WorldWideScience

Sample records for assess waste disposal

  1. Probabilistic safety assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.C.

    1987-07-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment codes are now widely used in radioactive waste disposal assessments. This report gives an overview of the current state of the field. The relationship between the codes and the regulations covering radioactive waste disposal is discussed and the characteristics of current codes is described. The problems of verification and validation are considered. (author)

  2. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  3. Safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanaletchumy Karuppiah; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzuki Nik Ibrahim; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin

    2008-08-01

    Safety assessments are used to evaluate the performance of a radioactive waste disposal facility and its impact on human health and the environment. This paper presents the overall information and methodology to carry out the safety assessment for a long term performance of a disposal system. A case study was also conducted to gain hands-on experience in the development and justification of scenarios, the formulation and implementation of models and the analysis of results. AMBER code using compartmental modeling approach was used to represent the migration and fate of contaminants in this training. This safety assessment is purely illustrative and it serves as a starting point for each development stage of a disposal facility. This assessment ultimately becomes more detail and specific as the facility evolves. (Author)

  4. Risk assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.; Rosinger, E.L.J.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives of risk assessment studies for radioactive waste disposal are: to specify the features that prevent the escape of radionuclides from a deep disposal vault, to estimate how effective these features are likely to be, and to determine the potential consequences of the expected situation and conceivable but unlikely situations. The major features to be analysed include the insoluble nature of the waste form itself, the resistance of its container to corrosion or mechanical damage, the effectiveness of the massive rock barrier and the hold-up and dilution of radionuclides in the surface environment. Computer modelling is used in a technique called ''pathway analysis'' to bring together the experimental data, field data and understanding of the relevant phenomena into an assessment of the resultant effect on man and the environment. (author)

  5. Safety assessment for radiactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewi, J.; Izabel, C.

    1989-11-01

    Whatever their type may be, radioactive waste disposals obey to the following principle: to isolate radioactive substances as long as their potential nocivity is significant. The isolation is obtained by confining barriers. The present paper recalls the role and the limits of the different barriers, for each type of disposal. It presents and comments site selection criteria and waste packages requirements [fr

  6. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Performance assessment has many applications in the field of radioactive waste management, none more important than demonstrating the suitability of a particular repository system for waste disposal. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal is discussed with reference to assessments performed in civilian waste management programmes. The process is, however, relevant, and may be applied directly to the disposal of defence-related wastes. When used in an open and transparent manner, performance assessment is a powerful methodology not only for convincing the authorities of the safety of a disposal concept, but also for gaining the wider acceptance of the general public for repository siting. 26 refs

  7. Post-disposal safety assessment of toxic and radioactive waste: waste types, disposal practices, disposal criteria, assessment methods and post-disposal impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C.; Simon, I.; Little, R.H.; Charles, D.; Grogan, H.A.; Smith, G.M.; Sumerling, T.J.; Watkins, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    The need for safety assessments of waste disposal stems not only from the implementation of regulations requiring the assessment of environmental effects, but also from the more general need to justify decisions on protection requirements. As waste-disposal methods have become more technologically based, through the application of more highly engineered design concepts and through more rigorous and specific limitations on the types and quantities of the waste disposed, it follows that assessment procedures also must become more sophisticated. It is the overall aim of this study to improve the predictive modelling capacity for post-disposal safety assessments of land-based disposal facilities through the development and testing of a comprehensive, yet practicable, assessment framework. This report records all the work which has been undertaken during Phase 1 of the study. Waste types, disposal practices, disposal criteria and assessment methods for both toxic and radioactive waste are reviewed with the purpose of identifying those features relevant to assessment methodology development. Difference and similarities in waste types, disposal practices, criteria and assessment methods between countries, and between toxic and radioactive wastes are highlighted and discussed. Finally, an approach to identify post-disposal impacts, how they arise and their effects on humans and the environment is described

  8. Performance assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A waste disposal system comprises a number of subsystems and components. The performance of most systems can be demonstrated only indirectly because of the long period that would be required to test them. This report gives special attention to performance assessment of subsystems within the total waste disposal system, and is an extension of an IAEA report on Safety Assessment for the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

  9. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste, as a unavoidable remnant from the use of radioactive substances and nuclear technology. It is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed to protect humans and the environment. The main bulk of radioactive waste must be permanently disposed in engineered repositories. Appropriate safety standards for repository design and construction are required along with the development and implementation of appropriate technologies for the design, construction, operation and closure of the waste disposal systems. As backend of the fuel cycle, resolving the issue of waste disposal is often considered as a prerequisite to the (further) development of nuclear energy programmes. Waste disposal is therefore an essential part of the waste management strategy that contributes largely to build confidence and helps decision-making when appropriately managed. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to enable safe and secure disposal of RW related to the development of national RWM strategies, including planning and long-term project management, the organisation of international peer-reviews for research and demonstration programmes, the improvement of the long-term safety of existing Near Surface Disposal facilities including capacity extension, the selection of potential candidate sites for different waste types and disposal options, the characterisation of potential host formations for waste facilities and the conduct of preliminary safety assessment, the establishment and transfer of suitable technologies for the management of RW, the development of technological solutions for some specific waste, the building of confidence through training courses, scientific visits and fellowships, the provision of training, expertise, software or hardware, and laboratory equipment, and the assessment of waste management costs and the provision of advice on cost minimisation aspects

  10. Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; B-Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  11. Ecological Risk Assessment of Jarosite Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihone Kerolli-Mustafa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jarosite waste, originating from zinc extraction industry, is considered hazardous due to the presence and the mobility of toxic metals that it contains. Its worldwide disposal in many tailing damps has become a major ecological concern. Three different methods, namely modified Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP, three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI Method were used to access the ecological risk of jarosite waste disposal in Mitrovica Industrial Park, Kosovo. The combination of these methods can effectively identify the comprehensive and single pollution levels of heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and As present in jarosite waste. Moreover, the great positive relevance between leaching behavior of heavy metals and F1 fraction was supported by principal component analysis (PCA. PERI results indicate that Cd showed a very high risk class to the environment. The ecological risk of heavy metals declines in the following order: Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>As.

  12. Radiological protection criteria risk assessments for waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Radiological protection criteria for waste disposal options are currently being developed at the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), and, in parallel, methodologies to be used in assessing the radiological impact of these options are being evolved. The criteria and methodologies under development are intended to apply to all solid radioactive wastes, including the high-level waste arising from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (because this waste will be solidified prior to disposal) and gaseous or liquid wastes which have been converted to solid form. It is envisaged that the same criteria will be applied to all solid waste disposal options, including shallow land burial, emplacement on the ocean bed (sea dumping), geological disposal on land and sub-seabed disposal

  13. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  14. Technical Assessment Of Selection Of A Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Hun

    1992-04-01

    This book gives overall descriptions of technical assessment of selection of a waste disposal site, which deals with standard of selection on incinerator of city waste, the method over assessment of selection of incinerator in city waste, prerequisite of technical assessment for selection of incinerator, waste incinerator and related equipment such as form, structure, quality of material, ventilation device, plumbing system and electrical installation, and total plan like plan of construction and a measure taken against environmental pollution.

  15. Radioactive waste disposal assessment - overview of biosphere processes and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report provides an overview of biosphere processes and models in the general context of the radiological assessment of radioactive waste disposal as a basis for HMIP's response to biosphere aspects of Nirex's submissions for disposal of radioactive wastes in a purpose-built repository at Sellafield, Cumbria. The overview takes into account published information from the UK as available from Nirex's safety and assessment research programme and HMIP's disposal assessment programme, as well as that available from studies in the UK and elsewhere. (Author)

  16. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  17. An Assessment of Household Solid Waste Disposal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2. 1. 3. A. M. Stanley , S. S. Andrew , A. A. Dania and I. F. Sani. 1Department of Building, A.B.U., Zaria,. 2Department of ... waste is nuisance when left ... farms, wetlands, uncompleted buildings ... (2011), the impact of ..... Research Proposal.

  18. Postclosure assessment as a design tool for waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Hajas, W.C.; LeNeveu, D.M.; Melnyk, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    AECL Research and Ontario Hydro share the responsibility to evaluate the feasibility and safety of the concept for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept involves deep underground disposal in crystalline rock on the Canadian Shield. AECL Research is currently preparing an Environmental Impact Statement for review by a federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel. In this paper, we present an example of how simulations performed for the postclosure assessment could influence the design and layout of the engineered system with respect to the structural features of its host rock formation. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  19. Geotechnical site assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report contains a state-of-the-art review of the geotechnical assessment of Land 3 and Land 4 repository sites (at 100 - 300 m depth in rock) for intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. The principles established are also valid for the disposal of low and high level waste in rock. The text summarizes the results of 21 DoE research contract reports, firstly 'in series' by providing a technical review of each report and then 'in parallel' by considering the current state of knowledge in the context of the subjects in an interaction matrix framework. 1214 references are cited. It is concluded that four further research projects are required for site assessment procedures to be developed or confirmed. These are coupled modelling, mechanical properties, water flow and establishment of 2 phase site assessment procedures. (author)

  20. Disposal and environmental assessment of solid waste and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2000-01-01

    Along with the development of economic construction, the industrial and agricultural production, military and scientific activities of human being, large amounts of solid and radioactive wastes have been produced, causing serious pollution of ecologic environments and living space of human being itself. To assess and administer the solid and radioactive wastes in geologic-ecologic environments are duty-bound responsibilities of modern geologists and the focus of recent geo-ecologic work

  1. Methodology of safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Kimura, Hideo

    1991-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting an extensive R and D program to develop a safety assessment methodology to evaluate environmental consequences associated with geological disposal of a high-level radioactive waste, and also to elucidate a generic feasibility of the geological disposal in Japan. The paper describes the current R and D activities in the JAERI to develop an interim version of the methodology based on a normal evolution scenario, and also to validate models used in the methodology. (author)

  2. Waste disposal of HYLIFE II structure: Issues and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Initial analysis has shown that by using 304 stainless steel (SS) a significant fraction (92 wt%) of the structural mass in the initial HYLIFE-II design could be disposed of by shallow burial. And if all the structural components are mixed together and treated as one entity, all of it could be disposed of by shallow burial. Two other types of SSs assessed, Mn-modified 316 and Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA), were found to require disposal by deep geologic burial of most of the structural mass. The presents of Nb and Mo in Mn-modified 316 and Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA), were found to dominate the generation of long term wastes produced and their presence should be avoided

  3. Biosphere models for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.; Olyslaegers, G.; Zeevaert, T.; Kanyar, B.; Bergstroem, U.; Hallberg, B.; Mobbs, S.; Chen, Q.; Kowe, R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the BioMoSA project has been to contribute in the confidence building of biosphere models, for application in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal. The detailed objectives of this project are: development and test of practical biosphere models for application in long-term safety studies of radioactive waste disposal to different European locations, identification of features, events and processes that need to be modelled on a site-specific rather than on a generic base, comparison of the results and quantification of the variability of site-specific models developed according to the reference biosphere methodology, development of a generic biosphere tool for application in long term safety studies, comparison of results from site-specific models to those from generic one, Identification of possibilities and limitations for the application of the generic biosphere model. (orig.)

  4. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  5. Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Hsu, R.H.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yu, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1994 the Savannah River Site became the first US DOE complex to use concrete vaults to dispose of low-level radioactive solid waste and better prevent soil and groundwater contamination. This article describes the design and gives a performance assessment of the vaults. Topics include the following: Performance objectives; scope; the performance assessment process-assemble a multidisciplinary working group; collect available data; define credible pathways/scenarios; develop conceptual models; conduct screening and detailed model calculations; assess sensitivity/uncertainty; integrate and interpret results; report. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Safety assessment for the underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This document is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and reviewing safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories. It introduces and discusses in a general manner approaches and areas to be considered in making such safety assessments; its emphasis is on repositories for long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. It is hoped that this document will contribute to providing a base for a common understanding among the authorities and specialists concerned with the numerous studies involving a variety of scientific disciplines. While providing guidance, the document is also intended to stimulate further international discussion on this subject. It is the intention of the IAEA to develop more specific reports providing examples for the application of safety analyses for underground waste disposal

  7. Safety assessment for the underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This document is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and reviewing safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories. It introduces and discusses in a general manner approaches and areas to be considered in making such safety assessments; its emphasis is on repositories for long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. It is hoped that this document will contribute to providing a base for a common understanding among the authorities and specialists concerned with the numerous studies involving a variety of scientific disciplines. While providing guidance, the document is also intended to stimulate further international discussion on this subject. It is the intention of the IAEA to develop more specific reports providing examples for the application of safety analyses for underground waste disposal.

  8. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  9. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  10. Biosphere database for assessments of radioactive waste disposals (edition 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, J.; Sumerling, T.J.

    1988-06-01

    The organisation and scope of a database for use in biosphere modelling for assessments of radioactive waste disposals is described. The database consists of reference data values for use in screening calculations and supporting information which can be referred to when deriving values and range for use in site specific assessments studies. The reference data values currently adopted are appended to this report. The QA procedure for updating the reference data values and the programs and codes which make use of them is described. (author)

  11. Safety assessments for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of safety assessment for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes is to evaluate how well the engineered barriers and geological setting inhibit radionuclide migration and prevent radiation dose to man. Safety assessment is influenced through interaction with the regulatory agencies, research groups, the public and the various levels of government. Under the auspices of the IAEA, a generic disposal system description has been developed to facilitate international exchange and comparison of data and results, and to enable development and comparison of performance for all components of the disposal system. It is generally accepted that a systems modelling approach is required and that safety assessment can be considered on two levels. At the systems level, all components of the system are taken into account to evaluate the risk to man. At the systems level, critical review and quality assurance on software provide the major validation techniques. Risk is a combination of dose estimate and probability of that dose. For analysis of the total system to be practical, the components are usually represented by simplified models. Recently, assessments have been taking uncertainties in the input data into account. At the detailed level, large-scale, complex computer programs model components of the system in sufficient detail that validation by comparison with field and laboratory measurements is possible. For example, three-dimensional fluid-flow, heat-transport and solute-transport computer programs have been used. Approaches to safety assessment are described, with illustrations from safety assessments performed in a number of countries. (author)

  12. Probabilistic assessment of the radiological consequences of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional methods for prediction of radiological dose consequence of low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal generally involve application of deterministic calculational modeling. Since the selection of parametric input values for such analyses is made on a conservative ('worst case') basis, the results can be subject to criticism as being unrealistically high. To address this problem, a method for probabilistic assessment has been developed in which input parameters are expressed as probability distribution functions. An example calculation is presented for the impacts from migration of Carbon-14 to a close-in well. (author). 4 refs.; 1 tab

  13. Program SYVAC, for stochastic assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, G.R.; Hoffman, K.J.; Donahue, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the computer program SYVAC, used to assess concepts for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste, is described with regard to the development approach, the basic program structure, and quality assurance. The interrelationships of these aspects are illustrated by detailed descriptions of two concepts of fundamental importance to the program: the method of selecting parameter values from input probability density functions, and the numerical evaluation of the convolution integral. Quality assurance procedures, including different types of comparisons and peer review, are presented

  14. Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueero, A.; Pinedo, P.; Cancio, D.; Simon, I.; Moraleda, M.; Perez-Sanchez, D.; Trueba, C.

    2007-01-01

    The development of radioactive waste disposal facilities requires implementation of measures that will afford protection of human health and the environment over a specific temporal frame that depends on the characteristics of the wastes. The repository design is based on a multi-barrier system: (i) the near-field or engineered barrier, (ii) far-field or geological barrier and (iii) the biosphere system. Here, the focus is on the analysis of this last system, the biosphere. A description is provided of conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools used to develop the Biosphere Assessment Methodology in the context of high-level waste (HLW) disposal facilities in Spain. This methodology is based on the BIOMASS 'Reference Biospheres Methodology' and provides a logical and systematic approach with supplementary documentation that helps to support the decisions necessary for model development. It follows a five-stage approach, such that a coherent biosphere system description and the corresponding conceptual, mathematical and numerical models can be built. A discussion on the improvements implemented through application of the methodology to case studies in international and national projects is included. Some facets of this methodological approach still require further consideration, principally an enhanced integration of climatology, geography and ecology into models considering evolution of the environment, some aspects of the interface between the geosphere and biosphere, and an accurate quantification of environmental change processes and rates

  15. Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment of radioactive waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Cancio, D; Simón, I; Moraleda, M; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Trueba, C

    2007-10-01

    The development of radioactive waste disposal facilities requires implementation of measures that will afford protection of human health and the environment over a specific temporal frame that depends on the characteristics of the wastes. The repository design is based on a multi-barrier system: (i) the near-field or engineered barrier, (ii) far-field or geological barrier and (iii) the biosphere system. Here, the focus is on the analysis of this last system, the biosphere. A description is provided of conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools used to develop the Biosphere Assessment Methodology in the context of high-level waste (HLW) disposal facilities in Spain. This methodology is based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology" and provides a logical and systematic approach with supplementary documentation that helps to support the decisions necessary for model development. It follows a five-stage approach, such that a coherent biosphere system description and the corresponding conceptual, mathematical and numerical models can be built. A discussion on the improvements implemented through application of the methodology to case studies in international and national projects is included. Some facets of this methodological approach still require further consideration, principally an enhanced integration of climatology, geography and ecology into models considering evolution of the environment, some aspects of the interface between the geosphere and biosphere, and an accurate quantification of environmental change processes and rates.

  16. Contributions to safety assessment of the radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, Petre; Didita, Liana; Ionescu, Alice; Deaconu, Viorel

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the progress in the frame of the safety assessments related to the potential near-surface Romanian National Repository, as well as to the geological repository in salt rock for CANDU spent fuel. The safety assessment of the near-surface repository follows the ISAM methodology. The repository design consists of a vault, in which the wastes resulted from the operation and decommissioning of the CANDU reactor from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) are disposed off. The repository is located nearby the CNPP. A layered unsaturated zone overlying a variable thickness confined aquifer, which consists of barremian limestones, characterizes the site. The interface with biosphere is considered to be the Danube-Black Sea Channel. The paper summarizes the results of the post-closure safety assessment for the design scenario and the prediction of the radionuclide release in the liquid phase. As to the final disposal of the CANDU spent fuel from the CNPP, we assumed that the repository is built in a salt dome. Romania has important salt formations, some of them being potentially suitable for hosting a repository. Up to now there are no detailed characterization studies of such formations in Romania, from the point of view of the suitability as a repository site. Therefore, generic data for hydrogeological characterization of the site have been used, coming from the Gorleben site in Germany. The spent fuel containers are disposed off in galleries, somewhere 500 m bellow the cap rock of the salt dome. The temporal loading scheme of the repository is based on a sequential filing of the disposal fields, with a delay of 10 years between filling of two neighbouring disposal areas. The disposal fields are accessed via a shaft. After filling of a disposal gallery, the remaining space is backfilled with salt powder and the gallery is sealed with compacted salt bricks. The access galleries are also backfilled and sealed. Only the reference scenario is considered, in

  17. Risk assessment and reliability for low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, P.O.; Jones, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of critical design features at low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities is a major concern in the licensing of these structures. To date, no systematic methodology has been adopted to evaluate the geotechnical reliability of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) disposal facilities currently being designed and/or constructed. This paper discusses and critiques the deterministic methods currently used to evaluate UMTRA reliability. Because deterministic methods may not be applicable in some cases because of the unusually long design life of UMTRA facilities, it is proposed that a probabilistic risk assessment-based methodology be used as a secondary method to aid in the evaluating of geotechnical reliability of critical items. Similar methodologies have proven successful in evaluating the reliability of a variety of conventional earth structures. In this paper, an ''acceptable'' level of risk for UMTRA facilities is developed, an evaluation method is presented, and two example applications of the proposed methodology are provided for a generic UMTRA disposal facility. The proposed technique is shown to be a simple method which might be used to aid in reliability evaluations on a selective basis. Finally, other possible applications and the limitations of the proposed methodology are discussed

  18. Risk assessments for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    The risks associated with the disposal of high level wastes derive from the potential for release of radioactive materials into the environment. The assessment of these risks requires a methodology for risk analysis, an identification of the radioactive sources, and a method by which to express the relative hazard of the various radionuclides that comprise the high level waste. The development of a methodology for risk analysis is carried out after a review of previous work in the area of probabilistic risk assessment. The methodology suggested involves the probabilistic analysis of a general accident consequence distribution. In this analysis, the frequency aspect of the distribution is treated separately from the normalized probability function. At the final stage of the analysis, the frequency and probability characteristics of the distribution are recombined to provide an estimate of the risk. The characterization of the radioactive source term is accomplished using the ORIGEN computer code. Calculations are carried out for various reactor types and fuel cycles, and the overall waste hazard for a projected thirty-five year nuclear power program is determined

  19. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  20. Secondary Waste Cementitious Waste Form Data Package for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cozzi, Alex D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-16

    A review of the most up-to-date and relevant data currently available was conducted to develop a set of recommended values for use in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA) to model contaminant release from a cementitious waste form for aqueous wastes treated at the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). This data package relies primarily upon recent data collected on Cast Stone formulations fabricated with simulants of low-activity waste (LAW) and liquid secondary wastes expected to be produced at Hanford. These data were supplemented, when necessary, with data developed for saltstone (a similar grout waste form used at the Savannah River Site). Work is currently underway to collect data on cementitious waste forms that are similar to Cast Stone and saltstone but are tailored to the characteristics of ETF-treated liquid secondary wastes. Recommended values for key parameters to conduct PA modeling of contaminant release from ETF-treated liquid waste are provided.

  1. Performance assessment for future low-level waste disposal facilities at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategy for waste management on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and the approach to preparing future performance assessments that has evolved from previous performance assessment studies of low-level radioactive waste disposal on the ORR. The strategy for waste management is based on the concept that waste classification should be determined by performance assessment other than the sources of waste. This dose-based strategy for waste classification and management places special importance on the preparation and interpretation of waste disposal performance assessments for selecting appropriate disposal technologies and developing waste acceptance criteria. Additionally, the challenges to be overcome in the preparation of performance assessments are discussed. 7 refs

  2. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Current researches on safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Hiroshi; Kiyose, Ryohei

    1980-01-01

    Recently, the problem of safe disposal of radioactive waste generated from nuclear fuel cycle becomes more important in Japan. On the other hand, many researches on shallow land burial of low-level wastes and geologic isolation of high-level wastes have been carried out in the United States of America. In this report, the researches on the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal in the United States of America were briefly introduced with emphasis on the studies on behavior and migration of radionuclide from disposed waste in geosphere. (author)

  4. On risk assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    One of the major concerns with the continued growth of the nuclear power industry is the production of the high level radioactive wastes. The risks associated with the disposal of these wastes derives from the potential for release of radioactive materials into the environment. The development of a methodology for risk analysis is carried out. The methodology suggested involves the probabilistic analysis of a general accident consequence distribution. In this analysis, the frequency aspect of the distribution is treated separately from the normalized probability function. In the final stage of the analysis, the frequency and probability characteristics of the distribution are recombined to provide an estimate of the risk. The characterization of the radioactive source term is accomplished using the ORIGEN computer code. Calculations are carried out for various reactor types and fuel cycles, and the overall waste hazard for a projected 35 year nuclear power program is determined. An index of relative nuclide hazard appropriate to problems involving the management of high level radioactive wastes is developed. As an illustration of the methodology, risk analyses are made for two proposed methods for waste management: extraterrestrial disposal and interim surface storage. The results of these analyses indicate that, within the assumptions used, the risks of these management schemes are small compared with natural background radiation doses. (Auth.)

  5. Biosphere model for assessing doses from nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.; Amiro, B.D.; Davis, P.A.; Sheppard, S.C.; Szekeley, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The biosphere model, BIOTRAC, for predicting long term nuclide concentrations and radiological doses from Canada's nuclear fuel waste disposal concept of a vault deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield is presented. This generic, boreal zone biosphere model is based on scenario analysis and systems variability analysis using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Conservatism is used to bridge uncertainties, even though this creates a small amount of extra nuclide mass. Environmental change over the very long assessment period is mainly handled through distributed parameter values. The dose receptors are a critical group of humans and four generic non-human target organisms. BIOTRAC includes six integrated submodels and it interfaces smoothly with a geosphere model. This interface includes a bedrock well. The geosphere model defines the discharge zones of deep groundwater where nuclides released from the vault enter the biosphere occupied by the dose receptors. The size of one of these zones is reduced when water is withdrawn from the bedrock well. Sensitivity analysis indicates 129 I is by far the most important radionuclide. Results also show bedrock-well water leads to higher doses to man than lake water, but the former doses decrease with the size of the critical group. Under comparable circumstances, doses to the non-human biota are greater than those for man

  6. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  7. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal is based on disposing of the waste in a vault excavated 500-1000 m deep in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The author believes that, if the concept is accepted following review by a federal environmental assessment panel (probably in 1995), then it is important that implementation should begin without delay. His reasons are listed under the following headings: Environmental leadership and reducing the burden on future generations; Fostering public confidence in nuclear energy; Forestalling inaction by default; Preserving the knowledge base. Although disposal of reprocessing waste is a possible future alternative option, it will still almost certainly include a requirement for geologic disposal

  8. Second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuschke, D.M.; Gillespie, P.A.; Main, D.E.

    1985-07-01

    The nuclear fuel waste disposal concept chosen for development and assessment in Canada involves the isolation of corrosion-resistant containers of waste in a vault located deep in plutonic rock. As the concept and the assessment tools are developed, periodic assessments are performed to permit evaluation of the methodology and provide feedback to those developing the concept. The ultimate goal of these assessments is to predict what impact the disposal system would have on man and the environment if the concept were implemented. The second assessment was performed in 1984 and is documented in the Second Interim assessment of the Canadian Concept for Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal Volumes 1 to 4. This volume, entitled Summary, is a condensation of Volumes 2, 3 and 4. It briefly describes the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, and the methods and results of the second interim pre-closure and post-closure assessments of that concept. 46 refs

  9. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  10. Assessing farmers' practices on disposal of pesticide waste after use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damalas, Christos A.; Telidis, Georgios K.; Thanos, Stavros D.

    2008-01-01

    Common practices of farmers on disposal of pesticide waste after use were surveyed in five regions of the rural area of Pieria in northern Greece using a structured questionnaire administered via personal interviews. Concerning leftover spray solutions, most farmers reported that they normally re-spray the treated field area until the spraying tank is empty (54.9%) or they apply the leftover spray solutions to another crop listed on the product label (30.2%). A minority of the farmers (4.3%) mentioned that they often release the leftover spray solutions near or into irrigation canals and streams. As regards rinsates generated from washing the application equipment, most farmers reported that they release the rinsates over a non-cropped area (45.7%) or they drop the rinsates near or into irrigation canals and streams (40.7%). Moreover, a great proportion of the farmers stated that they dump the empty containers by the field (30.2%) or they throw them near or into irrigation canals and streams (33.3%). Burning the empty containers in open fire (17.9%) or throwing the empty containers in common waste places (11.1%) was also reported. Several farmers stated that they continue to use old pesticides for spraying (35.8%). Training programs which raise awareness of farmers of the potential hazards of pesticide use and particularly of the proper management of waste products, recycling programs and collection systems for unwanted agricultural chemicals to prevent inappropriate waste disposal, as well as improving packaging of pesticides to minimize waste production are essential for promoting safety during all phases of pesticide handling

  11. An assessment of carbon steel overpacks for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.; Bland, I.D.; Taylor, K.J.; Sharland, S.; Tasker, P.

    1986-01-01

    The report summarizes the results obtained at Harwell in the second phase of a project evaluating the corrosion behaviour of high-level waste overpacks in geological disposal. It has concentrated on the use of carbon steel in granitic and argillaceous environments, and has aimed at estimating the corrosion allowance required to achieve a 1000-year overpack life. Experimental and mathematical modelling studies have indicated that 200 mm of steel should be more than sufficient to prevent overpack penetration by general or localized corrosion. A theoretical assessment of the possible effects of micro-organisms on overpack corrosion has concluded that such species are likely to be found in repositories, but that only a fraction of their population should be corrosive towards carbon steel. Making the pessimistic assumption that all organic carbon in a 500 mm bentonite backfill is utilized by corrosive sulphate reducing bacteria, it has been estimated that this will result in an additional metal loss of 13 mm. One form of corrosion which cannot be dealt with by the corrosion allowance approach is stress corrosion cracking, since even at the lowest reported propagation rates, a metal thickness exceeding 3 m would be penetrated in 1000 years. It has been concluded that the possibility of stress corrosion cannot be dismissed, but, because the process requires a certain minimum stress level before it can occur, it should be possible to avoid the problem by giving the overpacks a stress relief heat treatment. Tests in a model environment have shown that a heat treatment designed to reduce fabrication stresses to 50% of the yield strengh should be sufficient to prevent cracking. It is recommended that this conclusion be substantiated by scaled-up experiments with model overpacks. The report draws further attention to degradation by hydrogen embrittlement

  12. Safety assessments for centralized waste treatment and disposal facility in Puspokszilagy Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berci, K.; Hauszmann, Z.; Ormai, P.

    2002-01-01

    The centralized waste treatment and disposal facility Puspokszilagy is a shallow land, near surface engineered type disposal unit. The site, together with its geographic, geological and hydrogeological characteristics, is described. Data are given on the radioactive inventory. The operational safety assessment and the post-closure safety assessment is outlined. (author)

  13. Initial studies to assess microbial impacts on nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.; McCright, R.D.; Economides, B.

    1996-01-01

    The impacts of the native and introduced bacteria on the performance of geologic nuclear waste disposal facilities should be evaluated because these bacteria could promote corrosion of repository components and alteration of chemical and hydrological properties of the surrounding engineered and rock barriers. As a first step towards investigating these potentialities, native and introduced bacteria obtained from post-construction Yucca Mountain (YM) rock were isolated under varying conditions, including elevated temperature, low nutrient availability, and the absence of available oxygen. Individual isolates are being screened for activities associated with microbially induced corrosion of metals (MIC). Preliminary determination of growth rates of whole YM microbial communities under varying conditions was also undertaken

  14. Benefits Assessment of Two California Hazardous Waste Disposal Facilities (1983)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits of RCRA regulations, comparing the results before and after new regulations at two existing hazardous waste sites previously regulated under California state law

  15. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  16. Vault submodel for the second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeNeveu, D.M.

    1986-02-01

    The consequences to man and the environment of the disposal of nuclear fuel waste are being studied within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The concept being assessed is that of a sealed disposal vault at a depth of 1000 m in plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. To determine the consequences, the vault and its environment are simulated using a SYstem Variability Analysis Code (SYVAC), a stochastic model of the disposal system. SYVAC contains three submodels that represent the three major parts of the disposal system: the vault, the geosphere and the biosphere. This report documents the conceptual and mathematical framework of the vault submodel

  17. Second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, P.A.; Wuschke, D.M.; Guvanasen, V.M.; Mehta, K.K.; McConnell, D.B.; Tamm, J.A.; Lyon, R.B.

    1985-12-01

    The nuclear fuel waste disposal concept chosen for development and assessment in Canada involves the burial of corrosion-resistant containers of waste in a vault located deep in plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. As the concept and the assessment tools are developed, periodic assessments are performed to permit evaluatin of the methodology and provide feedback to those developing the concept. The ultimate goal of these assessments is to predict what impact the disposal system would have if the concept were implemented. The second assessment was performed in 1984 and is documented in Second Interim Assessment of the Canadian Concept for Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal - Volumes 1 to 4. This volume, entitled Background, discusses Canadian nuclear fuel wastes and the desirable features of a waste disposal method. It outlines several disposal options being considered by a number of countries, including the option chosen for development and assessment in Canada. The reference disposal systems assumed for the second assessment are described, and the approach used for concept assessment is discussed briefly. 79 refs

  18. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  19. Research on the assessment technology of the radionuclide inventory for the radioactive waste disposal(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Hong, D. S.; Hwang, G. H.; Shin, J. J.; Yuk, D. S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Characteristics and states of management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in site : state of management for each type of wastes, characteristics of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste, stage of management of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste. Survey of state of management and characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in foreign countries : state of management of disposal facilities, classification criteria and target radionuclides for assessment in foreign disposal facilities. Survey of the assessment methods of the radionuclides inventory and establishing the direction of requirement : assessment methods of the radionuclides inventory, analysis of radionuclides assay system in KORI site, establishment the direction of requirement in the assessment methods.

  20. Need to use probabilistic risk approach in performance assessment of waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations governing the disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and/or mixed wastes will likely require, either directly or indirectly, that the performance of disposal facilities be assessed quantitatively. Such analyses, commonly called ''performance assessments,'' rely on the use of predictive models to arrive at a quantitative estimate of the potential impact of disposal on the environment and the safety and health of the public. It has been recognized that a suite of uncertainties affect the results of a performance assessment. These uncertainties are conventionally categorized as (1) uncertainty in the future state of the disposal system (facility and surrounding medium), (2) uncertainty in models (including conceptual models, mathematical models, and computer codes), and (3) uncertainty in data and parameters. Decisions regarding the suitability of a waste disposal facility must be made in light of these uncertainties. Hence, an approach is needed that would allow the explicit consideration of these uncertainties so that their impact on the estimated consequences of disposal can be evaluated. While most regulations for waste disposal do not prescribe the consideration of uncertainties, it is proposed that, even in such cases, a meaningful decision regarding the suitability of a waste disposal facility cannot be made without considering the impact of the attendant uncertainties. A probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach provides the formalism for considering the uncertainties and the technical basis that the decision makers can use in discharging their duties. A PRA methodology developed and demonstrated for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste provides a general framework for assessing the disposal of all types of wastes (radioactive, hazardous, and mixed). 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste. State of knowledge and development for safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seichi; Muraoka, Susumu; Murano, Toru

    1995-01-01

    In Europe and USA, the formation disposal of high level radioactive waste entered the stage of doing the activities aiming at its execution. Also in Japan, the storage of high level waste began in the spring of 1995. Regarding the utilization of nuclear power, the establishment of the technology for disposing radioactive waste is the subject of fist priority, and the stage that requires its social recognition has set in. There are the features of formation disposal in that the disposal is in the state of confining extremely large amount of radioactivity, and that the assessment of long term safety exceeding tens of thousands years is demanded. The amount of occurrence and the main nuclides of high level radioactive waste, the disposal as seen in the Coady report and in the IAEA standard, the selection of dispersion or confinement and the selection of passive system or long term human participation, the reason why formation disposal is selected, the features of formation disposal and the way of advancing the research, the general techniques of safety assessment, artificial barriers and natural barriers for formation disposal, and the subjects of formation disposal are described. (K.I.) 57 refs

  2. Assessment of impacts from different waste treatment and waste disposal technologies: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, B.C.; Sutherland, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents assessments of treatment and disposal technologies that appear to be appropriate for use in regional facilities in the Midwest Compact Region. The treatment technologies assessed: compaction with a supercompactor; incineration; and incineration followed by solidfication of the incinerator ash. The disposal technologies assessed are: shallow land burial, considered a baseline for comparison of other technologies; below-ground vaults; abov-groudn vaults; the earth mounded concrete bunker, a technology developed in France; improved shallow land burial, essentially deeper burial; modular concrete canister disposal; mined cavities (both new and existing); and unlined augered holes; and lined augered holes. The teatment technologies are assessed primarily in terms of the their impact on the waste management system, and generally not comparatively. The dispoal technologies are assessed relative to the present standard practice shallow land burial; shallow land burial was slected as a frame of reference because it has an experience base spanning several decades, not because of any preferential characteristics. 20 refs., 5 tabs

  3. Second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuschke, D.M.; Gillespie, P.A.; Mehta, K.K.; Henrich, W.F.; LeNeveu, D.M.; Guvanasen, V.M.; Sherman, G.R.; Donahue, D.C.; Goodwin, B.W.; Andres, T.H.

    1985-12-01

    The nuclear fuel waste disposal concept chosen for development and assessment in Canada involves the isolation of corrosion-resistant containers of waste in a vault located deep in plutonic rock. As the concept and the assessment tools are developed, periodic assessments are performed to permit evaluation of the methodology and provide feedback to those developing the concept. The ultimate goal of these assessments is to predict what impact the disposal system would have on man and the environment if the concept were implemented. The second such assessment was performed in 1984 and is documented in the Second Interim Assessment of the Canadian Concept for Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal - Volumes 1-4. This volume, entitled Post-Closure Assessment, describes the methods, models and data used to perform the second post-closure assessment. The results are presented and their significance is discussed. Conclusions and planned improvements are listed. 72 refs

  4. Branch technical position for performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.C.; Abramson, L.; Byrne, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a Draft Branch Technical Position on Performance Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. The draft technical position addresses important issues in performance assessment modeling and provides a framework and technical basis for conducting and evaluating performance assessments in a disposal facility license application. The technical position also addresses specific technical policy issues and augments existing NRC guidance pertaining to LLW performance assessment

  5. Historical relationship between performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal and other types of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed until the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built on methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty

  6. Criteria and principles for environmental assessment of disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the criteria which are used in judging whether methods for the disposal of radioactive wastes are acceptable, from a radiological protection point of view, and the principles used in assessing the radiological impact of waste disposal methods. Gaseous, liquid and solid wastes are considered, and the discussion is relevant to wastes arising from the nuclear power industry, and from medical practices, general industry and research. Throughout the paper, emphasis is given to the general criteria and principles recommended by international organizations rather than to the detailed legislative and regulatory requirements in particular countries

  7. Development of the safety assessment technology for the radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Lak; Choi, Kwang Sub; Cho, Chan Hee; Lee, Myung Chan; Kim, Jhin Wung

    1992-03-01

    The major goal of this project is to develop a source-term model for the safety assessment of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste repository as follows: 1) estimation of the arising of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, 2) development of inventory data base, 3) development of a source-term code for shallow-land disposal, and 4) improvement of the REPS source-term code for rock cavern type disposal developed already in 1990 and conservative safety assessment for an imaginary repository. In addition, the source of C-14 in the inventory is assessed by two methods: decontamination factor and scaling factor. The source-term code for shallow-land disposal include the following submodels: surface water penetration into the repository, concrete degradation, corrosion of container drums, leaching of radionuclides from waste forms, and migration of radionuclides from engineered disposal facility is estimated by this code. (Author)

  8. Second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, K.; Donnelly, K.J.; Gee, J.H.; Green, B.J.; Nathwani, J.S.; Quinn, A.M.; Rogers, B.G.; Stevenson, M.A.; Dunford, W.E.; Tamm, J.A.

    1985-12-01

    The nuclear fuel waste disposal concept chosen for development and assessment in Canada involves the isolation of corrosion-resistant containers of waste in a vault located deep in plutonic rock. As the concept and the assessment tools are developed, periodic assessments are performed to permit evaluation of the methodology and provide feedback to those developing the concept. The ultimate goal of these assessments is to predict what impact the disposal system would have on man and the environment if the concept were implemented. The second such assessment was completed in 1984 and is documented in the Second Interim Assessment of the Canadian Concept for Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal - Volumes 1-4. This, the third volume of the report, summarizes the pre-closure environmental and safety assessments completed by Ontario Hydro for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The preliminary results and their sigificance are discussed. 85 refs

  9. Safety Assessment of the New Very Low-Level Waste Disposal Installation at El Cabril, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, I.; Navarro, M.; Zuloaga, P.

    2009-01-01

    The sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan approved by the Spanish government in 2006, foresees important volumes of wastes with a very low content of radioactivity mainly coming from the dismantling of nuclear power plants, along with the occurrence of some radiological industrial incidents in the past. This fact has boosted the construction of a new disposal installation, specifically designed for this category of waste. This new installation is part of the existing low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal facility at El Cabril, and includes four cells with a total capacity of around 130,000 m 3 . The design of the cells is consistent with the European Directive for the disposal of hazardous waste and fulfils the same basic safety criteria as the present facility for LILW. The safety assessment methodology applied for the very low level waste (VLLW) installation is fully coherent with the approach adopted for the existing disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste (concrete vaults disposal system) and takes into account the potential impact of the new installation during both the operational and long-term periods. The license for the VLLW installation was granted by the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce (MITYC) in July 2008, following technical approval by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), and the first disposal operation occurred in October 2008. (authors)

  10. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study

  11. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D. [and others

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study.

  12. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-01-01

    that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes

  13. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  14. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  15. Rad waste disposal safety analysis / Integrated safety assessment of a waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jongtae; Choi, Jongwon; Kang, Chulhyung

    2012-04-01

    We developed CYPRUS+and adopted PID and RES method for the development of scenario. Safety performance assessment program was developed using GoldSim for the safety assessment of disposal system for the disposal of spnet fuels and wastes resulting from the pyrpoprocessing. Biosphere model was developed and verified in cooperation with JAEA. The capability to evaluate post-closure performance and safety was added to the previously developed program. And, nuclide migration and release to the biosphere considering site characteristics was evaluated by using deterministic and probabilistic approach. Operational safety assessment for drop, fire, and earthquake was also statistically evaluated considering well-established input parameter distribution. Conservative assessment showed that dose rate is below the limit value of low- and intermediate-level repository. Gas generation mechanism within engineered barrier was defined and its influence on safety was evaluated. We made probabilistic safety assessment by obtaining the probability distribution functions of important input variables and also made a sensitivity analysis. The maximum annual dose rate was shown to be below the safety limit value of 10 mSv/yr. The structure and element of safety case was developed to increase reliability of safety assessment methodology for a deep geological repository. Finally, milestone for safety case development and implementation strategy for each safety case element was also proposed

  16. The United States program for the safety assessment of geologic disposal of commercial radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The safe disposal of commercial radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations is the goal of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Safety assessment begins with selection of a disposal site; that is, all geologic and hydrologic factors must indicate long-term stability of the formation and prospective isolation of wastes from circulating ground waters for hundreds of thousands of years. The long-term stability of each site under thermal loading must then be demonstrated by sophisticated rock mechanic analyses. Therefore, it can be expected that the sites that are chosen will effectively isolate the waste for a very long period of time. However, to help provide answers on the mechanisms and consequences of an unlikely breach in the integrity of the repository, a Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is studied. The overall objective of this program is an assessment of the safety associated with the long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste in a geologic formation. This objective will be achieved by developing methods and generating data necessary to characterize the safety of generic geological waste disposal concepts, which are to be applied in the assessment of specific sites. It is expected that no one particular model will suffice. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches will be used, and the entire spectrum of phenomena that could influence geologic isolation will be considered

  17. Using performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal decision making -- implementation of the methodology into the third performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Baer, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the disposal of a variety of radioactive wastes. Some of these wastes are prohibited from shallow land burial and also do not meet the waste acceptance criteria for proposed waste repositories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and Yucca Mountain. These have been termed ''special-case'' waste and require an alternative disposal method. From 1984 to 1989, the Department of Energy disposed of a small quantity of special-case transuranic wastes at the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) site at the Nevada Test Site. In this paper, an iterative performance assessment is demonstrated as a useful decision making tool in the overall compliance assessment process for waste disposal. The GCD site has been used as the real-site implementation and test of the performance assessment approach. Through the first two performance assessment iterations for the GCD site, and the transition into the third, we demonstrate how the performance assessment methodology uses probabilistic risk concepts to guide affective decisions about site characterization activities and how it can be used as a powerful tool in bringing compliance decisions to closure

  18. Remedial action and waste disposal project -- 300-FF-1 remedial action readiness assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, J.G.; Carlson, R.A.; Greif, A.A.; Johnson, C.R.; Orewiler, R.I.; Perry, D.M.; Plastino, J.C.; Roeck, F.V.; Tuttle, B.G.

    1997-04-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan presents the methodology used to assess the readiness of the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Project. Remediation involves the excavation, treatment if applicable, and final disposal of contaminated soil and debris associated with the waste sites in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The scope of the 300-FF-1 remediation is to excavate, transport, and dispose of contaminated solid from sites identified in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit

  19. Recent Trends In The Methods Of Safety Assessment Of Rad Waste Treatment And Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, N.S.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive waste management system involves a huge variety of processes and activities. This includes; collection and segregation, pretreatment, treatment, conditioning, storage and finally disposal. To assure the safety of the different facility of each step in the waste management system, the operator should prepare a safety analysis report to be assessed by the national regulatory body. The content of the safety analysis report must include all data about the site, facility design, operational phase, waste materials, and safety assessment methodologies. Safety assessment methodologies are iterative processes involving site-specific, prospective modeling evaluations of the pre-operational, operational, and post-closure time in case of disposal facilities. The safety assessment focuses primarily on a decision about compliance with performance objectives, rather than the much more difficult problem of predicting actual radiological impacts on the public at far future times. The recent organization processes of the safety assessment are improved by the ISAM working group from IAEA for waste disposal site. These safety assessment methodologies have been modified within SADRWMS IAEA project for the establishment of safety methodologies for the pre-disposal facilities (treatment and storage facilities) and the disposal site.

  20. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-08-15

    Disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes by shallow land burial, emplacement in suitable abandoned mines, or by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing has been practised in various countries for many years. In recent years considerable efforts have been devoted in most countries that have nuclear power programmes to developing and evaluating appropriate disposal systems for high-level and transuranium-bearing waste, and to studying the potential for establishing repositories in geological formations underlaying their territories. The symposium, organized jointly by the IAEA and OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland, provided an authoritative account of the status of underground disposal programmes throughout the world in 1979. It was evidence of the experience that has been gained and the comprehensive investigations that have been performed to study various options for the underground disposal of radioactive waste since the last IAEA/NEA symposium on this topic (Disposal of Radioactive Waste into the Ground) was held in 1967 in Vienna. The 10 sessions covered the following topics: National programme and general studies, Disposal of solid waste at shallow depth and in rock caverns, underground disposal of liquid waste by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing, Disposal in salt formations, Disposal in crystalline rocks and argillaceous sediments, Thermal aspects of disposal in deep geological formations, Radionuclide migration studies, Safety assessment and regulatory aspects.

  1. Handling, assessment, transport and disposal of tritiated waste materials at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbert, G.; Haigh, A.; Atkins, G.

    1995-01-01

    All types of JET radioactive wastes are received for disposal at the Waste Handling Facility (WHF) which features a waste sorting and sampling station, a glove box, a compactor, and packaging and transfer systems. The WHF is operated as a contamination control area with monitored tritium discharges. Two main types of tritium monitors used are liquid scintillation counters and ionization chambers, and samples of various components and materials have now been assessed for tritium. The results so far indicate a widespread of tritium levels from 2Bq/g for cold gas transfer lines to 200kBq/g for in-vessel tiles. General soft housekeeping waste is assessed by a sniffing technique which has a limit of detection corresponding to 120Bq/g. Investigation of improved methods of tritium measurement and of component detritiation was made to facilitate future waste disposal. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Performance assessment studies for the long-term safety evaluation of radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Olteanu, M.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2008-01-01

    Especially during the last ten years, a part of Romanian research program 'Management of Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel' was focused mainly on applicative research for the design of near-surface disposal facility, which intends to accommodate the low and intermediate radioactive waste generated from Cernavoda NPP. In this frame, our contribution was at the acquisition of technical data for the characterization of the future disposal facility. In the present, the project of the disposal facility, located on the Saligny site, near Cernavoda NPP, must be licensed. As regards to the safe disposal, the location of final disposal, the Saligny site, has been characterized through the five geological formations which contain potential routes for transport of radionuclide released from disposal facility, in the receiving zones(potential receiving zones), into liquid and gaseous phases. The technical characteristics of the disposal facility were adapted at the Romanian disposal concept using the reference data from IAEA technical report (IAEA,1999). Input parameters which characterized from physical and chemical point of view the disposal system, were partially taken from literature. The performance assessment studies, which follows the preliminary design development phases and the selection, describes how the source term is affected by the infiltration of water through the disposal facility, degradation process of engineering barriers (reflected in the distribution coefficient values) and solubility limit. The studies regard the evaluation of the source term, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provide the information on 'how' and 'why' were evaluated, following: (i) radiological safety assessment of near-surface disposal facility on Saligny site; (ii) complexity standard assessment of the Engineering Barriers Systems (EBS); (iii) identification of the elements which must be elaborated for the increase of the disposal safety and the necessity for new technical data for

  3. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this `national` resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  4. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnley, I. G.

    1997-01-01

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this 'national' resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  5. Engineering geology of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    This volume covers a wide spectrum of activities in the field of waste disposal. These activities range from design of new landfills and containment properties of natural clays to investigation, hazard assessment and remediation of existing landfills. Consideration is given to design criteria for hard rock quarries when used for waste disposal. In addition, an entire section concerns the geotechnics of underground repositories. This covers such topics as deep drilling, in situ stress measurement, rock mass characterization, groundwater flows and barrier design. Engineering Geology of Waste Disposal examines, in detail, the active role of engineering geologists in the design of waste disposal facilities on UK and international projects. The book provides an authoritative mix of overviews and detailed case histories. The extensive spectrum of papers will be of practical value to those geologists, engineers and environmental scientists who are directly involved with waste disposal. (UK)

  6. Assessment of the radiological protection aspects of disposal of high level waste on the ocean floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimwood, P.D.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1976-10-01

    This study is a preliminary assessment of the potential radiological consequences of disposal of solidified high-level radioactive waste on the floor of the deep ocean. As an input to the modelling used in the assessment, an arbitrary choice is made to consider the total high-level waste which would be generated by a postulated world nuclear power programme to the year 2000. It is assumed that all this waste, in solidified form, is disposed of on to the floor of the North Atlantic. The body of this report is the modelling of the subsequent release of activity into the water, its dispersion in the ocean and eventual uptake in marine organisms and sediments. The consequent radiation exposure of man is assessed in terms of both individual and collective doses. It is intended that only broad conclusions should be drawn from this study. The objective of the assessment is to highlight those subject areas where more study of information is required before a decision can be reached regarding this method of disposal. No overriding reason connected with the radiological protection considerations has been identified which would preclude the disposal of suitably conditioned high-level waste on the ocean floor. Further evaluation of this disposal option is therefore justified. (author)

  7. Development and assessment of closure technology for liquid-waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Relyea, J.F.; Seitz, R.R.; Cammann, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Discharge of low-level liquid wastes into soils was practiced previously at the Hanford Site. Technologies for long-term confinement of subsurface contaminants are needed. Additionally, methods are needed to assess the effectiveness of confinement technologies in remediating potentially diverse environmental conditions. Recently developed site remediation systems and assessment methods for in situ stabilization and isolation of radioactive and other contaminants within and below low-level liquid-waste disposal structures are summarized

  8. Comparative assessment of disposal of TRU waste in a greater-confinement disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Ciminesi, F.J.; Dickman, P.T.; O'Neal, D.A.

    1982-11-01

    This study reviewed previous work that established generic limits for shallow land burial of TRU contaminated wastes and extended previous methodology to estimate approximate appropriate burial limits for TRU wastes in an arid zone greater confinement disposal facility (GCDF). An erosion scenario provided the limiting pathway in the previous determination of generic shallow land burial limits. Erosion removed the cover soil, exposing the waste mass to habitation and agriculture. For the deep burial concept (that is, burial at a depth greater than 10 m [33 ft]), the aquifer transport scenario was controlling. In both cases, the assumed site conditions were characteristic of a humid zone in which groundwater flows immediately below the waste deposit. In deriving limits for an arid site GCDF, either the erosion/reclaimer or the aquifer transport scenario could provide the controlling pathway, depending on the nuclide and the assumed burial depth. The derived limits were higher for the arid sited GCDF than those of the generic humid study. The physical processes that increase limits relative to the generic study include increased time during which radioactive decay occurs prior to release and increased dilution. Some nuclides were effectively unlimited in an arid zone GCDF, while others (notably Pu-239) were affected on a much smaller scale, primarily due to very long half-lives. As a final comment, the limit values derived in this report represent adjustments to the calculations of the Healy and Rodgers report (LA-UR-79-100). Those original calculations were very conservative, utilizing a worst case approach, but nevertheless involving significant levels of uncertainty in key assumptions. Consequently, the results are assumption dependent. Other approaches to such an analysis could, and should be used to develop site specific concentration limits for TRU wastes

  9. Safety indicators for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Sixth report of the Working Group on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The report describes a few indicators that are considered to be the most promising for assessing the long term safety of disposal systems. The safety indicators that are discussed here may be applicable to a range of disposal systems for different waste types, including near surface disposal facilities for low level waste. The appropriateness of the different indicators may, however, vary depending on the characteristics of the waste, the facility and the assessment context. The focus of the report is thus on the use of time-scales of containment and transport, and radionuclide concentrations and fluxes, as indicators of disposal system safety, that may complement the more usual safety indicators of dose and risk. Summarised are the broad elements that a safety case for an underground radioactive waste disposal facility should possess and the role and use of performance and safety indicators within these elements. An overview of performance and safety indicators is given. The use is discussed of dose and risk as safety indicators and, in particular, problems that can arise in their use. Also presented are some specific indicators that have the potential to be used as complementary safety indicators. Discussed is also how fluxes of naturally occurring elements and radionuclides due to the operation of natural processes such as erosion and groundwater discharge may be quantified for comparison with fluxes of waste derived contaminants

  10. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: comments on the postclosure assessment of a reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Goodwin, B.W.

    1996-07-01

    Canada, like other countries, is developing technology for disposal of its nuclear fuel waste , based on the concept of geological disposal in stable plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The choice of methods, materials, and designs for a disposal system will ultimately be made on the basis of safety, taking into account the characteristics of the specific site on which the facility is to be developed, costs and practicality. As part of its work in developing the technology for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste, AECL analyzed the performance of a hypothetical disposal facility that incorporates specific design choices for the engineered barriers and that assumes a specific geological setting. This system, comprising the disposal facility and the geological setting, and the results of the performance analysis, is described in an Environmental Impact Statement that AECL submitted in 1994 and in a Primary Reference for the EIS 'The Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste: Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System.' The performance analysis was not intended to be a general proof of the safety of disposal, but rather it presents a safety analysis of one specific system to illustrate the postclosure assessment methodology and to demonstrate that safety could be achieved for the system in question. Although the design of the disposal facility analyzed and the geological setting have specific features, the results obtained from the safety analysis can, however, be used to provide considerable insight into the performance of the various components that comprise the multibarrier geological disposal system. Moreover, the results can show how changes in the performance of specific components can affect the overall performance of the system. This report discusses these aspects of the postclosure analysis. (author)

  11. Assessing the disposal of wastes containing NORM in nonhazardous waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K. P.; Blunt, D. L.; Williams, G. P.; Arnish, J. J.; Pfingston, M. R.; Herbert, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the past few years, many states have established specific regulations for the management of petroleum industry wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) above specified thresholds. These regulations have limited the number of disposal options available for NORM-containing wastes, thereby increasing the related waste management costs. In view of the increasing economic burden associated with NORM management, industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that still provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. One such alternative being considered is the disposal of NORM-containing wastes in landfills permitted to accept only nonhazardous wastes. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 and lead-210 above regulated levels in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and associated health risks to workers and the general public. A variety of scenarios were considered to evaluate the effects associated with the operational phase (i.e., during landfill operations) and future use of the landfill property. Doses were calculated for the maximally exposed receptor for each scenario. This paper presents the results of that study and some conclusions and recommendations drawn from it

  12. Disposal of radioactive waste in evaporite formations - a review of published radiological assessments and their relevance to the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, G.

    1983-11-01

    Radiological assessments of the disposal of radioactive waste in evaporite formations, principally halite, have been reviewed. These assessments were carried out in the USA, the Netherlands, Denmark and West Germany. The general nature of evaporite formations in the UK is discussed and comments are given on the broad relevance of the assessments to the potential disposal of radioactive waste in UK evaporite formations. (author)

  13. The Safety Case and Safety Assessment for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This Safety Guide provides guidance and recommendations on meeting the safety requirements in respect of the safety case and supporting safety assessment for the disposal of radioactive waste. The safety case and supporting safety assessment provide the basis for demonstration of safety and for licensing of radioactive waste disposal facilities and assist and guide decisions on siting, design and operations. The safety case is also the main basis on which dialogue with interested parties is conducted and on which confidence in the safety of the disposal facility is developed. This Safety Guide is relevant for operating organizations preparing the safety case as well as for the regulatory body responsible for developing the regulations and regulatory guidance that determine the basis and scope of the safety case. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Demonstrating the safety of radioactive waste disposal; 3. Safety principles and safety requirements; 4. The safety case for disposal of radioactive waste; 5. Radiological impact assessment for the period after closure; 6. Specific issues; 7. Documentation and use of the safety case; 8. Regulatory review process.

  14. Report on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive wastes constitutes an essential part of the IAEA programme. A large number of reports and conference proceedings covering various aspects of the subject have been issued. The Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (February 1988) recommended that the Secretariat issue a report on the state of the art of underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The Committee recommended the need for a report that provided an overview of the present knowledge in the field. This report covers the basic principles associated with the state of the art of near surface and deep geological radioactive waste disposal, including examples of prudent practice, and basic information on performance assessment methods. It does not include a comprehensive description of the waste management programmes in different countries nor provide a textbook on waste disposal. Such books are available elsewhere. Reviewing all the concepts and practices of safe radioactive waste disposal in a document of reasonable size is not possible; therefore, the scope of this report has been limited to cover essential parts of the subject. Exotic disposal techniques and techniques for disposing of uranium mill tailings are not covered, and only brief coverage is provided for disposal at sea and in the sea-bed. The present report provides a list of references to more specialized reports on disposal published by the IAEA as well as by other bodies, which may be consulted if additional information is sought. 108 refs, 22 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  16. Performance assessment requirements for the identification and tracking of transuranic waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, C.A. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Weston, W.W. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    To demonstrate compliance with environmental radiation protection standards for management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes, a performance assessment (PA) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was made of waste-waste and waste-repository interactions and impacts on disposal system performance. An estimate of waste components and accumulated quantities was derived from a roll-up of the generator/storage sites` TRU waste inventories. Waste components of significance, and some of negligible effect, were fixed input parameters in the model. The results identified several waste components that require identification and tracking of quantities to ensure that repository limits are not exceeded. The rationale used to establish waste component limits based on input estimates is discussed. The distinction between repository limits and waste container limits is explained. Controls used to ensure that no limits are exceeded are identified. For waste components with no explicit repository based limits, other applicable limits are contained in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The 10 radionuclides targeted for identification and tracking on either a waste container or a waste stream basis include Am-241, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, U-233, U-234, U-238, Sr-90, and Cs-137. The accumulative activities of these radionuclides are to be inventoried at the time of emplacement in the WIPP. Changes in inventory curie content as a function of radionuclide decay and ingrowth over time will be calculated and tracked. Due to the large margin of compliance demonstrated by PA with the 10,000 year release limits specified, the quality assurance objective for radioassay of the 10 radionuclides need to be no more restrictive than those already identified for addressing the requirements imposed by transportation and WIPP disposal operations in Section 9 of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. 6 refs.

  17. Reference biospheres for the long term safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.; Torres, C.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory guidance on the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposals usually requires the consequences of any radionuclide releases to be considered in terms of their potential impact on human health. This requires consideration of the prevailing biosphere and the habits of the potentially exposed humans within it. However, it could take many thousands of years for migrating radionuclides to reach the surface environment. In these circumstances, an assessment model that was based on the present-day biosphere could be inappropriate while future biospheres would be unpredictable. These and other considerations suggest that a standardised, or reference biosphere, approach may be useful. Theme 1 of the IAEA BIOMASS project was established to develop the concept of reference biospheres into a practical system that can be applied to the assessment of the long term safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. The technical phase of the project lasted for four years until November 2000 and brought together disparate interests from many countries including waste disposal agencies, regulators and technical experts. Building on the experience from earlier BIOMOVS projects, a methodology was constructed for the logical and defensible construction of mathematical biosphere models that can be used in the total system performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The methodology was then further developed through the creation of a series of BIOMASS Example Reference Biospheres ('Examples'). These are stylised biosphere models that, in addition to illustrating the methodology, are intended to be useful assessment tools in their own right. (author)

  18. United States program for the safety assessment of geologic disposal of commercial radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The safe disposal of commercial radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations is the goal of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. A comprehensive safety assessment program has been established which will proceed on a schedule consistent with the start-up of two waste repositories in late 1985. Safety assessment begins with selection of a disposal site; that is, all geologic and hydrologic factors must indicate long-term stability of the formation and prospective isolation of wastes from circulating around waters for hundreds of thousands of years. The long-term stability of each site must be demonstrated by sophisticated rock mechanics analyses. To help provide answers on the mechanism and consequences of an unlikely breach in the integrity of the repository, a Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is being sponsored at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Methods and data necessary to characterize the safety of generic geological waste disposal concepts, which are to be applied in the assessment of specific sties, will be developed. Other long-term safety-related studies that complement WISAP are in progress, for example, borehole plugging, salt dissolutioning, and salt transport in vertical boreholes. Requirements for licensing are in the process of being formulated by the NRC

  19. The development and status of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.; Papp, T.; Coplan, S.

    1990-01-01

    The development of formal performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal has been in progress for around 10-15 years now. The time is particularly opportune for a review of the state-of-the-art because of current changes in the status of repository planning and implementation worldwide. Several major feasibility-type studies have been completed, the first full site-specific safety analyses are being performed for engineered underground disposal facilities for L/ILW, and - for HLW - the die are now being cast by implementers and regulatory determining how the safety analyses for licensing are to be performed and assessed. The article reviews the development of performance assessment and attempts to identify some key issues occupying safety analysts and regulatory reviewers involved in waste disposal today. (author) 7 figs

  20. Performance assessment methodology (PAM) for low level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selander, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given for Performance Assessment Methodology (PAM) for Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal technologies, as required for licensing and safety studies. This is a multi-disciplinary activity, emphasizing applied mathematics, mass transfer, geohydrology and radiotoxicity effects on humans. (author). 2 refs

  1. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space. Volume I. Executive summary of technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, E.E.; Denning, R.S.; Friedlander, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    Three major conclusions come from this preliminary risk assessment of nuclear waste disposal in space. Preliminary estimates of space disposal risk are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated mined geologic repository (MGR) release risks remain low, and the EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort is warranted. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as an MGR complement is warranted. As a result of this study, the following recommendations are made to NASA and the US DOE: During the continued evaluation of the mined geologic repository risk over the years ahead by DOE, if any significant increase in the calculated health risk is predicted for the MGR, then space disposal should be reevaluated at that time. The risks perceived by the public for the MGR should be evaluated on a broad basis by an independent organization to evaluate acceptance. If, in the future, MGR risks are found to be significant due to some presently unknown technical or social factor, and space disposal is selected as an alternative that may be useful in mitigating the risks, then the following space disposal study activities are recommended: improvement in chemical processing technology for wastes; payload accident response analysis; risk uncertainty analysis for both MGR and space disposal; health risk modeling that includes pathway and dose estimates; space disposal cost modeling; assessment of space disposal perceived (by public) risk benefit; and space systems analysis supporting risk and cost modeling

  2. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  3. Radioactive waste storage and disposal: methodologies for impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, F.L.

    1975-01-01

    The study reviews the basic issues created by the existing and future inventory of high-level wastes and analyzes the characteristics of the wastes produced by various types of reactors. As the quantities of actinides and fission products do not vary much with reactor type, the analysis is carried out without considering the scenario of nuclear development. The four main classes of waste management schemes are the geologic, ice-sheet, seabed, and extraterrestrial schemes. Approximately 20 waste management alternatives are briefly discussed. Evaluation of the waste management schemes will be carried out by governmental institutions, reprocessing organizations, private or public utilities, the public, and the population concerned by the impacts of high-level waste. A list of approximately 40 criteria, organized in six classes, is proposed for comparing the proposed high-level waste management schemes. An attempt of grouping together technological, economical, societal, environmental, moral, social, and political criteria is proposed. Three categories of evaluation methods are examined and illustrated with comparisons of a geologic and an extraterrestrial scheme

  4. Scenario analysis for the postclosure assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, B W; Stephens, M E; Davison, C C; Johnson, L H; Zach, R

    1994-12-01

    AECL Research has developed and evaluated a concept for disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste involving deep underground disposal of the waste in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The postclosure assessment of this concept focusses on the effects on human health and the environment due to potential contaminant releases into the biosphere after the disposal vault is closed. Both radiotoxic and chemically toxic contaminants are considered. One of the steps in the postclosure assessment process is scenario analysis. Scenario analysis identifies factors that could affect the performance of the disposal system and groups these factors into scenarios that require detailed quantitative evaluation. This report documents a systematic procedure for scenario analysis that was developed for the postclosure assessment and then applied to the study of a hypothetical disposal system. The application leads to a comprehensive list of factors and a set of scenarios that require further quantitative study. The application also identifies a number of other factors and potential scenarios that would not contribute significantly to environmental and safety impacts for the hypothetical disposal system. (author). 46 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs., 2 appendices.

  5. Scenario analysis for the postclosure assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Stephens, M.E.; Davison, C.C.; Johnson, L.H.; Zach, R.

    1994-12-01

    AECL Research has developed and evaluated a concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involving deep underground disposal of the waste in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The postclosure assessment of this concept focusses on the effects on human health and the environment due to potential contaminant releases into the biosphere after the disposal vault is closed. Both radiotoxic and chemically toxic contaminants are considered. One of the steps in the postclosure assessment process is scenario analysis. Scenario analysis identifies factors that could affect the performance of the disposal system and groups these factors into scenarios that require detailed quantitative evaluation. This report documents a systematic procedure for scenario analysis that was developed for the postclosure assessment and then applied to the study of a hypothetical disposal system. The application leads to a comprehensive list of factors and a set of scenarios that require further quantitative study. The application also identifies a number of other factors and potential scenarios that would not contribute significantly to environmental and safety impacts for the hypothetical disposal system. (author). 46 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs., 2 appendices

  6. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 2: Radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de; Berhendt, V.; Ensminger, D.; Flebus, C.; Hutchinson, B.; Kane, P.; Karpf, A.; Klett, R.; Mobbs, S.; Poulin, M.; Stanner, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report presents the results of the radiological assessment which consists in estimating the detriment to man and to the environment which could result from the disposal of high level nuclear waste within seabed sediments in the deep oceans

  7. Radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.; Orlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    The first European Community conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal was held in Luxembourg, where twenty-five papers were presented by scientists involved in European Community contract studies and by members of the Commission's scientific staff. The following topics were covered: treatment and conditioning technology of solid intermediate level wastes, alpha-contaminated combustible wastes, gaseous wastes, hulls and dissolver residues and plutonium recovery; waste product evaluation which involves testing of solidified high level wastes and other waste products; engineering storage of vitrified high level wastes and gas storage; and geological disposal in salt, granite and clay formations which includes site characterization, conceptual repository design, waste/formation interactions, migration of radionuclides, safety analysis, mathematical modelling and risk assessment

  8. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  9. Assessment of environmental impact models in natural occurring radionuclides solid wastes disposal from the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May Braga Dulley

    2006-07-01

    This work evaluates the behavior of wastes with naturally occurring radionuclides as generated by the mineral industry and their final disposal in landfills. An integrated methodology is used to predict the performance of an industrial landfill for disposal of wastes containing NORM/TENORM, and to define acceptable amounts that can be disposed at the landfill using long-term environmental assessment. The governing equations for radionuclide transport are solved analytically using the generalized integral transform technique. Results obtained for each compartment of the biogeosphere are validated with experimental results or compared to other classes of solutions. An impact analysis is performed in order to define the potential consequences of a landfill to the environment, considering not only the engineering characteristics of the waste deposit but also the exposure pathways and plausible scenarios in which the contaminants could migrate and reach the environment and the human population. The present work permits the development of a safety approach that can be used to derive quantitative waste acceptance criteria for the disposal of NORM/TENORM waste in landfills. (author)

  10. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  11. The application of assessment principles to an operational low level waste disposal site in England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, J.O.; Newstead, S.; Weedon, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the current assessment principles utilized in England and discusses their application to the Drigg low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site. The Drigg Site was established in 1959 and the assessment principles were published in 1985; therefore, although the Drigg Site has operated successfully, the application of the assessment principles has caused changes in operations and the establishment of further site research by the Department of the Environment

  12. Preliminary environmental impact assessment for the final disposal of vanadium hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Bombuse, D.; Peralta, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is the environmental impact assessment for the final management of vanadium wastes. The assessed practice is proposed as a final solution for a real problem in Cuba, related with the combustion fossil fuel burn in the electric generation. The study case, embrace the interim storage of hazardous wastes with high vanadium contents (5.08 T) and other heavy metals traces (Cr, Zn). According to the Cuban conditions (tacking into account the environmental regulations and infrastructure lack for the hazardous wastes disposal), it was decided the terrestrial dilution as a final disposal way. The environmental impact assessment methodology used, take into account, in the analyzed management practice, the actions, factors and environmental impacts. The positives and more relevant impacts were obtained for the socioeconomic means. The negative and irrelevant impacts were associated to the biotic and abiotic means. Socioeconomic factors were the most affected and the biotic and abiotic factors were less affected. The waste handling was the most relevant environmental action. According to the evaluated conditions, the obtained results showed that is feasible the terrestrial dilution as a sustainability way for the final disposal of vanadium hazardous wastes

  13. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  14. Waste disposal developments within BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc has broad involvement in topics of radioactive waste generation, treatment, storage and disposal. The Company's site at Drigg has been used since 1959 for the disposal of low level waste and its facilities are now being upgraded and extended for that purpose. Since September 1987, BNFL on behalf of UK Nirex Limited has been managing an investigation of the Sellafield area to assess its suitability for deep underground emplacement of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. An approach will be described to establish a partnership with the local community to work towards a concept of monitored, underground emplacement appropriate for each waste category. (author)

  15. The performance assessment impacts of disposal of high-moisture, low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Hansen, W.; Hechnova, A.; Voss, C.; Waters, R.; Sully, M.; Levitt, D.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of independent scientists was convened by the Department of Energy to assess the performance impacts of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. This waste stream was involved in a transportation incident in December 1997. A resulting outgrowth of investigations of the transportation incident was the recognition that the waste was transported and disposed in stress-fractured metal boxes and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high volumetric water contents). The panel was charged with determining whether disposal of this waste in the Area 5 radioactive waste management site on the Nevada Test Site has impacted the conclusions of the completed performance assessment. Three questions were developed by the panel to assess performance impacts: (1) the performance impacts of reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) the performance impacts of excess moisture. No performance or subsidence impacts were noted from disposal of the Fernald waste. The impacts of excess moisture were assessed through simulation modeling of the movement of moisture in the vadose zone assuming high water contents (wet waste) for different percentages of the waste inventory. No performance impacts were noted for either the base-case scenario (ambient conditions) or a scenario involving subsidence and flooding of the waste cells. The absence of performance impacts results form the extreme conservatism used in the Area 5-performance assessment and the robust nature of the disposal site

  16. Radioactive waste disposal system for Cuba. Safety assessment for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.; Mirta Torrez, B.

    1998-01-01

    The present work is performed within the frame of evaluating the radiological impact of the post-closure stage of the facility for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated in Cuba, including a description of the waste disposal systems defined in the country, and taking account of significant elements of their long term safety. The Methodology for Safety Assessment includes: the definition of possible scenarios for evaluation, the identification of principal present uncertainties, the model simulating the release of the radionuclides of the facility, their transport through the geosphere, and their final access to man, evaluating ultimately the radiological impact of the disposal system considering the dose for a critical group. The results obtained allow to demonstrate the radiological safety of the nominative barrier in the design of the system for the particular conditions of Cuba. (author)

  17. 1997 State-by-State Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes Received at Commercial Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1997 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1993 through 1997; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1997

  18. Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental and Safety Assessment Activities in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marc, D.; Loose, A.; Urbanc, J.

    1998-01-01

    The protection of the environment is one of the main concerns in the management of radioactive waste, especially in repository planning. In different stages of repository lifetime the environmental assessment has different functions: it can be used as a decision making process and as a planning, communication and management tool. Safety assessment as a procedure for evaluating the performance of a disposal system, and its potential radiological impact on human health and environment, is also required. Following the international recommendations and Slovene legislation, a presentation is given of the role and importance of the environmental and safety assessment activities in the early stages following concept development and site selection for a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository in Slovenia. As a case study, a short overview is also given of the preliminary safety assessment that has been carried out in the analysis of possibilities for long-lived LILW disposal in Slovenia. (author)

  19. Remedial action and waste disposal project -- 300-FF-1 remedial action readiness assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.W.; Carlson, R.A.; Greif, A.A.; Johnson, C.R.; Orewiler, R.I.; Perry, D.M.; Remsen, W.E.; Tuttle, B.G.; Wilson, R.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the readiness assessment for initial startup of the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Task. A readiness assessment verifies and documents that field activities are ready to start (or restart) safely. The 300-FF-1 assessment was initiated in April 1997. Readiness assessment activities included confirming the completion of project-specific procedures and permits, training staff, obtaining support equipment, receipt and approval of subcontractor submittals, and mobilization and construction of site support systems. The scope of the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Task includes excavation and disposal of contaminated soils at liquid waste disposal facilities and of waste in the 618-4 Burial Ground and the 300-FF-1 landfills. The scope also includes excavation of test pits and test trenches

  20. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  1. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    The problem of disposal can be tackled in two ways: the waste can be diluted and dispersed so that the radiation to which any single individual would be subjected would be negligible, or it can be concentrated and permanently isolated from man and his immediate environment. A variety of methods for the discharge of radioactive waste into the ground were described at the Monaco conference. They range from letting liquid effluent run into pits or wells at appropriately chosen sites to the permanent storage of high activity material at great depth in geologically suitable strata. Another method discussed consists in the incorporation of high level fission products in glass which is either buried or stored in vaults. Waste disposal into rivers, harbours, outer continental shelves and the open sea as well as air disposal are also discussed. Many of the experts at the Monaco conference were of the view that most of the proposed, or actually applied, methods of waste disposal were compatible with safety requirements. Some experts, felt that certain of these methods might not be harmless. This applied to the possible hazards of disposal in the sea. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that much additional research was needed to devise more effective and economical methods of disposal and to gain a better knowledge of the effects of various types of disposal operations, particularly in view of the increasing amounts of waste material that will be produced as the nuclear energy industry expands

  2. Risk assessment of natural disasters in the course of selection of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Weicheng; Ai Guigen

    1995-01-01

    Natural disasters are calamities which bring about enormous damage to human beings and their accommodations and equipment. Based on the research of disaster risk and example study of volcanism, we tried to carry out the risk assessment of natural disasters which potentially occur in the candidate area of nuclear waste disposal by three steps of analyses, defining the most frequent occurring area of disasters, determining the parameters of risk assessment and dividing the most dangerous site and risk grades

  3. Safety and performance assessment of geologic disposal systems for nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltonen, E.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis presents a methodology for the safety and performance assesment of final disposal of nuclear wastes into crystalline bedrock. The applicability of radiation protection objectives is discussed, as well as the goals of the assessment in the various repository system development phases. Due consideration is given to the description of the pertinent analysis methods and to the comprehensive model system. The methodology has been applied to assess the acceptability of the basic disposal concepts and to study the possibilities for the optimization of protection. Furthermore, performance of different components in the multiple barrier disposal systems is estimated. The waste types dealt with are low- and intermediate-level waste as well as high-level spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear power plant. In addition, an option of high-level vitrified waste from reprocessing of spent fuel is taken into account. On the basis of the various analyses carried out it can be concluded that the disposal of different nuclear wastes in the Finnish bedrock in properly designed repositories meets the radiation protection objectives with good confidence. In addition, the studies indicate that the safety margins are considerable. This is due to the fact that the overall performance of the multiple barrier disposal systems analysed is not sensitive to possible unfavourable changes in barrier properties. From the optimization of protection point of view it can be concluded that there is no need to develop more effective repository designs than those analysed in this thesis. In fact, the results indicate that the most sophisticated designs have already gone beyond an optimal level of safety

  4. Safe disposal of radioactive waste. Post-closure safety assessment of permanent repository in Novi han

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateeva, M.

    2007-01-01

    A presented material is the third part of the monograph with title 'Safe disposal of radioactive waste. Post-closure safety assessment of the permanent repository in Novi Han'. This part deals with review of the scenario selection procedure. The process system of permanent repository for radioactive waste is describing in details for different levels. Preliminary screening process of features, events and processes is presented here. Interaction matrixes for basic disposal system components are constructed. Final selection and grouping between the included features, events and processes is done. Selected and defined scenarios for post-closure safety assessment are presented too. Key words: post-closure safety assessment, scenario generation procedure, process system, process influence diagram, and interaction matrix

  5. Limitation of the EIA Process for the assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.L.; Kuhn, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Canadian environmental impact assessment process for the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management and Disposal Concept was completed in 1994. Almost four years later, in February 1998, the Review Panel released its report. The viewpoints of those who participated in the assessment process is archived in the thousands of pages of hearing testimony, meeting transcripts and written briefs. One of the most contentious issues raised, and one that continues to plague management in Canada, is the debate surrounding how the problem of NFW waste management should be defined. The purpose of this paper is to critically assess the problem frame of the Canadian NFW management disposal concept EIS. This will be accomplished through an analysis of stakeholder participation and views, and through an evaluation of the range and nature of the information considered legitimate or constrained in the Canadian process

  6. Limitation of the EIA Process for the assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.L.; Kuhn, R.G. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    1999-12-01

    The Canadian environmental impact assessment process for the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management and Disposal Concept was completed in 1994. Almost four years later, in February 1998, the Review Panel released its report. The viewpoints of those who participated in the assessment process is archived in the thousands of pages of hearing testimony, meeting transcripts and written briefs. One of the most contentious issues raised, and one that continues to plague management in Canada, is the debate surrounding how the problem of NFW waste management should be defined. The purpose of this paper is to critically assess the problem frame of the Canadian NFW management disposal concept EIS. This will be accomplished through an analysis of stakeholder participation and views, and through an evaluation of the range and nature of the information considered legitimate or constrained in the Canadian process.

  7. Performance assessment of the disposal of vitrified high-level waste in a clay layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallants, Dirk; Marivoet, Jan; Sillen, Xavier

    2001-01-01

    Deep disposal is considered a safe solution to the management of high-level radioactive waste. The safety is usually demonstrated by means of a performance assessment. This paper discusses the methodological aspects and some of the results obtained for the performance assessment of the disposal of vitrified high-level waste in a clay layer in Belgium. The calculations consider radionuclide migration through the following multi-barrier components, all of which contribute to the overall safety: (1) engineered barriers and the host clay layer, (2) overlying aquifer, and (3) biosphere. The interfaces between aquifers and biosphere are limited to the well and river pathway. Results of the performance assessment calculations are given in terms of the time evolution of the dose rates of the most important fission and activation products and actinides. The role of the glass matrix in the overall performance of the repository is also discussed

  8. Safety assessment for a disposal option of TENORM wastes coming from the electric generation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva, Dennys; Gil, Reinaldo; Peralta, Jose L.; Odalys Ramos

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was the safety assessment for a disposal option of ashes wastes coming from the electric generation in Cuba. The ashes are planned to be disposed as subsurface layer, covered with soil under controlled conditions. The composition of theses wastes are TENORM ( 226 Ra and 224 Ra) and heavy metals (vanadium, chromium, zinc), therefore, their disposal should accomplish the national and international defined regulations. The adopted safety assessment methodology, allowed the identification and selection of the main scenarios to evaluate, the mathematical models to apply and the comparison against the assessment criteria. According to the assessment context and the site characteristics, the atmospheric and groundwater scenarios were evaluated. During the modelling stage were included the identification of the main exposure pathways and the most relevant assessment processes were modelled (transport of contaminants, radioactive decay, etc.). For atmospheric dispersion, the SCREEN3 model was adopted, including the radioactive decay and other radiological properties. The DRAF model was used for the groundwater scenario. The doses for inhalation, external irradiation and foodstuff ingestion were obtained using several dosimetric models. The results showed that the 226 Ra concentration values were higher than the 228 Ra in the evaluation points, for atmospheric and groundwater scenarios. This behaviour is influenced by the small radioactive inventory, the shorter half life of the 228 Ra and the distance between the disposal site and the evaluation points. The obtained external doses were always below the dose limits for the members of the public and for all scenarios, including the more conservatives. The lower dose (by ingestion) values were associated to the scenarios of radionuclides transport through the geosphere. According the safety assessment and the established scenarios, the evaluated disposal practice does not represent a relevant

  9. Performance assessment overview for subseabed disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) was part of an international program that investigated the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean sediments. This report briefly describes the seven-step iterative performance assessment procedures used in this study and presents representative results of the last iteration. The results of the performance are compared to interim standards developed for the SDP, to other conceptual repositories, and to related metrics. The attributes, limitations, uncertainties, and remaining tasks in the SDP feasibility phase are discussed

  10. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  11. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  12. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, U.; Gnirk, P.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: the form and final disposal of nuclear wastes; the natural rock and groundwater; the disturbed rock and the groundwater; long-term behavior of the rock and the groundwater; nuclear waste leakage into the groundwater; what does it all mean. (U.K.)

  13. 1992 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; McDonald, S.D.

    1993-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1992 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1988 through 1992; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1992. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report

  14. 1995 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1995 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1991 through 1995; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in US as of Dec. 31, 1994. This report distinguishes low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste handled by an intermediary.

  15. 1994 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1994 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1990 through 1994; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1994. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  16. 1996 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1996 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1992 through 1996; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the US as of December 31, 1996. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  17. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: postclosure assessment of a reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; McConnell, D.B.; Andres, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is based on a vault located deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. We document in this report a method to assess the long-term impacts of a disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste. The assessment integrates relevant information from engineering design studies, site investigations, laboratory studies, expert judgment and detailed mathematical analyses to evaluate system performance in terms of safety criteria, guidelines and standards. The method includes the use of quantitative tools such as the Systems Variability Analysis computer Code (SYVAC) to deal with parameter uncertainty and the use of reasoned arguments based on well-established scientific principles. We also document the utility of the method by describing its application to a hypothetical implementation of the concept called the reference disposal system. The reference disposal system generally conforms to the overall characteristics of the concept, except we have made some specific site and design choices so that the assessment would be more realistic. To make the reference system more representative of a real system, we have used the geological observations of the AECL's Whiteshell Research Area located near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, to define the characteristics of the geosphere and the groundwater flow system. This research area has been subject to more than a decade of geological and hydrological studies. The analysis of the reference disposal system provides estimates of radiological and chemical toxicity impacts on members of a critical group and estimates of possible impacts on the environment. The latter impacts include estimates of radiation dose to nonhuman organisms. Other quantitative analyses examine the use of derived constraints to improve the margin of safety, the effectiveness of engineered and natural barriers, and the sensitivity of the results to influential features, events, and processes of the reference disposal

  18. Development of a quality assurance safety assessment database for near surface radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. W.; Kim, C. L.; Park, J. B.; Lee, E. Y.; Lee, Y. M.; Kang, C. H.; Zhou, W.; Kozak, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    A quality assurance safety assessment database, called QUARK (QUality Assurance program for Radioactive waste management in Korea), has been developed to manage both analysis information and parameter database for safety assessment of Low- and Intermediate-Level radioactive Waste (LILW) disposal facility in Korea. QUARK is such a tool that serves QA purposes for managing safety assessment information properly and securely. In QUARK, the information is organized and linked to maximize the integrity of information and traceability. QUARK provides guidance to conduct safety assessment analysis, from scenario generation to result analysis, and provides a window to inspect and trace previous safety assessment analysis and parameter values. QUARK also provides default database for safety assessment staff who construct input data files using SAGE(Safety Assessment Groundwater Evaluation), a safety assessment computer code

  19. Implications of recent ICRP recommendations for risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adopted a new set of recommendations in November 1990 which were issued at ICRP Publication No. 60 in March 1991. These recommendations incorporate new radiobiological information and outline a comprehensive system of radiological protection. This paper evaluates the implications of these new recommendations vis a vis risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

  20. Validation study of safety assessment model for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munakata, Masahiro; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    The JAERI-AECL collaboration research program has been conducted to validate a groundwater flow and radionuclide transport models for safety assessment. JAERI have developed a geostatistical model for radionuclide transport through a heterogeneous geological media and verify using experimental results of field tracer tests. The simulated tracer plumes explain favorably the experimental tracer plumes. A regional groundwater flow and transport model using site-scale parameter obtained from tracer tests have been verified by comparing simulation results with observation ones of natural environmental tracer. (author)

  1. Performance assessment handbook for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Starmer, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    Performance assessments of proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities must be conducted to support licensing. This handbook provides a reference document that can be used as a resource by management and staff responsible for performance assessments. Brief discussions describe the performance assessment process and emphasize selected critical aspects of the process. References are also provided for additional information on many aspects of the performance assessment process. The user's manual for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program's Performance Assessment Center (PAC) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cray computer is included as Appendix A. The PAC provides users an opportunity to experiment with a number of performance assessment computer codes on a Cray computer. Appendix B describes input data required for 22 performance assessment codes

  2. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form

  3. Financing of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.

    1989-01-01

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes

  5. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  6. Nuclear fuel waste management and disposal concept: Report. Federal environmental assessment review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Canadian concept for disposing CANDU reactor waste or high-level nuclear wastes from reprocessing involves underground disposal in sealed containers emplaced in buffer-filled and sealed vaults 500--1,000 meters below ground, in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. This document presents the report of a panel whose mandate was to review this concept (rather than a specific disposal project at a specific site) along with a broad range of related policy issues, and to conduct that review in five provinces (including reviews with First Nations groups). It first outlines the review process and then describes the nature of the problem of nuclear waste management. It then presents an overview of the concept being reviewed, its implementation stages, performance assessment analyses performed on the concept, and implications of a facility based on that concept (health, environmental, social, transportation, economic). The fourth section examines the criteria by which the safety and acceptability of the concept should be evaluated. This is followed by a safety and acceptability evaluation from both technical and social perspectives. Section six proposes future steps for building and determining acceptability of the concept, including an Aboriginal participation process, creation of a Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Agency, and a public participation process. The final section discusses some issues outside the panel's mandate, such as energy policy and renewable energy sources. Appendices include a chronology of panel activities, a review of radiation hazards, comparison between nuclear waste management and the management of other wastes, a review of other countries' approaches to long-term management of nuclear fuel wastes, and details of a siting process proposed by the panel

  7. Dose and risk assessment of norm Contaminated waste released from trench disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Geleel, M.; Ramadan, A.B.; Tawfik, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Oil and gas extraction and processing operations accumulate naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. The petroleum industry adopted methods for managing of NORM that are more restrictive than past practices and are likely to provide greater isolation of the radioactivity. Trench was used as a disposal facility for NORM contaminated wastes at one site of the petroleum industry in Egypt. The aim of this work is to calculate the risk and dose assessment received from trench disposal facility directly and after closure (1000 year). RESRAD computer code was used. The results indicated that the total effective dose (TED) received after direct closure of trench disposal facility was 7.7E-4 mSv/y while after 1000 years, it will he 3.4E-4. The health cancer risk after direct closure was 3.3E-8 while after 1000 years post closure it was 6E-8. Results of this assessment will help examine policy issues concerning different options and regulation of NORM contaminated waste generated by petroleum industry

  8. Development of a methodology for the safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, I.; Cancio, D.; Alonso, L.F.; Agueero, A.; Lopez de la Higuera, J.; Gil, E.; Garcia, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Project on the Environmental Radiological Impact in CIEMAT is developing, for the Spanish regulatory body Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), a methodology for the Safety Assessment of near surface disposal facilities. This method has been developed incorporating some elements developed through the participation in the IAEA's ISAM Programme (Improving Long Term Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities). The first step of the approach is the consideration of the assessment context, including the purpose of the assessment, the end-Points, philosophy, disposal system, source term and temporal scales as well as the hypothesis about the critical group. Once the context has been established, and considering the peculiarities of the system, an specific list of features, events and processes (FEPs) is produced. These will be incorporated into the assessment scenarios. The set of scenarios will be represented in the conceptual and mathematical models. By the use of mathematical codes, calculations are performed to obtain results (i.e. in terms of doses) to be analysed and compared against the criteria. The methodology is being tested by the application to an hypothetical engineered disposal system based on an exercise within the ISAM Programme, and will finally be applied to the Spanish case. (author)

  9. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This film for a general audience deals with nuclear fuel waste management in Canada, where research is concentrating on land based geologic disposal of wastes rather than on reprocessing of fuel. The waste management programme is based on cooperation of the AECL, various universities and Ontario Hydro. Findings of research institutes in other countries are taken into account as well. The long-term effects of buried radioactive wastes on humans (ground water, food chain etc.) are carefully studied with the help of computer models. Animated sequences illustrate the behaviour of radionuclides and explain the idea of a multiple barrier system to minimize the danger of radiation hazards

  10. On the estimation of bias in post-closure performance assessment of underground radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, B.G.J.; Gralewski, Z.A.; Grindrod, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a systematic method for recording and evaluating bias in performance assessments for underground radioactive waste disposal facilities. The bias estimation approach comprises three principal components: (1) creation of a relational database containing historical assumptions and decisions made during the assessment, (2) investigation of the impact of some identified sources of internal bias through alternative assessment calculations, and (3) investigation of the impact of some identified sources of external bias by estimating degrees of belief probability. Bias corrections may help avoid unnecessary concerns by explaining and scoping the impacts of principal differences without the need to undertake additional site investigation, research, and performance analysis

  11. The development and status of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.; Papp, T.; Coplan, S.

    1990-01-01

    The development of formal performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal has been in progress for around 10-15 years now. The time is particularly opportune for a review of the state-of-the-art because of current changes in the status of repository planning and implementation world-wide. Several major feasibility-type studies have been completed, the first full site-specific safety analyses are being performed for engineered underground disposal facilities for L/ILW, and - for HLW - the die are now being cast by implementers and regulators determining how the safety analyses for licensing are to be performed and assessed. This introductory paper reviews the development of performance assessment, including a reiteration of the aims and a recapitulation of the technical progress and achievements to date. The most important purpose, however, is to identify some key issues occupying safety analysts and regulatory reviewers involved in waste disposal today. The objective is to present the generally accepted consensus on the state of the art in performance assessment. 40 refs., 2 figs

  12. Long-term risk assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Bertozzi, G.; D'Alessandro, M.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for long-term safety analysis of waste from nuclear power production in the European Community are under study at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) at Ispra, Italy. Aim of the work is to develop a suitable methodology for long-term risk assessment. The methodology under study is based on the assessment of the quantitative value of a system of barriers which may be interposed between waste and man. The barriers considered are: a) quality of the segregation afforded by the geological formation, b) chemical and physical stability of conditioned waste, c) interaction with geological environments (subsoil retention), d) distribution in the biosphere. The methodology is presently being applied to idealized test cases based on the following assumptions: waste are generated during 30 years of operations in a nuclear park (reprocessing + refabrication plant) capable of treating 1000 ton/yr of LWR fuel. High activity waste is conditioned as borosilicate glass (HAW) while low- and medium-level wastes are bituminized (BIP). All waste is disposed off into a salt formation. Transport to the biosphere, following the containment failure occurs by groundwater, with no delay due to retention on adsorbing media. Distribution into the biosphere occurs according to the terrestrial model indicated. Under these assumptions, information was drawn concerning environmental contamination, its levels, contributing elements and pathways to man

  13. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, Tony.

    1990-01-01

    The Save Our Earth series has been designed to appeal to the inquiring minds of ''planet-friendly'' young readers. There is now a greater awareness of environmental issues and an increasing concern for a world no longer able to tolerate the onslaught of pollution, the depletion of natural resources and the effects of toxic chemicals. Each book approaches a specific topic in a way that is exciting and thought-provoking, presenting the facts in a style that is concise and appropriate. The series aims to demonstrate how various environmental subjects relate to our lives, and encourages the reader to accept not only responsibility for the planet, but also for its rescue and restoration. This volume, on nuclear waste disposal, explains how nuclear energy is harnessed in a nuclear reactor, what radioactive waste is, what radioactivity is and its effects, and the problems and possible solutions of disposing of nuclear waste. An awareness of the dangers of nuclear waste is sought. (author)

  14. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches

  15. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, R.J.; Swindells, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for charging radioactive waste into a disposable steel drum having a plug type lid. The drum is sealed to a waste dispenser and the dispenser closure and lid are withdrawn into the dispenser in back-to-back manner. Before reclosing the dispenser the drum is urged closer to it so that on restoring the dispenser closure to the closed position the lid is pressed into the drum opening

  16. Disposing of fluid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  17. A linear program for assessing the assignment and scheduling of radioactive wastes for disposal to sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, W.

    1983-04-01

    The report takes the form of a user guide to a computer program using linear programming techniques to aid the assignment and scheduling of radioactive wastes for disposal to sea. The program is aimed at the identification of 'optimum' amounts of each waste stream for disposal to sea without violating specific constraints values and/or fairness parameters. (author)

  18. Criteria for long-term hazard assessment of chemotoxic and radiotoxic waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    Present-day human activities generate chemotoxic as well as radiotoxic wastes. They must likewise be considered as extremely hazardous. If wastes are composed simultaneously of both kinds, as may occur in nuclear facility operations or nuclear medical applications, the material is called mixed waste. Whereas radioactive waste management and disposal have received considerable attention in the past, less care has been devoted to chemotoxic wastes. Also, mixed wastes may pose problems diverging from singly composed materials. The disposal of mixed wastes is not sufficiently well regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany. Currently, non-radioactive hazardous wastes are mostly disposed of by shallow land burial. Much more rigorous safety precautions are applied with regard to radioactive wastes. According to the orders of the German Federal Government, their disposal is only permitted in continental underground repositories. These repository requirements for radioactive waste disposal should be superior to the near-surface disposal facilities. At present, federal and state legislation do not permit hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes to be deposited simultaneously. It is doubtful whether this instruction is always suitable and also justified. This paper presents a modified strategy

  19. A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Mattie, P. D.; Kuo, M.; Tien, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to be evaluated in a performance assessment analysis to determine the likelihood of meeting the regulatory criteria for disposal. Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have been working together to develop the necessary performance assessment methodology and associated computer models to perform these analyses. The methodology utilizes both deterministic (e.g., single run) and probabilistic (e.g., multiple statistical realizations) analyses to achieve the goals. The probabilistic approach provides a means of quantitatively evaluating uncertainty in the model predictions and a more robust basis for performing sensitivity analyses to better understand what is driving the dose predictions from the models. Two types of disposal configurations are under consideration: a shallow land burial concept and a cavern disposal concept. The shallow land burial option includes a protective cover to limit infiltration potential to the waste. Both conceptual designs call for the disposal of 55 gallon waste drums within concrete lined trenches or tunnels, and backfilled with grout. Waste emplaced in the drums may be solidified. Both types of sites are underlain or placed within saturated fractured bedrock material. These factors have influenced the conceptual model development of each site, as well as the selection of the models to employ for the performance assessment analyses. Several existing codes were integrated in order to facilitate a comprehensive performance assessment methodology to evaluate the potential disposal sites. First, a need

  20. Preliminary performance assessment strategy for single-shell tank waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnichsen, J.C. Jr.

    1991-10-01

    The disposal of the waste stored in single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site is recognized as a major environmental concern. A comprehensive program has been initiated to evaluate the various alternatives available for disposal of these wastes. Theses wastes will be disposed of in a manner consistent with applicable laws and regulations. Long-term waste isolation is one measure of performance that will be used for purposes of selection. The performance of each disposal alternative will be simulated using numerical models. Contained herein is a discussion of the strategy that has and continues to evolve to establish a general analytical framework to evaluate this performance. This general framework will be used to construct individual models of each waste disposal alternative selected for purposes of evaluation. 30 refs., 3 figs

  1. Researching radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feates, F.; Keen, N.

    1976-01-01

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared. (U.K.)

  2. Summary of EPA's risk assessment results from the analysis of alternative methods of low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandrowski, M.S.; Hung, C.Y.; Meyer, G.L.; Rogers, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential health risk and individual exposure from a broad number of disposal alternatives is an important part of EPA's program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). The Agency has completed an analysis of the potential population health risks and maximum individual exposures from ten disposal methods under three different hydrogeological and climatic settings. This paper briefly describes the general input and analysis procedures used in the risk assessment for LLW disposal and presents their preliminary results. Some important lessons learned from simulating LLW disposal under a large variety of methods and conditions are identified

  3. Readiness assessment plan for the Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility (Trench 31)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the Readiness Assessment Plan (RAP) for the Project W-025 (Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility) Readiness Assessment (RA). The RAP documents prerequisites to be met by the operating organization prior to the RA. The RAP is to be implemented by the RA Team identified in the RAP. The RA Team is to verify the facility's compliance with criteria identified in the RAP. The criteria are based upon the open-quotes Core Requirementsclose quotes listed in DOE Order 5480.31, open-quotes Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilitiesclose quotes

  4. Overview of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1991-01-01

    A performance assessment methodology has been developed for use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating license applications for low-level waste disposal facilities. This paper provides a summary and an overview of the modeling approaches selected for the methodology. The overview includes discussions of the philosophy and structure of the methodology. This performance assessment methodology is designed to provide the NRC with a tool for performing confirmatory analyses in support of license reviews related to postclosure performance. The methodology allows analyses of dose to individuals from off-site releases under normal conditions as well as on-site doses to inadvertent intruders. 24 refs., 1 tab

  5. Biosphere assessment due to radionuclide release in waste disposal repository through food chain pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, H. S.; Kang, C. S.

    2000-01-01

    The long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal is assessed by the consequence analysis of radionuclides release, of which the final step is carried out by the biosphere assessment. the radiation dose is calculated from the food chain modeling which especially necessitates site-specific input database and exposure pathways. A biosphere model in consideration of new exposure pathways has been analyzed, and a program for food chain calculation has been developed. The up-to-data input data are reflected and the new exposure pathways are considered in the program, so the code shows more realistic and reliable results

  6. LISA. A code for safety assessment in nuclear waste disposals program description and user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltelli, A.; Bertozzi, G.; Stanners, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The code LISA (Long term Isolation Safety Assessment), developed at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra is a useful tool in the analysis of the hazard due to the disposal of nuclear waste in geological formations. The risk linked to preestablished release scenarios is assessed by the code in terms of dose rate to a maximum exposed individual. The various submodels in the code simulate the system of barriers -both natural and man made- which are interposed between the contaminants and man. After a description of the code features a guide for the user is supplied and then a test case is presented

  7. Assessing and monitoring soil quality at agricultural waste disposal areas-Soil Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doula, Maria; Kavvadias, Victor; Sarris, Apostolos; Lolos, Polykarpos; Liakopoulou, Nektaria; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris

    2014-05-01

    The necessity of elaborating indicators is one of the priorities identified by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). The establishment of an indicator monitoring system for environmental purposes is dependent on the geographical scale. Some indicators such as rain seasonality or drainage density are useful over large areas, but others such as soil depth, vegetation cover type, and land ownership are only applicable locally. In order to practically enhance the sustainability of land management, research on using indicators for assessing land degradation risk must initially focus at local level because management decisions by individual land users are taken at this level. Soils that accept wastes disposal, apart from progressive degradation, may cause serious problems to the surrounding environment (humans, animals, plants, water systems, etc.), and thus, soil quality should be necessarily monitored. Therefore, quality indicators, representative of the specific waste type, should be established and monitored periodically. Since waste composition is dependent on their origin, specific indicators for each waste type should be established. Considering agricultural wastes, such a specification, however, could be difficult, since almost all agricultural wastes are characterized by increased concentrations of the same elements, namely, phosphorous, nitrogen, potassium, sulfur, etc.; contain large amounts of organic matter; and have very high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and electrical conductivity. Two LIFE projects, namely AgroStrat and PROSODOL are focused on the identification of soil indicators for the assessment of soil quality at areas where pistachio wastes and olive mill wastes are disposed, respectively. Many soil samples were collected periodically for 2 years during PROSODOL and one year during AgroStrat (this project is in progress) from waste disposal areas and analyzed for 23 parameters

  8. Methodology of safety assessment and sensitivity analysis for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideo; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Shima, Shigeki; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    A deterministic safety assessment methodology has been developed to evaluate long-term radiological consequences associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and to demonstrate a generic feasibility of geologic disposal. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a normal evolution scenario which excludes events attributable to probabilistic alterations in the environment. A computer code system GSRW thus developed is based on a non site-specific model, and consists of a set of sub-modules for calculating the release of radionuclides from engineered barriers, the transport of radionuclides in and through the geosphere, the behavior of radionuclides in the biosphere, and radiation exposures of the public. In order to identify the important parameters of the assessment models, an automated procedure for sensitivity analysis based on the Differential Algebra method has been developed to apply to the GSRW. (author)

  9. The disposal of high level radioactive waste and the need for assessing the radiological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, G.; Haegg, C.

    1990-01-01

    Different options for the disposal of high level radioactive waste are being considered in several different countries. When assessing the possible future impact of these disposal concepts, very large uncertainties are associated with the predictions. These uncertainties include scenario representation, conceptual and mathematical modelling, parameter evaluation and finally the interpretation of the results. Some of these uncertainties cannot be eliminated regardless of research efforts, e.g. the evolution of the society and the environment. The paper discusses in general terms to what extent uncertainties in the predictions could be reduced and in the light of this discussion the authors present their point of view regarding the fruitfulness of assessing radiological impact in the far future. (orig.)

  10. Assessment of the radiological impact of disposal of low and intermediate level wastes on the seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobbs, S.F.; Delow, C.E.; Hill, M.D.

    1984-03-01

    This report describes progress in the development of models for use in a radiological assessment of the disposal of low and intermediate level waste on the ocean floor. In particular the report describes the waste package model, the ocean dispersion model and the sedimentation model. Five types of waste package have been identified and models have been developed for them. A flow pattern for the Atlantic Ocean has been derived from the existing distribution of temperature and salinity in the Atlantic Ocean. However a number of discrepancies between the calculated and predicted pattern were found; the model has been extended to include all the world's oceans to correct this. The sedimentation model describes two types of scavenging particles in the water column, a well mixed benthic boundary layer and the top two metres of the bed sediments. Good agreement with the GESAMP ocean model results has been found. (author)

  11. A reaction-transport model and its application to performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; McGrail, B.P.; Engel, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    One important issue in assessing the performance of a geological repository for nuclear waste disposal is to project the migration behaviour of radionuclides in subsurface environments over long time scales of 10,000 years or even longer. Obviously such projections cannot be achieved by laboratory measurements alone. Instead, scientists must rely on sophisticated predictive models that are built on a sound physico-chemical basis. The most important processes affecting the migration of radionuclides are usually classified into two types: 1) transport processes, including advection, diffusion and dispersion and 2) chemical reactions, including corrosion of waste forms and waste packages, precipitation of secondary phases, adsorption of radionuclides on the surface of solids, aqueous complexation etc. Typically the migration behaviour of radionuclides in geologic environments has been simulated by two types of models, hydrogeological and geochemical

  12. Guidelines for radiological performance assessment of DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, M.J.; Otis, M.D.

    1988-07-01

    This document provides guidance for conducting radiological performance assessments of Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The guidance is specifically intended to provide the fundamental approach necessary to meet the performance assessment requirements. The document is written for LLW facility operators or other personnel who will manage the performance assessment task. The document is meant to provide guidance for conducting performance assessments in a generally consistent manner at all DOE LLW disposal facilities. The guidance includes a summary of performance objectives to be met by LLW disposal facilities (these objectives are derived from current DOE and other applicable federal regulatory guidelines); specific criteria for an adequate performance assessment and from which a minimum set of required calculations may be determined; recommendations of methods for screening critical components of the analysis system so that these components can be addressed in detail; recommendations for the selection of existing models and the development of site-specific models; recommendations of techniques for comparison of assessment results with performance objectives; and a summary of reporting requirements

  13. Early-1990 status of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S G [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, P N [Tech Reps Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-07-15

    This paper summarizes the early-1990 status of the performance-assessment work being done to evaluate compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B. This regulation sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal (Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes). As required by Subpart B, evaluations of compliance will include probabilistic numerical simulations of repository performance and qualitative judgments. Compliance appears uncertain only in the event of human intrusion into the repository after decommissioning. Issues affecting compliance following intrusion include properties of the plugs used to seal the intruding borehole, permeability and porosity of the waste, and possible pressurization of the repository by gas generated from the organic decomposition and corrosion of the waste and containers. Research is in progress to determine the probability of intrusion and to quantify parameter uncertainties needed to include these factors in simulations of repository performance. The Department of Energy (DOE) is following two strategies to assure compliance. First, passive marker systems will be designed and implemented to reduce the likelihood of intrusion and increase the likelihood that intruders will properly reseal the repository. Second, modifications to the form of the waste and the design of the repository to achieve acceptable performance if the intruding borehole is not adequately sealed will be designed. Goals include reductions in gas generation and waste permeability and porosity. Numerous modifications are technically possible. Work in progress will evaluate proposed modifications and recommend the most promising for further testing. The DOE is confident that compliance with Subpart B of 40 CFR 191 can be established using a combination of the two strategies

  14. Early-1990 status of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Swift, P.N.

    1991-07-01

    This paper summarizes the early-1990 status of the performance-assessment work being done to evaluate compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B. This regulation sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal (Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes). As required by Subpart B, evaluations of compliance will include probabilistic numerical simulations of repository performance and qualitative judgments. Compliance appears uncertain only in the event of human intrusion into the repository after decommissioning. Issues affecting compliance following intrusion include properties of the plugs used to seal the intruding borehole, permeability and porosity of the waste, and possible pressurization of the repository by gas generated from the organic decomposition and corrosion of the waste and containers. Research is in progress to determine the probability of intrusion and to quantify parameter uncertainties needed to include these factors in simulations of repository performance. The Department of Energy (DOE) is following two strategies to assure compliance. First, passive marker systems will be designed and implemented to reduce the likelihood of intrusion and increase the likelihood that intruders will properly reseal the repository. Second, modifications to the form of the waste and the design of the repository to achieve acceptable performance if the intruding borehole is not adequately sealed will be designed. Goals include reductions in gas generation and waste permeability and porosity. Numerous modifications are technically possible. Work in progress will evaluate proposed modifications and recommend the most promising for further testing. The DOE is confident that compliance with Subpart B of 40 CFR 191 can be established using a combination of the two strategies

  15. Comprehensive development plans for the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea and preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Jin Hyeong; Kwon, Mi Jin; Jeong, Mi Seon; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The disposal facility in Gyeongju is planning to dispose of 800,000 packages of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste. This facility will be developed as a complex disposal facility that has various types of disposal facilities and accompanying management. In this study, based on the comprehensive development plan of the disposal facility, a preliminary post-closure safety assessment is performed to predict the phase development of the total capacity for the 800,000 packages to be disposed of at the site. The results for each scenario meet the performance target of the disposal facility. The assessment revealed that there is a significant impact of the inventory of intermediate-level radionuclide waste on the safety evaluation. Due to this finding, we introduce a disposal limit value for intermediate-level radioactive waste. With stepwise development of safety case, this development plan will increase the safety of disposal facilities by reducing uncertainties within the future development of the underground silo disposal facilities.

  16. Extended biosphere dataset for safety assessment of radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    JAEA has an on-going programme of research and development relating to the safety assessment of the deep geological disposal systems of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and transuranic waste (TRU). In the safety assessment of HLW and TRU disposal systems, biosphere assessment is necessary to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings (e.g. radiation dose). In order to estimate radiation dose, consideration needs to be given to the biosphere into which future releases of radionuclides might occur and to the associated future human behaviour. The data of some biosphere parameters needed to be updated by appropriate data sources for generic and site-specific biosphere assessment to improve reliability for the biosphere assessment, because some data published in the 1980's or the early 90's were found to be inappropriate for the recent biosphere assessment. Therefore, data of the significant parameters (especially for element-dependent) were set up on the basis of recent information, to update the generic biosphere dataset. (author)

  17. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  18. Assessment of concentration limit for the safe disposal of very low level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Yun Seog

    2008-02-01

    The large amounts of radionuclides are generated from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities (included the nuclear power plant). Because of this, countries or agencies using the nuclear power are one of considering issues for the effective disposal. Among decommissioning wastes, wastes have no or very limited radioactivity are disposed of in conventional landfill or recycled thought approval from regulatory control. And wastes like LILW (Low and Intermediate Level Wastes) or HLW (High Level Wastes) are sent the repository or the interim storage facilities. In order to solve the space problem of the LILW repository and reduce disposal costs, some LLW which are relatively lower than other LLW are classified as VLLW (Very Low Level Wastes). IAEA is added to the VLLW category of the radioactive waste classification and some countries are operating a VLLW disposal facility or will be operating. In this study, the VLLW acceptance criteria of each radionuclide are derived by considering the inadvertent human intrusion scenario applying to a study on the near-surface disposal (LILW). The effect of important parameter, especially, waste isolation period, dilution factor and food consumption rate, is considered. It is concluded that the concentration limits of radionuclides considering in this study are evaluated approximately between 1 and 100 Bq/g. These values are similar to the case of France and Spain and the IAEA's predicted values. Based on this study, acceptance criteria of VLLW disposal facilities are suggested. And this study is contributed to the public relations for the safety of the VLLW disposal facility

  19. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  20. Derivation methods for clearance levels and safety assessments for very low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru

    2001-01-01

    The clearance level was evaluated by the dose of concrete and metal when they would be recycled and reused from shallow land burial of radioactive facilities. The state of waste after clearance is not specified, so that we studied large scale of exposure pathways. The parameter values used for safety assessment were determined as the average values under the consideration of natural and social environment in Japan. Propriety of these values was confirmed by a probability analysis. On the safety assessment of very low-level waste disposal facility, the disposer pathway and parameters were determined under the consideration of special site conditions (natural and social environment) and properties of waste. However, the same exposure pathway of them used the same model for external (exposure by sky shine' s ray) and internal exposure. The calculation results of estimated pathway showed 1.2x10 -5 mSv/y the largest dose for the external exposure pathway by sky shine's ray. (S.Y.)

  1. 1990 State-by-State assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1991-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This annual report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1990 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1986 through 1990; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1990. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly by generators for disposal and that which was handled by an intermediary. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  2. 1990 State-by-State assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1991-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This annual report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1990 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1986 through 1990; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1990. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly by generators for disposal and that which was handled by an intermediary. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Study on Safety Assessment for TINT- Pre disposal Radioactive Waste Management Facilities by the Application of SAFRAN Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-anant, Nanthavan

    2011-06-01

    Full text: The Radioactive Waste Management Center, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) provides a centralized radioactive waste management (RWM) service in the country. The pre disposal RWM facilities are composed of low and intermediate level waste treatment and storage facilities. The benefits of this study are (1) to improve the safety of pre disposal RWM facilities (2) to experience with the SAFRAN software tool for the safety assessment of pre disposal RWM facilities, which has been developed following to the methodology from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The work was performed on collecting all waste management data, the diagram of facilities, buildings, location, procedure, waste classification, waste form, radiological/chemical/physical properties including scenarios in normal and accidental conditions. The result of normal condition is that the effective dose per year of worker and public is less than 20 mSv and 1 mSv respectively. So the TINT-RWM operation is safe, as referred to the regulation

  4. Performance assessment of grouted double-shell tank waste disposal at Hanford. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W., Kincaid, C.T.; Whyatt, G.A.; Rhoads, K.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Freshley, M.D.; Blanchard, K.A.; Shade, J.W.; Piepho, M.G.; Voogd, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    This document assesses the performance of the Grout Disposal Facility after closure. The facility and disposal environment are modeled to predict the long-term impacts of the disposal action. The document concludes that the disposal system provides reasonable assurance that doses to the public will remain within the performance objectives. This document is required for DOC Order 5820.2A

  5. Verification and validation for waste disposal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    A set of evaluation criteria has been developed to assess the suitability of current verification and validation techniques for waste disposal methods. A survey of current practices and techniques was undertaken and evaluated using these criteria with the items most relevant to waste disposal models being identified. Recommendations regarding the most suitable verification and validation practices for nuclear waste disposal modelling software have been made

  6. Assessment of the radiological impact of intermediate level waste disposed on the seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobbs, S.F.; Hill, M.D.

    1982-12-01

    This report outlines the methodology to be used in radiological assessments of disposal of waste on the ocean bed and describes the set of integrated models needed for such assessments. During the period covered by the contract considerable progress was made towards developing a new, compartment-type, model for dispersion of radionuclides in the deep ocean. The basic structure of this model was defined, and the mathematical techniques to be used in calculating the water flow rates between compartments were identified. Calculations of these flow rates are about to begin. When further progress has been made on the deep ocean model, more effort will be devoted to the other two models which are seen to be of high priority. These are the waste package model and the sedimentation model. It is anticipated that a first set of integrated models will be available for use in 1983, and will be refined thereafter. (author)

  7. An overview of biosphere modelling for the assessment of solid waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of biosphere modelling in relation to the overall assessment of disposal of solid radioactive waste. Model structure and data requirements are strongly influenced by a number of basic factors. Firstly, the alternative forms of safety criteria and regulatory requirements imply different end-points for biosphere models. Secondly, alternative disposal concepts can influence the significance of the biosphere as a barrier or diluting/concentrating feature affecting exposure of man. Thirdly, the range of different possibilities for release to the biosphere, including releases following intrusion, is very extensive. The requirements and state of development of biosphere models are discussed in relation to these factors along with methods being adopted to provide some expression of confidence in model results. 37 refs

  8. Assessment of the radiological risks of underground disposal of solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M.C.

    1988-12-01

    One of the general principles for assessing proposals for operating a landbased facility for solid radioactive waste disposal is that the site should be chosen and the facility should be designed so that the risk or probability of fatal cancer, to any member of the public, from any movement of radioactivity from the facility, is not greater than 1 in a million in any one year. This report provides advice to the Department of the Environment as to how this risk may be defined and gives a prescription for how it can be calculated. (author)

  9. New safety performance indicators for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Castillo, R.G.; Olivera, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper shows the Cuban experience on implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste and the necessity for identifying new safety performance indicators for the safety assessment (SA) of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The selected indicator was the concentration of natural radioactive elements (U, Ra, Th, K) in the Cuban geologic environment. We have carried out a group of investigations, which have allowed characterising the concentration for the whole Country, creating a wide database where this indicator is associated with the lithology. The main lithologies in Cuba are: the sedimentary rocks (70 percent of national occurrence), which are present in the three regions (limestone and lutite), and finally the igneous and metamorphic rocks. The results show the concentrations ranges of the natural radionuclides associated fundamentally to the variation in the lithology and geographical area of the Country. In Cuba, the higher concentration (ppm) of Uranium and Radium are referenced to the Central region associated to Skarn, while for Thorium (ppm) and Potassium (%), in the East region the concentration peaks in Tuffs have been found. The concentrations ranges obtained are preliminary, they characterise the behaviour of this parameter for the Cuban geology, but they do not represent limits for safety assessment purposes yet. Also other factors should be taken into account as the assessment context, time scales and others assumptions before establishing the final concentration limits for the natural radionuclides as a radiological and nuclear safety performance indicator complementary to dose and risk for safety assessment for radiological and nuclear facilities. (author)

  10. Performance assessment for low-level waste disposal in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, A.B. [UK Dept. of the Environment, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operate a site for the disposal of Low Level Radioactive Waste at Drigg in West Cumbria, in North-West England. HMIP are responsible for the regulation of the site with regard to environmental discharges of radioactive materials, both operational and post-closure. This paper is concerned with post-closure matters only. Two post-closure performance assessments have been carried out for this site: one by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1987; and a subsequent one carried out on behalf of HMIP, completed in 1991. Currently, BNFL are preparing a Safety Case for continued operation of the Drigg site, and it expected that the core of this Case will comprise BNFL`s own analysis of post-closure performance. HMIP has developed procedures for the assessment of this Case, based upon experience of the previous Drigg assessments, and also upon the experience of similar work carried out in the assessment of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) disposal at both deep and shallow potential sites. This paper describes the more important features of these procedures.

  11. Greater confinement disposal of high activity and special case wastes at the Nevada Test Site: A unified migration assessment approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.; Olague, N.E.; Johnson, V.L.; Dickman, P.T.; O'Neill, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Nevada Field Office has disposed of a small quantity of high activity and special case wastes using Greater Confinement Disposal facilities in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. Because some of these wastes are transuranic radioactive wastes, the Environmental Protection Agency standards for their disposal under 40 CFR Part 191 which requires a compliance assessment. In conducting the 40 CFR Part 191 compliance assessment, review of the Greater Confinement Disposal inventory revealed potentially land disposal restricted hazardous wastes. The regulatory options for disposing of land disposal restricted wastes consist of (1) treatment and monitoring, or (2) developing a no-migration petition. Given that the waste is already buried without treatment, a no-migration petition becomes the primary option. Based on a desire to minimize costs associated with site characterization and performance assessment, a single approach has been developed for assessing compliance with 40 CFR Part 191, DOE Order 5820.2A (which regulates low-level radioactive wastes contained in Greater Confinement Disposal facilities) and developing a no-migration petition. The approach consists of common points of compliance, common time frame for analysis, and common treatment of uncertainty. The procedure calls for conservative bias of modeling assumptions, including model input parameter distributions and adverse processes and events that can occur over the regulatory time frame, coupled with a quantitative treatment of data and parameter uncertainty. This approach provides a basis for a defensible regulatory decision. In addition, the process is iterative between modeling and site characterization activities, where the need for site characterization activities is based on a quantitative definition of the most important and uncertain parameters or assumptions

  12. Radiological risk assessment and biosphere modelling for radioactive waste disposal in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennwald, M S; van Dorp, F

    2009-12-01

    Long-term safety assessments for geological disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland involve the demonstration that the annual radiation dose to humans due to the potential release of radionuclides from the waste repository into the biosphere will not exceed the regulatory limit of 0.1 mSv. Here, we describe the simple but robust approach used by Nagra (Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) to quantify the dose to humans as a result to time-dependent release of radionuclides from the geosphere into the biosphere. The model calculates the concentrations of radionuclides in different terrestrial and aquatic compartments of the surface environment. The fluxes of water and solids within the environment are the drivers for the exchange of radionuclides between these compartments. The calculated radionuclide concentrations in the biosphere are then used to estimate the radiation doses to humans due to various exposure paths (e.g. ingestion of radionuclides via drinking water and food, inhalation of radionuclides, external irradiation from radionuclides in soils). In this paper we also discuss recent new achievements and planned future work.

  13. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for medium and alpha waste disposal in granitic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewi, J.; Brun-Yaba, C.; Cernes, A.

    1990-01-01

    PACOMA (Performance Assessment of Confinement for Medium and Alpha Waste) is a coordinated project of the Commission of the European Communities with the participation of the Member States. This project is intended to evaluate the suitability of clay, granite and salt formations to dispose of conditioned alpha and medium-level radioactive waste. In this report, CEA-IPSN presents the database and the results of evaluating the radiological consequences associated to the disposal of alpha-bearing waste in a deep granite formation. Two repository concepts and three sites have been examined (Auriat, a hypothetical site in the UK and Barfleur) which are identical to those considered in the PAGIS project. The methodology adopted for the PAGIS project has been used for carrying out the deterministic calculations of radiological consequences in the case of normal evolution scenarios and in altered evolutions, as well as for sensitivity analysis of results to the calculation parameters and for uncertainty studies. The calculation of individual doses in the case of normal evolutions show, after a first peak due to I-129, Se-79 and Tc-99 some hundred of thousands years, a maximum, which is reached only after several million of years. In all cases, these maxima are largely lower (by a factor of 1000 at least), than the limit recommended by the IRCP

  14. Infiltration control for low-level radioactive solid waste disposal areas: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.

    1980-11-01

    The primary mode of radionuclide transport from shallow land-disposal sites for low-level wastes can be traced to infiltration of precipitation. This report examines the factors that affect surface water entry and movement in the ground and assesses available infiltration-control technology for solid-waste-disposal sites in the humid eastern portion of the United States. A survey of the literature suggests that a variety of flexible and rigid liner systems are available as barriers for the stored waste and would be effective in preventing water infiltration. Installation of near-surface seals of bentonite clay admixed with dispersive chemicals seem to offer the required durability and low permeability at a reasonable cost. The infiltration rate in a bentonite-sealed area may be further retarded by the application of dispersive chemicals that can be easily admixed with the surface soil. Because the effectiveness of a dispersive chemical for infiltration reduction is influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the soil, appropriate laboratory tests should be conducted prior to field application

  15. Development of a unit cell model for interim performance assessment of vitrified low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1995-09-01

    The unit cell modeling approach has been developed and used in analysis of some design options for a vitrified low level waste disposal facility. The unit cell modeling approach is likely to be useful in interim performance assessment for the facility. The present unit cell model will probably need to be refitted in terms of some model parameters for the latter purpose. Two present disposal facility concepts differ in the length of a capillary barrier proposed to limit effective recharge through the top of the facility. Results of the study summarized herein suggest design of a capillary barrier which can reduce a recharge rate of 0.1 cm/yr by one or two orders of magnitude seems feasible for both concepts. A benchmark comparison of the unit cell model against a full facility model shows comparable predictive accuracy in less than one percent of the computer time. Results suggest that model parameters include capillary barrier performance, inter-canister spacing, rate of moisture withdrawal due to glass corrosion, contaminant inventory, and the well interceptor factor. It is also important that variations of waste form hydraulic parameters suggest that transport through the waste form is dominated by diffusion

  16. The United States Department of Energy process for performance assessment for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Owens, K.W.; Wilhite, E.L.; Duggan, G.J.

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) manages disposal of low-level radioactive waste through the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A on Radioactive Waste Management. The order specifies long-term performance objectives for permanent disposal, requires a performance assessment to determine compliance with those objectives, and establishes a Peer Review Panel to review those assessments for technical quality and completeness. A Performance Assessment Task Team has been established to provide guidance and recommend policy for implementation and interpretation of the requirements to those preparing the assessments. This paper describes the requirements, the Peer Review Panel, the Performance Assessment Task Team, and their activities to date

  17. Quantitative risk assessment of the New York State operated West Valley Radioactive Waste Disposal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, B John; Stetkar, John W; Bembia, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    This article is based on a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) that was performed on a radioactive waste disposal area within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in western New York State. The QRA results were instrumental in the decision by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to support a strategy of in-place management of the disposal area for another decade. The QRA methodology adopted for this first of a kind application was a scenario-based approach in the framework of the triplet definition of risk (scenarios, likelihoods, consequences). The measure of risk is the frequency of occurrence of different levels of radiation dose to humans at prescribed locations. The risk from each scenario is determined by (1) the frequency of disruptive events or natural processes that cause a release of radioactive materials from the disposal area; (2) the physical form, quantity, and radionuclide content of the material that is released during each scenario; (3) distribution, dilution, and deposition of the released materials throughout the environment surrounding the disposal area; and (4) public exposure to the distributed material and the accumulated radiation dose from that exposure. The risks of the individual scenarios are assembled into a representation of the risk from the disposal area. In addition to quantifying the total risk to the public, the analysis ranks the importance of each contributing scenario, which facilitates taking corrective actions and implementing effective risk management. Perhaps most importantly, quantification of the uncertainties is an intrinsic part of the risk results. This approach to safety analysis has demonstrated many advantages of applying QRA principles to assessing the risk of facilities involving hazardous materials.

  18. Leaching studies of low-level waste as input to radiological assessment at the Drigg disposal site, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulton, J.; Rushbrook, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    Over the period of operation of the low-level waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, several radiological assessments have been carried out. This paper discusses data requirements for such an assessment and in particular describes a project to measure the leaching behaviour of wastes. This project, jointly set up by the staff of BNFL and Environmental Safety Centre at Harwell, began in 1985. The objectives were to determine the processes operating within the waste disposal trenches at Drigg and conditions affecting them. The paper describes the installation and operation of the first of a series of lysimeters designed to simulate conditions in current trenches. (author)

  19. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, H.; Closs, K.D.; Kuhn, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solutions to the technical problem of the disposal of radioactive waste are limited by a) the state of knowledge of reprocessing possibilites, b) public acceptance of the use of those techniques which are known, c) legislative procedures linking licensing of new nuclear power plants to the solution of waste problems, and d) other political constraints. Wastes are generated in the mining and enriching of radioactive elements, and in the operation of nuclear power plants as well as in all fields where radioactive substances may be used. Waste management will depend on the stability and concentration of radioactive materials which must be stored, and a resolution of the tension between numerous small storage sites and a few large ones, which again face problems of public acceptability

  20. Historical Relationship Between Performance Assessment for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Other Types of Risk Assessment in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.

    2000-07-14

    This paper describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed to the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built upon methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty and the tools used to evaluate it.

  1. Historical Relationship Between Performance Assessment for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Other Types of Risk Assessment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, Robert P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed to the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built upon methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty and the tools used to evaluate it

  2. The 1985 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The 1985 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,909 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 748,903 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1985. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 displays typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector. Table 3 presents predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear and US Ecology for each state. Figure 1 displays the disposal capacity remaining at Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty commercial disposal sites as of December 31, 1985. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste and effluent reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Where reported data were not available, data were obtained by communication with the utility. Nonreactor waste volumes are actual amounts recorded as received at the commercial waste repositories in 1985. Waste categories are defined as academic, medical, government, and industrial. New to the 1985 report is Appendix B, 1985 Assessments Listed By Ratified Compacts, as well as the proposed Western and Appalachian compacts. Inclusion of the most accurate information available from all sources has resulted in an improved national waste distribution profile of generator sectors. 11 refs

  3. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site

  4. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-11-15

    A discussion on the disposal of radioactive wastes was held in Vienna on 20 September 1960. The three scientists who participated in the discussion were Mr. Harry Brynielsson (Sweden), Head of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company; Mr. H. J. Dunster (United Kingdom), Health Physics Adviser to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; and Mr. Leslie Silverman (United States), Professor of Harvard University, and Chairman of the US AEC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, as well as consultant on air cleaning

  5. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, T A [JK Research Associates, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    1990-07-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site.

  6. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S st , S st , p st ) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S su , S su , p su ) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S st , S st , p st ) and (S su , S su , p su ). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems

  7. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S st , L st , P st ) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S su , L su , P su ) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S st , L st , P st ) and (S su , L su , P su ). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems

  8. A performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derring, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    To demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives governing protection of the general population in 10 CFR 61.41, applicants for land disposal of low-level radioactive waste are required to conduct a pathways analysis, or quantitative evaluation of radionuclide release, transport through environmental media, and dose to man. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff defined a strategy and initiated a project at Sandia National Laboratories to develop a methodology for independently evaluating an applicant's analysis of postclosure performance. This performance assessment methodology was developed in five stages: identification of environmental pathways, ranking the significance of the pathways, identification and integration of models for pathway analyses, identification and selection of computer codes and techniques for the methodology, and implementation of the codes and documentation of the methodology. This paper summarizes the NRC approach for conducting evaluations of license applications for low-level radioactive waste facilities. 23 refs

  9. Uncertainty propagation in a 3-D thermal code for performance assessment of a nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutfoy, A.; Ritz, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Given the very large time scale involved, the performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository requires numerical modelling. Because we are uncertain of the exact value of the input parameters, we have to analyse the impact of these uncertainties on the outcome of the physical models. The EDF Division Research and Development has set a reliability method to propagate these uncertainties or variability through models which requires much less physical simulations than the usual simulation methods. We apply the reliability method MEFISTO to a base case modelling the heat transfers in a virtual disposal in the future site of the French underground research laboratory, in the East of France. This study is led in collaboration with ANDRA which is the French Nuclear Waste Management Agency. With this exercise, we want to evaluate the thermal behaviour of a concept related to the variation of physical parameters and their uncertainty. (author)

  10. Waste management, final waste disposal, fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengeling, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    Out of the legal poblems that are currently at issue, individual questions from four areas are dealt with: privatization of ultimate waste disposal; distribution of responsibilities for tasks in the field of waste disposal; harmonization and systematization of regulations; waste disposal - principles for making provisions for waste disposal - proof of having made provisions for waste disposal; financing and fees. A distinction has to be made between that which is legally and in particular constitutionally imperative or, as the case may be, permissible, and issues where there is room for political decision-making. Ultimately, the deliberations on the amendment are completely confined to the sphere of politics. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. The socio-economic impact assessment for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, J.; Wlodarczyk, T.

    1992-01-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste will undergo public scrutiny as it is examined under the Canadian Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP). This process presents a number of challenges in preparing the socio-economic impact assessment (SEIA) component of an Environment Impact Statement. These challenges relate to defining the scope of the SEIA, adapting site-specific methodologies to an assessment of a concept, and addressing evolving public concerns and issues. This paper reports that in meeting these challenges a generic process-oriented SEIA has been developed that emphasizes the importance of defining policies and processes to manage socio-economic impacts. In addition, public involvement and attitude research has facilitated the assessment of the concept at the societal level

  12. Application of Bayesian network to the probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang-Ju; Lee, Kun Jai

    2006-01-01

    The scenario in a risk analysis can be defined as the propagating feature of specific initiating event which can go to a wide range of undesirable consequences. If we take various scenarios into consideration, the risk analysis becomes more complex than do without them. A lot of risk analyses have been performed to actually estimate a risk profile under both uncertain future states of hazard sources and undesirable scenarios. Unfortunately, in case of considering specific systems such as a radioactive waste disposal facility, since the behaviour of future scenarios is hardly predicted without special reasoning process, we cannot estimate their risk only with a traditional risk analysis methodology. Moreover, we believe that the sources of uncertainty at future states can be reduced pertinently by setting up dependency relationships interrelating geological, hydrological, and ecological aspects of the site with all the scenarios. It is then required current methodology of uncertainty analysis of the waste disposal facility be revisited under this belief. In order to consider the effects predicting from an evolution of environmental conditions of waste disposal facilities, this paper proposes a quantitative assessment framework integrating the inference process of Bayesian network to the traditional probabilistic risk analysis. We developed and verified an approximate probabilistic inference program for the specific Bayesian network using a bounded-variance likelihood weighting algorithm. Ultimately, specific models, including a model for uncertainty propagation of relevant parameters were developed with a comparison of variable-specific effects due to the occurrence of diverse altered evolution scenarios (AESs). After providing supporting information to get a variety of quantitative expectations about the dependency relationship between domain variables and AESs, we could connect the results of probabilistic inference from the Bayesian network with the consequence

  13. Development of performance assessment methodology for establishment of quantitative acceptance criteria of near-surface radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. R.; Lee, E. Y.; Park, J. W.; Chang, G. M.; Park, H. Y.; Yeom, Y. S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : review of state-of-the-art on the establishment of waste acceptance criteria in foreign near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities, investigation of radiological assessment methodologies and scenarios, investigation of existing models and computer codes used in performance/safety assessment, development of a performance assessment methodology(draft) to derive quantitatively radionuclide acceptance criteria of domestic near-surface disposal facility, preliminary performance/safety assessment in accordance with the developed methodology.

  14. Safety assessment for the transportation of NECSA's LILW to the Vaalputs waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maphoto, K.P.; Raubenheimer, E.; Swart, H.

    2008-01-01

    The transport safety assessment was carried out with a view to assess the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the radioactive materials. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with the envisaged transport scenarios for the road transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of LILW along the R563 route, N14 and eventually to the Vaalputs National Waste Disposal Facility. Various parameters are needed by the RADTRAN code in calculating the human health impact and risk. These include: numbers of population densities following the routes undertaken, number of stops made, and the speed at which the transport will be traversing at towards the final destination. The human health impact with regard to the dose to the public, LCF and risk associated with transportation of Necsa's LILW to the Vaalputs Waste Disposal Facility by road have been calculated using RADTRAN 5 code. The results for both accident and incident free scenarios have shown that the overall risks are insignificant and can be associated with any non-radiological transportation. (authors)

  15. Development of probabilistic assessment methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, H.; Takahashi, T.

    1998-01-01

    The probabilistic assessment methodology is essential to evaluate uncertainties of long-term radiological consequences associated with geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. We have developed a probabilistic assessment methodology to estimate the influences of parameter uncertainties/variabilities. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a groundwater migration scenario. A computer code system GSRW-PSA thus developed is based on a non site-specific model, and consists of a set of sub modules for sampling of model parameters, calculating the release of radionuclides from engineered barriers, calculating the transport of radionuclides through the geosphere, calculating radiation exposures of the public, and calculating the statistical values relating the uncertainties and sensitivities. The results of uncertainty analyses for α-nuclides quantitatively indicate that natural uranium ( 238 U) concentration is suitable for an alternative safety indicator of long-lived radioactive waste disposal, because the estimated range of individual dose equivalent due to 238 U decay chain is narrower that that due to other decay chain ( 237 Np decay chain). It is internationally necessary to have detailed discussion on the PDF of model parameters and the PSA methodology to evaluated the uncertainties due to conceptual models and scenarios. (author)

  16. Application of Bayesian network methodology to the probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ju

    2006-02-01

    The scenario in a risk analysis can be defined as the propagating feature of specific initiating event which can go to a wide range of undesirable consequences. If one takes various scenarios into consideration, the risk analysis becomes more complex than do without them. A lot of risk analyses have been performed to actually estimate a risk profile under both uncertain future states of hazard sources and undesirable scenarios. Unfortunately, in case of considering some stochastic passive systems such as a radioactive waste disposal facility, since the behaviour of future scenarios is hardly predicted without special reasoning process, we cannot estimate their risk only with a traditional risk analysis methodology. Moreover, it is believed that the sources of uncertainty at future states can be reduced pertinently by setting up dependency relationships interrelating geological, hydrological, and ecological aspects of the site with all the scenarios. It is then required current methodology of uncertainty analysis of the waste disposal facility be revisited under this belief. In order to consider the effects predicting from an evolution of environmental conditions of waste disposal facilities, this study proposes a quantitative assessment framework integrating the inference process of Bayesian network to the traditional probabilistic risk analysis. In this study an approximate probabilistic inference program for the specific Bayesian network developed and verified using a bounded-variance likelihood weighting algorithm. Ultimately, specific models, including a Monte-Carlo model for uncertainty propagation of relevant parameters, were developed with a comparison of variable-specific effects due to the occurrence of diverse altered evolution scenarios (AESs). After providing supporting information to get a variety of quantitative expectations about the dependency relationship between domain variables and AESs, this study could connect the results of probabilistic

  17. A performance assessment methodology for high-level radioactive waste disposal in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, D.P.

    1991-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a methodology for performance assessment of deep geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The applicability of this performance assessment methodology has been demonstrated for disposal in bedded salt and basalt; it has since been modified for assessment of repositories in unsaturated, fractured tuff. Changes to the methodology are primarily in the form of new or modified ground water flow and radionuclide transport codes. A new computer code, DCM3D, has been developed to model three-dimensional ground-water flow in unsaturated, fractured rock using a dual-continuum approach. The NEFTRAN 2 code has been developed to efficiently model radionuclide transport in time-dependent velocity fields, has the ability to use externally calculated pore velocities and saturations, and includes the effect of saturation dependent retardation factors. In order to use these codes together in performance-assessment-type analyses, code-coupler programs were developed to translate DCM3D output into NEFTRAN 2 input. Other portions of the performance assessment methodology were evaluated as part of modifying the methodology for tuff. The scenario methodology developed under the bedded salt program has been applied to tuff. An investigation of the applicability of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to non-linear models indicate that Monte Carlo simulation remains the most robust technique for these analyses. No changes have been recommended for the dose and health effects models, nor the biosphere transport models. 52 refs., 1 fig

  18. Information requirements for the probabilistic risk assessment of underground disposal of low level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumerling, T.J.; Thompson, B.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The UK Department of the Environment (DoE) will perform independent post-closure safety assessment of proposals for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in engineered facilities in shallow ground. In this paper, the DoE assessment criteria, methodology and modelling capabilities are outlined; the general characteristics of the information required are discussed; and the specific information needs, as presently perceived, are identified. It is concluded that: most of the data that can be obtained by direct means is provided by site investigations and research now in hand, although there may be uncertainty due to sparse regional data; some parameters can only be obtained by, or with the assistance of subjective judgment; the process of data reduction is not straight forward and adequate time must be allowed for this if a comprehensive and defensible assessment is to be constructed

  19. ASAM - The international programme on application of safety assessment methodologies for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA has launched a new Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ASAM). The CRP will focus on the practical application of the safety assessment methodology, developed under the ISAM programme, for different purposes, such as developing design concepts, licensing, upgrading existing repositories, reassessment of operating disposal facilities. The overall aim of the programme is to assist safety assessors, regulators and other specialists involved in the development and review of safety assessment for near surface disposal facilities in order to achieve transparent, traceable and defendable evaluation of safety of these facilities. (author)

  20. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal into the sub-seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobbs, S.F.; Charles, D.; Delow, C.E.; McColl, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes an assessment of the radiological impact of sub-seabed disposal of vitrified high level waste, carried out as part of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste. Where possible the data used in this study have been taken from those provided by the Nuclear Energy Agency Seabed Working Group. The waste was assumed to be placed into the sub-seabed sediments by means of the free fall penetrator technique. An alternative method, emplacement in a deep borehole, was also studied. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Great Meteor East, in the N.E. Atlantic, and two alternative sites: Southern Nares Abyssal Plain in the N.W. Atlantic and Cape Verde Rise in N.E. Atlantic. Models were used to describe the release of radionuclides from the waste, their migration through the sediments, their dispersion in the world oceans and the pathways to man. For the normal evolution scenario, best estimate peak individual dose rates for the penetrator option was evaluated at 2 x 10 -10 Sv y -1 arising 0.1 million years after emplacement. The collective dose commitment was 10,000 man Sv. The corresponding figures for the borehole option were 2 x 10 -14 Sv y -1 and 1 man Sv. The risks from seven altered evolution scenarios were also calculated and the risk was predicted to be always less than 10 -9 y -1 . Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were also performed and showed that the peak dose was most sensitive to variations in Kd values, pore water velocity, pore water diffusivity and burial depth. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  1. Recycling And Disposal Of Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ui So

    1987-01-15

    This book introduces sewage disposal sludge including properties of sludge and production amount, stabilization of sludge by anaerobic digestion stabilization of sludge by aerobic digestion, stabilization of sludge by chemical method, and dewatering, water process sludge, human waste and waste fluid of septic tank such as disposal of waste fluid and injection into the land, urban waste like definition of urban waste, collection of urban waste, recycling, properties and generation amount, and disposal method and possibility of injection of industrial waste into the ground.

  2. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: the biosphere model, BIOTRAC, for postclosure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.; Zach, R.; Stephens, M.E.; Amiro, B.D.; Bird, G.A.; Reid, J.A.K.; Sheppard, M.I.; Sheppard, S.C.; Stephenson, M.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear fuel waste management concept of Canada calls for disposal of the waste in a vault mined deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The technical feasibility of this concept, and its impact on the environment and human health, will be documented in an Environmental Impact statement (EIS) by AECL. The present report is one of nine EIS primary references. The report describes the BIOTRAC model, which is used to trace nuclide movement from the geosphere through the biosphere and to calculate time-dependent environmental concentrations and radiological doses to humans and other biota for the postclosure phase. These concentrations and doses are crucial for evaluating the safety and environmental acceptability of the concept in terms of chemical and radiological toxicity. BIOTRAC was developed specifically to assess the impacts of a used-fuel disposal vault. It is a comprehensive, generic model with distributed or probabilistic parameter values to account for spatial and temporal variability and uncertainty. It is composed of four separate but closely linked submodels representing surface waters, soils, the atmosphere and the food chain. It also includes a unique model for predicting radiological doses to non-human biota, represented by generic target organisms. The mathematical formulation of each submodel is derived in detail and interpreted physically, and all the assumptions are fully evaluated and discussed. It is shown how the parameter values and distributions adopted for each submodel are derived from the available data. The interfaces between the submodels, and between BIOTRAC and the geosphere model, are presented in detail. Fluctuations in the physical state of the biosphere are accounted for through the parameter distributions. Major environmental changes, such as those caused by continental glaciation, are addressed quantitatively and through reasoned arguments, which indicate that radiological doses to humans will not increase suddenly or

  3. Radiological impact assessment on non-human species from the radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Castillo, Reinaldo; Peralta Vital, Jose L.; Leiva Bombuse, Dennys

    2008-01-01

    The paper shows the use of a methodology in order to carry out the radiological impact assessment in non-human species (animals and plants) from a planned radioactive waste disposal facility. The application of modelling tools to simulate the behaviour (release and transport) of the radionuclides through the engineered barriers and the geosphere, and its final access to the soil and a river are described too. To evaluate the compliance with the adopted biota dose limits, were used the calculated maximum radionuclide concentrations for different environmental compartments (water, soil and sediment). Preliminary, the results showed that the Radiological Biota impacts are acceptable according to the adopted criteria (Radionuclides concentrations below the Biota Concentration Guides). The results showed that according theirs impact the more important radionuclides were: 241 Am/ 226 Ra/ 137 Cs/ 60 Co. The Riparian animals were the more exposed Biota organism. The results support the decision making process since could be identified the relevant radiological impact in the environment (plants and animals) near to a disposal facility (real or planned). Also the paper identified methodological tools useful to evaluate the site acceptance, for the early stages of disposal facilities (site selection process, licensing, etc), in absence of real data of radionuclides concentrations in the environment. (author)

  4. Biosphere modelling for the safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the Japanese H12 assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yuji; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Naito, Morimasa; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Takao; Little, Richard H.; Smith, Graham M.

    2002-01-01

    JNC has an on-going programme of research and development relating to the safety assessment of the deep geological disposal system of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). In the safety assessment of a HLW disposal system, it is often necessary to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings (e.g. radiation dose). In order to estimate dose, consideration needs to be given to the surface environment (biosphere) into which future releases of radionuclides might occur and to the associated future human behaviour. However, for a deep repository, such releases might not occur for many thousands of years after disposal. Over such timescales, it is not possible to predict with any certainty how the biosphere and human behaviour will evolve. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, the reference biosphere le concept has been developed for use in the safety assessment of HLW disposal. The Reference Biospheres Methodology was originally developed by the BIOMOVS II Reference Biospheres Working Group and subsequently enhanced within Theme 1 of the BIOMASS programme. As the aim of the H12 assessment with a hypothetical HLW disposal system was to demonstrate the technical feasibility and reliability of the Japanese disposal concept for a range of geological and surface environments, some assessment specific reference biospheres were developed for the biosphere modelling in the H12 assessment using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II/BIOMASS approach. They have been used to derive factors to convert the radionuclide flux from a geosphere to a biosphere into a dose. The influx to dose conversion factor also have been derived for a range of different geosphere-biosphere interfaces (well, river and marine) and potential exposure groups (farming, freshwater-fishing and marine-fishing). This paper summarises the approach used for the derivation of the influx to dose conversion factor also for the range of geosphere-biosphere interfaces and

  5. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms. Their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    1995-06-01

    This report presents a broad and thorough description of how microorganisms may influence safety of repositories for radioactive waste. First, an overview of the Swedish concepts for disposal is given, including a discussion of the geological, chemical and hydrological conditions in repositories. Then the limiting and stimulating factors for life of microorganisms are reviewed, such as relations to oxygen, temperature, pH, radiation, pressure, water and nutrients availability. Bacteria in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, iron, manganese and hydrogen are also discussed. A literature review of subterranean bacteria is given in chapter 4. Chapter 5 treats investigations of microorganisms in repository-like environments, and microbial corrosion and redox processes relevant for materials in the repository and for the mobility of radionuclides. Possibilities to predict the activity and presence of microorganisms through mathematical models are discussed in chapter 6. Chapter 7 summarizes the conclusion drawn in the report, how microorganisms may influence performance safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, and also identifies research needs. 293 refs, 43 figs, 36 tabs

  6. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms. Their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). General and Marine Microbiology; Karlsson, Fred [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    This report presents a broad and thorough description of how microorganisms may influence safety of repositories for radioactive waste. First, an overview of the Swedish concepts for disposal is given, including a discussion of the geological, chemical and hydrological conditions in repositories. Then the limiting and stimulating factors for life of microorganisms are reviewed, such as relations to oxygen, temperature, pH, radiation, pressure, water and nutrients availability. Bacteria in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, iron, manganese and hydrogen are also discussed. A literature review of subterranean bacteria is given in chapter 4. Chapter 5 treats investigations of microorganisms in repository-like environments, and microbial corrosion and redox processes relevant for materials in the repository and for the mobility of radionuclides. Possibilities to predict the activity and presence of microorganisms through mathematical models are discussed in chapter 6. Chapter 7 summarizes the conclusion drawn in the report, how microorganisms may influence performance safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, and also identifies research needs. 293 refs, 43 figs, 36 tabs.

  7. Dose and risk assessment for intrusion into mixed waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1991-10-01

    Sites previously used for disposal of radioactive and hazardous chemical materials have resulted in situations that pose a potential threat to humans from inadvertent intrusion. An example generic scenario analysis was developed to demonstrate the evaluation of potential exposure to either cleanup workers or members of the public who intrude into buried waste containing both radioactive and hazardous chemical contaminants. The example scenarios consist of a collection of exposure routes (or pathways) with specific modeling assumptions for well-drilling and for excavation to construct buildings. These scenarios are used to describe conceptually some potential patterns of activity by non-protected human beings during intrusion into mixed-waste disposal sites. The dose from exposure to radioactive materials is calculated using the GENII software system and converted to risk by using factors from ICRP Publication 60. The hazard assessment for nonradioactive materials is performed using recent guidelines from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The example results are in the form of cancer risk for carcinogens and radiation exposure

  8. Radiological assessment of the consequences of the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in subseabed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Marsily, G.; Behrendt, V.; Ensminger, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the seabed option consists in estimating the detriment to man and to the environment that could result from the disposal of high-level waste (HLW) within the seabed sediments in deep oceans. The assessment is made for the high-level waste (vitrified glass) produced by the reprocessing of 10 5 tons of heavy metal from spent fuel, which represents the amount of waste generated by 3333 reactor-yr of 900-MW(electric) reactors, i.e., 3000 GW(electric) x yr. The disposal option considered is to use 14,667 steel penetrators, each of them containing five canisters of HLW glass (0.15 m 3 each). These penetrators would reach a depth of 50 m in the sediments and would be placed at an average distance of 180 m from each other, requiring a disposal area on the order of 22 x 22 km. Two such potential disposal areas in the Atlantic Ocean were studied, Great Meteor East (GME) and South Nares Abyssal Plains (SNAP). A special ship design is proposed to minimize transportation accidents. Approximately 100 shipments would be necessary to dispose of the proposed amount of waste. The results of this radiological assessment seem to show that the disposal of HLW in subseabed sediments is radiologically a very acceptable option

  9. Overview of nuclear waste disposal in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, E.E.; Priest, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    One option receiving consideration by the Department of Energy (DOE) is the space disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is assessing the space disposal option in support of DOE studies on alternatives for nuclear waste management. The space disposal option is viewed as a complement, since total disposal of fuel rods from commercial power plants is not considered to be economically practical with Space Shuttle technology. The space disposal of certain high-level wastes may, however, provide reduced calculated and perceived risks. The space disposal option in conjunction with terrestrial disposal may offer a more flexible and lower risk overall waste management system. For the space disposal option to be viable, it must be demonstrated that the overall long-term risks associated with this activity, as a complement to the mined geologic repository, would be significantly less than the long-term risk associated with disposing of all the high-level waste. The long-term risk benefit must be achieved within an acceptable short-term and overall program cost. This paper briefly describes space disposal alternatives, the space disposal destination, possible waste mixes and forms, systems and typical operations, and the energy and cost analysis

  10. Final Environmental Assessment for solid waste disposal, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    New solid waste regulations require that the existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) municipal landfills, which receive less than 20 tons of waste per day, be permitted or closed by October 9, 1995. In order to be permitted, the existing landfills must meet specific location, groundwater monitoring, design, operation, and closure requirements. The issuance of these regulations has resulted in the need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a practical, cost-effective, environmentally sound means of solid waste disposal at the NTS that is in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations. The current landfills in Areas 9 and 23 on the Nevada Test Site do not meet design requirements specified in new state and federal regulations. The DOE Nevada Operations Office prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential impacts of the proposal to modify the Area 23 landfill to comply with the new regulations and to close the Area 9 landfill and reopen it as Construction and Demolition debris landfill. Based on information and analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act. Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  11. Assessing the costs of disposable and reusable supplies wasted during surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasseigne, V; Leguelinel-Blache, G; Nguyen, T L; de Tayrac, R; Prudhomme, M; Kinowski, J M; Costa, P

    2018-05-01

    The management of disposable and reusable supplies might have an impact on the cost efficiency of the Operating Room (OR). This study aimed to evaluate the cost and reasons for wasted supplies in the OR during surgical procedures. We conducted an observational and prospective study in a French university hospital. We assessed the cost of wasted supplies in the OR (defined by opened unused devices), the reasons for the wastage, and the circulator retrievals. At the end, we assessed the perception of surgeons and nurses relative to the supply wastage. Fifty routine procedures and five non-scheduled procedures were observed in digestive (n = 20), urologic (n = 20) and gynecologic surgery (n = 15). The median cost [IQR] of open unused devices was €4.1 [0.5; 10.5] per procedure. Wasted supplies represented up to 20.1% of the total cost allocated to surgical supplies. Considering the 8000 surgical procedures performed in these three surgery departments, the potential annual cost savings were 100 000€. The most common reason of wastage was an anticipation of the surgeon's needs. The circulating nurse spent up to 26.3% of operative time outside of the OR, mainly attending to an additional demand from the surgeon (30%). Most of the survey respondents (68%) agreed that knowing supply prices would change their behavior. This study showed the OR is a major source of wasted hospital expenditure and an area wherein an intervention would have a significant impact. Reducing wasted supplies could improve the cost efficiency of the OR and also decrease its ecological impact. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1998-04-01

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  13. Waste disposal experts meet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-01-15

    Problems connected with the disposal into the sea of radioactive wastes from peaceful uses of atomic energy are being examined by a panel of experts, convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency. These experts from eight different countries held a first meeting at IAEA headquarters in Vienna from 4-9 December 1958, under the chairmanship of Dr. Harry Brynielsson, Director General of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company. The countries represented are: Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States. The group will meet again in 1959. (author)

  14. Ocean disposal option for bulk wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides: an assessment case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stull, E.A.; Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-01-01

    There are 180,000 m 3 of slightly contaminated radioactive wastes (36 pCi/g radium-226) currently stored at the US Department of Energy's Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), near Lewiston, New York. These wastes resulted from the cleanup of soils that were contaminated above the guidelines for unrestricted use of property. An alternative to long-term management of these wastes on land is dispersal in the ocean. A scenario for ocean disposal is presented for excavation, transport, and emplacement of these wastes in an ocean disposal site. The potential fate of the wastes and impacts on the ocean environment are analyzed, and uncertainties in the development of two worst-case scenarios for dispersion and pathway analyses are discussed. Based on analysis of a worst-case pathway back to man, the incremental dose from ingesting fish containing naturally occurring radionuclides from ocean disposal of the NFSS wastes is insignificant. Ocean disposal of this type of waste appears to be a technically promising alternative to the long-term maintenance costs and eventual loss of containment associated with management in a near-surface land burial facility

  15. Legal, political, and institutional implications of the seabed assessment program for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deese, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Sub-seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste is discussed. The following conclusions are drawn: The outcome will be determined largely by the national political stances taken toward a sub-seabed disposal program. Political and diplomatic responses from individual countries should be expected to be heavily influenced by the number, type, and timing of options available for high-level waste disposal. The budgetary and institutional support Washington gives to the sub-seabed program will have a crucial influence on the progress of sub-seabed science and technology over the next three to five years. Despite the growing need of nations, such as Japan and Britain, for a high-level waste disposal option, a sub-seabed program will probably not be employed if it is not strongly funded and supported by the United States. Clearly, there are enough level and political obstacles to destroy or delay a sub-seabed disposal program. The nontechnical hurdles to seabed disposal at least equal the scientific and technical ones. But, on the other hand, there are important potential social and political benefits to be gained from any serious attempt to mount a successful sub-seabed program. These lie principally in international cooperation on waste management, environmental protection, nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, and governing the deep seabed

  16. The use of safety indicators in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingefors, S.; Westerlind, M.; Gera, F.

    1999-01-01

    The most widely used criteria for disposal are limits or constraints on individual dose or risk, and these have been introduced in most national legal frameworks. There is general agreement that future generations have the right to the same level of protection as the current generation. Even if quantitative criteria corresponding to the required level of protection can be (and have been) defined, it is a great challenge to demonstrate compliance with these criteria. The difficulties are to large extent due to the long time-scales needed to be considered in radioactive waste disposal. The future cannot be predicted in detail but instead different scenarios, with different probabilities of occurrence, must be assessed. Some parts of a disposal system can be predicted or analysed with high confidence for very long periods of time, e.g. geological formations, while for example the evolution of the biosphere, and in particular the society, become quite uncertain within less than one thousand years. Thus, there may be considerable uncertainty in doses (or risks) derived from the safety assessment of a repository. Due to these unavoidable uncertainties it is believed advantageous to use multiple approaches in the safety assessment and to identify different indicators for the repository safety ('multiple-lines-of-reasoning'). The most fundamental safety indicators are dose/risk but complementary indicators have been suggested, in particular flux and environmental concentration of radionuclides. This presentation is focussed on fluxes and concentrations as complementary safety indicators. Other safety indicators, e.g. transfer times, are mentioned only briefly

  17. Formulation and Presentation of Risk Assessments to Address Risk Targets for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.

    2002-10-01

    The Swedish regulators have been active in the field of performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities for many years and have developed sophisticated approaches to the development of scenarios and other aspects of assessments. These assessments have generally used dose as the assessment end-point. Regulations recently established in Sweden (SSI FS 1998:1) have introduced a risk criterion for radioactive waste disposal: the annual risk of harmful effects after closure of a disposal facility should not exceed 10 -6 for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. This report evaluates different approaches to the definition and use of probabilities in the context of risk assessments, and examines the presentation of the results of risk assessments in safety cases to meet risk targets. The report illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of different possible approaches to risk assessment by reference to assessments in other countries, and provides suggestions for future activity and development in this area by the Swedish regulators. The review of experience in other countries has led to a number of key observations relevant to the conduct of regulatory work on risk assessments and preparations for review. These highlight the importance of developing a protocol for conducting calculations, and linking such a protocol to the requirements of risk assessment calculations and to existing code and model capabilities. There are a number of decisions and assumptions required in developing a risk assessment methodology that could potentially affect the calculated results. These assumptions are independent of the analysis of performance, and relate to issues such as the expectation value of risk, risk dilution, the definition of probability density functions and achieving convergence. A review of a proponent's risk assessment should address these issues in determining the appropriateness and validity of the results presented

  18. Formulation and Presentation of Risk Assessments to Address Risk Targets for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    The Swedish regulators have been active in the field of performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities for many years and have developed sophisticated approaches to the development of scenarios and other aspects of assessments. These assessments have generally used dose as the assessment end-point. Regulations recently established in Sweden (SSI FS 1998:1) have introduced a risk criterion for radioactive waste disposal: the annual risk of harmful effects after closure of a disposal facility should not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. This report evaluates different approaches to the definition and use of probabilities in the context of risk assessments, and examines the presentation of the results of risk assessments in safety cases to meet risk targets. The report illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of different possible approaches to risk assessment by reference to assessments in other countries, and provides suggestions for future activity and development in this area by the Swedish regulators. The review of experience in other countries has led to a number of key observations relevant to the conduct of regulatory work on risk assessments and preparations for review. These highlight the importance of developing a protocol for conducting calculations, and linking such a protocol to the requirements of risk assessment calculations and to existing code and model capabilities. There are a number of decisions and assumptions required in developing a risk assessment methodology that could potentially affect the calculated results. These assumptions are independent of the analysis of performance, and relate to issues such as the expectation value of risk, risk dilution, the definition of probability density functions and achieving convergence. A review of a proponent's risk assessment should address these issues in determining the appropriateness and validity of the results presented

  19. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, R.L.; Hansen, W.R.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Layton, D.W.; Lee, D.W.; Maheras, S.T.; Neuder, S.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Curl, R.U.; Grahn, K.F.; Heath, B.A.; Turner, K.H.

    1991-10-01

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel's expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel's reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel's review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management.''

  20. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Roger, B.

    1975-10-01

    After mentioning the importance of the problem of the disposal of wastes produced in the electro-nuclear industry, a short reminder on a few laws of radioactivity (nature and energy of radiations, half-life) and on some basic dosimetry is given. The conditioning and storage procedures are then indicated for solid wastes. The more active fractions of liquid wastes are incorporated into blocks of glass, whereas the less active are first concentrated by chemical treatments or by evaporation. The concentrates are then embedded into concrete, asphalt or resins. Storage is done according to the nature of each type of wastes: on a hard-surfaced area or inside concrete-lined trenches for the lowest radioactivity, in pits for the others. Transuranium elements with very long half-lives are buried in very deep natural cavities which can shelter them for centuries. From the investigations conducted so far and from the experience already gained, it can be concluded that safe solutions are within our reach [fr

  1. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7

  2. Geoenvironment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Within the activities planned by UNESCO in its Water and Earth Science programme, an interdisciplinary meeting on geology and environment was scheduled by this organization to be held by the beginning of 1983. At this meeting it was intended to consider geological processes in the light of their interaction and influence on the environment with special emphasis on the impact of various means of waste disposal on geological environment and on man-induced changes in the geological environment by mining, human settlements, etc. Considering the increasing interest shown by the IAEA in the field, through environmental studies, site studies, and impact studies for nuclear facilities and particularly nuclear waste disposal, UNESCO expressed the wish to organize the meeting jointly so as to take into account the experience gained by the Agency, and in order to avoid any duplication in the activities of the two organizations. This request was agreed to by the IAEA Secretariat and as a result, the meeting was organized by both organizations and held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 21-23 March 1983. The report of this meeting is herewith presented

  3. Hydrogeochemical assessment of crystaline rock for radioactive waste disposal: the Stripa experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.; Fontes, J.C.; Fritz, P.; Nordstroem, K.

    1988-08-01

    This report presents a program for the hydro-geochemical assessment of a crystalline rock site for radioactive waste disposal. It is based upon experience gained during the international program of hydrochemical work at the Stripa mine. The important result of this work are summarized in this report and fuller details may be found in the separate final reports of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 geochemical investigations of the Stripa groundwaters. The present report summarizes the general sampling requirements for a successful hydrochecmical investigation; the isotopic and chemical parameters which should be determined an the geochemical characterization of the rock matrix necessary for the interpretation of hydrochemistry. A general strategy for site evaluation by geochemical methods is presented. (authors)

  4. JNC thermodynamic database for performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, Mikazu; Azuma, Jiro; Shibata, Masahiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    This report is a summary of status, frozen datasets, and future tasks of the JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) thermodynamic database (JNC-TDB) for assessing performance of high-level radioactive waste in geological environments. The JNC-TDB development was carried out after the first progress report on geological disposal research in Japan (H-3). In the development, thermodynamic data (equilibrium constants at 25degC, I=0) for important radioactive elements were selected/determined based on original experimental data using different models (e.g., SIT, Pitzer). As a result, the reliability and traceability of the data for most of the important elements were improved over those of the PNC-TDB used in H-3 report. For detailed information of data analysis and selections for each element, see the JNC technical reports listed in this document. (author)

  5. Nuclear waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain

  6. A dose assessment for final low level waste disposal located at Cernavoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldoveanu, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the first step in the radiological effect evaluation of the low radioactive wastes disposal which will be located in Cernavoda's area. The calculations are done with some approximations based on pessimistic hypotheses. In this sense, the primary step of the accident scenario is a total failure of the wastes disposal and a total emission of radioactive wastes in the environment. The results are estimated versus the time in which radioisotopes migrate through geological formations until they arrive at the underground water. It is considered that for Cernavoda, a town situated in the vicinity of the disposal, the water is contaminated with all radioisotopes arising in this way, and people ingest this water (2 l/day). The results are presented in tables and figures. (author)

  7. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    For disposing method of radioactive wastes, various feasibilities are investigated at every nations and international organizations using atomic energy, various methods such as disposal to cosmic space, disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole and so forth, disposal into ocean bed or its sediments, and disposal into ground have been examined. It is, however, impossible institutionally at present, to have large risk on accident in the disposal to cosmic space, to be prohibited by the South Pole Treaty on the disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole, and to be prohibited by the treaty on prevention of oceanic pollution due to the disposal of wastes and so forth on the disposal into oceanic bed or its sediments (London Treaty). Against them, the ground disposal is thought to be the most powerful method internationally from some reasons shown as follows: no burden to the next generation because of no need in long-term management by human beings; safety based on scientific forecasting; disposal in own nation; application of accumulated technologies on present mining industries, civil engineering, and so forth to construction of a disposal facility; and, possibility to take out wastes again, if required. For the ground disposal, wastes must be buried into the ground and evaluated their safety for long terms. It is a big subject to be taken initiative by engineers on geoscience who have quantified some phenomena in the ground and at ultra long term. (G.K.)

  8. Study on improvement in reliability of inventory assessment in vitrified waste for long-term safety of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masumi; Kaneko, Satoru; Kitayama, Kazumi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Okumura, Keisuke; Chino, Masamichi; Moriya, Noriyasu

    2009-01-01

    Since quality control issues for vitrified waste are defined mainly with the focus on the transport and interim storage of the waste rather than the long-term safety of geological disposal, they do not cover inventories of long-lived nuclides that are of most interest in the safety assessment of geological disposal. Therefore, we suggest a flow chart for the assessment of inventories of long-lived nuclides in the vitrified waste focusing on the measured values. This includes an indirect assessment with indicative nuclides that have been already measured in the returned vitrified wastes from abroad. In order to apply this flow chart for commercial operation, its applicability should be examined for cases with a variation in burn-up history and with an uncertainty associated with carry-over fraction at reprocessing. We started an R and D program to examine the applicability as well as to improve the reliability of the nuclide generation/decay code and the nuclear data library using liquid waste from spent fuel with a clear irradiation history. To solve the issue of quality control for vitrified waste, a comprehensive study is needed in aspects not only of geological disposal field but also of operation of a nuclear power plant, reprocessing of spent fuel and vitrification of liquid waste. This study is a pioneering study conducted to integrate them. (author)

  9. The status of world biosphere modelling for waste disposal assessments following BIOMOVS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klos, R.; Reid, J.A.K.; Santucci, P.; Bergstrom, U.

    1996-01-01

    Biosphere modelling for radioactive waste disposal assessments faces unique problems. Models for such applications tend to be quite distinct from other similar environmental assessment tools. Over the past few years, two of the Working Groups in the second international biosphere model validation study (BIOMOVS II) have been considering the special requirements for such models. The BIOMOVS II Reference Biospheres Working Group has concentrated on the elaboration of the methodology for the definition of models for such assessments. lie Complementary Studies Working Group has dealt with how the Features, Events and Processes (FEPS) included in the participating models are represented, in the context of the representation of a temperate inland biosphere. The aim of Complementary Studies was to move forward from the first phase of BIOMOVS, with the analysis going further and deeper into principles on which the participating models are based. Ten of the leading models from around the world have participated in the Complementary Studies model intercomparison exercise. This paper presents some key findings using the international biosphere FEP-list produced by the Reference Biospheres Working Group as a framework for discussing the current state-of-the-art. Common features of the models as well as reasons for the model differences are discussed. Areas where the international community could benefit from a harmonisation of approaches are also identified, setting out possible future requirements and developments. In the Complementary Studies intercomparison, the hypothetical release of radionuclides to an inland valley biosphere was considered. The radionuclides considered in the study were selected because of their relevance for underground repositories for long-lived radioactive wastes and because their individual properties made them suitable probes for many of the important Features, Events and Processes (FEPS) in long timescale biosphere modelling. The data

  10. radioactive waste disposal standards abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian; Zhang Xue

    2012-01-01

    With the world focus on human health and environmental protection, the problem of radioactive waste disposal has gradually become a global issue, and the focus of attention of public. The safety of radioactive waste disposal, is not only related to human health and environmental safety, but also an important factor of affecting the sustainable development of nuclear energy. In recent years the formulation of the radioactive waste disposal standards has been generally paid attention to at home and abroad, and it has made great progress. In China, radioactive waste management standards are being improved, and there are many new standards need to be developed. The revised task of implement standards is very arduous, and there are many areas for improvement about methods and procedures of the preparation of standards. This paper studies the current situation of radioactive waste disposal standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, USA, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and give some corresponding recommendations of our radioactive waste disposal standards. (authors)

  11. Radiological impact assessment to the environment due to waste from disposal of porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsi, Tarek; Hegazy, Rehab; Badawy, Wael

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to assess the radiological parameters from gamma rays due to the uncontrolled disposal of porcelain waste to the environment. Qualitative and quantitative identification of radionuclides in the investigated samples was carried out by means of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The average activity concentrations of the local porcelain samples were measured as 208.28 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, 125.73 Bq/kg for 238 U, 84.94 Bq/kg for 232 Th and 1033.61 Bq/kg for 40 K, respectively. The imported samples had an average activity of 240.57 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, 135.56 Bq/kg for 238 U, 115.74 Bq/kg for 232 Th and 1312.49 Bq/kg for 40 K, respectively. Radiological parameters and the radium equivalent Ra eq for the investigated samples were calculated. The external and internal hazard indices, representative level index (I γ ), alpha index (I α ), and the exemption level (I x ), were estimated to be higher than the recommended value (unity), while the average activity concentrations for the studied samples were higher than recommended levels. In conclusion, we are concerned that disposal of porcelain in the environment might be a significant hazard.

  12. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in granite formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kote, F.; Peres, J.M.; Olivier, M.; Lewi, J.; Assouline, M.; Mejon-Goula, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive wastes, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in granite was carried out. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Auriat and two alternative sites, Barfleur and a site in the U.K. The report describes the methodology adopted (a deterministic and a stochastic approach) with the corresponding data base and the models used. A parametric study of sub-systems (near field, far field and biosphere) was carried out by CEA-ANDRA using AQUARIUS, DIMITRIO and BIOS. A global evaluation of the performances was carried out by CEA-IPSN using MELODIE code. The results of deterministic calculations showed for Auriat a maximum dose equivalent evaluated at 6.10 -3 m Sv/a arising 3 millions years after disposal. Results of human intrusion scenario analyses, uncertainty analyses and global sensitivity analyses are presented. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  13. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: the geosphere model for postclosure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.; Chan, T.; Brown, A.

    1994-01-01

    AECL is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The disposal concept is that of a sealed vault constructed at a depth of 500 to 1 000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. This report is one of nine primary references for the EIS. A probabilistic system variability analysis code (SYVAC3) has been used to perform a case study assessment of the long-term safety and environmental impacts for the EIS. This report describes the methodology for developing the SYVAC3-CC3 Geosphere Model (GEONET) which simulates the transport of contaminants from the vault through the geosphere to the biosphere. It also discusses the data used to construct the model, as well as assumptions and justifications for the data and model. The geosphere consists of the rock mass surrounding the vault, including the groundwater in the pores and cracks in the rock, the materials used to seal the shafts and exploratory boreholes at the site, and a domestic water well that is assumed to intersect the pathway of most rapid transport from the vault to the biosphere. GEONET simulates the movement of groundwater from the vault through the geosphere to discharge locations at the biosphere; the movement of contaminants in the groundwater by advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and molecular diffusion; chemical sorption of contaminants onto minerals in the rock during transport; radioactive decay; and the rate of discharge of vault contaminants to the biosphere. Development of the Geosphere Model involves several steps. The initial step is to construct a conceptual model of the subsurface geological structure and ground water flow conditions using data from site investigations and laboratory tests. Once a conceptual model has been constructed, the coupled equations describing 3-D groundwater flow and heat transport are solved using the MOTIF finite-element code to calculate hydraulic head and groundwater velocity distributions. Next

  14. Cosmic disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y; Morisawa, S [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1975-03-01

    The technical and economical possibility and safety of the disposal of highly radioactive waste into cosmos are reviewed. The disposal of highly radioactive waste is serious problem to be solved in the near future, because it is produced in large amounts by the reprocessing of spent fuel. The promising methods proposed are (i) underground disposal, (ii) ocean disposal, (iii) cosmic disposal and (iv) extinguishing disposal. The final disposal method is not yet decided internationally. The radioactive waste contains very long life nuclides, for example transuranic elements and actinide elements. The author thinks the most perfect and safe disposal method for these very long life nuclides is the disposal into cosmos. The space vehicle carrying radioactive waste will be launched safely into outer space with recent space technology. The selection of orbit for vehicles (earth satellite or orbit around planets) or escape from solar system, selection of launching rocket type pretreatment of waste, launching weight, and the cost of cosmic disposal were investigated roughly and quantitatively. Safety problem of cosmic disposal should be examined from the reliable safety study data in the future.

  15. Solid secondary waste testing for maintenance of the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment - FY 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Ralph L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, Kenneth L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being constructed to treat 56 million gallons of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford site. Operation of the WTP will generate several solid secondary waste (SSW) streams including used process equipment, contaminated tools and instruments, decontamination wastes, high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), carbon adsorption beds, silver mordenite iodine sorbent beds, and spent ion exchange resins (IXr) all of which are to be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). An applied research and development program was developed using a phased approach to incrementally develop the information necessary to support the IDF PA with each phase of the testing building on results from the previous set of tests and considering new information from the IDF PA calculations. This report contains the results from the exploratory phase, Phase 1 and preliminary results from Phase 2. Phase 3 is expected to begin in the fourth quarter of FY17.

  16. Safety assessment of complex engineered and natural systems: radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.; Atkins, J.; Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of deep, geologic disposal of nuclear waste requires the probabilistic safety assessment of a complex system from the coupling of various processes and sub-systems, parameter and model uncertainties, spatial and temporal variabilities, and the multiplicity of designs and scenarios. Both the engineered and natural system are included in the evaluation. Each system has aspects with considerable uncertainty both in important parameters and in overall conceptual models. The study represented herein provides a probabilistic safety assessment of a potential respository system for multiple engineered barrier system (EBS) design and conceptual model configurations (CRWMS M and O, 1996a) and considers the effects of uncertainty on the overall results. The assessment is based on data and process models available at the time of the study and doesnt necessarily represent the current safety evaluation. In fact, the percolation flux through the repository system is now expected to be higher than the estimate used for this study. The potential effects of higher percolation fluxes are currently under study. The safety of the system was assessed for both 10,000 and 1,000,000 years. Use of alternative conceptual models also produced major improvement in safety. For example, use of a more realistic engineered system release model produced improvement of over an order of magnitude in safety. Alternative measurement locations for the safety assessment produced substantial increases in safety, through the results are based on uncertain dilution factors in the transporting groundwater. (Author)

  17. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  18. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  19. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: the vault model for postclosure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.H.; LeNeveu, D.M.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Oscarson, D.W.; Gray, M.N.; Lemire, R.J.; Garisto, N.C.

    1994-01-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves emplacing the waste in a vault excavated at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of thc Canadian Shield. The solid waste would be isolated from the biosphere by a multibarrier system consisting of engineered barriers, including corrosion-resistant containers and clay- and cement-based sealing materials, and the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation. The technical feasibility of this concept, and its impact on the environment and human health, is being documented in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that will be submitted for review under the federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. The present report is one of nine EIS primary references. The report describes the vault model, which is used to calculate the time-dependent release of radioactive and non-radioactive contaminants from the engineered barrier system (vault) into the surrounding rock (geosphere). The model calculations presented are for a specific reference vault design that comprises used CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) fuel bundles in Grade-2 titanium containers, which would be emplaced in boreholes in the floor of a mined excavation located at a depth of 500 m in plutonic rock. The containers would be surrounded by a compacted buffer material that is a mixture of 50 wt. % sand and 50 wt. % bentonite. Disposal rooms and tunnels would be sealed with a layer of backfill mixture composed of 25 % glacial lake clay and 75% crushed granite and an overlying layer of buffer material. The vault model is a computer code that calculates the failure times of titanium containers, the rate of release of radionuclides from used-fuel bundles into the groundwater that would flow into the failed containers, and the rate of transport of radionuclides from the fuel through the groundwater-saturated buffer and backfill materials and into the surrounding rock. The vault model uses distributed or probabilistic

  1. The disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormai, P.

    2006-01-01

    The first part shows different ways of 'producing' radioactive wastes, defines the wastes of small, medium and high activity and gives estimation on the quantity of the necessary capacities of waste disposal facilities. The modern radioactive waste disposal that is the integrated processing of the form of waste, the package, the technical facility and the embedding geological environment that guarantee the isolation together. Another factor is the lifetime of radioactive waste which means that any waste containing long lifetime waste in higher concentration than 400-4000 kBq/kg should be disposed geologically. Today the centre of debate disposal of radioactive waste is more social than technical. For this reason not only geological conditions and technical preparations, but social discussions and accepting communities are needed in selecting place of facilities. Now, the focus is on long term temporary disposal of high activity wastes, like burnt out heating elements. The final part of the paper summarizes the current Hungarian situation of disposal of radioactive wastes. (T-R.A.)

  2. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  3. Disposal of radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, W.J.; Burton, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A method of disposal of radioactive waste consists in disposing the waste in trenches dredged in the sea bed beneath shallow coastal waters. Advantageously selection of the sites for the trenches is governed by the ability of the trenches naturally to fill with silt after disposal. Furthermore, this natural filling can be supplemented by physical filling of the trenches with a blend of absorber for radionuclides and natural boulders. (author)

  4. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) and (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems.

  5. Developments in radiological assessment and biosphere modelling studies to support radioactive waste disposal in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sanchez, D. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Thorne, M. [Mike Thorne and Associates Limited (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Long-term safety assessments for the disposal of radioactive waste in Spain involve the demonstration that annual radiation doses to humans due to potential releases of radionuclides from the waste disposal facility into the biosphere will satisfy the regulatory criteria. For several years, CIEMAT has been developing, for ENRESA, a conceptual approach and tool to support modelling of the migration and accumulation of radionuclides within environmental media once those radionuclides have been released to some component of the biosphere (atmosphere, water bodies or soils). The CIEMAT modelling approach calculates the concentrations of radionuclides in different components of the biosphere and then the calculated radionuclide concentrations are used to estimate the radiation doses to humans due to various exposure paths. In this paper, we not only describe the methodology and modelling approach, we also describe recent developments of that approach to better quantify the resultant doses to humans. First, we present recent developments in the mathematical model for the behaviour of {sup 79}Se and {sup 238}U-series radionuclides in soils and their uptake by plants, taking into account seasonal variations in soil hydrology in Spain. Initial studies with the model that are reported here demonstrate that it is a powerful tool for exploring the behaviour of redox-sensitive radionuclides and {sup 238}U decay chain members in soil-plant systems under different hydrological regimes. In particular, it permits studies of the degree to which secular equilibrium assumptions are appropriate when modelling the {sup 238}U decay chain. Further studies are currently being undertaken examining sensitivities of model results to input parameter values and also applying the model to sites contaminated with {sup 238}U-series radionuclides. It is anticipated that results from these studies will also be reported. A particular interest in biosphere safety assessment is how environmental

  6. Low-level waste disposal site performance assessment with the RQ/PQ methodology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Grant, M.W.; Sutherland, A.A.

    1982-12-01

    A methodology called RQ/PQ (retention quotient/performance quotient) has been developed for relating the potential hazard of radioactive waste to the natural and man-made barriers provided by a disposal facility. The methodology utilizes a systems approach to quantify the safety of low-level waste disposed in a near-surface facility. The main advantages of the RQ/PQ methodology are its simplicity of analysis and clarity of presentation while still allowing a comprehensive set of nuclides and pathways to be treated. Site performance and facility designs for low-level waste disposal can be easily investigated with relatively few parameters needed to define the problem. Application of the methodology has revealed that the key factor affecting the safety of low-level waste disposal in near surface facilities is the potential for intrusion events. Food, inhalation and well water pathways dominate in the analysis of such events. While the food and inhalation pathways are not strongly site-dependent, the well water pathway is. Finally, burial at depths of 5 m or more was shown to reduce the impacts from intrusion events

  7. Development by AVN of review guidance for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nys, V.; Smidts, O.; Mertens, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the waste disposal context in Belgium since 1998 and the implications this had on AVN and its international relationships. The way in which AVN responded to these changes through the development of a review methodology is explained in detail. (authors)

  8. A Framework for Treating Uncertainty to Facilitate Waste Disposal Decision Making - Application of the Approach to GCD Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.J.; Cochran, J.R.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for treating uncertainty in the performance assessment process to efficiently address regulatory performance objectives for radioactive waste disposal and discusses the application of the approach at the Greater Confinement Disposal site. In this approach, the performance assessment methodology uses probabilistic risk assessment concepts to guide effective decisions about site characterization activities and provides a path toward reasonable assurance regarding regulatory compliance decisions. Although the approach is particularly amenable to requirements that are probabilistic in nature, the approach is also applicable to deterministic standards such as the dose-based and concentration-based requirements

  9. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marivoet, J.; Bonne, A.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste, performance assessment studies have been undertaken on the geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste in clay layers at a reference site at Mol (B) and a variant site at Harwell (UK). The calculations performed for the reference site shown that most radionuclides decay to negligible levels within the first meters of the clay barrier. The maximum dose rates arising from the geological disposal of HLW, as evaluated by the deterministic approach are about 10 -11 Sv/y for river pathways. If the sinking of a water well into the 150 m deep aquifer layer in the vicinity of the repository is considered together with a climatic change, the maximum calculated dose rate rises to a value of 3.10 -7 Sv/y. The calculated maxima arise between 1 million and 15 million years after disposal. The maximum dose rates evaluated by stochastic calculations are about one order of magnitude higher due to the considerable uncertainties in the model parameters. In the case of the Boom clay the estimated consequences of a fault scenario are of the same order of magnitude as the results obtained for the normal evolution scenario. The maximum risk is estimated from stochastic calculations to be about 4.10 -8 per year. For the variant site the case of the normal evolution scenario has been evaluated. The maximum dose rates calculated deterministically are about 1.10 -6 Sv/y for river pathways and 6.10 -5 Sv/y for a water well pathways; these doses would occur after about 1 million years. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  10. 1989 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites: National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1990-12-01

    The National Low-Level Waste Management Program has published eleven annual state-by-state assessment reports. These reports provide both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are divided into generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1989 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1985 through 1989; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1989. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and that handled by an intermediary. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Safety assessment on the human intrusion scenarios of near surface disposal facility for low and very low level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Baek [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Ho [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The second-stage near surface disposal facility for low and very low level radioactive waste's permanent disposal is to be built. During the institutional control period, the inadvertent intrusion of the general public is limited. But after the institutional control period, the access to the general public is not restricted. Therefore human who has purpose of residence and resource exploration can intrude the disposal facility. In this case, radioactive effects to the intruder should be limited within regulatory dose limits. This study conducted the safety assessment of human intrusion on the second-stage surface disposal facility through drilling and post drilling scenario. Results of drilling and post drilling scenario were satisfied with regulatory dose limits. The result showed that post-drilling scenario was more significant than drilling scenario. According to the human intrusion time and behavior after the closure of the facility, dominant radionuclide contributing to the intruder was different. Sensitivity analyses on the parameters about the human behavior were also satisfied with regulatory dose limits. Especially, manual redistribution factor was the most sensitive parameter on exposure dose. A loading plan of spent filter waste and dry active waste was more effective than a loading plan of spent filter waste and other wastes for the radiological point of view. These results can be expected to provide both robustness and defense in depth for the development of safety case further.

  12. Projection of Environmental Pollutant Emissions From Different Final Waste Disposal Methods Based on Life Cycle Assessment Studies in Qazvin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Torkashvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the life cycle assessment (LCA method was used to expect the emissions of different environmental pollutants through qualitative and quantitative analyses of solid wastes of Qazvin city in different final disposal methods. Therefore, four scenarios with the following properties considering physical analysis of Qazvin’s solid wastes, the current status of solid waste management in Iran, as well as the future of solid waste management of Qazvin were described. In order to detect the quantity of the solid wastes, the volume-weighted analysis was used and random sampling method was used for physical analysis. Of course, regarding the method of LCA, it contains all stages from solid wastes generation to its disposal. However, since the main aim of this study was final disposal stage, the emissions of pollutants of these stages were ignored. Next, considering the mixture of the solid waste, the amount of pollution stemming from each of final disposal methods from other cities having similar conditions was estimated. The findings of the study showed that weight combination of Qazvin solid wastes is entirely similar to that of other cities. Thus, the results of this study can be applied by decision makers around the country. In scenarios 1 and 2, emission of leachate containing high amounts of COD and BOD is high and also the highest content of nitrate, which can contaminate water and soil resulting in high costs for their management. In scenarios 3 and 4, the amounts of gaseous pollutants, particularly CO2, as well as nitrogen oxides are very high. In conclusion, the LCA methods can effectively contribute to the management of municipal solid wastes (MSW to control environmental pollutants with least expenses.

  13. Hydrologic-geochemical modeling needs for nuclear waste disposal systems performance assessments from the NEA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Credible scenarios for releases from high level nuclear waste repositories require radionuclides to be mobilized and transported by ground water. The capability to predict ground water flow velocities and directions as well as radionuclide concentrations in the flow system as a function of time are essential for assessing the performance of disposal systems. The first of these parameters can be estimated by hydrologic modeling while the concentrations can be predicted by geochemical modeling. The complementary use of empirical and phenomenological approaches to the geochemical modeling, when effectively coupled with hydrologic models can provide the tools needed for realistic performance assessment. An overview of the activities of the NEA in this area, with emphasis on the geochemical data bases (ISIRS for Ksub(d) data and the thermochemical data base critical review), rock/water interaction modeling (code development and short-courses), and hydrologic-geochemical code coupling (workshop and in-house activities) is presented in this paper from the perspective of probabilistic risk assessment needs. (author)

  14. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, J.; Broyd, T.W.; Jones, M.A.; Knowles, N.C.; Liew, S.K.; Mawbey, C.S.; Read, D.; Smith, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    This directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post-closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, geomechanics, heat transfer, groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, biosphere modelling, safety assessment and site evolution. A total of 320 programs are identified, of which 84 are reviewed in detail, 192 in summary and 44 in tabular fashion. Originally published in 1983, the directory was updated in 1985 with the addition of new programs and the revision of some of the existing program reviews. This directory has been completely rewritten in 1991 with the addition of more new programs and a full revision of all the existing program reviews, some of which have been deleted as they are no longer in general use. Although the directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described can also be used in other areas of repository (e.g. repository design). This directory is composed of two volumes, the present volume is the second

  15. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, J.; Broyd, T.W.; Jones, M.A.; Knowles, N.C.; Liew, S.K.; Mawbey, C.S.; Read, D.; Smith, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    This directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post-closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, geomechanics, heat transfer, groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, biosphere modelling, safety assessment and site evolution. A total of 320 programs are identified of which 84 are reviewed in detail, 192 in summary and 44 in tabular fashion. Originally published in 1983, the directory was updated in 1985 with the addition of new programs and the revision of some of the existing program reviews. This directory has been completely rewritten in 1991 with the addition of more new programs and a full revision of all the existing program reviews, some of which have been deleted as they are no longer in general use. Although the directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described can also be used in other areas of repository (e.g. repository design). This directory is composed of two volumes, the present volume is the first

  16. Waste disposal into the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlers, P.; Kunig, P.

    1987-01-01

    The waste disposal at sea is regulated for the most part by national administrative law, which mainly is based on international law rules supplemented by EC-law. The dumping of low-level radioactive waste into the sea is more and more called into question. The disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the subsoil of the sea does not correspond to the London Convention. (WG) [de

  17. Safety Assessment Methodologies and Their Application in Development of Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities--ASAM Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Metcalf, P.

    2003-01-01

    Safety of near surface disposal facilities is a primary focus and objective of stakeholders involved in radioactive waste management of low and intermediate level waste and safety assessment is an important tool contributing to the evaluation and demonstration of the overall safety of these facilities. It plays significant role in different stages of development of these facilities (site characterization, design, operation, closure) and especially for those facilities for which safety assessment has not been performed or safety has not been demonstrated yet and the future has not been decided. Safety assessments also create the basis for the safety arguments presented to nuclear regulators, public and other interested parties in respect of the safety of existing facilities, the measures to upgrade existing facilities and development of new facilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a number of research coordinated projects in the field of development and improvement of approaches to safety assessment and methodologies for safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities, such as NSARS (Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) and ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) projects. These projects were very successful and showed that there is a need to promote the consistent application of the safety assessment methodologies and to explore approaches to regulatory review of safety assessments and safety cases in order to make safety related decisions. These objectives have been the basis of the IAEA follow up coordinated research project--ASAM (Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities), which will commence in November 2002 and continue for a period of three years

  18. Disposal options for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide composition and the relative toxicity of radioactive wastes, a range of different options are available for their disposal. Practically all disposal options rely on confinement of radioactive materials and isolation from the biosphere. Dilution and dispersion into the environment are only used for slightly contaminated gaseous and liquid effluents produced during the routine operation of nuclear facilities, such as power plants. For the bulk of solid radioactive waste, whatever the contamination level and decay of radiotoxicity with time are, isolation from the biosphere is the objective of waste disposal policies. The paper describes disposal approaches and the various techniques used in this respect, such as shallow land burial with minimum engineered barriers, engineered facilities built at/near the surface, rock cavities at great depth and finally deep geologic repositories for long-lived waste. The concept of disposing long-lived waste into seabed sediment layers is also discussed, as well as more remote possibilities, such as disposal in outer space or transmutation. For each of these disposal methods, the measures to be adopted at institutional level to reinforce technical isolation concepts are described. To the extent possible, some comments are made with regard to the applicability of such disposal methods to other hazardous wastes. (au)

  19. Risk-based approach to long-term safety assessment for near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, C.W.; Kim, K.I.; Lee, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the Korean regulatory approach to safety assessment consistent with probabilistic, risk-based long-term safety requirements for near surface disposal facilities. The approach is based on: (1) From the standpoint of risk limitation, normal processes and probabilistic disruptive events should be integrated in a similar manner in terms of potential exposures; and (2) The uncertainties inherent in the safety assessment should be reduced using appropriate exposure scenarios. In addition, this paper emphasizes the necessity of international guidance for quantifying potential exposures and the corresponding risks from radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  20. A performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deering, L.R.; Kozak, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    To demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives governing protection of the general population in 10 CFR 61.41, applicants for land disposal of low-level radioactive waste are required to conduct a pathways analysis, or quantitative evaluation of radionuclide release, transport through environmental media, and dose to man. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff defined a strategy and initiated a project at Sandia National Laboratories to develop a methodology for independently evaluating an applicant's analysis of postclosure performance. This performance assessment methodology was developed in five stages: (1) identification of environmental pathways, (2) ranking, the significance of the pathways, (3) identification and integration of models for pathway analyses, (4) identification and selection of computer codes and techniques for the methodology, and (5) implementation of the codes and documentation of the methodology. The final methodology implements analytical and simple numerical solutions for source term, ground-water flow and transport, surface water transport, air transport, food chain, and dosimetry analyses, as well as more complex numerical solutions for multidimensional or transient analyses when more detailed assessments are needed. The capability to perform both simple and complex analyses is accomplished through modular modeling, which permits substitution of various models and codes to analyze system components

  1. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.; Dean, R.B.; Hobbs, G.D.; Knowles, N.C.; Putney, J.M.; Wrigley, J.

    1984-01-01

    This Directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, stress analysis, heat transfer, groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Biosphere modelling, surface water flow and risk analysis are not covered. A total of 248 programs are identified, of which 50 are reviewed in detail, 134 in summary and 64 in tabular fashion. The directory has been compiled using a combination of literature searches, telephone and postal correspondence and meetings with recognised experts in the respective areas of work covered. It differs from previous reviews of computer programs for similar topics areas in two main respects. Firstly, the method of obtaining information has resulted in program descriptions of considerable breadth and detail. Secondly, the Directory has concentrated wherever possible on European codes, whereas most previous work of this nature has looked solely at programs developed in North America. The reviews are presented in good faith, but it has not been possible to run any of the programs on a computer, and so truly objective comparisons may not be made. Finally, although the Directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described could also be used in other areas of repository analysis (eg repository design)

  2. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H.; Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied

  3. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  4. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 east area burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-15

    A performance assessment analysis was completed for the 200 East Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) to satisfy compliance requirements in DOE Order 5820.2A. In the analysis, scenarios of radionuclide release from the 200 East Area Low-Level waste facility was evaluated. The analysis focused on two primary scenarios leading to exposure. The first was inadvertent intrusion. In this scenario, it was assumed that institutional control of the site and knowledge of the disposal facility has been lost. Waste is subsequently exhumed and dose from exposure is received. The second scenario was groundwater contamination.In this scenario, radionuclides are leached from the waste by infiltrating precipitation and transported through the soil column to the underlying unconfined aquifer. The contaminated water is pumped from a well 100 m downstream and consumed,causing dose. Estimates of potential contamination of the surrounding environment were developed and the associated doses to the maximum exposed individual were calculated. The doses were compared with performance objective dose limits, found primarily in the DOE order 5850.2A. In the 200 East Area LLBG,it was shown that projected doses are estimated to be well below the limits because of the combination of environmental, waste inventory, and disposal facility characteristics of the 200 East Area LLBG. Waste acceptance criteria were also derived to ensure that disposal of future waste inventories in the 200 East Area LLBG will not cause an unacceptable increase in estimated dose.

  5. Assessment of DOE low-level radioactive solid waste disposal storage activities: task 103. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1977-01-01

    From a survey of DOE sites, facilities, and practices for the disposal/storage of low-level radioactive solid waste, the following can be summarized: (1) No health hazard has been reported. (2) Some burial grounds are releasing small quantities of radionuclides to the immediate environment. These releases are well within release limits at all sites with the exception of on-site concentrations at ORNL. At ORNL, concentrations in the Clinch River are less than 1% of the release limits. (3) Many practices have been instituted in the last few years which have improved disposal/storage operations considerably. The most notable are: (a) improved record keeping and a centralized computer data file, (b) improved burial site surface maintenance and drainage control, (c) initiation of the use of waste compactors and current plans for their use at most burial sites, (d) initiation of studies at major sites for evaluation of the long-term impact of buried waste, (e) improvement of modeling/monitoring programs at all major sites, (f) initiation of studies to provide engineering methods of reducing burial ground discharges at ORNL, and (g) initiation of the shallow land burial technologoy program.Overall, the low-level waste is being disposed of and stored in a safe and orderly manner. Recent and planned improvements will provide increased environmental protection. The only unsatisfactory area involves record keeping. Records of waste buried years ago are either poor or nonexistent. This makes it very difficult to evaluate the total impact of some 30 years of disposal operations. While some of this important history is lost forever, projects now under way should be able to reconstruct most of it

  6. Human health considerations in the assessment of Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baweja, A.S.; Tracy, B.L.; Ahier, B.; Bartlett, S.

    1996-01-01

    In 1978, AECL was mandated by the government of Ontario and the federal government to find a permanent disposal solution for spent nuclear fuels. Canada opted for disposal in plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield. The Canadian concept calls for disposal in crystalline rocks at a depth of 500 to 1000 m below the surface. The spent fuel would be contained in a canister, the canister would be emplaced in a vault containing clay-based buffer materials, and the cavity would be backfilled and sealed with natural materials. A Federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel was formed in 1992 to assess the concept for disposal of the spent fuel. In this paper a brief discussion of the human health impacts of the proposed concept is presented. Our assessment is based on the information provided by AECL, namely, the main EIS document, a summary and nine other supporting documents

  7. Safety assessment methodologies and their application in development of near surface waste disposal facilities - the ASAM project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.

    2003-01-01

    The scope of ASAM project covers near surface disposal facilities for all types of low and intermediate level wastes with emphasis of the post-closure safety assessment.The objectives are to explore practical application to a range of disposal facilities for a number of purposes e.g. development of design concepts, safety re-assessment, upgrading safety and to develop practical approaches to assist regulators, operators and other experts in review of safety assessment. The task of the Co-ordination Group are: reassessment of existing facilities - use of safety assessment in decision making on selection of options (volunteer site Hungary); disused sealed sources - evaluation of disposability of disused sealed sources in near surface facilities (volunteer site Saratov, Russia); mining and minerals processing waste - evaluation of long-term safety (volunteer site pmc S. Africa). An agreement on the scope and objectives of the project are reached and the further consideration, such as human intrusion/institutional control/security; waste from oil/gas industry; very low level waste; categorization of sealed sources coordinated with other IAEA activities are outlined

  8. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs

  9. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs.

  10. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1990-05-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  11. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1990-05-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  12. Technical assessment of the significance of Wigner energy for disposal of graphite wastes from the Windscale Piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guppy, R.M.; Wisbey, S.J.; McCarthy, J.

    2001-01-01

    Plans to dismantle the core of the Windscale Pile 1 reactor, and to package the waste for interim storage and eventual disposal, are well advanced. UK Nirex Limited, currently responsible for identifying and developing a site primarily for disposal of the wide range of intermediate level wastes, is addressing the suitability of the waste from Windscale Pile 1, for transport to, and disposal at, a deep waste repository. To support the decommissioning of Windscale Pile 1, information on the condition of the graphite has been sought. Despite the fire in 1957, recent sampling of regions of the core has shown that much of the graphite still contains significant residual Wigner energy. Unless it can be shown that Wigner energy will not be released at a significant rate during operations such as waste packaging or handling of the package, or after disposal, future safety cases may be undermined. A model for the release of Wigner energy has been developed, which describes the stored energy as a set of defects with different activation energies. Initial values of stored energy are attributed to each member of the set, and the energy is released using first order decay processes. By appropriate selection of the range of activation energies and stored energies attributable to each population of defects, experimentally determined releases of stored energy as a function of temperature can be reproduced by the model. Within the disposal environment, the packages will be subject to modest heating from external sources, including the host rocks, radioactive decay, corrosion processes and heat from curing of backfill materials in the disposal vaults. The Wigner energy release model has been used in combination with finite element thermal modelling to assess the temperature evolution of stacks of waste packages located within hypothetical disposal vaults. It has also been used to assess the response of individual waste packages exposed to fires. This paper provides a summary of the

  13. Considerations in managing the assessment of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Gillespie, P.A.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in developing a concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste, AECL has faced challenges because the acceptability of the concept must be established before a site is selected, no agency has been made responsible for implementing the concept if it is selected, and many stakeholders in the review must be satisfied if the concept is to be accepted. The challenges have thus far been met by a program that is well-integrated technically and administratively. However, interactions with stakeholders reviewing the concept present a problem in communication. The authors believe the nature of the nuclear fuel waste disposal issue calls for a cooperative rather than an adversarial approach to problem solving to efficiently deal with the requirements of all the stakeholders

  14. Geological aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobera, P.

    1985-01-01

    Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)

  15. Disposal facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Toru.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To remove heat generated from radioactive wastes thereby prevent the working circumstances from being worsened in a disposal-facility for radioactive wastes. Constitution: The disposal-facility comprises a plurality of holes dug out into the ground inside a tunnel excavated for the storage of radioactive wastes. After placing radioactive wastes into the shafts, re-filling materials are directly filled with a purpose of reducing the dosage. Further, a plurality of heat pipes are inserted into the holes and embedded within the re-filling materials so as to gather heat from the radioactive wastes. The heat pipes are connected to a heat exchanger disposed within the tunnel. As a result, heating of the solidified radioactive wastes itself or the containing vessel to high temperature can be avoided, as well as thermal degradation of the re-filling materials and the worsening in the working circumstance within the tunnel can be overcome. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Performance-assessment progress for the Rozan low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smietanski, L.; Mitrega, J.; Frankowski, Z. [Polish Geological Institute, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents a condensed progress report on the performance assessment of Poland`s low-level waste disposal facility which is operating since 1961. The Rozan repository is of near-surface type with facilities which are the concrete fortifications built about 1910. Site characterization activities supplied information on regional geology, geohydrology, climatic and hydrologic conditions and terrain surface evolution due to geodynamic processes. Field surveys enabled to decode lithological, hydrogeological and geochemical site specific conditions. From the laboratory tests the data on groundwater chemistry and soil geochemical and hydraulic characteristics were obtained. The site geohydrologic main vulnerable element is the upmost directly endangered unconfined aquifer which is perched in relation to the region-wide hydraulic system. Heterogeneity of this system reflects in a wide range of hydraulic conductivity and thickness variations. It strongly affects velocity and flow directions. The chemistry of groundwater is unstable due to large sensitivity to external impacts. Modeling of the migration of the critical long-lived radionuclides Tc-99, U-238 and Pu-239 showed that the nearly 20 m thick unsaturated zone plays crucial role as an effective protective barrier. These radionuclides constitute minor part of the total inventory. Modeling of the development of the H-3 plume pointed out the role the macrodispersion plays in the unsaturated zone beneath the repository.

  17. Probabilistic risk assessment for the Sandia National Laboratories Technical Area V Liquid Waste Disposal System surface impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, L.A.; Eidson, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment was completed for a former radioactive waste disposal site. The site, two unlined surface impoundment, was designed as part of the Liquid Waste Disposal System (LWDS) to receive radioactive effluent from nuclear reactors in Technical Area-V (TA-V) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). First, a statistical comparison of site sampling results to natural background, using EPA methods, and a spatial distribution analysis were performed. Risk assessment was conducted with SNL/NM's Probabilistic Risk Evaluation and Characterization Investigation System model. The risk assessment indicated that contamination from several constituents might have been high enough to require remediation. However, further analysis based on expected site closure activities and recent EPA guidance indicated that No Further Action was acceptable

  18. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Environmental impact assessment of the Swedish high-level radioactive waste disposal system - examples of likely considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sweden is investigating the feasibility of establishing a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system consisting of three components as follows: (1) Encapsulation facility, (2) system for transporting waste and (3) geologic repository. Swedish law requires that an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) be written for any planned action expected to have a significant impact on the environment. Before embarking on construction and operation of a HLW disposal system, the Swedish government will evaluate the expected environmental impacts to assure that the Swedish people and environmental will not be unduly affected by the disposal system. The EIA process requires that reasonable alternatives to the proposed action, including the 'zero' or 'no action' alternative, be considered so that the final approved plan for disposal will have undergone scrutiny and comparison of alternatives to arrive at a plan which is the best achievable given reasonable physical and monetary constraints. This report has been prepared by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) for use by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The purpose of this report is to establish a document which outlines the types of information which would be in an EIA for a three part disposal system like that envisioned by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for the disposal of Sweden's HLW. Technical information that would normally be included in an EIA is outlined in this document. The SSI's primary interest is in radiological impacts. However, for the sake of completeness and also to evaluate all environmental impacts in a single document, non-radiological impacts are also included. Swedish authorities other than the SSI may have interest in the non-radiological parts of the document. 26 refs

  20. Geoenvironmental considerations for assessments of the potential of solid waste disposal in rural Lebanon, Metn-Kesserwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, Rima Souheil

    1994-02-01

    This investigation deals with the problem capitalizing on a mountainous area in Lebanon, and allocating potential sanitary landfill sites for solid waste disposal. The current solid waste management scheme is studied through questionnaires distributed to the community, and field investigations on the operation and effects of the final dump sites. The assessment of the potential for solid waste disposal is approached through evaluating the general suitability of that area for sanitary land filling. This is done by studying various socio-economic and technical parameters on both existing dump sites and others that are here proposed. The environmental impacts of existing dump sites are also described; a modified drastic scheme is used to assess potential ground water pollution in these sites. All of the sites ranked high with respect to their potential pollution of ground water. This is mainly due to their being located directly over highly fractured and karstified limestones. Four areas that proved favourable, in suitability analysis, for solid waste disposal are further subjected to geotechnical investigations to arrive at their capability for sanitary land filling. These include permeability, texture, particle density, Atterberg limits, organic content, clay content and type. As a result of capability analysis, the four sites are ranked from most to least capable for sanitary land filling, according to a quantified weighted rating scale. Sanitary land filling is thus proposed. Solid waste disposal, however, must be followed through an integrated management approach which includes, in addition to land filling, composting, incineration and recycling in a comprehensive waste management scheme. These alternatives are discussed in view of their advantages and disadvantages

  1. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  2. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  3. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J M [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights

    1982-03-01

    The aims and options for the management and disposal of highly radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel from the generation of nuclear power are outlined. The status of developments in reprocessing, waste solidification and geologic burial in major countries is reviewed. Some generic assessments of the potential radiological impacts from geologic repositories are discussed, and a perspective is suggested on risks from radiation.

  4. Residual radioactivity investigation and radiological assessments for self-disposal of concrete waste in nuclear fuel processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Jeung Gun; Ryu, Jae Bong; Cho, Suk Ju; Yoo, Sung Hyun; Song, Jung Ho; Baek, Hoon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Shin, Jin Seong; Park, Hyun Kyoun

    2007-01-01

    In this study, domestic regulatory requirement was investigated for self-disposal of concrete waste from nuclear fuel processing facility. And after self-disposal as landfill or recycling/reuse, the exposure dose was evaluated by RESRAD Ver. 6.3 and RESRAD BUILD Ver. 3.3 computing code for radiological assessments of the general public. Derived clearance level by the result of assessments for the exposure dose of the general public is 0.1071Bq/g (3.5% enriched uranium) for landfill and 0.05515 Bq/cm 2 (5% enriched uranium) for recycling/reuse respectively. Also, residual radioactivity of concrete waste after decontamination was investigated in this study. The result of surface activity is 0.01Bq/cm 2 for emitter and the result of radionuclide analysis for taken concrete samples from surface of concrete waste is 0.0297Bq/g for concentration of 238 U, below 2w/o for enrichment of 235 U and 0.0089Bq/g for artificial contamination of 238 U respectively. Therefore, radiological hazard of concrete waste by self-disposal as landfill and recycling/reuse is below clearance level to comply with clearance criterion provided for Notice No. 2001-30 of the MOST and Korea Atomic Energy Act

  5. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment to high-level radioactive waste geological disposal. Application of reference biosphere methodology to safety assesment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tomoko; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Yuji; Naito, Morimasa

    2000-01-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, saline specific reference biospheres' were developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. (author)

  6. Waste disposal into the ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawson, C A

    1955-07-01

    The establishment of an atomic energy project is soon followed by the production of a variety of radioactive wastes which must be disposed of safely, quickly and cheaply. Experience has shown that much more thought has been devoted to the design of plant and laboratories than to the apparently dull problem of what to do with the wastes, but the nature of the wastes which will arise from nuclear power production calls for a change in this situation. We shall not be concerned here with power pile wastes, but disposal problems which have occurred in operation of experimental reactors have been serious enough to show that waste disposal should be considered during the early planning stages. (author)

  7. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  8. Long term safety assessment of geological waste disposal systems: issues on release scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geological insolation of high level nuclear waste is an attractive waste disposal concept. However, long term safety demonstration of this concept is a major challenge to the operators, regulators and the scientific community. Identification of the factors responsible for the release of radionuclides from geosphere to biosphere,is first step in this regard. Current understanding of the release scenarios indicates that faulting, ground after percolation, seismicity, volcanism and human intrusion are the dominating release factors for most of the candidate rock formations. The major source of uncertainties is the probability values of various release events due to random nature of catastrophic geological events and past poor historical records of the frequencies of such events. There is consensus among the experts that the waste release via human intrusion is the most unpredictable scenario at present state of the knowledge. (author)

  9. Demonstration of a performance assessment methodology for high-level radioactive waste disposal in basalt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Davis, P.A.; Shipers, L.R.; Brinster, K.F.; Beyler, W.E.; Updegraff, C.D.; Shepherd, E.R.; Tilton, L.M.; Wahi, K.K.

    1989-06-01

    This document describes a performance assessment methodology developed for a high-level radioactive waste repository mined in deep basalt formations. This methodology is an extension of an earlier one applicable to bedded salt. The differences between the two methodologies arise primarily in the modeling of round-water flow and radionuclide transport. Bedded salt was assumed to be a porous medium, whereas basalt formations contain fractured zones. Therefore, mathematical models and associated computer codes were developed to simulate the aforementioned phenomena in fractured media. The use of the methodology is demonstrated at a hypothetical basalt site by analyzing seven scenarios: (1) thermohydrological effects caused by heat released from the repository, (2) mechanohydrological effects caused by an advancing and receding glacier, (3) normal ground-water flow, (4) pumping of ground water from a confined aquifer, (5) rerouting of a river near the repository, (6) drilling of a borehole through the repository, and (7) formation of a new fault intersecting the repository. The normal ground-water flow was considered the base-case scenario. This scenario was used to perform uncertainty and sensitivity analyses and to demonstrate the existing capabilities for assessing compliance with the ground-water travel time criterion and the containment requirements. Most of the other scenarios were considered perturbations of the base case, and a few were studied in terms of changes with respect to initial conditions. The potential impact of these scenarios on the long-term performance of the disposal system was ascertained through comparison with the base-case scenario or the undisturbed initial conditions. 66 refs., 106 figs., 27 tabs

  10. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  11. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

  12. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.D.; Goetsch, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper

  13. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su

    2004-04-01

    This book gives descriptions of waste water disposal, design and management, which includes design of waterworks and sewerage facility such as preparatory work and building plan, used waste water disposal facilities, waste water disposal plant and industrial waste water disposal facilities, water use of waste water disposal plant and design of pump and pump facilities such as type and characteristic, selection and plan, screening and grit.

  14. 1980 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Information is presented on the volumes, curie values, sources, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in each state. The wastes are segmented into 2 broad categories - institutional/industrial and commercial power reactor wastes. The volumes and curie values were obtained from the commercial site operators. The percentage of LLW disposed of at each of the 3 operating disposal sites located at Barnwell, SC, Beatty, NV, and Richland, WA are included

  15. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories

  16. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  17. Deep-ocean disposal of high-activity nuclear wastes: a conservative assessment of the seafood critical pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, M.S.; Economides, B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper applies conventional 'worst-case' assumptions to modelling the effects of possible future disposal of high-activity wastes in the oceans. It otherwise uses previously published and generally accepted data to assess the possible intakes of the waste nuclides via consumption of seaweeds, molluscs, crustaceans, plankton and fish. Model-predicted intakes for critical groups generally exceed ICRP-recommended limits, with 244 Cm, 241 Am and 137 Cs being the most potentially hazardous nuclides. The various seafood consumption pathways are found to rank, in decreasing order of potential hazard, as seaweeds > molluscs > plankton > fish > crustaceans. (Auth.)

  18. TMI abnormal wastes disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    A substantial quantity of high beta-gamma/high-TRU contaminated wastes are expected from cleanup activities of Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. Those wastes are not disposable because of present regulatory constraints. Therefore, they must be stored temporarily. This paper discusses three options for storage of those wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: (1) storage in temporary storage casks; (2) underground storage in vaults; and (3) storage in silos at a hot shop. Each option is analyzed and evaluated. Also included is a discussion of future disposal strategies, which might be pursued when a suitable federal or commercial repository is built

  19. Final disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroebel, R [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Projekt Wiederaufarbeitung und Abfallbehandlung; Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. zur Behandlung Radioaktiver Abfaelle

    1978-08-01

    This paper discusses the final disposal possibilities for radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany and the related questions of waste conditioning, storage methods and safety. The programs in progress in neighbouring CEC countries and in the USA are also mentioned briefly. The autors conclude that the existing final disposal possibilities are sufficiently well known and safe, but that they could be improved still further by future development work. The residual hazard potential of radioactive wastes from fuel reprocessing after about 1000 years of storage is lower that of known inorganic core deposits.

  20. Environmental isotopes assist in the site assessment of Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.T.; Levin, M.

    1986-01-01

    The first South African nuclear waste disposal facility is to be sited in an arid environment with an average annual rainfall of about 78mm. The ground water might therefore be virtually stationary, making the geohydrology of the area crucial in the assessment of radionuclide dispersal difficult to study with standard hydraulic methods. Environmental isotopes, which label the water itself and some of its dissolved constituents are able to give synoptic information about the ground water; from this, some projections about future mobility can be made. Tritium profiles in the unsaturated zone show the limited extent of rain water infiltration, which generally extends down to 3-4 metres, with sporadic evidence of deeper penetration through cracks and rootholes in the thick clay cover. Soil moisture therefore seems to occur in tightly bound and more mobile components. This is confirmed by occasionally measurable tritium observed in the saturated zone. Radiocarbon in the ground water cannot be simply interpreted on account of the nature of the granite aquifer. Although suggesting ages of several thousands of years, radiocarbon proves that the water is not 'fossil' or derived from the last pluvial period, postulated to have occurred some 12 000 years ago. Recharge appears to be more ongoing and to occur periodically and locally as a result of outliers within the present climatological regime. Regional movement of ground water is however very limited, as spatial variations seen in the radiocarbon data of the ground water are non-systematic. These conclusions are supported by the distribution of the non-radioactive isotopes, such as oxygen-18

  1. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  2. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-01-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  3. A case study on the safety assessment for groundwater pathway in a near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Wan; Chang, Keun Moo; Kim, Chang Lak

    2002-01-01

    A safety assessment is carried out for the near-surface radioactive waste disposal in the reference engineered vault facility. The analysis is mainly divided into two parts. One deals with the release and transport of radionuclide in the vault and unsaturated zone. The other deals with the transport of radionuclide in the vault and unsaturated zone. The other deals with the transport of radionuclide in the saturated zone and radiological impacts to a human group under well drinking water scenario. The parameters for source-term, geosphere and biosphere models are mainly obtained from the site specific data. The results show that the annual effective doses are dominated by long lived, mobile radionuclides and their associated daughters. And it is found that the total effective dose for drinking water is far below the general criteria of regulatory limit for radioactive waste disposal facility

  4. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, W.

    1976-01-01

    The article cites and summarizes the papers on the topics: economic and ecological importance of waste management, reprocessing of nuclear fuel and recycling of uranium and plutonium, waste management and final storage, transports and organizational aspects of waste management, presented at this symposium. (HR/AK) [de

  5. Identification of scenarios in the safety assessment of a deep geological site for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Devillers, C.; Cernes, A.

    1990-01-01

    The selection and qualification procedure of a site for radioactive wastes disposal in a deep geologic formation, has begun in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, on ANDRA's proposal, has preselected in 1987 four sites, each of them corresponding to a type of geologic formations (granite, clay, salt and shale). Within two years, one of these sites will be chosen for the location of an underground laboratory. The safety analysis for the site's qualification uses evolution scenarios of the repository and its environment, chosen according to a deterministic method. With an appropriate detail level, are defined a reference scenario and scenario with random events. 4 refs., 1 tab [fr

  6. Waste degradation and mobilization in performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, Rob P.; Stockman, Christine T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes modeling of waste degradation and mobilization in performance assessments (PAs) conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. As understanding of the Yucca Mountain disposal system increased, the waste degradation module, or succinctly called the source-term, evolved from initial assumptions in 1984 to results based on process modeling in 2008. In early PAs, waste degradation had significant influence on calculated behavior but as the robustness of the waste container was increased and modeling of the container degradation improved, waste degradation had much less influence in later PAs. The variation of dissolved concentrations of radionuclides progressed from simple probability distributions in early PAs to functions dependent upon water chemistry in later PAs. Also, transport modeling of radionuclides in the waste, container, and invert were added in 1995; and, colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides was added in 1998. - Highlights: • Progression of modeling of waste degradation in performance assessments is discussed for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. • Progression of evaluating dissolved concentrations of radionuclides in the source-term is discussed. • Radionuclide transport modeling in the waste, container, and invert in 1995 and thereafter is discussed. • Colloid-facilitated transport in the waste, container, and invert in 1998 and thereafter is discussed

  7. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F.

    2003-01-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14±1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85±0.19 million t representing 37.22±6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait

  8. Radiological Safety Assessment of Transporting Radioactive Wastes to the Gyeongju Disposal Facility in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongtae Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A radiological safety assessment study was performed for the transportation of low level radioactive wastes which are temporarily stored in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, Daejeon, Korea. We considered two kinds of wastes: (1 operation wastes generated from the routine operation of facilities; and (2 decommissioning wastes generated from the decommissioning of a research reactor in KAERI. The important part of the radiological safety assessment is related to the exposure dose assessment for the incident-free (normal transportation of wastes, i.e., the radiation exposure of transport personnel, radiation workers for loading and unloading of radioactive waste drums, and the general public. The effective doses were estimated based on the detailed information on the transportation plan and on the radiological characteristics of waste packages. We also estimated radiological risks and the effective doses for the general public resulting from accidents such as an impact and a fire caused by the impact during the transportation. According to the results, the effective doses for transport personnel, radiation workers, and the general public are far below the regulatory limits. Therefore, we can secure safety from the viewpoint of radiological safety for all situations during the transportation of radioactive wastes which have been stored temporarily in KAERI.

  9. Radiological safety assessment of transporting radioactive waste to the Gyeongju disposal facility in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Baik, Min Hoon; Kang, Mun Ja; Ahn, Hong Joo; Hwang, Doo Seong; Hong, Dae Seok; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A radiological safety assessment study was performed for the transportation of low level radioactive wastes which are temporarily stored in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, Korea. We considered two kinds of wastes: (1) operation wastes generated from the routine operation of facilities; and (2) decommissioning wastes generated from the decommissioning of a research reactor in KAERI. The important part of the radiological safety assessment is related to the exposure dose assessment for the incident-free (normal) transportation of wastes, i.e., the radiation exposure of transport personnel, radiation workers for loading and unloading of radioactive waste drums, and the general public. The effective doses were estimated based on the detailed information on the transportation plan and on the radiological characteristics of waste packages. We also estimated radiological risks and the effective doses for the general public resulting from accidents such as an impact and a fire caused by the impact during the transportation. According to the results, the effective doses for transport personnel, radiation workers, and the general public are far below the regulatory limits. Therefore, we can secure safety from the viewpoint of radiological safety for all situations during the transportation of radioactive wastes which have been stored temporarily in KAERI.

  10. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes - the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, I.

    1985-01-01

    The paper defends the case for marine disposal of radioactive wastes. The amount of packaged waste disposed; the site for marine disposal; the method of disposal; the radioactivity arising from the disposal; and safety factors; are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Evaluation and Quantification of Uncertainty in the Modeling of Contaminant Transport and Exposure Assessment at a Radioactive Waste Disposal Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, J.; Black, P.; Carilli, J.; Catlett, K.; Crowe, B.; Hooten, M.; Rawlinson, S.; Schuh, A.; Stockton, T.; Yucel, V.

    2002-12-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States (U.S.) is a highly regulated undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), itself a large generator of such wastes, requires a substantial amount of analysis and assessment before permitting disposal of LLW at its facilities. One of the requirements that must be met in assessing the performance of a disposal site and technology is that a Performance Assessment (PA) demonstrate "reasonable expectation" that certain performance objectives, such as dose to a hypothetical future receptor, not be exceeded. The phrase "reasonable expectation" implies recognition of uncertainty in the assessment process. In order for this uncertainty to be quantified and communicated to decision makers, the PA computer model must accept probabilistic (uncertain) input (parameter values) and produce results which reflect that uncertainty as it is propagated through the model calculations. The GoldSim modeling software was selected for the task due to its unique facility with both probabilistic analysis and radioactive contaminant transport. Probabilistic model parameters range from water content and other physical properties of alluvium to the activity of radionuclides disposed to the amount of time a future resident might be expected to spend tending a garden. Although these parameters govern processes which are defined in isolation as rather simple differential equations, the complex interaction of couple processes makes for a highly nonlinear system with often unanticipated results. The decision maker has the difficult job of evaluating the uncertainty of modeling results in the context of granting permission for LLW disposal. This job also involves the evaluation of alternatives, such as the selection of disposal technologies. Various scenarios can be evaluated in the model, so that the effects of, for example, using a thicker soil cap over the waste cell can be assessed. This ability to evaluate mitigation

  12. Remediation and assessment of the national radioactive waste storage and disposal site in Tajikistan - 59110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buriev, Nazirzhon T.; Abdushukurov, Dzhamshed A.; Vandergraaf, Tjalle T.

    2012-01-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Storage and Disposal Site was established in 1959 in the Faizabad region approximately 50 km east of the capital, Dushanbe. The site is located on the southern flank of the Fan Mountains facing the Gissar Valley in a sparsely populated agricultural area, with the nearest villages located a few km from the site. The site was initially designed to accept a wide range of contaminated materials, including obsolete smoke detectors, sealed radioactive sources, waste from medical institutions, and radioactive liquids. Between 1962 and 1976, 363 tonnes and 1146 litres of material, contaminated with a range of radionuclides were shipped to the site. Between 1972 - 1980 and 1985 - 1991, ∼4.8 x 10 14 and 2 x 10 13 Bq, respectively, were shipped to the site. An additional 7 x 10 14 Bq was shipped to the site in 1996. Partly as a result of the dissolution of the former Soviet Union, the disposal site had fallen into disrepair and currently presents both an environmental hazard and a potential for the proliferation of radionuclides that could potentially be used for illicit purposes. Remediation of the disposal site was started in 2005. New security fences were erected and a new superstructure over an in-ground storage site constructed. A central alarm monitoring and observation station has been constructed and is now operational. The geology, flora, and fauna of the region have been documented. Radiation surveys of the buildings and the storage and disposal sites have been carried out. Samples of soil, surface water and vegetation have been taken and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Results show a slight extent of contamination of soils near the filling ports of the underground liquid storage container where a Cs-137 concentration of 2.3 x 104 Bq/kg was obtained. Similar values were obtained for Ra- 226. Radiation fields of the in-ground storage site were generally 3 . Most of the activity appears to be associated with the sediments in the tank

  13. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmude, J.

    1976-01-01

    Speech on the 18th March 1976 in the Bundestag by the parliamentary Secretary of State, Dr. Juergen Schmude, to substantiate the Federal government's draft to a Fourth Act amending the Atomic Energy Act. The draft deals mainly with the final storage of radioactive wastes and interrelated questions concerning waste treatment and waste collection, and with several ordinance empowerments in order to improve licensing and supervisory procedures. (orig./LN) [de

  14. Technology assessment guide for application of engineered sorbent barriers to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Jones, E.O.; Depner, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    An engineered sorbent barrier (ESB) uses sorbent materials (such as activated carbon or natural zeolites) to restrict migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. The permeability of the ESB allows moisture to pass while the sorbent material traps or absorbs contaminants. In contrast, waste sites with impermeable barriers could fill with water, especially those waste sites in humid climates. A sorbent barrier can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for restricting radionuclide migration. This report provides information and references to be used in assessing the sorbent barrier technology for low-level waste disposal. The ESB assessment is based on sorbent material and soil properties, site conditions, and waste properties and inventories. These data are used to estimate the thickness of the barrier needed to meet all performance requirements for the waste site. This document addresses the following areas: (1) site information required to assess the need and overall performance of a sorbent barrier; (2) selection and testing of sorbent materials and underlying soils; (3) use of radionuclide transport models to estimate the required barrier thickness and long-term performance under a variety of site conditions; (4) general considerations for construction and quality assurance; and (5) cost estimates for applying the barrier. 37 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Treatment, conditioning and packaging for final disposal of low and intermediate level waste from Cernavoda: a techno-economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Husain, A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Fellingham, L.; Nesbitt, V. [Nuvia Ltd., Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Toro, L. [Mate-fin, Bucharest (Romania); Simionov, V.; Dumitrescu, D. [Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant, Cernavoda (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    National Nuclearelectrica Society (SNN) owns and operates two CANDU-6 plants at Cernavoda in Romania. Two additional units are expected to be built on the site in the future. Low and intermediate level short-lived radioactive wastes from Cernavoda are planned to be disposed off in a near-surface repository to be built at Saligny. The principal waste streams are IX resins, filters, compactable wastes, non-compactables, organic liquids and oil-solid mixtures. Their volumetric generation rates per reactor unit are estimated to be: IX resins (6 m{sup 3}/y), filters (2 m{sup 3}/y), compactables (23 m{sup 3}/y) and non-compactables (15 m{sup 3}/y). A techno-economic assessment of the available options for a facility to treat and condition Cernavoda's wastes for disposal was carried out in 2009 based on projected waste volumes from all four units. A large number of processes were first screened to identify viable options. They were further considered to develop overall processing options for each waste stream. These were then consolidated to obtain options for the entire plant by minimizing the number of unit operations required to process the various waste streams. A total of 9 plant options were developed for which detailed costing was undertaken. Based on a techno-economic assessment, two top ranking plant options were identified. Several scenarios were considered for implementing these options. Amongst them, a contractor run operation of a facility located on the Cernavoda site was considered to be more cost effective than operating the facility using SNN personnel. (author)

  16. Identification of contaminants of concern for the postclosure assessment of the concept for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Mehta, K.K.

    1994-03-01

    The concept for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves the isolation of irradiated fuel in corrosion-resistant containers emplaced din din a vault located deep in crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. To estimate potential impacts on members of a critical group far into the future, a postclosure assessment evaluates the long-term safety of the concept. Although the nuclear fuel waste from CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) power generating stations contains several hundreds of potentially toxic radionuclides and chemical elements (referred to as contaminants), many of these would not lead to significant impacts. This report provides an upper bound on estimated radiation dose and chemical toxicity effects on humans from all potentially toxic contaminants, and it identifies those that require detailed consideration in the postclosure assessment. This report also examines the origins and properties of the contaminants. Properties of interest include radioactive half-life, inventory, mobility in groundwaters and sorption on rock, degree of toxicity, and precursors and progeny (or parents and daughters) for members of a decay chain. The report considers how these properties affect the behaviour of different contaminants in different parts of the disposal system. The discussion leads to suggested methods of treatment of different contaminants when simulating their fate within the disposal system. In particular, recommendations are made on how the actinide decay chains can be simplified for study in the postclosure assessment. (author). 56 refs., 22 tabs., 12 figs

  17. Waste disposal options report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes the potential options for the processing and disposal of mixed waste generated by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. It compares the proposed waste-immobilization processes, quantifies and characterizes the resulting waste forms, identifies potential disposal sites and their primary acceptance criteria, and addresses disposal issues for hazardous waste

  18. Solid waste disposal into salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, W.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction to disposal of radioactive waste; handling of solid nuclear waste; technology of final disposal, with specific reference to salt domes; conditioning of radioactive waste; safety barriers for radioactive waste; practice of final disposal in other countries. (U.K.)

  19. Radioactive wastes storage and disposal. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Chapter 8 is essentially dedicated to radioactive waste management - storage and disposal. The management safety is being provided due to packages and facilities of waste disposal and storage. It is noted that at selection of sites for waste disposal it is necessary account rock properties and ways of the wastes delivery pathways

  20. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, R.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH) [de

  1. Disposal of Hanford defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, R.A.; Burnham, J.B.; Nelson, I.C.

    1986-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the disposal of Hanford Defense Waste is scheduled to be released near the end of March, 1986. This EIS will evaluate the impacts of alternatives for disposal of high-level, tank, and transuranic wastes which are now stored at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site or will be produced there in the future. In addition to releasing the EIS, the Department of Energy is conducting an extensive public participation process aimed at providing information to the public and receiving comments on the EIS

  2. 1982 State-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,891 cubic meters of radioactive waste containing 413,898 curies of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1982. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 summarizes estimated volumes by generator categories. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity by disposal site for each state. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Data reported for the calendar year 1982 were used for this report where available. When report data were not available, reactor information was obtained directly from the utility

  3. Nuclear Waste Disposal Program 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the many important steps in the management of radioactive waste that have already been implemented in Switzerland. The handling and packaging of waste, its characterisation and inventorying, as well as its interim storage and transport are examined. The many important steps in Swiss management of radioactive waste already implemented and wide experience gained in carrying out the associated activities are discussed. The legal framework and organisational measures that will allow the selection of repository sites are looked at. The various aspects examined include the origin, type and volume of radioactive wastes, along with concepts and designs for deep geological repositories and the types of waste to be stored therein. Also, an implementation plan for the deep geological repositories, the required capacities and the financing of waste management activities are discussed as is NAGRA’s information concept. Several diagrams and tables illustrate the program

  4. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Hidrologia e Estudos do Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: otto@hidro.ufrj.br; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe J.; Lavalle Filho, Paulo F. Heilbron [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: nruperti@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  5. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C.

    2005-01-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  6. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase...... layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals...... and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment...

  7. Safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal into geological formations; a preliminary application of fault tree analysis to salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, B.; D'Alessandro, M.; Girardi, F.; Vanossi, M.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology of the fault tree analysis (FTA) has been widely used at the Joint Research Centre of Ispra in nuclear reactor safety studies. The aim of the present work consisted in studying the applicability of this methodology to geological repositories of radioactive wastes, including criteria and approaches for the quantification of probalities of primary events. The present work has just an illustrative purpose. Two ideal cases of saline formations, I.E. a bedded salt and a diapir were chosen as potential disposal sites for radioactive waste. On the basis of arbitrarily assumed hydrogeological features of the salt formations and their surrounding environment, possible phenomena capable of causing the waste to be released from each formation have been discussed and gathered following the logical schemes of the FTA. The assessment of probability values for release events due to natural causes as well as to human actions, over different time periods, up to one million years, has been discussed

  8. Disposal method of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetake, Naoto; Fukazawa, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of underground disposal of radioactive wastes for a long period of time by surrounding the periphery of the radioactive wastes with materials that can inhibit the migration of radioactive nuclides and are physically and chemically stable. Method: Hardening products prepared from a water-hardenable calcium silicate compound and an aqueous solution of alkali silicate have compression strength as comparable with that of concretes, high water tightness and adsorbing property to radioactive isotopes such as cobalt similar to that of concretes and they also show adsorption to cesium which is not adsorbed to concretes. Further, the kneaded slurry thereof is excellent in the workability and can be poured even into narrow gaps. Accordingly, by alternately charging granular radioactive wastes and this slurry before hardening into the ground, the radioactive wastes can be put to underground disposal stably with simple procedures. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Equity and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.

    1994-01-01

    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The article surveys some prima facie arguments for equity in the distribution of radwaste risks and then evaluates four objections that are based, respectively, on practicality, compensation for risks, scepticism about duties to future generations, and the uranium criterion. The conclusion is that, at least under existing regulations and policies, permanent waste disposal is highly questionable, in part, because it fails to distribute risk equitably or to compensate, in full, for this inequity

  10. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dody, A.; Klein, Ben; David, O.

    2014-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste imposes complicated constrains on the regulator to ensure the isolation of radioactive elements from the biosphere. The IAEA (1995) states that T he objective of radioactive waste management is to deal with radioactive waste in a manner that protects human health and the environment now and the future without imposing undue burdens on future generation . The meaning of this statement is that the operator of the waste disposal facilities must prove to the regulator that in routine time and in different scenarios the dose rate to the public will not exceed 0.3 mSv/y in the present and in the future up to 10,000 years

  11. Disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.; Kuehn, K.

    1977-01-01

    Final storage of nuclear wastes in the salt mine at Asse is described. Until the end of 1976, all in all 73,000 containers with slightly radioactive wastes were deposited there within the framework of a test programme - the Asse pit is a pilot plant. Final storage of medium active waste was started in 1972. So far, about 1,150 barrels with medium active waste were deposited. Storage techniques applied, radiation exposure of the personnel and experience gained so far are reported on in this context. Final storage at Asse of highly active wastes developing decay heat is still in a preparatory stage, as here radiation as well as heat problems have to be mastered. Technical mining activities for the recoverable storage of highly-active, heat-developing wastes in the form of ceramic glasses are still in a planning phase, whereas advance work, e.g. cutting storage chambers out of seams 775 m thick have already begun. (HPH) [de

  12. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  13. Differing approaches to waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, G.

    1983-01-01

    The social, political, and economic problems of radioactive waste management, which are discussed at a scientific afternoon meeting held during the IAEA general conference on 12 October, with speakers from Argentina, West Germany, France, India, Japan, Sweden, Britain and the United States, are described. An OECD Nuclear Energy Agency report on the demonstration of long-term safety of deep underground disposal of high level radioactive waste is discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Nuttall, K.

    1994-01-01

    In 1978, the governments of Canada and Ontario established the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program. As of the time of the conference, the research performed by AECL was jointly funded by AECL and Ontario Hydro through the CANDU owners' group. Ontario Hydro have also done some of the research on disposal containers and vault seals. From 1978 to 1992, AECL's research and development on disposal cost about C$413 million, of which C$305 was from funds provided to AECL by the federal government, and C$77 million was from Ontario Hydro. The concept involves the construction of a waste vault 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Used fuel (or possibly solidified reprocessing waste) would be sealed into containers (of copper, titanium or special steel) and emplaced (probably in boreholes) in the vault floor, surrounded by sealing material (buffer). Disposal rooms might be excavated on more than one level. Eventually all excavated openings in the rock would be backfilled and sealed. Research is organized under the following headings: disposal container, waste form, vault seals, geosphere, surface environment, total system, assessment of environmental effects. A federal Environmental Assessment Panel is assessing the concept (holding public hearings for the purpose) and will eventually make recommendations to assist the governments of Canada and Ontario in deciding whether to accept the concept, and how to manage nuclear fuel waste. 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  15. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories

  16. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  17. The international hydrocoin project. Groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The international co-operation project HYDROCOIN for studying groundwater flow modelling in the context of radioactive waste disposal was initiated in 1984. Thirteen organizations from ten countries and two international organizations have participated in the project which has been managed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI. This report summarizes the results from the second phase of HYDROCOIN, Level 2, which has addressed the issue of validation by testing the capabilities of groundwater flow models to describe five field and laboratory experiments: . Thermal convection and conduction around a field heat transfer experiment in a quarry, . A laboratory experiment with thermal convection as a model for variable density flow, . A small groundwater flow system in fractured monzonitic gneiss, . Three-dimensional regional groundwater flow in low permeability rocks, and . Soil water redistribution near the surface at a field site. The five test cases cover various media of interest for final disposal such as low permeability saturated rock, unsaturated rock, and salt formations. They also represent a variety of spatial and temporal scales. From model simulations on the five test cases conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability of the models to the experimental and field situations and the usefulness of the available data bases. The results are evaluated with regard to the steps in an ideal validation process. The data bases showed certain limitations for validation purposes with respect to independent data sets for calibration and validation. In spite of this, the HYDROCOIN Level 2 efforts have significantly contributed to an increased confidence in the applicability of groundwater flow models to different situations relevant to final disposal. Furthermore, the work has given much insight into the validation process and specific recommendations for further validation efforts are made

  18. Public values associated with nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, W.S.; Nealey, S.M.; Hebert, J.A.; Lindell, M.K.

    1976-06-01

    This report presents the major findings from a study designed to assess public attitudes and values associated with nuclear waste disposal. The first objective was to obtain from selected individuals and organizations value and attitude information which would be useful to decision-makers charged with deciding the ultimate disposal of radioactive waste materials. A second research objective was to obtain information that could be structured and quantified for integration with technical data in a computer-assisted decision model. The third general objective of this research was to test several attitude-value measurement procedures for their relevance and applicability to nuclear waste disposal. The results presented in this report are based on questionnaire responses from 465 study participants

  19. 1983 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    The 1983 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 76,702 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 505,340 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1983. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is tabulated. Typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector are given. Predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector are tabulated. Sometimes the amount of waste reported by power facilities is equal to or exceeds the state volume reported from commercial disposal site operators. Discrepancies may be a result of waste volumes being credited to the home state of the waste broker instead of the actual state location of the generator. Additionally, waste volumes may have been in transit from the generator to the disposal site at year's end. The Low-Level Waste Management Program felt a responsibility to report information accurately from the various sources, so did not alter the figures to make them balance

  20. Radioactive waste disposal - ethical and environmental considerations - A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roots, F.

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with ethical and environmental considerations of radioactive waste disposal in Canada. It begins with the canadian attitudes toward nature and environment. Then are given the canadian institutions which reflect an environmental ethic, the development of a canadian radioactive waste management policy, the establishment of formal assessment and review process for a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, some studies of the ethical and risk dimensions of nuclear waste decisions, the canadian societal response to issues of radioactive wastes, the analysis of risks associated with fuel waste disposal, the influence of other energy related environmental assessments and some common ground and possible accommodation between the different views. (O.L.). 50 refs

  1. Landfill disposal risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mininni, G.; Passino, R.; Spinosa, L.

    1993-01-01

    Landfill disposal is the most used waste disposal system in Italy, due to its low costs and also to the great opposition of populations towards new incineration plants and the adjustment of the existing ones. Nevertheless, landfills may present many environmental problems as far as leachate and biogas are concerned directly influencing water, air and soil. This paper shows the most important aspects to be considered for a correct evaluation of environmental impacts caused by a landfill of urban wastes. Moreover, detection systems for on site control of pollution phenomena are presented and some measures for an optimal operation of a landfill are suggested

  2. Risks assessment associated with the possibility of intrusion into the low and intermediate level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didita, L.; Ilie, P.; Pavelescu, M.

    1997-01-01

    In post-closure performance assessment of low and intermediate level waste disposal facilities it is necessary to assess the individual risks associated with the possibility of intrusion into repository. Intruder induced disruptive events can potentially compromise the integrity of the disposal unit and result in exhumation of the waste and radionuclides migration into environment. In this way, the main routes of exposure are: -inhalation of radioactive materials by the intruder; - external gamma irradiation of the intruder, - long-term pathways resulting from the transfer of radioactive materials to the surface of the site. This paper describes the evaluation of conditional and absolute risks associated with each route of exposure as a function of time. To evaluate the risks, it is necessary to calculate the time-dependent activities of each nuclide considered. This is achieved by employing an analytic solution to the Bateman equation at specified times of evaluation. Conditional risks by inhalation, external exposure and long-term pathways and different modes of intrusion are evaluated on the basis of an annual probability of intrusion of unity. Absolute risks are calculated by scaling the user-supplied probabilities of intrusion at various times of evaluation. The evaluation of absolute risks by long-term exposure pathways involves an interpolation procedure in time. The calculations have been performed for the most important radionuclides present in low and intermediate wastes. (authors)

  3. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.

    2002-01-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  4. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2002-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  5. Assessment of health-care waste disposal methods using a VIKOR-based fuzzy multi-criteria decision making method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hu-Chen [School of Management, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Wu, Jing [Department of Public Management, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Ping, E-mail: yiwuchulp@126.com [Shanghai Pudong New Area Zhoupu Hospital, No. 135 Guanyue Road, Shanghai 201318 (China); East Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University, No. 150 Jimo Road, Shanghai 200120 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Propose a VIKOR-based fuzzy MCDM technique for evaluating HCW disposal methods. • Linguistic variables are used to assess the ratings and weights for the criteria. • The OWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers. • A case study is given to illustrate the procedure of the proposed framework. - Abstract: Nowadays selection of the appropriate treatment method in health-care waste (HCW) management has become a challenge task for the municipal authorities especially in developing countries. Assessment of HCW disposal alternatives can be regarded as a complicated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem which requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and conflicting tangible and intangible criteria. The objective of this paper is to present a new MCDM technique based on fuzzy set theory and VIKOR method for evaluating HCW disposal methods. Linguistic variables are used by decision makers to assess the ratings and weights for the established criteria. The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group assessment. The computational procedure of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study in Shanghai, one of the largest cities of China. The HCW treatment alternatives considered in this study include “incineration”, “steam sterilization”, “microwave” and “landfill”. The results obtained using the proposed approach are analyzed in a comparative way.

  6. Assessment of health-care waste disposal methods using a VIKOR-based fuzzy multi-criteria decision making method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hu-Chen; Wu, Jing; Li, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose a VIKOR-based fuzzy MCDM technique for evaluating HCW disposal methods. • Linguistic variables are used to assess the ratings and weights for the criteria. • The OWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers. • A case study is given to illustrate the procedure of the proposed framework. - Abstract: Nowadays selection of the appropriate treatment method in health-care waste (HCW) management has become a challenge task for the municipal authorities especially in developing countries. Assessment of HCW disposal alternatives can be regarded as a complicated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem which requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and conflicting tangible and intangible criteria. The objective of this paper is to present a new MCDM technique based on fuzzy set theory and VIKOR method for evaluating HCW disposal methods. Linguistic variables are used by decision makers to assess the ratings and weights for the established criteria. The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group assessment. The computational procedure of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study in Shanghai, one of the largest cities of China. The HCW treatment alternatives considered in this study include “incineration”, “steam sterilization”, “microwave” and “landfill”. The results obtained using the proposed approach are analyzed in a comparative way

  7. Assessment of the Impact of Radioactive Disposals and Discharges from the United Kingdom Low Level Waste Repository on the Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of the impacts to ecosystems and wildlife species from radioactive discharges and disposals at the United Kingdom's low level waste disposal facility in West Cumbria. The assessment was undertaken in response to a requirement in the site's current authorisation and comprised a detailed desk based review along with an exercise to screen relevant monitoring data from the site against generic assessment criteria and undertake a numerical risk assessment. Much of the site is vegetated, comprising a variety of habitats including grassland, relict dune heath and surface water bodies. Furthermore, the site is located adjacent to a coastal/estuarine area which is protected as it provides a habitat of high ecological value and species of animals and plants are present that are rare, endangered or vulnerable. However, the current impact of aerial and liquid radioactive discharges from the low level waste repository on ecosystems and wildlife species is considered to be low. Site monitoring data also indicate that there has been a reduction of radionuclide activities in ground and surface water and leachates over time, a result of measures initiated to minimise rainwater infiltration and improve leachate management associated with the disposal area. A quantitative assessment was undertaken to assess future impacts to relevant terrestrial, fresh water and marine ecosystems. This showed that modelled peak radionuclide concentrations in the first 4,000 years after site closure were not sufficiently high to cause potential impact to any of these ecosystems or associated wildlife. This cut-off date was chosen as it is considered probable that, due to the effects of future climate and landscape change and, unless actions are taken to defend the coastline, the site is likely to be disrupted by coastal erosion in the next 4,000 years. (authors)

  8. The 1988 state-by-state assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1989-12-01

    This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are divided into generator categories, waste classes, volumes, and activities. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1988 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1984 through 1988; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1988. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and that which was handled by an intermediary. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsaev, Yu.V.

    1990-01-01

    The first stage of investigations of possibility of sub-seabed disposal of long-living intermediate-level radioactive wastes carried out by NIREX (UK) is described. Advantages and disadvantages of sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes are considered; regions suitable for disposal, transport means for marine disposal are described. Three types of sub-seabed burials are characterized

  10. A preliminary parametric performance assessment for the disposal of alpha-contaminated mixed low-level waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Anderson, G.L.; Myers, J.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary parametric performance assessment (PA) has been performed of potential waste disposal systems for alpha-contaminated mixed low-level waste (ALLW) currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The radionuclide-confinement performance of treated ALLW in various final waste forms, in various disposal locations, and under various assumptions was evaluated. Compliance with performance objectives was assessed for the undisturbed waste scenario and for intrusion scenarios. Some combinations of final waste form, disposal site, and environmental transport assumptions lead to calculated does that comply with the performance objectives, while others do not. The results will help determine the optimum degree of ALLW immobilization to satisfy the performance objectives while minimizing cost

  11. Preliminary Performance Assessment for Disposal of APT and CLWR/TEF Wastes at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    This section provides the descriptive information for understanding the analyses presented in this preliminary performance assessment. This section addresses the approach taken in the PA, provides a general description of the Savannah River Site E-Area low-level waste facility, and discusses the performance criteria used for evaluating performance

  12. The international hydrocoin project - Groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The international cooperation project HYDROCOIN for studying groundwater flow modelling in the context of radioactive waste disposal was initiated in 1984. Thirteen organisations from ten countries and two international organisations have participated in the project which has been managed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI. This report summarises the results from the third phase of HYDROCOIN, Level 3, which has addressed the issues of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of groundwater flow problems and how uncertainties affect the modelling results. Seven test cases were selected for the project, representing a variety of flow situations in different media, as well as variety of temporal and spatial scales. These test cases were tackled by the participating organisations (Project Teams) using a number of different codes. An overview of the methodologies used in uncertainty and sensitivity analysis is given. Results from the various Teams attempting the Test Cases are presented and conclusions are drawn as to the applicability of the results obtained to the test cases being analysed as well as the general applicability of the results. The importance of making uncertainty and sensitivity analysis as part of a performance analysis of the safety of a nuclear waste repository is stressed. The conclusion is drawn that the HYDROCOIN Level 3 study has greatly contributed to the understanding of these issues. 42 refs., 159 figs., 61 tabs

  13. ORNL results for Test Case 1 of the International Atomic Energy Agency's research program on the safety assessment of Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, D.J.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Kocher, D.C.; Little, C.A.; Roemer, E.K.

    1993-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started the Coordinated Research Program entitled '''The Safety Assessment of Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities.'' The program is aimed at improving the confidence in the modeling results for safety assessments of waste disposal facilities. The program has been given the acronym NSARS (Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) for ease of reference. The purpose of this report is to present the ORNL modeling results for the first test case (i.e., Test Case 1) of the IAEA NSARS program. Test Case 1 is based on near-surface disposal of radionuclides that are subsequently leached to a saturated-sand aquifer. Exposure to radionuclides results from use of a well screened in the aquifer and from intrusion into the repository. Two repository concepts were defined in Test Case 1: a simple earth trench and an engineered vault

  14. The international intraval project to study validation of geosphere transport models for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    INTRAVAL is an international project concerned with the use of mathematical models for predicting the potential transport of radioactive substances in the geosphere. Such models are used to help assess the longterm safety of radioactive waste disposal systems. The INTRAVAL project was established to evaluate the validity of these models. Results from a set of selected laboratory and field experiments as well as studies of occurrences of radioactive substances in nature (natural analogues) are compared in a systematic way with model predictions. Discrepancies between observations and predictions are discussed and analyzed

  15. Assessment of odor activity value coefficient and odor contribution based on binary interaction effects in waste disposal plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Yan, Luchun; Chen, Haiying; Shao, Huiqi; Meng, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Odor activity value (OAV) has been widely used for the assessment of odor pollution from various sources. However, little attention has been paid to the extreme OAV variation and potential inaccuracies of odor contribution assessment caused by odor interaction effects. The objective of this study is to assess the odor interaction effect for precise assessment of odor contribution. In this paper, samples were collected from a food waste disposal plant, and analyzed by instrumental and olfactory method to conclude odorants' occurrence and OAV. Then odor activity value coefficient (γ) was first proposed to evaluate the type and the level of binary interaction effects based on determination of OAV variation. By multiplying OAV and γ, odor activity factor (OAF) was used to reflect the real OAV. Correlation between the sum of OAF and odor concentration reached 80.0 ± 5.7%, which was 10 times higher than the sum of OAV used before. Results showed that hydrogen sulfide contributed most (annual average 66.4 ± 15.8%) to odor pollution in the waste disposal plant. However, as odor intensity of samples in summer rising, odor contribution of trimethylamine increased to 48.3 ± 3.7% by the strong synergistic interaction effect, while odor contribution of phenol decreased to 0.1 ± 0.02% for the increasing antagonistic interaction effect.

  16. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the adsorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strenghs and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area. (orig.) [de

  17. Effluent treatment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there has been a great increase in the attention given to environmental matters by the public, media and Government. This has been reflected in the increased stature of environmental pressure groups and the introduction of new regulatory bodies and procedures. However, the satisfactory treatment and disposal of waste depends ultimately upon the development and employment of efficient low cost processes, and the enforcement of effective legislation. This Conference organised by the Yorkshire Branch of IChemE in association with the Institution's Environmental Protection Subject Group, will address the areas of waste monitoring, developments in pollution control processes and process economics and will look forward to future trends in waste disposal. It will also consider the impact of recent legislation upon the process industries. (author)

  18. Ocean disposal of radioactive waste: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    For hundreds of years, the seas have been used as a place to dispose of wastes resulting from human activities and although no high level radioactive waste (HLW) has been disposed of into the sea, variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive waste (LLW) have been dumped at more than 50 sites in the northern part of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. So far, samples of sea water, sediments and deep sea organisms collected on the various sites have not shown any excess in the levels of radionuclides above those due to nuclear weapons fallout except on certain occasions where caesium and plutonium were detected at higher levels in samples taken close to packages at the dumping site. Since 1957, the date of its first meeting to design methodologies to assess the safety of ''radioactive waste disposal into the sea'', the IAEA has provided guidance and recommendations for ensuring that disposal of radioactive wastes into the sea will not result in unacceptable hazards to human health and marine organisms, damage to amenities or interference with other legitimate uses of the sea. Since the Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (referred to as the London Dumping Convention) came into force in 1975, the dumping of waste has been regulated on a global scale. The London Dumping Convention entrusted IAEA with specific responsibilities for the definition of high level radioactive wastes unsuitable for dumping at sea, and for making recommendations to national authorities for issuing special permits for ocean dumping of low level radioactive wastes. This paper presents a status report of immersion operations of low-level radioactive waste and the current studies the IAEA is undertaking on behalf of the LDC

  19. Geochemistry of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Safe, permanent disposal of radioactive wastes requires isolation of a number of elements including Se, Tc, I, Sr, Cs, Pd, u, Np, Pu and Cm from the environment for a long period of time. The aquatic chemistry of these elements ranges from simple anionic (I - ,IO 3 - ) and cationic (Cs + ,Sr ++ ) forms to multivalent hydrolyzed complexes which can be anionic or cationic (Pu(OH) 2 + ,Pu(OH) 3 + , PuO 2 (CO 3 )(OH) - ,PuO 2 Cl - ,etc.) depending on the chemical environment. The parameters which can affect repository safety are rate of access and composition of grounwater, stability of the waste container, stability of the waste form, rock-water-waste interactons, and dilution and dispersion as the waste moves away from the repository site. Our overall research program on radioactive waste disposal includes corrosion studies of containment systems hydrothermal stability of various waste forms, and geochemical behaviour of various nuclides including solubilities, redox equilibria, hydrolysis, colloid fomation and transport ion exchange equilibria and adsorption on mineral surfaces and irreversible precipitation reactions. This paper discusses the geochemistry of I, Se, Tc, Cs, Sr and the actinide elements and potential mechanisms by which the mobility could be retarded if necessary

  20. Transport and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    1999-01-01

    The author assesses both past and future of nuclear waste disposal in Germany. The failure of the disposal concept is, he believes, mainly the fault of the Federal Government. On the basis of the Nuclear Energy Act, the government is obliged to ensure that ultimate-storage sites are established and operated. Up to the present, however, the government has failed - apart from the episode in Asse and Morsleben and espite existing feasible proposals in Konrad and Gorleben - to achieve this objective. This negative development is particularly evident from the projects which have had to be prematurely abandoned. The costs of such 'investment follies' meanwhile amount to several billion DM. At least 92% of the capacity in the intermediate-storage sites are at present unused. Following the closure of the ultimate-storage site in Morsleben, action must be taken to change over to long-term intermediate-storage of operational waste. The government has extensive intermediate-storage capacity at the intermediate-storage site Nord in Greifswald. There, the wate originally planned for storage in Morsleben could be intermediately stored at ERAM-rates. Nuclear waste transportation, too, could long ago have been resumed, in the author's view. For the purpose of improving the transport organisation, a new company was founded which represents exclusively the interests of the reprocessing firms at the nuclear power stations. The author's conclusion: The EVU have done their homework properly and implemented all necessary measures in order to be able to resume transport of fuel elements as soon as possible. The generating station operators favour a solution based upon agreement with the Federal Government. The EVU have already declared their willingness - in the event of unanimous agreement - to set up intermediate-storage sites near the power stations. The ponds in the generating stations, however, are unsuitable for use as intermediate-storage areas. If intermediate-storage areas for

  1. Performance Assessment of a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site using GoldSim Integrated Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, G.; Singh, A.; Tauxe, J.; Perona, R.; Dornsife, W.; grisak, G. E.; Holt, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has approved licenses for four landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site located in Andrews County, West Texas. The site includes a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. An updated performance assessment is necessary prior to acceptance of waste at the landfills. The updated performance assessment a) provides for more realistic and flexible dose modeling capabilities, b) addresses all plausible release and accident scenarios as they relate to the performance objectives, c) includes impact of climate and hydrologic scenarios that may impact long-term performance of the landfill, d) addresses impact of cover naturalization and degradation on the landfill, and e) incorporates uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for critical parameters. For the updated performance assessment, WCS has developed an integrated systems level performance assessment model using the GoldSim platform. GoldSim serves as a model for integrating all of the major components of a performance assessment, which include the radionuclide source term, facility design, environmental transport pathways, exposure scenarios, and radiological doses. Unlike many computer models that are based on first principles, GoldSim is a systems level model that can be used to integrate and abstract more complex sub-models into one system. This can then be used to assess the results into a unified model of the disposal system and environment. In this particular application, the GoldSim model consists of a) hydrogeologic model that simulates flow and transport through the Dockum geologic unit that underlies all of the waste facilities, b) waste cells that represent the containment unit and simulate degradation of waste forms, radionuclide leaching, and partitioning into the liquid and vapor phase within the waste unit, c) a cover system model that simulates upward diffusive transport from the underground repository to the atmosphere. In

  2. Determining how much mixed waste will require disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    Estimating needed mixed-waste disposal capacity to 1995 and beyond is an essential element in the safe management of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity. Information on the types and quantities of mixed waste generated is needed by industry to allow development of treatment facilities and by states and others responsible for disposal and storage of this type of low-level radioactive waste. The design of a mixed waste disposal facility hinges on a detailed assessment of the types and quantities of mixed waste that will ultimately require land disposal. Although traditional liquid scintillation counting fluids using toluene and xylene are clearly recognized as mixed waste, characterization of other types of mixed waste has, however, been difficult. Liquid scintillation counting fluids comprise most of the mixed waste generated and this type of mixed waste is generally incinerated under the supplemental fuel provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Because there are no Currently operating mixed waste land disposal facilities, it is impossible to make projections of waste requiring land disposal based on a continuation of current waste disposal practices. Evidence indicates the volume of mixed waste requiring land disposal is not large, since generators are apparently storing these wastes. Surveys conducted to date confirm that relatively small volumes of commercially generated mixed waste volume have relied heavily oil generators' knowledge of their wastes. Evidence exists that many generators are confused by the differences between the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) on the issue of when a material becomes a waste. In spite of uncertainties, estimates of waste volumes requiring disposal can be made. This paper proposes an eight-step process for such estimates

  3. The disposal of orphan wastes using the greater confinement disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Price, L.L.; Conrad, S.H.; Dickman, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    In the United States, radioactive wastes are conventionally classified as high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, or low-level wastes. Each of these types of wastes, by law, has a ''home'' for their final disposal; i.e., high-level wastes are destined for disposal at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, transuranic waste for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and low-level waste for shallow-land disposal sites. However, there are some radioactive wastes within the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of either high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. The former are called ''special-case'' or ''orphan'' wastes. This paper describes an ongoing project sponsored by the DOE's Nevada Operations Office for the disposal of orphan wastes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site at Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site using the greater confinement disposal (GCD) concept. The objectives of the GCD project are to evaluate the safety of the site for disposal of orphan wastes by assessing compliance with pertinent regulations through performance assessment, and to examine the feasibility of this disposal concept as a cost-effective, safe alternative for management of orphan wastes within the DOE complex. Decisions on the use of GCD or other alternate disposal concepts for orphan wastes be expected to be addressed in a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement being prepared by DOE. The ultimate decision to use GCD will require a Record of Decision through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. The JAERI program for development of safety assessment models and acquisition of data needed for assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, H.

    1991-01-01

    The JAERI is conducting R and D program for the development of safety assessment methodologies and the acquisition of data needed for the assessment of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, aiming at the elucidation of feasibility of geologic disposal in Japan. The paper describes current R and D activities to develop interim versions of both a deterministic and a probabilistic methodologies based on a normal evolution scenario, to collect data concerning engineered barriers and geologic media through field and laboratory experiments, and to validate the models used in the methodologies. 2 figs., 2 refs

  5. Disposal of radioactive wastes. Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skitt, J.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of the history and present position of legislation in the United Kingdom on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The sections are headed: introduction and definitions; history; the Radioactive Substances Act 1960; disposal of solid radioactive wastes through Local Authority services; function of Local Authorities; exemptions; national radioactive waste disposal service; incidents involving radioactivity. (U.K.)

  6. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  7. Issues in performance assessments for disposal of US Department of Energy low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Wilhite, E.L.; Duggan, G.J.

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have long been pioneers in the field of radiological performance assessment (PA). Much effort has been expended in developing technology and acquiring data to facilitate the assessment process. This is reflected in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management Chapter III of the Order lists policy and requirements to manage the DOEs low-level waste; performance objectives for low-level waste management are stated to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. A radiological PA is also required to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives. DOE Order 5820.2A further requires that an Oversight and Peer Review Panel be established to ensure consistency and technical quality around the DOE complex in the development and application of PA models that include site-specific geohydrology and waste composition. The DOE has also established a Performance Assessment Task Team (PATT) to integrate the activities of sites that are preparing PAs. The PATT's purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to DOE on issues that impact PAs so that the approaches taken are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex

  8. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success

  9. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success.

  10. The 1986 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The data are grouped and presented by compact regions. The data include activity and volume by waste classes, generator type, and disposal site. The report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 1,804,998 cubic feet (51,113 cubic meters) of radioactive waste containing 233,726 curies of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1986. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear Systems, Inc., and US Ecology for each state. Sixty-three percent of low-level waste volumes disposed at commercial sites was assigned to the state of origin. These volumes represent those disposed at Beatty and Barnwell disposal sites. Thirty-seven percent, or 665,066 cubic feet (18,831 cubic meters), of the waste disposed in the US in 1986 went to the Richland site. 8 refs., 75 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Radioactive wastes and their disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, L.

    1984-01-01

    The classification of radioactive wastes is given and the achievements evaluated in the disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. An experimental pilot unit was installed at the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant for the bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes. UJV has developed a mobile automated high-output unit for cementation. In 1985 the unit will be tested at the Jaslovske Bohunice and the Dukovany nuclear power plants. A prototype press for processing solid wastes was manufactured which is in operation at the Jaslovske Bohunice plant. A solidification process for atypical wastes from long-term storage of spent fuel elements has been developed to be used for the period of nuclear power plant decommissioning. (E.S.)

  12. Assessment report of research and development on 'geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste' (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notoya, Shin; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Ota, Kunio; Sasao, Eiji

    2010-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) consulted an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research and Development (R and D) Activities for Geological Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste', for interim assessment of R and D on high-level radioactive waste disposal in accordance with 'General Guideline for Evaluation of Government R and D Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by Japan. In response to JAEA's request, the Committee assessed mainly the progress of the R and D project according to guidelines, which addressed the rationale behind the R and D project, the relevance of the project outcome and the efficiency of the project implementation during the period of the first midterm plan. As a result, the Committee concluded that the progress of the R and D project is satisfactory. In addition, the Committee provided a couple of issues and suggestions to be addressed in the implementation of the project during the period of the second midterm. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  13. Biosphere modeling in waste disposal safety assessments -- An example using the terrestrial-aquatic model of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klos, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Geological disposal of radioactive wastes is intended to provide long-term isolation of potentially harmful radionuclides from the human environment and the biosphere. The long timescales involved pose unique problems for biosphere modeling because there are considerable uncertainties regarding the state of the biosphere into which releases might ultimately occur. The key to representing the biosphere in long-timescale assessments is the flexibility with which those aspects of the biosphere that are of relevance to dose calculations are represented, and this comes from the way in which key biosphere features, events, and processes are represented in model codes. How this is done in contemporary assessments is illustrated by the Terrestrial-Aquatic Model of the Environment (TAME), an advanced biosphere model for waste disposal assessments recently developed in Switzerland. A numerical example of the release of radionuclides from a subterranean source to an inland valley biosphere is used to illustrate how biosphere modeling is carried out and the practical ways in which meaningful quantitative results can be achieved. The results emphasize the potential for accumulation of radionuclides in the biosphere over long timescales and also illustrate the role of parameter values in such modeling

  14. Use of comparative assessment framework for comparison of geological nuclear waste and CO2 disposal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streimikiene, Dalia

    2010-09-15

    Comparative assessment of few future energy and climate change mitigation options for Lithuania in 2020 performed indicated that nuclear and combined cycle gas turbine technologies are very similar energy options in terms of costs taking into account GHG emission reduction costs. Comparative assessment of these energy options requires evaluation of the potentials and costs for geological CO2 and nuclear waste storage as the main uncertainties in comparative assessment of electricity generation technologies are related with these back-end technologies. The paper analyses the main characteristics of possible geological storage of CO2 and NW options in Lithuania.

  15. Peristaltic pumps for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, G.W.

    1992-09-01

    Laboratory robots are capable of generating large volumes of hazardous liquid wastes when they are used to perform chemical analyses of metal finishing solutions. A robot at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division, generates 30 gallons of acid waste each month. This waste contains mineral acids, heavy metals, metal fluorides, and other materials. The waste must be contained in special drums that are closed to the atmosphere. The initial disposal method was to have the robot pour the waste into a collecting funnel, which contained a liquid-sensing valve to admit the waste into the drum. Spills were inevitable, splashing occurred, and the special valve often didn't work well. The device also occupied a large amount of premium bench space. Peristaltic pumps are made to handle hazardous liquids quickly and efficiently. A variable-speed pump, equipped with a quick-loading pump head, was mounted below the robot bench near the waste barrel. The pump inlet tube was mounted above the bench within easy reach of the robot, while the outlet tube was connected directly to the barrel. During operation, the robot brings the waste liquid up to the pump inlet tube and activates the pump. When the waste has been removed, the pump stops. The procedure is quick, simple, inexpensive, safe, and reliable

  16. Handling and disposing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste has been separated by definition into six categories. These are: commercial spent fuel; high-level wastes; transuranium waste; low-level wastes; decommissioning and decontamination wastes; and mill tailings and mine wastes. Handling and disposing of these various types of radioactive wastes are discussed briefly

  17. Comparative Assessment of Status and Opportunities for CO2 Capture and Storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, C.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2010-01-01

    Aside from the target storage regions being underground, geologic carbon sequestration and radioactive waste disposal share little in common in North America. The large volume of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) needed to be sequestered along with its relatively benign health effects present a sharp contrast to the limited volumes and hazardous nature of high-level radioactive waste. There is well-documented capacity in North America for 100 years or more of sequestration of CO 2 from coal-fired power plants. Aside from economics, the challenges of geologic carbon sequestration include lack of fully established legal and regulatory framework for ownership of injected CO 2 , the need for an expanded pipeline infrastructure, and public acceptance of the technology. As for radioactive waste, the U.S. has proposed the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the region's first high-level radioactive waste disposal site. The Canadian radioactive waste program is currently evolving with options that range from geologic disposal to both decentralized and centralized permanent storage in surface facilities. Both the U.S. and Canada have established legal and regulatory frameworks for radioactive waste disposal. The most challenging technical issue for radioactive waste disposal is the need to predict repository performance on extremely long time scales (10 4 - 10 6 years). While attitudes toward nuclear power are rapidly changing as fossil-fuel costs soar and changes in climate occur, public perception remains the most serious challenge to opening radioactive waste repositories. Because of the many significant differences between radioactive waste disposal and geologic carbon sequestration, there is little that can be shared between them from regulatory, legal, transportation, or economic perspectives. As for public perception, there is currently an opportunity to engage the public on the benefits and risks of both geologic carbon sequestration and radioactive waste disposal

  18. High activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaul, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Chem-Nuclear Environmental Services (CNES) has developed a container that is capable of containing high activity waste and can be shipped as a regular DOT Type A shipment. By making the container special form the amount of activity that can be transported in a Type A shipment is greatly enhanced. Special form material presents an extra degree of protection to the environment by requiring the package to be destroyed to get access to the radioactive material and must undergo specific testing requirements, whereas normal form material can allow access to the radioactive material. With the special form container up to 10 caries of radium can be transported in a single package. This paper will describe the considerations that were taken to develop these products

  19. A study on source term assessment and waste disposal requirement of decontamination and decommissioning for the TRIGA research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whang, Joo Ho; Lee, Kyung JIn; Lee, Jae Min; Choi, Gyu Seup; Shin, Byoung Sun [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    The objective and necessity of the project : TRIGA is the first nuclear facility that decide to decommission and decontamination in our nation. As we estimate the expected life of nuclear power generation at 30 or 40 years, the decommissioning business should be conducted around 2010, and the development of regulatory technique supporting it should be developed previously. From a view of decommissioning and decontamination, the research reactor is just small in scale but it include all decommissioning and decontamination conditions. So, the rules by regulatory authority with decommissioning will be a guide for nuclear power plant in the future. The basis of regulatory technique required when decommissioning the research reactor are the radiological safety security and the data for it. The source term is very important condition not only for security of worker but for evaluating how we dispose the waste is appropriate for conducting the middle store and the procedure after it when the final disposal is considered. The content and the scope in this report contain the procedure of conducting the assessment of the source term which is most important in understanding the general concept of the decommissioning procedure of the decommissioning and decontamination of TRIGA research reactor. That is, the sampling and measuring method is presented as how to measure the volume of the radioactivity of the nuclear facilities. And also, the criterion of classifying the waste occurred in other countries and the site release criteria which is the final step of decommissioning and decontamination presented through MARSSIM. Finally, the program to be applicable through comparing the methods of our nation and other countries ones is presented as plan for disposal of the waste in the decommissioning.

  20. The surface water model for assessing Canada's nuclear fuel waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, G.A.; Stephenson, M.; Cornett, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (NFWMP) is investigating the concept of disposal of nuclear fuel waste in a vault excavated deep in crystalline rock on the Canadian Shield. Probabilistic vault, geosphere, and biosphere models are implemented using Monte Carlo simulation techniques to trace nuclides transported in groundwater to the surface environment and humans far into the future. This paper describes the surface water submodel and its parameter values, sensitivity analysis, and validation. The surface water model is a simple, time-dependent, mass balance model of a lake that calculates radioactive and stable isotope contaminant concentrations in lake water and sediment. These concentrations are input to the other submodels and used to predict the radiological dose to humans and other biota. Parameter values in the model are based on the literature and the author's own data, and are generic to Canadian Shield lakes. Most parameters are represented by log normally distributed probability density functions. Sensitivity analysis indicates that nuclide concentrations in lake water and sediment are governed primarily by hydrological flushing with catchment area being the most important parameter. When catchment area is held constant lake area and nuclide transfer rate from water to sediment strongly influence concentrations in both water and sediment. For volatile nuclides, gaseous evasion also has a marked influence on concentrations in both water and sediment, whereas sedimentation rate strongly influences sediment nuclide concentrations. Validation tests demonstrate that the models predictions for 60 Co, 134 Cs, 3 H, P, Cd and Ca are consistent with empirical data when uncertainties are taken into account

  1. Ocean disposal of heat generating waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    A number of options for the disposal of vitrified heat generating waste are being studied to ensure that safe methods are available when the time comes for disposal operations to commence. This study has considered the engineering and operational aspects of the Penetrator Option for ocean disposal to enable technical comparisons with other options to be made. In the Penetrator Option concept, waste would be loaded into carefully designed containers which would be launched at a suitable deep ocean site where they would fall freely through the water and would embed themselves completely within the seabed sediments. Radiological protection would be provided by a multi-barrier system including the vitrified waste form, the penetrator containment, the covering sediment and the ocean. Calculations and demonstration have shown that penetrators could easily achieve embedment depths in excess of 30m and preliminary radiological assessments indicate that 30m of intact sediment would be an effective barrier for radionuclide isolation. The study concludes that a 75mm thickness of low carbon steel appears to be sufficient to provide a containment life of 500 to 1000 years during which time the waste heat output would have decayed to an insignificant level. Disposal costs have been assessed. (author)

  2. Methodology for safety assessment of near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateeva, M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the work is to present the conceptual model of the methodology of safety assessment of near-surface radioactive disposal facilities. The widely used mathematical models and approaches are presented. The emphasis is given on the mathematical models and approaches, which are applicable for the conditions in our country. The different transport models for analysis and safety assessment of migration processes are presented. The parallel between the Mixing-Cell Cascade model and model of Finite-Differences is made. In the methodology the basic physical and chemical processes and events, concerning mathematical modelling of the flow and the transport of radionuclides from the Near Field to Far Field and Biosphere are analyzed. Suitable computer codes corresponding to the ideology and appropriate for implementing of the methodology are shown

  3. Safety assessment for the transportation of NECSA's LILW to the Vaalputs waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maphoto, K.P.; Raubenheimer, E.; Swart, H. [Nuclear Liabilities Management, NECSA, P O Box 582, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    The transport safety assessment was carried out with a view to assess the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the radioactive materials. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with the envisaged transport scenarios for the road transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of LILW along the R563 route, N14 and eventually to the Vaalputs National Waste Disposal Facility. Various parameters are needed by the RADTRAN code in calculating the human health impact and risk. These include: numbers of population densities following the routes undertaken, number of stops made, and the speed at which the transport will be traversing at towards the final destination. The human health impact with regard to the dose to the public, LCF and risk associated with transportation of Necsa's LILW to the Vaalputs Waste Disposal Facility by road have been calculated using RADTRAN 5 code. The results for both accident and incident free scenarios have shown that the overall risks are insignificant and can be associated with any non-radiological transportation. (authors)

  4. Application of biosphere models in the Biomosa project: a comparative assessment of five European radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowe, R.; Mobbs, S.; Proehl, G.; Bergstrom, U.; Kanyar, B.; Olyslaegers, G.; Zeevaert, T.; Simon, I.

    2004-01-01

    The BIOMOSA (Biosphere Models for Safety Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal) project is a part of the EC fifth framework research programme. The main goal of this project is the improvement of the scientific basis for the application of biosphere models in the framework of long-term safety studies of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Furthermore, the outcome of the project will provide operators and regulatory bodies with guidelines for performance assessments of repository systems. The study focuses on the development and application of site-specific models and a generic biosphere tool BIOGEM (Biosphere Generic Model), using the experience from the national programmes and the IAEA BIOMASS reference biosphere methodology. The models were applied to 5 typical locations in the EU, resulting in estimates of the annual individual doses to the critical groups and the ranking of the importance of the pathways for each of the sites. The results of the site-specific and generic models were then compared. In all cases the doses calculated by the generic model were less than the doses obtained from the site-specific models. Uncertainty in the results was estimated by means of stochastic calculations which allow a comparison of the overall model uncertainty with the variability across the different sites considered. (author)

  5. Classification and disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical development in the U.S. of definitions and requirements for permanent disposal of different classes of radioactive waste. We first consider the descriptions of different waste classes that were developed prior to definitions in laws and regulations. These descriptions usually were not based on requirements for permanent disposal but, rather, on the source of the waste and requirements for safe handling and storage. We then discuss existing laws and regulations for disposal of different waste classes. Current definitions of waste classes are largely qualitative, and thus somewhat ambiguous, and are based primarily on the source of the waste rather than the properties of its radioactive constituents. Furthermore, even though permanent disposal is clearly recognized as the ultimate goal of radioactive water management, current laws and regulations do not associated the definitions of different waste classes with requirement for particular disposal systems. Thus, requirements for waste disposal essentially are unaffected by ambiguities in the present waste classification system

  6. 1984 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The 1984 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,429 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 600,909 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1984. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 displays typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector. Table 3 presents predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear and US Ecology for each state. Figure 1 displays the disposal capacity remaining at Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty commercial disposal sites as of December 31, 1984. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste and effluent reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Where reported data were not available, data were obtained by communication with the utility. Non-reactor waste volumes are actual amounts recorded as received at the commercial waste repositories in 1984. Waste categories are defined as academic, medical, government, and industrial. Academic includes university hospitals and medical and nonmedical research facilities. The medical category includes hospitals and clinics, research facilities, and private medical offices. The industrial category includes private entities such as research and development companies, manufacturers, nondestructive testing, mining, and radiopharmaceutical manufacturers. Government includes state and federal agencies. Data from previous publications were also used as a comparison. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Preliminary assessments for disposal of high-level waste within small islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.L.; Li, S.H.; Yu, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes, for the final disposal of high-level waste (HLW), the possibility of a repository sited below the fresh/saline groundwater interface within islet rock formations. Because of their relatively stable tectonics, the offshore islets of some countries (such as those of Taiwan) are worthy of being considered as potential repository sites. Before the emplacement of radwastes in such a repository, however, the mass exchange across the fresh/saline groundwater interface must be limited and the horizontal movement of advective saline ground-water must be extremely low. Theoretical equations for the location and shape of the interface are derived. When radwastes are buried in rock formations, the temperature effect of the decay heat could cause buoyant convection flow of saline groundwater upward across the groundwater interface. This could carry released radionuclides across the groundwater interface to upper formation layers where fresh groundwater flows. The radionuclides could then be carried by the fresh groundwater to the sea. Although basic HLW repository designs should eliminate the significance of this temperature effect, it is incorporated into this preliminary analysis for the purpose of conservative estimations

  8. Source term for the bounding assessment of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavelle, P.

    1996-02-01

    This is the second in a series to derive the bounds of the post-closure hazard of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, based on the premise that it is unnecessary to predict accurately the real hazard if the bounding hazard can be shown to be acceptable. In this report a reference used (Bruce A fuel, 865 GJ/kgU average burnup) is used to derive the source term for contaminant releases from the emplacement canisters. This requires development of a container failure function which defines the age of the fuel when the canister is perforated and flooded. The source term is expressed as the time-dependent fractional release rate from the used fuel or as the time-dependent contaminant concentrations in the canister porewater. It is derived as the superposition of an instant release, comprising the upper bound of the gap and grain boundary inventory in the used fuel, and the long-term dissolution of the used fuel matrix. Several dissolution models (stoichiometric dissolution/preferential leaching) under different conditions (matrix solubility limited/ unlimited; oxidizing/ reducing solubility limits; groundwater flow/ no flow) are evaluated and the one resulting in the highest release rate/ highest porewater concentration is adopted as the bounding case. Comparisons between the models are made on the basis of the potential ingestion hazard of the canister porewater, to account for differences in the hazard of different radionuclides. (author) 20 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  9. Shallow disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    A review and evaluation of computer codes capable of simulating the various processes that are instrumental in determining the dose rate to individuals resulting from the shallow disposal of radioactive waste was conducted. Possible pathways of contamination, as well as the mechanisms controlling radionuclide movement along these pathways have been identified. Potential transport pathways include the unsaturated and saturated ground water systems, surface water bodies, atmospheric transport and movement (and accumulation) in the food chain. Contributions to dose may occur as a result of ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and immersion in contaminated air/water. Specific recommendations were developed regarding the selection and modification of a model to meet the needs associated with the prediction of dose rates to individuals as a consequence of shallow radioactive waste disposal. Specific technical requirements with regards to risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have been addressed

  10. Method of disposing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Kei.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To enable safety ocean disposal of radioactive wastes by decreasing the leaching rate of radioactive nucleides, improving the quick-curing nature and increasing the durability. Method : A mixture comprising 2 - 20 parts by weight of alkali metal hydroxide and 100 parts by weight of finely powdered aqueous slags from a blast furnace is added to radioactive wastes to solidify them. In the case of medium or low level radioactive wastes, the solidification agent is added by 200 parts by weight to 100 parts by weight of the wastes and, in the case of high level wastes, the solidification agent is added in such an amount that the wastes occupy about 20% by weight in the total of the wastes and the solidification agent. Sodium hydroxide used as the alkali metal hydroxide is partially replaced with sodium carbonate, a water-reducing agent such as lignin sulfonate is added to improve the fluidity and suppress the leaching rate and the wastes are solidified in a drum can. In this way, corrosions of the vessel can be suppressed by the alkaline nature and the compression strength, heat stability and the like of the product also become excellent. (Sekiya, K.)

  11. Nuclear waste disposal: Gambling on Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsburg, S.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the historical aspects of nuclear energy ,nuclear weapons usage, and development of the nuclear bureaucracy in the United States, and discusses the selection and siting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a federal nuclear waste repository. Litigation regarding the site selection and resulting battles in the political arena and in the Nevada State Legislature are also presented. Alternative radioactive waste disposal options, risk assessments of the Yucca Mountain site, and logistics regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste are also presented. This document also contains an extensive bibliography

  12. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1995-10-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK).

  13. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK)

  14. Conclusions on the two technical panels on HLW-disposal and waste treatment processes respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkespiller, J.A.; Dejonghe, P.; Feates, F.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reports the concluding panel session at the European Community Conference on radioactive waste management and disposal, Luxembourg 1985. The panel considered the conclusions of two preceeding technical panels on high level waste (HLW) disposal and waste treatment processes. Geological disposal of HLW, waste management, safety assessment of waste disposal, public opinion, public acceptance of the manageability of radioactive wastes, international cooperation, and waste management in the United States, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Seminar on waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow; Snihs, Jan Olof

    1999-01-01

    Leading abstract. A seminar on radioactive waste treatment and disposal was held 9 - 14 November 1998 in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective of the seminar was to exchange information on national and international procedures, practices and requirements for waste management. This information exchange was intended to promote the development of a suitable strategy for management of radioactive waste in Northwest Russia to be used as background for future co-operation in the region. The seminar focused on (1) overviews of international co-operation in the waste management field and national systems for waste management, (2) experiences from treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, (3) the process of determining the options for final disposal of radioactive waste, (4) experiences from performance assessments and safety analysis for repositories intended for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, (5) safety of storage and disposal of high-level waste. The seminar was jointly organised and sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) and the European Commission. A Russian version of the report is available. In brief, the main conclusions are: (1) It is the prerogative of the Russian federal Government to devise and implement a waste management strategy without having to pay attention to the recommendations of the meeting, (2) Some participants consider that many points have already been covered in existing governmental documents, (3) Norway and Sweden would like to see a strategic plan in order to identify how and where to co-operate best, (4) There is a rigorous structure of laws in place, based on over-arching environmental laws, (5) Decommissioning of submarines is a long and complicated task, (6) There are funds and a desire for continued Norway/Sweden/Russia co-operation, (7) Good co-operation is already taking place

  16. Seminar on waste treatment and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow; Snihs, Jan Olof

    1999-07-01

    Leading abstract. A seminar on radioactive waste treatment and disposal was held 9 - 14 November 1998 in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective of the seminar was to exchange information on national and international procedures, practices and requirements for waste management. This information exchange was intended to promote the development of a suitable strategy for management of radioactive waste in Northwest Russia to be used as background for future co-operation in the region. The seminar focused on (1) overviews of international co-operation in the waste management field and national systems for waste management, (2) experiences from treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, (3) the process of determining the options for final disposal of radioactive waste, (4) experiences from performance assessments and safety analysis for repositories intended for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, (5) safety of storage and disposal of high-level waste. The seminar was jointly organised and sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) and the European Commission. A Russian version of the report is available. In brief, the main conclusions are: (1) It is the prerogative of the Russian federal Government to devise and implement a waste management strategy without having to pay attention to the recommendations of the meeting, (2) Some participants consider that many points have already been covered in existing governmental documents, (3) Norway and Sweden would like to see a strategic plan in order to identify how and where to co-operate best, (4) There is a rigorous structure of laws in place, based on over-arching environmental laws, (5) Decommissioning of submarines is a long and complicated task, (6) There are funds and a desire for continued Norway/Sweden/Russia co-operation, (7) Good co-operation is already taking place.

  17. Waste convention regulatory impact on planning safety assessment for LILW disposal in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.; Subasic, D.; Lokner, V.

    2000-01-01

    Preparations for establishment of a LILW repository in Croatia have reached a point where a preliminary safety assessment for the prospective facility is being planned. The planning is not based upon the national regulatory framework, which does not require such an assessment at this early stage, but upon the interagency BSS and the IAEA RADWASS programme recommendations because the national regulations are being revised with express purpose to conform to the most recent international standards and good practices. The Waste Convention, which Croatia has ratified in the meantime, supports this approach in principle, but does not appear to have more tangible regulatory relevance for the safety assessment planning. Its actual requirements regarding safety analyses for a repository fall short of the specific assessment concepts practiced in this decade, and could have well been met by the old Croatian regulations from the mid-eighties. (author)

  18. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

  19. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the open-quotes Disposal Room Model,close quotes describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized

  20. Assessment of Geochemical Environment for the Proposed INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Craig Cooper

    2011-11-01

    Conservative sorption parameters have been estimated for the proposed Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility. This analysis considers the influence of soils, concrete, and steel components on water chemistry and the influence of water chemistry on the relative partitioning of radionuclides over the life of the facility. A set of estimated conservative distribution coefficients for the primary media encountered by transported radionuclides has been recommended. These media include the vault system, concrete-sand-gravel mix, alluvium, and sedimentary interbeds. This analysis was prepared to support the performance assessment required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management.' The estimated distribution coefficients are provided to support release and transport calculations of radionuclides from the waste form through the vadose zone. A range of sorption parameters are provided for each key transport media, with recommended values being conservative. The range of uncertainty has been bounded through an assessment of most-likely-minimum and most-likely-maximum distribution coefficient values. The range allows for adequate assessment of mean facility performance while providing the basis for uncertainty analysis.

  1. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2001-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued.

  2. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued

  3. Inventory of radioactive waste disposals at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    The IAEA was requested by the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972) to develop and maintain an inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment from all sources. The rationale for having such an inventory is related to its use as an information base with which the impact of radionuclides from different sources entering the marine environment can be assessed and compared. To respond to the request of the London Convention, the IAEA has undertaken the development of the inventory to include: disposal at sea of radioactive wastes, and accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive materials. This report addresses disposal at sea of radioactive waste, a practice which continued from 1946 to 1993. It is a revision of IAEA-TECDOC-588, Inventory of Radioactive Material Entering the Marine Environment: Sea Disposal of Radioactive Waste, published in 1991. In addition to the data already published in IAEA-TECDOC-588, the present publication includes detailed official information on sea disposal operations carried out by the former Soviet Union and the Russian Federation provided in 1993 as well as additional information provided by Sweden in 1992 and the United Kingdom in 1997 and 1998

  4. Radioecological activity limits for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmet, E. Osmanlioglu

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Near surface disposal is an option used by many countries for the disposal of radioactive waste containing mainly short lived radionuclides. Near surface disposal term includes broad range of facilities from simple trenches to concrete vaults. Principally, disposal of radioactive waste requires the implementation of measures that will provide safety for human health and environment now and in the future. For this reason preliminary activity limits should be determined to avoid radioecological problems. Radioactive waste has to be safely disposed in a regulated manner, consistent with internationally agreed principles and standards and with national legislations to avoid serious radioecological problems. The purpose of this study, presents a safety assessment approach to derive operational and post-closure radioecological activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste. Disposal system has three components; the waste, the facility (incl. engineered barriers) and the site (natural barriers). Form of the waste (unconditioned or conditioned) is effective at the beginning of the migration scenerio. Existence of the engineered barriers in the facility will provide long term isolation of the waste from environment. The site characteristics (geology, groundwater, seismicity, climate etc.) are important for the safety of the system. Occupational exposure of a worker shall be controlled so that the following dose limits are not exceeded: an effective dose of 20mSv/y averaged over 5 consecutive years; and an effective dose of 50mSv in any single year. The effective dose limit for members of the public recommended by ICRP and IAEA is 1 mSv/y for exposures from all man-made sources [1,2]. Dose constraints are typically a fraction of the dose limit and ICRP recommendations (0.3 mSv/y) could be applied [3,4]. Radioecological activity concentration limits of each radionuclide in the waste (Bq/kg) were calculated. As a result of this study radioecological activity

  5. Preliminary assessment of the radiological protection aspects of disposal of high-level waste in geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D; Grimwood, P.D.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to carry out a preliminary assessment of the potential radiological consequences of disposing of vitrified high-level radioactive waste in geologic formations. The events which could lead to the release of radioactivity from a geologic repository are reviewed and ingress of ground-water is identified as the principal mechanism by which radioactivity may be transported back to the biosphere. A mathematical model of radionuclide migration with ground-water is used to predict possible rates of release of radioactivity into fresh water from a hypothetical repository containing all the high-level waste which may be generated in the UK up to the year 2000. The individual and collective doses which could be received as a result of man's use of contaminated fresh water are evaluated. The numerical results of the study depend very much on the assumptions made and cannot be used to draw any detailed conclusions. The main result is the identification of areas where further studies are required in order to carry out a full evaluation of this disposal option. (author)

  6. Commercial mixed waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    At the South Clive, Utah, site, Envirocare of Utah, Inc., (Envirocare), currently operates a commercial low-activity, low-level radioactive waste facility, a mixed waste RCRA Part B storage and disposal facility, and an 11e.(2) disposal facility. Envirocare is also in the process of constructing a Mixed Waste Treatment Facility. As the nation's first and only commercial treatment and disposal facility for such waste, the information presented in this segment will provide insight into their current and prospective operations

  7. Specified radioactive waste final disposal act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masaya

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive wastes must be finally and safely disposed far from human activities. Disposal act is a long-range task and needs to be understood and accepted by public for site selection. This paper explains basic policy of Japanese Government for final disposal act of specified radioactive wastes, examination for site selection guidelines to promote residential understanding, general concept of multi-barrier system for isolating the specific radioactive wastes, and research and technical development for radioactive waste management. (S. Ohno)

  8. An Updated Performance Assessment For A New Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility In West Texas - 12192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornsife, William P.; Kirk, J. Scott; Shaw, Chris G. [Waste Control Specialists LLC, Andrews, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This Performance Assessment (PA) submittal is an update to the original PA that was developed to support the licensing of the Waste Control Specialists LLC Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal facility. This update includes both the Compact Waste Facility (CWF) and the Federal Waste Facility (FWF), in accordance with Radioactive Material License (RML) No. R04100, License Condition (LC) 87. While many of the baseline assumptions supporting the initial license application PA were incorporated in this update, a new transport code, GoldSim, and new deterministic groundwater flow codes, including HYDRUS and MODFLOWSURFACT{sup TM}, were employed to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives codified in the regulations and RML No. R04100, LC 87. A revised source term, provided by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality staff, was used to match the initial 15 year license term. This updated PA clearly confirms and demonstrates the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and the advanced engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public and site workers predicted in the initial and updated PA were a small fraction of the criterion doses of 0.25 mSv and 50 mSv, respectively. In a comparison between the results of the updated PA against the one developed in support of the initial license, both clearly demonstrated the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public predicted in the initial and updated PA were a fraction of the allowable 25 mrem/yr (0.25 m sievert/yr) dose standard for tens-of-thousands of years into the future. Draft Texas guidance on performance assessment (TCEQ, 2004) recommends a period of analysis equal to 1,000 years or until peak doses from

  9. Nuclear waste management: storage and disposal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.D.; Dave, S.A.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Long-term disposal of nuclear wastes must resolve difficulties arising chiefly from the potential for contamination of the environment and the risk of misuse. Alternatives available for storage and disposal of wastes are examined in this overview paper. Guidelines and criteria which may govern in the development of methods of disposal are discussed

  10. The use of safety indicators, complementary to dose and risk, in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gera, F.; Vovk, I.; Wingefors, S.

    1998-01-01

    The use of safety indicators, other than dose and risk, to complement the safety assessment of disposal systems for radioactive waste, is not a new idea. Several possible approaches have been proposed through the years, including a discussion in an IAEA document of 1994. The present paper reviews critically the various proposed indicators, identifies the most promising ones and suggests a possible approach for the assessment of their viability. In particular it suggests that a Coordinated Research Project should be organized with the main objectives of assembling, reviewing and generating the necessary scientific information on natural values, particularly fluxes and concentrations of pollutants, and on their impacts on public health and environmental quality. (author)

  11. Regulatory criteria for final disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petraitis, E.; Ciallella, N.; Siraky, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes briefly the legislative and regulatory framework in which the final disposal of radioactive wastes is carried out in Argentina. It also presents the criteria developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) to assess the long-term safety of final disposal systems for high level radioactive wastes. (author)

  12. The potential of natural analogues in assessing systems for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-08-01

    Many of the processes which will lead to the breakdown of engineered barriers and the mobilisation of radionuclides in a deep waste repository have analogies in natural geological systems. These 'natural analogues' are seen as a particularly important means of validating predictive models, under the broad heading of radionuclide migration, which are used in long-term safety analyses. Their principal value is the opportunity they provide to examine processes occurring over geological timescales, hence allowing more confident extrapolation of short timescales experimental data. This report begins by reviewing the processes leading to breakdown of containment in a high-level radioactive waste repository in crystalline bedrock and the subsequent migration mechanisms for radionuclides back to the biosphere. Nine specific processes are identified as being of the most significance in migration models, based on available sensitivity analyses. Existing studies are assessed and possibilities considered for additional analogues. Conclusions are drawn for each process as to the extent to which analogues validate current predictions on scale and effect, longevity of function, etc. Where possible, quantitative evaluations are given, derived from analogue studies. A considerable amount of the information reviewed and presented could be used in the assessment of disposal of other waste types in other host rocks. (Auth.)

  13. Ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The activities developed by the Federal Institution of Physical Engineering PTB and by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) concentrated, among others, on work to implement ultimate storage facilities for radioactive wastes. The book illuminates this development from site designation to the preliminary evaluation of the Gorleben salt dome, to the preparation of planning documents proving that the Konrad ore mine is suitable for a repository. The paper shows the legal provisions involved; research and development tasks; collection of radioactive wastes ready for ultimate disposal; safety analysis in the commissioning and post-operational stages, and product control. The historical development of waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation in this area are outlined. (DG) [de

  14. Environmental Modeling and Bayesian Analysis for Assessing Human Health Impacts from Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, T.; Black, P.; Tauxe, J.; Catlett, K.

    2004-12-01

    Bayesian decision analysis provides a unified framework for coherent decision-making. Two key components of Bayesian decision analysis are probability distributions and utility functions. Calculating posterior distributions and performing decision analysis can be computationally challenging, especially for complex environmental models. In addition, probability distributions and utility functions for environmental models must be specified through expert elicitation, stakeholder consensus, or data collection, all of which have their own set of technical and political challenges. Nevertheless, a grand appeal of the Bayesian approach for environmental decision- making is the explicit treatment of uncertainty, including expert judgment. The impact of expert judgment on the environmental decision process, though integral, goes largely unassessed. Regulations and orders of the Environmental Protection Agency, Department Of Energy, and Nuclear Regulatory Agency orders require assessing the impact on human health of radioactive waste contamination over periods of up to ten thousand years. Towards this end complex environmental simulation models are used to assess "risk" to human and ecological health from migration of radioactive waste. As the computational burden of environmental modeling is continually reduced probabilistic process modeling using Monte Carlo simulation is becoming routinely used to propagate uncertainty from model inputs through model predictions. The utility of a Bayesian approach to environmental decision-making is discussed within the context of a buried radioactive waste example. This example highlights the desirability and difficulties of merging the cost of monitoring, the cost of the decision analysis, the cost and viability of clean up, and the probability of human health impacts within a rigorous decision framework.

  15. Assessment of health-care waste disposal methods using a VIKOR-based fuzzy multi-criteria decision making method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu-Chen; Wu, Jing; Li, Ping

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays selection of the appropriate treatment method in health-care waste (HCW) management has become a challenge task for the municipal authorities especially in developing countries. Assessment of HCW disposal alternatives can be regarded as a complicated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem which requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and conflicting tangible and intangible criteria. The objective of this paper is to present a new MCDM technique based on fuzzy set theory and VIKOR method for evaluating HCW disposal methods. Linguistic variables are used by decision makers to assess the ratings and weights for the established criteria. The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group assessment. The computational procedure of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study in Shanghai, one of the largest cities of China. The HCW treatment alternatives considered in this study include "incineration", "steam sterilization", "microwave" and "landfill". The results obtained using the proposed approach are analyzed in a comparative way. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Development of SAGE, A computer code for safety assessment analyses for Korean Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W.; Kozak, Matthew W.; Park, Joowan; Kim, Changlak; Kang, Chulhyung

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a computer code, called SAGE (Safety Assessment Groundwater Evaluation) to be used for evaluation of the concept for low-level waste disposal in the Republic of Korea (ROK). The conceptual model in the code is focused on releases from a gradually degrading engineered barrier system to an underlying unsaturated zone, thence to a saturated groundwater zone. Doses can be calculated for several biosphere systems including drinking contaminated groundwater, and subsequent contamination of foods, rivers, lakes, or the ocean by that groundwater. The flexibility of the code will permit both generic analyses in support of design and site development activities, and straightforward modification to permit site-specific and design-specific safety assessments of a real facility as progress is made toward implementation of a disposal site. In addition, the code has been written to easily interface with more detailed codes for specific parts of the safety assessment. In this way, the code's capabilities can be significantly expanded as needed. The code has the capability to treat input parameters either deterministic ally or probabilistic ally. Parameter input is achieved through a user-friendly Graphical User Interface.

  17. Development of a computer code for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. W.; Kim, C. L.; Lee, E. Y.; Lee, Y. M.; Kang, C. H.; Zhou, W.; Kozak, M. W.

    2002-01-01

    A safety assessment code, called SAGE (Safety Assessment Groundwater Evaluation), has been developed to describe post-closure radionuclide releases and potential radiological doses for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal in an engineered vault facility in Korea. The conceptual model implemented in the code is focused on the release of radionuclide from a gradually degrading engineered barrier system to an underlying unsaturated zone, thence to a saturated groundwater zone. The radionuclide transport equations are solved by spatially discretizing the disposal system into a series of compartments. Mass transfer between compartments is by diffusion/dispersion and advection. In all compartments, radionuclides are decayed either as a single-member chain or as multi-member chains. The biosphere is represented as a set of steady-state, radionuclide-specific pathway dose conversion factors that are multiplied by the appropriate release rate from the far field for each pathway. The code has the capability to treat input parameters either deterministically or probabilistically. Parameter input is achieved through a user-friendly Graphical User Interface. An application is presented, which is compared against safety assessment results from the other computer codes, to benchmark the reliability of system-level conceptual modeling of the code

  18. Mine waste disposal and managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young Wook; Min, Jeong Sik; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Kim, Ok Hwan; Kim, In Kee; Song, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) is the product formed by the atmospheric oxidation of the relatively common pyrite and pyrrhotite. Waste rock dumps and tailings containing sulfide mineral have been reported at toxic materials producing ARD. Mining in sulphide bearing rock is one of activity which may lead to generation and release of ARD. ARD has had some major detrimental affects on mining areas. The purpose of this study was carried out to develop disposal method for preventing contamination of water and soil environment by waste rocks dump and tailings, which could discharge the acid drainage with high level of metals. Scope of this study was as following: environmental impacts by mine wastes, geochemical characteristics such as metal speciation, acid potential and paste pH of mine wastes, interpretation of occurrence of ARD underneath tailings impoundment, analysis of slope stability of tailings dam etc. The following procedures were used as part of ARD evaluation and prediction to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from mine wastes under natural precipitation: analysis of water and mine wastes, Acid-Base accounting, sequential extraction technique and measurement of lime requirement etc. In addition, computer modelling was applied for interpretation of slope stability od tailings dam. (author). 44 refs., 33 tabs., 86 figs.

  19. An assessment of overseas developments in methods for treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1982-10-01

    The principles of management and disposal of highly radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel from nuclear power generation are described. The status of developments in spent fuel reprocessing, high-level waste solidificaton and geologic isolation is reviewed. Some generic studies on the possible range of annual radiological doses to individuals from waste repositories are discussed and compared with doses from some existing nuclear power and fuel cycle operations, and with the dose received annually from an average background of naturally occurring radiation

  20. 1981 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    This state-by-state report again uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the nation baseline figure. A volume of 87,789 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 279,863 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1981. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1 and a summary of estimated volumes by generator categories is contained in Table 2. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Data reported for the calendar year 1981 were used for this report where available. When report data were not available reactor information was obtained directly from the utility. The reported quantities of solid radioactive wastes generated by government installations shipped to commercial disposal sites are annually summarized in the SWIMS report. Records of radioactive wastes shippped to commercial disposal sites from the US Navy nuclear-powered ships and support facilities are maintained by the Nuclear Power Directorate, Naval Sea Systems Command, Department of the Navy, and are reported on an annual basis. Available information from other military departments such as the Army and the Air Force were included in this study. Wastes from these other military commands do not constitute a significant volume of radioactive source

  1. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-01-01

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information

  2. Safety cases for the co-ordinated research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (ISAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Torres-Vidal, C.; Kelly, E.; Guskov, A.; Blerk, J. van

    2002-01-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) has recently been completed on the Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM). A major aspect of the project was the use of safety cases for the practical application of safety assessment. An overview of the ISAM safety cases is given in this paper. (author)

  3. The potential of natural analogues in assessing systems for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; McKinley, I.G.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-08-01

    Many of the processes which will lead to the breakdown of engineered barriers and the mobilization of radionuclides in a deep waste repository have analogies in natural geological systems. These 'natural analogues' are seen as a particularly important means of validating predictive models, under the broad heading of radionuclide migration, which are used in long-term safety analyses. Their principal value is the opportunity they provide to examine processes occurring over geological timescales, hence allowing more confident extrapolation of short timescales experimental data. This report begins by reviewing the processes leading to breakdown of containment in a high-level radioactive waste repository in crystalline bedrock and the subsequent migration mechanisms for radionuclides back to the biosphere. Nine specific processes are identified as being of the most significance in migration models, based on available sensitivity analyses. These processes are considered separately in detail, reviewing first the mechanisms involved and the most important unknown then the types of natural analogue which could most usefully provide supporting evidence for the effects of the process. Conclusions are drawn, for each process as to the extent to which analogues validate current predictions on scale and effect, longevity of function, etc. Where possible, quantitative evaluations are given, derived from analogue studies. A summary is provided of the conclusions for each process, and the most important topics for further studies are listed. Specific examples of these requisite analogues are given. The report emphasises throughout the importance of linking analogues to well defined processes, concluding that analogues of complete disposal systems do not exist. The results are seen to be widely applicable. A considerable amount of the information reviewed and presented could be used in the assessment of disposal of other waste types in other host rocks. (Author)

  4. Oceanography related to deep sea waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In connection with studies on the feasibility of the safe disposal of radioactive waste, from a large scale nuclear power programme, either on the bed of the deep ocean or within the deep ocean bed, preparation of the present document was commissioned by the (United Kingdom) Department of the Environment. It attempts (a) to summarize the present state of knowledge of the deep ocean environment relevant to the disposal options and assess the processes which could aid or hinder dispersal of material released from its container; (b) to identify areas of research in which more work is needed before the safety of disposal on, or beneath, the ocean bed can be assessed; and (c) to indicate which areas of research can or should be undertaken by British scientists. The programmes of international cooperation in this field are discussed. The report is divided into four chapters dealing respectively with geology and geophysics, geochemistry, physical oceanography and marine biology. (U.K.)

  5. Application of the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment to a generic high-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueero, A.; Pinedo, P.; Simon, I.; Cancio, D.; Moraleda, M.; Trueba, C.; Perez-Sanchez, D.

    2008-01-01

    A methodological approach which includes conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools have been developed in the Spanish context, based on the BIOMASS 'Reference Biospheres Methodology'. The biosphere assessments have to be undertaken with the aim of demonstrating compliance with principles and regulations established to limit the possible radiological impact of radioactive waste disposals on human health and on the environment, and to ensure that future generations will not be exposed to higher radiation levels than those that would be acceptable today. The biosphere in the context of high-level waste disposal is defined as the collection of various radionuclide transfer pathways that may result in releases into the surface environment, transport within and between the biosphere receptors, exposure of humans and biota, and the doses/risks associated with such exposures. The assessments need to take into account the complexity of the biosphere, the nature of the radionuclides released and the long timescales considered. It is also necessary to make assumptions related to the habits and lifestyle of the exposed population, human activities in the long term and possible modifications of the biosphere. A summary on the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment are presented here as well as its application in a Spanish generic case study. A reference scenario has been developed based on current conditions at a site located in Central-West Spain, to indicate the potential impact to the actual population. In addition, environmental change has been considered qualitatively through the use of interaction matrices and transition diagrams. Unit source terms of 36 Cl, 79 Se, 99 Tc, 129 I, 135 Cs, 226 Ra, 231 Pa, 238 U, 237 Np and 239 Pu have been taken. Two exposure groups of infants and adults have been chosen for dose calculations. Results are presented and their robustness is evaluated through the use of uncertainty and sensitivity

  6. Application of the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment to a generic high-level waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Simón, I; Cancio, D; Moraleda, M; Trueba, C; Pérez-Sánchez, D

    2008-09-15

    A methodological approach which includes conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools have been developed in the Spanish context, based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology". The biosphere assessments have to be undertaken with the aim of demonstrating compliance with principles and regulations established to limit the possible radiological impact of radioactive waste disposals on human health and on the environment, and to ensure that future generations will not be exposed to higher radiation levels than those that would be acceptable today. The biosphere in the context of high-level waste disposal is defined as the collection of various radionuclide transfer pathways that may result in releases into the surface environment, transport within and between the biosphere receptors, exposure of humans and biota, and the doses/risks associated with such exposures. The assessments need to take into account the complexity of the biosphere, the nature of the radionuclides released and the long timescales considered. It is also necessary to make assumptions related to the habits and lifestyle of the exposed population, human activities in the long term and possible modifications of the biosphere. A summary on the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment are presented here as well as its application in a Spanish generic case study. A reference scenario has been developed based on current conditions at a site located in Central-West Spain, to indicate the potential impact to the actual population. In addition, environmental change has been considered qualitatively through the use of interaction matrices and transition diagrams. Unit source terms of (36)Cl, (79)Se, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135)Cs, (226)Ra, (231)Pa, (238)U, (237)Np and (239)Pu have been taken. Two exposure groups of infants and adults have been chosen for dose calculations. Results are presented and their robustness is evaluated through the use of uncertainty and

  7. Scenarios of the TWRS low-level waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    As a result of past Department of Energy (DOE) weapons material production operations, Hanford now stores nuclear waste from processing facilities in underground tanks on the 200 Area plateau. An agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington state Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party Agreement, or TPA) establishes an enforceable schedule and a technical framework for recovering, processing, solidifying, and disposing of the Hanford tank wastes. The present plan includes retrieving the tank waste, pretreating the waste to separate into low level and high level streams, and converting both streams to a glass waste form. The low level glass will represent by far the largest volume and lowest quantity of radioactivity (i.e., large volume of waste chemicals) of waste requiring disposal. The low level glass waste will be retrievably stored in sub-surface disposal vaults for several decades. If the low level disposal system proves to be acceptable, the disposal site will be closed with the low level waste in place. If, however, at some time the disposal system is found to be unacceptable, then the waste can be retrieved and dealt with in some other manner. WHC is planning to emplace the waste so that it is retrievable for up to 50 years after completion of the tank waste processing. Acceptability of disposal of the TWRS low level waste at Hanford depends on technical, cultural, and political considerations. The Performance Assessment is a major part of determining whether the proposed disposal action is technically defensible. A Performance Assessment estimates the possible future impact to humans and the environment for thousands of years into the future. In accordance with the TPA technical strategy, WHC plans to design a near-surface facility suitable for disposal of the glass waste

  8. Radioactive waste disposal and political aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, M.

    1992-01-01

    The difficulties presented by the current atomic energy law for the nuclear waste disposal in Switzerland are shown. It is emphasised how important scientific information is in the political solutions for nuclear disposal

  9. The effects of preferential flow and soil texture on risk assessments of a NORM waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontedeiro, E.M.; Genuchten, M.Th. van; Cotta, R.M.; Simunek, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the environmental fate of radionuclide decay chains (specially the 238 U and 232 Th series) being released from a conventional mining installation processing ore containing natural occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). Contaminated waste at the site is being disposed off in an industrial landfill on top of a base of earth material to ensure integrity of the deposit over relatively long geologic times (thousands of years). Brazilian regulations, like those of many other countries, require a performance assessment of the disposal facility using a leaching and off-site transport scenario. We used for this purpose the HYDRUS-1D software package to predict long-term radionuclide transport vertically through both the landfill and the underlying unsaturated zone, and then laterally in groundwater. We assumed that a downgradient well intercepting groundwater was the only source of water for a resident farmer, and that all contaminated water from the well was somehow used in the biosphere. The risk assessment was carried out for both a best-case scenario assuming equilibrium transport in a fine-textured (clay) subsurface, and a worst-case scenario involving preferential flow through a more coarse-textured subsurface. Results show that preferential flow and soil texture both can have a major effect on the results, depending upon the specific radionuclide involved.

  10. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, R.; Aschenbach, J.; Hirsekom, R.P.; Nies, A.; Stelte, N.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in rock salt formations has been carried out. The first volume of the study is split into four tasks. Task 1 recalls the main steps that have led to the selection of the reference and the variant site. Task 2 condenses all information available on the rock formations which are planned to host the repository, the overlying geosphere and the geohistoric development of the sites. Task 3 states the technical details of repository planning, while in Task 4 conceivable release scenarios are discussed. Volume II (Tasks 5 to 10) is concerned with the modelling procedures. In Task 5 data for the waste inventory are collected and the selection of relevant nuclides for transport calculations is discussed. Task 6 gives the near-field modelling, i.e. the models for corrosion of the waste canisters, the degradation of the waste matrix and the models used for the HLW boreholes. Task 7 deals with the modelling of the repository. Its division into sections is discussed and models for physical and chemical effects taken into account in each section are presented. In Task 8 the modelling of the overburden is given. In Task 9 additional models for the subrosion scenario and a human intrusion scenario are given. Task 10 is concerned with the biosphere modelling. In Volume III results of deterministic and probabilistic calculations are presented. Task 11 gives the results for deterministic calculations with best estimate values for the parameters involved in the models. Task 12 presents the result of the uncertainty analysis, and Task 13 those of local and global sensitivity analyses followed by concluding remarks. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the

  11. Review of very low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinsheng; Guo Minli; Tian Hao; Teng Yanguo

    2005-01-01

    Very low level waste (VLLW) is a new type of radioactive wastes proposed recently. No widely acceptable definition and disposal rules have been established for it. This paper reviews the definition of VLLW in some countries where VLLW was researched early, as well as the disposal policies and methods of VLLW that the IAEA and these countries followed. In addition, the safety assessment programs for VLLW disposal are introduced. It is proved the research of VLLW is urgent and essential in china through the comparison of VLLW disposal between china and these counties. At last, this paper points out the future development of VLLW disposal research in China. (authors)

  12. Nuclear waste disposal: technology and environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, F.K.; Aikin, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; the nature and origin of wastes (fuel cycles; character of wastes; mining and milling operations; middle stages; irradiated fuel; reprocessing (waste generation); reactor wastes); disposal techniques and disposal of reprocessing wastes; siting of repositories; potential environmental impacts (impacts after emplacement in a rock repository; catastrophic effects; dispersion processes (by migrating ground water); thermal effects; future security; environmental survey, monitoring and modelling); conclusion. (U.K.)

  13. Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P.

    2012-01-01

    This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; and, large volume bulk waste streams

  14. Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were so...

  15. Social impacts of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    In this report an approach is developed for the assessment of socio-economic impacts from radioactive waste disposal. The approach provides recommendations on procedures to be used in identification and prediction of impacts. Two decision-aiding methods are also included. The first provides for the identification of key issues and the illustration of the trade-offs involved in the decision. Multi-attribute scoring and weighting techniques are then proposed for the illustration of impacts using quantitative measures. (author)

  16. Radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gera, F.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear energy controversy, now raging in several countries, is based on two main issues: the safety of nuclear plants and the possibility to dispose safely of the long-lived radioactive wastes. Consideration of the evolution of the hazard potential of waste in function of decay time leads to a somewhat conservative reference containment time in the order of one hundred thousand years. Several concepts have been proposed for the disposal of long-lived wastes. At the present time, emplacement into suitable geological formations under land areas can be considered the most promising disposal option. It is practically impossible to define detailed criteria to be followed in selecting suitable sites for disposal of long-lived wastes. Basically there is a single criterion, namely; that the geological environment must be able to contain the wastes for at least a hundred thousand years. However, due to the extreme variability of geological settings, it is conceivable that this basic capability could be provided by a great variety of different conditions. The predominant natural mechanism by which waste radionuclides could be moved from a sealed repository in a deep geological formation into the biosphere is leaching and transfer by ground water. Hence the greatest challenge is to give a satisfactory demonstration that isolation from ground water will persist over the required containment time. Since geological predictions are necessarily affected by fairly high levels of uncertainty, the only practical approach is not a straight-forward forecast of future geological events, but a careful assessment of the upper limits of geologic changes that could take place in the repository area over the next hundred thousand years. If waste containment were to survive these extreme geological changes the disposal site could be considered acceptable. If some release of activity were to take place in consequence of the hypothetical events the disposal solution might still be

  17. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  18. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  19. Shallow land disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The application of basic radiation protection concepts and objectives to the disposal of radioactive wastes requires the development of specific reference levels or criteria for the radiological acceptance of each type of waste in each disposal option. This report suggests a methodology for the establishment of acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing long-lived radionuclides in shallow land burial facilities

  20. Disposal of radioactive and other hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boge, R.; Bergman, C.; Bergvall, S.; Gyllander, C.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was discuss legal, scientific and practical aspects of disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste and other types of hazardous waste. During the workshop the non-radioactive wastes discussed were mainly wastes from energy production, but also industrial, chemical and household wastes. The workshop gave the participants the opportunity to exchange information on policies, national strategies and other important matters. A number of invited papers were presented and the participants brought background papers, describing the national situation, that were used in the working groups. One of the main aims of the workshop was to discuss if the same basic philosophy as that used in radiation protection could be used in the assessment of disposal of non-radioactive waste, as well as to come up with identifications of areas for future work and to propose fields for research and international cooperation. The main text of the report consists of a summary of the discussions and the conclusions reached by the workshop

  1. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James C; Thorne, Michael C; Towler, George; Norris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source-pathway-receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  2. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, James C; Towler, George; Thorne, Michael C; Norris, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source–pathway–receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  3. The chemistry of nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiles, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    About one-fifth of the world's supply of energy is derived from nuclear fission. While this important source of power avoids the environmental and resource problems of most other fuels, and although nuclear accident statistics are much less alarming, no other peacetime technology has evoked such public disquiet and impassioned feeling. Central to dealing with these fears is the management and disposal of radioactive waste. An expert Canadian panel in 1977 recommended permanent disposal of wastes in deep geological formations, providing a basis for subsequent policies and research. In 1988, the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office (FEARO) appointed a panel to assess the proposed disposal concepts and to recommend government policy. The panel in turn appointed a Scientific Review Group to examine the underlying science. Behind all these issues lay one central question: How well is the chemistry understood? This became the principal concern of Professor Donald Wiles, the senior nuclear chemist of the Scientific Review Group. In this book, Dr. Wiles carefully describes the nature of radioactivity and of nuclear power and discusses in detail the management of radioactive waste by the multi-barrier system, but also takes an unusual approach to assessing the risks. Using knowledge of the chemical properties of the various radionuclides in spent fuel, this book follows each of the important radionuclides as it travels through the many barriers placed in its path. It turns out that only two radionuclides are able to reach the biosphere, and they arrive at the earth's surface only after many thousands of years. A careful analysis of the critical points of the disposal plan emphasizes site rejection criteria and other stages at which particular care must be taken, demonstrating how dangers can be anticipated and putting to rest the fear of nuclear fuel waste and its geological burial

  4. ICRP guidance on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued recommendations for a system of radiological protection in 1991 as the 1990 Recommendations. Guidance on the application of these recommendations in the general area of waste disposal was issued in 1997 as Publication 77 and guidance specific to disposal of solid long-lived radioactive waste was issued as Publication 81. This paper summarises ICRP guidance in radiological protection requirements for waste disposal concentrating on the ones of relevance to the geological disposal of solid radioactive waste. Suggestions are made for areas where further work is required to apply the ICRP guidance. (author)

  5. Design, development and safety assessment of the IRUS repository for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.G.; Philipose, K.E.; Jarvis, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on a program underway at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) to proceed from the current practice of storage of low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) to permanent disposal. The strategy involved is to sort the LLRW into broad categories based on the duration of their hazard and to match each category to an appropriate disposal technology. Initially, work is concentrating on the development of a belowground vault, labeled as the intrusion-resistant underground structure (IRUS), suitable for wastes with a hazardous lifetime of 500 years or less

  6. The IAEA Biomass programme: reference biospheres for long-term safety assessment of high level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Phil; Crossland, Ian; Torres, Carlos; Crossland, Ian J.

    2002-01-01

    Phil Metcalf and Ian Crossland presented the IAEA Biomass project. Phil Metcalf explained that the Biomass project, begun in 1996, by an international forum organised by the IAEA was a very good exercise for exchanging information through technical meetings and documentation such as Biomass newsletters or CD Rom. Ian Crossland continued by giving a presentation of the Biomass theme 1 that concerns the radioactive waste disposal topic. Its objective was mainly to develop the reference biosphere methodology and to demonstrate its usefulness through some exercises related to the development of a practical set of example biospheres such as: 1. drinking water well, 2. agricultural irrigation, with a well source and 3. Set of natural groundwater discharges to natural, semi-natural systems. Input data would always change to accommodate a given repository simulation and location. Thus this project must be seen as a good exercise for the application of a methodology and should be considered as a good source of reference biospheres that might be viewed as a benchmark for comparison with site-specific safety assessments for a selected number of radionuclides. The main conclusion from the Biomass theme 1 project was that there appears to be an international consensus on preparing generic reference biospheres for postclosure safety assessment but waste management organisations should also consider the specific requirements of regulators and other stakeholders

  7. Radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation suitable for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1987-01-01

    It is planned to dispose of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation in the Konrad repository. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements are derived taking the results of site-specific safety assessments as a basis. These requirements must be fulfilled by the waste packages on delivery. The waste amounts which are currently stored and those anticipated up to the year 2000 are discussed. The disposability of these waste packages in the Konrad repository was evaluated. This examination reveals that basically almost all radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation can be accepted. (orig.) [de

  8. Radiological dose assessment of Department of Energy Pinellas Plant waste proposed for disposal at Laidlaw Environmental Services of South Carolina, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolof, M.L.; Lee, D.W.

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pinellas Plant in Largo, FL is proposing to ship and dispose of hazardous sludge, listed as F006 waste, to the Laidlaw Environmental Services of South Carolina, Inc. (Laidlaw) treatment, storage, and disposal facility in Pinewood, South Carolina. This sludge contains radioactive tritium in concentrations of about 28 pCi/g. The objective of this study is to assess the possible radiological impact to workers at the Laidlaw facility and members of the public due to the handling, processing, and burial of the DOE waste containing tritium

  9. Radiological dose assessment of Department of Energy Pinellas Plant waste proposed for disposal at Laidlaw Environmental Services of South Carolina, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolof, M.L.; Lee, D.W.

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pinellas Plant in Largo, FL is proposing to ship and dispose of hazardous sludge, listed as F006 waste, to the Laidlaw Environmental Services of South Carolina, Inc. (Laidlaw) treatment, storage, and disposal facility in Pinewood, South Carolina. This sludge contains radioactive tritium in concentrations of about 28 pCi/g. The objective of this study is to assess the possible radiological impact to workers at the Laidlaw facility and members of the public due to the handling, processing, and burial of the DOE waste containing tritium.

  10. A review of the predictive modelling and data requirements for the long-term safety assessment of the deep disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.

    1988-06-01

    This report considers the Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution research and modelling requirements for a robust post-closure radiological risk assessment methodology applicable to the deep disposal of Low-Level Wastes and Intermediate-Level Wastes. Two disposal concepts have been envisaged: horizontal tunnels or galleries in a low permeability stratum of a sedimentary sequence located inland; vertical boreholes or shafts up to 15m diameter lined with concrete and of the order 500m to 1000m deep sunk into the seabed within territorial coastal waters of the United Kingdom. (author)

  11. Nonlinear chemical sorption isotherms in the assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.R.; LeNeveu, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclides emplaced in an underground disposal vault can possibly migrate from the vault, and through the geosphere, to enter Man's environment. Chemical sorption is a primary mechanism for retarding this migration. The effects of nonlinear chemical sorption isotherms on radionuclide transport are discussed. A method is given by which nonlinear isotherms can be approximated by the linear sorption isotherm used in the vault submodel. The relevance of nonlinear isotherms to transport in the geosphere is discussed, and it is shown that the linear isotherm model is conservative for deep geologic disposal. 22 refs

  12. Derivation of activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    criteria for disposal of radioactive wastes to near surface facilities. These criteria are qualitative in nature and, for example, they do not address limitations on radionuclide content of waste, waste packages or the facility as a whole. This publication is to present an approach for establishing radiological waste acceptance criteria using a safety assessment methodology and to illustrate its application in establishing limits on the total activity and the activity concentrations of radioactive waste to be disposed in near surface disposal facilities. The approach makes use of accepted methods and computational schemes currently used in assessing the safety of near surface disposal facilities both during the operational and post-closure periods. The scope of this publication covers the use of safety assessment methodology to calculate total and specific activities limits for radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities. It is used to evaluate the potential operational and post-closure radiological impact of solid and solidified radioactive waste in near surface facilities. The radioactive waste types used to illustrate the approach range from waste containing radionuclides used for medical, industrial and research purposes to waste arising from nuclear fuel cycle activities. They also include waste arising from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The focus of the publication is on using of safety assessment methodology in derivation of quantitative radioactivity limits. This report deals with the role of activity limits in disposal system safety (Section 2), the relevant radiation protection criteria (Section 3), the approach to derive activity limits (Section 4), illustrations of the application of this approach (Section 5), and guidance on the use of the approach (Section 6)

  13. The International Intraval project: to study validation of geosphere transport models for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. Phase 1, summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    Intraval is an international project that addresses the validation of models of transport of radionuclides through groundwater in the geosphere. Such models are used in assessment of the long-term safety of nuclear waste disposal systems. The present report summarises the results for the test cases and presents some additional remarks

  14. Geological assessment of crystalline rock formations with a view to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Field work has been concentrated at the Altnabreac Research Site on north-east Scotland, where three deep boreholes to approximately 300 m and 24 shallow boreholes to approximately 40 m were drilled. The movement of groundwater within 300 m of the surface was investigated using a specially developed straddle packer system. Geochemical studies have demonstrated that most groundwater is dominated by recent recharge but one borehole yielded water with an age of around 10 4 years. Geophysical borehole logging has shown that the full wave train sonic logs and the acoustic logs show most promise for the assessment of crystalline rocks. In the laboratory the interaction of rocks and groundwater at the temperature/pressure conditions to be expected in a repository has established the geochemical environment to which waste canisters and backfill materials would be subjected. Other generic studies reported include the characterization of geotechnical properties of rocks at elevated temperatures and pressures, the development of a new cross-hole sinusoidal pressure test for the measurement of hydraulic properties and the use of thermal infra-red imagery to detect groundwater discharge zones

  15. Recent activity on disposal of uranium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Noboru

    1999-01-01

    The concept on the disposal of uranium waste has not been discussed in the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, but the research and development of it are carried out in the company and agency which are related to uranium waste. In this paper, the present condition and problems on disposal of uranium waste were shown in aspect of the nuclear fuel manufacturing companies' activity. As main contents, the past circumstances on the disposal of uranium waste, the past activity of nuclear fuel manufacturing companies, outline and properties of uranium waste were shown, and ideas of nuclear fuel manufacturing companies on the disposal of uranium waste were reported with disposal idea in the long-term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy. (author)

  16. Tritium waste disposal technology in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albenesius, E.L.; Towler, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references

  17. Radiation protection aspects of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.

    1992-01-01

    Waste disposal, particularly of high level waste and some alpha-waste, involves very long times of isolation from the biosphere. The basic radiation protection requirements of 'optimisation of protection' and 'limitation of individual risk' must be complemented with policy decisions regarding the level of ambition of protection for future individuals and populations. Decisions are also necessary for the risk assessments applicable to different time periods. These assessments include considerable uncertainty and determinations of compliance with regulatory requirements must contemplate a policy for taking account of such uncertainties. The paper deals with 'normal' scenarios and with disruptive events as mechanisms for the return of nuclides to the biosphere, in the framework of the Recommendations of the ICRP. (author)

  18. Pacoma: Performance assessment of the confinement of medium-active and alpha-bearing wastes. Assessment of disposal in a clay formation in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobbs, S.F.; Klos, R.A.; Martin, J.S.; Laurens, J.M.; Winters, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the PACOMA assessment of the radiological impact of disposal of intermediate level and alpha-bearing wastes in a hypothetical repository situated in the clay formations below the Harwell site in the United Kingdom. The assessment includes: best estimate calculations, uncertainty analyses, sensitivity analyses and model comparisons. Results of the radiological impact calculations are in the form of doses and risks to individuals and time-integrated doses to populations, for a normal evolution scenario and a number of altered evolution scenarios. The calculated risks to individuals are well below the limit recommended by the ICRP, and the calculated collective dose over the first 10,000 years after disposal is zero. Thus the radiological impact of the disposal intermediate level and alpha-bearing wastes in a clay formation is predicted to be small. The uncertainty analyses showed that, for the normal evolution scenario, the range of predicted risks to individuals is very wide. However, these results must be treated with caution because a formal methodology for eliciting judgments about model parameter values was only applied in the case of geosphere data. The sensitivity analyses and model comparisons indicated the need for improved models and data for water and radionuclide movement in the near-surface environment

  19. The International hydrocoin project. Groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, initiated the international cooperation project HYDROCOIN for the study of groundwater flow modelling in the context of radioactive waste disposal. The objective of HYDROCOIN was to improve knowledge of the influence of various strategies for groundwater flow modelling for the safety assessment of final repositories for radioactive wastes. The study comprised: the impact on the groundwater flow calculations of different solution algorithms, the capabilities of different models to describe field tests and bench-scale experiments, and the impact on the groundwater flow calculations of incorporating various physical phenomena. The work was conducted at three levels addressing code verification (Level 1), model validation (Level 2), and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of groundwater flow calculations (Level 3). This report gives an overview and summary of test cases of HYDROCOIN Level 1, the issue of validation groundwater flow models (HYDROCOIN Level 2), the methodologies used in uncertainty and sensitivity analysis (HYDROCOIN Level 3). 108 figs., 24 tabs., 2 appendices

  20. Research on advanced technology of performance assessment for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    JAEA and RWMC have carried out a joint research program on advanced technologies that could be used to support performance assessments of geological disposal concepts for high-level radioactive waste. The following 5 items were considered in the program: 1) planning of a basic strategy for the development of analysis technologies on nuclide migration over various spatial and temporal scales; 2) development of analysis technologies for vitrified waste scale; 3) development of analysis technologies for repository scale; 4) development of integration technologies for geochemical information; and 5) development of technologies to promote the logical understanding of repository performance and safety. The above items were discussed in the context of technological experiences gained by JAEA and RWMC in previous repository-related studies. According to the results of these discussions, development strategies for each of the technology areas identified above were efficiently formulated by appropriate task allocations. Specific technical subjects requiring further investigation were also identified using this approach, and potential feed-backs from the results of these investigations into the overall research plan and strategy were considered. These specific research and development subjects in the overall strategy defined by this project should be implemented in the future. (author)

  1. French surface disposal experience. The disposal of large waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, Michel; Lecoq, Pascal; Duret, Franck; Mandoki, Robert

    2006-01-01

    More than 90 percent of the volume of radioactive waste that are generated in France can be managed in surface disposal facilities. Two facilities are presently operated by ANDRA: the Centre de l'Aube disposal facility that is dedicated to low and intermediate short lived waste and the Morvilliers facility for very low level waste. The Centre de l'Aube facility was designed at the end of the years 1980 to replace the Centre de la Manche facility that ended operation in 1994. In order to achieve as low external exposure as possible for workers it was decided to use remote handling systems as much as possible. Therefore it was necessary to standardize the types of waste containers. But taking into account the fact that these waste were conditioned in existing facilities, it was not possible to change a major part of existing packages. As a consequence, 6 mobile roofs were constructed to handle 12 different types of waste packages in the disposal vaults. The scope of Centre de l'Aube was mainly to dispose operational waste. However some packages, as 5 or 10 m 3 metallic boxes, could be used for larger waste generated by decommissioning activities. The corresponding flow was supposed to be small. After the first years of operations, it appeared interesting to develop special procedures to dispose specific large waste in order to avoid external exposure costly cutting works in the generating facilities. A 40 m 3 box and a large remote handling device were disposed in vaults that were currently used for other types of packages. Such a technique could not be used for the disposal of vessel heads that were replaced in 55 pressurised water power reactors. The duration of disposal and conditioning operation was not compatible with the flow of standard packages that were delivered in the vaults. Therefore a specific type of vault was designed, including handling and conditioning equipment. The first pressure vessel head was delivered on the 29 of July 2004, 6 heads have been

  2. Assessing Worker and Environmental Chemical Exposure Risks at an e-Waste Recycling and Disposal Site in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Caravanos

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling/disposal site in Accra, Ghana revealed an area with extensive lead contamination in both ambient air and topsoil. Given the urban nature of this site e as well as the large adjacent food distribution market, the potential for human health impact is substantial both to workers and local residents.

  3. An assessment of the disposal of radioactive petroleum industry waste in nonhazardous landfills using risk-based modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.P.; Arnish, J.J.; Williams, G.P.; Blunt, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Certain petroleum production activities cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to accumulate in concentrations above natural background levels, making safe and cost-effective management of such technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) a key issue for the petroleum industry. As a result, both industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. One such alternative, currently allowed in Michigan with restrictions, is the disposal of TENORM wastes in nonhazardous waste landfills. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 (Ra-226) in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and health risks to workers and the public. Multiple scenarios were considered in evaluating the potential risks associated with landfill operations and the future use of the property. The scenarios were defined, in part, to evaluate the Michigan policy; sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of key parameters on potential risks. The results indicate that the disposal of petroleum industry TENORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the Michigan policy and existing landfill regulations presents a negligible risk to most of the potential receptors considered in this study.

  4. Prediction and assessment of environmental impacts of Guangdong low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen

    1996-01-01

    Guangdong Low-and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site is located 5-7 km northeast to the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. It is in a hilly area with strongly weathered light metamorphic quartz siltstone. The groundwater is 2 m below the repository bottom. The disposal unit is a U-shape concrete structure with drainage and water collecting system at the bottom. The designed cover is a multi-layer structure with functions of preventing from water infiltration, animal and plant intrusion. It is assumed that the engineered barriers would be effective to avoid waste immersion by surface water and groundwater within the first 100 years after closure. After 100 years, the engineered barriers would fail gradually. Radionuclides may release from the disposal unite. Some will enter the nearby stream, some will flow into the Daya Bay, and some will transport to groundwater through geologic media

  5. Review of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poch, L.A.; Wolsko, T.D.

    1979-10-01

    Regardless of future nuclear policy, a nuclear waste disposal problem does exist and must be dealt with. Even a moratorium on new nuclear plants leaves us with the wastes already in existence and wastes yet to be generated by reactors in operation. Thus, technologies to effectively dispose of our current waste problem must be researched and identified and, then, disposal facilities built. The magnitude of the waste disposal problem is a function of future nuclear policy. There are some waste disposal technologies that are suitable for both forms of HLW (spent fuel and reprocessing wastes), whereas others can be used with only reprocessed wastes. Therefore, the sooner a decision on the future of nuclear power is made the more accurately the magnitude of the waste problem will be known, thereby identifying those technologies that deserve more attention and funding. It is shown that there are risks associated with every disposal technology. One technology may afford a higher isolation potential at the expense of increased transportation risks in comparison to a second technology. Establishing the types of risks we are willing to live with must be resolved before any waste disposal technology can be instituted for widespread commercial use

  6. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme

  7. JAEA thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes. Selection of thermodynamic data of cobalt and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Yui, Mikazu; Kirishima, Akira; Saito, Takumi; Shibutani, Sanae; Tochiyama, Osamu

    2009-11-01

    Within the scope of the JAEA thermodynamic database project for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes, the selection of the thermodynamic data on the inorganic compounds and complexes of cobalt and nickel have been carried out. For cobalt, extensive literature survey has been performed and all the obtained literatures have been carefully reviewed to select the thermodynamic data. Selection of thermodynamic data of nickel has been based on a thermodynamic database published by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA), which has been carefully reviewed by the authors, and then thermodynamic data have been selected after surveying latest literatures. Based on the similarity of chemical properties between cobalt and nickel, complementary thermodynamic data of nickel and cobalt species expected under the geological disposal condition have been selected to complete the thermodynamic data set for the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes. (author)