Sample records for assessing behavioral effects

  1. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist: A Behavior Rating Scale for the Assessment of Treatment Effects. (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others


    The development of a scale to assess drug and other treatment effects on severely mentally retarded individuals is described. Separate factor analyses of the data from two samples resulted in a five-factor scale: (1) Irritability, Agitation, Crying; (2) Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; (3) Stereotypic Behavior; (4) Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; and…

  2. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  3. Examining the Reliability and Validity of the Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey (United States)

    Solomon, Benjamin G.; Tobin, Kevin G.; Schutte, Gregory M.


    The Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey (SAS; Sugai, Horner, & Todd, 2003) is designed to measure perceived Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) implementation and identify priorities for improvement. Despite its longevity, little published research exists documenting its reliability or validity for these purposes.…

  4. Positive reinforcement training as a technique to alter nonhuman primate behavior: quantitative assessments of effectiveness. (United States)

    Schapiro, Steven J; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Laule, Gail E


    Many suggest that operant conditioning techniques can be applied successfully to improve the behavioral management of nonhuman primates in research settings. However, relatively little empirical data exist to support this claim. This article is a review of several studies that discussed applied positive reinforcement training techniques (PRT) on breeding/research colonies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and measured their effectiveness. Empirical analyses quantified the amount of time required to train rhesus monkeys to come up, station, target, and stay. Additionally, a study found that time spent affiliating by female rhesus was changed as a function of training low affiliators to affiliate more and high affiliators to affiliate less. Another study successfully trained chimpanzees to feed without fighting and to come inside on command. PRT is an important behavioral management tool that can improve the care and welfare of primates in captivity. Published empirical findings are essential for managers to assess objectively the utility of positive reinforcement training techniques in enhancing captive management and research procedures.

  5. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health. (United States)

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna


    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The effect of recording interval length on behavioral assessment using the forced swimming test

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    Paloma Álvarez-Suárez


    Full Text Available The forced swimming test is a method used in the assessment of depressive-like behavior in rodents. Changes in the original forced swimming test procedure developed by Porsolt et al. and their influence in the results is a controversial issue and has been discussed in many studies. Animal’s behavior is usually recorded by partial interval recording, dividing the total recording time into equal intervals and manually recording the predominant behavior. Despite the influence of the recording method in the subsequent results, this issue has not been further studied nor normalized. The aim of this study was to assess whether the representativeness of the data is influenced by the recording interval length, by recording behaviors (immobility, swim and climbing in the same subjects at 3, 5 and 10 s recording intervals. We used a non-pathological sample of male and female adult Wistar rats. Our results show no differences in the use of these three recording intervals in the registration method of the forced swimming test, for the main three behaviors measured.

  7. Do Functional Behavioral Assessments Improve Intervention Effectiveness for Students Diagnosed with ADHD? A Single-Subject Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Miller, Faith G.; Lee, David L.


    The primary purpose of this quantitative synthesis of single-subject research was to investigate the relative effectiveness of function-based and non-function-based behavioral interventions for students diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In addition, associations between various participant, assessment, and intervention…

  8. Effects of Coaching on the Implementation of Functional Assessment-Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Challenging Behaviors (United States)

    Fettig, Angel; Schultz, Tia R.; Sreckovic, Melissa A.


    This study examined the effects of coaching on the implementation of functional assessment--based parent intervention in reducing children's challenging behaviors. A multiple baseline across participants design was used with three parent-child dyads with children between the ages of 2 and 5 years. The intervention consisted of training and delayed…

  9. Assessing substrates underlying the behavioral effects of antidepressants using the modified rat forced swimming test. (United States)

    Cryan, John F; Valentino, Rita J; Lucki, Irwin


    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely prescribed antidepressant class today and exert their antidepressant-like effects by increasing synaptic concentrations of serotonin (5-HT). The rat forced swim test (FST) is the most widely used animal test predictive of antidepressant action. Procedural modifications recently introduced by our laboratory have enabled SSRI-induced behavioral responses to be measured in the modified FST. The use of this model to understand the pharmacological and physiological mechanisms underlying the role of 5-HT in the behavioral effects of antidepressant drugs is reviewed. Although all antidepressants reduced behavioral immobility, those antidepressants that increase serotonergic neurotransmission predominantly increase swimming behavior whereas those that increase catacholaminergic neurotransmission increase climbing behavior. The 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B/1D) and 5-HT(2C) receptors are the 5-HT receptors most important to the therapeutic effects of SSRIs, based on extensive evaluation of agonists and antagonists of individual 5-HT receptor subtypes. Studies involving chronic administration have shown that the effects of antidepressants are augmented following chronic treatment. Other studies have demonstrated strain differences in the response to serotonergic compounds. Finally, a physiological model of performance in the rat FST has been proposed involving the regulation of 5-HT transmission by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF).

  10. Assessment the toxic effects of dimethoate to rotifer using swimming behavior. (United States)

    Guo, Ruixin; Ren, Xinkun; Ren, Hongqiang


    The toxic effects of the common organophosphorus pesticide dimethoate on freshwater zooplankton Brachionus calyciflorus (rotifer) were tested. Because of the advantages of behavioral response in environmental monitoring, swimming behavior was used as the endpoint in this research. After exposure 6 h at five dimethoate concentrations (0.18, 0.53, 0.88, 1.23 and 1.59 mg·L(-1)), the pesticide disrupted the balance in rotifer swimming direction and caused an obvious direction preference. It also inhibited significantly the swimming angular and linear speed. Our results showed that dimethoate has a sublethal toxic effect on this aquatic invertebrate.

  11. Gender Differences in Depression: Assessing Mediational Effects of Overt Behaviors and Environmental Reward through Daily Diary Monitoring

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    Marlena M. Ryba


    Full Text Available Gender differences in the prevalence of depression are well documented. To further explore the relation between gender and depression, this study used daily diaries to examine gender differences within thirteen behavioral domains and whether differential frequency of overt behaviors and environmental reward mediated the relationship between gender and depression severity. The sample included 82 undergraduate students [66% females; 84% Caucasian; Mean age = 20.2 years]. Overall, females engaged in a significantly greater breadth of behavioral domains and reported a higher level of environmental reward. Females spent more time in the domains of health/hygiene, spiritual activities, and eating with others. Males spent more time in the domains of physical activity, sexual activity, and hobbies and recreational experiences. Females found social activities, passive/sedentary behaviors, eating with others, and engagement in “other” activities more rewarding. Gender had a significant direct effect on depression severity, with females reporting increased depression. This effect was attenuated by the mediator (total environmental reward such that to the extent females exhibited increased environmental reward, the gender effect on depression was attenuated. These data support behavioral models of depression, indicate increased reinforcement sensitivity among females, and have clinical relevance in the context of assessment and behavioral activation interventions for depression.

  12. What is "fallback"?: metrics needed to assess telemetry tag effects on anadromous fish behavior (United States)

    Frank, Holly J.; Mather, Martha E.; Smith, Joseph M.; Muth, Robert M.; Finn, John T.; McCormick, Stephen D.


    Telemetry has allowed researchers to document the upstream migrations of anadromous fish in freshwater. In many anadromous alosine telemetry studies, researchers use downstream movements (“fallback”) as a behavioral field bioassay for adverse tag effects. However, these downstream movements have not been uniformly reported or interpreted. We quantified movement trajectories of radio-tagged anadromous alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts (USA) and tested blood chemistry of tagged and untagged fish held 24 h. A diverse repertoire of movements was observed, which could be quantified using (a) direction of initial movements, (b) timing, and (c) characteristics of bouts of coupled upstream and downstream movements (e.g., direction, distance, duration, and speed). Because downstream movements of individual fish were almost always made in combination with upstream movements, these should be examined together. Several of the movement patterns described here could fall under the traditional definition of “fallback” but were not necessarily aberrant. Because superficially similar movements could have quite different interpretations, post-tagging trajectories need more precise definitions. The set of metrics we propose here will help quantify tag effects in the field, and provide the basis for a conceptual framework that helps define the complicated behaviors seen in telemetry studies on alewives and other fish in the field.

  13. Predicting safe sex: Assessment of autoregressive and cross-lagged effects within the Theory of Planned Behavior. (United States)

    Eggers, Sander M; Taylor, Myra; Sathiparsad, Reshma; Bos, Arjan Er; de Vries, Hein


    Despite its popularity, few studies have assessed the temporal stability and cross-lagged effects of the Theory of Planned Behavior factors: Attitude, subjective norms and self-efficacy. For this study, 298 adolescent learners from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, filled out a Theory of Planned Behavior questionnaire on teenage pregnancy at baseline and after 6 months. Structural equation modeling showed that there were considerable cross-lagged effects between attitude and subjective norms. Temporal stability was moderate with test-retest correlations ranging from 0.37 to 0.51 and the model was able to predict intentions to have safe sex (R2 = 0.69) Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  14. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons

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    Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental, Santa Fe (Argentina)


    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents (United States)

    Ma, Xin


    This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

  16. Increasing Active Student Responding in a University Applied Behavior Analysis Course: The Effect of Daily Assessment and Response Cards on End of Week Quiz Scores (United States)

    Malanga, Paul R.; Sweeney, William J.


    The study compared the effects of daily assessment and response cards on average weekly quiz scores in an introduction to applied behavior analysis course. An alternating treatments design (Kazdin 1982, "Single-case research designs." New York: Oxford University Press; Cooper et al. 2007, "Applied behavior analysis." Upper Saddle River:…

  17. Neurobehavioral conditions and effects of gender, weight and severity in preterm infants according to the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

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    Alicia Álvarez-García


    Full Text Available The increasing number of preterm babies in recent years has raised interest in studying the consequences of prematurity as a risk factor. In the present paper, 30 preterm babies (at 40 weeks of gestational age were assessed using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and the results were compared with those of a control group of 28 full term babies. Moreover, the influence of weight, sex and gestational age was analyzed considering the Brazelton results in the preterm group. The preterm group showed significantly lower scores than the control group for 9 of the 28 behavioral items in the Scale and for 2 of the 5 clusters. However, preterm babies performed better in habituation to disturbing stimuli (light and noise during sleep. In relation to the influence of sex, premature girls performed better in the Social-Interactive cluster. The preterm group has lower neurobehavioral conditions than the full term group, probably due to the abrupt interruption of their intrauterine maturation. In contrast, they showed a better ability of habituation, maybe as a consequence of a learning effect due to earlier additional extrauterine exposition.

  18. Analogue Assessment of the Replacement Behavior (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio


    The use of experimental analyses in determining behavioral function for problems behaviors is well established. Such analyses lead to functional treatment prescriptions for the target problem behavior. However, data indicative of the strength of the replacement behavior are often not collected during a functional behavioral assessment. I examine…

  19. Validating a behavioral economic approach to assess food demand: effects of body mass index, dietary restraint, and impulsivity. (United States)

    Reslan, Summar; Saules, Karen K; Greenwald, Mark K


    Behavioral economic theory is a useful framework for analyzing factors influencing choice, but the majority of human behavioral economic research has focused on drug choice. The behavioral economic choice paradigm may also be valuable for understanding food-maintained behavior. Our primary objective was two-fold: (1) Validate a human laboratory model of food-appetitive behavior, and (2) Assess the contribution of individual level factors that may differentially impact food choice behavior. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, female subjects (N=17) participated in two consecutive food choice experimental sessions, whereas in Study 2, female subjects (N=21) participated in one concurrent food choice experimental session. During consecutive choice sessions (Study 1), demand for the more palatable food (i.e., high-sugar/high-fat) was more inelastic than the less palatable (i.e., low-sugar/low-fat) option. During concurrent choice sessions, demand for the more palatable food (i.e., high-sugar/high-fat) was more inelastic for restrained vs. unrestrained eaters, and for those who were overweight vs. normal weight. Demand for both palatable and less palatable choices was more elastic for high-impulsive vs. low-impulsive subjects. These findings suggest that the behavioral economic framework can be used successfully to develop a human laboratory model of food-appetitive behavior.

  20. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents: laboratory behavioral assessments. (United States)

    Reynolds, Brady; Penfold, Robert B; Patak, Michele


    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that defines a range of maladaptive behavioral styles. The present research aimed to identify different dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents from a battery of laboratory behavioral assessments. In one analysis, correlations were examined between two self report and seven laboratory behavioral measures of impulsivity. The correlation between the two self report measures was high compared to correlations between the self report and laboratory behavioral measures. In a second analysis, a principal components analysis was performed with just the laboratory behavioral measures. Three behavioral dimensions were identified -- "impulsive decision-making", "impulsive inattention", and "impulsive disinhibition". These dimensions were further evaluated using the same sample with a confirmatory factor analysis, which did support the hypothesis that these are significant and independent dimensions of impulsivity. This research indicates there are at least three separate subtypes of impulsive behavior when using laboratory behavioral assessments with adolescent participants.

  1. Longitudinal Outcomes of Functional Behavioral Assessment--Based Intervention (United States)

    Kern, Lee; Gallagher, Patricia; Starosta, Kristin; Hickman, Wesley; George, Michael


    A critical measure of intervention effectiveness is durability over time. Still, few studies have examined the long-term outcomes of support derived from a functional behavioral assessment as well as enablers and barriers that contribute to or impede successful outcomes. In the current study, a functional behavioral assessment was conducted with a…

  2. An assessment of health behavior peer effects in Peking University dormitories: a randomized cluster-assignment design for interference.

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    Changzheng Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the peer influence in health behaviors within university dormitory rooms. Moreover, in China, the problem of unhealthy behaviors among university students has not yet been sufficiently recognized. We thus investigated health behavior peer influence in Peking University dormitories utilizing a randomized cluster-assignment design. METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional in-dormitory survey. STUDY POPULATION: Current students from Peking University Health Science Center from April to June, 2009. MEASUREMENT: Self-reported questionnaire on health behaviors: physical activity (including bicycling, dietary intake and tobacco use. RESULTS: Use of bicycle, moderate-intensity exercise, frequency of sweet food and soybean milk intake, frequency of roasted/baked/toasted food intake were behaviors significantly or marginally significantly affected by peer influence. CONCLUSION: Health behavior peer effects exist within dormitory rooms among university students. This could provide guidance on room assignment, or inform intervention programs. Examining these may demand attention from university administrators and policy makers.

  3. The effect of thermal quality on the thermoregulatory behavior of the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps: influences of methodological assessment. (United States)

    Cadena, Viviana; Tattersall, Glenn J


    Metabolic functions are generally optimized within a narrow range of body temperatures (T(b)'s), conferring thermoregulation great importance to the survival and fitness of an animal. In lizards, T(b) regulation is mainly behavioral, and the metabolic costs associated with behavioral thermoregulation are primarily locomotory. In reptiles, however, it has been proposed that they thermoregulate less precisely when the associated costs, metabolic or otherwise, are high. Such a strategy enhances fitness by allowing lizards to be more flexible to changing environmental conditions while maximizing the benefits of maintaining a high T(b) and minimizing energy expenditure. We evaluated the behavioral thermoregulation of inland bearded dragons Pogona vitticeps under various thermal quality conditions requiring different locomotory investment for thermoregulation. The selected ambient temperature and preferred T(b) ranges increased at lower environmental thermal qualities, indicating a decrease in thermoregulatory precision in environments where the costs associated with thermoregulation were high. The level of thermoregulation was also affected, exhibiting a decrease in preferred T(b) of approximately 2 degrees C at the lowest-thermal-quality treatment. These data provide important implications for the procedural assessment of preferred T(b) and a better understanding of thermal set points in reptiles in general. Our results emphasize that the precise maintenance and assessment of preferred T(b) is contingent on the quality of the environment, laboratory or natural, that the animal inhabits.

  4. Functional Behavioral Assessment: A School Based Model. (United States)

    Asmus, Jennifer M.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Borrero, John C.


    This article begins by discussing requirements for functional behavioral assessment under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and then describes a comprehensive model for the application of behavior analysis in the schools. The model includes descriptive assessment, functional analysis, and intervention and involves the participation…

  5. [Assessing the effect of health belief, knowledge, and social support on compliance behaviors in chronic hemodialysis patients]. (United States)

    Lin, C C; Ko, N Y; Tsai, L C; Chen, C H


    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of hemodialysis patients' health belief, knowledge on uremia, and social support upon their compliance behavior. The convenience sample of 330 hemodialysis (HD) patients was obtained at HD centers in southern Taiwan. With the use of a questionnaire developed by the researcher, all subjects were interviewed during hemodialysis. Data analyses were processed by a personal computer with SPSS/PC. Pearson correlation, ANOVA, chi-square, multiple regression and factor analysis were selected as the analysis methods for this study. The results indicated: (1) The average overall rate of compliance was 72.1% by patient self report for fluid limit, diet restriction and taking PBM. (2) Two factors of subject's health belief were identified by factor analysis. (3) Those who had more positive motivation for compliance with therapeutic regiments, more knowledge on uremia and stronger social support were positively correlated with compliance behaviors. (4) The best predictive variables of compliance behaviors of HD patients included positive motivation, knowledge on uremia, educational level, current daily urine amount and age; these five variables explained 23% of variance in compliance behaviors. (5) The instruments with a satisfactory validity and reliability developed by the researcher could provide a valuable basis for relevant future research. Implications of these findings for nursing practice are also discussed.

  6. Treatment effectiveness of PMTO for children's behavior problems in Iceland: assessing parenting practices in a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Sigmarsdóttir, Margrét; Degarmo, David S; Forgatch, Marion S; Guðmundsdóttir, Edda Vikar


    Findings are presented from an Icelandic randomized control trial (RCT) evaluating parent management training - Oregon model (PMTO™), a parent training intervention designed to improve parenting practices and reduce child behavior problems. In a prior report from this effectiveness study that focused on child outcomes, children in the PMTO condition showed greater reductions in reported child adjustment problems relative to the comparison group. The present report focuses on observed parenting practices as the targeted outcome, with risk by treatment moderators also tested. It was hypothesized that mothers assigned to the PMTO condition would show greater gains in pre-post parenting practices relative to controls. The sample was recruited from five municipalities throughout Iceland and included 102 participating families of children with behavior problems. Cases were referred by community professionals and randomly assigned to either PMTO (n = 51) or community services usually offered (n = 51). Child age ranged from 5 to 12 years; 73% were boys. Contrary to expectations, findings showed no main effects for changes in maternal parenting. However, evaluation of risk by treatment moderators showed greater gains in parenting practices for mothers who increased in depressed mood within the PMTO group relative to their counterparts in the comparison group. This finding suggests that PMTO prevented the expected damaging effects of depression on maternal parenting. Failure to find hypothesized main effects may indicate that there were some unobserved factors regarding the measurement and a need to further adapt the global observational procedures to Icelandic culture.

  7. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Headache (United States)

    Andrasik, Frank; Schwartz, Mark S.


    Headaches are quite common in children and adolescents, and they appear to persist into adulthood in a sizable number of individuals. Assessment approaches (interview, pain diaries, and general and specific questionnaires) and behavioral treatment interventions (contingency management, relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy) are…


    Rooker, Griffin W.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Roscoe, Eileen M.


    Severe problem behavior (e.g., self-injury and aggression) remains among the most serious challenges for the habilitation of persons with intellectual disabilities and is a significant obstacle to community integration. The current standard of behavior analytic treatment for problem behavior in this population consists of a functional assessment and treatment model. Within that model, the first step is to assess the behavior–environment relations that give rise to and maintain problem behavior, a functional behavioral assessment. Conventional methods of assessing behavioral function include indirect, descriptive, and experimental assessments of problem behavior. Clinical investigators have produced a rich literature demonstrating the relative effectiveness for each method, but in clinical practice, each can produce ambiguous or difficult-to-interpret outcomes that may impede treatment development. This paper outlines potential sources of variability in assessment outcomes and then reviews the evidence on strategies for avoiding ambiguous outcomes and/or clarifying initially ambiguous results. The end result for each assessment method is a set of best practice guidelines, given the available evidence, for conducting the initial assessment. PMID:26236145

  9. IDEAS (Integrate, Design, Assess, and Share): A Framework and Toolkit of Strategies for the Development of More Effective Digital Interventions to Change Health Behavior. (United States)

    Mummah, Sarah Ann; Robinson, Thomas N; King, Abby C; Gardner, Christopher D; Sutton, Stephen


    Developing effective digital interventions to change health behavior has been a challenging goal for academics and industry players alike. Guiding intervention design using the best combination of approaches available is necessary if effective technologies are to be developed. Behavioral theory, design thinking, user-centered design, rigorous evaluation, and dissemination each have widely acknowledged merits in their application to digital health interventions. This paper introduces IDEAS, a step-by-step process for integrating these approaches to guide the development and evaluation of more effective digital interventions. IDEAS is comprised of 10 phases (empathize, specify, ground, ideate, prototype, gather, build, pilot, evaluate, and share), grouped into 4 overarching stages: Integrate, Design, Assess, and Share (IDEAS). Each of these phases is described and a summary of theory-based behavioral strategies that may inform intervention design is provided. The IDEAS framework strives to provide sufficient detail without being overly prescriptive so that it may be useful and readily applied by both investigators and industry partners in the development of their own mHealth, eHealth, and other digital health behavior change interventions.

  10. Assessing Specific Sexual Behavior: Instrument Development and Validation Techniques. (United States)

    Webb, Monica C; Chaney, J Don; Chen, W William; Dodd, Virginia J; Huang, I-Chan; Sanders, Sadie


    Through the use of multi-modal methods, the purpose of this study was to develop and assess measurement properties of an instrument evaluating specific sexual behaviors of college students and the role alcohol intoxication plays in one's intention to participate in these behaviors. A modified version of N. Krause's instrument development process was applied to create a behavior-specific instrument assessing oral, vaginal, and anal sex behaviors. The process included a review by expert scholars in relevant fields, cognitive interviews with the target population using screen-capture program Camtasia, piloting to assess measurement scales, and a formal investigation. The applied instrument development process employed screen capture software and web-based surveying in a cost-effective format suitable for mixed-method measurement development. The development and application of the instrument provides a clearer understanding of the relationship between alcohol use and sexual activity and aids in the development of effective public health interventions and policies.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Kate; Krogh, Jesper; Wenneberg, Christina


    were: severity of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, suicide ideation, and self-esteem. RESULTS: At 28 weeks, the number of participants with new self-harm in the DBT group was 21 of 57 (36.8%) versus 12 of 51 (23.5%) in the CAMS treatment (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 0.80-4.40; P = .14......BACKGROUND: Many psychological treatments have shown effect on reducing self-harm in adults with borderline personality disorder. There is a need of brief psychotherapeutical treatment alternative for suicide prevention in specialized outpatient clinics. METHODS/DESIGN: The DiaS trial was designed...... behavior therapy (DBT) versus up to 16 weeks of collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) treatment. The primary composite outcome was the number of participants with a new self-harm (nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI] or suicide attempt) at week 28 from baseline. Other exploratory outcomes...

  12. The effects of behavioral health reform on safety-net institutions: a mixed-method assessment in a rural state. (United States)

    Willging, Cathleen E; Sommerfeld, David H; Aarons, Gregory A; Waitzkin, Howard


    In July 2005, New Mexico initiated a major reform of publicly-funded behavioral healthcare to reduce cost and bureaucracy. We used a mixed-method approach to examine how this reform impacted the workplaces and employees of service agencies that care for low-income adults in rural and urban areas. Information technology problems and cumbersome processes to enroll patients, procure authorizations, and submit claims led to payment delays that affected the financial status of the agencies, their ability to deliver care, and employee morale. Rural employees experienced lower levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions under the reform when compared to their urban counterparts.

  13. Habitat Utilization Assessment - Building in Behaviors (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Blume, Jennifer


    Habitability, and the associated architectural and design attributes of an environment, is a powerful performance shaping factor. By identifying how inhabitants use an area, we can draw conclusions about what design or architectural attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance. We are analyzing how a crew uses a long duration habitat and work environment during a four-day underwater mission and identifying certain architectural and design attributes that are related to, and potential enablers of, certain crew behaviors. By identifying how inhabitants use the habitat, we can draw conclusions about what habitability attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance (applicable to NASA's Bioastronautics Human Behavior and Performance Critical Path Roadmap question 6.12). This assessment replicates a methodology reported in a chapter titled "Sociokinetic Analysis as a Tool for Optimization of Environmental Design" by C. Adams.' That study collected video imagery of certain areas of a closed habitat during a 91 day test and from that data calculated time spent in different volumes during the mission, and characterized the behaviors occurring in certain habitat volumes thus concluding various rules for design of such habitats. This study assesses the utilization of the Aquarius Habitat, an underwater station, which will support six Aquanauts for a fourteen-day mission during which the crew will perform specific scientific and engineering studies. Video is recorded for long uninterrupted periods of time during the mission and from that data the time spent in each area is calculated. In addition, qualitative and descriptive analysis of the types of behaviors in each area is performed with the purpose of identifying any behaviors that are not typical of a certain area. If a participant uses an area in a way different from expected, a subsequent analysis of the features of that area may result in

  14. Enhancing the Effects of Extinction on Attention-Maintained Behavior through Noncontingent Delivery of Attention or Stimuli Identified Via a Competing Stimulus Assessment (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Keeney, Kris M.


    Recent research has shown that the noncontingent delivery of competing stimuli can effectively reduce rates of destructive behavior maintained by social-positive reinforcement, even when the contingency for destructive behavior remains intact. It may be useful, therefore, to have a systematic means for predicting which reinforcers do and do not…

  15. Effect of host immunity on metastatic potential in renal cell carcinoma: the assessment of optimal in vivo models to study metastatic behavior of renal cancer cells. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Morita, Tatsuo; Chun, Nicole A L; Matsui, Aya; Takahashi, Masafumi; Murakami, Takashi


    There has been little information about metastatic behavior of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells because human cancers metastasize only rarely in immunodeficient mice. Moreover, it is difficult to know the effect of host immunity on RCC metastasis due to lack of such RCC cells as transplantable in not only xenograft models but also counterparts with intact immunity. Therefore, we scrutinized in vivo metastasis of RCC cells to seek for the optimal preclinical model to study metastatic behavior. The luciferase-expressing three representative human RCC cell lines (Caki-1, A498, and 786-O) and rat ACI-RCC cell which were established in our laboratory were transplanted into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice or immunocompetent ACI rats by intracardiac injection as well as orthotopic inoculation. Metastasis was monitored using a bioluminescent imaging technique. Metastasis was rare in the three human RCC cells even when they were directly disseminated into systemic circulation under the condition least susceptible to host immune attack in NOD/SCID mice. In contrast, ACI-RCC cells spontaneously metastasized to pulmonary tissue from orthotopic tumor sites and systemically spread via intracardiac route. Metastases were more extensive when the cells were inoculated into an immunodeficient host, implying suppressive effect of host immunity on colonization of RCC cells. These results suggest that the representative human RCC cells are not adequate resource to study metastasis but that the luciferase-labeled ACI-RCC cell characterized by its luminescent stability, enhanced tumorigenicity, and widespread metastatic potential provides a useful in vivo model for preclinical assessment of cancer progression and potential therapies against RCC.

  16. Effective strategies for behavior change. (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H


    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  17. Assessing walking behaviors of selected subpopulations. (United States)

    Le Masurier, Guy C; Bauman, Adrian E; Corbin, Charles B; Konopack, James F; Umstattd, Renee M; VAN Emmerik, Richard E A


    Recent innovations in physical activity (PA) assessment have made it possible to assess the walking behaviors of a wide variety of populations. Objective measurement methods (e.g., pedometers, accelerometers) have been widely used to assess walking and other prevalent types of PA. Questionnaires suitable for international populations (e.g., the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire) and measurement techniques for the assessment of gait patterns in disabled populations allow for the study of walking and its health benefits among many populations. Results of studies using the aforementioned techniques indicate that children are more active than adolescents and adolescents are more active than adults. Males, particularly young males, are typically more active than females. The benefits associated with regular participation in PA for youth and walking for older adults have been well documented, although improvements in the assessments of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial parameters must be made if we are to fully understand the benefits of walking for people of all ages. Most youth meet appropriate age-related PA activity recommendations, but adults, particularly older adults and adults with disabilities, are less likely to meet PA levels necessary for the accrual of health benefits. International studies indicate variation in walking by culture. It is clear, however, that walking is a prevalent form of PA across countries and a movement form that has great potential in global PA promotion. Continued development of measurement techniques that allow for the study of individualized gait patterns will help us add to the already rich body of knowledge on chronically disabled populations and allow for individual prescriptions for these populations.

  18. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono


    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  19. Assessment of long-term effects of exposure to toluene based on the analysis of selected behavioral responses with particular reference to the ability to trigger behavioral hypersensitivity in rats. (United States)

    Wiaderna, Dorota; Tomas, Tadeusz


    Toluene is a major component of numerous commercial organic solvent formulations. It is often listed among the chemicals capable of producing the organic solvent syndrome and a neurobehavioral hypersensitivity condition. The hypersensitivity condition (continued long-term intensification of some behavioral reactions in response to pharmacological or environmental stressors) is usually associated with the increased tonus of the functional dopaminergic system. The aim of our current research was to determine whether, under conditions of inhalation exposure, toluene can produce long-term behavioral changes or modify the intensity of the behavioral response to apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist. In our experiment, male rats were exposed to 25, 100 and 250 ppm toluene for 4 weeks (5 days/week, 6h/day). The following behaviors were tested: finding water in a radial maze; open field motor activity, acquiring the conditional response of passive avoidance; sensitivity to a thermal pain stimulus (hot plate test) and changes in this sensitivity caused by stress; and acquiring the conditional response of two-directional active avoidance. The behavioral response to apomorphine, i.e. the increased spontaneous locomotor activity, was assessed on day 10 after the termination of the exposure in the rotary drum test. In the behavioral experiment, significant differences between groups were recorded only for the hot plate test; in the 100 and 250 ppm rats, electric-shock-related anxiety response was stronger than in the control group. In the experiment using pharmacological provocation, the behavioral response to apomorphine in the rats exposed to 100 ppm or 250 ppm toluene was significantly lower. Our results indicate that low concentrations of toluene may produce long-term behavioral changes in rats. However, these changes seem to be linked with reduced rather than increased functional tonus of the dopaminergic system.

  20. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice (United States)

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.


    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  1. Functional Assessment of Problem Behaviors in Adults with Mental Retardation (United States)

    Paclawskyj, Theodosia R.; Kurtz, Patricia F.; O'Connor, Julia T.


    Functional assessment has significantly improved the success of behavioral treatment of problem behaviors in adults with mental retardation. Functional assessment methods (i.e., techniques that yield a hypothesis of functional relationships) include direct observation, interviews, and checklists. Functional analysis consists of empirical methods…

  2. High Risk Suicidal Behavior in Veterans - Assessment of Predictors and Efficacy of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (United States)


    Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0722 TITLE: High Risk Suicidal Behavior in Veterans- Assessment of Predictors and Efficacy of Dialectical Behavioral ...first project is a randomized clinical trial of 120 veterans identified with high-risk suicidal behavior comparing the efficacy of Dialectical... Behavioral Therapy (DBT) vs. treatment as usual (TAU) on suicidal behavior as a primary outcome measure. A second aim of the project is to examine group

  3. Using the Effective Behavior Supports Survey to Guide Development of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.


    As the use of school-based positive behavior support (PBS) spreads nationwide, the development of assessment strategies to identify intervention priorities becomes more critical. This study addresses the validity of the Effective Behavior Supports Survey (Lewis & Sugai, 1999) by examining reliability, determining whether rating differences exist…

  4. Perceived historical drinking norms and current drinking behavior: using the theory of normative social behavior as a framework for assessment. (United States)

    Carcioppolo, Nick; Jensen, Jakob D


    Social norms are sustained and disseminated, both implicitly and explicitly, through the act of communication. As a result, communication researchers have sought to classify and target normative perceptions to enact social change. In line with this research, the current study investigated whether perceptions of past normative behavior, referred to here as historical norms, were significantly related to current behavior. Using the theory of normative behavior as a guiding framework, two studies were conducted to assess whether college student drinking behavior was related to one of two perceived historical drinking norms measures: historical consumption norms (i.e., the perceived percentage of students who drank over time) and historical tradition norms (i.e., the perception of drinking as a university tradition). Study 1 revealed that although historical consumption norms was not directly related to drinking behavior, it moderated the effect of descriptive norms on drinking behavior (p = .03). A full assessment of the theory of normative social behavior was conducted in study 2 to determine whether perceived historical drinking norms influenced behavior above and beyond both descriptive and injunctive norms. Findings demonstrated that historical tradition norms were significantly related to drinking behavior (p = .001), and marginally moderated the relationship between descriptive norms and drinking behavior (p = .09). These findings offer preliminary evidence in support of measuring perceived historical drinking norms in future campaigns and interventions designed to reduce drinking behavior.

  5. Visual information transfer. 1: Assessment of specific information needs. 2: The effects of degraded motion feedback. 3: Parameters of appropriate instrument scanning behavior (United States)

    Comstock, J. R., Jr.; Kirby, R. H.; Coates, G. D.


    Pilot and flight crew assessment of visually displayed information is examined as well as the effects of degraded and uncorrected motion feedback, and instrument scanning efficiency by the pilot. Computerized flight simulation and appropriate physiological measurements are used to collect data for standardization.

  6. Personality assessment in the Great Apes: comparing ecologically valid behavior measures, behavior ratings, and adjective ratings



    Three methods of personality assessment (behavior measures, behavior ratings, adjective ratings) were compared in 20 zoo-housed Great Apes: bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). To test a new bottom-up approach, the studied trait constructs were systematically generated from the species’ behavioral repertoires. The assessments were reliable, temporally stable, and showed substantial cross-method...

  7. Effective Behavior of Composite Materials. (United States)


    7AD-A158 941 EFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE MTERIRLS(A) NEW YORK i/i UNIV MY COURANT INST OF ATHEMATICAL SCIENCES 6CPAPANICOLAOU 23 APR 85 5274192... Courant ilfapphcabt e Instit.te of Math. Sciences AF0SR/NM 6c. ADDRESS Cit). State and ZIP Code, 7b. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Code) 251 Mercer St Bldg...Papanicolaou Courant Institute 251 Mercer Street New York, N.Y. 10012 i~istr~utlo2 During this period two thesis ipja b&have completed ’their work and have

  8. Human behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Kobayashi, Susumu; Hong, Zhen; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Wen, Guoqiang; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally classified as a movement disorder because patients mainly complain about motor symptoms. Recently, non-motor symptoms of PD have been recognized by clinicians and scientists as early signs of PD, and they are detrimental factors in the quality of life in advanced PD patients. It is crucial to comprehensively understand the essence of behavioral assessments, from the simplest measurement of certain symptoms to complex neuropsychological tasks. We have recently reviewed behavioral assessments in PD research with animal models (Asakawa et al., 2016). As a companion volume, this article will systematically review the behavioral assessments of motor and non-motor PD symptoms of human patients in current research. The major aims of this article are: (1) promoting a comparative understanding of various behavioral assessments in terms of the principle and measuring indexes; (2) addressing the major strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral assessments for a better selection of tasks/tests in order to avoid biased conclusions due to inappropriate assessments; and (3) presenting new concepts regarding the development of wearable devices and mobile internet in future assessments. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of improving the assessments for non-motor symptoms because of their complex and unique mechanisms in human PD brains.

  9. 2011 Behavioral Health Risk Assessment Data Report (BH-RADR) (United States)


    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited General Medicine: 500A, Public Health Data 2011 Behavioral Health Risk Assessment Data...REPORT DATE 30 SEP 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 01 JAN 2011 - 31 DEC 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2011 Behavioral Health Risk...ABSTRACT This publication describes characteristics of Soldiers who completed a behavioral health (BH) screening at the two post-deployment Touch Points

  10. Writing Assessment's "Debilitating Inheritance": Behaviorism's Dismissal of Experience (United States)

    Wilson, Maja Joiwind


    In this project, I examine the legacy of behaviorism's dismissal of experience on contemporary writing assessment theory and practice within the field of composition studies. I use an archival study of John B. Watson's letters to Robert Mearns Yerkes to establish behaviorism's systematic denial of experience and its related constructs: mind,…

  11. The Social Validity Assessment of Social Competence Intervention Behavior Goals (United States)

    Hurley, Jennifer J.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Feurer, Irene D.


    Social validation is the value judgment from society on the importance of a study. The social validity of behavior goals used in the social competence intervention literature was assessed using the Q-sort technique. The stimulus items were 80 different social competence behavior goals taken from 78 classroom-based social competence intervention…

  12. An Exploration of the Use of Functional Behavior Assessment and Noncontingent Reinforcement on Disruptive Behavior in Middle School General Education Classrooms


    Andreasen, Melody C.


    Teachers sometimes experience problems with disruptive behavior in their classrooms. These aberrant and socially mediated behaviors can be difficult for teachers to manage without the proper research-based skills and training. This project explored the effects of training general education classroom teachers to conduct a functional behavior assessment and deliver noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) for disruptive classroom behavior(s). Participants included four middle school general education ...

  13. Animal behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Hong, Zhen; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Chao, Dongman; Fenoy, Albert J; Villarreal, Sebastian J; Onoe, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying


    Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is traditionally classified as a movement disorder. Patients typically suffer from many motor dysfunctions. Presently, clinicians and scientists recognize that many non-motor symptoms are associated with PD. There is an increasing interest in both motor and non-motor symptoms in clinical studies on PD patients and laboratory research on animal models that imitate the pathophysiologic features and symptoms of PD patients. Therefore, appropriate behavioral assessments are extremely crucial for correctly understanding the mechanisms of PD and accurately evaluating the efficacy and safety of novel therapies. This article systematically reviews the behavioral assessments, for both motor and non-motor symptoms, in various animal models involved in current PD research. We addressed the strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral tests and their appropriate applications. Moreover, we discussed potential mechanisms behind these behavioral tests and cautioned readers against potential experimental bias. Since most of the behavioral assessments currently used for non-motor symptoms are not particularly designed for animals with PD, it is of the utmost importance to greatly improve experimental design and evaluation in PD research with animal models. Indeed, it is essential to develop specific assessments for non-motor symptoms in PD animals based on their characteristics. We concluded with a prospective view for behavioral assessments with real-time assessment with mobile internet and wearable device in future PD research.

  14. Effects of ionic strength on bacteriophage MS2 behavior and their implications for the assessment of virus retention by ultrafiltration membranes. (United States)

    Furiga, Aurelie; Pierre, Gwenaelle; Glories, Marie; Aimar, Pierre; Roques, Christine; Causserand, Christel; Berge, Mathieu


    Bacteriophage MS2 is widely used as a surrogate to estimate pathogenic virus elimination by membrane filtration processes used in water treatment. Given that this water technology may be conducted with different types of waters, we focused on investigating the effects of ionic strength on MS2 behavior. For this, MS2 was analyzed while suspended in solutions of various ionic strengths, first in a batch experiment and second during membrane ultrafiltration, and quantified using (i) quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), which detects the total number of viral genomes, (ii) qRT-PCR without the RNA extraction step, which reflects only particles with a broken capsid (free RNA), and (iii) the PFU method, which detects only infectious viruses. At the beginning of the batch experiments using solutions containing small amounts of salts, losses of MS2 infectivity (90%) and broken particles (20%) were observed; these proportions did not change during filtration. In contrast, in high-ionic-strength solutions, bacteriophage kept its biological activity under static conditions, but it quickly lost its infectivity during the filtration process. Increasing the ionic strength decreased both the inactivation and the capsid breakup in the feed suspension and increased the loss of infectivity in the filtration retentate, while the numbers of MS2 genomes were identical in both experiments. In conclusion, the effects of ionic strength on MS2 behavior may significantly distort the results of membrane filtration processes, and therefore, the combination of classical and molecular methods used here is useful for an effective validation of the retention efficiency of ultrafiltration membranes.

  15. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W


    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  16. Automated Behavior and Cohesion Assessment Tools Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important consideration of long duration space flight operations is interpersonal dynamics that effect crew cohesion and performance. Flight surgeons have stated...

  17. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior (United States)

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John


    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  18. Implications of Current Research on the Use of Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Support Planning in School Systems (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Av-Gay, Hadas


    Functional behavior assessment and function-based support have increasingly been used in school settings in the past decade. This increased use has come under scrutiny from some experts who have argued in the past that function-based support has not yet been proven to be effective in typical school settings with students without severe…

  19. Assessing the moderating effect of the end user in consumer behavior: the acceptance of technological implants to increase innate human capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge ePelegrín-Borondo


    Full Text Available Today, technological implants are being developed to increase innate human capacities, such as memory or calculation speed, and to endow us with new ones, such as the remote control of machines. This study’s aim was twofold: first, to introduce a Cognitive-Affective-Normative model of technology acceptance to explain the intention to use this technology in the field of consumer behavior; and second, to analyze the differences in the intention to use it based on whether the intended implant recipient is oneself or one’s child (i.e., the moderating effect of the end user. A multi-group analysis was performed to compare the results between the two groups: implant for me (Group 1 and implant for my child (Group 2. The model largely explains the intention to use the insideable technology for the specified groups (variance explained (R2 of over 0.70 in both cases. The most important variables were found to be positive emotions and (positive subjective norm. This underscores the need to broaden the range of factors considered to be decisive in technology acceptance to include variables related to consumers’ emotions. Moreover, statistically significant differences were found between the for me and for my child models for perceived ease of use and subjective norm. These findings confirm the moderating effect of the end user on new insideable technology acceptance.

  20. Assessing the Moderating Effect of the End User in Consumer Behavior: The Acceptance of Technological Implants to Increase Innate Human Capacities. (United States)

    Pelegrín-Borondo, Jorge; Reinares-Lara, Eva; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Garcia-Sierra, Marta


    Today, technological implants are being developed to increase innate human capacities, such as memory or calculation speed, and to endow us with new ones, such as the remote control of machines. This study's aim was two-fold: first, to introduce a Cognitive-Affective-Normative (CAN) model of technology acceptance to explain the intention to use this technology in the field of consumer behavior; and second, to analyze the differences in the intention to use it based on whether the intended implant recipient is oneself or one's child (i.e., the moderating effect of the end user). A multi-group analysis was performed to compare the results between the two groups: implant "for me" (Group 1) and implant "for my child" (Group 2). The model largely explains the intention to use the insideable technology for the specified groups [variance explained (R (2)) of over 0.70 in both cases]. The most important variables were found to be "positive emotions" and (positive) "subjective norm." This underscores the need to broaden the range of factors considered to be decisive in technology acceptance to include variables related to consumers' emotions. Moreover, statistically significant differences were found between the "for me" and "for my child" models for "perceived ease of use (PEU)" and "subjective norm." These findings confirm the moderating effect of the end user on new insideable technology acceptance.


    Mirzaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Seyed-Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash


    Background: Sexual behavior is a complex activity affecting all aspects of human’s life. Risky sexual behaviors impose negative outcomes on family, relationships and health. Unsafe sex is the second most leading cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide. Valid and reliable tools for assessment of risky sexual behaviors are necessary for implementing preventive measures. Methods: we searched Medline and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, with the keywords of “risky sexual behavior assessment”, “sexual risk assessment”, “high risk sexual behavior”, “sexual risk taking”. By reviewing references of the articles, some complementary studies were added. Results: Assessment can be performed by questionnaire or non-questionnaire instruments. Questionnaires vary depending on their target population, evaluation of risky sexual behavior as a whole or focusing on an associated risk factor. In order to avoid usual biases in self reports, objective biomarker assessment of unprotected sex are employed. These markers include prostate specific antigen, chromosome Y DNA and Seminogelin. Conclusion: Risky sexual behavior can be assessed by various subjective and objective methods. While self-reports are more feasible, objective methods offer a higher degree of reliability. Further studies for finding more feasible methods of using biomarkers are recommended. PMID:27047267

  2. Use of Direct Behavior Ratings to Collect Functional Assessment Data. (United States)

    Kilgus, Stephen P; Kazmerski, Jennifer S; Taylor, Crystal N; von der Embse, Nathaniel P


    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the utility of Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scale (DBR-SIS) methodology in collecting functional behavior assessment data. Specific questions of interest pertained to the evaluation of the accuracy of brief DBR-SIS ratings of behavioral consequences and determination of the type of training necessary to support such accuracy. Undergraduate student participants (N = 213; 62.0% male; 62.4% White) viewed video clips of students in a classroom setting, and then rated both disruptive behavior and 4 consequences of that behavior (i.e., adult attention, peer attention, escape/avoidance, and access to tangibles/activities). Results indicated training with performance feedback was necessary to support the generation of accurate disruptive behavior and consequence ratings. Participants receiving such support outperformed students in training-only, pretest-posttest, and posttest-only groups for disruptive behavior and all 4 DBR-SIS consequence targets. Future directions for research and implications for practice are discussed, including how teacher ratings may be collected along with other forms of assessment (e.g., progress monitoring) within an efficient Tier 2 assessment model. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Gestalt Effect of Self Assessment (United States)

    McDonald, Betty


    Defining self assessment as the involvement of students in identifying standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and making judgements about the extent to which they have met these criteria and standards, this paper seeks to highlight the gestalt effect of self assessment. The total effect of self assessment on the learner is greater than…

  4. Debris flows: behavior and hazard assessment (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.


    Debris flows are water-laden masses of soil and fragmented rock that rush down mountainsides, funnel into stream channels, entrain objects in their paths, and form lobate deposits when they spill onto valley floors. Because they have volumetric sediment concentrations that exceed 40 percent, maximum speeds that surpass 10 m/s, and sizes that can range up to ~109 m3, debris flows can denude slopes, bury floodplains, and devastate people and property. Computational models can accurately represent the physics of debris-flow initiation, motion and deposition by simulating evolution of flow mass and momentum while accounting for interactions of debris' solid and fluid constituents. The use of physically based models for hazard forecasting can be limited by imprecise knowledge of initial and boundary conditions and material properties, however. Therefore, empirical methods continue to play an important role in debris-flow hazard assessment.

  5. Assessing Counter-Terrorism field training with multiple behavioral measures. (United States)

    Spiker, V Alan; Johnston, Joan H


    Development of behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills is an essential element of Counter-Terrorism training, particularly in the field. Three classes of behavioral measures were collected in an assessment of skill acquisition during a US Joint Forces Command-sponsored course consisting of Combat Tracking and Combat Profiling segments. Measures included situational judgment tests, structured behavioral observation checklists, and qualitative assessments of the emergence of specific knowledge-skills-attitudes over the course of the training. The paper describes statistical evidence across the three types of measures that indicate that behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills were successfully acquired by most students (a mix of Army and civilian law enforcement personnel) during the field training exercises. Implications for broader training of these critical skills are also discussed.

  6. Collaborating with Parents in Reducing Children's Challenging Behaviors: Linking Functional Assessment to Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Fettig


    Full Text Available The relationship between a functional assessment-based parent intervention and preschoolers' challenging behaviors was examined in the current study. A single subject design with a multiple baseline across 2 parent-child dyads was implemented. The researchers collaborated with parents to design the FA-based interventions and parents received varying levels of support throughout the study. Results indicate that parents were able to implement the functional assessment-based interventions, and these interventions effectively reduced children's challenging behaviors. In addition, parents continued implementing the intervention strategies following termination of the intervention, and children's challenging behaviors remained low.

  7. Team-based assessment of professional behavior in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introducrion: Self and peer assessment provides important information about the individual’s performance and behavior in all aspects of their professional environment work. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional behavior and performance in medical students in the form of team based assessment. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 medical students in the 7th year of education were randomly selected and enrolled; for each student five questionnaires were filled out, including one self-assessment, two peer assessments and two residents assessment. The scoring system of the questionnaires was based on seven point Likert scale. After filling out the questions in the questionnaire, numerical data and written comments provided to the students were collected, analyzed and discussed. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of the questionnaires was assessed. A p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha 0.83. Interviews revealed that the majority of students and assessors interviewed found the method acceptable. The range of scores was 1-6 (Mean±SD=4.39±0.57 for the residents' assessment, 2-6 (Mean±SD=4.49±0.53 for peer assessment, and 3-7 (Mean±SD=5.04±0.32 for self-assessment. There was a significant difference between self assessment and other methods of assessment. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a team-based assessment is an acceptable and feasible method for peer and self-assessment of medical students’ learning in a clinical clerkship, and has some advantages over traditional assessment methods. Further studies are needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses.

  8. The interplay of elicitation and evaluation of trait-expressive behavior: Evidence in assessment center exercises. (United States)

    Lievens, Filip; Schollaert, Eveline; Keen, Gert


    In assessment centers (ACs), research on eliciting candidate behavior and evaluating candidate behavior have largely followed independent paths. This study integrates trait activation and trait rating models to posit hypotheses about the effects of behavior elicitation via situational cues on key assessor observation and rating variables. To test the hypotheses, a series of experimental and field studies are conducted. Only when trait-expressive behavior activation and evaluation models work in conjunction, increases in observability are coupled with increases in the interrater reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and accuracy of AC ratings. Implications of these findings for AC theory and practice are formulated.

  9. Assessment of the Quality of an Organizational Citizenship Behavior Instrument (United States)

    Gokturk, Soheyda


    Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has been associated with organizational effectiveness in many studies. Therefore, it is important to learn more about how these behaviors can be improved in schools. Creating a reliable and valid measure of OCB that has conceptual equivalence across cultures is a first step in understanding and…

  10. Personality assessment and behavioral prediction at first impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vartanian, O.; Stewart, K.; Mandel, D.R.; Pavlovic, N.; McLellan, L.; Taylor, P.J.


    Research has demonstrated high levels of consensus and self-other agreement for extraversion and conscientiousness. However, the mechanisms whereby these assessments contribute to accuracy in behavioral predictions remain unclear. In this study, two judges rated targets on Big Five personality facto

  11. Learning assessment for students with mental and behavioral disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    The session aims at presenting a learning-based model for how to conduct a comprehensive psychological evaluation of the learning resources and challenges amongst students with mental and behavioral disorders. In the learning assessment model the learning resources and challenges of the students...

  12. Computerized assessment of social approach behavior in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon T Page


    Full Text Available Altered sociability is a core feature of a variety of human neurological disorders, including autism. Social behaviors may be tested in animal models, such as mice, to study the biological bases of sociability and how this is altered in neurodevelopmental disorders. An easily quantifiable social behavior frequently used to assess sociability in the mouse is the tendency to approach and interact with an unfamiliar mouse. Here we present a novel computer-assisted method for scoring social approach behavior in mice using a three-chambered apparatus. We find consistent results between data scored using the computer assisted method and a human observer, making computerized assessment a reliable, low cost, high-throughput method for testing sociability.

  13. The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior (United States)

    Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.; Greenwood, Charles R.


    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing…

  14. Preliminary assessment of the behavioral activation model in Japanese undergraduate students. (United States)

    Takagaki, Koki; Okajima, Isa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Nakajima, Shun; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Sakano, Yuji


    Many studies have reported that behavioral activation is an effective intervention for depression. The behavioral activation model is based on several formulations. For example, depressive mood leads to avoidant behaviors, avoidance negatively affects social contacts, decreased socialization lessens opportunities for positive reinforcement, and a decrease in positive reinforcement results in more depressive mood. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among avoidant behavior, social contact, frequency of positive reinforcement, and depressive mood by using structural equation modeling to assess support for aspects of this behavioral activation model. Participants were 630 Japanese undergraduate students and vocational school students. Results provided preliminary support for the model. Treating both avoidance and activating behavior might contribute to decreased impairment.

  15. Functional Assessment Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Children’s Challenging Behaviors: Exploratory Study of Group Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Fettig


    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of group parent training on children’s challenging behaviors in home settings. Eight parents of young children with challenging behaviors were trained in a large group setting on using functional assessment to design interventions that fit the strengths and needs of individual families. The training included information sharing and collaborating with parents on designing functional-assessment based interventions. An Interrupted Time Series Design was used to examine the effects of large group training by comparing parent and child behaviors prior to intervention with behaviors after the intervention. Data were analyzed using Repeated Measures ANOVA. The results indicated that group training increased parents’ ability to implement functional assessment based strategies and these strategies resulted in a significant reduction in children’s challenging behaviors. Furthermore, parent implementation of functional assessment based strategies and children’s decreased levels of challenging behaviors were maintained after the completion of the intervention.

  16. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression. (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; And Others


    Parents and children completed measures that assessed children's behavior problems and depression. Children had experienced abuse, witnessed spouse abuse, experienced and witnessed abuse, or experienced no domestic violence. Reports of effects of domestic violence on children varied, depending on the type of violence and the person reporting it.…

  17. Vocal Emotion Expressions Effects on Cooperation Behavior (United States)

    Caballero Meneses, Jonathan Azael; Menez Díaz, Judith Marina


    Emotional expressions have been proposed to be important for regulating social interaction as they can serve as cues for behavioral intentions. The issue has been mainly addressed analyzing the effects of facial emotional expressions in cooperation behavior, but there are contradictory results regarding the impact of emotional expressions on that…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Bartuševičienė


    Full Text Available Purpose – Organizational assessment has always been the key element of the discussion among scientists as well as business people. While managers are striving for better performance results, scientists are reaching for best ways to evaluate the organization. One of the most common ways to assess the performance of the entity is to measure the effectiveness or the efficiency of the organization. Those two concepts might look synonymous, yet as the findings revealed they have a distinct meaning. The purpose of this article is to reveal those differences and explore organizational assessment within effectiveness and efficiency plane. Design/methodology/approach – Scientific literature analysis, comparative and summarization methods will be used during the research to better understand the challenges of the issue. Findings – Effectiveness and efficiency are exclusive performance measures, which entities can use to assess their performance. Efficiency is oriented towards successful input transformation into outputs, where effectiveness measures how outputs interact with the economic and social environment. Research limitations/implications –In some cases effectiveness concept is being used to reflect overall performance of the organization, since it is a broader concept compared to the efficiency. It gets challenging to explore the efficiency factor if it is included under effectiveness assessment. Practical implications – The assessment of the organizational performance helps companies to improve their reports, assures smoother competition in the global market and creates a sustainable competitive advantage. Originality/Value – The paper revealed that organization can be assessed either within effectiveness or efficiency perspective. Organization striving for excellent performance should be effective and efficient, yet as the findings revealed, inefficient, yet effective organization can still survive yet at a high cost. Keywords

  19. Self-assessment and modification of a division I strength and conditioning coach's instructional behavior. (United States)

    Gallo, Gerry J; De Marco, George M


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of self-assessment in the modification of a Division I strength and conditioning coach's instructional behavior. The coach and 16 members of the university's women's volleyball team were the subjects. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized. Sources of data included the Self-Assessment Feedback Instrument (SAFI) and the coach's personal journal. The study consisted of 12 practices divided into 3 phases. Each phase consisted of 4 videotaped practices. Practices were coded with the SAFI to determine the type and frequency of the coach's behaviors. Phase I data depicted the coach's behavioral profile. Following phase I, the coach formulated goals and targeted behaviors for improvement or change. During phase II, interventions to generate improvements and changes were developed with the primary investigator after each practice. Phase III, conducted in the off-season, was the postintervention phase, during which the coach resumed his regular instructional routine and did not receive intervention. At the conclusion of the study, descriptive statistics were used to compare phase I and III data to determine the effectiveness of the self-assessment process. Qualitative data collected from the coach's journal were subject to content analyses. All behaviors targeted for modification were successfully changed. The most frequently observed behavior during phase III was Instruction During Performance (42.2%), followed by Extended Information (15.2%) and Questions (11.2%). Analysis of the coach's journal revealed a heightened self-awareness of his instructional behavior. It was determined that the process of self-assessment was effective in improving the coach's instructional behavior. Practical application of the results of this study will support strength and conditioning coaches' efforts to efficiently improve the quality of instruction provided to their athletes.

  20. Prenatal stressors in rodents: Effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Weinstock


    Full Text Available The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests. Deficits were reported in social interaction that is suggestive of pathology associated with schizophrenia, and in spatial learning and memory in adult rats in the Morris water maze test, but in most studies only males were tested. There were too few studies on the novel object recognition test at different inter-trial intervals to enable a conclusion about the effect of prenatal stress and whether any deficits are more prevalent in males. Among hippocampal glutamate receptors, NR2B was the only subtype consistently reduced in association with learning deficits. However, like in humans with schizophrenia and depression, prenatal stress lowered hippocampal levels of BDNF, which were closely correlated with decreases in hippocampal long-term potentiation. In mice, down-regulation of BDNF appeared to occur through the action of gene-methylating enzymes that are already increased above controls in prenatally-stressed neonates. In conclusion, the data obtained so far from experiments in rodents lend support to a physiological basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and depression.

  1. Postpartum behavioral profiles in Wistar rats following maternal separation - altered exploration and risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loudin Daoura


    Full Text Available The rodent maternal separation (MS model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15 and prolonged (360 min; MS360 periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24-25, i.e. just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis.

  2. A Novel Behavioral Paradigm to Assess Multisensory Processing in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin K Siemann


    Full Text Available Human psychophysical and animal behavioral studies have illustrated the benefits that can be conferred from having information available from multiple senses. Given the central role of multisensory integration for perceptual and cognitive function, it is important to design behavioral paradigms for animal models to provide mechanistic insights into the neural bases of these multisensory processes. Prior studies have focused on large mammals, yet the mouse offers a host of advantages, most importantly the wealth of available genetic manipulations relevant to human disease. To begin to employ this model species for multisensory research it is necessary to first establish and validate a robust behavioral assay for the mouse. Two common mouse strains (C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEv were first trained to respond to unisensory (visual and auditory stimuli separately. Once trained, performance with paired audiovisual stimuli was then examined with a focus on response accuracy and behavioral gain. Stimulus durations varied from 50ms to 1s in order to modulate the effectiveness of the stimuli and to determine if the well-established principle of inverse effectiveness held in this model. Response accuracy in the multisensory condition was greater than for either unisensory condition for all stimulus durations, with significant gains observed at the 300ms and 100ms durations. Main effects of stimulus duration, stimulus modality and a significant interaction between these factors were observed. The greatest behavioral gain was seen for the 100ms duration condition, with a trend observed that as the stimuli became less effective, larger behavioral gains were observed upon their pairing (i.e. inverse effectiveness. These results are the first to validate the mouse as a species that shows demonstrable behavioral facilitations under multisensory conditions and provides a platform for future mechanistically directed studies to examine the neural bases of multisensory

  3. Evaluating the Cognition, Behavior, and Social Profile of an Adolescent With Learning Disabilities and Assessing the Effectiveness of an Individualized Educational Program


    Tabitha Louis, Preeti; Arnold Emerson, Isaac


    Objective: The present study seeks to outline a holistic assessment method that was used in understanding problems experienced by an adolescent boy and in designing and implementing an individualized educational program. Methods: An adolescent child referred for concerns in learning was screened for learning disability using standardized inventories and test batteries. The Connors Parent and Teacher Rating Scales (short forms), Wechsler's Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), the Vineland S...

  4. Behavior assessments of pregnant adolescents using TFA Systems (tm)


    Bundy, Patricia Pulliam


    The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the thoughts, feelings, and actions of pregnant teens at significant decision-making times: time of intercourse, confirmation of pregnancy, and six weeks post delivery. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and patterns of behavior were analyzed. Examination of the extant literature on adolescent pregnancy yielded insight into parental, socio-economic, and partner factors. The interview protocol emanated from the literature anal...

  5. Analysis of Management Behavior Assessments and Affect on Productivity (United States)


    associated with the affects of management behavior on employee beliefs and attitudes; include Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory , Vroom’s Expectancy and Equity...achieved, when recognized, when given additional responsibility, and when advanced in job position. Vroom’s Expectancy and Equity Theories of or higher. The results of the study proved the validity of the Vroom and Yetton theory , but the employee assessments of management decision-making

  6. Self-regulation assessment among preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems. (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Slavec, Janine; Ros, Rosmary; Garb, Leanna; Hart, Katie; Garcia, Alexis


    This study examined the construct validity and clinical utility of a brief self-regulation assessment (Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders, HTKS) among a clinical sample of children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 101 preschool children (72% male; Mage = 5.10 years; 79% Hispanic) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. Self-regulation measures included the HTKS task, 4 standardized subtests from the Automated Working Memory Assessment (AWMA), parent and teacher reports of children's executive functioning (EF), and children's self-regulation performance across a series of executive functioning classroom games conducted as part of a summer treatment camp. Additional outcomes included school readiness as measured by standardized achievement tests, and parent and teacher reports of kindergarten readiness and behavioral impairment related to academic functioning. Performance on the HTKS task was moderately correlated with children's performance on the standardized working memory tasks and observed self-regulation performance in the classroom. Low to moderate correlations were observed between performance on the HTKS task and parent report of children's EF difficulties, as well as parent and teacher reports of children's kindergarten readiness and behavioral impairment related to academic functioning. Moderate to high correlations were observed between performance on the HTKS task and standardized academic outcomes. These findings highlight the promise of the HTKS task as a brief, ecologically valid, and integrative EF task tapping into both behavioral and cognitive aspects of self-regulation that are important for children with EBP's success in school.

  7. Behavioral effects of Citrus limon in rats. (United States)

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Riaz, Azra


    Anxiety and depression are increasing worldwide, however these disorders may be managed by making healthier changes is dietary pattern, since there are evidences that diet rich in antioxidants and vitamins help reduce anxiety and depression. Hence present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral effects of Citrus limon in rats at three different doses i.e. 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml/kg considered as low, moderate and high doses. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities were specifically assessed twice during 15 days using open field test, elevated plus maze and forced swimming test. In open field test C. limon, revealed increase in distance travelled, number of central entries and number of rearing's at moderate dose, while in the elevated plus maze, number of open arm entries were found to be increased. Whereas in forced swimming test, there was decrease in duration of immobility and increase in duration of climbing. Thus results of present study suggest that C. limon at moderate dose have anxiolytic effect.

  8. A novel behavioral paradigm to assess multisensory processing in mice (United States)

    Siemann, Justin K.; Muller, Christopher L.; Bamberger, Gary; Allison, John D.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Wallace, Mark T.


    Human psychophysical and animal behavioral studies have illustrated the benefits that can be conferred from having information available from multiple senses. Given the central role of multisensory integration for perceptual and cognitive function, it is important to design behavioral paradigms for animal models to provide mechanistic insights into the neural bases of these multisensory processes. Prior studies have focused on large mammals, yet the mouse offers a host of advantages, most importantly the wealth of available genetic manipulations relevant to human disease. To begin to employ this model species for multisensory research it is necessary to first establish and validate a robust behavioral assay for the mouse. Two common mouse strains (C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEv) were first trained to respond to unisensory (visual and auditory) stimuli separately. Once trained, performance with paired audiovisual stimuli was then examined with a focus on response accuracy and behavioral gain. Stimulus durations varied from 50 ms to 1 s in order to modulate the effectiveness of the stimuli and to determine if the well-established “principle of inverse effectiveness” held in this model. Response accuracy in the multisensory condition was greater than for either unisensory condition for all stimulus durations, with significant gains observed at the 300 ms and 100 ms durations. Main effects of stimulus duration, stimulus modality and a significant interaction between these factors were observed. The greatest behavioral gain was seen for the 100 ms duration condition, with a trend observed that as the stimuli became less effective, larger behavioral gains were observed upon their pairing (i.e., inverse effectiveness). These results are the first to validate the mouse as a species that shows demonstrable behavioral facilitations under multisensory conditions and provides a platform for future mechanistically directed studies to examine the neural bases of multisensory

  9. Development of a behavioral assessment of craniofacial muscle pain in lightly anesthetized rats. (United States)

    Ro, Jin Y; Capra, Norman; Masri, Radi


    In this study, a new behavioral assessment of craniofacial muscle pain in the lightly anesthetized rat is described. Intramuscular injections with algesic agents in lightly anesthetized rats evoked a characteristic ipsilateral hindpaw shaking behavior for several minutes similar to previously described orofacial pain-induced grooming behavior in awake rats (Neurosci Lett 103 (1989) 349, Pain 62 (1995) 295). Eighty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in a series of experiments to study whether this behavior could serve as a valid measure of craniofacial muscle pain. First, we demonstrated that different algesic chemicals, mustard oil (20%), formalin (3%) or hypertonic saline (5%) injected in the mid-region of the masseter muscle effectively elicited the hindpaw shaking behavior. The behavior was only minimally evoked with vehicle injection. Repeated administrations of hypertonic saline, a short duration non-sensitizing algogen, demonstrated reproducibility of the assay. Second, we showed that the peak and overall magnitude of the shaking behavior evoked by injections with different concentrations of mustard oil (1 and 5%) changed in a concentration dependent manner. Finally, we showed that systemic administration of morphine sulfate (3 and 0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) dose dependently attenuated mustard oil induced hindpaw-shaking behavior. Lidocaine injected locally 5 min prior to mustard oil injection also significantly decreased the hindpaw shaking behavior. Based on these results we concluded that ipsilateral hindpaw shaking in lightly anesthetized rats is a stereotypical behavior evoked by noxious muscle stimulation and can be used as a reliable behavioral measure to assess craniofacial muscle pain.

  10. Assessing the trends and effects of environmental parameters on the behavior of mercury in the lower atmosphere over cropped land over four seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Baya


    Full Text Available Mercury is released to the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources. Due to its persistence in the atmosphere, mercury is subject to long range transport and is thus a pollutant of global concern. The terrestrial ecosystem is an important atmospheric mercury sink as a significant portion of the mercury emitted can be accumulated on soil surfaces making terrestrial surfaces an important source of previously emitted and deposited mercury. Studying the factors and processes that influence the behavior of mercury from terrestrial sources is thus important for a better understanding of the role of natural ecosystems in the mercury cycling and emission budget.

    A one year study (July 2006–August 2007 was conducted at Elora, Ontario, Canada to measure total gaseous mercury (TGM, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and particulate bound mercury (HgP as well as TGM fluxes over different ground cover spanning the four seasons typical of a temperate climate zone. TGM concentrations were measured using a mercury vapour analyzer (Tekran 2537A while RGM and HgP were measured with the Tekran 1130/1135 speciation unit coupled to another mercury vapour analyzer. A micrometeorological approach was used for TGM flux determination using a continuous two-level sampling system for TGM concentration gradient measurement above the soil surface and crop canopy. The turbulent transfer coefficients were derived from meteorological parameters measured on site.

    A net TGM volatilization (6.31±33.98 ng m−2 h−1, annual average to the atmosphere was observed during the study. Average TGM concentrations and TGM fluxes showed significant seasonal differences and distinct diurnal patterns while no trends were observed for HgP or RGM. Highest TGM concentrations recorded in late spring and fall were due to meteorological changes such as increases in net radiation and air

  11. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents (United States)

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo


    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  12. Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on Academic Engagement and Disruptive Behavior (United States)

    DeJager, Brett W.; Filter, Kevin J.


    This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions…

  13. The Effect of Incentives on Sustainable Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam


    This study investigates how children respond to different treatments aimed to fostersustainable behavior in a productive (firm like) setting. We conduct a field experiment using teams of children (aged 11 or 12) that are participating in an entrepreneurship education program in the last grade...... of primary school in the Netherlands. Schools participating in this program are randomly assigned to one of three treatments: the first is purely financially oriented, the second promotes sustainable behavior and the third also induces sustainability by (monetary) incentives. Comparing the first twogroups we...... find that solely promoting sustainability does not lead to a change in sustainable behavior. However, once the monetary reward is linked to sustainable outcome measures, we find a significant positive effect on sustainable behavior. Inour specificsetting, the choice to behave more sustainable comes...

  14. The Assessment of Hedge Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BUNEA-BONTAS


    Full Text Available Earnings volatility can be a significant source of concern for a company, putting pressure on its capital base and share price. Prudent management of the company’s exposure to different risks typically involves hedging solutions. Hedging is important for corporate risk management, involving reducing the exposure of the company to specific risks. The aim of this paper is to examine the basic requirements for assessing the hedge effectiveness, this being a vital stage in applying hedge accounting, that gives the possibility to assess if the companies match the timing of the gains and losses of hedged items and their hedging derivatives. The article identifies some difficulties encountered by companies and choices that they must make in assessing hedge effectiveness.

  15. Precursor manic behavior in the assessment and treatment of episodic problem behavior for a woman with a dual diagnosis. (United States)

    Allen, Marissa B; Baker, Jonathan C; Nuernberger, Jodi E; Vargo, Kristina K


    A functional analysis examined the relation between consequences that maintained episodic problem behavior (aggression, property destruction, and elopement) in the presence and absence of manic behaviors (MB). Results suggested that the presence of MB was correlated with the sensitivity of problem behavior to attention as a reinforcer during a functional analysis and that problem behaviors were maintained by attention. Noncontingent reinforcement was subsequently implemented and demonstrated to be effective in reducing problem behavior during the presence of manic behaviors.

  16. Assessing causality in the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual online behavior and their perceptions of this behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.


    The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching

  17. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.


    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  18. Promoting Behavior Change from Alcohol Use through Mobile Technology: The Future of Ecological Momentary Assessment (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M.; Hunter-Reel, Dorian; Hagman, Brett T.; Mitchell, Jessica


    Background Interactive and mobile technologies (i.e., smartphones such as Blackberries, iPhones, and palm-top computers) show promise as an efficacious and cost-effective means of communicating health-behavior risks, improving public health outcomes, and accelerating behavior change (Abroms and Maibach, 2008). The present study was conducted as a “needs assessment” to examine the current available mobile smartphone applications (e.g., apps) that utilize principles of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) -- daily self-monitoring or near real-time self-assessment of alcohol use behavior -- to promote positive behavior change, alcohol harm reduction, psycho-education about alcohol use, or abstinence from alcohol. Methods Data were collected and analyzed from iTunes for Apple iPhone©. An inventory assessed the number of available apps that directly addressed alcohol use and consumption, alcohol treatment, or recovery, and whether these apps incorporated empirically-based components of alcohol treatment. Results Findings showed that few apps addressed alcohol use behavior change or recovery. Aside from tracking drinking consumption, a minority utilized empirically-based components of alcohol treatment. Some apps claimed they could serve as an intervention, however no empirical evidence was provided. Conclusions More studies are needed to examine the efficacy of mobile technology in alcohol intervention studies. The large gap between availability of mobile apps and their use in alcohol treatment programs indicate several important future directions for research. PMID:21689119

  19. Momentary patterns of covariation between specific affects and interpersonal behavior: Linking relationship science and personality assessment. (United States)

    Ross, Jaclyn M; Girard, Jeffrey M; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Scott, Lori N; Hallquist, Michael N; Lazarus, Sophie A; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A


    Relationships are among the most salient factors affecting happiness and wellbeing for individuals and families. Relationship science has identified the study of dyadic behavioral patterns between couple members during conflict as an important window in to relational functioning with both short-term and long-term consequences. Several methods have been developed for the momentary assessment of behavior during interpersonal transactions. Among these, the most popular is the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF), which organizes social behavior into a set of discrete behavioral constructs. This study examines the interpersonal meaning of the SPAFF codes through the lens of interpersonal theory, which uses the fundamental dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation to organize interpersonal behavior. A sample of 67 couples completed a conflict task, which was video recorded and coded using SPAFF and a method for rating momentary interpersonal behavior, the Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID). Actor partner interdependence models in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework were used to study the covariation of SPAFF codes and CAID ratings. Results showed that a number of SPAFF codes had clear interpersonal signatures, but many did not. Additionally, actor and partner effects for the same codes were strongly consistent with interpersonal theory's principle of complementarity. Thus, findings reveal points of convergence and divergence in the 2 systems and provide support for central tenets of interpersonal theory. Future directions based on these initial findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Assessment of factors affecting on immediate selling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abolghasem gholamreza tehrani


    Topics in descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of the questionnaire is used. The study of factors influencing buying behavior instantaneously evaluate the effect of component purchase immediate end to help promote marketing in the country has been conducted. Survey of the research and application of research descriptive survey are. Cross-sectional data from a questionnaire survey in 1391 by the city of Karaj passages have been collected from the sale of clothing and apparel. effect between knowledge and intention to purchase the new product is positive. than seven 9 Assumption accepted hypothesis and other hypotheses were rejected

  1. Effects of piracetam on behavior and memory in adult zebrafish. (United States)

    Grossman, Leah; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Utterback, Eli; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Frank, Kevin; Hart, Peter; Howard, Harry; Kalueff, Allan V


    Piracetam, a derivative of γ-aminobutyric acid, exerts memory-enhancing and mild anxiolytic effects in human and rodent studies. To examine the drug's behavioral profile further, we assessed its effects on behavioral and endocrine (cortisol) responses of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)--a novel model species rapidly gaining popularity in neurobehavioral research. Overall, acute piracetam did not affect zebrafish novel tank and light-dark box behavior at mild doses (25-400mg/L), but produced nonspecific behavioral inhibition at 700mg/L. No effects on cortisol levels or inter-/intra-session habituation in the novel tank test were observed for acute or chronic mild non-sedative dose of 200mg/L. In contrast, fish exposed to chronic piracetam at this dose performed significantly better in the cued learning plus-maze test. This observation parallels clinical and rodent literature on the behavioral profile of piracetam, supporting the utility of zebrafish paradigms for testing nootropic agents.

  2. Biochemical and behavioral effects of long-term citalopram administration and discontinuation in rats Role of serotonin synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, Fokko J.; Tanke, Marit A. C.; Jongsma, Minke E.; Cremers, Thomas I. F. H.; Jagtman, Evelien; Pietersen, Charmaine Y.; van der Hart, Marieke G. C.; Gladkevich, Anatoliy V.; Kema, Ido P.; Westerink, Ben H. C.; Korf, Jakob; den Boer, Johan A.


    We have investigated effects of continuous SSRI administration and abrupt discontinuation on biochemical and behavioral indices of rat brain serotonin function and attempted to identify underlying mechanisms Biochemistry of serotonin was assessed with brain tissue assays and microdialysis behavior w

  3. Effect of the good behavior game on disruptive library behavior


    Fishbein, Jill E.; Wasik, Barbara H.


    A modification of the good behavior game was used to reduce disruptive behaviors during a weekly library period of children in a fourth-grade class. Modifications included student input in designing rules, attempts to state rules in positive terms, observation of class behavior in the experimental (library) setting as well as in a comparison (classroom) setting, and librarian involvement in instituting the game coupled with teacher involvement in delivering reinforcers. Reinforcers consisted ...

  4. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  5. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec


    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  6. Assessment of locomotion behavior in adult Zebrafish after acute exposure to different pharmacological reference compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gupta


    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the present study was to assess locomotor behavior of adult zebrafish after acute exposure to different pharmacological reference compounds. Materials and Methods: Adult zebrafish of 4-5-months-old were exposed to different concentrations of known reference compounds for 15 min. The test was conducted separately for each drug concentration as well as control. Locomotor activity parameters viz. distance travelled, speed, total mobile time, and total immobile time were recorded for each animal during the exposure period. Results: Out of 11 compounds tested, nine compounds showed decrease in locomotor behavior with significant changes in distance travelled, speed, total mobile time, and total immobile time. Caffeine exhibited biphasic response in locomotion behavior, while scopolamine failed to induce any significant changes. Conclusion: In view of the above findings, these results suggested that exposure of adult zebrafish with different known compounds produce the expected changes in the locomotion behavior; therefore, adult zebrafish can be used an alternative approach for the assessment of new chemical entities for their effect on locomotor behavior.

  7. Teachers' Assessment Literacy and Washback Effect of Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niveen R. M. Elshawa


    Full Text Available Assessment literacy, as a term, is not well known in the educational field. This is unfortunate because teachers' assessment knowledge and competence can have an important influence on the way they teach and the way their students learn.  The relationship between the degree of assessment literacy a teacher has and the washback of this type of assessment is not clearly identified, especially in higher education context.  In view of this gap, this article attempts to examine important assessment literacy issues in relation to student learning: definition and importance of assessment literacy, assessment in higher education and assessment practices through reviewing related studies. The review pinpoints the harmful effects of being assessment illiterate for both teachers and students. Keywords: assessment, assessment literacy, student learning, washback

  8. Assessing and Treating Stereotypical Behaviors in Classrooms Using a Functional Approach (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison L.; Balint-Langel, Kinga; Troughton, Leonard; Langan, Sean; Lodge, Kelsey; Kortemeyer, Sara


    For years, the assumption has been that stereotypical behaviors functioned only to provide sensory or automatic reinforcement. However, these behaviors also may serve social functions. Given the unsettled debate, functional behavior assessment and functional analysis can be used to identify the exact function of stereotypical behavior and design…

  9. Unpacking Links between Fathers' Antisocial Behaviors and Children's Behavior Problems: Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva


    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N = 261) was followed from age 3 through age…

  10. Direct Behavioral Consultation: Effects on Teachers' Praise and Student Disruptive Behavior (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Lestremau, Lauren; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly


    Direct behavioral consultation is an extension of traditional behavioral consultation and focuses on assessment and training in the classroom during ongoing classroom activities. This study evaluated direct behavioral consultation services in two elementary alternative classrooms referred following a program evaluation in which data suggested…

  11. Electrode Evaporation Effects on Air Arc Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingwen; CHEN Degui; LI Rui; WU Yi; NIU Chunping


    A numerical study of the effects of copper and silver vapours on the air arc behavior is performed. The commercial software FLUENT is adapted and modified to develop a two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) models of arc with the thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients, net emission coefficient for the radiation model of 99% ai-1% Cu, 99% air-1% Ag, and pure air, respectively. The simulation result demonstrates that vaporization of the electrode material may cool the arc center region and reduce the arc velocity. The effects of Ag vapour are stronger compared to those of Cu vapour.

  12. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals. (United States)

    Koene, Paul


    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  13. Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine W. Bauer


    Full Text Available Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around, and their association with physical activity (PA, dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors.

  14. Effects of tourists on behavior and demography of Olympic marmots. (United States)

    Griffin, Suzanne C; Valois, Tanguy; Taper, Mark L; Scott Mills, L


    If changes in animal behavior resulting from direct human disturbance negatively affect the persistence of a given species or population, then these behavioral changes must necessarily lead to reduced demographic performance. We tested for the effects of human disturbance on Olympic marmots (Marmota olympus), a large ground-dwelling squirrel that has disappeared from several areas where recreation levels are high. We assessed the degree to which antipredator and foraging behavior and demographic rates (survival and reproduction) differed between sites with high recreation levels (high use) and those with little or no recreation (low use). Compared with the marmots at low-use sites, marmots at high-use sites displayed significantly reduced responses to human approach, which could be construed as successful accommodation of disturbance or as a decrease in predator awareness. The marmots at high-use sites also looked up more often while foraging, which suggests an increased wariness. Marmots at both types of sites had comparable reproductive and survival rates and were in similar body condition. Until now, the supposition that marmots can adjust their behavior to avoid negative demographic consequences when confronted with heavy tourism has been based on potentially ambiguous behavioral data. Our results support this hypothesis in the case of Olympic marmots and demonstrate the importance of considering demographic data when evaluating the impacts of recreation on animal populations.

  15. Competency-Based Behavior Consultation Training: An Evaluation of Consultant Outcomes, Treatment Effects, and Consumer Satisfaction (United States)

    Lepage, Kathy; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Elliott, Stephen N.


    Assessments of consultants, clients, and consumer satisfaction were used to examine the effects of a competency-based consultation training program conducted over 4 years. Using a multiple-baseline framework to assess training effects on consultants and single-case study designs to evaluate changes in client behavior, a number of significant…

  16. Design of formative assessment model for professional behavior using stages of change theory. (United States)

    Hashemi, Akram; Mirzazadeh, Azim; Shirazi, Mandana; Asghari, Fariba


    Background: Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. This study was conducted to design a model for formative assessment of professional commitment in medical students according to stages of change theory. Methods: In this qualitative study, data were collected through literature review & focus group interviews in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2013 and analyzed using content analysis approach. Results: Review of the literature and results of focus group interviews led to design a formative assessment model of professional commitment in three phases, including pre-contemplation, contemplation, and readiness for behavior change that each one has interventional and assessment components. In the second phase of the study, experts' opinion collected in two main categories: the educational environment (factors related to students, students' assessment and educational program); and administrative problems (factors related to subcultures, policymakers or managers and budget). Moreover, there was a section of recommendations for each category related to curriculum, professors, students, assessments, making culture, the staff and reinforcing administrative factors. Conclusion: This type of framework analysis made it possible to develop a conceptual model that could be effective on forming the professional commitment and behavioral change in medical students.

  17. Characterization of behavioral and endocrine effects of LSD on zebrafish. (United States)

    Grossman, Leah; Utterback, Eli; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Chung, Kyung Min; Suciu, Christopher; Wong, Keith; Elegante, Marco; Elkhayat, Salem; Tan, Julia; Gilder, Thomas; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Cachat, Jonathan; Kalueff, Allan V


    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogenic drug that strongly affects animal and human behavior. Although adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising neurobehavioral model, the effects of LSD on zebrafish have not been investigated previously. Several behavioral paradigms (the novel tank, observation cylinder, light-dark box, open field, T-maze, social preference and shoaling tests), as well as modern video-tracking tools and whole-body cortisol assay were used to characterize the effects of acute LSD in zebrafish. While lower doses (5-100 microg/L) did not affect zebrafish behavior, 250 microg/L LSD increased top dwelling and reduced freezing in the novel tank and observation cylinder tests, also affecting spatiotemporal patterns of activity (as assessed by 3D reconstruction of zebrafish traces and ethograms). LSD evoked mild thigmotaxis in the open field test, increased light behavior in the light-dark test, reduced the number of arm entries and freezing in the T-maze and social preference test, without affecting social preference. In contrast, LSD affected zebrafish shoaling (increasing the inter-fish distance in a group), and elevated whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our findings show sensitivity of zebrafish to LSD action, and support the use of zebrafish models to study hallucinogenic drugs of abuse.

  18. Effects of organizational justice on organizational citizenship behaviors: mediating effects of institutional trust and affective commitment. (United States)

    Guh, Wei-Yuan; Lin, Shang-Ping; Fan, Chwei-Jen; Yang, Chin-Fang


    This study investigated the mediating role of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. The study participants were 315 faculty members at 67 public/private universities of technology and vocational colleges in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships between the variables and assess the goodness of fit of the overall model. Organizational justice was positively related to institutional trust and there was an indirect effect of organizational justice on affective commitment through institutional trust. In addition, the relation between institutional trust and affective commitment was positive and affective commitment was shown to have a positive relation to organizational citizenship behaviors. Institutional trust was found to indirectly affect organizational citizenship behaviors through affective commitment. Most importantly, this study suggested a mediating effect of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relation between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. Implications, limitations, and future research were also discussed.

  19. An organizational assessment of disruptive clinician behavior: findings and implications. (United States)

    Walrath, Jo M; Dang, Deborah; Nyberg, Dorothy


    This study investigated registered nurses' (RNs) and physicians' (MD) experiences with disruptive behavior, triggers, responses, and impacts on clinicians, patients, and the organization. Using the Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey for Hospital Settings, it was found that RNs experienced a significantly higher frequency of disruptive behaviors and triggers than MDs; MDs (45% of 295) and RNs (37% of 689) reported that their peer's disruptive behavior affected them most negatively. The most frequently occurring trigger was pressure from high census, volume, and patient flow; 189 incidences of harm to patients as a result of disruptive behavior were reported. Findings provide organizational leaders with evidence to customize interventions to strengthen the culture of safety.

  20. Framing effects: behavioral dynamics and neural basis. (United States)

    Zheng, Hongming; Wang, X T; Zhu, Liqi


    This study examined the neural basis of framing effects using life-death decision problems framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large group and small group contexts. Using functional MRI we found differential brain activations to the verbal and social cues embedded in the choice problems. In large group contexts, framing effects were significant where participants were more risk seeking under the negative (loss) framing than under the positive (gain) framing. This behavioral difference in risk preference was mainly regulated by the activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, including the homologue of the Broca's area. In contrast, framing effects diminished in small group contexts while the insula and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere were distinctively activated, suggesting an important role of emotion in switching choice preference from an indecisive mode to a more consistent risk-taking inclination, governed by a kith-and-kin decision rationality.

  1. Disorder effect on the traffic flow behavior (United States)

    Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.


    The effects of some disorders, on the traffic flow behavior, are studied numerically. Especially, the effect of mixture of vehicles of different velocities and/or lengths, the effects of different drivers reactions, the position and the extraction rate of off-ramp in the free way. Using a generalized optimal velocity model, for a mixture of fast and slow vehicles, we have investigated the effect of delay times τ f and τ s on the fundamental diagram. It is Found that the small delay times have almost no effect, while, for sufficiently large delay time τ s , the current profile displays qualitatively five different forms, depending on τ f , τ s and the fractions f f and f s of the fast and slow cars, respectively. The velocity (current) exhibits first-order transitions at low and/or high densities, from freely moving phase to the congested state, and from congested state to a jamming one, respectively. The minimal current appears in intermediate values of τ s . Furthermore there exist, a critical value of τ f above which the meta-stability and hysteresis appear. The effects of disorder due to drivers behaviors have been introduced through a random delay time τ allowing the car to reach its optimal velocity traffic flow models with open boundaries. In the absence of the variation of the delay time Δτ, it is found that the transition from unstable to meta-stable and from meta-stable to stable state occur under the effect of the injecting and the extracting rate probabilities α and β respectively. Moreover, the perturbation of the traffic flow behavior due to the off-ramp has been studied using numerical simulations in the one dimensional cellular automaton traffic flow model with open boundaries. When the off-ramp is located between two critical positions i c1 and i c2 the current remains constant (plateau) for β0 c1 < β0 < β0 c2, and the density undergoes two successive first order transitions: from high density to plateau current phase and from average

  2. The Longitudinal Effects of Behavioral Problems on Academic Performance (United States)

    Vu, Phuong Anna


    Students' behavior and emotional well being are instrumental for their success in the school setting. The present study examined the effects of behavioral problems on the academic performance of students three years later. The behavioral problems consisted of individual externalizing, internalizing, and inattentive behaviors. Next, this study…

  3. Improving Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Functional Behavioral Assessments Using Multimedia (United States)

    Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Kennedy, Michael J.; Haines, Shana J.; Thomas, Cathy Newman; Alves, Kat D.


    Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is an empirically supported intervention associated with decreasing problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior. To date, few studies have examined multimedia approaches to FBA training. This paper provides the outcomes of a randomized controlled trial across three university sites and evaluates…

  4. Quality assessment of stereoscopic 3D image compression by binocular integration behaviors. (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsun; Wu, Ja-Ling


    The objective approaches of 3D image quality assessment play a key role for the development of compression standards and various 3D multimedia applications. The quality assessment of 3D images faces more new challenges, such as asymmetric stereo compression, depth perception, and virtual view synthesis, than its 2D counterparts. In addition, the widely used 2D image quality metrics (e.g., PSNR and SSIM) cannot be directly applied to deal with these newly introduced challenges. This statement can be verified by the low correlation between the computed objective measures and the subjectively measured mean opinion scores (MOSs), when 3D images are the tested targets. In order to meet these newly introduced challenges, in this paper, besides traditional 2D image metrics, the binocular integration behaviors-the binocular combination and the binocular frequency integration, are utilized as the bases for measuring the quality of stereoscopic 3D images. The effectiveness of the proposed metrics is verified by conducting subjective evaluations on publicly available stereoscopic image databases. Experimental results show that significant consistency could be reached between the measured MOS and the proposed metrics, in which the correlation coefficient between them can go up to 0.88. Furthermore, we found that the proposed metrics can also address the quality assessment of the synthesized color-plus-depth 3D images well. Therefore, it is our belief that the binocular integration behaviors are important factors in the development of objective quality assessment for 3D images.

  5. 77 FR 48989 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Prospective Assessment of... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Suicidal Ideation and... availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Prospective Assessment... prospectively assessing the occurrence of treatment-emergent suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical...

  6. The Effect of Parenting Behaviors on Subsequent Child Behavior Problems in Autistic Spectrum Conditions (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil


    The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…

  7. Behavioral Treatment and Assessment of Childhood Cross-Gender Problems. (United States)

    Rekers, George A.; Lovaas, O. Ivar

    This study demonstrated reinforcement control over pronounced feminine behaviors in a male child. The clinical history of S paralleled the retrospective reports of adult transsexuals, including (a) cross-gender clothing preferences, (b) actual or imaginal use of cosmetic articles, (c) feminine behavior mannerisms, (d) aversion to masculine…

  8. The Effects of Jogging on the Rates of Selected Target Behaviors of Behaviorally Disordered Students. (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.


    Investigated were the effects of a jogging program on talking out and out of seat behaviors exhibited by six elementary-aged behaviorally disordered students in a resource room setting. Results indicate a decrease in the occurrence of both behaviors following jogging for five of the six students. (Author/JDD)

  9. Intergenerational continuity in parenting behavior: mediating pathways and child effects. (United States)

    Neppl, Tricia K; Conger, Rand D; Scaramella, Laura V; Ontai, Lenna L


    This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined mechanisms proposed to explain continuities in parenting behavior across 2 generations (G1, G2). Data came from 187 G2 adults, their mothers (G1), and their children (G3). Prospective information regarding G2 was collected both during adolescence and early adulthood. G1 data were collected during G2's adolescence, and G3 data were generated during the preschool years. Assessments included both observational and self-report measures. The results indicated a direct relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting, and between G1 and G2 positive parenting. As predicted, specific mediators accounted for intergenerational continuity in particular types of parenting behavior. G2 externalizing behavior mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting, whereas G2 academic attainment mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 positive parenting. In addition, the hypothesized mediating pathways remained statistically significant after taking into account possible G2 effects on G1 parenting and G3 effects on G2 parenting.

  10. Territorial Innovative Potential in Behavioral Assessments of the Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin


    Full Text Available In the article, the essential and formalized definition of the potential of the territory is proved; its innovative part in the “subjectprocess-object” approach to its essential content and impact assessment is determined. The system of mechanisms and institutes of building the regional and territorial innovative potential is elaborated, the most productive directions of its using in the interests of spatial socio-economic development are allocated. Problems of high priority and requiring solutions that are able to increase the effectiveness of territory functioning are identified. The mentioned problems found their reflection and possible solutions at the Gaidar International Economic Forum in Moscow (2015 and at the representative XII Krasnoyarsk Economic Forum, as reflected by the analyses of some forum’s speeches presented in the paper. The shift of priorities in innovative global development during the second part of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century is shown. The results of research and practice of utilizing innovative solutions for the development of some collectives and territories, the spatial structure of regions and the Russian Federation as a whole are investigated and generalized in this paper. The development of the territory and its potential depends on different factors, but the growth of knowledge, intellectual resource and involvement of the population into management process by development and realization of different programs and projects plays the increasing role in current conditions. In the article, the positive sides of the business-project as the main mechanism of the program and project implementation with utilizing market institutes of the public-private partnership (PPP are analyzed. The role of collectives and the population in the increase of innovative activity and system territory development is assessed.

  11. The effect of learning styles and study behavior on success of preclinical students in pharmacology (United States)

    Asci, Halil; Kulac, Esin; Sezik, Mekin; Cankara, F. Nihan; Cicek, Ekrem


    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of learning styles and study behaviors on preclinical medical students’ pharmacology exam scores in a non-Western setting. Materials and Methods: Grasha–Reichmann Student Learning Study Scale and a modified Study Behavior Inventory were used to assess learning styles and study behaviors of preclinical medical students (n = 87). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effect of gender, age, learning style, and study behavior on pharmacology success. Results: Collaborative (40%) and competitive (27%) dominant learning styles were frequent in the cohort. The most common study behavior subcategories were study reading (40%) and general study habits (38%). Adequate listening and note-taking skills were associated with pharmacology success, whereas students with adequate writing skills had lower exam scores. These effects were independent of gender. Conclusions: Preclinical medical students’ study behaviors are independent predictive factors for short-term pharmacology success. PMID:26997716

  12. Effect of different management systems on rutting behavior and behavioral repertoire of housed Maghrebi male camels (Camelus dromedarius). (United States)

    Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Monaco, Davide; Aubé, Lydiane; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Mohamed, Hammadi


    Camel management has been changing in recent years from an extensive to a semi-intensive or intensive system, particularly for breeding bulls and dairy dromedary camels. Captivity may affect animal welfare, and low libido is the major complaint for housed breeding bulls. Since welfare status could also affect reproductive performance, the aim of this study was to evaluate different management practices on behavior, particularly on sexual behavior, and to identify some behavioral needs of male dromedary camels reared for semen collection. The effects of the following management systems on their behavior were compared: (i) traditional: housing in a single stall for 24 h (H24), (ii) housing in a single stall for 23 h with 1 h free in the paddock (H23), and (iii) housing in a single stall for 22 h and 30 min with 1 h paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). During the trial, blood cortisol concentrations were assessed and camels were filmed daily for 30 min in the mornings and during a female passage in the evenings. Videos were analyzed in order to fill out a focal sampling ethogram and to score sexual behavior. As a result, there were no differences between the H24 and H23 systems, whereas ExF had a significant positive impact on their sexual behavior score and behavioral repertoire, further reducing cortisol levels. Overall, it seems that male dromedary camel welfare status improves when their behavioral needs for social interaction and movement are satisfied.

  13. The effect of color priming on infant brain and behavior. (United States)

    Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Hawkins, Laura; Boas, David A


    Behavioral studies have identified select experiences that can prime infants to attend to color information as the basis for individuating objects prior to the time they do so spontaneously. For example, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts the function in which it will engage leads 9-month-olds (who typically do not attend to color differences) to demonstrate increased sensitivity to color information in a subsequent individuation task (Wilcox and Chapa, 2004). In contrast, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts distinct object motions, but the motions are not functionally relevant, does not produce color priming. The purpose of the present research was to identify the cortical underpinnings of these behavioral effects. Infants aged 8 and 9 months viewed function or motion pretest events and then their capacity to individuate-by-color was assessed in an object individuation task. Behavioral and neuroimaging data were collected. Two main findings emerged. First, as predicted, the infants who viewed the function but not the motion pretest events showed prolonged looking to the test event, a behavioral indicator of object individuation. In addition, they evidenced increased activation in anterior temporal cortex, thought to be a cortical signature of object individuation. A second and unexpected finding was that viewing either type of pretest events led to increased activation in the posterior temporal cortex, as compared to infants who did not see pretest events, revealing that prior exposure to the motion pretest events does influence infants' processing of the test event, even though it is not evident in the behavioral results. The cognitive processes involved, and the cortical structures that mediate these processes, are discussed.

  14. Effectiveness of Leisure Time Activities Program on Social Skills and Behavioral Problems in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Eratay, Emine


    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of leisure time activities program in individuals with intellectual disabilities in terms of developing social skills and reducing behavioral problems. Social skills assessment scale, behavioral assessment form for children and young adults, and teacher's report forms were used in the…

  15. The impact of behavioral and mental health risk assessments on goal setting in primary care. (United States)

    Krist, Alex H; Glasgow, Russell E; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Sabo, Roy T; Roby, Dylan H; Gorin, Sherri N Sheinfeld; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Estabrooks, Paul A; Ory, Marcia G; Glenn, Beth A; Phillips, Siobhan M; Kessler, Rodger; Johnson, Sallie Beth; Rohweder, Catherine L; Fernandez, Maria E


    Patient-centered health risk assessments (HRAs) that screen for unhealthy behaviors, prioritize concerns, and provide feedback may improve counseling, goal setting, and health. To evaluate the effectiveness of routinely administering a patient-centered HRA, My Own Health Report, for diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, drug use, stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep, 18 primary care practices were randomized to ask patients to complete My Own Health Report (MOHR) before an office visit (intervention) or continue usual care (control). Intervention practice patients were more likely than control practice patients to be asked about each of eight risks (range of differences 5.3-15.8 %, p set goals for six risks (range of differences 3.8-16.6 %, p controls, intervention patients felt clinicians cared more for them and showed more interest in their concerns. Patient-centered health risk assessments improve screening and goal setting.Trial identifier: NCT01825746.

  16. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit, E-mail: [School of Environmental Health, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Maung District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Bond, Alan, E-mail: [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Internal Box 375, North West University (Potchefstroom campus) (South Africa)


    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systematic evaluation of practice. The criteria can be mapped within a cycle/or cycles of evaluation, based on the ‘logic model’, at the stages of input, process, output and outcome to enable the identification of connections between the criteria across the categories of effectiveness. This framework is considered to have potential application in measuring the effectiveness of many impact assessment processes, including strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA), social impact assessment (SIA) and health impact assessment (HIA). -- Highlights: • Conceptualising effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Identification of factors influencing effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Development of criteria within a framework for evaluating IA effectiveness. • Applying the logic model to examine connections between effectiveness criteria.

  17. The effect of rules on differential reinforcement of other behavior. (United States)

    Watts, Amanda C; Wilder, David A; Gregory, Meagan K; Leon, Yanerys; Ditzian, Kyle


    Previous research on the treatment of problem behavior has shown differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) to be an effective behavior-reduction procedure. However, the extent to which presession descriptions of the DRO contingency enhance intervention effects has not been examined. In the current study, we compared a condition in which a presession rule that described the DRO contingency was given to a condition in which no rule was given for 4 participants. The target behavior was toy play, which served as an analogue to problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. Results showed that DRO was more efficient for 1 participant and more effective for 2 participants when a rule was given.

  18. Assessment of behaviors modeling aspects of schizophrenia in Csmd1 mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret G Distler

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychotic disorder that affects up to 1.5% of the population worldwide. Two recent studies in humans identified genome-wide significant associations between schizophrenia and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in an intron of CSMD1. The effect of deleting CSMD1 on mouse behavior is unknown. The present study utilized mice with a mutant Csmd1 allele in which the first exon had been ablated (KO mice. All Csmd1 transcripts that included the first exon were absent in the brains of KO mice, but there was persistent expression of at least one other transcript that does not include the first exon. Wild type (WT, heterozygous (HET, and KO mice were assessed using several well-established behavioral paradigms that model aspects of schizophrenia. Csmd1 KO mice did not differ from wild-type littermates for sensorimotor gating (measured as prepulse inhibition, social interaction, anhedonia (measured by sucrose preference, or sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of the dopaminergic agent d-amphetamine. These data demonstrate that loss of Csmd1 transcripts that include the first exon does not alter multiple well-established behaviors that model aspects of schizophrenia. The SNP most strongly associated with schizophrenia in humans is between exons 3 and 4; therefore, ablation of exon 1 appeared to be a logical animal model. Nevertheless, future studies should consider alternative mouse models including gain-of-function mutations, and loss-of-function mutations that target alternative transcripts of Csmd1.

  19. Assessing health consumerism on the Web: a demographic profile of information-seeking behaviors. (United States)

    Lorence, Daniel P; Park, Heeyoung; Fox, Susannah


    The growing diversity of the online health information community is increasingly cited as a limiting factor related to the potential of the Internet as an effective health communication channel and information resource. Public-access Internet portals and decreasing costs of personal computers have created a consensus that unequal access to information, or a "Digital Divide," presents a like problem specific to health care consumers. Access to information, however, is an essential part of the consumer-centric framework outlined in the recently proposed U.S. National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) and Health Architecture initiatives. To date little research has been done to differentiate the types of health information sought on the Web by different subgroups, linking user characteristics and health-seeking behaviors. Data from a study of consumer Web search activity in a post-intervention era serves as a natural experiment, and can identify whether a "digitally underserved group" persists in the United States. Such an environment would serve to exclude traditionally underserved groups from the benefits of the planned national heath information infrastructure. This exploratory technology assessment study seeks to differentiate and delineate specific behaviors, or lack of desired behaviors, across targeted health care subgroups. Doing so allows the design of more effective strategies to promote the use of the Web as a health education and health promotion tool, under the envisioned shared decision-making, consumer-centric health information model.

  20. Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative behavior. (United States)

    Ewoldsen, David R; Eno, Cassie A; Okdie, Bradley M; Velez, John A; Guadagno, Rosanna E; DeCoster, Jamie


    Research on video games has yielded consistent findings that violent video games increase aggression and decrease prosocial behavior. However, these studies typically examined single-player games. Of interest is the effect of cooperative play in a violent video game on subsequent cooperative or competitive behavior. Participants played Halo II (a first-person shooter game) cooperatively or competitively and then completed a modified prisoner's dilemma task to assess competitive and cooperative behavior. Compared with the competitive play conditions, players in the cooperative condition engaged in more tit-for-tat behaviors-a pattern of behavior that typically precedes cooperative behavior. The social context of game play influenced subsequent behavior more than the content of the game that was played.

  1. Effective Classroom Assessment for Children's Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Formative assessment is a new concept introduced to the English teachers in China by the National English Curriculum (NEC). Its main feature is to provide quick feedback to promote learning and improve teaching, compared with summative assessment. Mostly, formative assessment is implemented during teaching practice. It should be a part of teaching and learning process. So far as it is concerned, teachers play a very important role. They should be able to decide or select what to be assessed and how to assess in classroom teaching. Thus, the focus of this article is to show them the practical ways to reach the goal, i.e. how to implement formative assessment more effectively.

  2. Assessing open-system behavior of 14C in terrestrial gastropod shells (United States)

    Rech, Jason A.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Lehmann, Sophie B.; McGimpsey, Chelsea N.; Grimley, David A.; Nekola, Jeffrey C.


    In order to assess open-system behavior of radiocarbon in fossil gastropod shells, we measured the 14C activity on 10 aliquots of shell material recovered from Illinoian (~190-130 ka) and pre-Illinoian (~800 ka) loess and lacustrine deposits in the Midwestern USA. Eight of the 10 aliquots yielded measurable 14C activities that ranged from 0.25 to 0.53 percent modern carbon (pMC), corresponding to apparent 14C ages between 48.2 and 42.1 ka. This small level of open-system behavior is common in many materials that are used for 14C dating (e.g. charcoal), and typically sets the upper practical limit of the technique. Two aliquots of gastropod shells from the Illinoian-aged Petersburg Silt (Petersburg Section) in central Illinois, USA, however, yielded elevated 14C activities of 1.26 and 1.71 pMC, which correspond to apparent 14C ages of 35.1 and 32.7 ka. Together, these results suggest that while many fossil gastropods shells may not suffer from major (>1%) open-system problems, this is not always the case. We then examined the mineralogy, trace element chemistry, and physical characteristics of a suite of fossil and modern gastropod shells to identify the source of contamination in the Petersburg shells and assess the effectiveness of these screening techniques at identifying samples suitable for 14C dating. Mineralogical (XRD) and trace element analyses were inconclusive, which suggests that these techniques are not suitable for assessing open-system behavior in terrestrial gastropod shells. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), however, identified secondary mineralization (calcium carbonate) primarily within the inner whorls of the Petersburg shells. This indicates that SEM examination, or possibly standard microscope examination, of the interior of gastropod shells should be used when selecting fossil gastropod shells for 14C dating.

  3. Exploring the Utility of Preference Assessments in Organizational Behavior Management (United States)

    Waldvogel, Jamie M.; Dixon, Mark R.


    The present study compared two variations of stimulus preference assessments: a survey in which direct service employees ranked their preferences for a variety of items, and a multiple stimulus preference assessment without replacement (MSWO), in which textual stimuli were used to represent the actual items. Results obtained for four participants…

  4. Effects of Prosocial, Neutral, and Violent Video Games on Children's Helpful and Hurtful Behaviors. (United States)

    Saleem, Muniba; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A


    Recent research reveals that playing prosocial video games increases prosocial cognitions, positive affect, and helpful behaviors [Gentile et al., 2009; Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2009, 2010, 2011]. These results are consistent with the social-cognitive models of social behavior such as the general learning model [Buckley and Anderson, 2006]. However, no experimental studies have examined such effects on children. Previous research on violent video games suggests that short-term effects of video games are largely based on priming of existing behavioral scripts. Thus, it is unclear whether younger children will show similar effects. This research had 9-14 years olds play a prosocial, neutral, or violent video game, and assessed helpful and hurtful behaviors simultaneously through a new tangram measure. Prosocial games increased helpful and decreased hurtful behavior, whereas violent games had the opposite effects.

  5. Understanding and Promoting Effective Engagement With Digital Behavior Change Interventions. (United States)

    Yardley, Lucy; Spring, Bonnie J; Riper, Heleen; Morrison, Leanne G; Crane, David H; Curtis, Kristina; Merchant, Gina C; Naughton, Felix; Blandford, Ann


    This paper is one in a series developed through a process of expert consensus to provide an overview of questions of current importance in research into engagement with digital behavior change interventions, identifying guidance based on research to date and priority topics for future research. The first part of this paper critically reflects on current approaches to conceptualizing and measuring engagement. Next, issues relevant to promoting effective engagement are discussed, including how best to tailor to individual needs and combine digital and human support. A key conclusion with regard to conceptualizing engagement is that it is important to understand the relationship between engagement with the digital intervention and the desired behavior change. This paper argues that it may be more valuable to establish and promote "effective engagement," rather than simply more engagement, with "effective engagement" defined empirically as sufficient engagement with the intervention to achieve intended outcomes. Appraisal of the value and limitations of methods of assessing different aspects of engagement highlights the need to identify valid and efficient combinations of measures to develop and test multidimensional models of engagement. The final section of the paper reflects on how interventions can be designed to fit the user and their specific needs and context. Despite many unresolved questions posed by novel and rapidly changing technologies, there is widespread consensus that successful intervention design demands a user-centered and iterative approach to development, using mixed methods and in-depth qualitative research to progressively refine the intervention to meet user requirements.

  6. Effects of Certain Counselor Behaviors on Perceived Expertness and Attractiveness. (United States)

    Barak, Azy; And Others


    Examined effects and relative contribution of three counselor behaviors (nonverbal behavior, jargon, and attire) on perceived expertise and attractiveness. Results revealed that all three independent variables significantly affected the two rated dimensions. Nonverbal behavior accounted for most of the variance and differentially affected ratings…

  7. Assessing the rider's seat and horse's behavior: difficulties and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.; Aronsson, A.; Hartmann, K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Keeling, L.


    correct seat and position are the basis for a good performance in horseback riding. This study aimed to measure deviations from the correct seat, test a seat improvement program (dismounted exercises), and investigate whether horse behavior was affected by the rider's seat. Five experienced trainers

  8. Assessing grooming behavior of Russian honey bees toward Varroa destructor. (United States)

    The grooming behavior of Russian bees was compared to Italian bees. Overall, Russian bees had significantly lower numbers of mites than the Italian bees with a mean of 1,937 ± 366 and 5,088 ± 733 mites, respectively. This low mite population in the Russian colonies was probably due to the increased ...

  9. Functional assessment and treatment of aggressive and destructive behaviors in a child victim of physical abuse. (United States)

    Luiselli, J K


    This case study describes the functional assessment and treatment of aggressive and destructive behaviors in a 14-year-old male child with a history of physical abuse. Evaluation was performed in a classroom within a residential school setting. Functional assessment in forms of indirect and descriptive methods was used to generate hypotheses regarding sources of behavioral control. A treatment plan that combined multi-level differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and positive reinforcement for task completion was implemented based on the outcome of functional assessment. Treatment was associated with a gradual and steady reduction in challenging behaviors with near-zero rates achieved at follow-up. This case provides an example of clinical intervention for behavior disorders commonly observed in children who have been abused physically and a hypothesis-driven model of treatment formulation.

  10. Assessment of Substance Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents’: Integration of Self-Control into Extended Parallel Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Witte


    Full Text Available Introduction: An effective preventive health education program on drug abuse can be delivered by applying behavior change theories in a complementary fashion. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating self-control into Extended Parallel Process Model in drug substance abuse behaviors. A sample of 189 governmental high school students participated in this survey. Information was collected individually by completing researcher designed questionnaire and a urinary rapid immuno-chromatography test for opium and marijuana. Results: The results of the study show that 6.9% of students used drugs (especially opium and marijuana and also peer pressure was determinant factor for using drugs. Moreover the EPPM theoretical variables of perceived severity and perceived self-efficacy with self-control are predictive factors to behavior intention against substance abuse. In this manner, self-control had a significant effect on protective motivation and perceived efficacy. Low self- control was a predictive factor of drug abuse and low self-control students had drug abuse experience. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an integration of self-control into EPPM can be effective in expressing and designing primary preventive programs against drug abuse, and assessing abused behavior and deviance behaviors among adolescent population, especially risk seekers

  11. Assessing student emotional behavior after parental separation or divorce. (United States)

    Patten-Seward, P


    Divorce affects 12.5 million children in this country and many are school-age. School nurses need to understand how divorce affects children and to have the necessary skills to assess children of divorce for possible emotional problems.

  12. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development. (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H


    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  13. The Worry Behaviors Inventory : Assessing the behavioral avoidance associated with generalized anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahoney, Alison E J; Hobbs, Megan J; Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D; Sunderland, Matthew; Andrews, Gavin


    BACKGROUND: Understanding behavioral avoidance associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has implications for the classification, theoretical conceptualization, and clinical management of the disorder. This study describes the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a self-re

  14. Recent developments in assessment of long-term radionuclide behavior in the geosphere-biosphere subsystem. (United States)

    Smith, G M; Smith, K L; Kowe, R; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Thorne, M; Thiry, Y; Read, D; Molinero, J


    Decisions on permitting, controlling and monitoring releases of radioactivity into the environment rely on a great variety of factors. Important among these is the prospective assessment of radionuclide behavior in the environment, including migration and accumulation among and within specific environmental media, and the resulting environmental and human health impacts. Models and techniques to undertake such assessments have been developed over several decades based on knowledge of the ecosystems involved, as well as monitoring of previous radionuclide releases to the environment, laboratory experiments and other related research. This paper presents developments in the assessment of radiation doses and related research for some of the key radionuclides identified as of potential significance in the context of releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities for solid radioactive waste. Since releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities involve transfers from the geosphere to the biosphere, an important aspect is the combined effects of surface hydrology, near-surface hydrogeology and chemical gradients on speciation and radionuclide mobility in the zone in which the geosphere and biosphere overlap (herein described as the geosphere-biosphere subsystem). In turn, these aspects of the environment can be modified as a result of environmental change over the thousands of years that have to be considered in radioactive waste disposal safety assessments. Building on the experience from improved understanding of the behavior of the key radionuclides, this paper proceeds to describe development of a generic methodology for representing the processes and environmental changes that are characteristic of the interface between the geosphere and the biosphere. The information that is provided and the methodology that is described are based on international collaborative work implemented through the BIOPROTA forum,

  15. Behavioral assessment of language brain processing in the first year of life. (United States)

    Guzzetta, Francesco


    An up-to-date review of the behavioral assessments of language development in the first year of life is reported. After recalling the anatomical bases of the early development of the auditory system, the different stages of language development during the first year of life are considered: discrimination, transition and perception. The different kinds of behavioral assessment during the course of the first year are then described by stressing their indications and limitations.

  16. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins (United States)

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen


    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  17. Emotional and Behavioral Profile Assessment Using the BASC-2 with Korean Middle School Students (United States)

    Myunghee Ahn, Christine; Ebesutani, Chad


    Korean middle school students are experiencing high rates of behavioral and emotional problems, suggesting a need for comprehensive screening instruments with strong psychometric properties in school settings. The present study investigated the utility of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 Self-Report of Personality, Adolescent Form…

  18. Construct Validation of a Measure to Assess Sustainability of School-Wide Behavior Interventions (United States)

    Hume, Amanda; McIntosh, Kent


    This study assessed aspects of construct validity of the School-wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index-School Teams (SUBSIST), a measure evaluating critical features of the school context related to sustainability of school-wide interventions. Participants at 217 schools implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) were…

  19. 利用斑马鱼成鱼建立致幻类化合物行为评价模型%Adult zebrafish as a model organism for assessing the effects of hallucinogenic drugs on behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜慧; 苏瑞斌; 宫泽辉


    Aims To establish several behavioral paradigms to characterize the psychotropic effects of hallucinogens which ze-brafish was utilized as a model animal, and then to investigate the effects of potent hallucinogenic drugs on these models. Methods With the video record and track system, the behavior was recorded and quantified automatically. In the experiments, the bottom dwelling test, social behavior and mirror test were performed to test the hallucinogenic effects of drugs. Metham-phetamine (METH, 2 mg·L-1) and ketamine (20 mg·L-1) were selected as experimental challenges. The 30 min pre-treat-ment time was chosen based on our prior experience in zebrafish models. Results Compared to the normal group, in dwelling test, acute exposure of zebrafish to METH and ketamine de-creased transitions significantly, and in mirror reflection test, the drug-treated fish changed the preference for mirror zone, and ex-hibited aggressive for their mirror images. The pretreatment of METH and ketamine significantly reduced the contact durations, and the ketamine inhibited the contact frequency each other, the results indicated that the social interaction of zebrafish was im-paired. Conclusion The results confirm high sensitivity of ze-brafish models to hallucinogenic compounds with complex behav-ioral and physiological effects.%目的:利用斑马鱼这一新型模式动物,建立致幻类化合物成鱼行为测试模型,并考察模型有效性。方法利用斑马鱼行为视频跟踪分析系统自动记录动物行为参数,以栖底性、镜像反射及社会交互行为作为评测指标,采用甲基苯丙胺浓度2 mg·L-1、氯胺酮浓度20 mg·L-1,分别急性暴露30 min后进行行为测试。结果与正常组相比,在成鱼自发活动方面,甲基苯丙胺与氯胺酮急性暴露对斑马鱼的运动距离无明显影响,而使垂直方向的穿越次数明显下降;在镜像反射方面,给予不同化合物均使斑马鱼在中央区的停留时间明显增

  20. Assessing the rider's seat and horse's behavior: difficulties and perspectives


    Blokhuis, H.J.; Aronsson, A.; Hartmann, K; Reenen, van, C.G.; Keeling, L


    correct seat and position are the basis for a good performance in horseback riding. This study aimed to measure deviations from the correct seat, test a seat improvement program (dismounted exercises), and investigate whether horse behavior was affected by the rider's seat. Five experienced trainers defined 16 seat deviations and scored the occurrence in 20 riders in a dressage test. Half the riders then carried out an individual training program; after 9 weeks, riders were again scored. The ...

  1. Neuroimaging supports behavioral personality assessment: Overlapping activations during reflective and impulsive risk taking. (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; M Ortner, Tuulia


    Personality assessment has been challenged by the fact that different assessment methods (implicit measures, behavioral measures and explicit rating scales) show little or no convergence in behavioral studies. In this neuroimaging study we address for the first time, whether different assessment methods rely on separate or overlapping neuronal systems. Fifty nine healthy adult participants completed two objective personality tests of risk propensity: the more implicit Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the more explicit Game of Dice Task (GDT). Significant differences in activation, as well as connectivity patterns between both tasks were observed. In both tasks, risky decisions yielded significantly stronger activations than safe decisions in the bilateral caudate, as well as the bilateral Insula. The finding of overlapping brain areas validates different assessment methods, despite their behavioral non-convergence. This suggests that neuroimaging can be an important tool of validation in the field of personality assessment.

  2. Interactive voice response self-monitoring to assess risk behaviors in rural substance users living with HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A; Blum, Elizabeth R; Xie, Lili; Roth, David L; Simpson, Cathy A


    Community-dwelling HIV/AIDS patients in rural Alabama self-monitored (SM) daily HIV risk behaviors using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system, which may enhance reporting, reduce monitored behaviors, and extend the reach of care. Sexually active substance users (35 men, 19 women) engaged in IVR SM of sex, substance use, and surrounding contexts for 4-10 weeks. Baseline predictors of IVR utilization were assessed, and longitudinal IVR SM effects on risk behaviors were examined. Frequent (n = 22), infrequent (n = 22), and non-caller (n = 10) groups were analyzed. Non-callers had shorter durations of HIV medical care and lower safer sex self-efficacy and tended to be older heterosexuals. Among callers, frequent callers had lost less social support. Longitudinal logistic regression models indicated reductions in risky sex and drug use with IVR SM over time. IVR systems appear to have utility for risk assessment and reduction for rural populations living with HIV disease.

  3. Sex, Task, and Behavioral Flexibility Effects on Leadership Perceptions. (United States)

    Hall; Workman; Marchioro


    The effects of sex and behavioral flexibility on leader perceptions were examined in small groups performing under two task conditions. We predicted, based on theory and previous empirical research, that leadership perceptions would be higher for: (1) persons higher in three indicators of behavioral flexibility (self-monitoring, self-reported behavioral capabilities, and androgyny), (2) males in general, and (3) tasks that were sex-congruent. Results showed significant, strong support for behavioral flexibility and sex effects and weak support for the effects of sex-congruent tasks. Exploratory analyses showed that perceived target capabilities mediated the effects of sex and behavioral flexibility. The discussion is organized around a theoretical model which suggests that target behavior and sex-based cues leading to leader categorization are in part mediated by inferred target capabilities. These capabilities show parallels to leadership-relevant traits such as masculinity, dominance, extroversion, and adjustment, identified in early leadership research. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  4. Effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behavior. (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia


    Previous research has documented that playing violent video games has various negative effects on social behavior in that it causes an increase in aggressive behavior and a decrease in prosocial behavior. In contrast, there has been much less evidence on the effects of prosocial video games. In the present research, 4 experiments examined the hypothesis that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increases helping behavior. In fact, participants who had played a prosocial video game were more likely to help after a mishap, were more willing (and devoted more time) to assist in further experiments, and intervened more often in a harassment situation. Results further showed that exposure to prosocial video games activated the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, which in turn promoted prosocial behavior. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games not only has negative effects on social behavior but has positive effects as well.

  5. Assessment of home-based behavior modification programs for autistic children: reliability and validity of the behavioral summarized evaluation. (United States)

    Oneal, Brent J; Reeb, Roger N; Korte, John R; Butter, Eliot J


    Since the publication of Lovaas' (1987) impressive findings, there has been a proliferation of home-based behavior modification programs for autistic children. Parents and other paraprofessionals often play key roles in the implementation and monitoring of these programs. The Behavioral Summarized Evaluation (BSE) was developed for professionals and paraprofessionals to use in assessing the severity of autistic symptoms over the course of treatment. This paper examined the psychometric properties of the BSE (inter-item consistency, factorial composition, convergent validity, and sensitivity to parents' perceptions of symptom change over time) when used by parents of autistic youngsters undergoing home-based intervention. Recommendations for future research are presented.

  6. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.


    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  7. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes


    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit; Bond, Alan


    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systemat...

  8. Oxytocin during development: possible organizational effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather K Caldwell


    Full Text Available Oxytocin (Oxt is a neurohormone known for its physiological roles associated with lactation and parturition in mammals. Oxt can also profoundly influence mammalian social behaviors such as affiliative, parental, and aggressive behaviors. While the acute effects of Oxt signaling on adult behavior have been heavily researched in many species, including humans, the developmental effects of Oxt on the brain and behavior is just beginning to be explored. There is evidence that Oxt in early postnatal and peripubertal development, and perhaps during prenatal life, affects adult behavior by altering neural structure and function. However, the specific mechanisms by which this occurs remain unknown. Thus, this review will detail what is known about how developmental Oxt impacts behavior as well as specific neurochemicals and neural substrates that are important to these behaviors.

  9. Behavioral treatment of pulsatile tinnitus and headache following traumatic head injury. Objective polygraphic assessment of change. (United States)

    Hegel, M T; Martin, J B


    Pulsatile tinnitus is a disorder that can be extremely disabling. Nonetheless, it has not been well-researched in the fields of psychology or behavioral therapy. This article describes the evaluation and behavioral treatment of a gentleman with pulsatile tinnitus. The evaluation included polygraphic assessment of vasomotor and electromyographic function both before and after treatment. The results show that the combination of lifestyle modifications and specific behavioral interventions were successful in modifying not only self-report indices of functioning, but also the underlying physiology related to the disorder. The potential role of the various treatment components and the value of including polygraphic assessment for informing treatment and evaluating outcome are discussed.

  10. Sociocultural effects in neuropsychological assessment. (United States)

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Canseco, E; Quintanar, L; Navarro, E; Meneses, S; Ardila, A


    The group selected for this evaluation consisted of 109 normal people with an average age of 25, coming from two different sociocultural levels (high and low) of Mexico City. All were completely evaluated by Luria's battery for neuropsychological assessment, adapted by Ardila, Ostrosky, and Canseco, 1981. This group of tests measures nine different areas: Motor Functions, Somatosensory Knowledge, Auditory Knowledge, Visuospatial Knowledge, Cognitive Processes, Language, Reading, Writing and Basic Calculations. For all of these, the higher performance standards were achieved by the subjects from the high sociocultural level. A significant interaction between sociocultural level and sex was observed. The differences between sexes appear only in subjects from the low sociocultural level. Factor analysis of the battery revealed that the most sensitive items to sociocultural level were those related on one hand, to the handling of complex structural and conceptual aspects of language and on the other hand, to the organization of motor sequences and in general motor programming. Research related to the differences found is reviewed and implications for clinical assessment are discussed.

  11. Evaluating Curriculum-Based Measurement from a Behavioral Assessment Perspective (United States)

    Ardoin, Scott P.; Roof, Claire M.; Klubnick, Cynthia; Carfolite, Jessica


    Curriculum-based measurement Reading (CBM-R) is an assessment procedure used to evaluate students' relative performance compared to peers and to evaluate their growth in reading. Within the response to intervention (RtI) model, CBM-R data are plotted in time series fashion as a means modeling individual students' response to varying levels of…

  12. Identifying Effective Behavior Management in the Early Childhood Classroom (United States)

    Victor, Kelly Rae


    Every educator has a dream to maintain a classroom free from disruptions; one in which each child is being molded, shaped, and corrected in a loving and caring environment that inspires appropriate behavior. The purpose of this research project was to determine how to create an effective behavior management plan and effectively teach classroom…

  13. Effectiveness of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment on the Social Behaviors of Children with Asperger Disorder (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Volker, Martin A.; Nida, Robert E.


    The current study presents preliminary data from an ongoing research project evaluating a summer treatment program for children with Asperger disorder (AD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program on the social behaviors of 6- to 13-year-old children with AD. Overall program…

  14. Quantitative assessment of preventive behaviors in France during the Fukushima nuclear crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Crépey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Fukushima nuclear disaster has generated worldwide concern on the risk of exposure to nuclear radiations. In Europe, health authorities had to issue statements about the lack of usefulness of iodine based preventive treatments within their borders. However a lack of confidence in official messages has developed in various European countries due to recent perceived failures in managing public health crises. The lay population preventive behaviors in this context are largely unknown. Consequently, to examine the effects of public health crisis on lay behaviors leading to pharmaceuticals purchases, we studied the sales of iodine-based products in France before, during and after the crisis. METHODS: We focused our study on 58 iodine-based drugs available with and without a physician prescription. Our data came from a stratified sample of 3004 pharmacies in metropolitan France. Our study period was from January 2010 to April 2012, with a focus on March-April 2011. We differentiated sales of drugs prescribed by physicians from sales of drugs obtained without a prescription. We used a CUSUM method to detect abnormal increases in sales activity and cross-correlations to assess shifts in sales timing. RESULTS: Sales of iodine-based nutritional complements, and later sales of iodine-based homeopathic remedies, substantially increased (up to 3-fold during a period of 20 days. Their temporal patterns were correlated to specific events during the crisis. Prescriptions for iodine-based homeopathy increased (up to 35% of all sales. Iodine pills, strictly regulated by health authorities, have also been sold but on a very small scale. CONCLUSION: These results indicate uncontrolled preventive behaviors resulting in the potentially unjustifiable consumption of available drugs. They have implications in public policy, and demonstrate the usefulness of drug sales surveillance for instantaneous evaluation of population behavior during a global crisis.

  15. Assessing abnormal illness behavior in post-stroke patients: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Desai


    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal illness behavior (AIB can contribute poor functioning in an individual along with significant increase in health care utilization. It has been studied in various disorders. This study examined the feasibility of assessing abnormal illness behavior in individuals with stroke who were undergoing treatment in a psychiatric and neurological rehabilitation center. Materials and Methods: Subjects who were admitted to the department of psychiatric and neurological rehabilitation ward for post-stroke rehabilitation treatment were assessed using screening version of Illness Behavior Questionnaire (SIBQ. Results: The total number of subjects who were screened was eight. The mean score of SIBQ was 6.125 ± 1.35. With the cut off score of 7, five subjects had abnormal illness behavior. Conclusions: The above study highlights that it is feasible to screen individuals with stroke undergoing rehabilitation for possibility of abnormal illness behavior.

  16. The Verbal Behavior Assessment Scale (VerBAS): Construct Validity, Reliability, and Internal Consistency. (United States)

    Duker, Pieter C.


    To assess the psychometric characteristics of the Verbal Behavior Assessment Scale, the 15-item questionnaire was administered to pairs of caregivers of 115 individuals with developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis involving 11 more participants revealed evidence concerning the distinction of three different communicative functions…

  17. Integrative Consensus: A Systematic Approach to Integrating Comprehensive Assessment Data for Young Children with Behavior Problems (United States)

    Shernoff, Elisa S.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.


    Comprehensive assessments that include parents and teachers are essential when assessing young children vulnerable to emotional and behavioral problems given the multiple systems and contexts that influence and support optimal development (U. Bronfenbrenner & P. A. Morris, 2006; M. J. Guralnick, 2011). However, more data complicate clinical…

  18. The additive effect on suicidality of family history of suicidal behavior and early traumatic experiences. (United States)

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P


    Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people.

  19. The exploratory behavior scale: assessing young visitors hands-on behavior in science museums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.P. van Schijndel; R.K. Franse; M.E.J. Raijmakers


    In this paper, we introduce the Exploratory Behavior Scale (EBS), a quantitative measure of young children's interactivity. More specifically, the EBS is developed from the psychological literature on exploration and play and measures the extent to which preschoolers explore their physical environme

  20. Large-scale assessment of olfactory preferences and learning in Drosophila melanogaster: behavioral and genetic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Versace


    Full Text Available In the Evolve and Resequence method (E&R, experimental evolution and genomics are combined to investigate evolutionary dynamics and the genotype-phenotype link. As other genomic approaches, this methods requires many replicates with large population sizes, which imposes severe restrictions on the analysis of behavioral phenotypes. Aiming to use E&R for investigating the evolution of behavior in Drosophila, we have developed a simple and effective method to assess spontaneous olfactory preferences and learning in large samples of fruit flies using a T-maze. We tested this procedure on (a a large wild-caught population and (b 11 isofemale lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Compared to previous methods, this procedure reduces the environmental noise and allows for the analysis of large population samples. Consistent with previous results, we show that flies have a preference for orange vs. apple odor. With our procedure wild-derived flies exhibit olfactory learning in the absence of previous laboratory selection. Furthermore, we find genetic differences in the olfactory learning with relatively high heritability. We propose this large-scale method as an effective tool for E&R and genome-wide association studies on olfactory preferences and learning.

  1. Buffering the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on child behavior. (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; McKelvey, Lorraine M; Pemberton, Joy R; Mesman, Glenn R; Holmes, Khiela J; Bradley, Robert H


    Our objective was to examine how mothers' warmth can protect children from the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on children's externalizing behavior and, alternately, how harsh parenting can exacerbate the problem. We used data from 1,563 families eligible for Early Head Start and assessed when children were age 5 and again at age 11. We examined whether mothers' warmth or harsh parenting at age 5 moderated the effect of maternal alcohol problems on children's behavior problems at age 11. Results indicated that mothers' symptoms of alcohol problems when children were age 5 predicted greater externalizing behavior problems (aggression and rule breaking) when children were age 11. Aggression and rule-breaking behaviors, externalizing behaviors commonly associated with maternal alcohol problems, were lessened when mothers were warm and did not engage in harsh parenting techniques. Our findings highlight the importance of positive parenting techniques in high-risk families.

  2. Behavioral Assessment of the Aging Mouse Vestibular System (United States)

    Tung, Victoria W. K.; Burton, Thomas J.; Dababneh, Edward; Quail, Stephanie L.; Camp, Aaron J.


    Age related decline in balance performance is associated with deteriorating muscle strength, motor coordination and vestibular function. While a number of studies show changes in balance phenotype with age in rodents, very few isolate the vestibular contribution to balance under either normal conditions or during senescence. We use two standard behavioral tests to characterize the balance performance of mice at defined age points over the lifespan: the rotarod test and the inclined balance beam test. Importantly though, a custom built rotator is also used to stimulate the vestibular system of mice (without inducing overt signs of motion sickness). These two tests have been used to show that changes in vestibular mediated-balance performance are present over the murine lifespan. Preliminary results show that both the rotarod test and the modified balance beam test can be used to identify changes in balance performance during aging as an alternative to more difficult and invasive techniques such as vestibulo-ocular (VOR) measurements. PMID:25045963

  3. THM Model Validation: Integrated Assessment of Measured and Predicted Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, S C; Carlson, S R; Wagoner, J; Wagner, R; Vogt, T


    This paper presents results of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) simulations of two field-scale tests that are part of the thermal testing program being conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The two tests analyzed are the Drift-Scale Test (DST) which is sited in an alcove of the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the Large Block Test (LBT) which is sited at Fran Ridge, near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Both of these tests were designed to investigate coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) behavior in a fractured, densely welded ash-flow tuff. The geomechanical response of the rock mass forming the DST and the LBT is analyzed using a coupled THM model. A coupled model for analysis of the DST and LBT has been formulated by linking the 3DEC distinct element code for thermal-mechanical analysis and the NUFT finite element code for thermal-hydrologic analysis. The TH model (NUFT) computes temperatures at preselected times using a model that extends from the surface to the water table. The temperatures computed by NUFT are input to 3DEC, which then computes stresses and deformations. The distinct element method was chosen to permit the inclusion of discrete fractures and explicit modeling of fracture deformations. Shear deformations and normal mode opening of fractures are expected to increase fracture permeability and thereby alter thermal hydrologic behavior in these tests. We have collected fracture data for both the DST and the LBT and have used these data in the formulation of the model of the test. This paper presents a brief discussion of the model formulation, along with comparison of simulated and observed deformations at selected locations within the tests.

  4. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response. (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah A; Roberts, Beth; Pope, Brittany M; Blake, Margaret R; Leavelle, Stephen E; Marshall, Jennifer J; Smith, Andrew; Hadicke, Amanda; Falcone, Josephine F; Knott, Katrina; Kouba, Andrew J


    Captive African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal) and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol) responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants' behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position) were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans) compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans). There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants. Cortisol

  5. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Boyle

    Full Text Available Captive African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants' behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans. There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants

  6. Effects of Conceptual Complexity on Assertive Behavior. (United States)

    Bruch, Monroe A.; And Others


    Compared the assertive behavior of two groups differing in information-processing style. In experiment one, high conceptual-complexity (CC) subjects demonstrated greater content knowledge, direct delivery skill, and fewer negative self-statements. In experiment two, high versus low CC females were more assertive in difficult situations. (Author/RC)

  7. (Original article) Adaptive behavior: national perspective and evaluation with adaptive behavior assessment system



    Adaptive behavior refers to conceptual, social and practical skills, which allow adaptating to the environment. This study aims to do a scientific literature review from the SciELO and to conduct further structural analysis with the ABAS-II, one of the main instruments to evaluate the construct. The results showed that Brazilian studies are recent, but they have been increasing in previous years, mainly concentrated in the multidisciplinary area. We identified 13 instruments in 46 articles, b...

  8. The effect of unethical behavior on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Faezeh Rezazadeh Baei


    Full Text Available This study explains the components of ethical behavior and their impacts on life insurance companies in province of Mazandaran, Iran. There were 367 insurance representatives and the study selects a sample of 187 ones based on Cochran formula and 2 questionnaires were distributed among them. The first questionnaire, unethical behavior, includes 8 items including Bribery, Cheating, Deception, Interact with colleagues, Act as social behavior, Uncommitted to firm and Irresponsibility. In addition, the questionnaire of brand equity contains three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined that the effects of cheating and deception on unethical behaviors were not confirmed but the effects of other factors, bribery, interact with colleagues, act as social behavior, uncommitted to firm and irresponsibility on unethical behavior were confirmed. In addition, three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty had positive relationship with brand equity.

  9. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior. (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E


    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed.

  10. Assessment of density functional methods with correct asymptotic behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Chen-Wei; Li, Guan-De; Chai, Jeng-Da


    Long-range corrected (LC) hybrid functionals and asymptotically corrected (AC) model potentials are two distinct density functional methods with correct asymptotic behavior. They are known to be accurate for properties that are sensitive to the asymptote of the exchange-correlation potential, such as the highest occupied molecular orbital energies and Rydberg excitation energies of molecules. To provide a comprehensive comparison, we investigate the performance of the two schemes and others on a very wide range of applications, including the asymptote problems, self-interaction-error problems, energy-gap problems, charge-transfer problems, and many others. The LC hybrid scheme is shown to consistently outperform the AC model potential scheme. In addition, to be consistent with the molecules collected in the IP131 database [Y.-S. Lin, C.-W. Tsai, G.-D. Li, and J.-D. Chai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154109 (2012)], we expand the EA115 and FG115 databases to include, respectively, the vertical electron affinities and f...

  11. The independent effects of personality and situations on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion. (United States)

    Sherman, Ryne A; Rauthmann, John F; Brown, Nicolas A; Serfass, David G; Jones, Ashley Bell


    The joint influence of persons and situations on behavior has long been posited by personality and social psychological theory (Funder, 2006; Lewin, 1951). However, a lack of tools for real-time behavioral and situation assessment has left direct investigations of this sort immobilized. This study combines recent advances in situation assessment and experience sampling methodology to examine the simultaneous effects of personality traits and situation characteristics on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion in N = 210 participants. The results support an additive model such that both personality traits and situation characteristics independently predict real-time expressions of behavior and emotion. These results have implications for several prominent theoretical perspectives in personality, including both trait and cognitive theories.

  12. Effects of parent training on salivary cortisol in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Motamedi


    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Since adulthood antisocial, aggressive and delinquent behaviors often have their onset early in life, investigating the association between biological factors and disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents are important and are emphasized on in the recent years. Baseline cortisol level seems to be a valuable biological marker of individuals with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD. This study examined the effect of parent training on salivary cortisol levels of children with DBD.
    • METHODS: Saliva samples were assayed to determine cortisol levels in nineteen clinic-referred children with DBD (aged 8 through 13 years before and after an eight-session parent training program. Children’s disruptive behaviors were assessed by Child Behavior Check List before and after the intervention.
    • RESULTS: Children’s salivary cortisol increased significantly after parent training sessions. Children with DBD who had lower basal cortisol levels had more severe disruptive behaviors and a better response to intervention by parent training as assessed by changes in cortisol levels and disruptive behaviour scores. However, post-interventional reduction of disruptive behaviors and increase in cortisol level was significant for all levels of baseline cortisol.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Parent training is an effective method for behavioral modification in DBD. Salivary cortisol may be considered a predictive factor for severity of the child or adolescent's disruptive behaviors and also for response of those behaviors to parent training.
    • KEY WORDS: Disruptive behavior, child, adolescent, parent training.

  13. The effects of emotional intelligence on counterproductive work behaviors


    Seyed Morteza Emami


    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of emotional intelligence on counterproductive work behavior. The study uses a questionnaire for measuring the effects of emotional intelligence, which consists of four components including self-awareness, self-control, self-motivation and empathy. In addition, the study uses another questionnaire to measure the effects of counterproductive work behavior. The study has accomplished among full time employees who work for Indus...

  14. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth


    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  15. Train the Trainer Effectiveness Trials of Behavioral Intervention for Individuals with Autism: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Yoshiko; Kasari, Connie


    This systematic review examines train the trainer (TTT) effectiveness trials of behavioral interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Published methodological quality scales were used to assess studies including participant description, research design, intervention, outcomes, and analysis. Twelve studies including 9 weak…

  16. Differential Effects of Reinforcement on the Self-Monitoring of On-Task Behavior (United States)

    Otero, Tiffany L.; Haut, Jillian M.


    In the current study, the differential effects of reinforcement on a self-monitoring intervention were evaluated. Three students nominated by their teachers for having a marked difficultly maintaining on-task behaviors participated in the study. Using an alternating treatments single-case design to assess self-monitoring with and without…

  17. Effects of Team-Initiated Problem Solving on Decision Making by Schoolwide Behavior Support Teams (United States)

    Todd, Anne W.; Horner, Robert H.; Newton, J. Stephen; Algozzine, Robert F.; Algozzine, Kate M.; Frank, Jennifer L.


    The authors examined the problem-solving practices of school teams engaged in implementing and improving schoolwide behavior support implementation. A multiple baseline design across 4 elementary school teams was used to assess the effects of the Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) training program (1 day of team training plus 2 coached…

  18. Functional Behavioral Assessments and Behavior Support Plans for Work-Based Learning (United States)

    Kittelman, Angus; Wagner Bromley, Katherine; Mazzotti, Valerie L.


    Work experiences are linked to positive post-school outcomes for youth and young adults with disabilities. Unfortunately, students who struggle to manage conflict and challenges in work settings have a difficult time maintaining employment. Though ecological assessments are used to create supported work plans surrounding socially inappropriate…

  19. Establishing Behavioral and Assessment Criteria through the Use of a Behavioral Level System for Dealing with Self Contained EH Elementary School Children. (United States)

    Vogelmann-Peper, Marcella

    This practicum was designed to establish behavioral and assessment criteria for dealing with seriously emotionally disturbed elementary students enrolled in self-contained emotionally handicapped (EH) units. A primary goal was to provide out-of-field EH teachers with an objective tool for continuously assessing students' individual behavioral and…

  20. Exploring the Use of an Image-Based Approach to Assessing Nutrition Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Routh


    Full Text Available Formative evaluation was conducted for the Personal Health Behaviors Overview (PHBO survey to evaluate nutrition behaviors with image-based questions in low-income populations. Forty-nine low-income adults from nutrition education classes were invited to participate with n = 42 included in the analysis. Participants completed the PHBO survey while an interviewer recorded observations. Upon completion, participants were asked questions regarding each PHBO survey item. Most participants completed the survey in an average of 4 minutes. The majority said the photographs of food made it easier to answer questions. Less than half indicated that the visuals depicting frequency made questions easier. While participant responses were aligned with the aims of the PHBO question being asked, some suggestions were offered for improvements of photographs. While this formative evaluation research indicates additional validation is necessary before use of these PHBO questions, the image-based simple question technique is a possible solution for efficient and effective nutrition assessments in low-income, limited literacy populations

  1. The assessment of protective behavioral strategies: comparing the absolute frequency and contingent frequency response scales. (United States)

    Kite, Benjamin A; Pearson, Matthew R; Henson, James M


    The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of response scale on the observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies (PBS) measures and alcohol-related outcomes. We reasoned that an "absolute frequency" scale (stem: "how many times …"; response scale: 0 times to 11+ times) conflates the frequency of using PBS with the frequency of consuming alcohol; thus, we hypothesized that the use of an absolute frequency response scale would result in positive relationships between types of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Alternatively, a "contingent frequency" scale (stem: "When drinking … how often …"; response scale: never to always) does not conflate frequency of alcohol use with use of PBS; therefore, we hypothesized that use of a contingent frequency scale would result in negative relationships between use of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Two published measures of PBS were used across studies: the Protective Behavioral Strategies Survey (PBSS) and the Strategy Questionnaire (SQ). Across three studies, we demonstrate that when measured using a contingent frequency response scale, PBS measures relate negatively to alcohol-related outcomes in a theoretically consistent manner; however, when PBS measures were measured on an absolute frequency response scale, they were nonsignificantly or positively related to alcohol-related outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings for the assessment of PBS.

  2. Effects of Nonverbal Behavior on Perceptions of Power Bases. (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Simonsen, Melissa M.; Pierce, Charles A.


    Manipulates three types of nonverbal behaviors and examines their effects on perceptions of power bases. Reports that a relaxed facial expression increased the ratings for five of the selected power bases; furthermore, direct eye contact yielded higher credibility ratings. Provides evidence that various nonverbal behaviors have only additive…

  3. Effects of Behavior and Family Structure on Perceptions. (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; And Others


    Effects of information about an adolescent's family structure and behavior on perceptions of education majors were studied for 45 male and 98 female college students. College students made subtle judgments based on this minimal information, but how strongly such judgments affect perceptions and behavior toward adolescents is not known. (SLD)

  4. The Effects of an Empathy Building Program on Bullying Behavior (United States)

    Stanbury, Stacey; Bruce, Mary Alice; Jain, Sachin; Stellern, John


    This article discusses the development, implementation, and effects of a middle school empathy building program that was designed to reduce bullying behavior. Results show that participants in the intervention group reported engaging in significantly less bullying behavior as compared to the control group, and the program was particularly…

  5. Examining Convergence of Retrospective and Ecological Momentary Assessment Measures of Negative Affect and Eating Disorder Behaviors (United States)

    Wonderlich, Joseph A.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott G.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crosby, Ross D.


    Objective Data gathered via retrospective forms of assessment are subject to various recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is an alternative approach involving repeated momentary assessments within a participant's natural environment, thus reducing recall biases and improving ecological validity. EMA has been used in numerous prior studies examining various constructs of theoretical relevance to eating disorders. Method This investigation includes data from three previously published studies with distinct clinical samples: (a) women with anorexia nervosa (N=118), (b) women with bulimia nervosa (N=133), and (c) obese men and women (N=50; 9 with current binge eating disorder). Each study assessed negative affective states and eating disorder behaviors using traditional retrospective assessments and EMA. Spearman rho correlations were used to evaluate the concordance of retrospective versus EMA measures of affective and/or behavioral constructs in each sample. Bland-Altman plots were also used to further evaluate concordance in the assessment of eating disorder behaviors. Results There was moderate to strong concordance for the measures of negative affective states across all three studies. Moderate to strong concordance was also found for the measures of binge eating and exercise frequency. The strongest evidence of concordance across measurement approaches was found for purging behaviors. Discussion Overall, these preliminary findings support the convergence of retrospective and EMA assessments of both negative affective states and various eating disorder behaviors. Given the advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these assessment approaches, the specific questions being studied in future empirical studies should inform decisions regarding selection of the most appropriate method. PMID:25195932

  6. Sensor-based assessment of herbicide effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streibig, Jens Carl; Rasmussen, Jesper; Andújar, D.;


    Non-destructive assessment of herbicide effects may be able to support integrated weed management. To test whether effects of herbicides on canopy variables could be detected by sensors, two crops were used as models and treated with herbicides at BBCH 20 using a logarithmic sprayer. Twelve days...

  7. The functional age of hearing loss in a mouse model of presbycusis. I. Behavioral assessments. (United States)

    Prosen, Cynthia A; Dore, Dawn J; May, Bradford J


    Presbycusis is a common form of hearing loss that progresses from high to low frequencies with advancing age. C57BL/6J mice experience a rapid progression of presbycusis-like hearing deficits and thus provide a convenient animal model for evaluating behavioral, physiological and anatomical correlates of the disorder. Previous studies of C57BL/6J mice have relied on short-term observations of age-matched subject groups to reconstruct a time course for auditory pathologies. Such statistical approaches are weakened by the variability of hearing thresholds in young mice and the inconsistent timing of degenerative effects in older mice. The present study was designed to resolve these ambiguities by tracking the hearing abilities of individual C57BL/6J mice from age 16 weeks until the onset of hearing loss in specific listening conditions. Testing at frequencies of 8 and 16 kHz in quiet confirmed the high-to-low frequency progression that is characteristic of presbycusis. Often the hearing loss developed in two phases, one gradual and the other abrupt. Testing in noise revealed deficits that were first manifested as threshold instability and then an increased susceptibility to masking. These changes occurred before hearing loss in quiet. CBA/CaJ mice did not show significant loss during a similar period of observation. Our findings provide a well-ordered chronology for isolating the functional consequences of multiple cochlear pathologies that arise during the time course of presbycusis. This neurobehavioral assessment is termed the functional age of hearing loss. Neuroanatomical assessments of behaviorally characterized C57BL/6J mice are presented in the companion paper [Hear. Res. 183 (2003) 29-36].

  8. Assessing nest-building behavior of mice using a 3D depth camera. (United States)

    Okayama, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Toyoda, Atsushi


    We developed a novel method to evaluate the nest-building behavior of mice using an inexpensive depth camera. The depth camera clearly captured nest-building behavior. Using three-dimensional information from the depth camera, we obtained objective features for assessing nest-building behavior, including "volume," "radius," and "mean height". The "volume" represents the change in volume of the nesting material, a pressed cotton square that a mouse shreds and untangles in order to build its nest. During the nest-building process, the total volume of cotton fragments is increased. The "radius" refers to the radius of the circle enclosing the fragments of cotton. It describes the extent of nesting material dispersion. The "radius" averaged approximately 60mm when a nest was built. The "mean height" represents the change in the mean height of objects. If the nest walls were high, the "mean height" was also high. These features provided us with useful information for assessment of nest-building behavior, similar to conventional methods for the assessment of nest building. However, using the novel method, we found that JF1 mice built nests with higher walls than B6 mice, and B6 mice built nests faster than JF1 mice. Thus, our novel method can evaluate the differences in nest-building behavior that cannot be detected or quantified by conventional methods. In future studies, we will evaluate nest-building behaviors of genetically modified, as well as several inbred, strains of mice, with several nesting materials.

  9. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems. (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J


    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families.

  10. Principles for Effective ClassroomAssessment


    Louis Volante


    Based on a synthesis of the research literature, seven principles for effective classroom assessment are presented. These principles included the need for classroom assessment to be student-centered, aligned with clear learning targets, based on multiple methods, able to account for a variety of student skills, aimed at reducing bias, reliable and valid, and efficient. The discussion addresses ways of promoting these principles at the pre-service and in-service levels and underscores the impo...

  11. Principles for Effective ClassroomAssessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Volante


    Full Text Available Based on a synthesis of the research literature, seven principles for effective classroom assessment are presented. These principles included the need for classroom assessment to be student-centered, aligned with clear learning targets, based on multiple methods, able to account for a variety of student skills, aimed at reducing bias, reliable and valid, and efficient. The discussion addresses ways of promoting these principles at the pre-service and in-service levels and underscores the importance of changing the current Western zeitgeist that diminishes the central importance of classroom assessment data.

  12. The Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Placement Outcomes of Biological Families in a State Child Welfare System (United States)

    Franks, Sabrina B.; Mata, Francesca C.; Wofford, Erin; Briggs, Adam M.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Carr, James E.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.


    Behavioral parent training has proven effective in improving the skill performance of foster caregivers and biological parents of dependent children during role-play assessments. To date, however, no studies have examined the impact of behavioral parenting skills training on child placement outcomes. We conducted a quasi-experimental archival…

  13. An Evaluation of the Effects of Life Space Crisis Intervention on the Challenging Behavior of Individual Students (United States)

    Grskovic, Janice A.; Goetze, Herbert


    This study assessed the effects of Life Space Crisis Interventions on the challenging behavior of four students with learning handicaps attending a special school in Germany. Students were in seventh and tenth grades and exhibited an array of challenging, disruptive classroom behaviors. After the implementation of interventions, major improvement…

  14. Cognitive and Behavioral Effects of Topiramate Versus Carbamazepine Monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The cognitive and behavioral effects of topiramate (TPM versus carbamazepine (CBZ were evaluated in a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial at Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, and other university centers in Korea.

  15. The Unconsidered Ballot: How Design Effects Voting Behavior. (United States)

    Roth, Susan King


    Discusses a preliminary study of the effect of ballot interface design on voting behavior. Finds significant problems related to human factors and the organization of information on the ballot on mechanical and electronic voting machines. (RS)

  16. Magnetomechanical behavior for assessment of fatigue process in ferromagnetic steel (United States)

    Bao, S.; Gong, S. F.


    In this work, the change of magnetization as a function of applied stress has been investigated for test specimens of AISI 1018 steel. The various stages of fatigue damage process are characterized by the magnetomechanical measurements recorded by an APS 428D fluxgate magnetometer. Of great significance is the fact that the stress-magnetic field hysteresis loop area changes systematically with the progression of fatigue. The magnetomechanical hysteresis demonstrates conspicuous changes in the initial stage of fatigue loading, then reverts to a relatively stable phase, and finally, drastic variations appear again as the cyclic loadings approach terminal failure. This work demonstrated that it is possible to correlate the progress of fatigue in ferromagnetic steels with the nondestructive evaluation technique of the magnetomechanical effect.

  17. Multistress effects on goldfish (Carassius auratus) behavior and metabolism. (United States)

    Gandar, Allison; Jean, Séverine; Canal, Julie; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Gilbert, Franck; Laffaille, Pascal


    Crossed effects between climate change and chemical pollutions were identified on community structure and ecosystem functioning. Temperature rising affects the toxic properties of pollutants and the sensitiveness of organisms to chemicals stress. Inversely, chemical exposure may decrease the capacity of organisms to respond to environmental changes. The aim of our study was to assess the individual and crossed effects of temperature rising and pesticide contamination on fish. Goldfish, Carassius auratus, were exposed during 96 h at two temperatures (22 and 32 °C) to a mixture of common pesticides (S-metolachlor, isoproturon, linuron, atrazine-desethyl, aclonifen, pendimethalin, and tebuconazol) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (total concentrations MIX1 = 8.4 μg L(-1) and MIX2 = 42 μg L(-1)). We investigated the sediment reworking behavior, which has a major ecological functional role. We also focused on three physiological traits from the cellular up to the whole individual level showing metabolic status of fish (protein concentration in liver and muscle, hepatosomatic index, and Fulton's condition factor). Individual thermal stress and low concentrations of pesticides decreased the sediment reworking activity of fish and entrained metabolic compensation with global depletion in energy stores. We found that combined chemical and thermal stresses impaired the capacity of fish to set up an efficient adaptive response. Our results strongly suggest that temperature will make fish more sensitive to water contamination by pesticides, raising concerns about wild fish conservation submitted to global changes.

  18. Electroencephalogram effects of armodafinil: comparison with behavioral alertness. (United States)

    Conrado, Daniela J; Bewernitz, Michael; Ding, Mingzhou; Cibula, Jean; Seubert, Christoph; Sy, Sherwin K B; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Derendorf, Hartmut


    Development of central nervous system-acting drugs would be enhanced by suitable biomarkers that reflect the targeted pathophysiologic brain state. The electroencephalogram (EEG) has several characteristics of an ideal biomarker and can be promptly adapted to pre-clinical and clinical testing. The aim of this study was to evaluate EEG as a measure of the wakefulness-promoting effect of armodafinil in sleep deprived healthy subjects. Armodafinil pharmacodynamics were simultaneously assessed by EEG- and behavioral-based measures including a well-established measure of alertness. Using two quantitative EEG-based measures-power spectral and event-related brain activity analyses-we observed that armodafinil mitigated the slowing of brain activity and the decrease of the event-related brain activity caused by sleep deprivation. Armodafinil-induced changes in EEG are in agreement and explain up to 73.1% of the armodafinil-induced changes in alertness. Our findings suggest that EEG can serve as a marker of the wakefulness-promoting drug effect.

  19. Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)


    Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedgepeth, J (Tenera Environmental, LLC); Johnson, Gary E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J (BioSonics Inc.)


    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  1. Can virtual reality exposure therapy gains be generalized to real-life? A meta-analysis of studies applying behavioral assessments. (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Ijntema, Hiske; Meyerbröker, Katharina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G


    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), patients are exposed to virtual environments that resemble feared real-life situations. The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which VRET gains can be observed in real-life situations. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials applying VRET to specific phobias and measuring treatment outcome by means of behavioral laboratory tests or recordings of behavioral activities in real-life. Data sources were searches of databases (Medline, PsycInfo, and Cochrane). We included in total 14 clinical trials on specific phobias. Results revealed that patients undergoing VRET did significantly better on behavioral assessments following treatment than before treatment, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g = 1.23. Furthermore, patients undergoing VRET performed better on behavioral assessments at post-treatment than patients on wait-list (g = 1.41). Additionally, results of behavioral assessment at post-treatment and at follow-up revealed no significant differences between VRET and exposure in vivo (g = -0.09 and 0.53, respectively). Finally, behavioral measurement effect sizes were similar to those calculated from self-report measures. The findings demonstrate that VRET can produce significant behavior change in real-life situations and support its application in treating specific phobias.

  2. Assessing the Carrying Capacity of Tourist Resorts: An Application of Tourists' Spatial Behavior Simulator Based on GIS and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ren-jun


    Based on the study of visitors' individual spatial behaviors, a tourists' spatial behavior simulator (TSBS) to assess the carrying capacity of tourist resorts was developed, TSBS employs GIS (Geographic Information System) to manage the spatial data, and Multi-Agent system to simulate the actions of individual visitors. By utilizing TSBS, visitors' travel patterns such as location, cost, and state can be analyzed and predicted. Based on this analysis and prediction, the model of assessing the carrying capacity of resorts is built. Our results show that TSBS will be an effective tool to accurately assess the carrying capacity of tourist resorts.

  3. Computational Methods for Tracking, Quantitative Assessment, and Visualization of C. elegans Locomotory Behavior. (United States)

    Moy, Kyle; Li, Weiyu; Tran, Huu Phuoc; Simonis, Valerie; Story, Evan; Brandon, Christopher; Furst, Jacob; Raicu, Daniela; Kim, Hongkyun


    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans provides a unique opportunity to interrogate the neural basis of behavior at single neuron resolution. In C. elegans, neural circuits that control behaviors can be formulated based on its complete neural connection map, and easily assessed by applying advanced genetic tools that allow for modulation in the activity of specific neurons. Importantly, C. elegans exhibits several elaborate behaviors that can be empirically quantified and analyzed, thus providing a means to assess the contribution of specific neural circuits to behavioral output. Particularly, locomotory behavior can be recorded and analyzed with computational and mathematical tools. Here, we describe a robust single worm-tracking system, which is based on the open-source Python programming language, and an analysis system, which implements path-related algorithms. Our tracking system was designed to accommodate worms that explore a large area with frequent turns and reversals at high speeds. As a proof of principle, we used our tracker to record the movements of wild-type animals that were freshly removed from abundant bacterial food, and determined how wild-type animals change locomotory behavior over a long period of time. Consistent with previous findings, we observed that wild-type animals show a transition from area-restricted local search to global search over time. Intriguingly, we found that wild-type animals initially exhibit short, random movements interrupted by infrequent long trajectories. This movement pattern often coincides with local/global search behavior, and visually resembles Lévy flight search, a search behavior conserved across species. Our mathematical analysis showed that while most of the animals exhibited Brownian walks, approximately 20% of the animals exhibited Lévy flights, indicating that C. elegans can use Lévy flights for efficient food search. In summary, our tracker and analysis software will help analyze the neural basis of the

  4. Computational Methods for Tracking, Quantitative Assessment, and Visualization of C. elegans Locomotory Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Moy

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans provides a unique opportunity to interrogate the neural basis of behavior at single neuron resolution. In C. elegans, neural circuits that control behaviors can be formulated based on its complete neural connection map, and easily assessed by applying advanced genetic tools that allow for modulation in the activity of specific neurons. Importantly, C. elegans exhibits several elaborate behaviors that can be empirically quantified and analyzed, thus providing a means to assess the contribution of specific neural circuits to behavioral output. Particularly, locomotory behavior can be recorded and analyzed with computational and mathematical tools. Here, we describe a robust single worm-tracking system, which is based on the open-source Python programming language, and an analysis system, which implements path-related algorithms. Our tracking system was designed to accommodate worms that explore a large area with frequent turns and reversals at high speeds. As a proof of principle, we used our tracker to record the movements of wild-type animals that were freshly removed from abundant bacterial food, and determined how wild-type animals change locomotory behavior over a long period of time. Consistent with previous findings, we observed that wild-type animals show a transition from area-restricted local search to global search over time. Intriguingly, we found that wild-type animals initially exhibit short, random movements interrupted by infrequent long trajectories. This movement pattern often coincides with local/global search behavior, and visually resembles Lévy flight search, a search behavior conserved across species. Our mathematical analysis showed that while most of the animals exhibited Brownian walks, approximately 20% of the animals exhibited Lévy flights, indicating that C. elegans can use Lévy flights for efficient food search. In summary, our tracker and analysis software will help analyze the

  5. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions (United States)

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  6. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol esters partitioning into, location within, and effect on DOPC liposome bilayer behavior. (United States)

    Evans, Kervin O; Laszlo, Joseph A; Compton, David L


    The phenols hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol made abundantly available through olive oil processing were enzymatically transesterified into effective lipophilic antioxidants with cuphea oil. The hydroxytyrosyl and tyrosyl esters made from cuphea oil were assessed for their ability to partition into, locate within and effect the bilayer behavior of 1,2-dioloeoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes and compared to their counterparts made from decanoic acid. Partitioning into liposomes was on the same scale for both hydroxytyrosyl derivatives and both tyrosyl derivatives. All were found to locate nearly at the same depth within the bilayer. Each was found to affect bilayer behavior in a distinct manner.

  7. A rapid murine coma and behavior scale for quantitative assessment of murine cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal model that more closely mimics the clinical features of human CM would be helpful in elucidating potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and evaluating new adjuvant therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative, rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS comprised of 10 parameters was developed to assess MCM manifested in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA. Using this method a single mouse can be completely assessed within 3 minutes. The RMCBS enables the operator to follow the evolution of the clinical syndrome, validated here by correlations with intracerebral hemorrhages. It provides a tool by which subjects can be identified as symptomatic prior to the initiation of trial treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since the RMCBS enables an operator to rapidly follow the course of disease, label a subject as affected or not, and correlate the level of illness with neuropathologic injury, it can ultimately be used to guide the initiation of treatment after the onset of cerebral disease (thus emulating the situation in the field. The RMCBS is a tool by which an adjuvant therapy can be objectively assessed.

  8. An Assessment of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Health Behaviors among College Students (United States)

    Pettit, Michele L.; Jacobs, Sue C.; Page, Kyle S.; Porras, Claudia V.


    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (i.e., recognizing, expressing, monitoring, managing, and reflecting on emotions) (Presbury, Echterling, & McKee, 2007) and self-reported health behaviors among college students. A convenience sample of 418 undergraduates completed online surveys…

  9. Early Identification of High-Ability Students: Clinical Assessment of Behavior (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Brown, Elissa F.


    This study investigated the ability of teachers to accurately rate the cognitive and academic functioning of 1,375 students in kindergarten through the third grade on the Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB), as compared to two objective cognitive ability tests. CAB teacher ratings were compared for high-ability students who were currently…

  10. Assessing the Developmental Neurotoxicity of 27 Organophosphorus Pesticides Using a Zebrafish Behavioral Assay (United States)

    Assessing the Developmental Neurotoxicity of 27 Organophosphorus Pesticides Using a Zebrafish Behavioral Assay, Waalkes, M., Hunter, D.L., Jarema, K., Mundy, W., and S. Padilla. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize organophosphor...

  11. Assessment and Treatment of Severe Behavior Problems Using Choice-Making Procedures. (United States)

    Harding, Jay W.; Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.; Barretto, Anjali; Rankin, Barbara


    Choice-making produces were used to identify response-reinforcer relations during assessment and treatment phases with two children (ages 4-6) with pervasive development disorders who displayed severe behavioral problems. Results were used to develop preliminary treatment packages in which access to positive reinforcement was contingent on…

  12. Problem behavior of individuals with down syndrome in a nationwide cohort assessed in late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M.; Fekkes, M.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Detmar, S.B.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Verkerk, P.H.


    OBJECTIVE: To assess problem behavior in adolescents with Down syndrome and examine the association with sex and severity of intellectual disability. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional data of a Dutch nationwide cohort of Down syndrome children aged 16-19 years were collected using a written parental que

  13. Self-assessed dental health, oral health practices, and general health behaviors in Chinese urban adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin


    The objectives of this study were: to describe perceived dental health status and oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in Chinese urban adolescents; to assess the associations of oral health variables with socio-economic status and school performance; and to analyse the relative...

  14. A Framework for Assessing Violent Behaviors in Elementary School-Age Children (United States)

    Bardick, Angela D.; Bernes, Kerry B.


    The importance of preventing and intervening in bullying and other forms of school violence has been well established. This has resulted in the publication of numerous programs designed to prevent bullying and violence in schools. However, a missing piece revolves around the social worker's role in identifying and assessing violent behaviors in…

  15. Improving Measures via Examining the Behavior of Distractors in Multiple-Choice Tests: Assessment and Remediation (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al Harbi, Khaleel


    The purpose of the present article was to illustrate, using an example from a national assessment, the value from analyzing the behavior of distractors in measures that engage the multiple-choice format. A secondary purpose of the present article was to illustrate four remedial actions that can potentially improve the measurement of the…

  16. Putting Functional Behavioral Assessment into Practice: A Conversation with Dr. Richard Van Acker. (United States)

    Bullock, Lyndal M.; Gable, Robert A.


    In this interview, Dr. Richard Van Acker discusses federal requirements for functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and the teamwork involved in conducting an FBA. Various components of FBAs and the approximate time required are outlined and examples are provided of structured data collection for use in the FBA. (CR)

  17. Exploring Dynamical Assessments of Affect, Behavior, and Cognition and Math State Test Achievement (United States)

    San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Z.; Snow, Erica L.; Baker, Ryan S.; McNamara, Danielle S.; Heffernan, Neil T.


    There is increasing evidence that fine-grained aspects of student performance and interaction within educational software are predictive of long-term learning. Machine learning models have been used to provide assessments of affect, behavior, and cognition based on analyses of system log data, estimating the probability of a student's particular…

  18. Comprehensive assessment of depression and behavioral problems in long-term care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.


    BACKGROUND: The IPA Taskforce on Mental Health Issues in Long-Term Care Homes seeks to improve mental health care in long-term care (LTC) homes. The aim of this paper is to provide recommendations on comprehensive assessment of depression and behavioral problems in order to further stimulate countri

  19. Comprehensive assessment of depression and behavioral problems in long-term care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Zuidema, Sytse U; Leontjevas, Roeslan; Gerritsen, Debby L


    BACKGROUND: The IPA Taskforce on Mental Health Issues in Long-Term Care Homes seeks to improve mental health care in long-term care (LTC) homes. The aim of this paper is to provide recommendations on comprehensive assessment of depression and behavioral problems in order to further stimulate countri

  20. Writing and Reading Skills as Assessed by Teachers in 7-Year Olds: A Behavioral Genetic Approach (United States)

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert


    A behavioral genetic analysis of general writing ability was conducted using teacher assessments based on UK National Curriculum criteria for a sample of 3296 same-sex pairs of 7-year-old twins. Writing was highly heritable within the normal range (0.66) and at the low extreme (0.70). Environmental influences were almost all non-shared, with…

  1. Use of Analog Functional Analysis in Assessing the Function of Mealtime Behavior Problems. (United States)

    Girolami, Peter A.; Scotti, Joseph R.


    This study applied the methodology of an analog experimental (functional) analysis of behavior to the specific interaction between parents and three children with mental retardation exhibiting food refusal and related mealtime problems. Analog results were highly consistent with other forms of functional assessment data, including interviews,…

  2. Semantic Assessment of Shopping Behavior Using Trajectories, Shopping Related Actions, and Context Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Shan, C.; Gritti, T.; Wiggers, P.


    The possibility of automatic understanding of customers' shopping behavior and acting according to their needs is relevant in the marketing domain, attracting a lot of attention lately. In this work, we focus on the task of automatic assessment of customers' shoppingbehavior, by proposing a multi- l

  3. Retrospective Assessment of Behavioral Inhibition in Infants and Toddlers: Development of a Parent Report Questionnaire (United States)

    Gensthaler, A.; Mohler, E.; Resch, F.; Paulus, F.; Schwenck, C.; Freitag, C. M.; Goth, K.


    A behaviorally inhibited temperament in early childhood has been identified as a potential risk factor for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of our investigation was the development and evaluation of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the first retrospective parent report measure to assess behavioral…

  4. Peer Effects in Unethical Behavior: Standing or Reputation? (United States)


    Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1). Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2), suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker’s self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals’ behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3). PMID:25853716

  5. Peer effects in unethical behavior: standing or reputation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pascual-Ezama

    Full Text Available Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1. Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2, suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker's self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals' behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3.

  6. Peer effects in unethical behavior: standing or reputation? (United States)

    Pascual-Ezama, David; Dunfield, Derek; Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Prelec, Drazen


    Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1). Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2), suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker's self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals' behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3).

  7. Effects of switching behavior for the attraction on pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki


    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk i...

  8. Evaluation of a behavioral assessment tool for dogs relinquished to shelters. (United States)

    Duffy, Deborah L; Kruger, Katherine A; Serpell, James A


    The goal of the present study was to evaluate a shortened, 42-item version of the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ((S))) as a behavioral screening tool for dogs relinquished to animal shelters. In contrast to a previous finding, the current study found no consistent evidence that relinquishing owners gave unreliable or biased responses to the questionnaire depending on whether or not they believed that this information would be shared with shelter staff or used to evaluate dogs for adoption. Relinquishing owners' C-BARQ((S)) responses for items related to aggression and fear directed toward humans and other dogs correlated with independent subjective assessments of aggressiveness made by shelter staff (generalized linear mixed models, Pdogs, N=156 non-aggressive dogs). In addition, C-BARQ((S)) scores successfully discriminated between dogs based on their eventual outcomes (i.e., adoption or euthanasia; Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Pdogs for the presence of behavior problems.

  9. Stimulating cost effective behavior in hospitals. (United States)

    Neuhauser, D


    Types of influence on the delivery of medical care are divided into monetary and other. These incentives effect care at the system, hospital, care team, physician and patient levels. Selected examples, primarily from the USA, are discussed.

  10. Cumulative effects of road de-icing salt on amphibian behavior


    Denoël, Mathieu; Bichot, Marion; Ficetola, G. Francesco; Delcourt, Johann; Ylieff, Marc; Kestemont, Patrick; Poncin, Pascal


    Despite growing evidence of the detrimental effect of chemical substances on organisms, limited research has focused on changes in behavioral patterns, in part due to the difficulties to obtain detailed quantitative data. Recent developments in efficient computer-based video analyses have allowed testing pesticide effects on model species such as the zebrafish. However, these new techniques have not yet been applied to amphibians and directly to conservation issues, i.e. to assess toxicologic...

  11. Spanish Validation of the Problem Behaviors Assessment-Short (PBA-s) for Huntington's Disease. (United States)

    Ruiz-Idiago, Jesús M; Floriach, Misericordia; Mareca, Cèlia; Salvador, Raymond; López-Sendón, José Luis; Mañanés, Verónica; Cubo, Esther; Mariscal, Natividad; Muñoz, Esteban; Santacruz, Pilar; Noguera, María F; Vivancos, Laura; Roy, Pedro; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Sarró, Salvador


    A prospective, observational multicenter study was carried out assessing neuropsychiatric symptoms in a sample of 117 subjects in order to validate the Spanish version of the Problem Behaviors Assessment-Short (PBA-s). The psychometric properties of this version were analyzed. Inter- and intra-rater reliability were good: the mean weighted Cohen's kappa was 0.90 for severity scores and 0.93 for frequency scores. Four factors accounting for 56% of the total variance were identified after an exploratory factor analysis: apathy, irritability, depression, and perseveration. The PBA-s correlates strongly with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, demonstrating its accuracy for assessing neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Huntington's disease.

  12. Energy Effectiveness Assessment of Composting Technologies


    Plūme, I.


    The incorrect biomass composting improperly results in considerable emission of greenhouse gases, loss of effluent and composting heat into environment. The composting heat and gases utilisation is especially suitable for plant enrichment and heating of greenhouses. The mathematical model is worked out for assessment of energy effectiveness and sustainability of biomass composting process. Coefficient of energy effectiveness for traditional litter manure composting technologies is 0.45 and ca...

  13. The effects of fixed-time reinforcement schedules on problem behavior of children with emotional and behavioral disorders in a day-treatment classroom setting. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Karina; O'Neill, Robert E


    The current study assessed the effects of fixed-time reinforcement schedules on problem behavior of students with emotional-behavioral disorders in a clinical day-treatment classroom setting. Three elementary-aged students with a variety of emotional and behavioral problems participated in the study. Initial functional assessments indicated that social attention was the maintaining reinforcer for their verbally disruptive behavior. Baseline phases were alternated with phases in which attention was provided on fixed-time schedules in the context of an ABAB design. The results indicated that the provision of attention on fixed-time schedules substantially reduced the participants' rate of verbal disruptions. These decreases were maintained during initial thinning of the schedules. The results provide one of the first examples that such an intervention can be successfully implemented in a classroom setting.

  14. Effects of rubberized flooring on Asian elephant behavior in captivity. (United States)

    Meller, Camie L; Croney, Candace C; Shepherdson, David


    Six Asian elephants at the Oregon Zoo were observed to determine the effects of a poured rubber flooring substrate on captive Asian elephant behavior. Room utilization also was evaluated in seven rooms used for indoor housing, including Front and Back observation areas. Data were collected in three phases. Phase I (Baseline Phase) examined elephant behavior on old concrete floors. In Phase II (Choice Phase), elephant behavior was observed in the Back observation area where room sizes were comparable and when a choice of flooring substrates was available. Phase III (Final Phase) examined elephant behavior when all rooms in both observation areas, Front and Back, were converted to rubberized flooring. Room use in both observation areas remained stable throughout the study, suggesting that flooring substrate did not affect room use choice. However, there was a clear pattern of decreased discomfort behaviors on the new rubber flooring. Normal locomotion as well as stereotypic locomotion increased on the new rubber flooring. In addition, resting behavior changed to more closely reflect the resting behavior of wild elephants, which typically sleep standing up, and spend very little time in lateral recumbence. Overall, these findings suggest that the rubber flooring may have provided a more comfortable surface for locomotion as well as standing resting behavior. It is suggested that poured rubber flooring may be a beneficial addition to similar animal facilities. Zoo Biol 0:1-11, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. 有机磷农药乐果对萼花臂尾轮虫游泳行为的影响%Behavioral Bioassay of Brachionus calyciflorus(rotifer)for Toxic Effect Assessment of Dimethoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞昕; 王志良; 李国平; 陈建秋


    Toxic stress of dimethoate on freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus was evaluated,using swimming behaviors alteration as sub-lethal endpoint.Alteration of swimming behaviors was examined firstly when the rotifer was exposed under 5 dimethoate concentrations after 6h.The imbalance of swimming direction and inhibition on swimming speed of toxic stress was observed clearly.Alterations of swimming behavior under toxic stress were analyzed and classified into 3 aspects such as swimming direction change,swimming angle change and swimming speed change using principal component analysis.Toxicity test results indicated that the disruption of dimethoate on swimming behavior was high concentration dependent,which is the first study about the mode of dimethoate on different aspects of swimming behavior of rotifer.%以游泳行为变化情况为指标,考察了有机磷农药乐果对淡水种萼花臂尾轮虫(Brachionus calyciflorus)的毒性作用.测定了暴露在5个不同质量浓度乐果作用6小时后轮虫游泳行为的变化情况.可以观察到轮虫的游泳方向的平衡性被破坏,游泳角速度与线速度受到显著地抑制.采用主成分分析方法(PCA)分析了在乐果的作用下轮虫游泳行为的变化情况.结果显示游泳平衡性失衡,旋转角度变小,位移速率变慢.暴露6h后,0.2 mg/L质量浓度组轮虫游泳位移速率变慢最为明显,而在1.0,1.4和1.8 mg/L质量浓度组轮虫游泳平衡性失衡最为明显,结果表明轮虫游泳行为的变化情况与乐果的质量浓度高度相关.木研究方法与内容在国内外尚属首次报道.

  16. Influenza knowledge, attitude, and behavior survey for grade school students: design and novel assessment methodology. (United States)

    Koep, Tyler H; Huskins, W Charles; Clemens, Christal; Jenkins, Sarah; Pierret, Chris; Ekker, Stephen C; Enders, Felicity T


    Despite the fact infectious diseases can spread readily in grade schools, few studies have explored prevention in this setting. Additionally, we lack valid tools for students to self-report knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. As part of an ongoing study of a curriculum intervention to promote healthy behaviors, we developed and evaluated age-appropriate surveys to determine students' understanding of influenza prevention. Surveys were adapted from adolescent and adult influenza surveys and administered to students in grades 2-5 (ages 7-11) at two Rochester public schools. We assessed student understanding by analyzing percent repeatability of 20 survey questions and compared percent "don't know" (DK) responses across grades, gender, and race. Questions thought to be ambiguous after early survey administration were investigated in student focus groups, modified as appropriate, and reassessed. The response rate across all surveys was >87%. Survey questions were well understood; 16 of 20 questions demonstrated strong pre/post repeatability (>70%). Only 1 question showed an increase in DK response for higher grades (p survey questions and improved measures of understanding in the final survey administration. Grade-school students' knowledge, attitudes and behavior toward influenza prevention can be assessed using surveys. Quantitative and qualitative analysis may be used to assess participant understanding and refine survey development for pediatric survey instruments. These methods may be used to assess the repeatability and validity of surveys to assess the impact of health education interventions in young children.

  17. Studies on effect of stress preconditioning in restrain stress-induced behavioral alterations. (United States)

    Kaur, Rajneet; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal


    Stress preconditioning has been documented to confer on gastroprotective effects on stress-induced gastric ulcerations. However, the effects of prior exposure of stress preconditioning episodes on stress-induced behavioral changes have not been explored yet. Therefore the present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of stress preconditioning in immobilization stress-induced behavioral alterations in rats. The rats were subjected to restrain stress by placing in restrainer (5.5 cm in diameter and 18 cm in length) for 3.5 h. Stress preconditioning was induced by subjecting the rats to two cycles of restraint and restrain-free periods of 15 min each. Furthermore, a similar type of stress preconditioning was induced using different time cycles of 30 and 45 min. The extent and severity of the stress-induced behavioral alterations were assessed using different behavioral tests such as hole-board test, social interaction test, open field test, and actophotometer. Restrain stress resulted in decrease in locomotor activity, frequency of head dips and rearing in hole board, line crossing and rearing in open field, and decreased following and increased avoidance in social interaction test. Stress preconditioning with two cycles of 15, 30 or 45 min respectively, did not attenuate stress-induced behavioral changes to any extent. It may be concluded that stress preconditioning does not seem to confer any protective effect in modulating restrain stress-induced behavioral alterations.

  18. Effective viscoelastic behavior of particulate polymer composites at finite concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dan; HU Geng-kai


    Polymeric materials usually present some viscoelastic behavior. To improve the mechanical behavior of these materials, ceramics materials are often filled into the polymeric materials in form of fiber or particle. A micromechanical model was proposed to estimate the overall viscoelastic behavior for particulate polymer composites, especially for high volume concentration of filled particles. The method is based on Laplace transform technique and an elastic model including two-particle interaction. The effective creep compliance and the stress and strainrelation at a constant loading rate are analyzed. The results show that the proposed method predicts a significant stiffer response than those based on Mori-Tanaka's method at high volume concentration of particles.

  19. Effect of Teaching Behavior on Study Motivation in Generative Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉梅; 薛小莹


    Teaching behavior plays a vital role in students’study and has a great effect on their academic achievement.Study moti-vation is one of key essentials for students to focus themselves on their study. As a teacher,how to arouse students ’motivation and inspire students to study actively is a critical teaching behavior.How to change default teaching into generative teaching is al-so one of necessary teaching behaviors in English teaching.This paper will illustrate what measures should be taken and what prin-ciples should be followed in generative teaching.

  20. Application of dotmocracy technique in assessment and management of unsafe behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Introduction: Industrial accident is one of the most minatory elements for worker’s health, productivity and organizational performance. Unsafe behavior is the main reason associated with occurrence of accidents. The main goal of this study was application of participatory techniques to achieve control measures of these behaviors. .Material and Method: Using safety behavior sampling technique in this study, behaviors of staffs were evaluated and then the most risky behaviors were determined by paired comparison method. By application of participatory approach of dotmocracy in six steps, controlling ideas were derived by participation of operators, supervisors, engineers, HSE team and managers. .Result: 48.8% of the behaviors were unsafe. Misuse or notusing of the personal protective equipments with 63.4% was the most frequent unsafe behavior. Awkward postures, aggregation or passing under suspended loads were also followed by the unsafe behaviors. By application of participatory approach of dotmocracy, several applicable ideas in personal protective equipment, education, reinforcementand punishment, aggregation or passing under suspended loads and other ideas were achieved. . Conclusion: Dotmocracy participatory technique is an effective way to achieve various practical solutions in control of worker’s unsafe behaviors.

  1. Effects of tootling on classwide disruptive and appropriate behavior of upper-elementary students. (United States)

    Lambert, Abigail M; Tingstrom, Daniel H; Sterling, Heather E; Dufrene, Brad A; Lynne, Shauna


    The current study assessed the effects of a positive peer reporting procedure known as Tootling on classwide disruptive as well as appropriate behavior with fourth- and fifth-grade students and their teachers in two regular education classrooms. Tootling is a technique that teaches students to recognize and report peers' prosocial behavior rather than inappropriate behavior (i.e., as in tattling), and is also a variation on the expression, "tooting your own horn." Tootling combined with an interdependent group contingency and publicly posted feedback were assessed using an ABAB withdrawal design with a multiple baseline element across classrooms. Results demonstrated decreases in classwide disruptive behavior as well as increases in appropriate behavior compared with baseline and withdrawal phases across both classrooms, with results maintained at follow-up. Tootling was also rated highly acceptable by both teachers. Effect size calculations reflected moderate to strong effects across all comparisons. Limitations of the present study, directions for future research, and implications for practice are discussed.

  2. Effects of logging on orangutan behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardus, M.E.; Lameira, A.R.; Menken, S.B.J.; Wich, S.A.


    The human footprint is increasing across the world’s natural habitats, causing large negative impacts on the survival of many species. In order to successfully mitigate the negative effects on species’ survival, it is crucial to understand their responses to human-induced changes. This paper examine

  3. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using bibliographic information to assess pet suitability of mammal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eKoene


    Full Text Available Which mammal species are suitable to be kept as pet? For answering this question many factors have to be considered. Animals have many adaptations to their natural environment in which they have evolved that may cause adaptation problems and/or risks in captivity. Problems may be visible in behavior, welfare, health and/or human-animal interaction, resulting for example in stereotypies, disease and fear. A framework is developed in which bibliographic information of mammal species from the wild and captive environment is collected and assessed by three teams of animal scientists. Oneliners from literature about behavioral ecology, health, and welfare and human-animal relationship (HAR of 90 mammal species are collected by team 1 in a database and strength of behavioral needs and risks is assessed by team 2. Based on summaries of those strengths the suitability of the mammal species is assessed by team 3. Involvement of stakeholders for supplying bibliographic information and assessments was propagated. Combining the individual and subjective assessments of the scientists using statistical methods makes the final assessment of a rank order of suitability as pet of those species less biased and more objective. The framework is dynamic and produces an initial rank ordered list of the pet suitability of 90 mammal species, methods to add new mammal species to the list or remove animals from the list and a method to incorporate stakeholder assessments. A model is developed that allows for provisional classification of pet suitability. Periodical update of the pet suitability framework is expected to produce an updated list with increased reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, the framework could be further developed to assess the pet suitability of additional species of other animal groups, e.g. birds, reptiles and amphibians.

  4. The effects of music sound levels on restaurant customer's behavior


    Geerdes, Margaret


    Restaurant attributes influence the perceptions and behaviors of restaurant customers. Among these attributes are music and its sound level. Sound level has been known to affect people's behaviors and judgments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music sound level on customers in a restaurant, specifically, where they sit and how long they stay. The study took place in a restaurant where customers seat themselves and music sound levels vary across ta...

  5. Maternal effects in quail and zebra finches: Behavior and hormones. (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Sunayana B; Correa, Stephanie M; Schweitzer, Cécile


    Maternal effects are influences of parents on offspring phenotype occurring through pathways other than inherited DNA. In birds, two important routes for such transmission are parental behavior and non-DNA egg constituents such as yolk hormones. Offspring traits subject to parental effects include behavior and endocrine function. Research from the Adkins-Regan lab has used three avian species to investigate maternal effects related to hormones and behavior. Experiments with chickens and Japanese quail have shown that maternal sex steroids can influence sex determination to produce biased offspring sex ratios. Because all birds have a ZZ/ZW chromosomal sex determining system in which the female parent determines the sex of the offspring, these results raise the possibility that maternal steroids can influence the outcome of sex chromosome meiosis. Learning has been shown to influence egg investment by female quail in ways that are likely to alter offspring phenotype. In quail, embryonic and exogenous sex steroids have well established and long-lasting effects on sexual differentiation of behavior during a critical period in ovo, but elevated yolk testosterone has long-term effects on behavior that do not seem to be occurring through an alteration in sexual differentiation. In biparental zebra finches, removal of mothers alters not only later behavior, but also the adult response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to an environmental stressor, as indicated by plasma corticosterone. Birds raised only by fathers have lower levels of mRNA for both glucocorticoid receptors in several brain regions as adults. These studies add to the evidence that one generation influences the behavioral or endocrine phenotype of the next through routes other than transmission of DNA. Additional research will be required to understand the adaptive significance of these effects.

  6. Preschool Temperament Assessment: A Quantitative Assessment of the Validity of Behavioral Style Questionnaire Data (United States)

    Huelsman, Timothy J.; Gagnon, Sandra Glover; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela; Griggs, Marissa Swaim


    Research Findings: Child temperament is an important construct, but its measurement has been marked by a number of weaknesses that have diminished the frequency with which it is assessed in practice. We address this problem by presenting the results of a quantitative construct validation study. We calculated validity indices by hypothesizing the…

  7. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids. (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  8. Effects of Infantile Repeated Hyperglycemia on Behavioral Alterations in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Moghadami


    Full Text Available Anxiety symptoms have been reported to be present in many patients with diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about the effects of hyperglycemia in critical periods of the central nervous system development. We assessed locomotive, exploratory, and anxiety behaviors in adult rats that remained from infantile repeated hyperglycemia by the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Our findings showed significant hypo activity, reduced locomotive/exploratory activities, increased fear related behaviors, and anxiety state between hyperglycemic and control adult males and the same differences were observed among females. In addition, no significant behavioral alterations between male and female animals were observed. This study determined that repeated increments in daily blood sugar levels in newborns may affect neuronal functions and provide behavioral abnormalities in adults.

  9. Use of the Exponential and Exponentiated Demand Equations to Assess the Behavioral Economics of Negative Reinforcement. (United States)

    Fragale, Jennifer E C; Beck, Kevin D; Pang, Kevin C H


    Abnormal motivation and hedonic assessment of aversive stimuli are symptoms of anxiety and depression. Symptoms influenced by motivation and anhedonia predict treatment success or resistance. Therefore, a translational approach to the study of negatively motivated behaviors is needed. We describe a novel use of behavioral economics demand curve analysis to investigate negative reinforcement in animals that separates hedonic assessment of footshock termination (i.e., relief) from motivation to escape footshock. In outbred Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, relief increased as shock intensity increased. Likewise, motivation to escape footshock increased as shock intensity increased. To demonstrate the applicability to anxiety disorders, hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement were investigated in anxiety vulnerable Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. WKY rats demonstrated increased motivation for shock cessation with no difference in relief as compared to control SD rats, consistent with a negative bias for motivation in anxiety vulnerability. Moreover, motivation was positively correlated with relief in SD, but not in WKY. This study is the first to assess the hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement using behavioral economic analysis. This procedure can be used to investigate positive and negative reinforcement in humans and animals to gain a better understanding of the importance of motivated behavior in stress-related disorders.

  10. Combining neural and behavioral indicators in the assessment of internalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. (United States)

    Moser, Jason S; Durbin, C Emily; Patrick, Christopher J; Schmidt, Norman B


    Anxiety and mood disorders are among the most prevalent mental health problems affecting our youth. We propose that assessment and treatment efforts in this area can benefit from a focus on developmentally sensitive neurobehavioral trait constructs, that is, individual difference constructs with direct referents in both neurobiology and behavior across the lifespan. This approach dovetails with the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria initiative, which aims to improve classification and treatment of psychopathology by delineating dimensions of functioning that transcend measurement domains and traditional diagnostic categories. We highlight two neurobehavioral dimensions with clear relevance for understanding internalizing problems at differing ages: (a) defensive reactivity and (b) cognitive control. Individual differences in defensive reactivity are posited to reflect variations in sensitivity of the brain's negative valence systems, whereas differences in cognitive control are theorized to reflect variations in neural systems dedicated to regulating behavior and affect. Focusing on these target constructs, we illustrate a psychoneurometric approach to assessment of internalizing psychopathology entailing use of neural, self-report, and behavioral indicators. We address the feasibility of the psychoneurometric approach for clinical application and present results from a pilot study demonstrating expected associations for neural, parent-report, and behavioral measures of defensive reactivity and cognitive control with internalizing symptoms in preschoolers. Together, our conceptual and empirical analyses highlight the promise of multimethod, dimensional assessment of internalizing psychopathology in the lab and in the clinic.

  11. Use of the Exponential and Exponentiated Demand Equations to Assess the Behavioral Economics of Negative Reinforcement (United States)

    Fragale, Jennifer E. C.; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C. H.


    Abnormal motivation and hedonic assessment of aversive stimuli are symptoms of anxiety and depression. Symptoms influenced by motivation and anhedonia predict treatment success or resistance. Therefore, a translational approach to the study of negatively motivated behaviors is needed. We describe a novel use of behavioral economics demand curve analysis to investigate negative reinforcement in animals that separates hedonic assessment of footshock termination (i.e., relief) from motivation to escape footshock. In outbred Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, relief increased as shock intensity increased. Likewise, motivation to escape footshock increased as shock intensity increased. To demonstrate the applicability to anxiety disorders, hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement were investigated in anxiety vulnerable Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. WKY rats demonstrated increased motivation for shock cessation with no difference in relief as compared to control SD rats, consistent with a negative bias for motivation in anxiety vulnerability. Moreover, motivation was positively correlated with relief in SD, but not in WKY. This study is the first to assess the hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement using behavioral economic analysis. This procedure can be used to investigate positive and negative reinforcement in humans and animals to gain a better understanding of the importance of motivated behavior in stress-related disorders. PMID:28270744

  12. Multi-item direct behavior ratings: Dependability of two levels of assessment specificity. (United States)

    Volpe, Robert J; Briesch, Amy M


    Direct Behavior Rating-Multi-Item Scales (DBR-MIS) have been developed as formative measures of behavioral assessment for use in school-based problem-solving models. Initial research has examined the dependability of composite scores generated by summing all items comprising the scales. However, it has been argued that DBR-MIS may offer assessment of 2 levels of behavioral specificity (i.e., item-level, global composite-level). Further, it has been argued that scales can be individualized for each student to improve efficiency without sacrificing technical characteristics. The current study examines the dependability of 5 items comprising a DBR-MIS designed to measure classroom disruptive behavior. A series of generalizability theory and decision studies were conducted to examine the dependability of each item (calls out, noisy, clowns around, talks to classmates and out of seat), as well as a 3-item composite that was individualized for each student. Seven graduate students rated the behavior of 9 middle-school students on each item over 3 occasions. Ratings were based on 10-min video clips of students during mathematics instruction. Separate generalizability and decision studies were conducted for each item and for a 3-item composite that was individualized for each student based on the highest rated items on the first rating occasion. Findings indicate favorable dependability estimates for 3 of the 5 items and exceptional dependability estimates for the individualized composite.

  13. Affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events: the moderating effect of religiosity on avoidance behavior among students studying under a high level of terror event exposure. (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Zukerman, Gil


    The goals of this study were to examine the development of affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events among Israeli students studying under a high level of terror event exposure and to assess the effects of religiosity on those changes development. A questionnaire was administered to 770 students in the Ariel University Center in Judea and Samaria. Higher levels of terror exposure were associated with higher levels of avoidance behavior, subjective feelings of insecurity, and emotional distress. Higher religiosity moderated avoidance behavior, even when controlling for the level of objective exposure to terror events exposure, but had no influence on subjective sense of insecurity, or the level of emotional distress. These findings suggest that religiosity moderates behavioral changes development after traumatic event exposure mainly by reducing avoidance behavior.

  14. Intergenerational Continuity in Parenting Behavior: Mediating Pathways and Child Effects


    Neppl, Tricia K.; Conger, Rand D.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ontai, Lenna L.


    This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined mechanisms proposed to explain continuities in parenting behavior across two generations (G1, G2). Data came from 187 G2 adults, their mothers (G1), and their children (G3). Prospective information regarding G2 was collected both during adolescence and early adulthood. G1 data were collected during G2’s adolescence and G3 data were generated during the preschool years. Assessments included both observational and self-report measures. The r...

  15. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Correlation of brain MRI findings with behavioral assessment. (United States)

    Roshan Lal, Tamanna R; Kliewer, Mark A; Lopes, Thelma; Rebsamen, Susan L; O'Connor, Julia; Grados, Marco A; Kimball, Amy; Clemens, Julia; Kline, Antonie D


    Neurobehavioral and developmental issues with a broad range of deficits are prominent features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder due to disruption of the cohesin protein complex. The etiologic relationship of these clinical findings to anatomic abnormalities on neuro-imaging studies has not, however, been established. Anatomic abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system specific to CdLS have been observed, including changes in the white matter, brainstem, and cerebellum. We hypothesize that location and severity of brain abnormalities correlate with clinical phenotype in CdLS, as seen in other developmental disorders. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated brain MRI studies of 15 individuals with CdLS and compared these findings to behavior at the time of the scan. Behavior was assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), a validated behavioral assessment tool with several clinical features. Ten of fifteen (67%) of CdLS patients had abnormal findings on brain MRI, including cerebral atrophy, white matter changes, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enlarged ventricles. Other findings included pituitary tumors or cysts, Chiari I malformation and gliosis. Abnormal behavioral scores in more than one behavioral area were seen in all but one patient. All 5 of the 15 (33%) patients with normal structural MRI studies had abnormal ABC scores. All normal ABC scores were noted in only one patient and this was correlated with moderately abnormal MRI changes. Although our cohort is small, our results suggest that abnormal behaviors can exist in individuals with CdLS in the setting of relatively normal structural brain findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh


    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  17. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects. (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W


    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill).

  18. The effects of emotional intelligence on counterproductive work behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Emami


    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of emotional intelligence on counterproductive work behavior. The study uses a questionnaire for measuring the effects of emotional intelligence, which consists of four components including self-awareness, self-control, self-motivation and empathy. In addition, the study uses another questionnaire to measure the effects of counterproductive work behavior. The study has accomplished among full time employees who work for Industrial Projects Management of Iran (IPMI, as a general contractor, undertakes EPC projects in field of oil, gas and petrochemical industries in Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined a negative and meaningful relationship between various components of emotional intelligence and counterproductive work behavior.

  19. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics. (United States)

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki


    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.

  20. Assessment of neonatal nurses' behaviors that prevent overstimulation in preterm infants. (United States)

    Aita, Marilyn; Goulet, Céline


    This study assessed the adoption by neonatal nurses of behaviors that prevent visual, auditory, and tactile overstimulations in preterm infants, as well as the intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms related to the adoption of these behaviors. The convenience sample consisted of 54 neonatal nurses working in three Montreal region teaching hospitals. A multiple-choice questionnaire, composed on the basis of a review of the literature and the Theory of Reasoned Action, was used for data collection. The results revealed that the nurses often adopted behaviors that prevented tactile overstimulation, and that their intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms all favored the adoption of such behaviors. However, more than the half of the nurses did not frequently adopt behaviors that prevent visual and auditory overstimulations, nor did their intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms favor the adoption of these behaviors. Findings suggest that neonatal nurses lack specific knowledge in this area and that they would benefit from the completion of an evidence-based educational program on the prevention of overstimulation of preterm infants prior to their employment in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

  1. Beliefs and environmental behavior: the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. (United States)

    Aguilar-Luzón, Maria Carmen; Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Salinas, Jose Maria


    Recent decades have seen a proliferation of studies aiming to explain how pro-environmental behavior is shaped by attitudes, values and beliefs. In this study, we have included an aspect in our analysis that has been rarely touched upon until now, that is, the intelligent use of emotions as a possible component of pro-environmental behavior. We applied the Trait Meta Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) and the New Environmental Paradigm scale to a sample of 184 male and female undergraduate students. We also carried out correlation and hierarchical regression analyses of blocks. The results show the interaction effects of the system of environmental beliefs and the dimensions of emotional intelligence on glass recycling attitudes, intentions and behavior. The results are discussed from the perspective of research on how the management of emotions guides thought and behavior.

  2. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior. (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J


    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare.

  3. The Melatonin Receptor Agonist Ramelteon Effectively Treats Insomnia and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kawabe


    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  4. The melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon effectively treats insomnia and behavioral symptoms in autistic disorder. (United States)

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi


    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  5. Effects Based Assessment Support System (EBASS) (United States)


    Group, usually attended by the Director of the CJFT Staff, BG Byron Bagby or by the Commanding General, LTG John Vines . Each week, the presiding general...Army works hard to improve the reliability and timeliness of Battle Damage Assessment (BDA) to ensure the effectiveness of their operations to... Frost , B. (2000). Measuring Performance: Using the New Metrics to Deploy Strategy and Improve Performance. Dallas, TX: Measurement International

  6. Evaluating the effectiveness of impact assessment instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Hilding-Ryedvik, Tuija


    in Western countries, demand has increased for evidence that these instruments are effective (however defined). Resurgent interest in evaluation has not, however, been accompanied by the conceptual developments required to redress longstanding theoretical problems associated with such activities. In order......The central role of impact assessment instruments globally in policy integration initiatives has been cemented in recent years. Associated with this trend, but also reflecting political emphasis on greater accountability in certain policy sectors and a renewed focus on economic competitiveness...

  7. Pressure effects on dynamics behavior of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebian, Taha [Faculty of Engineering, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The dynamic behavior of Multiwall boron nitride nanotubes (MWBNNTs) is investigated by employing multiple elastic shells model. The influences of van der Waals interactions on layers are shown as nonlinear functions of the interlayer distance of MWBNNTs. Governing equations are solved by using the developed finite element method and by employing time history diagrams. The radial wave speed from the outermost layer to the innermost layer is computed. The effects of geometrical factors such as diameter-to-thickness ratio on dynamic behavior of MWBNNTs are determined. The magnification aspects of MWBNNTs are computed, and the effects of surrounding pressures on wave speed and magnification aspect of MWBNNTs are discussed.

  8. Combined Norepinephrine / Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibition: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Aggression and Oxytocin in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Thomas Cox


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior, although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent maternal behavior in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on maternal behavior, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days one and six respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day seven. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease maternal behavior and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. RESULTS: Amitriptyline and desiprimine differentially reduced maternal behavior, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in

  9. Effects of Nicotine on the Neurophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Ketamine in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Mathalon


    Full Text Available Background: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its associated neurocognitive impairments. The high rate of cigarette smoking in schizophrenia raises questions about how nicotine modulates putative NMDA receptor hypofunction in the illness. Accordingly, we examined the modulatory effects of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR stimulation on NMDA receptor hypofunction by examining the interactive effects of nicotine, a nAChR agonist, and ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on behavioral and neurophysiological measures in healthy human volunteers.Methods: From an initial sample of 17 subjects (age range 18 - 55 years, 8 subjects successfully completed 4 test sessions, each separated by at least 3 days, during which they received ketamine or placebo and two injections of nicotine or placebo in a double-blind, counterbalanced manner. Schizophrenia-like effects (PANSS, perceptual alterations (CADSS, subjective effects (VAS and auditory event-related brain potentials (mismatch negativity, P300 were assessed during each test session.Results: Consistent with existing studies, ketamine induced transient schizophrenia-like behavioral effects. P300 was reduced and delayed by ketamine regardless of whether it was elicited by a target or novel stimulus, while nicotine only reduced the amplitude of P3a. Nicotine did not rescue P300 from the effects of ketamine; the interactions of ketamine and nicotine were not significant. While nicotine significantly reduced MMN amplitude, ketamine did not. Conclusion: Nicotine failed to modulate ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like effects in this preliminary study. Interestingly, ketamine reduced P3b amplitude and nicotine reduced P3a amplitude, suggesting independent roles of NMDA receptor and nAChR in the generation of P3b and P3a, respectively.

  10. Attitude ambivalence, social norms, and behavioral intentions: Developing effective antitobacco persuasive communications. (United States)

    Hohman, Zachary P; Crano, William D; Niedbala, Elizabeth M


    This study assessed the moderating effects of attitude ambivalence on the relationship between social norms, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use tobacco. It was predicted that people would use social norms to reduce attitude ambivalence, and that reduced ambivalence would lead to changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions. To test this hypothesis, participants (N = 152) were exposed to persuasive communications designed to influence attitude ambivalence and perceived social norms regarding tobacco use. Analysis indicated that providing a social norm antagonistic to tobacco use significantly reduced ambivalence among participants reading the ambivalence message (p attitudes from pre- to postpersuasive communications demonstrated a significant decrease in tobacco attitudes only for participants reading the ambivalence message who were provided with the antitobacco use norm (p attitudes toward tobacco. These results point to the important role of social norms in mediating the effects of attitude ambivalence on subsequent behavior in preventative programs targeting tobacco use.

  11. Assessing Students' Understanding of Human Behavior: A Multidisciplinary Outcomes Based Approach for the Design and Assessment of an Academic Program Goal. (United States)

    Keith, Bruce; Meese, Michael J.; Efflandt, Scott; Malinowski, Jon C.; LeBoeuf, Joseph; Gallagher, Martha; Hurley, John; Green, Charles


    Presents a strategy for the curricular design and assessment of one multidisciplinary program goal: understanding human behavior. Discusses how to assess a desired outcome based on four specific areas: (1) organizational context; (2) articulation of a learning model; (3) program design and implementation; and (4) outcomes assessment. (Author/KDR)

  12. Analysis of the Effect of Customer Citizenship Behavior on Repurchase Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Grillo


    Full Text Available In the present paper, customer citizenship behavior (CCB is assessed as a manifestation of value co-creation in the costumer-organization relations. Considering the extant marketing literature proposition that postulates that value co-creation, in the long run, is translated to the organization into customer purchase and repurchase behavior, as explained by the relation between value-in-use and value-in-exchange, this article aims to analyze the effect of CCB upon repurchase intention. In order to conduct such analysis, the CCB scale developed by Yi and Gong (2013 was adapted to the Brazilian context. The assessments of the adapted scale and of the relation between CCB and repurchase intention were conducted with structural equation modeling. Results indicate a lack of consistency of one of the CCB dimensions proposed by Yi and Gong (2013 and suggest that CCB is a determinant that presents an expressive effect upon repurchase intention.

  13. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior (United States)

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R.; Worden, Lee; Dushoff, Jonathan


    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors’ behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually the square lattice), and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously by picking a random individual and we either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in the case of finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of this manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing-rate effects, which have qualitatively similar effects. Both of these effects increase the tendency of the system to move from a less-desired equilibrium to the “ground state.” Our findings can be used to probe shifts in behavioral norms and have implications for the role of information flow in determining when social norms that have become unpopular in particular communities (such as foot binding or female genital cutting) persist or vanish.

  14. The effects of proton exposure on neurochemistry and behavior (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Szprengiel, A.; Pluhar, J.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.


    Future space missions will involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, where astronauts will be exposed to radiation hazards such as those that arise from galactic cosmic rays. Galactic cosmic rays are composed of protons, α particles, and particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles). Research by our group has shown that exposure to HZE particles, primarily 600 MeV/n and 1 GeV/n 56Fe, can produce significant alterations in brain neurochemistry and behavior. However, given that protons can make up a significant portion of the radiation spectrum, it is important to study their effects on neural functioning and on related performance. Therefore, these studies examined the effects of exposure to proton irradiation on neurochemical and behavioral endpoints, including dopaminergic functioning, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, and spatial learning and memory as measured by the Morris water maze. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a dose of 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 4.0 Gy of 250 MeV protons at Loma Linda University and were tested in the different behavioral tests at various times following exposure. Results showed that there was no effect of proton irradiation at any dose on any of the endpoints measured. Therefore, there is a contrast between the insignificant effects of high dose proton exposure and the dramatic effectiveness of low dose (<0.1 Gy) exposures to 56Fe particles on both neurochemical and behavioral endpoints.

  15. Effects of alternative responses on behavior exposed to noncontingent reinforcement. (United States)

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Iwata, Brian A; Fahmie, Tara A; Harper, Jill M


    Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) may decrease the frequency of behavior by either inducing satiation or terminating the response-reinforcer contingency (extinction). Another possibility is that the target behavior is replaced by other behaviors maintained by preexisting contingencies. We conducted 2 experiments in which we allowed access to a target response and several alternatives. In Experiment 1, NCR, preceded by contingent reinforcement (CR) for the target, produced a reduction in the target and an increase in the alternatives in 2 subjects with intellectual disabilities. To separate the effects of NCR from the availability of alternative responses, we presented CR conditions to 4 subjects in Experiment 2 with and without the availability of alternatives. The availability of alternatives decreased the target in only 1 subject. Subsequent manipulations showed that reductions in the target were solely a function of NCR for the other 3 subjects. Thus, response competition may have marginal effects on response suppression during NCR.

  16. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Dushoff, Jonathan


    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors' behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually, the square lattice) and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously either by picking a random individual and either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in case of a finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing...

  17. Assessing behavioral patterns of Internet addiction and drug abuse among high school students


    Nemati, Zeinab; Matlabi, Hossein


    Background Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. Methods A sectional and descriptive–analytical approach with str...

  18. Assessment of Human Bio-Behavior During Gait Process Using LifeMOD Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rogozea


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a set of observations concerning the
    analysis and assessment of human bio-behavior during gait process. In the first part of the paper the fundamental and theoretical considerations of the gait process are approached and aspects connected to malfunctions are expressed. In the second part of the paper we present the modeling methodology using
    the LifeMOD software, while in the third part the results and conclusions are presented.

  19. Validation of a Behavioral Ethogram for Assessing Postoperative Pain in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus). (United States)

    Dunbar, Misha L; David, Emily M; Aline, Marian R; Lofgren, Jennifer L


    Although guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have been used in research for more than a century and remain the most prevalent USDA-covered species, little has been elucidated regarding the recognition of clinical pain or analgesic efficacy in this species. We sought to assess pain in guinea pigs by using newer, clinically relevant methods that have been validated in other rodent species: the behavioral ethogram and cageside proxy indicator. In this study, 10 male guinea pigs underwent electronic von Frey testing of nociception, remote videorecording of behavior, and cageside assessment by using time-to-consumption (TTC) of a preferred treat test. These assessments were performed across 2 conditions (anesthesia only and castration surgery under anesthesia) at 3 time points (2, 8, and 24 h after the event). The anesthesia only condition served to control for the nonpainful but potentially distressing components of the surgical experience. Compared with those after anesthesia only conditions, subtle body movements were increased and nociceptive thresholds were decreased at 2 and 8 h after surgery. At 24 h, neither subtle body movement behaviors nor nociceptive thresholds differed between the 2 conditions. In contrast, TTC scores did not differ between the anesthesia only and surgery conditions at any time point, underscoring the challenge of identifying pain in this species through cageside evaluation. By comparing ethogram scores with measures of nociception, we validated select behaviors as pain-specific. Therefore, our novel ethogram allowed us to assess postoperative pain and may further serve as a platform for future analgesia efficacy studies in guinea pigs.

  20. Validation of a Behavioral Ethogram for Assessing Postoperative Pain in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)


    Dunbar, Misha L; David, Emily M; Aline, Marian R; Lofgren, Jennifer L.


    Although guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have been used in research for more than a century and remain the most prevalent USDA-covered species, little has been elucidated regarding the recognition of clinical pain or analgesic efficacy in this species. We sought to assess pain in guinea pigs by using newer, clinically relevant methods that have been validated in other rodent species: the behavioral ethogram and cageside proxy indicator. In this study, 10 male guinea pigs underwent electronic vo...

  1. Semantic Assessment of Shopping Behavior Using Trajectories, Shopping Related Actions, and Context Information


    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz , L.J.M.; Shan, C.; Gritti, T.; Wiggers, P.


    The possibility of automatic understanding of customers' shopping behavior and acting according to their needs is relevant in the marketing domain, attracting a lot of attention lately. In this work, we focus on the task of automatic assessment of customers' shoppingbehavior, by proposing a multi- level framework. The framework is supported at low-level by different types of cameras, which are synchronized, facilitating effcient processing of information. A fish-eyecamera is used for tracking...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DH. Fickeisen


    Pumped storage hydroelectric systems convert large quantities of electrical energy to a form that may be stored and efficiently reconverted to electricity. Water is pumped from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir during periods of low power demand. The stored water is then used to generate additional power when demand peaks. Since the basic requirements of the system are simple, the design of individual plants and their locations vary widely. These variations make assessment of the generic environmental impact of the pumped storage systems difficult. In addition, most studies have not examined the impacts of an operating plant comprehensively. Assessment of the environmental effects of development and operation of a pumped storage plant requires an extensive set of baseline information, which is deficient in several aspects at the present state of the art. Additional research is needed to: • identify species groups likely to survive and reproduce in pumped storage reservoirs, their relationships and habitat preferences, and the basis for their production; • characterize anticipated reservoir ecosystem community development and relate it to physical characteristics of pumped storage reservoirs; • define effects of plant design and operating parameters on transport of organisms through the pump/turbine facility, accounting for behavior of the organisms potentially impacted; • access the mortality rate of organisms likely to pass through pump-turbines; • identify the relative advantages and disadvantages of screening intake structures to prevent passage of large organisms through the plant; • assess the effects of currents and water withdrawal on migration and movement of aquatic species; • investigate the effects of fluctuating water levels on the littoral zone and riparian communities, effects of stranding on entrapment of fishes, and effects on fish spawning; and • review the applicability of water quality and ecosystem models to pumped storage

  3. Assessing progress and outcome of early intensive behavioral intervention for toddlers with autism. (United States)

    MacDonald, Rebecca; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Dupere, Sally; Ahearn, William


    Intensive behavioral intervention for young children diagnosed with autism can produce large gains in social, cognitive, and language development. Although several studies have identified behaviors that are possible indicators of best outcome, changes in performance are typically measured using norm-referenced standardized scores referencing overall functioning level rather than via repeated observational measures of autism-specific deficits (i.e., social behavior). In the current study, 83 children with autism (CWA), aged 1, 2 and 3 years, and 58 same-aged typically developing children (TDC) were directly observed in the areas of cognitive skills, joint attention (JA), play, and stereotypic behavior using a measure called the Early Skills Assessment Tool (ESAT; MacDonald et al., 2006). CWA were assessed at entry into an EIBI program and again after 1 year of treatment. Changes in performance were compared pre- and post-treatment as well as to the normative data by age. Results indicate significant gains on the ESAT across all age groups with the greatest gains seen in the children who entered treatment prior to their second birthday. Increases were seen on direct measures of JA, play, imitation and language while decreases were seen in stereotypy regardless of level of performance at entry into EIBI. The ESAT, a direct measurement tool, served as a sensitive tool to measure changes in autism symptomatology following EIBI treatment.

  4. Stimulus threat and exposure context modulate the effect of mere exposure on approach behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Young


    Full Text Available Mere-exposure research has found that initially neutral objects made familiar are preferred relative to novel objects. Recent work extends these preference judgments into the behavioral domain by illustrating that mere exposure prompts approach-oriented behavior toward familiar stimuli. However, no investigations have examined the effect of mere exposure on approach-oriented behavior toward threatening stimuli. The current work examines this issue and also explores how exposure context interacts with stimulus threat to influence behavioral tendencies. In two experiments participants were presented with both mere-exposed and novel stimuli and approach speed was assessed. In the first experiment, when stimulus threat was presented in a homogeneous format (i.e., participants viewed exclusively neutral or threatening stimuli, mere-exposure potentiated approach behaviors for both neutral and threatening stimuli. However, in the second experiment, in which stimulus threat was presented in a heterogeneous fashion (i.e., participants viewed both neutral and threatening stimuli, mere exposure facilitated approach only for initially neutral stimuli. These results suggest that mere-exposure effects on approach behaviors are highly context sensitive and depend on both stimulus valence and exposure context. Further implications of these findings for the mere-exposure literature are discussed.

  5. Description and effects of sequential behavior practice in teacher education. (United States)

    Sharpe, T; Lounsbery, M; Bahls, V


    This study examined the effects of a sequential behavior feedback protocol on the practice-teaching experiences of undergraduate teacher trainees. The performance competencies of teacher trainees were analyzed using an alternative opportunities for appropriate action measure. Data support the added utility of sequential (Sharpe, 1997a, 1997b) behavior analysis information in systematic observation approaches to teacher education. One field-based undergraduate practicum using sequential behavior (i.e., field systems analysis) principles was monitored. Summarized are the key elements of the (a) classroom instruction provided as a precursor to the practice teaching experience, (b) practice teaching experience, and (c) field systems observation tool used for evaluation and feedback, including multiple-baseline data (N = 4) to support this approach to teacher education. Results point to (a) the strong relationship between sequential behavior feedback and the positive change in four preservice teachers' day-to-day teaching practices in challenging situational contexts, and (b) the relationship between changes in teacher practices and positive changes in the behavioral practices of gymnasium pupils. Sequential behavior feedback was also socially validated by the undergraduate participants and Professional Development School teacher supervisors in the study.

  6. Effect of Chronic Lead Intoxication on Risky Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mohammadyar


    Full Text Available Introduction: With industrialization of human societies, pollutants like lead have entered in the life cycle, causing harmful effects on body organs. No sufficient studies have been done on the effects of pollutants on behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of lead on some measurable behaviors of an animal model. Methods: Forty eight male adult mice were divided into 4 groups of 12 each. Lead acetate was added at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, or 500 ppm to the drinking water of the animals for 4 weeks (28 days. On day 29, animals were placed on an Elevated Plus maze (EPM for 5 min and the time in sec spent was measured on closed arms, open arms and the end 1/3rd of the open arms. Increased time on open arms, particularly the end 1/3rd was considered to reflect an enhanced risk-accepting behavior. Results: In this study, it was shown that lead exposure caused an increased number of entrance (P=0.006 and time spent (P=0.034 by mice on open arms of the EPM. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of lead acetate and those two effects. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that lead poisoning may decrease normal anxiety in mice and increase risky behavior in this species. Clinical studies on human subjects with risky behavior are strongly suggested in order to find a possible relation between chronic exposures to lead as well as plasma concentration of lead with the extent of this kind of behavior.

  7. The Hidden Cost of Tourism: Detecting Long-term Effects of Tourism Using Behavioral Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lusseau


    Full Text Available Increasingly, whales and dolphins are the focus of tourism activities in many coastal locations. Although these activities can affect individuals and populations of cetaceans, the biological significance and hence the cost of these impacts are as yet largely unknown. This study assessed the effects of boat interactions on the behavioral budget of two populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tersiops truncatus living in similar fjords but exposed to different levels of tourism activities. This comparison makes it possible to assess the costs of short-term avoidance strategies and the threshold at which those strategies are no longer effective. The effects of boat interactions were the same in both fjords. The resting state was the most sensitive to interactions; socializing was less sensitive. Short-term displacement was a typical response to boat exposure: dolphins were more likely to travel after an interaction with a vessel. Although the behavioral budgets of these populations were significantly altered during interactions with boats, their overall behavioral budgets were unchanged. Dolphins in Milford Sound actively avoided boat interactions, possibly to maintain their overall behavioral budget unchanged. This active avoidance led to avoidance of the area. Characteristics of dolphin-boat interactions in Milford Sound suggest that the advantages gained by short-term avoidance are lost if, on average, fewer than 68 min elapse between successive interactions with boats. If dolphin-boat interactions were more frequent than this, the dolphins switched to a longer-term response: area avoidance.

  8. An assessment of the aversive nature of an animal management procedure (clipping) using behavioral and physiological measures. (United States)

    Yarnell, Kelly; Hall, Carol; Billett, Ellen


    Animal management often involves procedures that, while unlikely to cause physical pain, still cause aversive responses. The domestic horse (Equus caballus) regularly has excessive hair clipped off to facilitate its use as a riding/driving animal and this procedure causes adverse behavioral responses in some animals. The aim of this study was to compare behavioral and physiological measures to assess the aversive effect of this procedure. Ten horses were selected on the basis of being either compliant (C: n=5) or non-compliant (NC: n=5) during this procedure. The horses were subjected to a sham clipping procedure (SC: where the blades had been removed from the clippers) for a period of ten minutes. Measures were taken pre, during and post SC (-10min to +30min) and mean values calculated for ALL horses and for C and NC separately. Behavioral activity was scored (scale 1-5) by twenty students from video footage in (phase/group-blind scoring). Heart rate (HR), salivary cortisol and eye temperature were monitored throughout the procedure. The NC horses were found to be significantly more behaviorally active/less relaxed throughout the trial than C horses (pphysiological responses indicated that ALL horses found the procedure aversive. Eye temperature could be used as an objective and immediate measure of how an animal is responding to a specific situation in order to evaluate management procedures and adapt them where appropriate to reduce the negative impact on animal health and welfare.

  9. Effects of Academic Experience and Prestige on Researchers’ Citing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe


    This article reports the findings of a bibliometric study of the measurable effects of experience and prestige on researchers' citing behavior. All single authors from two econometrics journals over a 10-year time period form the basis of the analysis of how experience and prestige affect the num...

  10. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.


    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  11. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this e

  12. The Behavioral Effects of Crowding: Definitions and Methods. (United States)

    Dean, Larry M.; And Others

    Crews of 18 U.S. Navy combat vessels rated their living and working conditions aboard ship, including degree of crowding. In order to better understand the behavioral effects of crowding, three different types of measures, corresponding to different definitions of crowding, were constructed. These separate crowding measures correlated uniquely…

  13. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.


    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of t

  14. Preventing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool: Effective Strategies for Classroom Teachers (United States)

    Coleman, Janelle C.; Crosby, Megan G.; Irwin, Heather K.; Dennis, Lindsay R.; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.


    This article provides practical strategies and techniques that early childhood educators can implement in their classrooms to effectively manage challenging behaviors. The specific strategies addressed fall under the following categories: (a) classroom management, (b) reinforcement, and (c) communication. Suggestions are made for how parents can…

  15. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.


    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  16. Feingold Diet Effect on Reading Achievement and Classroom Behavior. (United States)

    Chernick, Eleanor

    The effect of the Feingold diet (elimination of artificial colors, flavors, or foods with natural salicylates to reduce hyperactivity) on the reading achievement scores, behavior, and impulsivity/reflectivity of 13 children (ages 6 to 12 years) was evaluated. Six months after the experimental group adopted the Feingold diet there were no…

  17. The Clinical, Environmental, and Behavioral Factors That Foster Early Childhood Caries: Evidence for Caries Risk Assessment. (United States)

    Fontana, Margherita


    Caries risk assessment, an essential component of targeted health care delivery for young children, is of paramount importance in the current environment of increasing health care costs and resource constraints. The purpose of this manuscript was to review recent best available evidence behind the factors that influence caries risk assessment and the validity of strategies to assess the caries risk of young children. Moderate to weak evidence supports the following recommendations: (1) Children should have a caries risk assessment done in their first year (or as soon as their first tooth erupts) as part of their overall health assessment, and this should be reassessed periodically over time. (2) Multiple clinical, environmental, and behavioral factors should be considered when assessing caries risk in young children, including factors associated with the primary caregiver. (3) The use of structured forms, although most may not yet be validated, may aid in systematic assessment of multiple caries risk factors and in objective record-keeping. (4) Children from low socioeconomic status groups should be considered at increased risk when developing community preventive programs.

  18. Assessing the effectiveness of Denmark's waste tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou


    By the mid-l980s, Denmark had a serious waste disposal problem: Its per capita generation of waste was among the highest in Europe and rising; it was running out of landfill space, with Copenhagen set to exhaust its landfill capacity in a short time; and there was a great deal of concern about air...... pollution from incinerators. Denmark responded to this situation by adopting a comprehensive waste management policy that included an innovative tax on waste designed to promote the reuse and recycling of many types of waste. Now that the tax has been in place for a decade, there is enough data to assess...... its effectiveness. Such an assessment has implications that extend far beyond Denmark. To date, six other countries in Europe (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) have adopted waste taxes at the national level, and two others (Norway and Sweden) are considering...

  19. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis


    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin


    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  20. An Investigation of the Impact of Function of Problem Behavior on Effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP) (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; MacLeod, K. Sandra


    The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this…

  1. An Online Assessment of Personality, Psychological, and Sexuality Trait Variables Associated with Self-Reported Hypersexual Behavior. (United States)

    Walton, Michael T; Cantor, James M; Lykins, Amy D


    "Hypersexual" behavior represents a perceived inability to control one's sexual behavior. To investigate hypersexual behavior, an international sample of 510 self-identified heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men and women completed an anonymous online self-report questionnaire battery. In addition to age and sex (male), hypersexual behavior was related to higher scores on measures of sexual excitation, sexual inhibition due to the threat of performance failure, trait impulsivity, and both depressed mood and anxiety. In contrast, hypersexual behavior was related to lower scores on sexual inhibition due to the threat of performance consequences. Higher neuroticism and extraversion, as well as lower agreeableness and conscientiousness, also predicted hypersexual behavior. Interestingly, interactions among the variables assessed did not significantly predict hypersexual behavior, suggesting the possible existence of multiple and predominantly independent taxa for various persons reporting hypersexual behavior. Core personality features may also be present in persons with hypersexual behavior. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  2. The effects of social support and stress perception on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption. (United States)

    Kwan, Mun Yee; Gordon, Kathryn H


    Two studies tested a model where perceived stress was the proposed mediator for the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and unhealthy food consumption among undergraduate students. Study 1 was a longitudinal, online study in which undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Bulimia Test-Revised at the Time 1 assessment, and the Perceived Stress Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire at the Time 2 assessment, approximately four weeks later. Study 2 was an experimental study in which female participants were randomly assigned into a group with or without social support. Stress was induced with a speech task, followed by a bogus taste task paradigm designed to assess unhealthy food consumption. Bootstrap analyses revealed an indirect effect of perceived social support on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption through perceived stress. Perceived social support was associated with lower perceived stress in both studies. Lower perceived stress was associated with less self-reported bulimic behaviors in Study 1 and greater consumption of unhealthy foods in Study 2. The negative association between perceived stress and calorie consumption in Study 2 was moderated by dietary restraint. Findings suggest that stress perception helps to explain the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and calorie consumption. Stress perception may be an important treatment target for eating disorder symptoms among undergraduate students.

  3. Effects of single sex lab groups on physics self-efficacy, behavior, and academic performance (United States)

    Hunt, Gary L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the gender composition of a laboratory group and student behaviors, self-efficacy, and quiz performance, within the college physics laboratory. A student population was chosen and subdivided into two groups, which were assigned either same-sex or coed laboratory teams while executing identical laboratory activities and instruction. Assessments were carried out prior to instruction, during the course, and at the end of one semester worth of instruction and laboratory activities. Students were assessed in three areas: behaviors exhibited during laboratory activities, self-efficacy, and scores on laboratory quizzes. Analyses considered the differences in outcomes after a single semester of physics laboratories that differed only in team gender organization. The results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in behavior variable, self-efficacy or laboratory quiz scores between same sex teams and coed teams. There were also no statistically significant differences between genders, and no interaction effect present. In a post-hoc analysis of the individual behaviors data, it was noted that there is present a practical difference in the individual behaviors exhibited by males and females. This difference implies a difference in how males and females successfully engage in the laboratory activities.

  4. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

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    Hertzler, D.R. (State Univ. of New York, Oswego (USA))


    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  5. Detailed Behavioral Assessment Promotes Accurate Diagnosis in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eGilutz


    Full Text Available Introduction: Assessing the awareness level in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC is made on the basis of exhibited behaviors. However, since motor signs of awareness (i.e. non-reflex motor responses can be very subtle, differentiating the vegetative from minimally conscious states (which is in itself not clear-cut is often challenging. Even the careful clinician relying on standardized scales may arrive at a wrong diagnosis. Aim: To report our experience in tackling this problem by using two in-house use assessment procedures developed at Reuth Rehabilitation Hospital, and demonstrate their clinical significance by reviewing two cases. Methods: 1.Reuth DOC Response Assessment (RDOC-RA –administered in addition to the standardized tools, and emphasizes the importance of assessing a wide range of motor responses. In our experience, in some patients the only evidence for awareness may be a private specific movement that is not assessed by standard assessment tools. 2. Reuth DOC Periodic Intervention Model (RDOC-PIM - Current literature regarding assessment and diagnosis in DOC refers mostly to the acute phase of up to one year post injury. However, we have found major changes in responsiveness occurring one year or more post-injury in many patients. Therefore, we conduct periodic assessments at predetermined times points to ensure patients are not misdiagnosed or neurological changes overlooked. Results: In the first case the RDOC-RA promoted a more accurate diagnosis than that based on standardized scales alone. The second case shows how the RDOC-PIM allowed us to recognize late recovery and promoted reinstatement of treatment with good results. Conclusions: Adding a detailed periodic assessment of DOC patients to existing scales can yield critical information, promoting better diagnosis, treatment and clinical outcomes. We discuss the implications of this observation for the future development and validation of assessment tools in

  6. Cross-Cultural Aspect of Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child: Standardization in Korean Children (United States)

    Song, Jungeun; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Koh, Yun-Joo; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Hong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Young-Key; Cho, Kyungjin; Lim, Eun-Chung; Park, Jee In


    Purpose Our study aimed to examine psychometric properties and cross-cultural utility of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child (BASC-2 PRS-C) in Korean children. Materials and Methods Two study populations were recruited: a general population sample (n=2115) of 1st to 6th graders from 16 elementary schools and a clinical population (n=219) of 6–12 years old from 5 child psychiatric clinics and an epidemiological sample of autism spectrum disorder. We assessed the validity and reliability of the Korean version of BASC-2 PRS-C (K-BASC-2 PRS-C) and compared subscales with those used for US populations. Results Our results indicate that the K-BASC-2 PRS-C is a valuable instrument with reliability and validity for measuring developmental psychopathology that is comparable to those in Western population. However, there were some differences noted in the mean scores of BASC-2 PRS-C between Korean and US populations. Conclusion K-BASC-2 PRS-C is an effective and useful instrument with psychometric properties that permits measurement of general developmental psychopathology. Observed Korean-US differences in patterns of parental reports of children's behaviors indicate the importance of the validation, standardization and cultural adaptation for tools assessing psychopathology especially when used in populations different from those for which the instrument was originally created. PMID:28120577

  7. Assessing behavioral control across reinforcer solutions on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement in rats. (United States)

    Shillinglaw, Joel E; Everitt, Ian K; Robinson, Donita L


    Instrumental behavior can shift from flexible, goal-directed actions to automatic, stimulus-response actions. The satiety-specific devaluation test assesses behavioral flexibility by evaluating reward seeking after temporary devaluation of the reinforcer via satiety; a decrease in responding compared to control conditions indicates goal-directed behavior. We have observed variability in the outcome of this test that may be dependent on the reinforcer. Another test of habit, contingency degradation, involves changing the action-outcome association over the course of retraining and determines whether reward seeking is sensitive to changing contingencies. We hypothesized that the outcome of the contingency-degradation test would remain consistent across reinforcers, while the satiety-specific devaluation test may vary across reinforcers because it depends on the ability of the reinforcer to induce satiety. Therefore, we trained rats to self-administer 1.5% sucrose, 10% sucrose, 10% ethanol, or 10 mM monosodium glutamate (MSG) on a fixed-ratio (FR5) schedule that has been shown to promote long-term, goal-directed responding. Next, behavioral flexibility was evaluated in three satiety-specific devaluation tests over 6 weeks. Finally, we investigated reward seeking after contingency-degradation training. All groups displayed sensitivity to satiety-specific devaluation in the first test, indicating goal-directed behavior. While the 10% sucrose and ethanol groups remained goal-directed, the 1.5% sucrose and MSG groups exhibited habit-like behavior in later tests. Nevertheless, all groups displayed decreased responding in an extinction session after contingency-degradation training, indicating goal-directed behavior. These results demonstrate that tests of behavioral flexibility can yield dissimilar results in the same rats. Next, rats from the 1.5% sucrose group underwent the entire experiment again, now self-administering 10% sucrose. These rats showed pronounced goal





    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were chosen and randomly divided into two ...

  9. Informant Discrepancies in Adult Social Anxiety Disorder Assessments: Links With Contextual Variations in Observed Behavior (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C.


    Multi-informant assessments of adult psychopathology often result in discrepancies among informants’ reports. Among 157 adults meeting criteria for either the generalized (n = 106) or nongeneralized (n = 51) social anxiety disorder (SAD) subtype, we examined whether discrepancies between patients’ and clinicians’ reports of patients’ symptoms related to variations in both SAD subtype and expressions of social skills deficits across multiple social interaction tasks. Latent class analyses revealed two behavioral patterns: (a) context-specific social skills deficits and (b) cross-context social skills deficits. Similarly, patients’ symptom reports could be characterized by concordance or discordance with clinicians’ reports. Patient–clinician concordance on relatively high levels of patients’ symptoms related to an increased likelihood of the patient meeting criteria for the generalized relative to nongeneralized subtype. Further, patient–clinician concordance on relatively high levels of patients’ symptoms related to an increased likelihood of consistently exhibiting social skills deficits across social interaction tasks (relative to context-specific social skills deficits). These relations were robust in accounting for patient age, clinical severity, and Axis I and II comorbidity. Further, clinical severity did not completely explain variability in patients’ behavior on laboratory tasks or discrepancies between patient and clinician reports. Findings provide the first laboratory-based support for the ability of informant discrepancies to indicate cross-contextual variability in clinical adult assessments, and the first of any developmental period to indicate this for SAD assessments. These findings have important implications for clinical assessment and developmental psychopathology research. PMID:23421526

  10. Display of individuality in avoidance behavior and risk assessment of inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben eHager


    Full Text Available Factors determining individuality are still poorly understood. Rodents are excellent model organisms to study individuality, due to a rich behavioral repertoire and the availability of well-characterized isogenic populations. However, most current behavioral assays for rodents have short test duration in novel test environments and require human interference, which introduce coercion, thereby limiting the assessment of naturally occurring individuality. Thus, we developed an automated behavior system to longitudinally monitor conditioned fear for assessing PTSD-like behavior in individual mice. The system consists of a safe home compartment connected to a risk-prone test compartment (TC. Entry and exploration of the TC is solely based on deliberate choice determined by individual fear responsiveness and fear extinction. In this novel ethological assay, C57BL/6J mice show homogeneous responses after shock exposure (innate fear, but striking variation in long-lasting fear responses based on avoidance and risk assessment (learned fear, including automated stretch-attend posture quantification. TC entry (retention latencies after foot shock differed >24 h and the re-explored TC area differed >50% among inbred mice. Next, we compared two closely related C57BL/6 substrains. Despite substantial individual differences, previously observed higher fear of C57BL/6N versus C57BL/6J mice was reconfirmed, whereas fear extinction was fast and did not differ. The observed variation in fear expression in isogenic mice suggests individual differences in coping style with PTSD-like avoidance. Investigating the assumed epigenetic mechanisms, with reduced interpretational ambiguity and enhanced translational value in this assay, may help improve understanding of personality type-dependent susceptibility and resilience to neuropsychiatric disorders such as PTSD.

  11. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for chronic nightmares in trauma-exposed persons: assessing physiological reactions to nightmare-related fear. (United States)

    Rhudy, Jamie L; Davis, Joanne L; Williams, Amy E; McCabe, Klanci M; Bartley, Emily J; Byrd, Patricia M; Pruiksma, Kristi E


    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) that target nightmares are efficacious for ameliorating self-reported sleep problems and psychological distress. However, it is important to determine whether these treatments influence objective markers of nightmare-related fear, because fear and concomitant physiological responses could promote nightmare chronicity and sleep disturbance. This randomized, controlled study (N=40) assessed physiological (skin conductance, heart rate, facial electromyogram) and subjective (displeasure, fear, anger, sadness, arousal) reactions to personally relevant nightmare imagery intended to evoke nightmare-related fear. Physiological assessments were conducted at pretreatment as well as 1-week, 3-months, and 6-months posttreatment. Results of mixed effects analysis of variance models suggested treatment reduced physiological and subjective reactions to nightmare imagery, gains that were generally maintained at the 6-month follow-up. Potential implications are discussed.

  12. Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of embryonic exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in birds. (United States)

    Ottinger, Mary Ann; Lavoie, Emma; Thompson, Nichola; Barton, Ashley; Whitehouse, Kasen; Barton, Meredith; Abdelnabi, Mahmoud; Quinn, Michael; Panzica, GianCarlo; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla


    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exert hormone-like activity in vertebrates and exposure to these compounds may induce both short- and long-term deleterious effects including functional alterations that contribute to decreased reproduction and fitness. An overview of the effects of a number of EDCs, including androgenic and estrogenic compounds, will be considered. Many studies have been conducted in the precocial Japanese quail, which provides an excellent avian model for testing these compounds. Long-term impacts have also been studied by raising a subset of animals through maturation. The EDCs examined included estradiol, androgen active compounds, soy phytoestrogens, and atrazine. Effects on behavior and hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems were examined. All EDCs impaired reproduction, regardless of potential mechanism of action. Male sexual behavior proved to be a sensitive index of EDC exposure and embryonic exposure to a variety of EDCs consistently resulted in impaired male sexual behavior. Several hypothalamic neural systems proved to be EDC responsive, including arginine vasotocin (VT), catecholamines, and gonadotropin releasing hormone system (GnRH-I). Finally, EDCs are known to impact both the immune and thyroid systems; these effects are significant for assessing the overall impact of EDCs on the fitness of avian populations. Therefore, exposure to EDCs during embryonic development has consequences beyond impaired function of the reproductive axis. In conclusion, behavioral alterations have the advantage of revealing both direct and indirect effects of exposure to an EDC and in some cases can provide a valuable clue into functional deficits at different physiological levels.

  13. Anabolic steroids have long-lasting effects on male social behaviors. (United States)

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L


    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use by adolescents is steadily increasing. Adolescence involves remodeling of steroid-sensitive neural circuits that mediate social behaviors, and previous studies using animal models document effects of AAS on male social behaviors. The present experiments tested whether AAS have persistent and more pronounced behavioral consequences when drug exposure occurs during adolescence as compared to exposure in adulthood. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or adulthood (63-77 days of age). As adults, subjects were tested two or four weeks after the last injection for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or male-male agonistic behavior in a resident-intruder test. Compared with vehicle-treated males, AAS-treated males, regardless of age of treatment, displayed fewer long intromissions and a significant increase in latency to the first long intromission, indicative of reduced potential to reach sexual satiety. Increased aggression was observed in males exposed to AAS compared with males treated with vehicle, independently of age of AAS treatment. However, unlike hamsters exposed to AAS in adulthood, hamsters exposed to AAS during adolescence did not display any submissive or risk-assessment behaviors up to 4 weeks after discontinuation of AAS treatment. Thus, AAS have long-lasting effects on male sexual and agonistic behaviors, with AAS exposure during adolescence resulting in a more pronounced reduction in submissive behavior compared to AAS exposure in adulthood.

  14. Effects of sheltering on physiology, immune function, behavior, and the welfare of dogs. (United States)

    Protopopova, Alexandra


    Approximately 4 million dogs live in animal shelters each year. However, understanding and measuring the welfare of these kenneled dogs presents a challenge. One way to determine welfare is by assessing how stay at the shelter influences physiology, immune function, and behavior of the dogs. Prior research, from all of these domains, has not resulted in clear conclusions on how the animal shelter influences the well-being of dogs. One robust finding is that, when placed into a kennel environment, dogs experience a spike in cortisol levels followed by a decrease to original at-home levels. Current evidence cannot differentiate between several proposed hypotheses that may be responsible for this pattern. In addition, very few studies have assessed the effects of kenneling on immune function of dogs, and of these, no consistent findings have emerged. However, this line of inquiry can have a large impact as infectious diseases are rampant in animal shelters. The ability of behavioral measures to inform us about the welfare of dogs is discussed by reviewing published and new data on the effects of kenneling on dog behavior. Prior research has suffered from a lack of consistent operational definitions when defining abnormal behavior in dogs, resulting in difficult to interpret results. Research on the well-being of individual dogs, rather than on group averages, may be a fruitful next step in determining and improving the welfare of dogs housed in shelters.

  15. An integrative typology of personality assessment for aggression: implications for predicting counterproductive workplace behavior. (United States)

    Bing, Mark N; Stewart, Susan M; Davison, H Kristl; Green, Philip D; McIntyre, Michael D; James, Lawrence R


    This study presents an integrative typology of personality assessment for aggression. In this typology, self-report and conditional reasoning (L. R. James, 1998) methodologies are used to assess 2 separate, yet often congruent, components of aggressive personalities. Specifically, self-report is used to assess explicit components of aggressive tendencies, such as self-perceived aggression, whereas conditional reasoning is used to assess implicit components, in particular, the unconscious biases in reasoning that are used to justify aggressive acts. These 2 separate components are then integrated to form a new theoretical typology of personality assessment for aggression. Empirical tests of the typology were subsequently conducted using data gathered across 3 samples in laboratory and field settings and reveal that explicit and implicit components of aggression can interact in the prediction of counterproductive, deviant, and prosocial behaviors. These empirical tests also reveal that when either the self-report or conditional reasoning methodology is used in isolation, the resulting assessment of aggression may be incomplete. Implications for personnel selection, team composition, and executive coaching are discussed.

  16. Perinatal stress: characteristics and effects on adult eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cesiana da Silva


    Full Text Available Many studies have pointed out the importance of mother-child interaction in the early months of life. A few decades ago, a method called kangaroo care was developed and its main goal was to keep underweight or premature newborns in direct contact with the mother. This method has reduced the morbidity and mortality of these newborns, increasing their growth rate, breastfeeding time and mother-child contact. In rodents, the dam's presence is crucial for avoiding aggression factors that may trigger phenotypic adaptations in the pups with irreversible morphological, functional and behavioral consequences. Eating behavior is an adaptive response stemming from the external environment demand and modulated by opportunities and limitations imposed by the external environment. This behavior is regulated by a complex interaction of peripheral and central mechanisms that control hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus is a brain structure that integrates central and peripheral signals to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight. The hypothalamic nucleus have orexigenic peptides, such as neuropeptide Y and the Agouti-related peptide, and anorexigenic peptides, such as cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin. An innovative study of eating behavior in experimental models of neonatal stress separates the mother from the offspring during lactation. This review describes the effects of stress during the neonatal period on general physiological factors, particularly on the control of eating behavior.

  17. Voluntary exercise produces antidepressant and anxiolytic behavioral effects in mice. (United States)

    Duman, Catharine H; Schlesinger, Lee; Russell, David S; Duman, Ronald S


    Reports of beneficial effects of exercise on psychological health in humans are increasingly supported by basic research studies. Exercise is hypothesized to regulate antidepressant-related mechanisms and we therefore characterized the effects of chronic exercise in mouse behavioral paradigms relevant to antidepressant actions. Mice given free access to running wheels showed antidepressant-like behavior in learned helplessness, forced-swim (FST) and tail suspension paradigms. These responses were similar to responses of antidepressant drug-treated animals. When tested under conditions where locomotor activity was not altered, exercising mice also showed reduced anxiety compared to sedentary control mice. In situ hybridization analysis showed that BDNF mRNA was increased in specific subfields of hippocampus after wheel running. We chose one paradigm, the FST, in which to investigate a functional role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the behavioral response to exercise. We tested mice heterozygous for a deletion of the BDNF gene in the FST after wheel-running. Exercising wild-type mice showed the expected antidepressant-like behavioral response in the FST but exercise was ineffective in improving FST performance in heterozygous BDNF knockout mice. A possible functional contribution of a BDNF signaling pathway to FST performance in exercising mice was investigated using the specific MEK inhibitor PD184161 to block the MAPK signaling pathway. Subchronic administration of PD184161 to exercising mice blocked the antidepressant-like behavioral response seen in vehicle-treated exercising mice in the FST. In summary, chronic wheel-running exercise in mice results in antidepressant-like behavioral changes that may involve a BDNF related mechanism similar to that hypothesized for antidepressant drug treatment.

  18. Effects of goal orientation and perceived value of toughness on antisocial behavior in soccer: the mediating role of moral disengagement. (United States)

    Boardley, Ian David; Kavussanu, Maria


    In this study, we examined (a) the effects of goal orientations and perceived value of toughness on antisocial behavior toward opponents and teammates in soccer and (b) whether any effects were mediated by moral disengagement. Male soccer players (N = 307) completed questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Structural equation modeling indicated that ego orientation had positive and task orientation had negative direct effects on antisocial behavior toward opponents. Further, ego orientation and perceived value of toughness had indirect positive effects on antisocial behavior toward opponents and teammates which were mediated by moral disengagement. Collectively, these findings aid our understanding of the effects of personal influences on antisocial behavior and of psychosocial mechanisms that could facilitate such antisocial conduct in male soccer players.

  19. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf


    Background Preventive health behaviors, such as regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, are recommended to maintain employability and to facilitate the health of employees. Theory-based workplace health promotion needs to include psychological constructs and consider the motivational readiness (so-called stages of change) of employees. According to the stages, people can be grouped as nonintenders (not motivated to change and not performing the goal behavior), intenders (decided to adopt the goal behavior but not started yet), or actors (performing the goal behavior already). The tailoring to these stages can be done computer based and should make workplace health promotion more effective. Objective It was tested whether a parsimonious computer-based health promotion program implemented at the workplace was effective in terms of lifestyle changes and psychological outcomes as well as body weight. We hypothesized that the stage-matched intervention would outperform the one-size-fits-all active control condition (standard care intervention). Methods In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 1269 employees were recruited by a trained research assistant at their workplace during a routine medical examination. After excluding noneligible employees, 560 completed Time 1 (T1), and 384 also completed Time 2 (T2), achieving a retention rate of 68.6%. Two fully automated computer-based treatments were adopted: (1) an active control condition with information about benefits of exercise and healthy nutrition (n=52), or (2) a stage-matched multiple-behavior intervention that provided different psychological treatments to 9 subgroups, addressing stages of change (nonintenders, intenders, and actors per behavior; n=332). Baseline assessments (T1) on behavior, psychological constructs, and body weight were repeated after 4 weeks (T2). Results The stage-matched intervention outperformed the active control condition for lifestyle changes containing physical activity and

  20. Ferromagnetic behavior and exchange bias effect in akaganeite nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadic, Marin, E-mail: [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Milosevic, Irena; Motte, Laurence [Laboratoire CSPBAT, UMR 7244 CNRS Université Paris 13, 93017 Bobigny Cedex (France); Kralj, Slavko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Saboungi, Marie-Louise [CNRS, University of Orleans, F-45071 Orleans 2 (France); IMPMC, Sorbonne Univ-UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, IRD UMR 206, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)


    We report ferromagnetic-like properties and exchange bias effect in akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorods. They exhibit a Néel temperature T{sub N} = 259 K and ferromagnetic-like hysteresis behavior both below and above T{sub N}. An exchange bias effect is observed below T{sub N} and represents an interesting behavior for akaganeite nanorods. These results are explained on the basis of a core-shell structure in which the core has bulk akaganeite magnetic properties (i.e., antiferromagnetic ordering) while the shell exhibits a disordered spin state. Thus, the nanorods show ferromagnetic properties and an exchange bias effect at the same time, increasing their potential for use in practical applications.

  1. Mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infections: a review. (United States)

    Jasti, Anisha; Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Singh, Yengkokpam Ibotomba


    Whether parasitic diseases-and in particular helminth infections because they are extensive and widespread--have an effect on mental functions and educational attainment is by no mean a new question. Concern about the possibility was evident in the early decades of the century, and the results of investigations designed to discover whether the effects of parasite infections had consequences on school children. Many species of helminth have been reported as causing infections in humans. Of the nematode infections, both soil transmitted helminthiasis and lymphatic filariasis are public health problem in the country. Any of these infections may result in morbidity, malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anaemia. Their possible contribution to impaired cognitive function and educational achievement is by the association between iron deficiency anaemia and malnutrition. Research on the effects of parasitic infection has focused on school-age children. Not only are these children the most vulnerable to parasitic infections--they are also the population group most likely to experience the impact of infection on cognitive function. This review paper discusses the mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infection on child's health. Infected children are less active; their behavior is said to be sluggish and both mental and physical activities and processes appear dulled and slow. A reduction in available energy is likely to cause a cascade of effects running through most aspects of the host's daily mental life and behavior.

  2. Behavioral effects of nicotine exposure from secondhand tobacco smoke among bar and restaurant workers. (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen J


    This study explores the behavioral effects of nicotine exposure from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) on bar and restaurant workers. Baseline data were obtained from a longitudinal study of 105 bar and restaurant workers. Hair nicotine, self-reported SHS exposure, smoking status, symptoms of nicotine exposure after being exposed to a smoky environment, and nicotine dependence were assessed. Nonsmokers reporting four or more symptoms of nicotine exposure had higher hair nicotine levels than those reporting less than four symptoms. Nonsmokers with higher hair nicotine levels were 2.2 times more likely to report 4 or more behavioral symptoms. Self-reported secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and hair nicotine were not predictive of nicotine dependence among smokers. Nicotine exposure from secondhand tobacco smoke may have important behavioral outcomes in nonsmokers. This study provides further evidence for the importance of prohibiting smoking in hospitality venues to protect the health of workers.

  3. Exposure to Weight-Stigmatizing Media: Effects on Exercise Intentions, Motivation, and Behavior. (United States)

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Dovidio, John F; Puhl, Rebecca M; Brownell, Kelly D


    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of exposure to weight-stigmatizing media on exercise intentions, motivation, and behavior, as well as to examine the interaction between this exposure and past experiences with weight stigma. A community sample of 72 women were randomly assigned to view a brief weight-stigmatizing or neutral video. Participants' choice of taking the stairs versus the elevator was observed before they completed measures of exercise intentions, motivation, and behavior; psychological well-being; and experiences with weight stigma. A follow-up survey was sent to participants 1 week later that assessed exercise behavior and intentions. Frequency of past weight stigma correlated with worse psychological well-being and more controlled (versus autonomous) exercise motivation. Significant interactions were found between past weight-stigmatizing experiences and exposure to the weight-stigmatizing video for outcomes of exercise intentions, behavior, and drive for thinness. Participants in the stigma condition with higher frequency of past experiences reported greater exercise intentions and behavior, along with higher drive for thinness. Past experiences of weight stigma interact with exposure to weight-stigmatizing media to increase exercise intentions and behavior, although this effect is accompanied by a heightened drive for thinness that may increase risk for long-term negative health consequences.

  4. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated MDMA administration during late adolescence in the rat. (United States)

    Cox, Brittney M; Shah, Mrudang M; Cichon, Teri; Tancer, Manuel E; Galloway, Matthew P; Thomas, David M; Perrine, Shane A


    Adolescents and young adults disproportionately abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy'); however, since most MDMA research has concentrated on adults, the effects of MDMA on the developing brain remain obscure. Therefore, we evaluated place conditioning to MDMA (or saline) during late adolescence and assessed anxiety-like behavior and monoamine levels during abstinence. Rats were conditioned to associate 5 or 10mg/kg MDMA or saline with contextual cues over 4 twice-daily sessions. Five days after conditioning, anxiety-like behavior was examined with the open field test and brain tissue was collected to assess serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the dorsal raphe, amygdala, and hippocampus by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). In a separate group of rats, anxiety-like and avoidant behaviors were measured using the light-dark box test under similar experimental conditions. MDMA conditioning caused a place aversion at 10, but not at 5, mg/kg, as well as increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field and avoidant behavior in light-dark box test at the same dose. Additionally, 10mg/kg MDMA decreased 5-HT in the dorsal raphe, increased 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the amygdala, and did not alter levels in the hippocampus. Overall, we show that repeated high (10mg/kg), but not low (5mg/kg), dose MDMA during late adolescence in rats increases anxiety-like and avoidant behaviors, accompanied by region-specific alterations in 5-HT levels during abstinence. These results suggest that MDMA causes a region-specific dysregulation of the serotonin system during adolescence that may contribute to maladaptive behavior.

  5. Assessing the effectiveness of climate adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon


    As governments and other agencies spend more money on adaptation to climate change they want to know that their investments are effective — that adaptation will keep development on track, that there is a fair distribution of costs and benefits, and that climate resilience is being built. But monitoring and evaluating adaptation policy and practice is not easy. Some approaches are unhelpful because they fail to integrate adaptation and development, use purely quantitative methods and do not include the perspectives of climate-vulnerable groups in their assessments. Enabling countries and organisations to effectively evaluate adaptation requires an inclusive approach built on sharing knowledge among all stakeholders — one that can capture behavioural and institutional changes and that answers to the needs of the climate-vulnerable poor.

  6. Automated Cognitive Health Assessment From Smart Home-Based Behavior Data. (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla Nath; Cook, Diane Joyce; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen


    Smart home technologies offer potential benefits for assisting clinicians by automating health monitoring and well-being assessment. In this paper, we examine the actual benefits of smart home-based analysis by monitoring daily behavior in the home and predicting clinical scores of the residents. To accomplish this goal, we propose a clinical assessment using activity behavior (CAAB) approach to model a smart home resident's daily behavior and predict the corresponding clinical scores. CAAB uses statistical features that describe characteristics of a resident's daily activity performance to train machine learning algorithms that predict the clinical scores. We evaluate the performance of CAAB utilizing smart home sensor data collected from 18 smart homes over two years. We obtain a statistically significant correlation ( r=0.72) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided cognitive scores and a statistically significant correlation ( r=0.45) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided mobility scores. These prediction results suggest that it is feasible to predict clinical scores using smart home sensor data and learning-based data analysis.

  7. Maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems: a fixed effects regression analysis. (United States)

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Ystrom, Eivind; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Torgersen, Leila


    Using data from the longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, the aims of the current study were to examine associations between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems, taking both observed and unobserved confounding factors into account by employing fixed effects regression models. Postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use (defined as drinking alcohol 4 or more times a week, or drinking 7 units or more per alcohol use episode) and toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed when the toddlers were aged 18 and 36 months. Maternal psychopathology, civil status and negative life events last year were included as time-variant covariates. Maternal heavy alcohol use was associated with toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems (p < 0.001) in the population when examined with generalized estimating equation models. The associations disappeared when observed and unobserved sources of confounding were taken into account in the fixed effects models [(p = 0.909 for externalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.021), p = 0.928 for internalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.023)], with an even further reduction of the estimates with the inclusion of time-variant confounders. No causal effect was found between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems. Increased levels of behavior problems among toddlers of heavy drinking mothers should therefore be attributed to other adverse characteristics associated with these mothers, toddlers and families. This should be taken into account when interventions aimed at at-risk families identified by maternal heavy alcohol use are planned and conducted.

  8. Interaction Effect of Social Isolation and High Dose Corticosteroid on Neurogenesis and Emotional Behavior. (United States)

    Chan, Jackie N-M; Lee, Jada C-D; Lee, Sylvia S P; Hui, Katy K Y; Chan, Alan H L; Fung, Timothy K-H; Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda I; Lau, Benson W-M; Ngai, Shirley P-C


    Hypercortisolemia is one of the clinical features found in depressed patients. This clinical feature has been mimicked in animal studies via application of exogenous corticosterone (CORT). Previous studies suggested that CORT can induce behavioral disturbance in anxious-depressive like behavior, which is associated with suppressed neurogenesis. Hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in adult cognitive and behavioral regulation. Its suppression may thus lead to neuropsychiatric disorders. Similar to the effects of CORT on the animals' depression-like behaviors and neurogenesis, social deprivation has been regarded as one factor that predicts poor prognosis in depression. Furthermore, social isolation is regarded as a stressor to social animals including experimental rodents. Hence, this study aims to examine if social isolation would induce further emotional or anxiety-like behavior disturbance and suppress neurogenesis in an experimental model that was repeatedly treated with CORT. Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study to determine the effects of different housing conditions, either social isolated or group housing, in vehicle-treated control and CORT-treated animals. Forced swimming test (FST), open field test (OFT) and social interaction test (SIT) were used to assess depression-like, anxiety-like and social behaviors respectively. Immunohistochemistry was performed to quantify the number of proliferative cells and immature neurons in the hippocampus, while dendritic maturation of immature neurons was analyzed by Sholl analysis. Social isolation reduced latency to immobility in FST. Furthermore, social isolation could significantly reduce the ratio of doublecortin and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) positive cells of the neurogenesis assay under CORT-treated condition. The current findings suggested that the behavioral and neurological effect of social isolation is dependent on the condition of hypercortisolemia. Furthermore, social isolation may

  9. Effects of surgical side and site on mood and behavior outcome in children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth N Andresen


    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy have a high rate of mood and behavior problems yet few studies consider the emotional and behavioral impact of surgery. No study to date has been sufficiently powered to investigate effects of both side (left/right and site (temporal/frontal of surgery. One hundred patients (aged 6-16 and their families completed measures of depression, anxiety and behavioral function as part of neuropsychological evaluations before and after surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Among children who had left-sided surgeries (frontal=16; temporal=38, there were significant interactions between time (pre to postoperative neuropsychological assessment and resection site (frontal/temporal on Anhedonia, Social Anxiety, and Withdrawn/Depressed scales. Patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE endorsed greater presurgical anhedonia and social anxiety than patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, with scores normalizing following surgery. While scores on the Withdrawn/Depressed scale were similar between groups before surgery, the FLE group showed greater symptom improvement after surgery. In children who underwent right-sided surgeries (FLE=20; TLE=26 main effects of time (patients in both groups improved and resection site (caregivers of FLE patients endorsed greater symptoms than those with TLE were observed primarily on behavior scales. Individual data revealed that a greater proportion of children with left FLE demonstrated clinically significant improvements in Anhedonia, Social Anxiety, and Aggressive Behavior than children with TLE. This is the first study to demonstrate differential effects of both side and site of surgery in children with epilepsy at group and individual levels. Results suggest that children with FLE have greater emotional and behavioral dysfunction before surgery, but show marked improvement after surgery. Overall, most children had good emotional and behavioral outcomes, with most scores remaining stable or improving.

  10. Positive effects of early androgen therapy on the behavioral phenotype of boys with 47,XXY. (United States)

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Stapleton, Emily J; Lawson, Patrick; Mitchell, Francie; Sadeghin, Teresa; Powell, Sherida; Gropman, Andrea L


    47, XXY occurs in up to 1 in 650 male births and is associated with androgen deficiency, neurodevelopmental delays, and atypical social-behaviors. Previously, we showed that young boys with 47, XXY who received early hormonal therapy (EHT) had significantly improved neurodevelopment. The objective of this follow-up study was to examine the effects of EHT on social behavior in boys with 47, XXY. The study consisted of boys prenatally diagnosed with 47, XXY who were referred for evaluations. Twenty-nine boys received three injections of 25 mg testosterone enanthate and 57 controls did not receive EHT. Behavioral functioning was assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Social Responsiveness Scale, 2nd Ed., and the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18. The hypothesis that EHT may affect behavior was formulated prior to data collection. Questionnaire data was prospectively obtained and analyzed to test for significance between two groups. Significant differences were identified between group's scores over time in Social Communication (P=0.007), Social Cognition (P=0.006), and Total T-score (P=0.001) on the SRS-2; Initiation (P=0.05) on the BRIEF; and Externalizing Problems (P=0.024), Affective Problems (P=0.05), and Aggressive Behaviors (P=0.031) on the CBCL. This is the third study revealing positive effects of EHT on boys with XXY. There was a significant improvements associated with the 47, XXY genotype in boys who received EHT. Research is underway on the neurobiological mechanisms, and later developmental effects of EHT.

  11. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients. (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron


    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient's adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient's psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation, self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors, coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relation to DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  12. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boon-How; Chew; Sazlina; Shariff-Ghazali; Aaron; Fernandez


    Patients with diabetes mellitus(DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal contro of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications,causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation,self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors,coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relationto DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  13. Where are the Behavioral Sleep Medicine Providers and Where are They Needed? A Geographic Assessment. (United States)

    Thomas, Arthur; Grandner, Michael; Nowakowski, Sara; Nesom, Genevieve; Corbitt, Charles; Perlis, Michael L


    Although it is widely acknowledged that there are not enough clinicians trained in either Behavioral Sleep Medicine (BSM) in general or in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) in specific, what is unclear is whether this problem is more acute in some regions relative to others. Accordingly, a geographic approach was taken to assess this issue. Using national directories as well as e-mail listservs (Behavioral Sleep Medicine group and Behavioral Treatment for Insomnia Roster), the present study evaluated geographic patterning of CBSM and BSM providers by city, state, and country. Overall, 88% of 752 BSM providers worldwide live in the United States (n = 659). Of these, 58% reside in 12 states with ≥ 20 providers (CA, NY, PA, IL, MA, TX, FL, OH, MI, MN, WA, and CO), and 19% reside in just 2 states (NY and CA). There were 4 states with no BSM providers (NH, HI, SD, and WY). Of the 167 U.S. cities with a population of > 150,000, 105 cities have no BSM providers. These results clearly suggest that a targeted effort is needed to train individuals in both the unserved and underserved areas.

  14. Postoperative pain assessment using four behavioral scales in Pakistani children undergoing elective surgery

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    Faisal Shamim


    Full Text Available Background: Several measurement tools have been used for assessment of postoperative pain in pediatric patients. Self-report methods have limitations in younger children and parent, nurse or physician assessment can be used as a surrogate measure. These tools should be tested in different cultures as pain can be influenced by sociocultural factors. The objective was to assess the inter-rater agreement on four different behavioral pain assessment scales in our local population. Materials and Methods: This prospective, descriptive, observational study was conducted in Pakistan. American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children, 3-7 years of age, undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. Four pain assessment scales were used, Children′s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS, Toddler Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale (TPPPS, objective pain scale (OPS, and Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC. After 15 and 60 min of arrival in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU, each child evaluated his/her postoperative pain by self-reporting and was also independently assessed by the PACU nurse, PACU anesthetist and the parent. The sensitivity and specificity of the responses of the four pain assessment scales were compared to the response of the child. Results: At 15 min, sensitivity and specificity were >60% for doctors and nurses on FLACC, OPS, and CHEOPS scales and for FLACC and CHEOPS scale for the parents. Parents showed poor agreement on OPS and TPPS. At 60 min, sensitivity was poor on the OPS scale by all three observers. Nurses showed a lower specificity on FLACC tool. Parents had poor specificity on CHEOPS and rate of false negatives was high with TPPS. Conclusions: We recommend the use of FLACC scale for assessment by parents, nurses, and doctors in Pakistani children aged between 3 and 7.

  15. Risk-assessment and risk-taking behavior predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara ePalm


    Full Text Available Certain personality types and behavioral traits display high correlations to drug use and an increased level of dopamine in the reward system is a common denominator of all drugs of abuse. Dopamine response to drugs has been suggested to correlate with some of these personality types and to be a key factor influencing the predisposition to addiction. This study investigated if behavioral traits can be related to potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in the dorsal striatum, an area hypothesized to be involved in the shift from drug use to addiction. The open field and multivariate concentric square field™ tests were used to assess individual behavior in male Wistar rats. Chronoamperometric recordings were then made to study the potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine response in vivo. A classification based on risk-taking behavior in the open field was used for further comparisons. Risk-taking behavior was correlated between the behavioral tests and high risk takers displayed a more pronounced response to the dopamine uptake blocking effects of amphetamine. Behavioral parameters from both tests could also predict potassium- and amphetamine-induced dopamine responses showing a correlation between neurochemistry and behavior in risk-assessment and risk-taking parameters. In conclusion, the high risk-taking rats showed a more pronounced reduction of dopamine uptake in the dorsal striatum after amphetamine indicating that this area may contribute to the sensitivity of these animals to psychostimulants and proneness to addiction. Further, inherent dopamine activity was related to risk-assessment behavior, which may be of importance for decision-making and inhibitory control, key components in addiction.


    Bó, Pedro Dal; Foster, Andrew; Putterman, Louis


    A novel experiment is used to show that the effect of a policy on the level of cooperation is greater when it is chosen democratically by the subjects than when it is exogenously imposed. In contrast to the previous literature, our experimental design allows us to control for selection effects (e.g. those who choose the policy may be affected differently by it). Our finding implies that democratic institutions may affect behavior directly in addition to having effects through the choice of policies. Our findings have implications for the generalizability of the results of randomized policy interventions. PMID:25076785

  17. Behavioral effects of subchronic inhalation of toluene in adult rats. (United States)

    Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Gilbert, Mary E; Bushnell, Philip J


    Whereas the acute neurobehavioral effects of toluene are robust and well characterized, evidence for persistent effects of repeated exposure to this industrial solvent is less compelling. The present experiment sought to determine whether subchronic inhalation of toluene caused persistent behavioral changes in rats. Adult male Long-Evans rats inhaled toluene vapor (0, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm) for 6h/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks and were evaluated on a series of behavioral tests beginning 3 days after the end of exposure. Toluene delayed appetitively-motivated acquisition of a lever-press response, but did not affect motor activity, anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze, trace fear conditioning, acquisition of an appetitively-motivated visual discrimination, or performance of a visual signal detection task. Challenges with acute inhalation of toluene vapor (1200-2400 ppm for 1 h) and injections of quinpirole (0.01-0.03 mg/kg) and raclopride (0.03-0.10 mg/kg) revealed no toluene-induced latent impairments in visual signal detection. These results are consistent with a pattern of subtle and inconsistent long-term effects of daily exposure to toluene vapor, in contrast to robust and reliable effects of acute inhalation of the solvent.

  18. Repeated assessment of exploration and novelty seeking in the human behavioral pattern monitor in bipolar disorder patients and healthy individuals.

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    Arpi Minassian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exploration and novelty seeking are cross-species adaptive behaviors that are dysregulated in bipolar disorder (BD and are critical features of the illness. While these behaviors have been extensively quantified in animals, multivariate human paradigms of exploration are lacking. The human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM, a human version of the animal open field, identified a signature pattern of hyper-exploration in manic BD patients, but whether exploratory behavior changes with treatment is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of the hBPM to changes in manic symptoms, a necessary step towards elucidating the neurobiology underlying BD. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve acutely hospitalized manic BD subjects and 21 healthy volunteers were tested in the hBPM over three sessions; all subjects were retested one week after their first session and two weeks after their second session. Motor activity, spatial and entropic (degree of unpredictability patterns of exploration, and interactions with novel objects were quantified. Manic BD patients demonstrated greater motor activity, extensive and more unpredictable patterns of exploration, and more object interactions than healthy volunteers during all three sessions. Exploration and novelty-seeking slightly decreased in manic BD subjects over the three sessions as their symptoms responded to treatment, but never to the level of healthy volunteers. Among healthy volunteers, exploration did not significantly decrease over time, and hBPM measures were highly correlated between sessions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Manic BD patients showed a modest reduction in symptoms yet still demonstrated hyper-exploration and novelty seeking in the hBPM, suggesting that these illness features may be enduring characteristics of BD. Furthermore, behavior in the hBPM is not subject to marked habituation effects. The hBPM can be reliably used in a repeated-measures design

  19. Assessment of Risk of Violent Behavior in Female Psychiatric Patients with a Criminal History

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    Makurina A.P.,


    Full Text Available We present the results of study of illegal actions predictors in individuals with mental disorders and discuss the specific features of female criminality. On a sample of 69 patients with a diagnosis of organic mental disorder and schizophrenia, with criminal histories, we applied clinical and psychological hermeneutic analysis, used questionnaires to determine the self-assessments of patients, self-control diagnosis, self-regulation style features, diagnosis of aggression and hostility, coping strategies, destructive attitudes in interpersonal relationships. It made possible to identify clinical, social and pathopsychological factors of aggressive behavior in forensic patients. These individual psychological characteristics of mentally ill women will improve the prognosis of their aggressive behavior, implement differentiated preventive measures in the hospital and to establish appropriate intervention programs

  20. Evaluating student discipline practices in a public school through behavioral assessment of office referrals. (United States)

    Putnam, Robert F; Luiselli, James K; Handler, Marcie W; Jefferson, Gretchen L


    Office discipline referrals are a common practice in public schools to address students' problem behaviors. The authors report two descriptive studies in a public elementary-middle school to illustrate frequency of office referrals as an evaluative data source. Study I was a behavioral assessment of office referrals to determine the types of discipline problems confronting school personnel and the distribution of referrals among teachers, students, and grade level. In Study II, a fifth-grade class that had the most office referrals in the school received whole-class and individual-student interventions that produced a decrease in the number of referrals. These findings support use of office referrals as a readily available index by which to identify school discipline problems, design interventions, and evaluate outcome.

  1. Behavioral effects of ketamine and toxic interactions with psychostimulants

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    Yamamoto Keiichi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anesthetic drug ketamine (KT has been reported to be an abused drug and fatal cases have been observed in polydrug users. In the present study, considering the possibility of KT-enhanced toxic effects of other drugs, and KT-induced promotion of an overdose without making the subject aware of the danger due to the attenuation of several painful subjective symptoms, the intraperitoneal (i.p. KT-induced alterations in behaviors and toxic interactions with popular co-abused drugs, the psychostimulants cocaine (COC and methamphetamine (MA, were examined in ICR mice. Results A single dose of KT caused hyperlocomotion in a low (30 mg/kg, i.p. dose group, and hypolocomotion followed by hyperlocomotion in a high (100 mg/kg, i.p. dose group. However, no behavioral alterations derived from enhanced stress-related depression or anxiety were observed in the forced swimming or the elevated plus-maze test. A single non-fatal dose of COC (30 mg/kg, i.p. or MA (4 mg/kg, i.p. caused hyperlocomotion, stress-related depression in swimming behaviors in the forced swimming test, and anxiety-related behavioral changes (preference for closed arms in the elevated plus-maze test. For the COC (30 mg/kg or MA (4 mg/kg groups of mice simultaneously co-treated with KT, the psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion was suppressed by the high dose KT, and the psychostimulant-induced behavioral alterations in the above tests were reversed by both low and high doses of KT. For the toxic dose COC (70 mg/kg, i.p.- or MA (15 mg/kg, i.p.-only group, mortality and severe seizures were observed in some animals. In the toxic dose psychostimulant-KT groups, KT attenuated the severity of seizures dose-dependently. Nevertheless, the mortality rate was significantly increased by co-treatment with the high dose KT. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that, in spite of the absence of stress-related depressive and anxiety-related behavioral alterations following a single

  2. Effectiveness of and Dropout from Outpatient Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adult Unipolar Depression: A Meta-Analysis of Nonrandomized Effectiveness Studies (United States)

    Hans, Eva; Hiller, Wolfgang


    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to assess the overall effectiveness of and dropout from individual and group outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for adults with a primary diagnosis of unipolar depressive disorder in routine clinical practice. Method: We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of 34 nonrandomized…

  3. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior (United States)

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank


    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  4. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Ethnicity on Children's Behavioral Attributions and Peer Preferences (United States)

    Langlois, Judith H.; Stephan, Cookie


    Investigates the generality of stereotypes associated with physical attractiveness and assesses the relative contributions of attractiveness and ethnicity in determining children's behavioral attributions and peer preferences. (JMB)

  5. Effects of Supervisor Performance Feedback on Increasing Preservice Teachers' Positive Communication Behaviors with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Rathel, Jeanna Marie; Drasgow, Erik; Christle, Christine C.


    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of supervisor performance feedback on preservice teachers' rates of positive and negative communication behaviors with students with emotional and behavioral disorders and the effects of the intervention on the preservice teachers' perceptions of classroom management and climate. The authors…

  6. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) effects on behavioral thermoregulation with microwave radiation. (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Laconsay, K L; Agnew, A C; Henderson, M E; Quinn, J M; Holland, B E; DePace, A N


    Aspirin is a widely used over-the-counter drug in our society which has wide therapeutic value, yet not all of the behavioral side effects have been studied. Different doses of aspirin solutions were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold environment. Four Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement. Friedman's nonparametric test showed significant differences among aspirin and saline-control doses. Post hoc sign tests showed that a moderate dose of aspirin increased operant behavior reinforced by MW radiation, yet lower and higher doses decreased and then increased the rate of responding which resulted in an inverted U-shaped trend. Possible multiple effects of aspirin in terms of its thermoregulatory as well as its pain-tolerance properties, and implications for hypothalamic "set point" are discussed.

  7. The Effect of Labor Supply Shortages on Asymmetric Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    This study examines the effect of shortages in labor supply on asymmetric cost behavior. Building on the labor demand literature, it is argued that labor supply shortages increase adjustment costs for hiring new employees. Consistent with this explanation, results provide evidence that companies...... facing restrictions in labor supply increase costs (and resources) less than companies operating with sufficient access to additional personnel. This leads to a more symmetrical cost behavior for increasing activity compared to decreasing activity. Additional analyses show that shortages in labor supply...... induce firms to increase selling prices but also to temporarily expect more effort from their current employees. The effect decreases with the length of the labor supply shock and is more pronounced for companies located in less populated regions. Results are robust to alternative explanations...

  8. The effects of music on animal physiology, behavior and welfare. (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne C; Buerkle, Shawna C


    Physiological and psychological effects of listening to music have been documented in humans. The changes in physiology, cognition and brain chemistry and morphology induced by music have been studied in animal models, providing evidence that music may affect animals similarly to humans. Information about the potential benefits of music to animals suggests that providing music may be used as a means of improving the welfare of laboratory animals, such as through environmental enrichment, stress relief and behavioral modification. The authors review the current research on music's effect on animals' physiology and behavior and discuss its potential for improving animal welfare. They conclude that the benefits of providing music to laboratory animals depend on the species and the type of music.

  9. Effects of female gonadal hormones and LPS on depressive-like behavior in rats

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    Mitić Miloš


    Full Text Available Considerable evidence shows an association of depression with the immune system and emphasizes the importance of gender in the etiology of the disease and the response to inflammatory stimuli. We examined the influence of immune-challenged systems on depressive-like behavior in female rats in the context of gonadal hormones. We used a neuroinflammatory model of depression elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration on naive and ovariectomized (OVX female rats, and examined the effects of estradiol (E2 and/or progesterone (P4 replacement therapy on animal behavior, as assessed by the forced swimming test (FST. We found that LPS and OVX increase immobility in the FST, while LPS also decreased body weight in naive female rats. Further, even though P4 application alone showed beneficial effects on the behavioral profile (it reduced immobility and increased climbing, supplementation of both hormones (E2 and P4 together to OVX rats failed to do so. When OVX rats were exposed to LPS-induced immune challenge, neither hormone individually nor their combination had any effect on immobility, however, their joint supplementation increased climbing behavior. In conclusion, our study confirmed that both LPS and OVX induced depressive-like behavior in female rats. Furthermore, our results potentiate P4 supplementation in relieving the depressive-like symptomatology in OVX rats, most likely through fine-tuning of different neurotransmitter systems. In the context of an activated immune system, the application of E2 and/or P4 does not provide any advantageous effects on depressive-like behavior.

  10. Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood. (United States)

    Hohmann, Sarah; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Hohm, Erika; Laucht, Manfred


    Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5' untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring's mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously.

  11. Behaviorism (United States)

    Moore, J.


    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  12. Self-reported coping behavior in health and disease: assessment with a card sort game (United States)

    Schwartz, C. E.; Peng, C. K.; Lester, N.; Daltroy, L. H.; Goldberger, A. L.


    The authors tested the hypothesis that individuals with a variety of severe chronic illnesses and the healthy elderly exhibit a loss of flexibility in their response to a variety of stressors, compared with healthy adults. A card sort game designed to assess self-reported coping behavior under different stressful life situations was used to compare healthy adults with individuals with multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and the elderly. The healthy adults were found to exhibit more variability than any of the illness groups or the elderly. Healthy function is marked by a complex type of variability.

  13. Assessing sexuality attitudes and behaviors and correlates of alcohol and drugs. (United States)

    Donnelly, J; Goldfarb, E S; Ferraro, H; Eadie, C; Duncan, D F


    The association between sexual abstinence and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana was examined in data from questionnaires completed by 874 students in Grades 6 through 8 at six urban schools. These students participated in a program that implemented and evaluated an educational program on abstinence sexuality. It focused on raising self-esteem, improving communication skills, and learning to set life goals. The evaluation instrument contained items assessing sexuality and attitudes toward behaviors related to drug use. Use of each drug (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) was significantly (p < .00001) and positively associated with self-report of having experienced sexual intercourse and expectation of having intercourse during the next year.

  14. Mechanical behavior and stress effects in hard superconductors: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, C. C.; Easton, D. S.


    The mechanical properties of type II superconducting materials are reviewed as well as the effect of stress on the superconducting properties of these materials. The bcc alloys niobium-titanium and niobium-zirconium exhibit good strength and extensive ductility at room temperature. Mechanical tests on these alloys at 4.2/sup 0/K revealed serrated stress-strain curves, nonlinear elastic effects and reduced ductility. The nonlinear behavior is probably due to twinning and detwinning or a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation. The brittle A-15 compound superconductors, such as Nb/sub 3/Sn and V/sub 3/Ga, exhibit unusual elastic properties and structural instabilities at cryogenic temperatures. Multifilamentary composites consisting of superconducting filaments in a normal metal matrix are generally used for superconducting devices. The mechanical properties of alloy and compound composites, tapes, as well as composites of niobium carbonitride chemically vapor deposited on high strength carbon fibers are presented. Hysteretic stress-strain behavior in the metal matrix composites produces significant heat generation, an effect which may lead to degradation in the performance of high field magnets. Measurements of the critical current density, J/sub c/, under stress in a magnetic field are reported. Modest stress-reversible degradation in J/sub c/ was observed in niobium-titanium composites, while more serious degradation was found in Nb/sub 3/Sn samples. The importance of mechanical behavior to device performance is discussed.

  15. Behavioral and social effects of family violence in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was tome asure effects of domestic violence on children, both child abuse and exposure to marital violence. 300 families were randomly selected in Hermosillo, Sonora, a northwestern Mexican city. Two members of each family were interviewed: the mother anda minor randomly selected among all their children. The research instrument collected demographicinformation, and information regarding mother's and parent's alcohol consumption, marital violence,child abuse, and child misconduct. A structural model was tested which estimated the effects ofchild abuse and exposure to marital violence on child problems. Results showed that the two forms of violence had repercussions on delinquent and antisocial behavior, produced attention problems,depression, anxiety, sadness and the manifestation of somatic symptoms. In addition, mother's education a level had a significant and negative effect on children's behavioral and social problemsand father's educational level inhibited their aggression against their wives. Alcohol consumption was positively related to child abuse. These results seems to indicate that both child abuse andexposure to marital violence rcsult in harmful consequences on children's behavior and well-being.

  16. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Teacher Form, Ages 5 to 21, of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (United States)

    Aricak, O. Tolga; Oakland, Thomas


    The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model that highlighted 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II) was designed to be consistent with these models.…

  17. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn


    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  18. Driver behavior and accident frequency in school zones: Assessing the impact of sign saturation. (United States)

    Strawderman, Lesley; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Huang, Yunchen; Nandi, Apurba


    Based on the models of human information processing, if a driver observes too many of the same signs, he or she may no longer pay attention to those signs. In the case of school zones, this expected effect may lead to non-compliance to posted speeds, negatively impacting safety around nearby schools. This study aims to investigate the effect of the number of nearby school zones on driver behavior (vehicle speed and compliance) and accident frequency. As a measure of the density of school zones, this study introduced and defined a new term sign saturation and presented a methodology to calculate sign saturation for school zones. Results found a significant effect of sign saturation on vehicle speed, compliance, and accident frequency. This study also examined the speeding behavior in school zones for different time of the day and day of the week. Results found that speeding was more prevalent in the early mornings and during the weekends.

  19. Effect of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ranjbar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most prevalent psychotic disorder. In order to cure and prevent the recurrence of this disease, it is necessary to gain more information about remedial methods like Group Cognitive- Behavior Therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the amount of depression on the patients. Methods: This study was experimental and it included both experimental and control group with a pre test. The subjects were selected from patients with mild depression. Their Beck inventory score ranged between 17-20. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. The subjects of experimental group received eight sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Beck depression test was completed by the subjects in three phases before the intervention, after the intervention and one month after that. The data was transferred to SPSS program and analyzed. Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the intervention at Beck tests (P=0.043. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the experimental group between the depression score in patients before and after the intervention (p=0.033 and the score of patients before and one month after the intervention (p=0.492. Conclusion: Group Cognitive-Behavioral therapy decreases depression in patients who suffer from mild depression.

  20. Aspen shaving versus chip bedding: effects on breeding and behavior. (United States)

    Jackson, E; Demarest, K; Eckert, W J; Cates-Gatto, C; Nadav, T; Cates, L N; Howard, H; Roberts, A J


    The choice of laboratory cage bedding material is often based on both practical and husbandry issues, whereas behavioral outcomes rarely appear to be considered. It has been noted that a breeding success difference appears to be associated with the differential use of aspen chip and aspen shaving bedding in our facility; therefore, we sought to analyze breeding records maintained over a 20-month period. In fact, in all four mouse strains analyzed, shaving bedding was associated with a significant increase in average weanlings per litter relative to chip bedding. To determine whether these bedding types also resulted in differences in behaviors associated with wellbeing, we examined nest building, anxiety-like, depressive-like (or helpless-like), and social behavior in mice housed on chip versus shaving bedding. We found differences in the nests built, but no overall effect of bedding type on the other behaviors examined. Therefore, we argue that breeding success, perhaps especially in more challenging strains, is improved on shaving bedding and this is likely due to improved nest-building potential. For standard laboratory practices, however, these bedding types appear equivalent.

  1. Use of a training program to enhance NICU nurses' cognitive abilities for assessing preterm infant behaviors and offering supportive interventions. (United States)

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan


    This study tested the use of a developmentally supportive care (DSC) training program in the form of videotaped and personalized instruction to increase nurses' cognitive abilities for assessing preterm infant behavioral signals and offering supportive care. The study used a two-group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental repeated measures design. The participants were 25 NICU nurses, 13 in the intervention group, and 12 in the control group. An instrument developed for the purpose of the study was a video test that measured the effectiveness of the DSC training. The video test questionnaires were administered to the participants twice with an interval of four weeks. ANCOVA controlling the baseline scores was used for data analysis. In general, the results support the hypothesis that nurses' cognitive abilities were enhanced after the DSC training. The increase in nurses' cognitive abilities is the prerequisite for behavioral change, based on the assumptions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Learning Theory (Bandura, 1986). As nurses' cognitive abilities increased, it would be possible that nurse behaviors in taking care of these preterm infants might change. Therefore, the author recommends that in order to improve NICU care quality and the outcomes of preterm infants, the concepts of developmentally supportive care be incorporated into NICU caregiving practice by educating nurses.

  2. Model-based experimental design for assessing effects of mixtures of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baas, Jan, E-mail: [Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, Dept of Theoretical Biology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stefanowicz, Anna M., E-mail: [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Klimek, Beata, E-mail: [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Laskowski, Ryszard, E-mail: [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.L.M., E-mail: [Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, Dept of Theoretical Biology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    We exposed flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) to a mixture of four poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The experimental setup was chosen such that the emphasis was on assessing partial effects. We interpreted the effects of the mixture by a process-based model, with a threshold concentration for effects on survival. The behavior of the threshold concentration was one of the key features of this research. We showed that the threshold concentration is shared by toxicants with the same mode of action, which gives a mechanistic explanation for the observation that toxic effects in mixtures may occur in concentration ranges where the individual components do not show effects. Our approach gives reliable predictions of partial effects on survival and allows for a reduction of experimental effort in assessing effects of mixtures, extrapolations to other mixtures, other points in time, or in a wider perspective to other organisms. - We show a mechanistic approach to assess effects of mixtures in low concentrations.

  3. Does Mother Know Best? Parental Discrepancies in Assessing Child Behavioral and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Lausten, Mette; Pozzoli, Dario


    We investigate the degree of correspondence between parents’ reports on child behavioral and educational outcomes using wave four of a rich Danish longitudinal survey of children (the DALSC). All outcomes are measured at age 11 when the children are expected to be in fifth grade. Once discrepancies...... are detected, we analyze whether they are driven by noisy evaluations or by systematic bias, focusing on the role of parental characteristics and response heterogeneity. We then explicitly assess the relative importance of the mother’s versus the father’s assessments in explaining child academic performance...... and diagnosed mental health to investigate whether one parent is systematically a better informant of their child’s outcomes than the other. Our results show that parental psychopathology, measured as maternal distress, is a source of systematic misreporting of child functioning, that the parent–child...

  4. Promoting Behavioral Regulation in Writing: Differential Effects on Indicators of Writing Performance and Learning Behaviors in 4th Graders with and without Externalizing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Glaser


    Full Text Available In a writing intervention study with 4th-graders, we examined the effects of behaviour-oriented procedures (specification of behaviour rules and intentions; feedback on desired target behaviour, and self-evaluation of behaviour progress on the writing performance of students with aggressive and hyperactive behaviors. In two classes, 42 students, including 10 students with aggressive and hyperactive behaviors, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: writing strategies program vs. writing strategies plus behaviour-regulation program. Both programs consisted of four 90-min sessions. In groups of nine to twelve students, all students received a cognitive strategies intervention for writing narratives (Glaser, 2005. At posttest and follow-up assessments (four weeks after the training, aggressive-hyperactive students who had been taught writing strategies in tandem with behaviour-regulation techniques outperformed students with problem behaviours who had not been taught such techniques in strategy-related and holistic measures of writing performance. Students with behaviour problems who had only received the writing strategies instruction gained least from attending the program.

  5. Effects of hallucinogenic agents mescaline and phencyclidine on zebrafish behavior and physiology. (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Collins, Christopher; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Green, Jeremy; Roth, Andrew; Monnig, Louie; El-Ounsi, Mohamed; Davis, Ari; Freeman, Andrew; Capezio, Nicholas; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V


    Mescaline and phencyclidine (PCP) are potent hallucinogenic agents affecting human and animal behavior. As their psychotropic effects remain poorly understood, further research is necessary to characterize phenotypes they evoke in various animal models. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as a new model organism for neuroscience research. Here, we examine the effects of mescaline (5-20mg/l) and PCP (0.5-3mg/l) in several zebrafish paradigms, including the novel tank, open field and shoaling tests. Mescaline and PCP dose-dependently increased top activity in the novel tank test, also reducing immobility and disrupting the patterning of zebrafish swimming, as assessed by ethograms. PCP, but not mescaline, evoked circling behavior in the open field test. At the highest doses tested, mescaline markedly increased, while PCP did not affect, zebrafish shoaling behavior. Finally, 20mg/l mescaline did not alter, and 3mg/l PCP elevated, whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our studies indicate high sensitivity of zebrafish models to hallucinogenic compounds with complex behavioral and physiological effects.

  6. The Effect of Behavioral Family Intervention on Knowledge of Effective Parenting Strategies (United States)

    Winter, Leanne; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R.


    There is a paucity of research considering the effect of behavioral family intervention (BFI) on parenting knowledge and the relative importance of both knowledge and parent confidence in reducing parenting dysfunction and problematic child behavior is unclear. In this study ninety-one parents (44 mothers, 47 fathers) of children aged 2-10 years…

  7. Investigating the Collateral Effects of Behavior Management on Early Literacy Skills (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Prykanowski, Debra; Coyne, Michael; Scott, Terrance M.


    Effective behavior management is necessary to ensure students are engaged with instruction. Students cannot learn if they are not engaged. Although the relationship between effective behavior management and positive student behavior is well established, the relationship between behavior management and increased academic achievement, including…

  8. Blending Effective Behavior Management and Literacy Strategies for Preschoolers Exhibiting Negative Behavior (United States)

    Smith, Jaime


    Sometimes students will exhibit various aggressive behaviors in the preschool classroom. Early childhood educators need to have behavior management strategies to manage the students' negative behaviors within the classroom setting. This article will provide a rationale for embedding literacy instruction within behavior management strategies to…

  9. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa Hayley

    Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS

  10. The Effect of Loneliness on Social Networking Sites Use and Its Related Behaviors (United States)

    Ranaeiy, Samira; Taghavi, Mohammad Reza; Goodarzi, Mohammad Ali


    Introduction: The current research was conducted to examine the effect of “Loneliness”, on time spent in Social Networking Sites (S.N.S), main reasons for S.N.S use, and its related behaviors. Materials and Methods: 156 students of Shiraz University voluntarily participated in this research. Loneliness was assessed usingthe UCLA Loneliness scale. 25% of highest scoring students reported that they were lonely whereas 25% of the lowest scoring students were considered to be non-lonely. The positive and negative reasons of using S.N.S were assessed based on Reasons for Internet Use Scale, and internet behaviors were assessed based on Scale of Internet Behaviors. Results: There was no difference in time spent in S.N.S as well as the positive and negative reasons of using S.N.S (contrary to literature), but internet behaviors showed a significant difference between “lonely” and “non-lonely” individuals. “Lonely” and “non-lonely” individuals showed a significant difference in “social aspect” of S.N.S behaviors. There was also a significant difference between “Lonely” and “non-Lonely” individuals in “Negative impact” of S.N.S behaviors. Yet, there seemed to be no difference in “competency and convenience aspect” of S.N.S behaviors. Conclusions: This study suggested that there is no difference between lonely and non-lonely individuals in reasons for using S.N.S and time spent in S.N.S. This finding stands contrary to previous research findings and general literature on the subject In other words, what drives people to S.N.S at the first place shows no significant difference between lonely and non-lonely individuals while after attending S.N.S, social behavior of lonely individuals shows a significant difference which is consistently enhanced online. Lonely people also significantly develop internet-related problems in their daily functioning, including interference with real life socializing. PMID:27045407

  11. An Auditory BCI System for Assisting CRS-R Behavioral Assessment in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Xie, Qiuyou; He, Yanbin; Yu, Tianyou; Lu, Shenglin; Huang, Ningmeng; Yu, Ronghao; Li, Yuanqing


    The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) is a consistent and sensitive behavioral assessment standard for disorders of consciousness (DOC) patients. However, the CRS-R has limitations due to its dependence on behavioral markers, which has led to a high rate of misdiagnosis. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), which directly detect brain activities without any behavioral expression, can be used to evaluate a patient’s state. In this study, we explored the application of BCIs in assisting CRS-R assessments of DOC patients. Specifically, an auditory passive EEG-based BCI system with an oddball paradigm was proposed to facilitate the evaluation of one item of the auditory function scale in the CRS-R - the auditory startle. The results obtained from five healthy subjects validated the efficacy of the BCI system. Nineteen DOC patients participated in the CRS-R and BCI assessments, of which three patients exhibited no responses in the CRS-R assessment but were responsive to auditory startle in the BCI assessment. These results revealed that a proportion of DOC patients who have no behavioral responses in the CRS-R assessment can generate neural responses, which can be detected by our BCI system. Therefore, the proposed BCI may provide more sensitive results than the CRS-R and thus assist CRS-R behavioral assessments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Systematic assessment of pain is difficult in intensive care units, because most of the patients are non-communicative and are unable to self-report pain. The Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS is one of the assessment tools for uncommunicative and sedated intensive care unit patients. This study is to assess and evaluate the efficacy and reliability of BPS scale in mechanically ventilated patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective observational study in 71 mechanically ventilated medical ICU patients who were unable to report pain was assessed with BPS. RESULTS Post procedure there was a significant difference in the percentage of patients with an increased BPS score for repositioning, but not for oral care. CONCLUSIONS This study showed that the BPS is reliable and valid for use in sedated ICU patients. We conclude that pain scales should be incorporated into pain management as protocols to target the desired levels of analgesia in order to optimize inter-professional practices and to achieve better patient outcomes

  13. Varenicline effects on cocaine self administration and reinstatement behavior. (United States)

    Guillem, Karine; Peoples, Laura L


    This study tested the effects of the nicotine addiction treatment varenicline on cocaine self administration (SA) and reinstatement. In one SA experiment, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/infusion). Thereafter, daily SA sessions continued as before except that every fourth session was preceded by a presession injection of varenicline (0.0, 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, SC, 50-min presession). In three reinstatement experiments, animals were exposed sequentially to SA training, extinction training, and several reinstatement test sessions. In two of the reinstatement experiments, cocaine-seeking was reinstated by presentation of cocaine-predictive cues at the onset of the test session (cue reinstatement). In a third reinstatement experiment, cocaine-seeking was reinstated by a presession injection of cocaine (drug reinstatement). Each reinstatement session was preceded by an injection of either vehicle or varenicline (dose range of 0.1-2.0 mg/kg). The SA and reinstatement experiments showed that low-dose varenicline decreases reinstatement behavior, without significantly affecting cocaine SA. In contrast, high-dose varenicline increases reinstatement of cocaine-directed behavior and decreases cocaine SA. A control study showed that sucrose-directed behavior is unaltered by varenicline. On the basis of these findings, low-varenicline doses might decrease relapse in cocaine-addicted individuals, but high doses of varenicline might have the opposite effect.

  14. Intragroup and intergroup evaluation effects on group behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branscombe, NR; Spears, R; Ellemers, N; Doosje, B


    Groups differ in the prestige they are accorded by outgroups, and individuals differ in how much respect they receive from their group. The authors orthogonally varied both types of social evaluation-intergroup and intragroup-to assess their joint effects on reward allocations and the amount of tune

  15. Behavioral and trait rating assessments of personality in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). (United States)

    Iwanicki, Suzanne; Lehmann, Julia


    The study of personality in animals is a rapidly growing scientific field and numerous species have been reported to show consistent personality profiles. Much animal personality research has focused on nonhuman primates, with the main emphasis being placed on Old World primates, particularly rhesus macaques and chimpanzees. So far, little work has been done on cooperatively breeding nonhuman primates and New World species. Here, we study personality in the cooperatively breeding common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to broaden the taxonomic range of such research and to widen the perspective of comparative personality research. We use behavioral data collection and observer trait ratings to assess marmoset personality dimensions. The resulting behavioral and rating-derived personality dimensions, when viewed in tandem, resemble the human five-factor model and include extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and conscientiousness. Correlations between the behavioral data and the observer trait-rated personality components suggest that the personality construct of common marmosets exhibits both convergent and discriminant validity. The finding of a distinct Conscientiousness component in this species extends previous knowledge in comparative personality psychology and warrants reconsideration of proposed taxonomic trait distributions.

  16. Assessing behavioral patterns of Internet addiction and drug abuse among high school students (United States)

    Nemati, Zeinab; Matlabi, Hossein


    Background Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. Methods A sectional and descriptive–analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS) were used for data collection. Results The total score of Internet addiction among the students was 41.72 ± 17.41. Approximately two-third of the students were not addicted to the Internet. The mean score of the AAS was 1.87 ± 1.23 among boys and 1.75 ± 1.31 among girls. Moreover, 8.31% of the students were prone to abusing substances. A statistically significant relationship was found between mother’s literacy level and Internet addiction behavior of students (p=0.009). Conclusion Concentrating on adolescents’ behavioral patterns and their tendency toward misusing Internet and drugs is a notable procedure. Therefore, focusing on adolescents’ health and institutionalizing appropriate training programs for adolescents and their families are vital. PMID:28182139

  17. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices. (United States)

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David


    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use.

  18. Population assessment of tropical tuna based on their associative behavior around floating objects. (United States)

    Capello, M; Deneubourg, J L; Robert, M; Holland, K N; Schaefer, K M; Dagorn, L


    Estimating the abundance of pelagic fish species is a challenging task, due to their vast and remote habitat. Despite the development of satellite, archival and acoustic tagging techniques that allow the tracking of marine animals in their natural environments, these technologies have so far been underutilized in developing abundance estimations. We developed a new method for estimating the abundance of tropical tuna that employs these technologies and exploits the aggregative behavior of tuna around floating objects (FADs). We provided estimates of abundance indices based on a simulated set of tagged fish and studied the sensitivity of our method to different association dynamics, FAD numbers, population sizes and heterogeneities of the FAD-array. Taking the case study of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) acoustically-tagged in Hawaii, we implemented our approach on field data and derived for the first time the ratio between the associated and the total population. With more extensive and long-term monitoring of FAD-associated tunas and good estimates of the numbers of fish at FADs, our method could provide fisheries-independent estimates of populations of tropical tuna. The same approach can be applied to obtain population assessments for any marine and terrestrial species that display associative behavior and from which behavioral data have been acquired using acoustic, archival or satellite tags.

  19. Cumulative effects of road de-icing salt on amphibian behavior. (United States)

    Denoël, Mathieu; Bichot, Marion; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Delcourt, Johann; Ylieff, Marc; Kestemont, Patrick; Poncin, Pascal


    Despite growing evidence of the detrimental effect of chemical substances on organisms, limited research has focused on changes in behavioral patterns, in part due to the difficulties to obtain detailed quantitative data. Recent developments in efficient computer-based video analyses have allowed testing pesticide effects on model species such as the zebrafish. However, these new techniques have not yet been applied to amphibians and directly to conservation issues, i.e., to assess toxicological risks on threatened species. We used video-tracking analyses to test a quantitative effect of an environmental contaminant on the locomotion of amphibian tadpoles (Rana temporaria) by taking into account cumulative effects. Because recent research has demonstrated effects of de-icing salts on survival and community structure, we used sodium chloride in our experimental design (25 replicates, 4 concentrations, 4 times) to test for an effect at the scale of behavior at environmentally relevant concentrations. Analysis of 372 1-h video-tracks (5 samples/s) showed a complex action of salts on behavioral patterns with a dose and cumulative response over time. Although no effects were found on mortality or growth, the highest salt concentrations reduced the speed and movement of tadpoles in comparison with control treatments. The reduced locomotor performance could have detrimental consequences in terms of tadpoles' responses to competition and predation and may be an indicator of the low concentration effect of the contaminant. On one hand, this study demonstrates the usefulness of examining behavior to address conservation issues and understand the complex action of environmental factors and, more particularly, pollutants on organisms. On the other hand, our results highlight the need of new computerized techniques to quantitatively analyze these patterns.

  20. Fall Risk Assessment and Early-Warning for Toddler Behaviors at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mau-Tsuen Yang


    Full Text Available Accidental falls are the major cause of serious injuries in toddlers, with most of these falls happening at home. Instead of providing immediate fall detection based on short-term observations, this paper proposes an early-warning childcare system to monitor fall-prone behaviors of toddlers at home. Using 3D human skeleton tracking and floor plane detection based on depth images captured by a Kinect system, eight fall-prone behavioral modules of toddlers are developed and organized according to four essential criteria: posture, motion, balance, and altitude. The final fall risk assessment is generated by a multi-modal fusion using either a weighted mean thresholding or a support vector machine (SVM classification. Optimizations are performed to determine local parameter in each module and global parameters of the multi-modal fusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can assess fall risks and trigger alarms with an accuracy rate of 92% at a speed of 20 frames per second.

  1. Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on behavioral problems in children: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, I.; Speetjens, P.; Smit, F.; de Wolff, M.; Tavecchio, L.


    The Triple P Positive Parenting Program is a multilevel parenting program to prevent and offer treatment for severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of Triple P Level 4 interventions in the management of behav

  2. Long-Term Effects of Ammonia on the Behavioral Activity of the Aquatic Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Camargo, J.A.


    An appropriate approach to assess the effect of toxicants on aquatic animals is to monitor behavioral endpoints, as they are a link between physiological and ecological processes. A group that can be exposed long-term to low toxic concentrations is benthic macroinvertebrates, as their mobility in aq

  3. Manipulating the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation: examination of the influence on challenging behavior during leisure activities. (United States)

    O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Chan, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Langthorne, Paul


    We examined the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation on challenging behavior during leisure activities for three individuals with severe disabilities. Prior functional analyses indicated that challenging behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention or tangible items for all participants. During leisure sessions, each participant played preferred games (cards, jigsaws) with two individuals without disabilities. The discriminative stimuli for challenging behavior were present during leisure sessions but challenging behavior was never reinforced. Immediately prior to leisure sessions, the participants received either access to the reinforcers that maintained challenging behavior or no access. Access versus no access to reinforcers for challenging behavior prior to leisure sessions was alternated in a multi-element design. Results demonstrated higher levels of challenging behavior during leisure sessions when the participants did not have access to the reinforcers prior to the sessions. Little challenging behavior occurred during leisure sessions when the participants had prior access to the reinforcers. Arguments for further examining the behavior-altering effects of the motivating operation in future applied research are presented.

  4. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and their mothers. (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Yu-Min; Cheng, Jen-Wen; Liu, Tai-Ling; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Pinchen; Chou, Wen-Jiun


    The aims of this intervention study were to examine the effects of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) based on the modified Coping Cat Program on improving anxiety symptoms and behavioral problems in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and parenting stress perceived by their mothers. A total of 24 children with anxiety disorders in the treatment group completed the 17-session individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program, and 26 children in the control group received the treatment as usual intervention. The Taiwanese version of the MASC (MASC-T), the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18) and the Chinese version of the Parenting Stress Index (C-PSI) were applied to assess the severities of anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress, respectively. The effects of CBT on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress were examined by using linear mixed-effect model with maximum likelihood estimation. The results indicated that the CBT significantly improved the severities of MASC-T Physical Symptoms and Social Anxiety subscales, CBCL/6-18 DSM-oriented Anxiety Problem subscale, and C-PSI Child domains Mood and Adaptability subscales. Individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program can potentially improve anxiety symptoms in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and some child domains of parenting stress perceived by their mothers.

  5. Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Perceptions of Effective Behavior Management Strategies (United States)

    Nields, Allison N.


    This study examined student teachers' perceptions and knowledge of behavior management strategies. A questionnaire that included questions about broad behavior management techniques, behavioral learning theory, and behavior management strategies related to behavioral learning theory was given to sixty-one student teacher candidates at a large…

  6. Assessment of Tungsten Content on Tertiary Creep Deformation Behavior of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel (United States)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, Kinkar


    Tertiary creep deformation behavior of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels having different tungsten contents has been assessed. Creep tests were carried out at 823 K (550 °C) over a stress range of 180 to 260 MPa on three heats of the RAFM steel (9Cr-W-0.06Ta-0.22V) with tungsten content of 1, 1.4, and 2.0 wt pct. With creep exposure, the steels exhibited minimum in creep rate followed by progressive increase in creep rate until fracture. The minimum creep rate decreased, rupture life increased, and the onset of tertiary stage of creep deformation delayed with the increase in tungsten content. The tertiary creep behavior has been assessed based on the relationship, , considering minimum creep rate () instead of steady-state creep rate. The increase in tungsten content was found to decrease the rate of acceleration of tertiary parameter ` p.' The relationships between (1) tertiary parameter `p' with minimum creep rate and time spent in tertiary creep deformation and (2) the final creep rate with minimum creep rate revealed that the same first-order reaction rate theory prevailed in the minimum creep rate as well as throughout the tertiary creep deformation behavior of the steel. A master tertiary creep curve of the steels has been developed. Scanning electron microscopic investigation revealed enhanced coarsening resistance of carbides in the steel on creep exposure with increase in tungsten content. The decrease in tertiary parameter ` p' with tungsten content with the consequent decrease in minimum creep rate and increase in rupture life has been attributed to the enhanced microstructural stability of the steel.

  7. Size effect on the static behavior of electrostatically actuated microbeams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yin; Qin Qian; Lin Wang


    We present a new analytical model for electrostatically actuated microbeams to explore the size effect by using the modified couple stress theory and the minimum total potential energy principle. A material length scale parameter is introduced to represent the size-dependent characteristics of microbeams. This model also accounts for the nonlinearities associated with the mid-plane stretching force and the electrostatical force. Numerical analysis for microbeams with clamped-clamped and cantilevered conditions has been performed. It is found that the intensity of size effect is closely associated with the thickness of the microbeam, and smaller beam thickness displays stronger size effect and hence yields smaller deflection and larger pull-in voltage. When the beam thickness is comparable to the material length scale parameter, the size effect is significant and the present theoretical model including the material length scale parameter is adequate for predicting the static behavior of microbeam-based MEMS.

  8. The Assessment of Protective Behavioral Strategies: Comparing the Absolute Frequency and Contingent Frequency Response Scales


    Kite, Benjamin A.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.


    The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of response scale on the observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies (PBS) measures and alcohol-related outcomes. We reasoned that an ‘absolute frequency’ scale (stem: “how many times…”; response scale: 0 times to 11+ times) conflates the frequency of using PBS with the frequency of consuming alcohol; thus, we hypothesized that the use of an absolute frequency response scale would result in positive relationship...

  9. Estimating active transportation behaviors to support health impact assessment in the United States

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    Theodore J Mansfield


    Full Text Available Health impact assessment (HIA has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as active transportation, which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9–23.2 minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5–6.4 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5–38.1 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 minutes of daily walking time for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15–59 premature deaths potentially could be

  10. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study (United States)

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.


    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  11. Validation of the Actigraph GT3X and ActivPAL Accelerometers for the Assessment of Sedentary Behavior (United States)

    Kim, Youngdeok; Barry, Vaughn W.; Kang, Minsoo


    This study examined (a) the validity of two accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X [ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL, USA] and activPAL [PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland]) for the assessment of sedentary behavior; and (b) the variations in assessment accuracy by setting minimum sedentary bout durations against a proxy for direct observation using an…

  12. Assessing behavioral patterns of Internet addiction and drug abuse among high school students

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    Nemati Z


    Full Text Available Zeinab Nemati, Hossein Matlabi Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Background: Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. Methods: A sectional and descriptive–analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS were used for data collection. Results: The total score of Internet addiction among the students was 41.72 ± 17.41. Approximately two-third of the students were not addicted to the Internet. The mean score of the AAS was 1.87 ± 1.23 among boys and 1.75 ± 1.31 among girls. Moreover, 8.31% of the students were prone to abusing substances. A statistically significant relationship was found between mother’s literacy level and Internet addiction behavior of students (p=0.009. Conclusion: Concentrating on adolescents’ behavioral patterns and their tendency toward misusing Internet and drugs is a notable procedure. Therefore, focusing on adolescents’ health and institutionalizing appropriate training programs for adolescents and their families are vital. Keywords: Internet, drug abuse, adolescence, addiction, behavior

  13. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies. (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H


    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  14. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia


    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  15. Mephedrone: Public health risk, mechanisms of action, and behavioral effects. (United States)

    Dybdal-Hargreaves, Nicholas F; Holder, Nicholas D; Ottoson, Paige E; Sweeney, Melanie D; Williams, Tyisha


    The recent shortage of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) has led to an increased demand for alternative amphetamine-like drugs such as the synthetic cathinone, 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone). Despite the re-classification of mephedrone as a Class B restricted substance by the United Kingdom and restrictive legislation by the United States, international policy regarding mephedrone control is still developing and interest in synthetic amphetamine-like drugs could drive the development of future mephedrone analogues. Currently, there is little literature investigating the mechanism of action and long-term effects of mephedrone. As such, we reviewed the current understanding of amphetamines, cathinones, and cocaine emphasizing the potentially translational aspects to mephedrone, as well as contrasting with the work that has been done specifically on mephedrone in order to present the current state of understanding of mephedrone in terms of its risks, mechanisms, and behavioral effects. Emerging research suggests that while there are structural and behavioral similarities of mephedrone with amphetamine-like compounds, it appears that serotonergic signaling may mediate more of mephedrone's effects unlike the more dopaminergic dependent effects observed in traditional amphetamine-like compounds. As new designer drugs are produced, current and continuing research on mephedrone and other synthetic cathinones should help inform policymakers' decisions regarding the regulation of novel 'legal highs.'

  16. Effects of endocannabinoid system modulation on cognitive and emotional behavior

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    Claudio eZanettini


    Full Text Available Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain's endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid-system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory and emotion (anxiety and depression. We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than affecting one or another specific behavior.

  17. Valuing a More Rigorous Review of Formative Assessment's Effectiveness (United States)

    Apthorp, Helen; Klute, Mary; Petrites, Tony; Harlacher, Jason; Real, Marianne


    Prior reviews of evidence for the impact of formative assessment on student achievement suggest widely different estimates of formative assessment's effectiveness, ranging from 0.40 and 0.70 standard deviations in one review. The purpose of this study is to describe variability in the effectiveness of formative assessment for promoting student…

  18. Effects of Immigration on Selected Health Risk Behaviors of Black College Students (United States)

    Kenya, Sonjia; Brodsky, Mitchell; Divale, William; Allegrante, John P.; Fullilove, Robert E.


    The authors administered the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to 1,219 college students who were attending a historically Black college located in New York City. They assessed the US-born Black students and Black students who emigrated to the United States for differences in risky sexual behaviors, risky dietary behaviors, and physical…

  19. Thermal effects in a mechanical model for pseudoelastic behavior of NiTi wires

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    Hugo Soul


    Full Text Available A mechanical model for pseudoelastic behavior of NiTi wires is proposed with the aim to predict the behavior of Shape Memory Alloys(SMA damping wire elements in model structures. We have considered at first a simple linearwise stress-strain relationship to describe the basic isothermal behavior of the SMA members. Then, this basic model is modified in order to include the effect of the strain rate. The model is based on detailed experimental characterization performed on a Ni rich NiTi superelastic wire which included the study of the localized character of the deformation and the local heat generation associated with the stress induced martensitic transformation occurring in these alloys. Heat conduction along the wire and heat interaction with the surroundings was also considered. In that way, the resulting local temperature field around the transformation front is assessed and its effect on the progression of the transformation is evaluated. It is shown how the simple mechanical model reproduces the global mechanical behavior, including the existence of a maximum in the damping capacity with the transformation rate.

  20. Establishment of model of visceral pain due to colorectal distension and its behavioral assessment in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping Yang; Ming Yao; Xing-Hong Jiang; Li-Na Wang


    AIM: To establish a visceral pain model via colorectal distension (CRD) and to evaluate the efficiency of behavioral responses of CRD by measuring the score of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in rats.METHODS: Thirty-eight male SD rats weighing 180-240g were used to establish the visceral pain model. The rat was inserted intra-anally with a 7 cm long flexible latex balloon under ether anesthesia, and colorectal distensions by inflating the balloon with air were made 30 min after recovering from the anesthesia.Five AWR scores (AWR0 to AWR4) were used to assess the intensity of noxious visceral stimuli. It was regarded as the threshold of the minimal pressure (kPa). For abdominal flatting was induced by colorectal distension.RESULTS: A vigorous AWR to distension of the descending colon and rectum was found in 100% of the awake rats tested. The higher the pressure of distension; the higher the score of AWR. The distension pressures of 0, 2.00, 3.33, 5.33 and 8.00 kPa produced different AWR scores (P<0.05). The pain threshold of AWR was constant for up to 80 min after the initial windup (first 1-3 distensions), the mean threshold was 3.69±0.35 kPa. Systemic administration of morphine sulfate elevated the threshold of visceral pain in a dosedependent and naloxone reversible manner.CONCLUSION: Scoring the AWR during colorectal distensions can assess the intensity of noxious visceral stimulus. Flatting of abdomen (AWR 3) to CRD as the visceral pain threshold is clear, constant and reliable.This pain model and its behavioral assessment are good for research on visceral pain and analgesics.

  1. The Cognitive Behavioral Assessment (CBA Project: Presentation and Proposal for International Collaboration

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    Ezio Sanavio


    Full Text Available Aims: The main aim of this paper is to describe almost 30 years of work on psychological assessment using CBA, a research team, and to propose collaboration with Latin countries. Methods: The acronym CBA stands for Cognitive Behavioural Assessment and indicates both an overall approach to clinical assessment and a series of tests. Five general principles formed the basis on which the team developed their questionnaires: (1 assessment is not a passive collection of information, but an active process similar to problem-solving; (2 horizontal integration of questionnaires with other assessment methods; (3 vertical integration and hierarchical structure of assessment questionnaires; (4 idiographic perspective; (5 computer support. Results: The paper briefly presents the most important tests: CBA-2.0, a broad-spectrum Battery for patients who need counselling and/or psychotherapy; CBA-H (Hospital for both in-patients and out-patients suffering from physical illnesses; CBA-SPORT for professional athletes; CBA-Y (young people for adolescents and young adults; CBD-VE (treatment benefits to assess the effectiveness of psychological treatment. Conclusion: These questionnaires have produced over 100 research works, published in Italian journals or presented in conferences. In the near future, we expect important, radical changes and hope to create an international research milieu.

  2. Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in an after School Program Classroom: The Effects of the Daily Behavior Report Card (United States)

    McCorvey, Zamecia J.


    There is a need to address behavior discipline problems in special and general education setting classrooms. Disruptive behaviors are a major concern as they create excessive stress and demands for classroom teachers and school administrators to address them. Effective interventions are needed to properly address them. Moreover, classroom…

  3. Effects of a Rational-Emotive Treatment Program on Type A Behavior Among College Students. (United States)

    Thurman, Christopher W.


    Investigated the effectiveness of rational-emotive therapy in treating Type A behavior in college students (N=22). Results showed the RET program was significantly more effective than no treatment in reducing Type A behavior, irrational beliefs, and anxiety. (JAC)

  4. Fabrication of biomimetic nanomaterials and their effect on cell behavior (United States)

    Porri, Teresa Jane

    Cells in vivo respond to an intricate combination of chemical and mechanical signals. The corneal epithelium, a structure which prevents the admission of bacteria and undesirable molecules into the eye, grows on a basement membrane which presents both nanoscale topographic and adhesive chemical signals. An effective approach to biomaterials design takes advantage of the synergistic effects of the multiple cellular inputs which are available to engineer cell-substrate interactions. We have previously demonstrated the effects of nanoscale topography on a variety of corneal epithelial cell behaviors. To gain a better understanding of cell-level control in vivo, we employ a systems-level approach which looks at the effect of nanoscale topography in conjunction with a biomimetic surface chemistry. First, we discuss a novel method of fabricating nanoscale topography through templated electroless deposition of gold into PVP-coated polycarbonate membranes. This technique creates nanowires of gold with an uniform outer diameter that is dependent upon the size of the pores in the membrane used, and a nanowire length that is dependent upon the extent of etching into the polymer membrane. The gold nanowires can be modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols. Using these substrates, we study the effect of topographic length scale and surface chemistry on cells attached to a discontinuous nanoscale topography, and find a transition in cellular behavior at a length scale (between 600 and 2000 nm inter-wire spacing) that is commensurate with the transition length scale seen on surfaces presenting continuous grooves and ridges. Secondly, we study the effect of non-fouling peptide-modified SAMs on cellular behavior. We examine the effect of co-presented RGD and AG73 peptides and show that cell spreading is a function of the relative ratios of RGD and AG73 present on the surface. Finally, we explore the combinatorial effects of biologically relevant chemistry with

  5. Creative behavior: Effects of the verbal consequences type

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    Carpio, Claudio


    Full Text Available The effects of different types of verbal consequences were evaluated in second order conditional discrimination tasks on creative behavior emergence in four experimental groups. In the first group, it was specified only if the responses were correct or incorrect. For the second group, it was specified the particular stimulus selected and if that response was correct or incorrect. For the third group, it was specified the relationship between selected comparative stimulus (CoS and the matching stimulus (MS and if the answer was correct or incorrect. For the fourth group, it was specified if the relation MS-CoS was equal or not to the relation between the selector stimuli (SS and if the response was correct or incorrect. Post- training transference and creative behavior tests were performed. The results showed that the different types of verbal consequences promoted contact with different aspects of the performance in the task, being partially relational consequences which promoted higher percentages in transference and creative behavior tests. The conceptual status of the verbal consequences is discussed.

  6. Quinine enhances the behavioral stimulant effect of cocaine in mice. (United States)

    Huertas, Adriana; Wessinger, William D; Kucheryavykh, Yuri V; Sanabria, Priscila; Eaton, Misty J; Skatchkov, Serguei N; Rojas, Legier V; Maldonado-Martínez, Gerónimo; Inyushin, Mikhail Y


    The Na(+)-dependent dopamine transporter (DAT) is primarily responsible for regulating free dopamine (DA) concentrations in the brain by participating in the majority of DA uptake; however, other DA transporters may also participate, especially if cocaine or other drugs of abuse compromise DAT. Recently, such cocaine-insensitive low-affinity mono- and poly-amine OCT transporters were described in astrocytes which use DA as a substrate. These transporters are from a different transporter family and while insensitive to cocaine, they are specifically blocked by quinine and some steroids. Quinine is inexpensive and is often found in injected street drugs as an "adulterant". The present study was designed to determine the participation of OCTs in cocaine dependent behavioral and physiological changes in mice. Using FVB mice we showed, that daily single injections of quinine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) co-administered with cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) for 10 days significantly enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor behavioral sensitization. Quinine had no significant effect on the time course of behavioral activation. In astrocytes from the ventral tegmental area of mice, transporter currents of quinine-sensitive monoamine transporters were also augmented after two weeks of cocaine administration. The importance of low-affinity high-capacity transporters for DA clearance is discussed, explaining the known ability of systemically administered DAT inhibitors to anomalously increase DA clearance.

  7. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change. (United States)

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges


    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  8. Effects of Strategies Marketing of Collective Buying about Impulsive Behavior

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    Suzi Elen Ferreira Dias


    Full Text Available Brazil has the second largest e-commerce market in the world. One model used in this sector is "collective buying", a feature of which is impulse sales. Consumer behavior can be influenced by several factors, two of which are addressed in this article: the individual impulsivity of consumers and strategies of mix marketing. Impulsive buying is characterized by an unplanned purchase, i.e. the need to acquire the product arises just before the purchase. Consumers respond differently to mixed strategies depending on their degree of impulsivity. Thus, this article aims to analyze the efficacy of different marketing mix strategies for impulsive and non-impulsive consumer purchasing behavior. 137 participants were given a questionnaire containing the Buying Impulsiveness scale from Rook and Fisher (1995, and statements about the marketing strategies used by collective buying sites. Through a regression analysis, three strategies were found to relate more to impulsivity: search for products from well-known brands, search for deals with big discounts and confidence in receiving the product. For e-commerce and researchers, this study elucidates which strategies, from the consumer's perspective, effectively persuade purchasing behavior.

  9. Antiepileptic, behavioral, and antidepressant effects of adjuvant lamotrigine therapy in drug-resistant epilepsy

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    Martinović Žarko J.


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the behavioral effects of lamotrigine as add-on therapy in treatment-resistant epilepsy. Methods. An open, prospective, long-term study of lamotrigine as adjuvant therapy was performed in 56 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (female/male ratio 35/21, age range 16-51 years. All the patients kept seizure diaries, and electroencephalograms were recorded at baseline and during 24 months of the treatment. Quality of life questionnaire, Hamilton depression scale (HMD, Beck depression scale (BDI, and Hamilton anxiety scale (HMA were used before and during lamotrigine therapy. Comparative assessments were made in an age- and sex-matched control group treated with other antiepileptic drugs. Results. Overall, seizure control was improved in 55.3% of the patients, remained unchanged in 39.3%, and deteriorated in 5.4%. Improvement in some quality of life measures occurred in 50% of the patients. The HMD subscales and BDI scale showed significant improvement in lamotrigine treated patients compared to the control group (ANOVA, p < 0.01. Negative behavioral effects occurred in 10.7% of the patients. Conclusion. Lamotrigine demonstrated significant antiepileptic long-term efficacy, and its positive effects on the mood and quality of life, which surpassed the negative behavioral effects, and contributed highly to the favorable treatment outcome.

  10. Effects of foliar surfactants on host plant selection behavior of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae). (United States)

    McKee, Fraser R; Levac, Joshua; Hallett, Rebecca H


    The pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is a highly polyphagous insect pest of global distribution. L. huidobrensis feeds and lays its eggs on leaf tissue and reduces crop marketability because of stippling and mining damage. In field insecticide trials, it was observed that stippling was reduced on plants treated with surfactant alone. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of surfactants on host selection behaviors of female L. huidobrensis and to assess the phytotoxicity of two common surfactants to test plants. The application of the surfactant Sylgard 309 to celery (Apium graveolens) caused a significant reduction in stippling rates. The application of Agral 90 to cucumber leaves (Cucumis sativus) resulted in changes to the amount of effort invested by females in specific host plant selection behaviors, as well as causing a significant reduction in the amount of stippling damage. The recommended dose of Sylgard 309 does not induce phytotoxicity on celery over a range of age classes nor does Agral 90 cause a phytotoxic effect in 35-d-old cucumber. Thus, reductions in observed stippling and changes to host selection behaviors were caused by an antixenotic effect of the surfactant on L. huidobrensis rather than a toxic effect of the surfactant on the plant. The presence of surfactant on an otherwise acceptable host plant seems to have masked host plant cues and prevented host plant recognition. Results indicate that surfactants may be used to reduce leafminer damage to vegetable crops, potentially reducing the use of insecticides.

  11. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis.

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    Sébastien Ballesta

    Full Text Available 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play. In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors.

  12. Artificial emotion triggered stochastic behavior transitions with motivational gain effects for multi-objective robot tasks (United States)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan


    This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.

  13. Brand priming effect on consumers’ financial risk taking behavior

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    Danielle Mantovani

    Full Text Available Abstract Taking the perspective of brand priming theory, this study proposes that brands associated with an audacious personality trait may influence consumers to be take more risks in making subsequent decisions. Two experiments, run in sport brands contexts, showed that individuals exposed to brands with high (vs. low audacity traits demonstrated a higher rate of risk taking in financial decisions. The studies also showed that this effect is moderated by individuals’ experience with the financial market. This moderation suggests that there was an activation of a goal not just semantic activation, but through the brand priming. This research provides insights into how today's consumers deal with brand priming effects in risky choice settings. From a managerial perspective, it can help managers to understand the likely effects of brand priming on behavior and better predict the probability of risk aversion or risk seeking outcomes.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on the behavioral properties of crotoxin

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    E.G. Moreira


    Full Text Available Crotoxin has been detoxified with gamma radiation in order to improve crotalic antiserum production. Nevertheless, present knowledge of the biological characteristics of irradiated crotoxin is insufficient to propose it as an immunizing agent. Crotoxin is known to increase the emotional state of rats and to decrease their exploratory behavior (Moreira EG, Nascimento N, Rosa GJM, Rogero JR and Vassilieff VS (1996 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 29: 629-632. Therefore, we decided 1 to evaluate the effects of crotoxin in the social interaction test, which has been widely used for the evaluation of anxiogenic drugs, and 2 to determine if irradiated crotoxin induces behavioral alterations similar to those of crotoxin in the social interaction, open-field and hole-board tests. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g were used. Crotoxin (100, 250, and 500 µg/kg was injected intraperitoneally 2 h before the social interaction test. Similarly, irradiated crotoxin (2000 Gy gamma radiation from a 60Co source was administered at the doses of 100, 250, and 500 µg/kg for the hole-board test, and at the doses of 1000 and 2500 µg/kg for the open-field and social interaction tests. ANOVA complemented with the Dunnett test was used for statistical analysis (P<0.05. Crotoxin decreased the social interaction time (s at the doses of 100, 250 and 500 µg/kg (means ± SEM from 51.6 ± 4.4 to 32.6 ± 3.7, 28.0 ± 3.6 and 31.6 ± 4.4, respectively. Irradiated crotoxin did not induce behavioral alterations. These results indicate that 1 crotoxin may be an anxiogenic compound, and 2 in contrast to crotoxin, irradiated crotoxin was unable to induce behavioral alterations, which makes it a promising compound for the production of crotalic antiserum

  15. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men. (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L


    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.

  16. The Validity of a Brief Risk Assessment Tool for Predicting Suicidal Behavior in Veterans Utilizing VHA Mental Health Care. (United States)

    Doran, Neal; De Peralta, Sharon; Depp, Colin; Dishman, Ben; Gold, Lindsay; Marshall, Robert; Miller, Dawn; Vitale, Shannon; Tiamson-Kassab, Maria


    Suicide risk among military veterans is an important and ongoing concern. The Veterans Administration (VA) mandates suicide risk screening of all veterans seen for mental health issues, but little is known about the effectiveness of this screening. A retrospective chart review to examine all suicide risk screens at VA San Diego between October and December 2012 (n = 3,365) was conducted to assess whether results were associated with suicidal behavior over the subsequent 12 months. Patients judged to be at increased risk for suicide were 3 to 16 times more likely to attempt suicide and 7 to 25 times more likely to engage in self-directed violence over the next 12 months compared with others. The screening tool may be a useful addition to clinical practice.

  17. Spectral assessment of mesh adaptations for the analysis of the dynamical longitudinal behavior of railway bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, J. [Inst. for Transportation Technologies, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Ruge, P. [Inst. of Dynamics of Structures, Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany)


    Extensive studies, concerning the longitudinal behavior of long railway bridges due to braking forces have been done by measurements in situ, and by statical, as well as dynamical simulations. Thereby, the only consistent numerical realization with respect to the measured data was the dynamical one. However, the consecutive discretizations in space and time with time-dependent system matrices are extremely time consuming due to the moving loads and varying stiffness of the ballast under, and in front of, the moving train. Therefore, every effort should be made to optimize the discretization in the space domain. This paper presents a strategy for assessing the quality of finite elements in space and for applying an adaptive mesh-refinement for this special engineering problem. The method is characterized by a spectral assessment, comparing a certain set of eigenvalues of the actual discretization with those of a very fine and rather exact numerical model. The error estimator introduced in this paper controls a whole set of global eigenvalues with corresponding natural vibration modes in order to assess certain types of shape functions. Thus, the procedure estimates local modifications on the one hand and p-properties on the other by means of global indication. (orig.)

  18. Effect of Copper Addition on Electromigration Behavior of Silver Metallization (United States)

    Bhagat, Shekhar; Theodore, N. David; Chenna, Santhosh; Alford, Terry


    This study investigates the effect of Cu alloying on electromigration behavior of Ag metallization. Electromigration tests are performed on pure Ag and Ag (1.5% Cu) samples deposited by e-beam evaporation. The experiments show that Ag (Cu) alloy interconnect has superior elctromigration resistance compared to pure Ag interconnect. X-ray diffraction, four point probe measurements and electron microscopy were used to investigate the test structures and corresponding thin film samples. The Cu improves the lifetime of interconnect test structures by hindering Ag diffusion and increasing 111 texture of Ag. Also, Cu addition seemingly reduces the agglomeration in Ag.



    Gulmez Mustafa; Kitapci Olgun; Dortyol Ibrahim Taylan


    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of date-of-birth on consumption behaviors of young people. A face-to-face interview survey is conducted to collect data. SPSS 18.0 for Windows was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics such as means, frequencies, ANOVA tests and Chi-square tests were calculated. The findings pointed out that the young consumers on fire group (Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius) take more instant and impulsive purchase actions. It is a new study about ...

  20. Excited states rotational effects on the behavior of excited molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C


    Excited States, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper reviews the rotational involvement in intra-molecular in vibrational redistribution. This paper analyzes the vibrational Hamiltonian as to its efficacy in detecting the manifestations of intra-molecular state-mixing in time-resolved and time-averaged spectroscopic measurements. The next paper examines the temporal behavior of intra-molecular vibration-rotation energy transfer (IVRET) and the effects of IVRET on collision, reaction, and the decomposition processes. This paper also

  1. Inhibition of eating behavior: negative cognitive effects of dieting. (United States)

    Hart, K E; Chiovari, P


    This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  2. On their best behavior: how animal behavior can help determine the combined effects of species interactions and climate change. (United States)

    Harmon, Jason P; Barton, Brandon T


    The increasingly appreciated link between climate change and species interactions has the potential to help us understand and predict how organisms respond to a changing environment. As this connection grows, it becomes even more important to appreciate the mechanisms that create and control the combined effect of these factors. However, we believe one such important set of mechanisms comes from species' behavior and the subsequent trait-mediated interactions, as opposed to the more often studied density-mediated effects. Behavioral mechanisms are already well appreciated for mitigating the separate effects of the environment and species interactions. Thus, they could be at the forefront for understanding the combined effects. In this review, we (1) show some of the known behaviors that influence the individual and combined effects of climate change and species interactions; (2) conceptualize general ways behavior may mediate these combined effects; and (3) illustrate the potential importance of including behavior in our current tools for predicting climate change effects. In doing so, we hope to promote more research on behavior and other mechanistic factors that may increase our ability to accurately predict climate change effects.

  3. A multiaspect program integrity assessment of the cognitive-behavioral program EQUIP for incarcerated offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.


    Studies on the effectiveness of correctional treatment have widely failed to assess program integrity. This study examined the program integrity of EQUIP in 34 treatment groups of incarcerated offenders, using a new multiaspect program integrity instrument (MIPIE). The first aim of our study was to

  4. Influenza Vaccination Coverage among School Employees: Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors (United States)

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Brueck, Scott E.


    Background: Influenza can spread among students, teachers, and staff in school settings. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza. We determined 2012-2013 influenza vaccination coverage among school employees, assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding the vaccine, and determined factors associated with vaccine receipt.…

  5. Safety assessment of sugar dusting treatments by analysis of hygienic behavior in honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanovic Jevrosima


    Full Text Available The hygienic behavior in honey bees is a dominant natural defense mechanism against brood diseases. In this study, the influence of sugar dusting treatments on hygienic behavior was evaluated in 44 strong honey bee colonies. Three doses of pulverized sugar, 20, 30 and 40 g, each applied at three-, seven- and fourteen-day intervals were tested. The percentage of cleaned cells (PCC in the total number of those with pin-killed brood served as a measure of the hygienic potential. The effect was dependent on the frequency of treatments: all doses applied every third and seventh day significantly (p<0.001 decreased the PCC in comparison with the untreated control colonies. Nevertheless, sugar did not threaten the hygienic potential, as PPC values remained above 94% following all treatments. Thus, it can be concluded that the tested sugar treatments are safe and can be justifiably implemented into integrated pest management strategies to control Varroa destructor.

  6. Assessing corporate social responsibility in China's sports lottery administration and its influence on consumption behavior. (United States)

    Li, Hai; Zhang, James J; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Min, Sophia D


    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine consumer perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in China's sports lottery industry, and the effect of perceived CSR initiatives on sports lottery consumption behavior. Research participants (N = 4,980), selected based on a computer-generated, randomly stratified multistage sampling process, comprised Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets in the past 12 months. They completed a questionnaire that was derived from a qualitative research process. A factor analysis extracted two factors associated with perceptions of CSR in China's sports lottery administration: Regulatory and Prevention Responsibilities and Product Development Responsibility. Logistic regression analyses revealed that these two factors were influential of consumer behavior (i.e., relative and absolute expenditure, purchasing frequency, and time commitment). This study represents an initial effort to understand the dimensions of perceived CSR associated with Chinese sports lottery. The findings signify the importance of enforcing CSR in sports lottery administration.

  7. Panic symptoms and elevated suicidal ideation and behaviors among trauma exposed individuals: Moderating effects of post-traumatic stress disorder. (United States)

    Albanese, Brian J; Norr, Aaron M; Capron, Daniel W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B


    Panic attacks (PAs) are highly prevalent among trauma exposed individuals and have been associated with a number of adverse outcomes. Despite high suicide rates among trauma exposed individuals, research to date has not examined the potential relation between panic symptoms and suicidal ideation and behaviors among this high risk population. The current study tested the association of panic with suicidal ideation and behaviors among a large sample of trauma exposed smokers. Community participants (N=421) who reported a lifetime history of trauma exposure were assessed concurrently for current panic, suicidal ideation and behaviors, and psychiatric diagnoses. Those who met criteria for a current panic disorder diagnosis were removed from analyses to allow for the assessment of non-PD related panic in line with the recent addition of the PA specifier applicable to all DSM-5 disorders. Findings indicated that panic symptoms were significantly associated with suicidal ideation and behaviors beyond the effects of depression and number of trauma types experienced. Further, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status significantly moderated this relationship, indicating that the relationship between panic and suicidal ideation and behaviors is potentiated among individuals with a current PTSD diagnosis. This investigation suggests that panic symptoms may be a valuable clinical target for the assessment and treatment of suicidal ideation and behaviors among trauma exposed individuals.

  8. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the foaming behavior of ethylene-co-octene polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachon, C. E-mail:; Gendron, R


    Ethylene-co-octene polymers containing different branching levels were irradiated in air and under vacuum at 25, 50 and 100 kGy. Gel fraction measurements, thermal analysis and rheology were used to assess the effect of the treatment on polymer structure modifications. The copolymer with 24 wt% octene was shown to be more sensitive to gamma rays and degradation was observed in some cases. Cross-linking in the amorphous phase also occurred as a consequence of irradiation and affected the foaming behavior of these materials.

  9. Emerging technologies for assessing physical activity behaviors in space and time. (United States)

    Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Kang, Bumjoon; Saelens, Brian E; Duncan, Glen E


    Precise measurement of physical activity is important for health research, providing a better understanding of activity location, type, duration, and intensity. This article describes a novel suite of tools to measure and analyze physical activity behaviors in spatial epidemiology research. We use individual-level, high-resolution, objective data collected in a space-time framework to investigate built and social environment influences on activity. First, we collect data with accelerometers, global positioning system units, and smartphone-based digital travel and photo diaries to overcome many limitations inherent in self-reported data. Behaviors are measured continuously over the full spectrum of environmental exposures in daily life, instead of focusing exclusively on the home neighborhood. Second, data streams are integrated using common timestamps into a single data structure, the "LifeLog." A graphic interface tool, "LifeLog View," enables simultaneous visualization of all LifeLog data streams. Finally, we use geographic information system SmartMap rasters to measure spatially continuous environmental variables to capture exposures at the same spatial and temporal scale as in the LifeLog. These technologies enable precise measurement of behaviors in their spatial and temporal settings but also generate very large datasets; we discuss current limitations and promising methods for processing and analyzing such large datasets. Finally, we provide applications of these methods in spatially oriented research, including a natural experiment to evaluate the effects of new transportation infrastructure on activity levels, and a study of neighborhood environmental effects on activity using twins as quasi-causal controls to overcome self-selection and reverse causation problems. In summary, the integrative characteristics of large datasets contained in LifeLogs and SmartMaps hold great promise for advancing spatial epidemiologic research to promote healthy behaviors.

  10. Emerging technologies for assessing physical activity behaviors in space and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Hurvitz


    Full Text Available Precise measurement of physical activity is important for health research, providing a better understanding of activity location, type, duration, and intensity. This article describes a novel suite of tools to measure and analyze physical activity behaviors in spatial epidemiology research. We use individual-level, high-resolution, objective data collected in a space-time framework to investigate built and social environment influences on activity. First, we collect data with accelerometers, global positioning system units, and smartphone-based digital travel and photo diaries to overcome many limitations inherent in self-reported data. Behaviors are measured continuously over the full spectrum of environmental exposures in daily life, instead of focusing exclusively on the home neighborhood. Next, data streams are integrated using common timestamps into a single data structure, the LifeLog. A graphic interface tool, LifeLog View, enables simultaneous visualization of all LifeLog data streams. Finally, we use geographic information system SmartMap rasters to measure spatially continuous environmental variables to capture exposures at the same spatial and temporal scale as in the LifeLog. These technologies enable precise measurement of behaviors in their spatial and temporal settings but also generate very large datasets; we discuss current limitations and promising methods for processing and analyzing such large datasets. Finally, we provide applications of these methods in spatially-oriented research, including a natural experiment to evaluate the effects of new transportation infrastructure on activity levels, and a study of neighborhood environmental effects on activity using twins as quasi-causal controls to overcome self-selection and reverse causation problems. In summary, the integrative characteristics of large datasets contained in LifeLogs and SmartMaps hold great promise for advancing spatial epidemiologic research to promote healthy

  11. Effects of thiamethoxam seed treatments on soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding behavior. (United States)

    Stamm, M D; Heng-Moss, T M; Baxendale, F P; Reese, J C; Siegfried, B D; Hunt, T E; Gaussoin, R E; Blankenship, E E


    Since its discovery in North America in 2000, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has rapidly become an important pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], sometimes resulting in significant yield losses. Previous research has documented the toxicity of neonicotinoid seed treatments to soybean aphids, but control under field conditions has been inconsistent. Imidacloprid, a popular neonicotinoid insecticide, has been shown to exhibit antifeedant effects on aphids. Antifeedant activity has not been demonstrated for other neonicotinoids, including thiamethoxam. This research investigated the effects of a thiamethoxam seed treatment on soybean aphid feeding behavior by using electronic penetration graphs (EPG) to visualize stylet penetration behavior. Soybean aphid feeding behavior was assessed for 9 h on thiamethoxam-treated and untreated soybeans (V2 and V4 stages). Because results were inconclusive from initial experiments, a study was conducted to document the effects of thiamethoxam-treated soybeans on soybean aphid survival. The seed treatment was shown to negatively affect aphid survival at 4, 8, and 11 d after aphid introduction. A subsequent EPG study then was designed to document soybean aphid feeding behavior for 15 h, after an initial exposure of 9 h to thiamethoxam-treated soybeans. In this study, the exposed aphids exhibited significant differences in feeding behavior compared with those aphids feeding on untreated soybeans. Soybean aphids on thiamethoxam-treated soybeans spent significantly less time feeding in the sieve element phase, with a greater duration of nonprobing events. These studies suggest soybean aphids are unable to ingest phloem sap, which may be another important element in seed treatment protection.

  12. Prevention of behavior problems for children in foster care: outcomes and mediation effects. (United States)

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Price, Joe; Leve, Leslie D; Laurent, Heidemarie; Landsverk, John A; Reid, John B


    Parent training for foster parents is mandated by federal law and supported by state statues in nearly all states; however, little is known about the efficacy of that training, and recent reviews underscore that the most widely used curricula in the child welfare system (CWS) have virtually no empirical support (Grimm, Youth Law News, April-June:3-29, 2003). On the other hand, numerous theoretically based, developmentally sensitive parent training interventions have been found to be effective in experimental clinical and prevention intervention trials (e.g., Kazdin and Wassell, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39:414-420, 2000; McMahon and Forehand, Helping the noncompliant child, Guilford Press, New York, USA, 2003; Patterson and Forgatch, Parents and adolescents: I. Living together, Castalia Publishing, Eugene, OR, USA, 1987; Webster-Stratton et al., Journal of Clinical Child Pyschology Psychiatry, 42:943-952, 2001). One of these, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC; Chamberlain, Treating chronic juvenile offenders: Advances made through the Oregon Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care model, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2003), has been used with foster parents of youth referred from juvenile justice. The effectiveness of a universal intervention, KEEP (Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported) based on MTFC (but less intensive) was tested in a universal randomized trial with 700 foster and kinship parents in the San Diego County CWS. The goal of the intervention was to reduce child problem behaviors through strengthening foster parents' skills. The trial was designed to examine effects on both child behavior and parenting practices, allowing for specific assessment of the extent to which improvements in child behavior were mediated by the parenting practices targeted in the intervention. Child behavior problems were reduced significantly more in the intervention condition than in the

  13. The effect of peer tutoring on interaction behaviors in inclusive physical education. (United States)

    Klavina, Aija; Block, Martin E


    This study assessed the effect of peer tutoring on physical, instructional, and social interaction behaviors between elementary school age students with severe and multiple disabilities (SMD) and peers without disabilities. Additional measures addressed the activity time of students with SMD. The study was conducted in inclusive general physical education settings under three instructional support conditions for students with SMD: (a) teacher-directed, (b) peer-mediated, and (c) voluntary peer support. During peer-mediated and voluntary peer support conditions, the instructional and physical interaction behaviors between students with SMD and their peers increased, while social interactions remained low. The activity engagement time data increased for all target students throughout intervention sessions. Interactions between students with SMD and teachers decreased toward the end of intervention.

  14. Different effects of valproate on methamphetamine-and cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-XuLi; Jian-HuiLiang


    Multiple intermittent administration of psychostimulants induces a behavioral sensitization, which is characterized by the augmentation of locomotor activity and stereotyped behavior, even after their long-term withdrawal. This kind of behavioral effects is thought to serve as a useful animal model that mimics the behavioral responses in drug craving. Dopamine

  15. Toward Proper Specification of the Effects of Leader Punitive Behavior: A Research Note. (United States)

    Bateman, Thomas S.; And Others


    Tested the impact of leader punitive behavior on employee satisfaction in 457 hospital employees. Controlling for leader reward behavior, there was no direct positive effect of leader punitive behavior, and no moderating impact of role ambiguity. Discusses the importance of considering spuriousness in leader punitive behavior research. (WAS)

  16. Gateway Health Behaviors in College Students: Investigating Transfer and Compensation Effects (United States)

    Nigg, Claudio Renato; Lee, Hye-ryeon; Hubbard, Amy E.; Min-Sun, Kim


    Objective: There is a dearth of studies on the mechanisms of multiple risk behaviors, even though these behaviors are significant public health issues. The authors investigated whether health behavior interventions have transfer or compensatory effects on other health behaviors. Participants and Methods: The authors looked at transfer and…

  17. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Chronic Fibromyalgia Pain: Replication and Extension (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael


    A multiple-baseline-across two behavior sets and positions (reclined, upright) was used to experimentally examine the effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment for Pain (BAT-P) on pain-related behavior of a 44-year-old woman with a 22-year history of fibromyalgia (FM). BAT-P, based on the matching law, is comprised of Behavioral Relaxation…

  18. Effects of Consumer Search Behavior Typology on the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The author investigates how consumer search behavior typology affects the relationship between customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that the type of consumer as defined by whether and how they search for information (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent perceive different levels of satisfaction and performs differently on satisfaction behavioral intentions linkages. Relational-dependent and rational active consumers are found to perceive higher satisfaction levels, and to express stronger intentions to engage in positive behavioral intentions than passive consumers. The identification of satisfaction and behavioral intentions within each search type allows managers to satisfy their consumers; hence, the company will obtain higher profit.

  19. Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology. (United States)

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín


    I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology.

  20. Assessing reproductive behavior important to fisheries management: a case study with red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. (United States)

    Lowerre-barbieri, Susan K; Burnsed, Sarah L Walters; Bickford, Joel W


    Spawning site selection and reproductive timing affect stock productivity and structure in marine fishes but are poorly understood. Traditionally, stock assessments measure reproductive potential as spawning stock biomass or egg production and do not include other aspects of reproductive behavior. Red drum make an excellent case study to assess these other aspects, as (1) they are highly fecund, pelagic spawners, like most exploited marine fishes; (2) their life cycle is delineated between nursery (estuarine) and adult (coastal and offshore) habitat; and (3) they are managed at these two spatial scales. This study was conducted from August 2012 to December 2013 and integrates data from multiple methods and spatial scales. Aerial surveys were used for large-scale monitoring of aggregations off two known estuarine nursery areas, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, Florida, USA. Capture-based sampling in Tampa Bay coastal (n = 2581) and estuarine waters (n = 158) was used to assess reproductive state and to confirm coastal spawning. To assess spatial dynamics, we acoustically tagged two population components in the Tampa Bay system, subadults from the estuary (n = 20) and adults from the coastal spawning site (n = 60). Behavioral plasticity was seen in subadult recruitment to coastal habitat, with some subadults maturing and recruiting before or during the spawning season and others (14 of 20 acoustically tagged fish) recruiting at the end of the 2012 spawning season. Both adults and recruited subadults (n = 29) were consequently detected in the Charlotte Harbor array, 132 km to the south. Spawning-site fidelity to the Tampa Bay spawning site occurred at both the population and individual scales. Aggregations consistently occurred in Tampa Bay coastal waters during the spawning season, and approximately two-thirds of tagged adults returned in the 2013 spawning season. A similar proportion of subadults returned to the Tampa Bay spawning site, exhibiting natal homing


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Syafei


    Full Text Available This paper discusses a study investigating students’ opinions and reflections on backwash effects of portfolio assessments applied in Academic Writing course. To obtain the data, the researcher carried out interviews with 70 students of English Education Department (EED of Universitas Muria Kudus (UMK who took Academic Writing I and II courses. A qualitative analysis was then administered by identifying and classifying contents of students’ opinions and reflections expressed in the students’ responses concerning the backwash effects of the portfolio assessment applied in the courses. This investigation concludes the followings. First, all the research subjects support the use of portfolio assessment in Academic Writing Classes. Second, portfolio assessment provides various positive backwash effects on the student learning. Third, the students consider the portfolio assessment a fairer assessment. These findings suggest that the students respond positively to the portfolio assessment. Thus, it is recommended that the application of portfolio assessment in academic writing classes be maintained.

  2. A model of the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment in medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, F.J.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Herman, N.; Adendorff, H.J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der


    It has become axiomatic that assessment impacts powerfully on student learning. However, surprisingly little research has been published emanating from authentic higher education settings about the nature and mechanism of the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment. Less still emanat

  3. An Investigation of the Effective Leadership Behaviors of School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Gündüz


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the level of display of effective leadership behaviors by school principals. Descriptive design was used in this research. The target population of the study is the teachers who work in primary and high schools in Kartal, Maltepe and Üsküdar located in İstanbul, The sample consists of 703 primary and high school teachers randomly selected from the population. The study was carried out quantitatively and data were gathered through the 30-item 5-point Likert-type scale developed by the researchers. Data were analyzed by percentages, frequencies, means and crosstabs. In order to find out sources of differences and do pair comparisons, Mann-Whitney U tests were employed while Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used to do comparisons of variables having more than three levels. According to the results obtained from this research, teachers stated that principals “sometimes” demonstrate effective leadership behaviors. When mean scores of all the items were checked, the highest score was earned by the item, “The principal plans the future of the school” and the lowest score by “Principals are open to be criticized.” There were significant differences based on gender and teaching experience of teachers and school types.

  4. Effect of fault jogs on frictional behavior: An experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ShengLi; CHEN ShunYun; LIU PeiXun; HU XiaoYan; WANG KaiYing; HUANG YuanMin


    Studying the effect of geometrically irregular bodies on the mechanical behavior of fault activity is of significance in understanding the seismic activity along a fault zone. By using rock mechanics experiment with medium-scale samples, we have studied the effect of fault jogs, the most common irregularity along fault zones, on frictional behavior. The research indicates that extensional fault jog can be easily fractured because of its low strength and the fractured jog has no obvious resistance to fault sliding, and the micro-fractures occurring in the jog are indicative of stick-slip along the faults. The fault zone containing extensional jogs is characterized by velocity weakening and can be described by rate and state friction law. Compressional fault jog makes fault sliding more difficult because of its high fracturing strength, but the micro-fractures occurring in the tensile areas around fault ends at higher stress level can provide necessary condition for occurrence of stick-slip along the faults before the jog is fractured and thus act as precursors of fault instability. Compression jog can be taken as a stable indicator of fault segmentation until the jog is completely fractured and two faults are linked.

  5. Effect of fault jogs on frictional behavior: An experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Studying the effect of geometrically irregular bodies on the mechanical behavior of fault activity is of significance in understanding the seismic activity along a fault zone. By using rock mechanics ex- periment with medium-scale samples, we have studied the effect of fault jogs, the most common irregularity along fault zones, on frictional behavior. The research indicates that extensional fault jog can be easily fractured because of its low strength and the fractured jog has no obvious resistance to fault sliding, and the micro-fractures occurring in the jog are indicative of stick-slip along the faults. The fault zone containing extensional jogs is characterized by velocity weakening and can be described by rate and state friction law. Compressional fault jog makes fault sliding more difficult because of its high fracturing strength, but the micro-fractures occurring in the tensile areas around fault ends at higher stress level can provide necessary condition for occurrence of stick-slip along the faults before the jog is fractured and thus act as precursors of fault instability. Compression jog can be taken as a stable indicator of fault segmentation until the jog is completely fractured and two faults are linked.

  6. Behavioral profile assessment in offspring of Swiss mice treated during pregnancy and lactation with caffeine. (United States)

    Laureano-Melo, Roberto; da Silveira, Anderson Luiz Bezerra; de Azevedo Cruz Seara, Fernando; da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; da Silva-Almeida, Cláudio; Marinho, Bruno Guimarães; da Rocha, Fábio Fagundes; Reis, Luís Carlos; Côrtes, Wellington da Silva


    The association between caffeine consumption and various psychiatric manifestations has long been observed. The objective was to assess the behavioral profile in offspring of Swiss mice treated during pregnancy and lactation with caffeine. For this purpose, two groups (n = 6 each and BW ~ 35 g) of female mice were treated during pregnancy and lactation by: tap water and caffeine solution at a concentration of 0.3 mg/mL through oral route. The offspring obtained, by completing 70 days of life, was underwent a behavioral battery test. Statistical analysis was performed by student t test and the different significance adopted was p tests. In anxiety related responses however, the mice of caffeine group had greater number of fecal pellets (178 %, p = 0.001) in the open field test, higher number of attempts (51 %, p = 0.03) in light-dark box and decreased percentage of entries in open arms (41 %, p = 0.01) in elevated plus maze test. Moreover, in the marble burying test, there was a significant decrease in the number of buried marbles compared with controls (110 %, p = 0,002). In the meantime, in the von Frey test, it was observed an exacerbation of mechanical allodynia both in basal conditions and after the carrageenan administration (p < 0.001). Furthermore, caffeine treatment during pregnancy and lactation causes long-term behavioral changes in the mice offspring that manifest later in life.

  7. Effects of mercury on behavior and performance of northern two-lined salamanders (Eurycea bislineata). (United States)

    Burke, John N; Bergeron, Christine M; Todd, Brian D; Hopkins, William A


    Mercury (Hg) causes a range of deleterious effects in wildlife, but little is known about its effects on amphibians. Our objective was to determine whether Hg affects performance and behavior in two-lined salamanders (Eurycea bislineata). We collected salamanders from Hg-contaminated and reference sites and assessed speed, responsiveness, and prey capture ability. Mercury concentrations were >17× higher in salamanders from the contaminated sites and were among the highest documented in amphibians. In the first, but not in the second, locomotion trial, we found a significant effect of Hg on speed and responsiveness. In the prey capture experiment, reference salamanders ate approximately twice as many prey items as the contaminated salamanders. Together, our results suggest that sublethal Hg concentrations may negatively affect salamanders by reducing their ability to successfully execute tasks critical to survival. Future work is warranted to determine whether Hg has other sublethal effects on salamanders and whether other amphibians are similarly affected.

  8. Role of behavioral and personality instruments in the improvement of team effectiveness in the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Suman


    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to consider the applicability of the behavioral and personality assessment instruments in recruitment, appraisal and development of organization’s teams’ effectiveness. It discusses the application of several widely accepted instruments: extended DiSC, MBTI and Belbin on the basis of the function to build the effective team. Each of the instruments provides insight into the team from the unique perspective and thus helps identifying team’s strong and weak points. This constitutes important learning points for the improvement of the team effectiveness. The paper’s major conclusion is that the combined use of the these instruments improves the quality of the managerial decision making concerning setting up and the developing of the effective organizational teams.

  9. Behavioral regulation assessment in exercise: exploring an autonomous and controlled motivation index. (United States)

    Cid, Luis; Moutão, João; Leitão, José; Alves, José


    The main purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) and to test the hypothesis that the different types of behavioral regulation can be combined on a single factor to assess autonomous and controlled motivation. Data were collected from 550 members of private fitness centres who ranged in age from 14 to 69 years. The analysis supported an 18-item, 5-factor model after excluding one item (S-B chi2 = 221.7, df = 125, p = .000, S-B chi2/df = 1.77; SRMR = .06; NNFI = .90; CFI = .92; RMSEA = .04, 90% CI = .03-.05). However, the analysis also revealed a lack of internal consistency. The results of a hierarchical model based on 2 second-order factors that reflected controlled motivation (external and introjected regulation) and autonomous motivation (identified and intrinsic regulation) provided an acceptable fit to the data (S-B chi2 = 172.6, df = 74, p = .000, S-B chi2/df = 2.33; SRMR = .07; NNFI = .90; CFI = .92; RMSEA = .05, 90% CI = .04-.06), with reliability coefficients of .75 for controlled motivation and .76 for autonomous motivation. The study findings indicated that when item 17 was excluded, the Portuguese BREQ-2 was an appropriate measure of the controlled and autonomous motivation in exercise.

  10. Assessment of mouse anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box and open-field arena: role of equipment and procedure. (United States)

    Kulesskaya, Natalia; Voikar, Vootele


    Light-dark box and open field are conventional tests for assessment of anxiety-like behavior in the laboratory mice, based on approach-avoidance conflict. However, except the basic principles, variations in the equipment and procedures are very common. Therefore, contribution of certain methodological issues in different settings was investigated. Three inbred strains (C57BL/6, 129/Sv, DBA/2) and one outbred stock (ICR) of mice were used in the experiments. An effect of initial placement of mice either in the light or dark compartment was studied in the light-dark test. Moreover, two tracking systems were applied - position of the animals was detected either by infrared sensors in square box (1/2 dark) or by videotracking in rectangular box (1/3 dark). Both approaches revealed robust and consistent strain differences in the exploratory behavior. In general, C57BL/6 and ICR mice showed reduced anxiety-like behavior as compared to 129/Sv and DBA/2 strains. However, the latter two strains differed markedly in their behavior. DBA/2 mice displayed high avoidance of the light compartment accompanied by thigmotaxis, whereas the hypoactive 129 mice spent a significant proportion of time in risk-assessment behavior at the opening between two compartments. Starting from the light side increased the time spent in the light compartment and reduced the latency to the first transition. In the open field arena, black floor promoted exploratory behavior - increased time and distance in the center and increased rearing compared to white floor. In conclusion, modifications of the apparatus and procedure had significant effects on approach-avoidance behavior in general whereas the strain rankings remained unaffected.

  11. The Portuguese plastic carrier bag tax: The effects on consumers' behavior. (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Balaia, Natacha; Pires, Ana


    Marine litter from lightweight plastic bags is a global problem that must be solved. A plastic bag tax was implemented in February 2015 to reduce the consumption of plastic grocery bags in Portugal and in turn reduce the potential contribution to marine litter. This study analyzes the effect of the plastic bag tax on consumer behavior to learn how it was received and determine the perceived effectiveness of the tax 4months after its implementation. In addition, the study assessed how proximity to coastal areas could influence behaviors and opinions. The results showed a 74% reduction of plastic bag consumption with a simultaneously 61% increase of reusable plastic bags after the tax was implemented. Because plastic bags were then reused for shopping instead of garbage bags, however, the consumption of garbage bags increased by 12%. Although reduction was achieved, the tax had no effect on the perception of marine litter or the impact of plastic bags on environment and health. The majority of respondents agree with the tax but view it as an extra revenue to the State. The distance to the coast had no meaningful influence on consumer behavior or on the perception of the tax. Although the tax was able to promote the reduction of plastics, the role of hypermarkets and supermarkets in providing alternatives through the distribution of reusable plastic bags was determinant to ensuring the reduction.

  12. Development of a Student Health Assessment System: Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Middle-School Students. Research Report. ETS RR-10-04 (United States)

    MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D.


    Newly developed assessments of nutrition and exercise knowledge, attitudes, and behavior were administered to 383 eighth-graders. Evidence for the validity of assessment scores was evaluated with five findings. First, parent- and self-reported behaviors were similar and congruent for healthy eating and exercising but not for sedentary behaviors or…

  13. The α1 Antagonist Doxazosin Alters the Behavioral Effects of Cocaine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin N. Haile


    Full Text Available Medications that target norepinephrine (NE neurotransmission alter the behavioral effects of cocaine and may be beneficial for stimulant-use disorders. We showed previously that the short-acting, α1-adrenergic antagonist, prazosin, blocked drug-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in rats and doxazosin (DOX, a longer-acting α1 antagonist blocked cocaine’s subjective effects in cocaine-dependent volunteers. To further characterize DOX as a possible pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence, we assessed its impact on the development and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats. Rats (n = 6–8 were administered saline, cocaine (COC, 10 mg/kg or DOX (0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg alone or in combination for 5 consecutive days (development. Following 10-days of drug withdrawal, all rats were administered COC and locomotor activity was again assessed (expression. COC increased locomotor activity across days indicative of sensitization. The high dose (1.0 mg/kg, but not the low dose (0.3 mg/kg of DOX significantly decreased the development and expression of COC sensitization. DOX alone did not differ from saline. These results are consistent with studies showing that α1 receptors are essential for the development and expression of cocaine’s behavioral effects. Results also suggest that blockade of both the development and expression of locomotor sensitization may be important characteristics of possible pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence in humans.

  14. Effects of Beliefs and Concerns on User Attitudes toward Online Social Network Advertising and Their Ad Clicking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Mir


    Full Text Available Since last few years social network sites (SNSs have rapidly grown in popularity and user acceptance globally. They have become the main place for social interaction, discussion and communication. Today, many businesses advertise their products on SNSs. The current study aims to assess the effects of SNSs consumers/users’ beliefs and concerns of social network advertising (SNA on their attitudes toward SNA and SNS banner ad-clicking behavior. Data was collected from a sample of 397 university students of Pakistan. Results show the beliefs of SNA as informative and entertaining have positive effects on user attitudes toward SNA and their ad-clicking behavior. Similarly, user concern of SNA as irritating has negative effects on both their attitudes toward SNA and ad-clicking behavior. Good for economy is an important socioeconomic belief which affects user attitudes toward SNA positively. The overall results indicate that utilitarian and hedonic aspects of SNA make SNS banner ads effective.

  15. Effects of Website Interactivity on Online Retail Shopping Behavior (United States)

    Islam, Hafizul

    Motivations to engage in retail online shopping can include both utilitarian and hedonic shopping dimensions. To cater to these consumers, online retailers can create a cognitively and esthetically rich shopping environment, through sophisticated levels of interactive web utilities and features, offering not only utilitarian benefits and attributes but also providing hedonic benefits of enjoyment. Since the effect of interactive websites has proven to stimulate online consumer’s perceptions, this study presumes that websites with multimedia rich interactive utilities and features can influence online consumers’ shopping motivations and entice them to modify or even transform their original shopping predispositions by providing them with attractive and enhanced interactive features and controls, thus generating a positive attitude towards products and services offered by the retailer. This study seeks to explore the effects of Web interactivity on online consumer behavior through an attitudinal model of technology acceptance.

  16. Effects of cooperative atomic behavior on lasers. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senitzky, I.R.


    The effect of cooperative behavior, both with respect to pumping and relaxation, on a number of three-level atomic systems - which are assumed to have a dipole moment at all three transition frequencies - is analyzed. The atoms are coupled to two cavity modes resonant at the two intermediate frequencies and pumped coherently at the highest frequency. For sufficiently strong pumping, three steady states are shown to exist, the stability of which depends on the pumping strength and the cavity losses. Transition from one steady state to another produces modulated field pulses in both modes, with the phase of the modulation envelopes as well as the phase of the fields being synchronized. Conditions for the generation of various types of pulses are investigated. A generalization that takes into account pump losses due to atomic reaction is introduced and the effect of these losses is studied.

  17. Assessment of the effects of massage therapy on premenstrual syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leily Ghaedi


    Full Text Available Background: Premenstrual syndrome is characterized by the cyclic occurrence physical, psychological and behavioral symptoms during the luteal phase of the menstruation cycle and will be disappear within a few days of the onset of menstruation. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of massage therapy on premenstrual syndrome. Materials and Method: A randomized clinical trial was carried out on 30 volunteer students of Tehran University with PMS diagnosis. After surveying two menstruation cycles and confirming PMS existence, subjects were randomly assigned into massage and control group. Massage protocol was performed for eight weeks. Volunteers completed Daily Symptom Rating (DSR during 2 cycles before and 2 cycles after intervention. Data collected via data gathering form, criteria for PMS (DSM- IV, DSR and Beck test. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics (χ2, Fischer's exact test, paired and independent t tests.Results: In comparison between before and after intervention, massage group showed significant decrease averagely in mean of somatic (56.7%, psychological (64.8% (p<0.001.This is while, in control group only mean of somatic symptoms (averagely 21.2% relieved obviously (p=0.02. comparing two groups often intervention, we did not found any significant difference in mean of somatic symptoms while psychological (p=0.01 and total symptoms (p=0.03 in massage group was significantly less than controls.Conclusion: The authors concluded that massage therapy is an effective method for relieving symptoms of premenstrual syndrome

  18. Behavioral Disturbances: An Innovative Approach to Monitor the Modulatory Effects of a Nutraceutical Diet. (United States)

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Sechi, Sara; Canello, Sergio; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Fiore, Filippo; Cocco, Raffaella


    In dogs, diets are often used to modulate behavioral disturbances related to chronic anxiety and stress caused by intense and restless activity. However, the traditional ways to monitor behavioral changes in dogs are complicated and not efficient. In the current clinical evaluation, a new, simple monitoring system was used to assess the effectiveness of a specific diet in positively modulating the intense and restless activity of 24 dogs of different ages and breeds. This protocol describes how to easily and rapidly evaluate improvement in a set of symptoms related to generalized anxiety by using a specific sensor, a mobile phone app, a wireless router, and a computer. The results showed that dogs treated with specific diets showed significant improvement in the times spent active and at rest after 10 days (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). These dogs also showed an overall significant improvement in clinical and behavioral symptoms. A specific sensor, along with its related hardware, was demonstrated to successfully monitor behavioral changes relating to movement in dogs.

  19. A Comprehensive Behavioral Test Battery to Assess Learning and Memory in 129S6/Tg2576 Mice. (United States)

    Wolf, Andrea; Bauer, Björn; Abner, Erin L; Ashkenazy-Frolinger, Tal; Hartz, Anika M S


    Transgenic Tg2576 mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) are a widely used Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model to evaluate treatment effects on amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology and cognition. Tg2576 mice on a B6;SJL background strain carry a recessive rd1 mutation that leads to early retinal degeneration and visual impairment in homozygous carriers. This can impair performance in behavioral tests that rely on visual cues, and thus, affect study results. Therefore, B6;SJL/Tg2576 mice were systematically backcrossed with 129S6/SvEvTac mice resulting in 129S6/Tg2576 mice that lack the rd1 mutation. 129S6/Tg2576 mice do not develop retinal degeneration but still show Aβ accumulation in the brain that is comparable to the original B6;SJL/Tg2576 mouse. However, comprehensive studies on cognitive decline in 129S6/Tg2576 mice are limited. In this study, we used two dementia mouse models on a 129S6 background--scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice (3-5 month-old) and transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice (11-13 month-old)-to establish a behavioral test battery for assessing learning and memory. The test battery consisted of five tests to evaluate different aspects of cognitive impairment: a Y-Maze forced alternation task, a novel object recognition test, the Morris water maze, the radial arm water maze, and a Y-maze spontaneous alternation task. We first established this behavioral test battery with the scopolamine-induced dementia model using 129S6/SvEvTac mice and then evaluated 129S6/Tg2576 mice using the same testing protocol. Both models showed distinctive patterns of cognitive impairment. Together, the non-invasive behavioral test battery presented here allows detecting cognitive impairment in scopolamine-treated 129S6/SvEvTac mice and in transgenic 129S6/Tg2576 mice. Due to the modular nature of this test battery, more behavioral tests, e.g. invasive assays to gain additional cognitive information, can easily be added.

  20. Behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of injected leptin. (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Haque, Zeba; Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Ikram, Huma; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul


    Leptin is viewed as an important target for developing novel therapeutics for obesity, depression/anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. The present study therefore concerns behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of systemically injected leptin. Pharmacological doses (100 and 500 μg/kg) of leptin injected systemically decreased 24h cumulative food intake and body weight in freely feeding rats and improved acquisition and retention of memory in Morris water maze test. Potential anxiety reducing, hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of the peptide hormone were determined in a separate experiment. Animals injected with 100 or 500 μg/kg leptin were tested for anxiety in an elevated plus maze test 1h later. A significant increase in the number of entries and time passed in open arm of the elevated plus maze in leptin injected animals suggested pronounced anxiety reducing effect. Moreover, circulating levels of leptin correlated significantly with anxiety reducing effects of the peptide hormone. Serum serotonin increased and ghrelin decreased in leptin injected animals and correlated, positively and negatively respectively, with circulating leptin. Corticosterone increased at low dose and levels were normal at higher dose. Serotonin metabolism in the hypothalamus and hippocampus decreased only at higher dose of leptin. The results support a role of leptin in the treatment of obesity, anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. It is suggested that hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of leptin can alter treatment efficacy in particularly comorbid conditions.

  1. A new simple score (ABS) for assessing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. (United States)

    Abe, K; Yamashita, T; Hishikawa, N; Ohta, Y; Deguchi, K; Sato, K; Matsuzono, K; Nakano, Y; Ikeda, Y; Wakutani, Y; Takao, Y


    In addition to cognitive impairment, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are another important aspect of most dementia patients. This study was designed for a new simple assessment of BPSD. We first employed a clinical survey for the local community with sending an inquiry letter to all members (n=129) of dementia caregiver society, and then attempted to create a new BPSD score for dementia with 10 BPSD items. This new simple BPSD score was compared to a standard-detailed BPSD score neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) for a possible correlation (n=792) and a time to complete (n=136). Inter-rater reliability was examined comparing scores between main and second caregivers (n=70) for AD. Based on the clinical survey for local caregivers, a new BPSD score for dementia (ABS, Abe's BPSD score) was newly created, in which each BPSD item was allotted by an already-weighted score (maximum 1-9) based on the frequency and severity, and was finalized with taking temporal occurrences into account. ABS was filled by the main caregiver with a full score of 44, was well correlated with NPI (r=0.716, **pABS in secondary than the main caregivers. ABS provides a new simple and quick test for BPSD assessment, with a good correlation to NPI but a shorter time, and with a high inter-rater reliability. Thus ABS is useful for evaluating BPSD for mild to moderate dementia patients.

  2. Effects of apomorphine on rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze. (United States)

    Garcia, Andrea Milena Becerra; Martinez, Raquel; Brandão, Marcus Lira; Morato, Silvio


    It has been reported that novelty may evoke both an exploratory and a fear drive, thus generating behavior responding to an approach/avoidance conflict. However, not much is known about the approach component. Whereas there exists abundant evidence referring to the avoidance component as the main target for the anxiolytic action of benzodiazepines, the involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms in fear and anxiety is controversial. The present study examined the effects of the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine, the D(2) dopaminergic antagonist sulpiride and the combined treatment sulpiride plus apomorphine on conventional and non-conventional measures of the behavior of rats exposed to an elevated plus-maze. Systemic injection of apomorphine (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg) caused a selective increase in the time spent in the open arms and in the open arm extremities. Pre-treatment with sulpiride blocked these effects while this dopaminergic antagonist had no effect by its own. Apomorphine produced no significant effects on stretching, flat-back-approach or scanning. Therefore, apomorphine increased the behavioral response linked to the approach component of the conflict without affecting risk assessment behaviors. These findings suggest that dopaminergic mechanisms, probably through D(2) receptors, may also be involved in the mediation of the conflict derived from the need of gathering information for confirming, identifying and localizing danger and take the appropriate action for avoiding the threatening stimuli of the elevated plus-maze. A role for dopaminergic mechanisms in the setting up of adaptive responses in a fear-inducing environment is discussed.

  3. Family structure and risk behaviors: the role of the family meal in assessing likelihood of adolescent risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldfarb S


    Full Text Available Samantha Goldfarb, Will L Tarver, Bisakha Sen Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. Data sources: A search was conducted in four academic databases: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. Study selection: We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data extraction: Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Data synthesis: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10, tobacco use (n=9, and marijuana use (n=6. Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2; depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4; violence and delinquency (n=4; school-related issues (n=2; and well-being (n=5. The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used

  4. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Behavioral Adaptations to Assess and Enhance Welfare of Nonhuman Zoo Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.


    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, an

  5. Effects of Check and Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.


    Objectives: This study examined the effects of Check & Connect (C&C) on the attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes of at-risk youth in a field-based effectiveness trial. Method: A multisite randomized block design was used, wherein 260 primarily Hispanic (89%) and economically disadvantaged (74%) students were randomized to treatment…

  6. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior. (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V


    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  7. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents With Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes. (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory L; Huber, Heartley B; Carter, Erik W; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M


    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137 adolescents with severe disabilities from the vantage point of both special educators and parents. We sought to identify areas of potential intervention need, explore factors associated with social skill and problem behavior ratings, and examine the extent to which teachers and parents converged in their assessments of these needs. Our findings indicate teachers and parents of high school students with severe disabilities rated social skills as considerably below average and problem behaviors as above average. In addition, lower social skills ratings were evident for students with greater support needs, lower levels of overall adaptive behavior, and a special education label of autism. We found moderate consistency in the degree to which teachers and parents aligned in their assessments of both social skills and problem behavior. We offer recommendations for assessment and intervention focused on strengthening the social competence of adolescents with severe disabilities within secondary school classrooms, as well as promising avenues for future research.

  8. Molecular Mechanism: ERK Signaling, Drug Addiction, and Behavioral Effects. (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M; Zhu, Jun


    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that result in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction.

  9. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans. (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Brady, J V; Fischman, M W


    Nine male research volunteers, in three groups of three subjects each, resided in a residential laboratory for up to 25 days. All contact with the experimenter was through a networked computer system and subjects' behaviors including food intake were continuously recorded. Subjects brought their own activities such as model-making, and these in combination with those provided by the laboratory resulted in rich behavior repertoires. During the first part of the day, subjects remained in their private rooms doing planned work activities, and during the remainder of the day, they were allowed to socialize. Cigarettes containing active marijuana (1.84% THC) or placebo were smoked prior to the private work period and during the social access period. A single active marijuana cigarette prior to the private work period had no effect on food intake. The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake. The increased intake was due to an augmentation of calories consumed as between-meal snack items rather than an increase in meal size per se.

  10. Annealing effects on deuterium retention behavior in damaged tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sakurada


    Full Text Available Effects of annealing after/under iron (Fe ion irradiation on deuterium (D retention behavior in tungsten (W were studied. The D2 TDS spectra as a function of heating temperature for 0.1dpa damaged W showed that the D retention was clearly decreased as the annealing temperature was increased. In particular, the desorption of D trapped by voids was largely reduced by annealing at 1173K. The TEM observation indicated that the size of dislocation loops was clearly grown, and its density was decreased by the annealing above 573K. After annealing at 1173K, almost all the dislocation loops were recovered. The results of positron annihilation spectroscopy suggested that the density of vacancy-type defects such as voids, was decreased as the annealing temperature was increased, while its size was increased, indicating that the D retention was reduced by the recovery of the voids. Furthermore, it was found that the desorption temperature of D trapped by the voids for damaged W above 0.3dpa was shifted toward higher temperature side. These results lead to a conclusion that the D retention behavior is controlled by defect density. The D retention in the samples annealed during irradiation was less than that annealed after irradiation. This result shows that defects would be quickly annihilated before stabilization by annealing during irradiation.

  11. Molecular mechanism: ERK signaling, drug addiction and behavioral effects (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M.; Zhu, Jun


    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder, characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that results in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction. PMID:26809997

  12. Ecological Momentary Assessment in Behavioral Research: Addressing Technological and Human Participant Challenges (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Kriska, Andrea; Smailagic, Asim; Siewiorek, Daniel; Ewing, Linda J; Chasens, Eileen; French, Brian; Mancino, Juliet; Mendez, Dara; Strollo, Patrick; Rathbun, Stephen L


    Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) assesses individuals’ current experiences, behaviors, and moods as they occur in real time and in their natural environment. EMA studies, particularly those of longer duration, are complex and require an infrastructure to support the data flow and monitoring of EMA completion. Objective Our objective is to provide a practical guide to developing and implementing an EMA study, with a focus on the methods and logistics of conducting such a study. Methods The EMPOWER study was a 12-month study that used EMA to examine the triggers of lapses and relapse following intentional weight loss. We report on several studies that informed the implementation of the EMPOWER study: (1) a series of pilot studies, (2) the EMPOWER study’s infrastructure, (3) training of study participants in use of smartphones and the EMA protocol and, (4) strategies used to enhance adherence to completing EMA surveys. Results The study enrolled 151 adults and had 87.4% (132/151) retention rate at 12 months. Our learning experiences in the development of the infrastructure to support EMA assessments for the 12-month study spanned several topic areas. Included were the optimal frequency of EMA prompts to maximize data collection without overburdening participants; the timing and scheduling of EMA prompts; technological lessons to support a longitudinal study, such as proper communication between the Android smartphone, the Web server, and the database server; and use of a phone that provided access to the system’s functionality for EMA data collection to avoid loss of data and minimize the impact of loss of network connectivity. These were especially important in a 1-year study with participants who might travel. It also protected the data collection from any server-side failure. Regular monitoring of participants’ response to EMA prompts was critical, so we built in incentives to enhance completion of EMA surveys. During the first 6 months of

  13. Ecologic Momentary Assessment: Perspectives on Applications and Opportunities in Research and Practice Regarding Nutrition Behaviors. (United States)

    Hand, Rosa K; Perzynski, Adam T


    Retrospective self-reported data have limitations, making it important to evaluate alternative forms of measurement for nutrition behaviors. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) attempts to overcome the challenges of recalled data with real-time data collection in a subject's natural environment, often leveraging technology. This perspective piece 1) introduces the concepts and terminology of EMA, 2) provides an overview of the methodological and analytical considerations, 3) gives examples of past research using EMA, and 4) suggests new opportunities (including combining assessment and intervention) and limitations (including the need for technology) for the application of EMA to research and practice regarding nutrition behaviors.

  14. Assessing Social Competence and Behavior Problems in a Sample of Italian Preschoolers Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale (United States)

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; MacKinnon, David P.


    Research Findings: The main goals of this study were to examine the factor validity of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis and to test factor invariance across gender in a sample of Italian preschool-age children (241 boys, 252 girls). The concurrent…

  15. Effect of size on the chaotic behavior of nano resonators (United States)

    Alemansour, Hamed; Miandoab, Ehsan Maani; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat


    Present study is devoted to investigate the size effect on chaotic behavior of a micro-electro-mechanical resonator under external electrostatic excitation. Using Galerkin's decomposition method, approximating the actuation force with a new effective lumped model, and neglecting higher order terms in the Taylor-series expansion, a simplified model of the main system is developed. By utilizing the Melnikov's method and based on the new form of the electrostatic force, an expression in terms of the system parameters is developed which can be used to rapidly estimate the chaotic region of the simplified system. Based on the analysis of the simple proposed model, it is shown that the effect of size on chaotic region varies significantly depending on bias voltage. By considering the size effect, it is demonstrated that chaotic vibration initiates at much higher constant voltages than predicted by classical theories; and, in high constant voltages, it is shown that strain gradient theory predicts occurrence of chaos at much lower amplitudes.

  16. Bullying prevention in schools by targeting cognitions, emotions, and behavior: Evaluating the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC program. (United States)

    Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen; Sipos-Gug, Sebastian; Tocai, Ioana; Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar


    The effectiveness of a class-based antibullying prevention program on cognitions, emotions, and behaviors was investigated. The program consists of a cognitive-behavioral (Rational Emotive Behavioral Education; REBE) and a behavioral (Viennese Social Competence; ViSC) component. The REBE program is based on rational emotive behavioral theory and contains 9 student lessons. The ViSC program is based on social learning theory and comprises 10 student lessons. The order of the programs was experimentally manipulated. The REBE-ViSC program was implemented in 5 schools (14 classes), the ViSC-REBE program was implemented in 3 schools (9 classes), and 3 schools (11 classes) served as an untreated control group. Data were collected during 1 school year at pretest, midpoint, and posttest. Emotions (overt and internalizing anger), cognitions (learning and entitlement), and behaviors (bullying perpetration and bullying victimization) were measured with self-assessments. To examine the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC/ViSC-REBE program, multilevel growth models were applied (time points at Level 1, individuals at Level 2, and classes at Level 3). The analyses revealed that the program effects differed depending on the order of the programs. The REBE-ViSC condition was more effective in changing negative emotions than the ViSC-REBE condition; both experimental conditions were effective in reducing dysfunctional cognitions, whereas no behavioral change was found in the 2 experimental groups when compared with the control group. To improve program effectiveness regarding behavioral changes, a multilevel whole-school approach including a teacher component is recommended.

  17. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment Versus Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety: An Exploratory Trial Examining Differential Effects on Performance and Neurophysiology. (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa H; Forman, Evan M; Herbert, James D; Bradley, Lauren E; Foster, Elizabeth E; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Ruocco, Anthony C


    Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA. The effects of treatment on prefrontal brain activation were also examined. Participants (n = 21) were randomized to 90 min of an ABBT or a tCBT intervention. Assessments took place at pre- and post-treatment and included self-rated anxiety and observer-rated performance measures, a behavioral assessment, and prefrontal cortical activity measurements using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Exploratory results indicated that participants in the ABBT condition experienced greater improvements in observer-rated performance relative to those in the tCBT condition, while those in the tCBT condition experienced greater reductions in subjective anxiety levels. Individuals in the ABBT condition also exhibited a trend toward greater treatment-related reductions in blood volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to those who received tCBT. Overall, these findings preliminarily suggest that acceptance-based treatments may free more cognitive resources in comparison with tCBT, possibly resulting in greater improvements in objectively rated behavioral performances for ABBT interventions.

  18. Validity and reliability of the Behavior Problems Inventory, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised among infants and toddlers at risk for intellectual or developmental disabilities: a multi-method assessment approach. (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth


    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for individuals with IDD that have been proven psychometrically sound in older populations: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale - Revised (RBS-R). Data were analyzed for 180 between six and 36 months old children at risk for IDD. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) across the subscales of the three instruments was variable. Test-retest reliability of the three BPI-01 subscales ranged from .68 to .77 for frequency ratings and from .65 to .80 for severity ratings (intraclass correlation coefficients). Using a multitrait-multimethod matrix approach high levels of convergent and discriminant validity across the three instruments was found. As anticipated, there was considerable overlap in the information produced by the three instruments; however, each behavior-rating instrument also contributed unique information. Our findings support using all three scales in conjunction if possible.

  19. Effects of Exposure to Heavy Particles on a Behavior Mediated by the Dopaminergic System (United States)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; McEwen, J.

    The effects of exposure to heavy particles on behaviors mediated by the central nervous system (CNS) are qualitatively different than the effects produced by exposure to other types of radiation. One behavior mediated by the CNS is the amphetamine-induced taste aversion, which is produced by pairing a novel tasting solution with injection of amphetamine. When the conditioning day is three days following irradiation, exposing rats to low doses of 56Fe particles (600 MeV/n or 1 GeV/n) eliminates the taste aversion produced by injection of amphetamine, which is dependent upon the integrity of the central dopaminergic system, but has no effect on the aversion produced by injection of lithium chloride which is mediated by the gastrointestinal system. In contrast to the effects obtained using heavy particles, exposing rats to 60Co gamma rays or to fission spectrum neutrons has no selective effect upon the acquisition of either amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced taste aversions. When the conditioning day occurs four months following exposure to 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles, there is an enhancement of the amphetamine-induced taste aversion. The implications of these findings for approaches to risk assessment are considered

  20. Nortriptyline mediates behavioral effects without affecting hippocampal cytogenesis in a genetic rat depression model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersén, Asa; Wörtwein, Gitta; Gruber, Susanne H M


    A prevailing hypothesis is that neurogenesis is reduced in depression and that the common mechanism for antidepressant treatments is to increase it in adult hippocampus. Reduced neurogenesis has been shown in healthy rats exposed to stress, but it has not yet been demonstrated in depressed patients....... Emerging studies now indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can, exert behavioral effects without affecting neurogenesis in mice. Here we extend our previous findings demonstrating that the number of BrdU positive cells in hippocampus was significantly higher in a rat model of depression....... These results strengthen the arguments against hypothesis of neurogenesis being necessary in etiology of depression and as requisite for effects of antidepressants, and illustrate the importance of using a disease model and not healthy animals to assess effects of potential therapies for major depressive...