMOD software, while in the third part the results and conclusions are presented.

  2. Use of video surveillance to assess wildlife behavior and use of wildlife underpasses in Arizona

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, Jeffrey W.; Schweinsburg, Raymond E.; Dodd, Norris L.; Manzo, Amanda L.

    2005-01-01

    We used integrated, four-camera video surveillance systems to assess and compare wildlife use of five openspan bridged wildlife underpasses along a 30-km stretch of reconstructed highway in central Arizona. We determined passage rates (proportion of animals approaching and crossing through underpasses) and categorized behavioral responses exhibited during underpass approaches and crossings. Two underpasses have been monitored for over 2-1/2 years; both open into the same meadow/riparian compl...

  3. Healthy Eating Vital Sign: A New Assessment Tool for Eating Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Jessica L. J.; Junji Lin; Danita Arguello; Trever Ball; Shaw, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Most dietary questionnaires are not created for use in a clinical setting for an adult health exam. We created the Healthy Eating Vital Sign (HEVS) to assess eating behaviors associated with excess weight. This study investigated the validity and reliability of the HEVS. Methods. Using a cross-sectional study design, participants responded to the HEVS and the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). We analyzed the data descriptively, and, with Pearson's correlation and Cronba...

  4. The RT-18: a new screening tool to assess young adult risk-taking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan1, Esther Kuipers1, Yvanca Kuerten1, Margriet van Laar2, Berend Olivier1, Joris Cornelis Verster11Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University; 2Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Risk-taking behavior is a major determinant of health and plays a central role in various diseases. Therefore, a brief questionnaire was developed to assess risk taking among young adults with known different levels of risk-taking behavior (social drinkers and recreational drug users. In Study 1, N = 522 university students completed the RT-18 risk taking questionnaire. N = 100 students were retested after 2 to 4 weeks and performed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT. Mean RT-18 score was 7.69 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.886. The test-retest reliability was r = 0.94. Significant correlation was found between the RT-18 score and CGT scores of risk taking, bet proportion, and risk adjustment. In Study 2, N = 7834 young adult social drinkers, and recreational drug users, mean RT-18 score was 9.34 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.80. Factor analysis showed that the RT-18 comprises two factors assessing level of risk-taking behavior and risk assessment. Men scored significantly higher than women on the RT-18. Recreational drug users had significantly higher scores when compared to social drinkers. In Study 3 of N = 1000 students, construct validity was confirmed by showing that the RT-18 outcome correlates significantly with scores on the Stimulating-Instrumental Risk Inventory. In conclusion, the RT-18 is a valid and reliable screening tool to differentiate levels of risk-taking behavior. This short scale is quick and practical to administer, imposing minimal demands on participants. The RT-18 is able to differentiate risk taking and risk assessment which can help target appropriate intervention strategies.Keywords: risk taking, impulsivity, sensation

  5. Preventing risk for significant behavior problems through a cognitive-behavioral intervention: effects of the tools for getting along curriculum at one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen W; Daunic, Ann P; Barber, Brian R; Aydin, Burak; Van Loan, Christopher L; Taylor, Gregory G

    2014-10-01

    Efficient and effective social-emotional learning programs increase the likelihood of success in school for all students, and particularly for those who may develop emotional or behavior problems. In this study, we followed a sub-sample of students 1 year after their participation in a randomized controlled trial of the effects of the Tools for Getting Along (TFGA) curriculum. TFGA is a universally delivered, preventive cognitive-behavioral curricular intervention designed to improve upper elementary school students' emotional and behavioral self-regulation. To determine effects at 1-year follow-up, we assessed 720 out of the 1,296 original students across TFGA and control conditions on measures of curricular knowledge, teacher-rated executive function and behavior, and student-reported anger and social problem solving. Findings indicated a continued positive effect on curricular knowledge for students taught TFGA relative to controls. We also found significant pretest by condition interaction effects on teacher reports of skills associated with executive function, including inhibitory control and shift (cognitive flexibility), and on teacher reported internalizing and externalizing behavior. Specifically, students with poorer scores on these measures at pretest benefited from TFGA at follow-up relative to comparable students in the control condition. Finally, we found marginally significant pretest by condition interaction effects on proactive aggression, outward expressions of anger, and the executive function related skills of initiating activities and using working memory. Counter to expectations, we found negative TFGA effects on student-reported trait anger and anger control. PMID:25062801

  6. DAPHNE: A New Tool for the Assessment of the Behavioral Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia

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    Claire Boutoleau-Bretonnière

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD relies primarily on clinical features and remains challenging. The specificity of the recently revised criteria can be disappointing, justifying development of new clinical tools. Objective: We produced a behavioral inventory named DAPHNE. This scale (adapted from Rascovsky's criteria explores six domains: disinhibition, apathy, perseverations, hyperorality, personal neglect and loss of empathy. It is composed of ten items (five answer categories. The aim was (1 to assess the validity and reliability of DAPHNE and (2 to evaluate its contribution in differentiating patients. Methods: Two scores were computed: DAPHNE-6 (screening from the six domains and DAPHNE-40 (diagnosis from the ten items. Reliability and reproducibility were assessed. External validity was studied with the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI and the Frontotemporal Behavioral Scale (FBS. Finally, the diagnostic performance of DAPHNE was compared to revised criteria, FBI and FBS. Results: DAPHNE was administered to the caregivers of 89 patients, 36 with bvFTD, 22 with Alzheimer's disease, 15 with progressive supranuclear palsy and 16 with bipolar disorder. Reliability and reproducibility were excellent, as was external validity. DAPHNE-6 allowed bvFTD diagnosis (score ≥4 with a sensitivity of 92%, while DAPHNE-40 (score ≥15 had a specificity of 92%. Conclusion: We demonstrate excellent psychometric features for DAPHNE. This quick tool could help for both diagnosing and screening bvFTD.

  7. Effects of single sex lab groups on physics self-efficacy, behavior, and academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gary L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the gender composition of a laboratory group and student behaviors, self-efficacy, and quiz performance, within the college physics laboratory. A student population was chosen and subdivided into two groups, which were assigned either same-sex or coed laboratory teams while executing identical laboratory activities and instruction. Assessments were carried out prior to instruction, during the course, and at the end of one semester worth of instruction and laboratory activities. Students were assessed in three areas: behaviors exhibited during laboratory activities, self-efficacy, and scores on laboratory quizzes. Analyses considered the differences in outcomes after a single semester of physics laboratories that differed only in team gender organization. The results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in behavior variable, self-efficacy or laboratory quiz scores between same sex teams and coed teams. There were also no statistically significant differences between genders, and no interaction effect present. In a post-hoc analysis of the individual behaviors data, it was noted that there is present a practical difference in the individual behaviors exhibited by males and females. This difference implies a difference in how males and females successfully engage in the laboratory activities.

  8. Humidity Effects and Aging Behavior in Granular Media

    OpenAIRE

    Restagno, F.; Gayvallet, H.; Bocquet, L.; Charlaix, E.

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of humidity effects on the maximum stability angle in granular media. We show that a granular medium of small glass beads exhibits aging properties : the first avalanche angle increases logarithmically with the resting time of the pile. This aging behavior is found to depend on the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere. A short interpretation of this effect, based on a model of activated capillary condensation, is proposed.

  9. Environmental Behavior, Sources, and Effects of Chlorinated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

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    Takeshi Ohura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental sources and behaviors of chlorinated 2- to 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs. ClPAHs are ubiquitous contaminants found in urban air, vehicle exhaust gas, snow, tap water, and sediments. The concentrations of ClPAHs in each of these environments are generally higher than those of dioxins but markedly lower than the concentrations of the parent compounds, PAHs. Environmental data and emission sources analysis for ClPAHs reveal that the dominant process of generation is by reaction of PAHs with chlorine in pyrosynthesis. This secondary reaction process also occurs in aquatic environments. Certain ClPAHs show greater toxicity, such as mutagenicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity, than their corresponding parent PAHs. Investigation of the sources and environmental behavior of ClPAHs is of great importance in the assessment of human health risks.

  10. Quantitative analysis of abnormal spontaneous behavior and clinical assessment of the stargazer rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J W; Truett, G E; Ross, K D; Kloster, C A

    1995-06-01

    A new mutant derived from the Zucker rat strain called stargazer (homozygous stg/stg) displays abnormal behavior that is characterized by pronounced arching of the neck ("stargazing"), rapid circling, and conspicuous hyperactivity. Results of serologic assays performed by two independent diagnostic laboratories have indicated that the abnormal behavior in the stargazer is not the result of a viral or bacterial infection. In this report, different groups of stargazer rats and their normal-behaving littermates (heterozygous stg/+) were assessed with regard to spontaneous behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure, and plasma biochemical profiles. Besides frequent stargazing, the predominant behavioral feature of the stargazers was extreme hyperactivity; they had sevenfold greater activity than the normal littermates (P stargazers had significantly greater daily calorie and water consumption, despite being significantly smaller in body weight than the littermates (P Stargazers had significantly lower total triglycerides concentration and lower aminotransferase activity than littermates (P stargazer rats are extremely hyperactive but normotensive; heterozygous littermates are behaviorally normal, despite being carriers of the stg gene; and routine diagnostic blood testing revealed no important differences between the stargazers and their unaffected littermates. PMID:7650898

  11. Moving toward effective ozone flux assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoletti, Elena [IPP-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)], E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.it; Ranieri, Annamaria [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, Pisa (Italy); Lauteri, Marco [IBAF-CNR, Via Marconi 2, I-05010 Porano, Terni (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    We present a comment about 'Ozone risk assessment for plants: central role of metabolism-dependent changes in reducing power' by Dizengremel, Le Thiec, Bagard, and Jolivet. As tools for summarizing plant O{sub 3} sensitivity in simple indices, Dizengremel et al. suggest: reducing power, as antioxidant regeneration through the Halliwell/Asada cycle requires NADPH from the photosynthetic light reaction; Rubisco/PEPc ratio, as an index of the energy balance between anabolic and catabolic reactions; and water-use efficiency as a time-integrated approximation of the carbon gain to stomatal O{sub 3} uptake ratio. The scientific background is solid, and simple enough (although expensive) to be translated into modelling and routine use. In the last decade, several approaches have been developed, mostly by using photosynthesis as a metric of defence. All these approaches should be experimentally tested in different and realistic conditions, before the results are transferred to the field and used in effective O{sub 3} flux modelling and assessment. - Unravelling the mechanisms of plant sensitivity and summarizing them in simple indices are the main challenges of present ozone risk assessment.

  12. From primed concepts to action: A meta-analysis of the behavioral effects of incidentally presented words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Evan; Chen, Qijia; McAdams, Maxwell; Yi, Jessica; Hepler, Justin; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-05-01

    A meta-analysis assessed the behavioral impact of and psychological processes associated with presenting words connected to an action or a goal representation. The average and distribution of 352 effect sizes (analyzed using fixed-effects and random-effects models) was obtained from 133 studies (84 reports) in which word primes were incidentally presented to participants, with a nonopposite control group, before measuring a behavioral dependent variable. Findings revealed a small behavioral priming effect (dFE = 0.332, dRE = 0.352), which was robust across methodological procedures and only minimally biased by the publication of positive (vs. negative) results. Theory testing analyses indicated that more valued behavior or goal concepts (e.g., associated with important outcomes or values) were associated with stronger priming effects than were less valued behaviors. Furthermore, there was some evidence of persistence of goal effects over time. These results support the notion that goal activation contributes over and above perception-behavior in explaining priming effects. In summary, theorizing about the role of value and satisfaction in goal activation pointed to stronger effects of a behavior or goal concept on overt action. There was no evidence that expectancy (ease of achieving the goal) moderated priming effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26689090

  13. Detailed Behavioral Assessment Promotes Accurate Diagnosis in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness

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    Yael eGilutz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Assessing the awareness level in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC is made on the basis of exhibited behaviors. However, since motor signs of awareness (i.e. non-reflex motor responses can be very subtle, differentiating the vegetative from minimally conscious states (which is in itself not clear-cut is often challenging. Even the careful clinician relying on standardized scales may arrive at a wrong diagnosis. Aim: To report our experience in tackling this problem by using two in-house use assessment procedures developed at Reuth Rehabilitation Hospital, and demonstrate their clinical significance by reviewing two cases. Methods: 1.Reuth DOC Response Assessment (RDOC-RA –administered in addition to the standardized tools, and emphasizes the importance of assessing a wide range of motor responses. In our experience, in some patients the only evidence for awareness may be a private specific movement that is not assessed by standard assessment tools. 2. Reuth DOC Periodic Intervention Model (RDOC-PIM - Current literature regarding assessment and diagnosis in DOC refers mostly to the acute phase of up to one year post injury. However, we have found major changes in responsiveness occurring one year or more post-injury in many patients. Therefore, we conduct periodic assessments at predetermined times points to ensure patients are not misdiagnosed or neurological changes overlooked. Results: In the first case the RDOC-RA promoted a more accurate diagnosis than that based on standardized scales alone. The second case shows how the RDOC-PIM allowed us to recognize late recovery and promoted reinstatement of treatment with good results. Conclusions: Adding a detailed periodic assessment of DOC patients to existing scales can yield critical information, promoting better diagnosis, treatment and clinical outcomes. We discuss the implications of this observation for the future development and validation of assessment tools in

  14. Perinatal stress: characteristics and effects on adult eating behavior

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    Matilde Cesiana da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have pointed out the importance of mother-child interaction in the early months of life. A few decades ago, a method called kangaroo care was developed and its main goal was to keep underweight or premature newborns in direct contact with the mother. This method has reduced the morbidity and mortality of these newborns, increasing their growth rate, breastfeeding time and mother-child contact. In rodents, the dam's presence is crucial for avoiding aggression factors that may trigger phenotypic adaptations in the pups with irreversible morphological, functional and behavioral consequences. Eating behavior is an adaptive response stemming from the external environment demand and modulated by opportunities and limitations imposed by the external environment. This behavior is regulated by a complex interaction of peripheral and central mechanisms that control hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus is a brain structure that integrates central and peripheral signals to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight. The hypothalamic nucleus have orexigenic peptides, such as neuropeptide Y and the Agouti-related peptide, and anorexigenic peptides, such as cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin. An innovative study of eating behavior in experimental models of neonatal stress separates the mother from the offspring during lactation. This review describes the effects of stress during the neonatal period on general physiological factors, particularly on the control of eating behavior.

  15. Ferromagnetic behavior and exchange bias effect in akaganeite nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadic, Marin, E-mail: marint@vinca.rs [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Milosevic, Irena; Motte, Laurence [Laboratoire CSPBAT, UMR 7244 CNRS Université Paris 13, 93017 Bobigny Cedex (France); Kralj, Slavko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Saboungi, Marie-Louise [CNRS, University of Orleans, F-45071 Orleans 2 (France); IMPMC, Sorbonne Univ-UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, IRD UMR 206, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-05-04

    We report ferromagnetic-like properties and exchange bias effect in akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorods. They exhibit a Néel temperature T{sub N} = 259 K and ferromagnetic-like hysteresis behavior both below and above T{sub N}. An exchange bias effect is observed below T{sub N} and represents an interesting behavior for akaganeite nanorods. These results are explained on the basis of a core-shell structure in which the core has bulk akaganeite magnetic properties (i.e., antiferromagnetic ordering) while the shell exhibits a disordered spin state. Thus, the nanorods show ferromagnetic properties and an exchange bias effect at the same time, increasing their potential for use in practical applications.

  16. Mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Anisha; Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Singh, Yengkokpam Ibotomba

    2007-03-01

    Whether parasitic diseases-and in particular helminth infections because they are extensive and widespread--have an effect on mental functions and educational attainment is by no mean a new question. Concern about the possibility was evident in the early decades of the century, and the results of investigations designed to discover whether the effects of parasite infections had consequences on school children. Many species of helminth have been reported as causing infections in humans. Of the nematode infections, both soil transmitted helminthiasis and lymphatic filariasis are public health problem in the country. Any of these infections may result in morbidity, malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anaemia. Their possible contribution to impaired cognitive function and educational achievement is by the association between iron deficiency anaemia and malnutrition. Research on the effects of parasitic infection has focused on school-age children. Not only are these children the most vulnerable to parasitic infections--they are also the population group most likely to experience the impact of infection on cognitive function. This review paper discusses the mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infection on child's health. Infected children are less active; their behavior is said to be sluggish and both mental and physical activities and processes appear dulled and slow. A reduction in available energy is likely to cause a cascade of effects running through most aspects of the host's daily mental life and behavior.

  17. Assessing the effectiveness of climate adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-10-15

    As governments and other agencies spend more money on adaptation to climate change they want to know that their investments are effective — that adaptation will keep development on track, that there is a fair distribution of costs and benefits, and that climate resilience is being built. But monitoring and evaluating adaptation policy and practice is not easy. Some approaches are unhelpful because they fail to integrate adaptation and development, use purely quantitative methods and do not include the perspectives of climate-vulnerable groups in their assessments. Enabling countries and organisations to effectively evaluate adaptation requires an inclusive approach built on sharing knowledge among all stakeholders — one that can capture behavioural and institutional changes and that answers to the needs of the climate-vulnerable poor.

  18. New perspectives on assessing amplification effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamela E; Tremblay, Kelly L

    2006-09-01

    Clinicians have long been aware of the range of performance variability with hearing aids. Despite improvements in technology, there remain many instances of well-selected and appropriately fitted hearing aids whereby the user reports minimal improvement in speech understanding. This review presents a multistage framework for understanding how a hearing aid affects performance. Six stages are considered: (1) acoustic content of the signal, (2) modification of the signal by the hearing aid, (3) interaction between sound at the output of the hearing aid and the listener's ear, (4) integrity of the auditory system, (5) coding of available acoustic cues by the listener's auditory system, and (6) correct identification of the speech sound. Within this framework, this review describes methodology and research on 2 new assessment techniques: acoustic analysis of speech measured at the output of the hearing aid and auditory evoked potentials recorded while the listener wears hearing aids. Acoustic analysis topics include the relationship between conventional probe microphone tests and probe microphone measurements using speech, appropriate procedures for such tests, and assessment of signal-processing effects on speech acoustics and recognition. Auditory evoked potential topics include an overview of physiologic measures of speech processing and the effect of hearing loss and hearing aids on cortical auditory evoked potential measurements in response to speech. Finally, the clinical utility of these procedures is discussed. PMID:16959734

  19. Gender-dependent effects of maternal immune activation on the behavior of mouse offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid C Y Xuan

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by two core symptoms; impaired social interactions and communication, and ritualistic or repetitive behaviors. Both epidemiological and biochemical evidence suggests that a subpopulation of autistics may be linked to immune perturbations that occurred during fetal development. These findings have given rise to an animal model, called the "maternal immune activation" model, whereby the offspring from female rodents who were subjected to an immune stimulus during early or mid-pregnancy are studied. Here, C57BL/6 mouse dams were treated mid-gestation with saline, lipopolysaccharide (LPS to mimic a bacterial infection, or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly IC to mimic a viral infection. Autism-associated behaviors were examined in the adult offspring of the treated dams. Behavioral tests were conducted to assess motor activity, exploration in a novel environment, sociability, and repetitive behaviors, and data analyses were carried independently on male and female mice. We observed a main treatment effect whereby male offspring from Poly IC-treated dams showed reduced motor activity. In the marble burying test of repetitive behavior, male offspring but not female offspring from both LPS and Poly IC-treated mothers showed increased marble burying. Our findings indicate that offspring from mothers subjected to immune stimulation during gestation show a gender-specific increase in stereotyped repetitive behavior.

  20. Exposure to Weight-Stigmatizing Media: Effects on Exercise Intentions, Motivation, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Dovidio, John F; Puhl, Rebecca M; Brownell, Kelly D

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of exposure to weight-stigmatizing media on exercise intentions, motivation, and behavior, as well as to examine the interaction between this exposure and past experiences with weight stigma. A community sample of 72 women were randomly assigned to view a brief weight-stigmatizing or neutral video. Participants' choice of taking the stairs versus the elevator was observed before they completed measures of exercise intentions, motivation, and behavior; psychological well-being; and experiences with weight stigma. A follow-up survey was sent to participants 1 week later that assessed exercise behavior and intentions. Frequency of past weight stigma correlated with worse psychological well-being and more controlled (versus autonomous) exercise motivation. Significant interactions were found between past weight-stigmatizing experiences and exposure to the weight-stigmatizing video for outcomes of exercise intentions, behavior, and drive for thinness. Participants in the stigma condition with higher frequency of past experiences reported greater exercise intentions and behavior, along with higher drive for thinness. Past experiences of weight stigma interact with exposure to weight-stigmatizing media to increase exercise intentions and behavior, although this effect is accompanied by a heightened drive for thinness that may increase risk for long-term negative health consequences.

  1. Display of individuality in avoidance behavior and risk assessment of inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben eHager

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors determining individuality are still poorly understood. Rodents are excellent model organisms to study individuality, due to a rich behavioral repertoire and the availability of well-characterized isogenic populations. However, most current behavioral assays for rodents have short test duration in novel test environments and require human interference, which introduce coercion, thereby limiting the assessment of naturally occurring individuality. Thus, we developed an automated behavior system to longitudinally monitor conditioned fear for assessing PTSD-like behavior in individual mice. The system consists of a safe home compartment connected to a risk-prone test compartment (TC. Entry and exploration of the TC is solely based on deliberate choice determined by individual fear responsiveness and fear extinction. In this novel ethological assay, C57BL/6J mice show homogeneous responses after shock exposure (innate fear, but striking variation in long-lasting fear responses based on avoidance and risk assessment (learned fear, including automated stretch-attend posture quantification. TC entry (retention latencies after foot shock differed >24 h and the re-explored TC area differed >50% among inbred mice. Next, we compared two closely related C57BL/6 substrains. Despite substantial individual differences, previously observed higher fear of C57BL/6N versus C57BL/6J mice was reconfirmed, whereas fear extinction was fast and did not differ. The observed variation in fear expression in isogenic mice suggests individual differences in coping style with PTSD-like avoidance. Investigating the assumed epigenetic mechanisms, with reduced interpretational ambiguity and enhanced translational value in this assay, may help improve understanding of personality type-dependent susceptibility and resilience to neuropsychiatric disorders such as PTSD.

  2. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated MDMA administration during late adolescence in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brittney M; Shah, Mrudang M; Cichon, Teri; Tancer, Manuel E; Galloway, Matthew P; Thomas, David M; Perrine, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults disproportionately abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy'); however, since most MDMA research has concentrated on adults, the effects of MDMA on the developing brain remain obscure. Therefore, we evaluated place conditioning to MDMA (or saline) during late adolescence and assessed anxiety-like behavior and monoamine levels during abstinence. Rats were conditioned to associate 5 or 10mg/kg MDMA or saline with contextual cues over 4 twice-daily sessions. Five days after conditioning, anxiety-like behavior was examined with the open field test and brain tissue was collected to assess serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the dorsal raphe, amygdala, and hippocampus by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). In a separate group of rats, anxiety-like and avoidant behaviors were measured using the light-dark box test under similar experimental conditions. MDMA conditioning caused a place aversion at 10, but not at 5, mg/kg, as well as increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field and avoidant behavior in light-dark box test at the same dose. Additionally, 10mg/kg MDMA decreased 5-HT in the dorsal raphe, increased 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the amygdala, and did not alter levels in the hippocampus. Overall, we show that repeated high (10mg/kg), but not low (5mg/kg), dose MDMA during late adolescence in rats increases anxiety-like and avoidant behaviors, accompanied by region-specific alterations in 5-HT levels during abstinence. These results suggest that MDMA causes a region-specific dysregulation of the serotonin system during adolescence that may contribute to maladaptive behavior.

  3. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boon-How; Chew; Sazlina; Shariff-Ghazali; Aaron; Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus(DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal contro of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications,causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation,self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors,coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relationto DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  4. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron

    2014-12-15

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient's adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient's psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation, self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors, coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relation to DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  5. Separate and combined effects of methylphenidate and a behavioral intervention on disruptive behavior in children with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, N J; Mauk, J E; McComas, J J; Mace, F C

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the separate and combined effects of a behavioral intervention and methylphenidate (Ritalin) on disruptive behavior and task engagement in 3 children with severe to profound mental retardation. The behavioral intervention involved differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior and guided compliance. All 3 children demonstrated decreased disruptive behavior and improved task engagement in response to the response to the behavioral intervention. Two of the 3 children demonstrated similar improvement in response to methylphenidate. Although both interventions were highly effective for these 2 participants, the relative efficacy of the interventions varied between the 2 children. There was no evidence of an additive or synergistic effect of the two interventions, but the high efficacy of each intervention alone limited our ability to detect such effects.

  6. Maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems: a fixed effects regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Ystrom, Eivind; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Torgersen, Leila

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, the aims of the current study were to examine associations between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems, taking both observed and unobserved confounding factors into account by employing fixed effects regression models. Postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use (defined as drinking alcohol 4 or more times a week, or drinking 7 units or more per alcohol use episode) and toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed when the toddlers were aged 18 and 36 months. Maternal psychopathology, civil status and negative life events last year were included as time-variant covariates. Maternal heavy alcohol use was associated with toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems (p < 0.001) in the population when examined with generalized estimating equation models. The associations disappeared when observed and unobserved sources of confounding were taken into account in the fixed effects models [(p = 0.909 for externalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.021), p = 0.928 for internalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.023)], with an even further reduction of the estimates with the inclusion of time-variant confounders. No causal effect was found between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems. Increased levels of behavior problems among toddlers of heavy drinking mothers should therefore be attributed to other adverse characteristics associated with these mothers, toddlers and families. This should be taken into account when interventions aimed at at-risk families identified by maternal heavy alcohol use are planned and conducted.

  7. Effects of surgical side and site on mood and behavior outcome in children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth N Andresen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy have a high rate of mood and behavior problems yet few studies consider the emotional and behavioral impact of surgery. No study to date has been sufficiently powered to investigate effects of both side (left/right and site (temporal/frontal of surgery. One hundred patients (aged 6-16 and their families completed measures of depression, anxiety and behavioral function as part of neuropsychological evaluations before and after surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Among children who had left-sided surgeries (frontal=16; temporal=38, there were significant interactions between time (pre to postoperative neuropsychological assessment and resection site (frontal/temporal on Anhedonia, Social Anxiety, and Withdrawn/Depressed scales. Patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE endorsed greater presurgical anhedonia and social anxiety than patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, with scores normalizing following surgery. While scores on the Withdrawn/Depressed scale were similar between groups before surgery, the FLE group showed greater symptom improvement after surgery. In children who underwent right-sided surgeries (FLE=20; TLE=26 main effects of time (patients in both groups improved and resection site (caregivers of FLE patients endorsed greater symptoms than those with TLE were observed primarily on behavior scales. Individual data revealed that a greater proportion of children with left FLE demonstrated clinically significant improvements in Anhedonia, Social Anxiety, and Aggressive Behavior than children with TLE. This is the first study to demonstrate differential effects of both side and site of surgery in children with epilepsy at group and individual levels. Results suggest that children with FLE have greater emotional and behavioral dysfunction before surgery, but show marked improvement after surgery. Overall, most children had good emotional and behavioral outcomes, with most scores remaining stable or improving.

  8. Positive effects of early androgen therapy on the behavioral phenotype of boys with 47,XXY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Stapleton, Emily J; Lawson, Patrick; Mitchell, Francie; Sadeghin, Teresa; Powell, Sherida; Gropman, Andrea L

    2015-06-01

    47, XXY occurs in up to 1 in 650 male births and is associated with androgen deficiency, neurodevelopmental delays, and atypical social-behaviors. Previously, we showed that young boys with 47, XXY who received early hormonal therapy (EHT) had significantly improved neurodevelopment. The objective of this follow-up study was to examine the effects of EHT on social behavior in boys with 47, XXY. The study consisted of boys prenatally diagnosed with 47, XXY who were referred for evaluations. Twenty-nine boys received three injections of 25 mg testosterone enanthate and 57 controls did not receive EHT. Behavioral functioning was assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Social Responsiveness Scale, 2nd Ed., and the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18. The hypothesis that EHT may affect behavior was formulated prior to data collection. Questionnaire data was prospectively obtained and analyzed to test for significance between two groups. Significant differences were identified between group's scores over time in Social Communication (P=0.007), Social Cognition (P=0.006), and Total T-score (P=0.001) on the SRS-2; Initiation (P=0.05) on the BRIEF; and Externalizing Problems (P=0.024), Affective Problems (P=0.05), and Aggressive Behaviors (P=0.031) on the CBCL. This is the third study revealing positive effects of EHT on boys with XXY. There was a significant improvements associated with the 47, XXY genotype in boys who received EHT. Research is underway on the neurobiological mechanisms, and later developmental effects of EHT. PMID:25939399

  9. Positive effects of early androgen therapy on the behavioral phenotype of boys with 47,XXY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Stapleton, Emily J; Lawson, Patrick; Mitchell, Francie; Sadeghin, Teresa; Powell, Sherida; Gropman, Andrea L

    2015-06-01

    47, XXY occurs in up to 1 in 650 male births and is associated with androgen deficiency, neurodevelopmental delays, and atypical social-behaviors. Previously, we showed that young boys with 47, XXY who received early hormonal therapy (EHT) had significantly improved neurodevelopment. The objective of this follow-up study was to examine the effects of EHT on social behavior in boys with 47, XXY. The study consisted of boys prenatally diagnosed with 47, XXY who were referred for evaluations. Twenty-nine boys received three injections of 25 mg testosterone enanthate and 57 controls did not receive EHT. Behavioral functioning was assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Social Responsiveness Scale, 2nd Ed., and the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18. The hypothesis that EHT may affect behavior was formulated prior to data collection. Questionnaire data was prospectively obtained and analyzed to test for significance between two groups. Significant differences were identified between group's scores over time in Social Communication (P=0.007), Social Cognition (P=0.006), and Total T-score (P=0.001) on the SRS-2; Initiation (P=0.05) on the BRIEF; and Externalizing Problems (P=0.024), Affective Problems (P=0.05), and Aggressive Behaviors (P=0.031) on the CBCL. This is the third study revealing positive effects of EHT on boys with XXY. There was a significant improvements associated with the 47, XXY genotype in boys who received EHT. Research is underway on the neurobiological mechanisms, and later developmental effects of EHT.

  10. Effect of chronic social defeat stress on behaviors and dopamine receptor in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Gao, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Xu, Yu-Ming; Li, Hao; Lv, Lu-Xian

    2016-04-01

    Victims of bullying often undergo depression, low self-esteem, high anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. The social defeat model has become widely accepted for studying experimental animal behavior changes associated with bullying; however, differences in the effects in susceptible and unsusceptible individuals have not been well studied. The present study investigated the effects of social defeat stress on behavior and the expression of dopamine receptors D1 and D2 in the brains of adult mice. Adult mice were divided into susceptible and unsusceptible groups after 10days of social defeat stress. Behavioral tests were conducted, and protein levels in the brains were assessed by Western blotting. The results indicate that all mice undergo decreased locomotion and increased anxiety behavior. However, decreased social interaction and impaired memory performance were only observed in susceptible mice. A significantly decreased expression of D1 was observed in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of susceptible mice only. No significant differences in D2 expression were shown between control and defeated mice in any area studied. These data indicate that depression-like behavior and cognition impairment caused by social defeat stress in susceptible mice may be related to changes in the dopamine receptor D1. PMID:26655446

  11. Caregiver Unresolved Loss and Abuse and Child Behavior Problems: Intergenerational Effects in a High-Risk Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Zajac, Kristyn; Kobak, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational effects of caregivers’ Unresolved loss and abuse on children’s behavior problems from middle childhood to early adolescence in an economically disadvantaged sample. One hundred twenty four caregivers completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and a lifetime trauma interview during the age 13 wave of the study. Child behavior problems were assessed at four time points (ages 6, 8, 10, and 13) with teacher-reported CBCL total problem scales. The chil...

  12. Experimenter effects on behavioral test scores of eight inbred mouse strains under the influence of ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, Martin; Hayes, Erika R.; Bohlen, Benjamin; Bailoo, Jeremy; Crabbe, John C.; Wahlsten, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Eight standard inbred mouse strains were evaluated for ethanol effects on a refined battery of behavioral tests in a study that was originally designed to assess the influence of rat odors in the colony on mouse behaviors. As part of the design of the study, two experimenters conducted the tests, and the study was carefully balanced so that equal numbers of mice in all groups and times of day were tested by each experimenter. A defect in airflow in the facility compromised the odor manipulation, and in fact the different odor exposure groups did not differ in their behaviors. The two experimenters, however, obtained markedly different results for three of the tests. Certain of the experimenter effects arose from the way they judged behaviors that were not automated and had to be rated by the experimenter, such as slips on the balance beam. Others were not evident prior to ethanol injection but had a major influence after the injection. For several measures, the experimenter effects were notably different for different inbred strains. Methods to evaluate and reduce the impact of experimenter effects in future research are discussed. PMID:24933191

  13. Behavioral effects of ketamine and toxic interactions with psychostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiichi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anesthetic drug ketamine (KT has been reported to be an abused drug and fatal cases have been observed in polydrug users. In the present study, considering the possibility of KT-enhanced toxic effects of other drugs, and KT-induced promotion of an overdose without making the subject aware of the danger due to the attenuation of several painful subjective symptoms, the intraperitoneal (i.p. KT-induced alterations in behaviors and toxic interactions with popular co-abused drugs, the psychostimulants cocaine (COC and methamphetamine (MA, were examined in ICR mice. Results A single dose of KT caused hyperlocomotion in a low (30 mg/kg, i.p. dose group, and hypolocomotion followed by hyperlocomotion in a high (100 mg/kg, i.p. dose group. However, no behavioral alterations derived from enhanced stress-related depression or anxiety were observed in the forced swimming or the elevated plus-maze test. A single non-fatal dose of COC (30 mg/kg, i.p. or MA (4 mg/kg, i.p. caused hyperlocomotion, stress-related depression in swimming behaviors in the forced swimming test, and anxiety-related behavioral changes (preference for closed arms in the elevated plus-maze test. For the COC (30 mg/kg or MA (4 mg/kg groups of mice simultaneously co-treated with KT, the psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion was suppressed by the high dose KT, and the psychostimulant-induced behavioral alterations in the above tests were reversed by both low and high doses of KT. For the toxic dose COC (70 mg/kg, i.p.- or MA (15 mg/kg, i.p.-only group, mortality and severe seizures were observed in some animals. In the toxic dose psychostimulant-KT groups, KT attenuated the severity of seizures dose-dependently. Nevertheless, the mortality rate was significantly increased by co-treatment with the high dose KT. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that, in spite of the absence of stress-related depressive and anxiety-related behavioral alterations following a single

  14. Automated Cognitive Health Assessment From Smart Home-Based Behavior Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla Nath; Cook, Diane Joyce; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    Smart home technologies offer potential benefits for assisting clinicians by automating health monitoring and well-being assessment. In this paper, we examine the actual benefits of smart home-based analysis by monitoring daily behavior in the home and predicting clinical scores of the residents. To accomplish this goal, we propose a clinical assessment using activity behavior (CAAB) approach to model a smart home resident's daily behavior and predict the corresponding clinical scores. CAAB uses statistical features that describe characteristics of a resident's daily activity performance to train machine learning algorithms that predict the clinical scores. We evaluate the performance of CAAB utilizing smart home sensor data collected from 18 smart homes over two years. We obtain a statistically significant correlation ( r=0.72) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided cognitive scores and a statistically significant correlation ( r=0.45) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided mobility scores. These prediction results suggest that it is feasible to predict clinical scores using smart home sensor data and learning-based data analysis.

  15. Evaluation of a behavioral assessment tool for dogs relinquished to shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Deborah L; Kruger, Katherine A; Serpell, James A

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate a shortened, 42-item version of the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ((S))) as a behavioral screening tool for dogs relinquished to animal shelters. In contrast to a previous finding, the current study found no consistent evidence that relinquishing owners gave unreliable or biased responses to the questionnaire depending on whether or not they believed that this information would be shared with shelter staff or used to evaluate dogs for adoption. Relinquishing owners' C-BARQ((S)) responses for items related to aggression and fear directed toward humans and other dogs correlated with independent subjective assessments of aggressiveness made by shelter staff (generalized linear mixed models, Paggressive dogs, N=156 non-aggressive dogs). In addition, C-BARQ((S)) scores successfully discriminated between dogs based on their eventual outcomes (i.e., adoption or euthanasia; Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Paggression (rs=0.494, P<0.001), chewing inappropriate objects (rs=0.402, P<0.01), and urination when left alone (rs=0.421, P<0.01). Overall, the findings confirmed the value of this type of shelter intake survey instrument for screening owner-surrendered dogs for the presence of behavior problems. PMID:25457136

  16. 75 FR 22596 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... comparative norms. We will screen 52,800 households for members' age, gender and primary language to recruit... their full effect if received within 60 days of the date of this publication. Dated: April 23, 2010... four domains of neurological and behavioral functioning (cognitive, emotional, motor and sensory)...

  17. 76 FR 1621 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ...' age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and primary language. The targeted population will be non... effect if received within 60 days of the date of this publication. Dated: January 4, 2011. Melissa... measures of four domains of neurological and behavioral functioning (cognitive, emotional, motor...

  18. Effectiveness of and Dropout from Outpatient Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adult Unipolar Depression: A Meta-Analysis of Nonrandomized Effectiveness Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Eva; Hiller, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to assess the overall effectiveness of and dropout from individual and group outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for adults with a primary diagnosis of unipolar depressive disorder in routine clinical practice. Method: We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of 34 nonrandomized…

  19. The effects of music on animal physiology, behavior and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne C; Buerkle, Shawna C

    2013-02-01

    Physiological and psychological effects of listening to music have been documented in humans. The changes in physiology, cognition and brain chemistry and morphology induced by music have been studied in animal models, providing evidence that music may affect animals similarly to humans. Information about the potential benefits of music to animals suggests that providing music may be used as a means of improving the welfare of laboratory animals, such as through environmental enrichment, stress relief and behavioral modification. The authors review the current research on music's effect on animals' physiology and behavior and discuss its potential for improving animal welfare. They conclude that the benefits of providing music to laboratory animals depend on the species and the type of music.

  20. Effectiveness of a Response Cost Raffle Procedure on the Disruptive Classroom Behavior of Adolescents with Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Mary Anne; Morgan, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of a behavior management procedure--the response cost raffle--was studied with three male eighth graders and one female ninth grader in special education with mild to moderate behavior problems. Results indicate that the response cost raffle can be an effective and a practical classroom technique for increasing appropriate…

  1. Effects of Supervisor Performance Feedback on Increasing Preservice Teachers' Positive Communication Behaviors with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathel, Jeanna Marie; Drasgow, Erik; Christle, Christine C.

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of supervisor performance feedback on preservice teachers' rates of positive and negative communication behaviors with students with emotional and behavioral disorders and the effects of the intervention on the preservice teachers' perceptions of classroom management and climate. The authors…

  2. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ► Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ► High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred μm) of nanofibrous scaffolds ► Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ► Differentiation not significantly affected ► Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum

  3. Where are the Behavioral Sleep Medicine Providers and Where are They Needed? A Geographic Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Arthur; Grandner, Michael; Nowakowski, Sara; Nesom, Genevieve; Corbitt, Charles; Perlis, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Although it is widely acknowledged that there are not enough clinicians trained in either Behavioral Sleep Medicine (BSM) in general or in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) in specific, what is unclear is whether this problem is more acute in some regions relative to others. Accordingly, a geographic approach was taken to assess this issue. Using national directories as well as e-mail listservs (Behavioral Sleep Medicine group and Behavioral Treatment for Insomnia Roster), the present study evaluated geographic patterning of CBSM and BSM providers by city, state, and country. Overall, 88% of 752 BSM providers worldwide live in the United States (n = 659). Of these, 58% reside in 12 states with ≥ 20 providers (CA, NY, PA, IL, MA, TX, FL, OH, MI, MN, WA, and CO), and 19% reside in just 2 states (NY and CA). There were 4 states with no BSM providers (NH, HI, SD, and WY). Of the 167 U.S. cities with a population of > 150,000, 105 cities have no BSM providers. These results clearly suggest that a targeted effort is needed to train individuals in both the unserved and underserved areas. PMID:27159249

  4. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. ...

  5. Homogenization principles and effect of mixing on dielectric behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sihvola, Ari

    2013-01-01

    This paper consists of two parts. First, a review of classical mixing principles lists the multitude of the various ways to characterize the effective permittivity of heterogeneous materials. Different connections between the various mixing formulas are underlined and the homogenization principles are classified into families of mixing rules. The second part emphasizes and analyzes the richness of the manner how the mixing process is able to create new types of dielectric behaviors, in partic...

  6. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Ethnicity on Children's Behavioral Attributions and Peer Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Judith H.; Stephan, Cookie

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the generality of stereotypes associated with physical attractiveness and assesses the relative contributions of attractiveness and ethnicity in determining children's behavioral attributions and peer preferences. (JMB)

  7. Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Sarah; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Hohm, Erika; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5' untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring's mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously.

  8. Effects of harmane, norharmane and harmine on apomorphine-induced pecking behavior in chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Farzin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available .(Received 3 January, 2009; Accepted 27 May, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: -carboline alkaloids, also known as harmala's alkaloids have a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions including a stimulatory action on release of dopamine and other catecholamines in several brain regions and an inhibitory action on monoamine oxidase (MAO. These findings suggest that -carbolines should alleviate at least some of the dopaminergic stereotyped behaviors. The purpose of present study is to determine the effects of -carbolines harmane, norharmane and harmine on apomorphine-induced pecking behavior in chick.Materials and methods: All experiments were carried out on male/female chicks (40-60 g. The modulatory effects of -Carbolines on stereotyped behavior were assessed using the pecking behavior induced by apomorphine. Subcutaneous (s.c. injection of apomorphaine (0.025 mg/kg, mixed agonist of dopamine D1/D2 receptors induced pecking. The pecking response was counted by direct observation and recorded for a 40-minute period.Results: S.C. injection of harmane (2.5-10 mg/kg and harmine (1.25-5 mg/kg significantly decreased the pecking behavior induced by apomorphine (0.25 mg/kg. The norharmane (2.5-15 mg/kg, i.p. response was biphasic. The inhibitory effects of harmane, norharmane and harmine were blocked by flumazenil (5 mg/kg, i.e., 30 minutes before the test or reserpine (5 mg/kg, i.e., 18 hours before the test.Conclusion: Results suggest that the modulatory effect of harmane, norharmane and harmine on the pecking behavior may be mediated through an inverse agonistic/monoaminergic mechanism.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(70: 1-8 (Persian

  9. Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Sarah; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Hohm, Erika; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5' untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring's mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously. PMID:27300740

  10. Effects of female gonadal hormones and LPS on depressive-like behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence shows an association of depression with the immune system and emphasizes the importance of gender in the etiology of the disease and the response to inflammatory stimuli. We examined the influence of immune-challenged systems on depressive-like behavior in female rats in the context of gonadal hormones. We used a neuroinflammatory model of depression elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration on naive and ovariectomized (OVX female rats, and examined the effects of estradiol (E2 and/or progesterone (P4 replacement therapy on animal behavior, as assessed by the forced swimming test (FST. We found that LPS and OVX increase immobility in the FST, while LPS also decreased body weight in naive female rats. Further, even though P4 application alone showed beneficial effects on the behavioral profile (it reduced immobility and increased climbing, supplementation of both hormones (E2 and P4 together to OVX rats failed to do so. When OVX rats were exposed to LPS-induced immune challenge, neither hormone individually nor their combination had any effect on immobility, however, their joint supplementation increased climbing behavior. In conclusion, our study confirmed that both LPS and OVX induced depressive-like behavior in female rats. Furthermore, our results potentiate P4 supplementation in relieving the depressive-like symptomatology in OVX rats, most likely through fine-tuning of different neurotransmitter systems. In the context of an activated immune system, the application of E2 and/or P4 does not provide any advantageous effects on depressive-like behavior.

  11. Risk-assessment and risk-taking behavior predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara ePalm

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain personality types and behavioral traits display high correlations to drug use and an increased level of dopamine in the reward system is a common denominator of all drugs of abuse. Dopamine response to drugs has been suggested to correlate with some of these personality types and to be a key factor influencing the predisposition to addiction. This study investigated if behavioral traits can be related to potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum, an area hypothesized to be involved in the shift from drug use to addiction. The open field and multivariate concentric square field™ tests were used to assess individual behavior in male Wistar rats. Chronoamperometric recordings were then made to study the potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in vivo. A classification based on risk-taking behavior in the open field was used for further comparisons. Risk-taking behavior was correlated between the behavioral tests and high risk takers displayed a more pronounced response to the dopamine uptake blocking effects of amphetamine. Behavioral parameters from both tests could also predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine responses showing a correlation between neurochemistry and behavior in risk-assessment and risk-taking parameters. In conclusion, the high risk-taking rats showed a more pronounced reduction of dopamine uptake in the dorsal striatum after amphetamine indicating that this area may contribute to the sensitivity of these animals to psychostimulants and proneness to addiction. Further, inherent dopamine activity was related to risk-assessment behavior, which may be of importance for decision-making and inhibitory control, key components in addiction.

  12. Behavioral and social effects of family violence in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was tome asure effects of domestic violence on children, both child abuse and exposure to marital violence. 300 families were randomly selected in Hermosillo, Sonora, a northwestern Mexican city. Two members of each family were interviewed: the mother anda minor randomly selected among all their children. The research instrument collected demographicinformation, and information regarding mother's and parent's alcohol consumption, marital violence,child abuse, and child misconduct. A structural model was tested which estimated the effects ofchild abuse and exposure to marital violence on child problems. Results showed that the two forms of violence had repercussions on delinquent and antisocial behavior, produced attention problems,depression, anxiety, sadness and the manifestation of somatic symptoms. In addition, mother's education a level had a significant and negative effect on children's behavioral and social problemsand father's educational level inhibited their aggression against their wives. Alcohol consumption was positively related to child abuse. These results seems to indicate that both child abuse andexposure to marital violence rcsult in harmful consequences on children's behavior and well-being.

  13. Effects of consumer motives on search behavior using internet advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kenneth C C

    2004-08-01

    Past studies on uses and gratifications theory suggested that consumer motives affect how they will use media and media contents. Recent advertising research has extended the theory to study the use of Internet advertising. The current study explores the effects of consumer motives on their search behavior using Internet advertising. The study employed a 2 by 2 between-subjects factorial experiment design. A total of 120 subjects were assigned to an experiment condition that contains an Internet advertisement varying by advertising appeals (i.e., rational vs. emotional) and product involvement levels (high vs. low). Consumer search behavior (measured by the depth, breadth, total amount of search), demographics, and motives were collected by post-experiment questionnaires. Because all three dependent variables measuring search behavior were conceptually related to each other, MANCOVA procedures were employed to examine the moderating effects of consumer motives on the dependent variables in four product involvement-advertising appeal conditions. Results indicated that main effects for product involvements and advertising appeals were statistically significant. Univariate ANOVA also showed that advertising appeals and product involvement levels influenced the total amount of search. Three-way interactions among advertising appeals, product involvement levels, and information motive were also statistically significant. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:15331030

  14. Bootstrapping under constraint for the assessment of group behavior in human contact networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblay, Nicolas; Forest, Cary; Nornberg, Mark; Pinton, Jean-François; Borgnat, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The increasing availability of time --and space-- resolved data describing human activities and interactions gives insights into both static and dynamic properties of human behavior. In practice, nevertheless, real-world datasets can often be considered as only one realisation of a particular event. This highlights a key issue in social network analysis: the statistical significance of estimated properties. In this context, we focus here on the assessment of quantitative features of specific subset of nodes in empirical networks. We present a resampling method based on bootstrapping groups of nodes under constraints within the empirical network. The method enables us to define confidence intervals for various Null Hypotheses concerning relevant properties of the subset of nodes under consideration, in order to characterize its behavior as "normal" or not. We apply this method to a high resolution dataset describing the face-to-face proximity of individuals during two co-located scientific conferences. As a ca...

  15. Assessment of Risk of Violent Behavior in Female Psychiatric Patients with a Criminal History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makurina A.P.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of study of illegal actions predictors in individuals with mental disorders and discuss the specific features of female criminality. On a sample of 69 patients with a diagnosis of organic mental disorder and schizophrenia, with criminal histories, we applied clinical and psychological hermeneutic analysis, used questionnaires to determine the self-assessments of patients, self-control diagnosis, self-regulation style features, diagnosis of aggression and hostility, coping strategies, destructive attitudes in interpersonal relationships. It made possible to identify clinical, social and pathopsychological factors of aggressive behavior in forensic patients. These individual psychological characteristics of mentally ill women will improve the prognosis of their aggressive behavior, implement differentiated preventive measures in the hospital and to establish appropriate intervention programs

  16. Assessment of risk-taking and impulsive behaviors: A comparison between three tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sihua; Korczykowski, Marc; Zhu, Senhua; Rao, Hengyi

    2013-01-01

    The balloon analogue risk task (BART), the delay discounting task (DDT), and the Iowa gambling task (IGT) are increasingly used for the assessment of risk-taking and impulsive behaviors. This study examined the reliability of and relationships between these three tasks in healthy Chinese subjects. The BART and DDT showed moderate to high test-retest reliability across three test sessions. However, the IGT showed low reliability for the first two sessions but high reliability for the last two sessions. Between tasks, only the BART and IGT showed significant correlations at the last two sessions, while no other correlations were found. These findings support the view that impulsivity is a complex construct with no single personality trait underlying the disposition for impulsive behaviors. PMID:23997401

  17. Effect of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ranjbar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most prevalent psychotic disorder. In order to cure and prevent the recurrence of this disease, it is necessary to gain more information about remedial methods like Group Cognitive- Behavior Therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the amount of depression on the patients. Methods: This study was experimental and it included both experimental and control group with a pre test. The subjects were selected from patients with mild depression. Their Beck inventory score ranged between 17-20. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. The subjects of experimental group received eight sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Beck depression test was completed by the subjects in three phases before the intervention, after the intervention and one month after that. The data was transferred to SPSS program and analyzed. Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the intervention at Beck tests (P=0.043. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the experimental group between the depression score in patients before and after the intervention (p=0.033 and the score of patients before and one month after the intervention (p=0.492. Conclusion: Group Cognitive-Behavioral therapy decreases depression in patients who suffer from mild depression.

  18. Aspen shaving versus chip bedding: effects on breeding and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E; Demarest, K; Eckert, W J; Cates-Gatto, C; Nadav, T; Cates, L N; Howard, H; Roberts, A J

    2015-01-01

    The choice of laboratory cage bedding material is often based on both practical and husbandry issues, whereas behavioral outcomes rarely appear to be considered. It has been noted that a breeding success difference appears to be associated with the differential use of aspen chip and aspen shaving bedding in our facility; therefore, we sought to analyze breeding records maintained over a 20-month period. In fact, in all four mouse strains analyzed, shaving bedding was associated with a significant increase in average weanlings per litter relative to chip bedding. To determine whether these bedding types also resulted in differences in behaviors associated with wellbeing, we examined nest building, anxiety-like, depressive-like (or helpless-like), and social behavior in mice housed on chip versus shaving bedding. We found differences in the nests built, but no overall effect of bedding type on the other behaviors examined. Therefore, we argue that breeding success, perhaps especially in more challenging strains, is improved on shaving bedding and this is likely due to improved nest-building potential. For standard laboratory practices, however, these bedding types appear equivalent.

  19. Assessment of the differences in masticatory behavior between male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudine, Kelly Guedes de Oliveira; Pedroni-Pereira, Aline; Araujo, Darlle Santos; Prado, Daniela Galvão de Almeida; Rossi, Ana Claudia; Castelo, Paula Midori

    2016-09-01

    Chewing behavior may show sex differences; thus, the present study aimed to compare the masticatory aspects and the prediction of masticatory performance between male and female adolescents. Ninety-one healthy subjects (47 girls, 44 boys), caries-free and aged 14-17years, were included. Masticatory performance and maximal bite force were evaluated using a color-changeable chewing gum and digital gnathodynamometer, respectively. Masticatory behavior was assessed by the subjective aspect of the quality of the masticatory function (validated questionnaire) and the Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation with Scores expanded (OMES-e) was used to determine chewing time, frequency of chewing cycles and other aspects. Salivary flow rate was also assessed. The physical examination involved measurements of facial morphometry, body weight, height, skeletal muscle mass, and dental/occlusal evaluations. It was observed that boys showed larger facial dimensions, higher bite force and chewing frequency and better masticatory performance than girls. They also showed shorter chewing time, fewer chewing cycles and lower score for OMES-e (that is, more changes in orofacial myofunctional aspects). Bite force showed a weak correlation with skeletal muscle mass only in boys (r=0.3035; p=0.0451). The masticatory performance was dependent on the bite force in boys (Adj R(2)=19.2%; Power=84.1%); among girls, masticatory performance was dependent on the frequency of chewing cycles and masticatory behavior (subjective aspect) (Adj R(2)=34.1%; Power=96.1%). The findings support the existence of sex differences in many masticatory aspects of function and behavior, hence the importance of considering sex differences when evaluating masticatory function and myofunctional therapy outcomes among young subjects. PMID:27143251

  20. Model-based experimental design for assessing effects of mixtures of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baas, Jan, E-mail: jan.baas@falw.vu.n [Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, Dept of Theoretical Biology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stefanowicz, Anna M., E-mail: anna.stefanowicz@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Klimek, Beata, E-mail: beata.klimek@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Laskowski, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard.laskowski@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.L.M., E-mail: bas@bio.vu.n [Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, Dept of Theoretical Biology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    We exposed flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) to a mixture of four poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The experimental setup was chosen such that the emphasis was on assessing partial effects. We interpreted the effects of the mixture by a process-based model, with a threshold concentration for effects on survival. The behavior of the threshold concentration was one of the key features of this research. We showed that the threshold concentration is shared by toxicants with the same mode of action, which gives a mechanistic explanation for the observation that toxic effects in mixtures may occur in concentration ranges where the individual components do not show effects. Our approach gives reliable predictions of partial effects on survival and allows for a reduction of experimental effort in assessing effects of mixtures, extrapolations to other mixtures, other points in time, or in a wider perspective to other organisms. - We show a mechanistic approach to assess effects of mixtures in low concentrations.

  1. The Effect of Behavioral Family Intervention on Knowledge of Effective Parenting Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Leanne; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of research considering the effect of behavioral family intervention (BFI) on parenting knowledge and the relative importance of both knowledge and parent confidence in reducing parenting dysfunction and problematic child behavior is unclear. In this study ninety-one parents (44 mothers, 47 fathers) of children aged 2-10 years…

  2. Effects of hallucinogenic agents mescaline and phencyclidine on zebrafish behavior and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Collins, Christopher; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Green, Jeremy; Roth, Andrew; Monnig, Louie; El-Ounsi, Mohamed; Davis, Ari; Freeman, Andrew; Capezio, Nicholas; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-04-27

    Mescaline and phencyclidine (PCP) are potent hallucinogenic agents affecting human and animal behavior. As their psychotropic effects remain poorly understood, further research is necessary to characterize phenotypes they evoke in various animal models. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as a new model organism for neuroscience research. Here, we examine the effects of mescaline (5-20mg/l) and PCP (0.5-3mg/l) in several zebrafish paradigms, including the novel tank, open field and shoaling tests. Mescaline and PCP dose-dependently increased top activity in the novel tank test, also reducing immobility and disrupting the patterning of zebrafish swimming, as assessed by ethograms. PCP, but not mescaline, evoked circling behavior in the open field test. At the highest doses tested, mescaline markedly increased, while PCP did not affect, zebrafish shoaling behavior. Finally, 20mg/l mescaline did not alter, and 3mg/l PCP elevated, whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our studies indicate high sensitivity of zebrafish models to hallucinogenic compounds with complex behavioral and physiological effects.

  3. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Worcester

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication training, breaks, and altering the non-preferred stimulus are discussed as effective treatments for escape-maintained behaviors. Similarities between treatment and implications for practitioners are discussed.

  4. Promoting Behavioral Regulation in Writing: Differential Effects on Indicators of Writing Performance and Learning Behaviors in 4th Graders with and without Externalizing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Glaser

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In a writing intervention study with 4th-graders, we examined the effects of behaviour-oriented procedures (specification of behaviour rules and intentions; feedback on desired target behaviour, and self-evaluation of behaviour progress on the writing performance of students with aggressive and hyperactive behaviors. In two classes, 42 students, including 10 students with aggressive and hyperactive behaviors, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: writing strategies program vs. writing strategies plus behaviour-regulation program. Both programs consisted of four 90-min sessions. In groups of nine to twelve students, all students received a cognitive strategies intervention for writing narratives (Glaser, 2005. At posttest and follow-up assessments (four weeks after the training, aggressive-hyperactive students who had been taught writing strategies in tandem with behaviour-regulation techniques outperformed students with problem behaviours who had not been taught such techniques in strategy-related and holistic measures of writing performance. Students with behaviour problems who had only received the writing strategies instruction gained least from attending the program.

  5. Driver behavior and accident frequency in school zones: Assessing the impact of sign saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawderman, Lesley; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Huang, Yunchen; Nandi, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    Based on the models of human information processing, if a driver observes too many of the same signs, he or she may no longer pay attention to those signs. In the case of school zones, this expected effect may lead to non-compliance to posted speeds, negatively impacting safety around nearby schools. This study aims to investigate the effect of the number of nearby school zones on driver behavior (vehicle speed and compliance) and accident frequency. As a measure of the density of school zones, this study introduced and defined a new term sign saturation and presented a methodology to calculate sign saturation for school zones. Results found a significant effect of sign saturation on vehicle speed, compliance, and accident frequency. This study also examined the speeding behavior in school zones for different time of the day and day of the week. Results found that speeding was more prevalent in the early mornings and during the weekends. PMID:26070018

  6. GBR 12909 administration as a mouse model of bipolar disorder mania: mimicking quantitative assessment of manic behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Jared W.; Goey, Andrew K.; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Martin P Paulus; Geyer, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Mania is a core feature of bipolar disorder (BD) that traditionally is assessed using rating scales. Studies using a new human behavioral pattern monitor (BPM) recently demonstrated that manic BD patients exhibit a specific profile of behavior that differs from schizophrenia and is characterized by increased motor activity, increased specific exploration, and perseverative locomotor patterns as assessed by spatial d. Objectives It was hypothesized that disrupting dopaminergic homeos...

  7. Investigating the Collateral Effects of Behavior Management on Early Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Prykanowski, Debra; Coyne, Michael; Scott, Terrance M.

    2015-01-01

    Effective behavior management is necessary to ensure students are engaged with instruction. Students cannot learn if they are not engaged. Although the relationship between effective behavior management and positive student behavior is well established, the relationship between behavior management and increased academic achievement, including…

  8. Long-Term Effects of a Token Economy on Target and Off-Task Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Theodore H.; Vogrin, Daniel J.

    1979-01-01

    Examined the effects of a token economy on off-task behavior occurring concurrently with the reinforcement of target behavior. Results indicated that while the token economy maintained effectiveness in terms of increasing the frequency of target behaviors, the frequency of off-task or inappropriate behaviors also increased as the year progressed.…

  9. Behavioral assessment of the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM P8 and R1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowska, A L; Spangler, E L; Ingram, D K

    1998-04-01

    Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM P8 and R1) were behaviorally assessed in a cross-sectional study at 4 and 15 months of age. Behavioral measures included memory (place discrimination and repeated acquisition in a water maze), sensorimotor performance (turning in an alley, traversing bridges, wire rod hanging, and falls from a wire screen), psychomotor performance (open-field exploration), and emotionality (entries in a plus maze, grooming, and defecation in a plus maze and in an open field). In the water maze, aged P8 mice were impaired in place discrimination and in repeated acquisition tasks, demonstrating evidence of an age-related decline in spatial memory processing abilities. The demonstration of this impairment, however, was complicated by noncognitive factors, such as the tendency of many older P8 mice to float. Sensorimotor skill impairment was accelerated with age in P8 mice, but not in R1 mice, and this impairment was present despite the lack of age-related changes in body weight in P8 mice. Although P8 and R1 mice were not different in general activity at old age, P8 mice were substantially more hyperactive in an open field and in the plus maze than R1 mice when compared at young age. Independent of age, P8 mice demonstrated a reduction of anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze. Taken as a whole, the data suggest that although age-related behavioral alterations occur in the P8 mice, some of these changes are evident at 4 months of age. Thus, the behavioral abnormalities that exist not only represent an accelerated aging phenomenon but may also be considered a developmental pathology. PMID:9661977

  10. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  11. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa Hayley

    Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS

  12. Intragroup and intergroup evaluation effects on group behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branscombe, NR; Spears, R; Ellemers, N; Doosje, B

    2002-01-01

    Groups differ in the prestige they are accorded by outgroups, and individuals differ in how much respect they receive from their group. The authors orthogonally varied both types of social evaluation-intergroup and intragroup-to assess their joint effects on reward allocations and the amount of tune

  13. Effects of Task Difficulty and Teacher Attention on the Off-Task Behavior of High-Ability Students with Behavior Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Brandi; Little, Catherine A.; Fairbanks, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This study used traditional behavioral assessment procedures (functional behavioral assessment and structural analysis) in a single-subject design to determine whether a functional relationship existed between (a) levels of task difficulty and teacher attention and (b) off-task behavior in 3 students identified as highly able in mathematics who…

  14. Blending Effective Behavior Management and Literacy Strategies for Preschoolers Exhibiting Negative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes students will exhibit various aggressive behaviors in the preschool classroom. Early childhood educators need to have behavior management strategies to manage the students' negative behaviors within the classroom setting. This article will provide a rationale for embedding literacy instruction within behavior management strategies to…

  15. Hydromechanics behavior of dam with core by taking into account the effect of contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkouche, A.; Benadla, Z.; Houmadi, Y.; Ghefir, M.

    2008-07-01

    Forces acting on the thin cores of earth dams could be reduced by the effect of contact with the refills. Thus the effective stress could be reduced and in turn will induce cracks at the base of the dams. This phenomenon is called hydraulic fracturing. The modeling of this phenomenon, using ANSYS program, by taking into account the effect of contact will make possible the prediction of global behavior of the dam and in the meantime will allow the assessment of the thickness of the core under which the effect of contact will have an influence. A parametric study has been performed to understand the relationship between the effect of contact and the variation of the effective stress.

  16. The Effect of Loneliness on Social Networking Sites Use and Its Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaeiy, Samira; Taghavi, Mohammad Reza; Goodarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The current research was conducted to examine the effect of “Loneliness”, on time spent in Social Networking Sites (S.N.S), main reasons for S.N.S use, and its related behaviors. Materials and Methods: 156 students of Shiraz University voluntarily participated in this research. Loneliness was assessed usingthe UCLA Loneliness scale. 25% of highest scoring students reported that they were lonely whereas 25% of the lowest scoring students were considered to be non-lonely. The positive and negative reasons of using S.N.S were assessed based on Reasons for Internet Use Scale, and internet behaviors were assessed based on Scale of Internet Behaviors. Results: There was no difference in time spent in S.N.S as well as the positive and negative reasons of using S.N.S (contrary to literature), but internet behaviors showed a significant difference between “lonely” and “non-lonely” individuals. “Lonely” and “non-lonely” individuals showed a significant difference in “social aspect” of S.N.S behaviors. There was also a significant difference between “Lonely” and “non-Lonely” individuals in “Negative impact” of S.N.S behaviors. Yet, there seemed to be no difference in “competency and convenience aspect” of S.N.S behaviors. Conclusions: This study suggested that there is no difference between lonely and non-lonely individuals in reasons for using S.N.S and time spent in S.N.S. This finding stands contrary to previous research findings and general literature on the subject In other words, what drives people to S.N.S at the first place shows no significant difference between lonely and non-lonely individuals while after attending S.N.S, social behavior of lonely individuals shows a significant difference which is consistently enhanced online. Lonely people also significantly develop internet-related problems in their daily functioning, including interference with real life socializing. PMID:27045407

  17. Modelling the pre-assessment learning effects of assessment: evidence in the validity chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, F.J.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    Medical Education 2012: 46: 1087-1098 OBJECTIVES We previously developed a model of the pre-assessment learning effects of consequential assessment and started to validate it. The model comprises assessment factors, mechanism factors and learning effects. The purpose of this study was to continue th

  18. Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernstrøm Vilde Hoff

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational change often leads to negative employee outcomes such as increased absence. Because change is also often inevitable, it is important to know how these negative outcomes could be reduced. This study investigates how the line manager’s behavior relates to sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust during major restructuring. Methods Leader behavior was measured by questionnaire, where employees assessed their line manager’s behavior (N = 1008; response rate 40%. Data on sickness absence were provided at department level (N = 35 and were measured at two times. Analyses were primarily conducted using linear regression; leader behavior was aggregated and weighted by department size. Results The results show a relationship between several leader behaviors and sickness absence. The line managers’ display of loyalty to their superiors was related to higher sickness absence; whereas task monitoring was related to lower absence. Social support was related to higher sickness absence. However, the effect of social support was no longer significant when the line manager also displayed high levels of problem confrontation. Conclusions The findings clearly support the line manager’s importance for employee sickness absence during organizational change. We conclude that more awareness concerning the manager’s role in change processes is needed.

  19. Effect of lanthanum ion implantation on oxidation behavior of zircaloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyang Liu; Xinde Bai

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of lanthanum ion imprantation on the oxidation behavior of zircaloy at 500℃, Zircaloy specimens were implanted by lanthanum ions with a dose range from 5×1016 to 2×1017 ions/cm2 at room temperature, and then oxidized at 500℃ for 100 min. The valence of the oxides in the scale was analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The phase structures of the oxides in the scale were examined by Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD). With the increase of implanted lanthanum ions dose, the phase structures in the oxide scale are transformed from monoclinic zirconia to hexagonal one and then to monoclinic one again. The measurement of weight gain showed that a similar change from the decreased gain to increased one again is achieved in the oxidation behavior of lanthanum ion implanted zircaloy compared with that of as-received zircaloy.

  20. Stress Ratio Effect on Ratcheting Behavior of AISI 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya Bharathi, K.; Dutta, K.

    2016-02-01

    Ratcheting is known as accumulation of plastic strain during asymmetric cyclic loading of metallic materials under non-zero mean stress. This phenomenon reduces fatigue life of engineering materials and thus limits the life prediction capacity of Coffin-Manson relationship. This study intends to investigate the ratcheting behavior in AISI 4340 steel which is mainly used for designing of railway wheel sets, axles, shafts, aircraft components and other machinery parts. The effect of stress ratio on the ratcheting behaviour in both annealed and normalised conditions were investigated for investigated steel. Ratcheting tests were done at different stress ratios of -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8. The results showed that the material responds to hardening behavior and nature of strain accumulation is dependent on the magnitude of stress ratio. The post ratcheted samples showed increase in tensile strength and hardness which increases with increasing stress ratio and these variations in tensile properties are correlated with the induced cyclic hardening.

  1. Size effect on the static behavior of electrostatically actuated microbeams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yin; Qin Qian; Lin Wang

    2011-01-01

    We present a new analytical model for electrostatically actuated microbeams to explore the size effect by using the modified couple stress theory and the minimum total potential energy principle. A material length scale parameter is introduced to represent the size-dependent characteristics of microbeams. This model also accounts for the nonlinearities associated with the mid-plane stretching force and the electrostatical force. Numerical analysis for microbeams with clamped-clamped and cantilevered conditions has been performed. It is found that the intensity of size effect is closely associated with the thickness of the microbeam, and smaller beam thickness displays stronger size effect and hence yields smaller deflection and larger pull-in voltage. When the beam thickness is comparable to the material length scale parameter, the size effect is significant and the present theoretical model including the material length scale parameter is adequate for predicting the static behavior of microbeam-based MEMS.

  2. Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on behavioral problems in children: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. de Graaf; P. Speetjens; F. Smit; M. de Wolff; L. Tavecchio

    2008-01-01

    The Triple P Positive Parenting Program is a multilevel parenting program to prevent and offer treatment for severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of Triple P Level 4 interventions in the management of behav

  3. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Yu-Min; Cheng, Jen-Wen; Liu, Tai-Ling; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Pinchen; Chou, Wen-Jiun

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this intervention study were to examine the effects of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) based on the modified Coping Cat Program on improving anxiety symptoms and behavioral problems in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and parenting stress perceived by their mothers. A total of 24 children with anxiety disorders in the treatment group completed the 17-session individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program, and 26 children in the control group received the treatment as usual intervention. The Taiwanese version of the MASC (MASC-T), the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18) and the Chinese version of the Parenting Stress Index (C-PSI) were applied to assess the severities of anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress, respectively. The effects of CBT on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress were examined by using linear mixed-effect model with maximum likelihood estimation. The results indicated that the CBT significantly improved the severities of MASC-T Physical Symptoms and Social Anxiety subscales, CBCL/6-18 DSM-oriented Anxiety Problem subscale, and C-PSI Child domains Mood and Adaptability subscales. Individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program can potentially improve anxiety symptoms in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and some child domains of parenting stress perceived by their mothers.

  4. Mephedrone: Public health risk, mechanisms of action, and behavioral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybdal-Hargreaves, Nicholas F; Holder, Nicholas D; Ottoson, Paige E; Sweeney, Melanie D; Williams, Tyisha

    2013-08-15

    The recent shortage of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) has led to an increased demand for alternative amphetamine-like drugs such as the synthetic cathinone, 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone). Despite the re-classification of mephedrone as a Class B restricted substance by the United Kingdom and restrictive legislation by the United States, international policy regarding mephedrone control is still developing and interest in synthetic amphetamine-like drugs could drive the development of future mephedrone analogues. Currently, there is little literature investigating the mechanism of action and long-term effects of mephedrone. As such, we reviewed the current understanding of amphetamines, cathinones, and cocaine emphasizing the potentially translational aspects to mephedrone, as well as contrasting with the work that has been done specifically on mephedrone in order to present the current state of understanding of mephedrone in terms of its risks, mechanisms, and behavioral effects. Emerging research suggests that while there are structural and behavioral similarities of mephedrone with amphetamine-like compounds, it appears that serotonergic signaling may mediate more of mephedrone's effects unlike the more dopaminergic dependent effects observed in traditional amphetamine-like compounds. As new designer drugs are produced, current and continuing research on mephedrone and other synthetic cathinones should help inform policymakers' decisions regarding the regulation of novel 'legal highs.'

  5. Effects of endocannabinoid system modulation on cognitive and emotional behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eZanettini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain's endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid-system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory and emotion (anxiety and depression. We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than affecting one or another specific behavior.

  6. An Auditory BCI System for Assisting CRS-R Behavioral Assessment in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Xie, Qiuyou; He, Yanbin; Yu, Tianyou; Lu, Shenglin; Huang, Ningmeng; Yu, Ronghao; Li, Yuanqing

    2016-09-01

    The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) is a consistent and sensitive behavioral assessment standard for disorders of consciousness (DOC) patients. However, the CRS-R has limitations due to its dependence on behavioral markers, which has led to a high rate of misdiagnosis. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), which directly detect brain activities without any behavioral expression, can be used to evaluate a patient’s state. In this study, we explored the application of BCIs in assisting CRS-R assessments of DOC patients. Specifically, an auditory passive EEG-based BCI system with an oddball paradigm was proposed to facilitate the evaluation of one item of the auditory function scale in the CRS-R – the auditory startle. The results obtained from five healthy subjects validated the efficacy of the BCI system. Nineteen DOC patients participated in the CRS-R and BCI assessments, of which three patients exhibited no responses in the CRS-R assessment but were responsive to auditory startle in the BCI assessment. These results revealed that a proportion of DOC patients who have no behavioral responses in the CRS-R assessment can generate neural responses, which can be detected by our BCI system. Therefore, the proposed BCI may provide more sensitive results than the CRS-R and thus assist CRS-R behavioral assessments.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF PAIN IN VENTILATED ICU PATIENTS USING BEHAVIORAL PAIN SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic assessment of pain is difficult in intensive care units, because most of the patients are non-communicative and are unable to self-report pain. The Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS is one of the assessment tools for uncommunicative and sedated intensive care unit patients. This study is to assess and evaluate the efficacy and reliability of BPS scale in mechanically ventilated patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective observational study in 71 mechanically ventilated medical ICU patients who were unable to report pain was assessed with BPS. RESULTS Post procedure there was a significant difference in the percentage of patients with an increased BPS score for repositioning, but not for oral care. CONCLUSIONS This study showed that the BPS is reliable and valid for use in sedated ICU patients. We conclude that pain scales should be incorporated into pain management as protocols to target the desired levels of analgesia in order to optimize inter-professional practices and to achieve better patient outcomes

  8. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Parenting: Behavioral Genetics Evidence of Child Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ilhong; Lee, Julak

    2016-10-01

    The criminological literature has a long tradition of emphasizing the socialization effects that parents have on children. By contrast, evidence from behavioral genetics research gives precedence to child effects on parental management techniques over parental effects on children's outcomes. Considering these diverging lines of scholarship and literature, the current study explores a novel hypothesis that child effects on parenting may be conditioned by the level of the disadvantage of the neighborhood in which the child's family resides. By using measures of perceived parenting as dependent variables, the researchers analyze data on 733 same-sex sibling pairs derived from the Add Health study by taking advantage of the DeFries-Fulker analytical technique. The results show that in adequate neighborhoods, between 43% and 55% of the variance in the measures of perceived parenting is due to genetic factors, whereas shared environmental effects are negligible. In disadvantaged neighborhoods, genetic effects are negligible, whereas shared environmental influences account for between 34% and 57% of the variance in perceived parenting. These results offer partial support for the contextualized gene-environment correlation, which provides initial evidence that although both parental socialization effects and child effects exist, these effects can be modified by the context. PMID:25891272

  9. Valuing a More Rigorous Review of Formative Assessment's Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Helen; Klute, Mary; Petrites, Tony; Harlacher, Jason; Real, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Prior reviews of evidence for the impact of formative assessment on student achievement suggest widely different estimates of formative assessment's effectiveness, ranging from 0.40 and 0.70 standard deviations in one review. The purpose of this study is to describe variability in the effectiveness of formative assessment for promoting student…

  10. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills

    OpenAIRE

    Fastré, Greet; van der Klink, Marcel; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based assessment criteria, describing what students should do, for the task at hand. The performance-based group is compared to a competence-based assessment group...

  11. Behavioral and trait rating assessments of personality in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanicki, Suzanne; Lehmann, Julia

    2015-08-01

    The study of personality in animals is a rapidly growing scientific field and numerous species have been reported to show consistent personality profiles. Much animal personality research has focused on nonhuman primates, with the main emphasis being placed on Old World primates, particularly rhesus macaques and chimpanzees. So far, little work has been done on cooperatively breeding nonhuman primates and New World species. Here, we study personality in the cooperatively breeding common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to broaden the taxonomic range of such research and to widen the perspective of comparative personality research. We use behavioral data collection and observer trait ratings to assess marmoset personality dimensions. The resulting behavioral and rating-derived personality dimensions, when viewed in tandem, resemble the human five-factor model and include extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and conscientiousness. Correlations between the behavioral data and the observer trait-rated personality components suggest that the personality construct of common marmosets exhibits both convergent and discriminant validity. The finding of a distinct Conscientiousness component in this species extends previous knowledge in comparative personality psychology and warrants reconsideration of proposed taxonomic trait distributions.

  12. Assessing frontal behavioral syndromes and cognitive functions in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengenfelder, Jeannie; Arjunan, Aparna; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Smith, Angela; DeLuca, John

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual and family ratings on a measure of frontal behaviors using the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Additionally, this study investigated whether self-reported symptoms of frontal-lobe dysfunction correspond to neuropsychological performance, particularly those tests measuring executive functions. Thirty-three individuals with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 19 healthy individuals completed the FrSBe and neuropsychological measures. Results indicated that the self-ratings of individuals' apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction significantly increased from before to after injury, as did the family members' ratings, with no significant difference between the patients' and family members' reports for any of the three FrSBe subscales. Although individuals with TBI demonstrated impairments in neuropsychological measures, including measures of executive functioning, few significant correlations were found between the patients' FrSBe ratings and measures of cognitive functioning. This suggests that information from the FrSBe may differ from information gathered during a cognitive evaluation and may enhance our understanding of the behavioral sequelae following TBI that may not be captured by neuropsychological assessment alone. PMID:25529586

  13. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use.

  14. Assessment of Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Early Adult Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lengua, Liliana J; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2009-05-21

    Behavior and psychological problems assessed prospectively by teachers and parents and by youths' self-reports through late childhood and adolescence were examined as possible predictors of early adult depression. Data were from 765 participants in the Seattle Social Development Project, a multiethnic and gender-balanced urban sample. Analyses examined 7 waves of data from ages 10 to 21, and included measures from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and assessments of past-year depressive episode based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Self-reported conduct problems as early as age 10 (Mason et al., 2001) and throughout adolescence consistently predicted depression at age 21. Parent reports of conduct and other externalizing problems in adolescence also significantly predicted adult depression. None of the available teacher reports through age 14 were significant predictors. Results suggest that externalizing problems can be useful indicators of risk for adult depression. Prevention efforts that target externalizing problems in youth may hold promise for reducing later depression. PMID:20383270

  15. Fall Risk Assessment and Early-Warning for Toddler Behaviors at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mau-Tsuen Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Accidental falls are the major cause of serious injuries in toddlers, with most of these falls happening at home. Instead of providing immediate fall detection based on short-term observations, this paper proposes an early-warning childcare system to monitor fall-prone behaviors of toddlers at home. Using 3D human skeleton tracking and floor plane detection based on depth images captured by a Kinect system, eight fall-prone behavioral modules of toddlers are developed and organized according to four essential criteria: posture, motion, balance, and altitude. The final fall risk assessment is generated by a multi-modal fusion using either a weighted mean thresholding or a support vector machine (SVM classification. Optimizations are performed to determine local parameter in each module and global parameters of the multi-modal fusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can assess fall risks and trigger alarms with an accuracy rate of 92% at a speed of 20 frames per second.

  16. Fabrication of biomimetic nanomaterials and their effect on cell behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porri, Teresa Jane

    Cells in vivo respond to an intricate combination of chemical and mechanical signals. The corneal epithelium, a structure which prevents the admission of bacteria and undesirable molecules into the eye, grows on a basement membrane which presents both nanoscale topographic and adhesive chemical signals. An effective approach to biomaterials design takes advantage of the synergistic effects of the multiple cellular inputs which are available to engineer cell-substrate interactions. We have previously demonstrated the effects of nanoscale topography on a variety of corneal epithelial cell behaviors. To gain a better understanding of cell-level control in vivo, we employ a systems-level approach which looks at the effect of nanoscale topography in conjunction with a biomimetic surface chemistry. First, we discuss a novel method of fabricating nanoscale topography through templated electroless deposition of gold into PVP-coated polycarbonate membranes. This technique creates nanowires of gold with an uniform outer diameter that is dependent upon the size of the pores in the membrane used, and a nanowire length that is dependent upon the extent of etching into the polymer membrane. The gold nanowires can be modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols. Using these substrates, we study the effect of topographic length scale and surface chemistry on cells attached to a discontinuous nanoscale topography, and find a transition in cellular behavior at a length scale (between 600 and 2000 nm inter-wire spacing) that is commensurate with the transition length scale seen on surfaces presenting continuous grooves and ridges. Secondly, we study the effect of non-fouling peptide-modified SAMs on cellular behavior. We examine the effect of co-presented RGD and AG73 peptides and show that cell spreading is a function of the relative ratios of RGD and AG73 present on the surface. Finally, we explore the combinatorial effects of biologically relevant chemistry with

  17. Assessing the Impact of Parking Pricing on Transportation Mode Choice and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Wei-Shiuen

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of parking pricing on travel demand and behavior, using the University of California (UC), Berkeley campus as a study site. Parking pricing is often implemented to recover costs or to serve as a source of revenue for cities or private parking operators. However, parking pricing can also be an effective transportation demand management tool. Parking price can be set at market rates or can be set to meet other objectives, such as reducing emissions or tr...

  18. Quinine enhances the behavioral stimulant effect of cocaine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Adriana; Wessinger, William D; Kucheryavykh, Yuri V; Sanabria, Priscila; Eaton, Misty J; Skatchkov, Serguei N; Rojas, Legier V; Maldonado-Martínez, Gerónimo; Inyushin, Mikhail Y

    2015-02-01

    The Na(+)-dependent dopamine transporter (DAT) is primarily responsible for regulating free dopamine (DA) concentrations in the brain by participating in the majority of DA uptake; however, other DA transporters may also participate, especially if cocaine or other drugs of abuse compromise DAT. Recently, such cocaine-insensitive low-affinity mono- and poly-amine OCT transporters were described in astrocytes which use DA as a substrate. These transporters are from a different transporter family and while insensitive to cocaine, they are specifically blocked by quinine and some steroids. Quinine is inexpensive and is often found in injected street drugs as an "adulterant". The present study was designed to determine the participation of OCTs in cocaine dependent behavioral and physiological changes in mice. Using FVB mice we showed, that daily single injections of quinine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) co-administered with cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) for 10 days significantly enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor behavioral sensitization. Quinine had no significant effect on the time course of behavioral activation. In astrocytes from the ventral tegmental area of mice, transporter currents of quinine-sensitive monoamine transporters were also augmented after two weeks of cocaine administration. The importance of low-affinity high-capacity transporters for DA clearance is discussed, explaining the known ability of systemically administered DAT inhibitors to anomalously increase DA clearance.

  19. Creative behavior: Effects of the verbal consequences type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpio, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different types of verbal consequences were evaluated in second order conditional discrimination tasks on creative behavior emergence in four experimental groups. In the first group, it was specified only if the responses were correct or incorrect. For the second group, it was specified the particular stimulus selected and if that response was correct or incorrect. For the third group, it was specified the relationship between selected comparative stimulus (CoS and the matching stimulus (MS and if the answer was correct or incorrect. For the fourth group, it was specified if the relation MS-CoS was equal or not to the relation between the selector stimuli (SS and if the response was correct or incorrect. Post- training transference and creative behavior tests were performed. The results showed that the different types of verbal consequences promoted contact with different aspects of the performance in the task, being partially relational consequences which promoted higher percentages in transference and creative behavior tests. The conceptual status of the verbal consequences is discussed.

  20. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-12-01

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed. PMID:24287849

  1. Effects of Strategies Marketing of Collective Buying about Impulsive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Elen Ferreira Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the second largest e-commerce market in the world. One model used in this sector is "collective buying", a feature of which is impulse sales. Consumer behavior can be influenced by several factors, two of which are addressed in this article: the individual impulsivity of consumers and strategies of mix marketing. Impulsive buying is characterized by an unplanned purchase, i.e. the need to acquire the product arises just before the purchase. Consumers respond differently to mixed strategies depending on their degree of impulsivity. Thus, this article aims to analyze the efficacy of different marketing mix strategies for impulsive and non-impulsive consumer purchasing behavior. 137 participants were given a questionnaire containing the Buying Impulsiveness scale from Rook and Fisher (1995, and statements about the marketing strategies used by collective buying sites. Through a regression analysis, three strategies were found to relate more to impulsivity: search for products from well-known brands, search for deals with big discounts and confidence in receiving the product. For e-commerce and researchers, this study elucidates which strategies, from the consumer's perspective, effectively persuade purchasing behavior.

  2. Effects of a Rational-Emotive Treatment Program on Type A Behavior Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Christopher W.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of rational-emotive therapy in treating Type A behavior in college students (N=22). Results showed the RET program was significantly more effective than no treatment in reducing Type A behavior, irrational beliefs, and anxiety. (JAC)

  3. The Effects of a Token Economy on First Grade Students Inappropriate Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Suzan C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studies the effectiveness of a token economy on specific inappropriate social behaviors of three first grade students. Suggests that token economy systems can be very effective in decreasing disruptive behaviors of primary aged students. (MG)

  4. Estimating active transportation behaviors to support health impact assessment in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore J Mansfield

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Health impact assessment (HIA has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as active transportation, which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9–23.2 minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5–6.4 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5–38.1 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 minutes of daily walking time for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15–59 premature deaths potentially could be

  5. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as "active transportation"), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9-23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5-6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5-38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15-59) premature deaths potentially could be avoided if the entire

  6. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  7. Assisting Students from Diverse Backgrounds with Challenging Behaviors: Incorporating a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioral Assessment in Prereferral Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    The student population across U.S. schools has become increasingly diverse and has presented educators with a number of concerns in assisting students demonstrating challenging behaviors. Educators have historically had difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine indicators of emotional and behavioral disorders. It is…

  8. Modulatory effects of caffeine on oxidative stress and anxiety-like behavior in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravan, Ionut; Sevastre Berghian, Alexandra; Moldovan, Remus; Decea, Nicoleta; Orasan, Remus; Filip, Gabriela Adriana

    2016-09-01

    Menopause is accompanied by enhanced oxidative stress and behavioral changes, effects attenuated by antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on behavior and oxidative stress in an experimental model of menopause. Female rats were divided into the following groups: sham-operated (CON), sham-operated and caffeine-treated (CAF), ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized and caffeine-treated (OVX+CAF). Caffeine (6 mg/kg) and vehicle were administered for 21 days (subchronic) and 42 days (chronic), using 2 experimental subsets. Behavioral tests and oxidative stress parameters in the blood, whole brain, and hippocampus were assessed. The subchronic administration of caffeine decreased the lipid peroxidation and improved the antioxidant defense in the blood and brain. The GSH/GGSG ratio in the brain was improved by chronic administration, with reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes and enhanced nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels. In particular, the lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus decreased in both experiments. The rats became hyperactive after 21 days of treatment, but no effect was observed after chronic administration. In both experimental subsets, caffeine had anxiolytic effects as tested in elevated plus maze. The administration of low doses of caffeine, for a short period of time, may be a new therapeutic approach to modulating the oxidative stress and anxiety in menopause. PMID:27333093

  9. Antiepileptic, behavioral, and antidepressant effects of adjuvant lamotrigine therapy in drug-resistant epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Žarko J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the behavioral effects of lamotrigine as add-on therapy in treatment-resistant epilepsy. Methods. An open, prospective, long-term study of lamotrigine as adjuvant therapy was performed in 56 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (female/male ratio 35/21, age range 16-51 years. All the patients kept seizure diaries, and electroencephalograms were recorded at baseline and during 24 months of the treatment. Quality of life questionnaire, Hamilton depression scale (HMD, Beck depression scale (BDI, and Hamilton anxiety scale (HMA were used before and during lamotrigine therapy. Comparative assessments were made in an age- and sex-matched control group treated with other antiepileptic drugs. Results. Overall, seizure control was improved in 55.3% of the patients, remained unchanged in 39.3%, and deteriorated in 5.4%. Improvement in some quality of life measures occurred in 50% of the patients. The HMD subscales and BDI scale showed significant improvement in lamotrigine treated patients compared to the control group (ANOVA, p < 0.01. Negative behavioral effects occurred in 10.7% of the patients. Conclusion. Lamotrigine demonstrated significant antiepileptic long-term efficacy, and its positive effects on the mood and quality of life, which surpassed the negative behavioral effects, and contributed highly to the favorable treatment outcome.

  10. Effects of foliar surfactants on host plant selection behavior of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Fraser R; Levac, Joshua; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2009-10-01

    The pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is a highly polyphagous insect pest of global distribution. L. huidobrensis feeds and lays its eggs on leaf tissue and reduces crop marketability because of stippling and mining damage. In field insecticide trials, it was observed that stippling was reduced on plants treated with surfactant alone. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of surfactants on host selection behaviors of female L. huidobrensis and to assess the phytotoxicity of two common surfactants to test plants. The application of the surfactant Sylgard 309 to celery (Apium graveolens) caused a significant reduction in stippling rates. The application of Agral 90 to cucumber leaves (Cucumis sativus) resulted in changes to the amount of effort invested by females in specific host plant selection behaviors, as well as causing a significant reduction in the amount of stippling damage. The recommended dose of Sylgard 309 does not induce phytotoxicity on celery over a range of age classes nor does Agral 90 cause a phytotoxic effect in 35-d-old cucumber. Thus, reductions in observed stippling and changes to host selection behaviors were caused by an antixenotic effect of the surfactant on L. huidobrensis rather than a toxic effect of the surfactant on the plant. The presence of surfactant on an otherwise acceptable host plant seems to have masked host plant cues and prevented host plant recognition. Results indicate that surfactants may be used to reduce leafminer damage to vegetable crops, potentially reducing the use of insecticides.

  11. Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

  12. Moisture effect on compressive behavior of concrete under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继凯; 丁宁

    2014-01-01

    The effect of moisture content upon compressive mechanical behavior of concrete under impact loading was studied. The axial rapid compressive loading tests of over 50 specimens with five different saturations were executed. The technique “split Hopkinson pressure bar” (SHPB) was used. The impact velocity was 10 m/s with corresponding strain rate of 50 s−1. The compressive behavior of materials was measured in terms of stress−strain curves, dynamic compressive strength, dynamic increase factor (DIF) and critical strain at a maximum stress. The data obtained from test indicate that both ascending and descending portions of stress−stain curves are affected by moisture content. However, the effect is noted to be more significant in ascending portion of the stress−strain curves. Dynamic compressive strength is higher at lower moisture content and weaker at higher moisture content. Furthermore, under nearly saturated condition, an increase in compressive strength can be found. The effect of moisture content on the average DIF of concrete is not significant. The critical compressive strain of concrete does not change with moisture content.

  13. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on the behavioral properties of crotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Moreira

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Crotoxin has been detoxified with gamma radiation in order to improve crotalic antiserum production. Nevertheless, present knowledge of the biological characteristics of irradiated crotoxin is insufficient to propose it as an immunizing agent. Crotoxin is known to increase the emotional state of rats and to decrease their exploratory behavior (Moreira EG, Nascimento N, Rosa GJM, Rogero JR and Vassilieff VS (1996 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 29: 629-632. Therefore, we decided 1 to evaluate the effects of crotoxin in the social interaction test, which has been widely used for the evaluation of anxiogenic drugs, and 2 to determine if irradiated crotoxin induces behavioral alterations similar to those of crotoxin in the social interaction, open-field and hole-board tests. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g were used. Crotoxin (100, 250, and 500 µg/kg was injected intraperitoneally 2 h before the social interaction test. Similarly, irradiated crotoxin (2000 Gy gamma radiation from a 60Co source was administered at the doses of 100, 250, and 500 µg/kg for the hole-board test, and at the doses of 1000 and 2500 µg/kg for the open-field and social interaction tests. ANOVA complemented with the Dunnett test was used for statistical analysis (P<0.05. Crotoxin decreased the social interaction time (s at the doses of 100, 250 and 500 µg/kg (means ± SEM from 51.6 ± 4.4 to 32.6 ± 3.7, 28.0 ± 3.6 and 31.6 ± 4.4, respectively. Irradiated crotoxin did not induce behavioral alterations. These results indicate that 1 crotoxin may be an anxiogenic compound, and 2 in contrast to crotoxin, irradiated crotoxin was unable to induce behavioral alterations, which makes it a promising compound for the production of crotalic antiserum

  15. Inhibition of eating behavior: negative cognitive effects of dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K E; Chiovari, P

    1998-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  16. THE EFFECT OF ASTROLOGY ON YOUNG CUSTOMER BEHAVIORS

    OpenAIRE

    Gulmez Mustafa; Kitapci Olgun; Dortyol Ibrahim Taylan

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of date-of-birth on consumption behaviors of young people. A face-to-face interview survey is conducted to collect data. SPSS 18.0 for Windows was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics such as means, frequencies, ANOVA tests and Chi-square tests were calculated. The findings pointed out that the young consumers on fire group (Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius) take more instant and impulsive purchase actions. It is a new study about ...

  17. An Investigation of the Effective Leadership Behaviors of School Principals

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel Gündüz; Aydın Balyer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the level of display of effective leadership behaviors by school principals. Descriptive design was used in this research. The target population of the study is the teachers who work in primary and high schools in Kartal, Maltepe and Üsküdar located in İstanbul, The sample consists of 703 primary and high school teachers randomly selected from the population. The study was carried out quantitatively and data were gathered through the 30-item 5-point L...

  18. Excited states rotational effects on the behavior of excited molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper reviews the rotational involvement in intra-molecular in vibrational redistribution. This paper analyzes the vibrational Hamiltonian as to its efficacy in detecting the manifestations of intra-molecular state-mixing in time-resolved and time-averaged spectroscopic measurements. The next paper examines the temporal behavior of intra-molecular vibration-rotation energy transfer (IVRET) and the effects of IVRET on collision, reaction, and the decomposition processes. This paper also

  19. A combination of behavioral and physiological indicators for assessing pig welfare on the farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candiani, Denise; Salamano, Germana; Mellia, Elisabetta; Doglione, Luca; Bruno, Renato; Toussaint, Mathilda; Gruys, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify pig welfare indicators that could help in recognizing stressful practices on farm. The study evaluated behavioral and physiological indicators (cortisol and negative acute phase proteins) in 2 groups of 20 female pigs 4 months old after a 48-hr transport. The first group (A) was transported at the end of May, the second (B) in June. Behavioral observations and blood collection occurred at arrival (D1) and 28 days later (D28). Compared with within-animal control samples obtained 28 days later, pigs of Group A had increased cortisol levels and decreased albumin concentrations after arrival. As demonstrated by lesion and behavior observations, the effect on cortisol and albumin was higher in Group B pigs after a tail-biting episode occurred. The study has reported no evidence of Retinol Binding Protein (RBP) in pigs. A method developed for swine RBP quantification found RBP strongly reduced in D28 samples of Group B, confirming it to be a negative protein in pigs. The suggested combination of physiological and behavioral indicators could provide useful information on the welfare state of an animal. PMID:18444023

  20. Artificial emotion triggered stochastic behavior transitions with motivational gain effects for multi-objective robot tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.

  1. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ballesta

    Full Text Available 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play. In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors.

  2. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Matthieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA) is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg) to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors. PMID:26840064

  3. The Cognitive Behavioral Assessment (CBA Project: Presentation and Proposal for International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Sanavio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The main aim of this paper is to describe almost 30 years of work on psychological assessment using CBA, a research team, and to propose collaboration with Latin countries. Methods: The acronym CBA stands for Cognitive Behavioural Assessment and indicates both an overall approach to clinical assessment and a series of tests. Five general principles formed the basis on which the team developed their questionnaires: (1 assessment is not a passive collection of information, but an active process similar to problem-solving; (2 horizontal integration of questionnaires with other assessment methods; (3 vertical integration and hierarchical structure of assessment questionnaires; (4 idiographic perspective; (5 computer support. Results: The paper briefly presents the most important tests: CBA-2.0, a broad-spectrum Battery for patients who need counselling and/or psychotherapy; CBA-H (Hospital for both in-patients and out-patients suffering from physical illnesses; CBA-SPORT for professional athletes; CBA-Y (young people for adolescents and young adults; CBD-VE (treatment benefits to assess the effectiveness of psychological treatment. Conclusion: These questionnaires have produced over 100 research works, published in Italian journals or presented in conferences. In the near future, we expect important, radical changes and hope to create an international research milieu.

  4. Establishment of model of visceral pain due to colorectal distension and its behavioral assessment in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping Yang; Ming Yao; Xing-Hong Jiang; Li-Na Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To establish a visceral pain model via colorectal distension (CRD) and to evaluate the efficiency of behavioral responses of CRD by measuring the score of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in rats.METHODS: Thirty-eight male SD rats weighing 180-240g were used to establish the visceral pain model. The rat was inserted intra-anally with a 7 cm long flexible latex balloon under ether anesthesia, and colorectal distensions by inflating the balloon with air were made 30 min after recovering from the anesthesia.Five AWR scores (AWR0 to AWR4) were used to assess the intensity of noxious visceral stimuli. It was regarded as the threshold of the minimal pressure (kPa). For abdominal flatting was induced by colorectal distension.RESULTS: A vigorous AWR to distension of the descending colon and rectum was found in 100% of the awake rats tested. The higher the pressure of distension; the higher the score of AWR. The distension pressures of 0, 2.00, 3.33, 5.33 and 8.00 kPa produced different AWR scores (P<0.05). The pain threshold of AWR was constant for up to 80 min after the initial windup (first 1-3 distensions), the mean threshold was 3.69±0.35 kPa. Systemic administration of morphine sulfate elevated the threshold of visceral pain in a dosedependent and naloxone reversible manner.CONCLUSION: Scoring the AWR during colorectal distensions can assess the intensity of noxious visceral stimulus. Flatting of abdomen (AWR 3) to CRD as the visceral pain threshold is clear, constant and reliable.This pain model and its behavioral assessment are good for research on visceral pain and analgesics.

  5. On their best behavior: how animal behavior can help determine the combined effects of species interactions and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jason P; Barton, Brandon T

    2013-09-01

    The increasingly appreciated link between climate change and species interactions has the potential to help us understand and predict how organisms respond to a changing environment. As this connection grows, it becomes even more important to appreciate the mechanisms that create and control the combined effect of these factors. However, we believe one such important set of mechanisms comes from species' behavior and the subsequent trait-mediated interactions, as opposed to the more often studied density-mediated effects. Behavioral mechanisms are already well appreciated for mitigating the separate effects of the environment and species interactions. Thus, they could be at the forefront for understanding the combined effects. In this review, we (1) show some of the known behaviors that influence the individual and combined effects of climate change and species interactions; (2) conceptualize general ways behavior may mediate these combined effects; and (3) illustrate the potential importance of including behavior in our current tools for predicting climate change effects. In doing so, we hope to promote more research on behavior and other mechanistic factors that may increase our ability to accurately predict climate change effects.

  6. Type of Violence, Age, and Gender Differences in the Effects of Family Violence on Children's Behavior Problems: A Mega-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Baradaran, Laila P.; Abbott, Craig B.; Lamb, Michael E.; Guterman, Eva

    2006-01-01

    A mega-analytic study was designed to exploit the power of a large data set combining raw data from multiple studies (n=1870) to examine the effects of type of family violence, age, and gender on children's behavior problems assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Our findings confirmed that children who experienced multiple forms of…

  7. An Investigation of the Effects of the Application and Removal of a Token Economy on the Working Behavior of Sixteen Headstart Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Patricia; Resnick, Lauren B.

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of token reinforcement for work behavior in a Headstart classroom and to investigate methods of withdrawing tokens while still maintaining the behavior. The class was treated as a whole and decisions to change from one condition to another were based on the group mean. The study was divided into two…

  8. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  9. Effect of texture on the cold rolling behavior of an alpha-two titanium aluminide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the texture on the cold rolling behavior of an alpha-2 titanium aluminide, Ti-14AL-21Nb (wt pct), was investigated by measuring pole figures, Knoop hardness yield loci, tensile ductility, and the starting microstructure of a number of lots of the cold-rolled material. Results showed that measurements of tensile ductility do not necessarily correlate with the cold rolling performance. On the other hand, the Knoop hardness yield locus provides a convenient quality control tool to assess lot-to-lot variations in texture and plastic anisotropy, and hence to estimate the rollability of sheet and foil specimens. 8 refs

  10. Effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation on neural function and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behavioral studies in the past decade on postnatal effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation (125-R) revealed alterations in circadian locomotor activity and modifications of duration, frequency and sequences of certain behavioral acts in irradiated rats. Other studies have shown that the effect of irradiation (150-R) and enriched environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores while at 200-R enrichment was less effective. Rats irradiated on the 13th, 14th and 15th day of gestation were born with a hopping gait, paired hind and forelimbs moving in unison. Thoracic cord section led to crossed extention hind-limb reflexes in control rats and simultaneus withdrawal of hind limbs in hopping rats, in response to pinprick. In 90 day old squirrel monkeys the percent of correct response in visual orientation, discrimination and reversal learning in 50- and 100-R offspring (Co 60 irradiation at 89-90 days gestation) were significantly lower than those of controls, and differences in reversal learning persisted undiminished at 2 years of age. Time required for body righting, head-up orientation and climbing at 450 incline was significantly greater in irradiated (mainly 100-R) than control animals at from 2 to 28 days of age. Visual acuity levels of 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants were significantly lower than in control infants. Stabilimeter activity in the dark was significantly higher in 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants than in controls. In the squirrel monkey studies effects of Co 60 irradiation (100-R) on postnatal development of the brain and behaviour can be identified at statistically significant levels of confidence independent of offspring nursery rearing effects. (orig.)

  11. Prevention of behavior problems for children in foster care: outcomes and mediation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Price, Joe; Leve, Leslie D; Laurent, Heidemarie; Landsverk, John A; Reid, John B

    2008-03-01

    Parent training for foster parents is mandated by federal law and supported by state statues in nearly all states; however, little is known about the efficacy of that training, and recent reviews underscore that the most widely used curricula in the child welfare system (CWS) have virtually no empirical support (Grimm, Youth Law News, April-June:3-29, 2003). On the other hand, numerous theoretically based, developmentally sensitive parent training interventions have been found to be effective in experimental clinical and prevention intervention trials (e.g., Kazdin and Wassell, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39:414-420, 2000; McMahon and Forehand, Helping the noncompliant child, Guilford Press, New York, USA, 2003; Patterson and Forgatch, Parents and adolescents: I. Living together, Castalia Publishing, Eugene, OR, USA, 1987; Webster-Stratton et al., Journal of Clinical Child Pyschology Psychiatry, 42:943-952, 2001). One of these, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC; Chamberlain, Treating chronic juvenile offenders: Advances made through the Oregon Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care model, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2003), has been used with foster parents of youth referred from juvenile justice. The effectiveness of a universal intervention, KEEP (Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported) based on MTFC (but less intensive) was tested in a universal randomized trial with 700 foster and kinship parents in the San Diego County CWS. The goal of the intervention was to reduce child problem behaviors through strengthening foster parents' skills. The trial was designed to examine effects on both child behavior and parenting practices, allowing for specific assessment of the extent to which improvements in child behavior were mediated by the parenting practices targeted in the intervention. Child behavior problems were reduced significantly more in the intervention condition than in the

  12. The Association of Birth Complications and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescents: Direct and Mediating Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Wuerker, Anne; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that birth complications interact with psychosocial risk factors in predisposing to increased externalizing behavior in childhood and criminal behavior in adulthood. However, little is known about the direct relationship between birth complications and externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the birth complications predispose to externalizing behavior is not well explored. This study aims to assess whether birth complications predispose to early ad...

  13. Using Qualitative Methods to Improve Questionnaires for Spanish Speakers: Assessing Face Validity of a Food Behavior Checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Banna, Jinan C; VERA BECERRA, LUZ E.; Kaiser, Lucia L; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2010-01-01

    Development of outcome measures relevant to health nutrition behaviors requires a rigorous process of testing and revision. Whereas researchers often report performance of quantitative data collection to assess questionnaire validity and reliability, qualitative testing procedures are often overlooked. This report outlines a procedure for assessing face validity of a Spanish-language dietary assessment tool. Reviewing the literature produced no rigorously validated Spanish-language food behav...

  14. Spectral assessment of mesh adaptations for the analysis of the dynamical longitudinal behavior of railway bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, J. [Inst. for Transportation Technologies, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Ruge, P. [Inst. of Dynamics of Structures, Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Extensive studies, concerning the longitudinal behavior of long railway bridges due to braking forces have been done by measurements in situ, and by statical, as well as dynamical simulations. Thereby, the only consistent numerical realization with respect to the measured data was the dynamical one. However, the consecutive discretizations in space and time with time-dependent system matrices are extremely time consuming due to the moving loads and varying stiffness of the ballast under, and in front of, the moving train. Therefore, every effort should be made to optimize the discretization in the space domain. This paper presents a strategy for assessing the quality of finite elements in space and for applying an adaptive mesh-refinement for this special engineering problem. The method is characterized by a spectral assessment, comparing a certain set of eigenvalues of the actual discretization with those of a very fine and rather exact numerical model. The error estimator introduced in this paper controls a whole set of global eigenvalues with corresponding natural vibration modes in order to assess certain types of shape functions. Thus, the procedure estimates local modifications on the one hand and p-properties on the other by means of global indication. (orig.)

  15. Bee's morphometrics and behavior in response to seasonal effects from ecoregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, A R S; Araújo, E D; Gramacho, K P; Nunes, L A

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we used morphological and behavioral analyses to assess the effects of seasonality and morphoclimatic patterns on the morphology, behavior, and distribution of 71 colonies of Africanized honey bees in 3 distinct ecoregions (Zona da Mata, Agreste, and Sertão) within the State of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. We found a high rate of gene flow among the studied colonies. However, there were pronounced morphological differences among localities and ecoregions, and body shape (r = 0.06239; P = 0.05) and size (P honey bees, together with the identified polyphenisms, indicate high genetic variability within these populations that can be exploited in future bee handling and breeding programs. PMID:27173196

  16. Influenza Vaccination Coverage among School Employees: Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Brueck, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Influenza can spread among students, teachers, and staff in school settings. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza. We determined 2012-2013 influenza vaccination coverage among school employees, assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding the vaccine, and determined factors associated with vaccine receipt.…

  17. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Chronic Fibromyalgia Pain: Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple-baseline-across two behavior sets and positions (reclined, upright) was used to experimentally examine the effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment for Pain (BAT-P) on pain-related behavior of a 44-year-old woman with a 22-year history of fibromyalgia (FM). BAT-P, based on the matching law, is comprised of Behavioral Relaxation…

  18. Gateway Health Behaviors in College Students: Investigating Transfer and Compensation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Claudio Renato; Lee, Hye-ryeon; Hubbard, Amy E.; Min-Sun, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of studies on the mechanisms of multiple risk behaviors, even though these behaviors are significant public health issues. The authors investigated whether health behavior interventions have transfer or compensatory effects on other health behaviors. Participants and Methods: The authors looked at transfer and…

  19. Different effects of valproate on methamphetamine-and cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-XuLi; Jian-HuiLiang

    2004-01-01

    Multiple intermittent administration of psychostimulants induces a behavioral sensitization, which is characterized by the augmentation of locomotor activity and stereotyped behavior, even after their long-term withdrawal. This kind of behavioral effects is thought to serve as a useful animal model that mimics the behavioral responses in drug craving. Dopamine

  20. An Investigation of the Effective Leadership Behaviors of School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Gündüz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the level of display of effective leadership behaviors by school principals. Descriptive design was used in this research. The target population of the study is the teachers who work in primary and high schools in Kartal, Maltepe and Üsküdar located in İstanbul, The sample consists of 703 primary and high school teachers randomly selected from the population. The study was carried out quantitatively and data were gathered through the 30-item 5-point Likert-type scale developed by the researchers. Data were analyzed by percentages, frequencies, means and crosstabs. In order to find out sources of differences and do pair comparisons, Mann-Whitney U tests were employed while Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used to do comparisons of variables having more than three levels. According to the results obtained from this research, teachers stated that principals “sometimes” demonstrate effective leadership behaviors. When mean scores of all the items were checked, the highest score was earned by the item, “The principal plans the future of the school” and the lowest score by “Principals are open to be criticized.” There were significant differences based on gender and teaching experience of teachers and school types.

  1. Effect of fault jogs on frictional behavior: An experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Studying the effect of geometrically irregular bodies on the mechanical behavior of fault activity is of significance in understanding the seismic activity along a fault zone. By using rock mechanics ex- periment with medium-scale samples, we have studied the effect of fault jogs, the most common irregularity along fault zones, on frictional behavior. The research indicates that extensional fault jog can be easily fractured because of its low strength and the fractured jog has no obvious resistance to fault sliding, and the micro-fractures occurring in the jog are indicative of stick-slip along the faults. The fault zone containing extensional jogs is characterized by velocity weakening and can be described by rate and state friction law. Compressional fault jog makes fault sliding more difficult because of its high fracturing strength, but the micro-fractures occurring in the tensile areas around fault ends at higher stress level can provide necessary condition for occurrence of stick-slip along the faults before the jog is fractured and thus act as precursors of fault instability. Compression jog can be taken as a stable indicator of fault segmentation until the jog is completely fractured and two faults are linked.

  2. Effect of fault jogs on frictional behavior: An experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ShengLi; CHEN ShunYun; LIU PeiXun; HU XiaoYan; WANG KaiYing; HUANG YuanMin

    2008-01-01

    Studying the effect of geometrically irregular bodies on the mechanical behavior of fault activity is of significance in understanding the seismic activity along a fault zone. By using rock mechanics experiment with medium-scale samples, we have studied the effect of fault jogs, the most common irregularity along fault zones, on frictional behavior. The research indicates that extensional fault jog can be easily fractured because of its low strength and the fractured jog has no obvious resistance to fault sliding, and the micro-fractures occurring in the jog are indicative of stick-slip along the faults. The fault zone containing extensional jogs is characterized by velocity weakening and can be described by rate and state friction law. Compressional fault jog makes fault sliding more difficult because of its high fracturing strength, but the micro-fractures occurring in the tensile areas around fault ends at higher stress level can provide necessary condition for occurrence of stick-slip along the faults before the jog is fractured and thus act as precursors of fault instability. Compression jog can be taken as a stable indicator of fault segmentation until the jog is completely fractured and two faults are linked.

  3. Sublethal landrin toxicity: Behavioral and physiological effects on captive vultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthman-Quick, D.L.; Hill, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Use of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) has been proposed to reduce consumption of California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) eggs by ravens (Corvus corax). Although landrin has induced aversions in ravens and other birds, no data were available on behavioral and physiological effects of landrin on condors, non-target birds that might consume treated eggs. Because condors are endangered, we selected taxonomically related surrogates to approximate the effects on condors of acute oral doses of landrin. Seven black vultures (Coragyps atratus), 2 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), and 2 king vultures (Sarcoramphus papa) received landrin and placebo treatments 1 week apart. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was monitored at zero, 3, and 24 hours posttreatment, and behavioral observations were made for 2 hours posttreatment. The doses tested were nonlethal, and ChE levels approached normal within 24 hours after treatment. Only the frequency of vomiting differed statistically between the placebo and landrin treatment. We conclude that with appropriate precautions, landrin can be used in applications of CTA to discourage consumption of condor eggs by ravens, while posing no apparent risk to reintroduced condors.

  4. Effects of mazindol on behavior maintained or occasioned by cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, R S; Balster, R L

    1993-01-01

    The effects of mazindol, cocaine and D-amphetamine were studied in rhesus monkeys trained to self-administer cocaine, and in rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine from saline. Non-contingent intravenous drug injections were administered to monkeys responding under a session consisting of a 5-min period during which lever-pressing produced food reinforcement and a 60-min session in which responding produced i.v. cocaine infusions (10 or 33 micrograms/kg per infusion). Acute i.v. injections of cocaine (0.1-1.7 mg/kg), D-amphetamine (0.1-1 mg/kg) and the dopamine re-uptake inhibitor mazindol (0.03-0.56 mg/kg) given 5 min before the session decreased self-administration of cocaine, but also decreased rates of behavior maintained by the presentation of food. In both rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine from saline in a two-lever, food-maintained procedure, mazindol, cocaine and D-amphetamine substituted for cocaine in a dose-related manner. Despite a lack of selectivity to decrease cocaine self-administration as compared to behavior maintained by food, the present data provide some rationale for further consideration of mazindol as a potential pharmacotherapy for stimulant abuse, due to its relatively low abuse liability and cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects. PMID:8436063

  5. BACKWASH EFFECTS OF PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT IN ACADEMIC WRITING CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Syafei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a study investigating students’ opinions and reflections on backwash effects of portfolio assessments applied in Academic Writing course. To obtain the data, the researcher carried out interviews with 70 students of English Education Department (EED of Universitas Muria Kudus (UMK who took Academic Writing I and II courses. A qualitative analysis was then administered by identifying and classifying contents of students’ opinions and reflections expressed in the students’ responses concerning the backwash effects of the portfolio assessment applied in the courses. This investigation concludes the followings. First, all the research subjects support the use of portfolio assessment in Academic Writing Classes. Second, portfolio assessment provides various positive backwash effects on the student learning. Third, the students consider the portfolio assessment a fairer assessment. These findings suggest that the students respond positively to the portfolio assessment. Thus, it is recommended that the application of portfolio assessment in academic writing classes be maintained.

  6. Customer Value, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions: the Effects of Consumer Search Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops and tests an integrative model to examine the relationships among customer value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions based upon a typology of consumer search behaviors. The model was tested using surveyed data from 546 customers of car insurance in Melbourne, Australia. The findings demonstrate that each type of consumer (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent, performs differently on the relationships among customer value, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. The identification of value, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions within each search behavior allows managers to deliver optimal value and satisfaction to their consumers.

  7. Effects of Consumer Search Behavior Typology on the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The author investigates how consumer search behavior typology affects the relationship between customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that the type of consumer as defined by whether and how they search for information (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent perceive different levels of satisfaction and performs differently on satisfaction behavioral intentions linkages. Relational-dependent and rational active consumers are found to perceive higher satisfaction levels, and to express stronger intentions to engage in positive behavioral intentions than passive consumers. The identification of satisfaction and behavioral intentions within each search type allows managers to satisfy their consumers; hence, the company will obtain higher profit.

  8. Assessing corporate social responsibility in China's sports lottery administration and its influence on consumption behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Zhang, James J; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Min, Sophia D

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine consumer perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in China's sports lottery industry, and the effect of perceived CSR initiatives on sports lottery consumption behavior. Research participants (N = 4,980), selected based on a computer-generated, randomly stratified multistage sampling process, comprised Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets in the past 12 months. They completed a questionnaire that was derived from a qualitative research process. A factor analysis extracted two factors associated with perceptions of CSR in China's sports lottery administration: Regulatory and Prevention Responsibilities and Product Development Responsibility. Logistic regression analyses revealed that these two factors were influential of consumer behavior (i.e., relative and absolute expenditure, purchasing frequency, and time commitment). This study represents an initial effort to understand the dimensions of perceived CSR associated with Chinese sports lottery. The findings signify the importance of enforcing CSR in sports lottery administration.

  9. Assessing corporate social responsibility in China's sports lottery administration and its influence on consumption behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Zhang, James J; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Min, Sophia D

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine consumer perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in China's sports lottery industry, and the effect of perceived CSR initiatives on sports lottery consumption behavior. Research participants (N = 4,980), selected based on a computer-generated, randomly stratified multistage sampling process, comprised Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets in the past 12 months. They completed a questionnaire that was derived from a qualitative research process. A factor analysis extracted two factors associated with perceptions of CSR in China's sports lottery administration: Regulatory and Prevention Responsibilities and Product Development Responsibility. Logistic regression analyses revealed that these two factors were influential of consumer behavior (i.e., relative and absolute expenditure, purchasing frequency, and time commitment). This study represents an initial effort to understand the dimensions of perceived CSR associated with Chinese sports lottery. The findings signify the importance of enforcing CSR in sports lottery administration. PMID:21927807

  10. Safety assessment of sugar dusting treatments by analysis of hygienic behavior in honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanovic Jevrosima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygienic behavior in honey bees is a dominant natural defense mechanism against brood diseases. In this study, the influence of sugar dusting treatments on hygienic behavior was evaluated in 44 strong honey bee colonies. Three doses of pulverized sugar, 20, 30 and 40 g, each applied at three-, seven- and fourteen-day intervals were tested. The percentage of cleaned cells (PCC in the total number of those with pin-killed brood served as a measure of the hygienic potential. The effect was dependent on the frequency of treatments: all doses applied every third and seventh day significantly (p<0.001 decreased the PCC in comparison with the untreated control colonies. Nevertheless, sugar did not threaten the hygienic potential, as PPC values remained above 94% following all treatments. Thus, it can be concluded that the tested sugar treatments are safe and can be justifiably implemented into integrated pest management strategies to control Varroa destructor.

  11. Effect of interfacial octahedral behavior in ultrathin manganite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, E J; Balachandran, P V; Kirby, B J; Keavney, D J; Sichel-Tissot, R J; Schlepütz, C M; Karapetrova, E; Cheng, X M; Rondinelli, J M; May, S J

    2014-05-14

    We investigate structural coupling of the MnO6 octahedra across a film/substrate interface and the resultant changes of the physical properties of ultrathin La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) films. In order to isolate the effect of interfacial MnO6 octahedral behavior from that of epitaxial strain, LSMO films are grown on substrates with different symmetry and similar lattice parameters. Ultrathin LSMO films show an increased magnetization and electrical conductivity on cubic (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7 (LSAT) compared to those grown on orthorhombic NdGaO3 (NGO) substrates, an effect that subsides as the thickness of the films is increased. This study demonstrates that interfacial structural coupling can play a critical role in the functional properties of oxide heterostructures. PMID:24697503

  12. Effect of solvent on crystallization behavior of xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hongxun; Hou, Baohong; Wang, Jing-Kang; Lin, Guangyu

    2006-04-01

    Effect of organic solvents content on crystallization behavior of xylitol was studied. Solubility and crystallization kinetics of xylitol in methanol-water system were experimentally determined. It was found that the solubility of xylitol at various methanol content all increases with increase of temperature. But it decreases when increasing methanol content at constant temperature. Based on the theory of population balance, the nucleation and growth rates of xylitol in methanol-water mixed solvents were calculated by moments method. From a series of experimental population density data of xylitol gotten from a batch-operated crystallizer, parameters of crystal nucleation and growth rate equations at different methanol content were got by the method of nonlinear least-squares. By analyzing, it was found that the content of methanol had an apparent effect on nucleation and growth rate of xylitol. At constant temperature, the nucleation and growth rate of xylitol all decrease with increase of methanol content.

  13. Effects of Website Interactivity on Online Retail Shopping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Hafizul

    Motivations to engage in retail online shopping can include both utilitarian and hedonic shopping dimensions. To cater to these consumers, online retailers can create a cognitively and esthetically rich shopping environment, through sophisticated levels of interactive web utilities and features, offering not only utilitarian benefits and attributes but also providing hedonic benefits of enjoyment. Since the effect of interactive websites has proven to stimulate online consumer’s perceptions, this study presumes that websites with multimedia rich interactive utilities and features can influence online consumers’ shopping motivations and entice them to modify or even transform their original shopping predispositions by providing them with attractive and enhanced interactive features and controls, thus generating a positive attitude towards products and services offered by the retailer. This study seeks to explore the effects of Web interactivity on online consumer behavior through an attitudinal model of technology acceptance.

  14. Effect of powder characteristics on sintering behavior of silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sintering behavior of high-quality Si3N4 produced by imide decomposition method was studied to verify the effect of powder characteristics on densification and mechanical properties of Si3N4 ceramics. Oxygen content and its distribution in the particle had much influence on the sintering activity of Si3N4 powder. Although densification of Si3N4 doped with Y2O3 and Al2O3 was promoted by oxygen contaminant, especially surface oxygen of the starting powder, bending strength of pressureless-sintered Si3N4 showed maximum value at 1.5 wt% of oxygen content and was deteriorated with increasing oxygen content over 1.5 wt%. This deterioration in strength was caused by the decrease in fracture toughness of grain boundary phase. Carbon more than 0.1 wt% exhibited detrimental effects on both densification and bending strength. (orig.)

  15. A model of the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment in medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, F.J.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Herman, N.; Adendorff, H.J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    It has become axiomatic that assessment impacts powerfully on student learning. However, surprisingly little research has been published emanating from authentic higher education settings about the nature and mechanism of the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment. Less still emanat

  16. The α1 Antagonist Doxazosin Alters the Behavioral Effects of Cocaine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin N. Haile

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Medications that target norepinephrine (NE neurotransmission alter the behavioral effects of cocaine and may be beneficial for stimulant-use disorders. We showed previously that the short-acting, α1-adrenergic antagonist, prazosin, blocked drug-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in rats and doxazosin (DOX, a longer-acting α1 antagonist blocked cocaine’s subjective effects in cocaine-dependent volunteers. To further characterize DOX as a possible pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence, we assessed its impact on the development and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats. Rats (n = 6–8 were administered saline, cocaine (COC, 10 mg/kg or DOX (0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg alone or in combination for 5 consecutive days (development. Following 10-days of drug withdrawal, all rats were administered COC and locomotor activity was again assessed (expression. COC increased locomotor activity across days indicative of sensitization. The high dose (1.0 mg/kg, but not the low dose (0.3 mg/kg of DOX significantly decreased the development and expression of COC sensitization. DOX alone did not differ from saline. These results are consistent with studies showing that α1 receptors are essential for the development and expression of cocaine’s behavioral effects. Results also suggest that blockade of both the development and expression of locomotor sensitization may be important characteristics of possible pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence in humans.

  17. Emerging technologies for assessing physical activity behaviors in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Kang, Bumjoon; Saelens, Brian E; Duncan, Glen E

    2014-01-01

    Precise measurement of physical activity is important for health research, providing a better understanding of activity location, type, duration, and intensity. This article describes a novel suite of tools to measure and analyze physical activity behaviors in spatial epidemiology research. We use individual-level, high-resolution, objective data collected in a space-time framework to investigate built and social environment influences on activity. First, we collect data with accelerometers, global positioning system units, and smartphone-based digital travel and photo diaries to overcome many limitations inherent in self-reported data. Behaviors are measured continuously over the full spectrum of environmental exposures in daily life, instead of focusing exclusively on the home neighborhood. Second, data streams are integrated using common timestamps into a single data structure, the "LifeLog." A graphic interface tool, "LifeLog View," enables simultaneous visualization of all LifeLog data streams. Finally, we use geographic information system SmartMap rasters to measure spatially continuous environmental variables to capture exposures at the same spatial and temporal scale as in the LifeLog. These technologies enable precise measurement of behaviors in their spatial and temporal settings but also generate very large datasets; we discuss current limitations and promising methods for processing and analyzing such large datasets. Finally, we provide applications of these methods in spatially oriented research, including a natural experiment to evaluate the effects of new transportation infrastructure on activity levels, and a study of neighborhood environmental effects on activity using twins as quasi-causal controls to overcome self-selection and reverse causation problems. In summary, the integrative characteristics of large datasets contained in LifeLogs and SmartMaps hold great promise for advancing spatial epidemiologic research to promote healthy behaviors

  18. Emerging technologies for assessing physical activity behaviors in space and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Hurvitz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise measurement of physical activity is important for health research, providing a better understanding of activity location, type, duration, and intensity. This article describes a novel suite of tools to measure and analyze physical activity behaviors in spatial epidemiology research. We use individual-level, high-resolution, objective data collected in a space-time framework to investigate built and social environment influences on activity. First, we collect data with accelerometers, global positioning system units, and smartphone-based digital travel and photo diaries to overcome many limitations inherent in self-reported data. Behaviors are measured continuously over the full spectrum of environmental exposures in daily life, instead of focusing exclusively on the home neighborhood. Next, data streams are integrated using common timestamps into a single data structure, the LifeLog. A graphic interface tool, LifeLog View, enables simultaneous visualization of all LifeLog data streams. Finally, we use geographic information system SmartMap rasters to measure spatially continuous environmental variables to capture exposures at the same spatial and temporal scale as in the LifeLog. These technologies enable precise measurement of behaviors in their spatial and temporal settings but also generate very large datasets; we discuss current limitations and promising methods for processing and analyzing such large datasets. Finally, we provide applications of these methods in spatially-oriented research, including a natural experiment to evaluate the effects of new transportation infrastructure on activity levels, and a study of neighborhood environmental effects on activity using twins as quasi-causal controls to overcome self-selection and reverse causation problems. In summary, the integrative characteristics of large datasets contained in LifeLogs and SmartMaps hold great promise for advancing spatial epidemiologic research to promote healthy

  19. Assessment of the effects of massage therapy on premenstrual syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leily Ghaedi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premenstrual syndrome is characterized by the cyclic occurrence physical, psychological and behavioral symptoms during the luteal phase of the menstruation cycle and will be disappear within a few days of the onset of menstruation. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of massage therapy on premenstrual syndrome. Materials and Method: A randomized clinical trial was carried out on 30 volunteer students of Tehran University with PMS diagnosis. After surveying two menstruation cycles and confirming PMS existence, subjects were randomly assigned into massage and control group. Massage protocol was performed for eight weeks. Volunteers completed Daily Symptom Rating (DSR during 2 cycles before and 2 cycles after intervention. Data collected via data gathering form, criteria for PMS (DSM- IV, DSR and Beck test. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics (χ2, Fischer's exact test, paired and independent t tests.Results: In comparison between before and after intervention, massage group showed significant decrease averagely in mean of somatic (56.7%, psychological (64.8% (p<0.001.This is while, in control group only mean of somatic symptoms (averagely 21.2% relieved obviously (p=0.02. comparing two groups often intervention, we did not found any significant difference in mean of somatic symptoms while psychological (p=0.01 and total symptoms (p=0.03 in massage group was significantly less than controls.Conclusion: The authors concluded that massage therapy is an effective method for relieving symptoms of premenstrual syndrome

  20. Effects of Beliefs and Concerns on User Attitudes toward Online Social Network Advertising and Their Ad Clicking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Mir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since last few years social network sites (SNSs have rapidly grown in popularity and user acceptance globally. They have become the main place for social interaction, discussion and communication. Today, many businesses advertise their products on SNSs. The current study aims to assess the effects of SNSs consumers/users’ beliefs and concerns of social network advertising (SNA on their attitudes toward SNA and SNS banner ad-clicking behavior. Data was collected from a sample of 397 university students of Pakistan. Results show the beliefs of SNA as informative and entertaining have positive effects on user attitudes toward SNA and their ad-clicking behavior. Similarly, user concern of SNA as irritating has negative effects on both their attitudes toward SNA and ad-clicking behavior. Good for economy is an important socioeconomic belief which affects user attitudes toward SNA positively. The overall results indicate that utilitarian and hedonic aspects of SNA make SNS banner ads effective.

  1. Baseline Depressive Symptoms, Completion of Study Assessments, and Behavior Change in a Long-Term Dietary Intervention Among Breast Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Julie B; Pierce, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Madanat, Hala; Newman, Vicky A.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Natarajan, Loki

    2015-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms can lower adherence and change in dietary studies. Behavioral activation may reduce these effects. Purpose This study aims to assess relationships among depressive symptoms on adherence and dietary change in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study Methods Secondary analyses from the WHEL Study, which achieved major dietary change in breast cancer survivors (N = 2817), were conducted. Logistic regressions were undertaken of baseline depressive symptoms...

  2. Crowd-based breath analysis: assessing behavior, activity, exposures, and emotional response of people in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan; Pleil, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A new concept for exhaled breath analysis has emerged wherein groups, or even crowds of people are simultaneously sampled in enclosed environments to detect overall trends in their activities and recent exposures. The basic idea is to correlate the temporal profile of known breath markers such as carbon dioxide, isoprene, or acetone with all other volatile organics in the air space. Those that trend similarly in time are designated as breath constituents. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop technology for assessing group based behaviors, chemical exposures or even changes in stress or mood. Applications are myriad ranging from chemical dose/toxicity screening to health and stress status for national security diagnostics. The basic technology employs real-time mass spectrometry capable of simultaneously measuring volatile chemicals and endogenous breath markers. PMID:27341381

  3. Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-12-01

    I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology. PMID:24417750

  4. Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-12-01

    I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology.

  5. Assessing reproductive behavior important to fisheries management: a case study with red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowerre-barbieri, Susan K; Burnsed, Sarah L Walters; Bickford, Joel W

    2016-06-01

    Spawning site selection and reproductive timing affect stock productivity and structure in marine fishes but are poorly understood. Traditionally, stock assessments measure reproductive potential as spawning stock biomass or egg production and do not include other aspects of reproductive behavior. Red drum make an excellent case study to assess these other aspects, as (1) they are highly fecund, pelagic spawners, like most exploited marine fishes; (2) their life cycle is delineated between nursery (estuarine) and adult (coastal and offshore) habitat; and (3) they are managed at these two spatial scales. This study was conducted from August 2012 to December 2013 and integrates data from multiple methods and spatial scales. Aerial surveys were used for large-scale monitoring of aggregations off two known estuarine nursery areas, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, Florida, USA. Capture-based sampling in Tampa Bay coastal (n = 2581) and estuarine waters (n = 158) was used to assess reproductive state and to confirm coastal spawning. To assess spatial dynamics, we acoustically tagged two population components in the Tampa Bay system, subadults from the estuary (n = 20) and adults from the coastal spawning site (n = 60). Behavioral plasticity was seen in subadult recruitment to coastal habitat, with some subadults maturing and recruiting before or during the spawning season and others (14 of 20 acoustically tagged fish) recruiting at the end of the 2012 spawning season. Both adults and recruited subadults (n = 29) were consequently detected in the Charlotte Harbor array, 132 km to the south. Spawning-site fidelity to the Tampa Bay spawning site occurred at both the population and individual scales. Aggregations consistently occurred in Tampa Bay coastal waters during the spawning season, and approximately two-thirds of tagged adults returned in the 2013 spawning season. A similar proportion of subadults returned to the Tampa Bay spawning site, exhibiting natal homing

  6. Assessing reproductive behavior important to fisheries management: a case study with red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowerre-barbieri, Susan K; Burnsed, Sarah L Walters; Bickford, Joel W

    2016-06-01

    Spawning site selection and reproductive timing affect stock productivity and structure in marine fishes but are poorly understood. Traditionally, stock assessments measure reproductive potential as spawning stock biomass or egg production and do not include other aspects of reproductive behavior. Red drum make an excellent case study to assess these other aspects, as (1) they are highly fecund, pelagic spawners, like most exploited marine fishes; (2) their life cycle is delineated between nursery (estuarine) and adult (coastal and offshore) habitat; and (3) they are managed at these two spatial scales. This study was conducted from August 2012 to December 2013 and integrates data from multiple methods and spatial scales. Aerial surveys were used for large-scale monitoring of aggregations off two known estuarine nursery areas, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, Florida, USA. Capture-based sampling in Tampa Bay coastal (n = 2581) and estuarine waters (n = 158) was used to assess reproductive state and to confirm coastal spawning. To assess spatial dynamics, we acoustically tagged two population components in the Tampa Bay system, subadults from the estuary (n = 20) and adults from the coastal spawning site (n = 60). Behavioral plasticity was seen in subadult recruitment to coastal habitat, with some subadults maturing and recruiting before or during the spawning season and others (14 of 20 acoustically tagged fish) recruiting at the end of the 2012 spawning season. Both adults and recruited subadults (n = 29) were consequently detected in the Charlotte Harbor array, 132 km to the south. Spawning-site fidelity to the Tampa Bay spawning site occurred at both the population and individual scales. Aggregations consistently occurred in Tampa Bay coastal waters during the spawning season, and approximately two-thirds of tagged adults returned in the 2013 spawning season. A similar proportion of subadults returned to the Tampa Bay spawning site, exhibiting natal homing

  7. Separate and Combined Effects of Methylphenidate and a Behavioral Intervention on Disruptive Behavior in Children with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Nathan J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effects of methylphenidate drug therapy and differential reinforcement on the disruptive behavior and task engagement of 3 children (ages 6 through 11) with mental retardation. Results indicated that both interventions were effective for two of the children. No evidence of an additive or synergistic effects of the two…

  8. Corrosion behavior of environmental assessment glass in product consistency tests of extended duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have conducted static dissolution tests to study the corrosion behavior of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass, which is the benchmark glass for high-level waste glasses being produced at US Department of Energy facilities. These tests were conducted to evaluate the behavior of the EA glass under the same long-term and accelerated test conditions that are being used to evaluate the corrosion of waste glasses. Tests were conducted at 90 C in a tuff groundwater solution at glass surface area/solution volume (WV) ratios of about 2000 and 20,000 m-1. The glass dissolved at three distinct dissolution rates in tests conducted at 2000 m-1. Based on the release of boron, dissolution within the first seven days occurred at a rate of about 0.65 g/(m2 · d). The rate between seven and 70 days decreased to 0.009 g/(m2 · d). An increase in the dissolution rate occurred at longer times after the precipitation of zeolite phases analcime, gmelinite, and an aluminum silicate base. The dissolution rate after phase formation was about 0.18 g/(m2 · d). The formation of the same zeolite alteration phases occurred after about 20 days in tests at 20,000 m-. The average dissolution rate over the first 20 days was 0.5 g/(m2 · d) and the rate after phase formation was about 0.20 g/(m2 · d). An intermediate stage with a lower rate was not observed in tests at 20,000 m-1. The corrosion behavior of EA glass is similar to that observed for other high-level waste glasses reacted under the same test conditions. The dissolution rate of EA glass is higher than that of other high-level waste glasses both in 7-day tests and after alteration phases form

  9. Behavioral profile assessment in offspring of Swiss mice treated during pregnancy and lactation with caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Melo, Roberto; da Silveira, Anderson Luiz Bezerra; de Azevedo Cruz Seara, Fernando; da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; da Silva-Almeida, Cláudio; Marinho, Bruno Guimarães; da Rocha, Fábio Fagundes; Reis, Luís Carlos; Côrtes, Wellington da Silva

    2016-10-01

    The association between caffeine consumption and various psychiatric manifestations has long been observed. The objective was to assess the behavioral profile in offspring of Swiss mice treated during pregnancy and lactation with caffeine. For this purpose, two groups (n = 6 each and BW ~ 35 g) of female mice were treated during pregnancy and lactation by: tap water and caffeine solution at a concentration of 0.3 mg/mL through oral route. The offspring obtained, by completing 70 days of life, was underwent a behavioral battery test. Statistical analysis was performed by student t test and the different significance adopted was p mice of caffeine group had greater number of fecal pellets (178 %, p = 0.001) in the open field test, higher number of attempts (51 %, p = 0.03) in light-dark box and decreased percentage of entries in open arms (41 %, p = 0.01) in elevated plus maze test. Moreover, in the marble burying test, there was a significant decrease in the number of buried marbles compared with controls (110 %, p = 0,002). In the meantime, in the von Frey test, it was observed an exacerbation of mechanical allodynia both in basal conditions and after the carrageenan administration (p caffeine treatment during pregnancy and lactation causes long-term behavioral changes in the mice offspring that manifest later in life. PMID:27262967

  10. Behavioral profile assessment in offspring of Swiss mice treated during pregnancy and lactation with caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Melo, Roberto; da Silveira, Anderson Luiz Bezerra; de Azevedo Cruz Seara, Fernando; da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; da Silva-Almeida, Cláudio; Marinho, Bruno Guimarães; da Rocha, Fábio Fagundes; Reis, Luís Carlos; Côrtes, Wellington da Silva

    2016-10-01

    The association between caffeine consumption and various psychiatric manifestations has long been observed. The objective was to assess the behavioral profile in offspring of Swiss mice treated during pregnancy and lactation with caffeine. For this purpose, two groups (n = 6 each and BW ~ 35 g) of female mice were treated during pregnancy and lactation by: tap water and caffeine solution at a concentration of 0.3 mg/mL through oral route. The offspring obtained, by completing 70 days of life, was underwent a behavioral battery test. Statistical analysis was performed by student t test and the different significance adopted was p tests. In anxiety related responses however, the mice of caffeine group had greater number of fecal pellets (178 %, p = 0.001) in the open field test, higher number of attempts (51 %, p = 0.03) in light-dark box and decreased percentage of entries in open arms (41 %, p = 0.01) in elevated plus maze test. Moreover, in the marble burying test, there was a significant decrease in the number of buried marbles compared with controls (110 %, p = 0,002). In the meantime, in the von Frey test, it was observed an exacerbation of mechanical allodynia both in basal conditions and after the carrageenan administration (p < 0.001). Furthermore, caffeine treatment during pregnancy and lactation causes long-term behavioral changes in the mice offspring that manifest later in life.

  11. Effects of Check and Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the effects of Check & Connect (C&C) on the attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes of at-risk youth in a field-based effectiveness trial. Method: A multisite randomized block design was used, wherein 260 primarily Hispanic (89%) and economically disadvantaged (74%) students were randomized to treatment…

  12. Assessing Face Validity of a Food Behavior Checklist for Limited-resource Filipinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banna, Jinan C; Buchthal, Opal Vanessa; Tauyan, Socorro

    2015-10-01

    Diet-related chronic health conditions are prevalent in the Filipino American community; however, there is a lack of rigorously validated nutrition education evaluation tools in Tagalog for use in this population. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the face validity of a Tagalog-language food behavior checklist (FBC). A multi-step method was used, involving translation of questionnaire text from English to Tagalog by a team of professionals, creation of accompanying color photographs, cognitive testing with the target population, final review by the team of professionals, and assessment of readability. Subjects for cognitive testing were men (n=6) and women (n=14) 18 years or older in Hawai'i who received or were eligible to receive Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, self-identified as Filipino, and preferred Tagalog rather than English. Participants were recruited from churches, the Filipino Center, and other community sites. Cognitive interviews revealed several issues with text and photographs, such as preferences for specific terms, and images that did not adequately illustrate the text. Image changes were made to reflect items most commonly consumed. The team of professionals agreed with participant suggestions. Assessment of readability revealed a reading level appropriate for a low-literacy population of grade 5.9. The multi-step process, which allowed members of the target audience to reveal the appropriateness of the questionnaire, yielded a Tagalog-language FBC found to have adequate face validity. After further evaluation of validity and reliability, this tool may be used to evaluate behavior change resulting from the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) nutrition education programs. PMID:26535163

  13. FRP-RC Beam in Shear: Mechanical Model and Assessment Procedure for Pseudo-Ductile Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Petrone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a mechanics-based shear model for reinforced concrete (RC elements strengthened in shear with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP and a design/assessment procedure capable of predicting the failure sequence of resisting elements: the yielding of existing transverse steel ties and the debonding of FRP sheets/strips, while checking the corresponding compressive stress in concrete. The research aims at the definition of an accurate capacity equation, consistent with the requirement of the pseudo-ductile shear behavior of structural elements, that is, transverse steel ties yield before FRP debonding and concrete crushing. For the purpose of validating the proposed model, an extended parametric study and a comparison against experimental results have been conducted: it is proven that the common accepted rule of assuming the shear capacity of RC members strengthened in shear with FRP as the sum of the maximum contribution of both FRP and stirrups can lead to an unsafe overestimation of the shear capacity. This issue has been pointed out by some authors, when comparing experimental shear capacity values with the theoretical ones, but without giving a convincing explanation of that. In this sense, the proposed model represents also a valid instrument to better understand the mechanical behavior of FRP-RC beams in shear and to calculate their actual shear capacity.

  14. Behavioral regulation assessment in exercise: exploring an autonomous and controlled motivation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Luis; Moutão, João; Leitão, José; Alves, José

    2012-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) and to test the hypothesis that the different types of behavioral regulation can be combined on a single factor to assess autonomous and controlled motivation. Data were collected from 550 members of private fitness centres who ranged in age from 14 to 69 years. The analysis supported an 18-item, 5-factor model after excluding one item (S-B chi2 = 221.7, df = 125, p = .000, S-B chi2/df = 1.77; SRMR = .06; NNFI = .90; CFI = .92; RMSEA = .04, 90% CI = .03-.05). However, the analysis also revealed a lack of internal consistency. The results of a hierarchical model based on 2 second-order factors that reflected controlled motivation (external and introjected regulation) and autonomous motivation (identified and intrinsic regulation) provided an acceptable fit to the data (S-B chi2 = 172.6, df = 74, p = .000, S-B chi2/df = 2.33; SRMR = .07; NNFI = .90; CFI = .92; RMSEA = .05, 90% CI = .04-.06), with reliability coefficients of .75 for controlled motivation and .76 for autonomous motivation. The study findings indicated that when item 17 was excluded, the Portuguese BREQ-2 was an appropriate measure of the controlled and autonomous motivation in exercise.

  15. Intervertebral disc creep behavior assessment through an open source finite element solver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, A P G; Wilson, W; Huyghe, J M; Ito, K; Alves, J L

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD) is one of the largest health problems faced worldwide, based on lost working time and associated costs. By means of this motivation, this work aims to evaluate a biomimetic Finite Element (FE) model of the Intervertebral Disc (IVD). Recent studies have emphasized the importance of an accurate biomechanical modeling of the IVD, as it is a highly complex multiphasic medium. Poroelastic models of the disc are mostly implemented in commercial finite element packages with limited access to the algorithms. Therefore, a novel poroelastic formulation implemented on a home-developed open source FE solver is briefly addressed throughout this paper. The combination of this formulation with biphasic osmotic swelling behavior is also taken into account. Numerical simulations were devoted to the analysis of the non-degenerated human lumbar IVD time-dependent behavior. The results of the tests performed for creep assessment were inside the scope of the experimental data, with a remarkable improvement of the numerical accuracy when compared with previously published results obtained with ABAQUS(®). In brief, this in-development open-source FE solver was validated with literature experimental data and aims to be a valuable tool to study the IVD biomechanics and DDD mechanisms. PMID:24210477

  16. Assessment of mouse anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box and open-field arena: role of equipment and procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesskaya, Natalia; Voikar, Vootele

    2014-06-22

    Light-dark box and open field are conventional tests for assessment of anxiety-like behavior in the laboratory mice, based on approach-avoidance conflict. However, except the basic principles, variations in the equipment and procedures are very common. Therefore, contribution of certain methodological issues in different settings was investigated. Three inbred strains (C57BL/6, 129/Sv, DBA/2) and one outbred stock (ICR) of mice were used in the experiments. An effect of initial placement of mice either in the light or dark compartment was studied in the light-dark test. Moreover, two tracking systems were applied - position of the animals was detected either by infrared sensors in square box (1/2 dark) or by videotracking in rectangular box (1/3 dark). Both approaches revealed robust and consistent strain differences in the exploratory behavior. In general, C57BL/6 and ICR mice showed reduced anxiety-like behavior as compared to 129/Sv and DBA/2 strains. However, the latter two strains differed markedly in their behavior. DBA/2 mice displayed high avoidance of the light compartment accompanied by thigmotaxis, whereas the hypoactive 129 mice spent a significant proportion of time in risk-assessment behavior at the opening between two compartments. Starting from the light side increased the time spent in the light compartment and reduced the latency to the first transition. In the open field arena, black floor promoted exploratory behavior - increased time and distance in the center and increased rearing compared to white floor. In conclusion, modifications of the apparatus and procedure had significant effects on approach-avoidance behavior in general whereas the strain rankings remained unaffected.

  17. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  18. Synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM). Behavioral effects and radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM), an immunomodulator, for its survival enhancing capacity and behavioral toxicity in B6D2F1 female mice. In survival experiments, mice were administered S-TDCM (25-400 μg/mouse i.p.) 20-24 hr before 5.6 Gy mixed-field fission-neutron irradiation (n) and γ-photon irradiation. The 30-day survival rates for mice treated with 100-400 μg/mouse S-TDCM were significantly enhanced compared to controls. Toxicity of S-TDCM was measured in nonirradiated mice by locomotor activity, food intake, water consumption, and alterations in body weight. A dose-dependent decrease was noted in all behavioral measures in mice treated with S-TDCM. Doses of 100 and 200 μg/mouse S-TDCM significantly reduced motor activity beginning 12 hr postinjection with recovery by 24 hr. A dose of 400 μg/mouse significantly decreased activity within the first 4 hr after administration and returned to control levels by 32 hr following injection. Food and water intake were significantly depressed at doses of 200 and 400 μg/mouse on the day following drug administration, and were recovered in 24 hr. Body weight was significantly decreased in the 200 μg/mouse group for 2 days and in the 400 μg/mouse group for 4 days following injection. A dose of 100 μg/mouse effectively enhanced survival after fission-neutron irradiation with no adverse effect on food consumption, water intake, or body weight and a minimal, short-term effect on locomotor activity. (author)

  19. Molecular Mechanism: ERK Signaling, Drug Addiction, and Behavioral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that result in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction. PMID:26809997

  20. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Brady, J V; Fischman, M W

    1986-09-01

    Nine male research volunteers, in three groups of three subjects each, resided in a residential laboratory for up to 25 days. All contact with the experimenter was through a networked computer system and subjects' behaviors including food intake were continuously recorded. Subjects brought their own activities such as model-making, and these in combination with those provided by the laboratory resulted in rich behavior repertoires. During the first part of the day, subjects remained in their private rooms doing planned work activities, and during the remainder of the day, they were allowed to socialize. Cigarettes containing active marijuana (1.84% THC) or placebo were smoked prior to the private work period and during the social access period. A single active marijuana cigarette prior to the private work period had no effect on food intake. The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake. The increased intake was due to an augmentation of calories consumed as between-meal snack items rather than an increase in meal size per se.