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Sample records for assess training intensity

  1. The validity of physiological variables to assess training intensity in kayak athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D

    2004-01-01

    It appears that training benefits are compromised if excessive training is performed at intensities that are either too low or too high. This suggests a need for accurate methods to monitor training intensity. It has been suggested that heart rate (HR) or lactate concentration ([La -]) can be used to accurately monitor training intensity. The purpose of the present study therefore, was to examine whether the relationship between HR, [La -] and intensity determined during a kayak graded exercise test (GXT) remained stable during constant-intensity kayak exercise. Sixteen trained kayak paddlers, (22 +/- 4 y, peak V.O (2) = 3.7 +/- 0.9 l x min (-1)) performed a GXT on a wind-braked kayak ergometer. They then performed a 20-min constant-load test on the kayak ergometer at a power output corresponding to their lactate inflection (LI) intensity. Eight subjects also performed a 20-min constant-load test at a power output corresponding to their lactate threshold (LT) intensity. Differences between constant-load and GXT values were determined using one-way ANOVA (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between values for HR and V.O (2) derived from the GXT and those measured during both constant-load tests. However, while [La -] also provided a valid marker of the LI training intensity (1.8 +/- 0.3 v 2.1 +/- 0.8 mmol x l (-1)), [La -] did not provide a valid marker of the LT training intensity (3.8 +/- 0.7 v 5.1 +/- 1.4 mmol x l (-1)). These results suggest that HR, but not [La -1], is similar during both a GXT and constant-load exercise at the LT intensity.

  2. Individual assessment of intensity-level for exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease is necessary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, W; Berkhuysen, MA; Van Veldhuisen, DJ; Rispens, P

    Background: Target intensity-level of exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease is adjusted usually by a target heart rate (THR). This THR is aimed to be at or nearby the anaerobic threshold (AT) and is calculated commonly from parameters of regular exercise training, instead of an

  3. Intensive treadmill training in the acute phase after ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømmen, Anna Maria; Christensen, Thomas; Jensen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (a) assess the feasibility of intensive treadmill training in patients with acute ischemic stroke, (b) test whether physical activity of the legs during training increases with time, and (c) evaluate to what extent training sessions contribute toward the overall physical...... activity of these patients. Twenty hospitalized patients with acute ischemic stroke trained on a treadmill twice daily for 30 min for 5 days and on day 30. Physical activity was measured as activity counts (AC) from accelerometers. A total of 196 of 224 initiated training sessions were completed. Training...... with increasing number of days, with the median AC being 133% higher on day 5 than on day 1. AC in the paretic leg during 60 min of training constituted median 53% of the daytime AC. Early intensive treadmill training in acute ischemic stroke patients is thus feasible and contributes considerably toward...

  4. High-intensity training in football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, F Marcello; Rampinini, Ermanno; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-09-01

    This article reviews the major physiological and performance effects of aerobic high-intensity and speed-endurance training in football, and provides insight on implementation of individual game-related physical training. Analysis and physiological measurements have revealed that modern football is highly energetically demanding, and the ability to perform repeated high-intensity work is of importance for the players. Furthermore, the most successful teams perform more high-intensity activities during a game when in possession of the ball. Hence, footballers need a high fitness level to cope with the physical demands of the game. Studies on football players have shown that 8 to 12 wk of aerobic high-intensity running training (> 85% HR(max)) leads to VO2(max) enhancement (5% to 11%), increased running economy (3% to 7%), and lower blood lactate accumulation during submaximal exercise, as well as improvements in the yo-yo intermittent recovery (YYIR) test performance (13%). Similar adaptations are observed when performing aerobic high-intensity training with small-sided games. Speed-endurance training has a positive effect on football-specific endurance, as shown by the marked improvements in the YYIR test (22% to 28%) and the ability to perform repeated sprints (approximately 2%). In conclusion, both aerobic and speed-endurance training can be used during the season to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. The type and amount of training should be game related and specific to the technical, tactical, and physical demands imposed on each player.

  5. Assessment of knowledge of participants on basic molecular biology techniques after 5-day intensive molecular biology training workshops in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisau, J I; Adagbada, A O; Bamidele, T; Fowora, M; Brai, B I C; Adebesin, O; Bamidele, M; Fesobi, T; Nwaokorie, F O; Ajayi, A; Smith, S I

    2017-07-08

    The deployment of molecular biology techniques for diagnosis and research in Nigeria is faced with a number of challenges, including the cost of equipment and reagents coupled with the dearth of personnel skilled in the procedures and handling of equipment. Short molecular biology training workshops were conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), to improve the knowledge and skills of laboratory personnel and academics in health, research, and educational facilities. Five-day molecular biology workshops were conducted annually between 2011 and 2014, with participants drawn from health, research facilities, and the academia. The courses consisted of theoretical and practical sessions. The impact of the workshops on knowledge and skill acquisition was evaluated by pre- and post-tests which consisted of 25 multiple choice and other questions. Sixty-five participants took part in the workshops. The mean knowledge of molecular biology as evaluated by the pre- and post-test assessments were 8.4 (95% CI 7.6-9.1) and 13.0 (95 CI 11.9-14.1), respectively. The mean post-test score was significantly greater than the mean pre-test score (p biology workshop significantly increased the knowledge and skills of participants in molecular biology techniques. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):313-317, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Training surface and intensity: inflammation, hemolysis, and hepcidin expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeling, P.; Dawson, B.; Goodman, C.; Landers, G.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Trinder, D.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: This investigation assessed the effects of training intensity and ground surface type on hemolysis, inflammation, and hepcidin activity during running. METHODS: Ten highly trained male endurance athletes completed a graded exercise test, two continuous 10-km runs on a grass (GRASS) and a bi

  7. An Intensive Training Program for Effective Teaching Assistants in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragisich, Vera; Keller, Valerie; Zhao, Meishan

    2016-01-01

    We report an intensive graduate teaching assistant (GTA) training program developed at The University of Chicago. The program has been assessed and has been successful in preparing GTAs for effective discussion and laboratory teaching for both general and organic chemistry. We believe that this training program can provide insightful information…

  8. Further Evaluation of a Brief, Intensive Teacher-Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Tetreault, Allison; Hovanetz, Alyson; Strobel, Margaret; Garro, Joanie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the outcomes of a model program that was designed to train current teachers of children with autism. Nine certified special education teachers participating in an intensive 5-day summer training program were taught a relatively large number of specific skills in two areas (preference assessment and…

  9. Training surface and intensity: inflammation, hemolysis, and hepcidin expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeling, P.; Dawson, B.; Goodman, C.; Landers, G.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Trinder, D.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: This investigation assessed the effects of training intensity and ground surface type on hemolysis, inflammation, and hepcidin activity during running. METHODS: Ten highly trained male endurance athletes completed a graded exercise test, two continuous 10-km runs on a grass (GRASS) and a bi

  10. High Intensity Interval Training: New Insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin J.Gibala

    2008-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS ·High-intensity interval training(HIT)is characterized by repeated sessions of relatively brief,intermittent exercise.often performed with an“a11 out”effort or at an intensity close to that which elicits peak oxygen uptake(i.e.,≥90%of VO2 peak).

  11. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods 22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL·min·kg−1) participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ), 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK), c-reactive protein (CRP) and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery. Results Following the microcycle significant changes (p HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an individual basis. PMID:26444557

  12. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimo Wiewelhove

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT.22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2 max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL · min · kg(-1 participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery, countermovement jump (CMJ height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ, 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK, c-reactive protein (CRP and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery.Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05 in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60 and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63 after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05 in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers.Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an individual basis.

  13. Training in data definitions improves quality of intensive care data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, DGT; Bosman, RJ; de Jonge, E; Joore, JCA; de Keizer, NF

    2003-01-01

    Background Our aim was to assess the contribution of training in data definitions and data extraction guidelines to improving quality of data for use in intensive care scoring systems such as the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS)

  14. Low-intensity resistance training after high-intensity resistance training can prevent the increase of central arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Masuhara, M; Ikuta, K

    2013-05-01

    Although high-intensity resistance training increases arterial stiffness, low-intensity resistance training reduces arterial stiffness. The present study investigates the effect of low-intensity resistance training before and after high-intensity resistance training on arterial stiffness. 30 young healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a group that performed low-intensity resistance training before high-intensity resistance training (BLRT, n=10), a group that performed low-intensity resistance training after high-intensity resistance training (ALRT, n=10) and a sedentary control group (n=10). The BLRT and ALRT groups performed resistance training at 80% and 50% of one repetition maximum twice each week for 10 wk. Arterial stiffness was measured using carotid-femoral and femoral-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV). One-repetition maximum strength in the both ALRT and BLRT significantly increased after the intervention (Ptraining in the ALRT group did not change from before training. In contrast, carotid-femoral PWV after combined training in the BLRT group increased from before training (P training in the both BLRT and ALRT groups did not change from before training. These results suggest that although arterial stiffness is increased by low-intensity resistance training before high-intensity resistance training, performing low-intensity resistance training thereafter can prevent the increase of arterial stiffness. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Intensive meditation training influences emotional responses to suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Erika L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Shaver, Phillip R; Ferrer, Emilio; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

    2015-12-01

    Meditation practices purportedly help people develop focused and sustained attention, cultivate feelings of compassionate concern for self and others, and strengthen motivation to help others who are in need. We examined the impact of 3 months of intensive meditative training on emotional responses to scenes of human suffering. Sixty participants were assigned randomly to either a 3-month intensive meditation retreat or a wait-list control group. Training consisted of daily practice in techniques designed to improve attention and enhance compassionate regard for others. Participants viewed film scenes depicting human suffering at pre- and posttraining laboratory assessments, during which both facial and subjective measures of emotion were collected. At post-assessment, training group participants were more likely than controls to show facial displays of sadness. Trainees also showed fewer facial displays of rejection emotions (anger, contempt, disgust). The groups did not differ on the likelihood or frequency of showing these emotions prior to training. Self-reported sympathy--but not sadness or distress--predicted sad behavior and inversely predicted displays of rejection emotions in trainees only. These results suggest that intensive meditation training encourages emotional responses to suffering characterized by enhanced sympathetic concern for, and reduced aversion to, the suffering of others.

  16. Effect of intense military training on body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolti, Marcella; Battistini, Nino C; Dugoni, Manfredo; Bagni, Bruno; Bagni, Ilaria; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-03-01

    Individuals in a structural physical training program can show beneficial changes in body composition, such as body fat reduction and muscle mass increase. This study measured body composition changes by using 3 different techniques-skinfold thickness (SF) measurements, air displacement plethysmography (BOD-POD), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-during 9 months of intense training in healthy young men engaged in military training. Twenty-seven young men were recruited from a special faction of the Italian Navy. The program previewed three phases: ground combat, sea combat, and amphibious combat. Body composition was estimated at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the training. After the subjects performed the ground combat phase, body composition variables significantly decreased: body weight (P BOD-POD (P = 0.90) and DXA was significantly greater than measured by SF. A significant difference was found in body mass index (BMI) measured during the study. BOD-POD and SF, compared with DXA, provide valid and reliable measurement of changes in body composition in healthy young men engaged in military training. In conclusion, the findings suggest that for young men of normal weight, changes in body weight alone and in BMI are not a good measure to assess the effectiveness of intense physical training programs, because lean mass gain can masquerade fat weight loss.

  17. Is moderate intensity exercise training combined with high intensity interval training more effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness than moderate intensity exercise training alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxburgh, Brendon H; Nolan, Paul B; Weatherwax, Ryan M; Dalleck, Lance C

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs) at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery), CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R)) and a sedentary control group (n = 7). Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control) in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control) in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). It was 'unclear' if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains 'unclear' whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart. Key PointsBoth continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone and CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (CMIET + HIIT) elicit 'possibly beneficial' clinically meaningful improvements in cardiorespiratory

  18. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  19. Executive control and felt concentrative engagement following intensive meditation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Maclean, Katherine A; Saron, Clifford D

    2013-01-01

    Various forms of mental training have been shown to improve performance on cognitively demanding tasks. Individuals trained in meditative practices, for example, show generalized improvements on a variety of tasks assessing attentional performance. A central claim of this training, derived from contemplative traditions, posits that improved attentional performance is accompanied by subjective increases in the stability and clarity of concentrative engagement with one's object of focus, as well as reductions in felt cognitive effort as expertise develops. However, despite frequent claims of mental stability following training, the phenomenological correlates of meditation-related attentional improvements have yet to be characterized. In a longitudinal study, we assessed changes in executive control (performance on a 32-min response inhibition task) and retrospective reports of task engagement (concentration, motivation, and effort) following one month of intensive, daily Vipassana meditation training. Compared to matched controls, training participants exhibited improvements in response inhibition accuracy and reductions in reaction time variability. The training group also reported increases in concentration, but not effort or motivation, during task performance. Critically, increases in concentration predicted improvements in reaction time variability, suggesting a link between the experience of concentrative engagement and ongoing fluctuations in attentional stability. By incorporating experiential measures of task performance, the present study corroborates phenomenological accounts of stable, clear attentional engagement with the object of meditative focus following extensive training. These results provide initial evidence that meditation-related changes in felt experience accompany improvements in adaptive, goal-directed behavior, and that such shifts may reflect accurate awareness of measurable changes in performance.

  20. Executive control and felt concentrative engagement following intensive meditation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Paul Zanesco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of mental training have been shown to improve performance on cognitively demanding tasks. Individuals trained in meditative practices, for example, show generalized improvements on a variety of tasks assessing attentional performance. A central claim of this training, derived from contemplative traditions, posits that improved attentional performance is accompanied by subjective increases in the stability and clarity of concentrative engagement with one’s object of focus, as well as reductions in felt cognitive effort as expertise develops. However, despite frequent claims of mental stability following training, the phenomenological correlates of meditation-related attentional improvements have yet to be characterized. In a longitudinal study, we assessed changes in executive control (performance on a 32-minute response inhibition task and retrospective reports of task engagement (concentration, motivation, and effort following one month of intensive, daily Vipassana meditation training. Compared to matched controls, training participants exhibited improvements in response inhibition accuracy and reductions in reaction time variability. The training group also reported increases in concentration, but not effort or motivation, during task performance. Critically, increases in concentration predicted improvements in reaction time variability, suggesting a link between the experience of concentrative engagement and ongoing fluctuations in attentional stability. By incorporating experiential measures of task performance, the present study corroborates phenomenological accounts of stable, clear attentional engagement with the object of meditative focus following extensive training. These results provide initial evidence that meditation-related changes in felt experience accompany improvements in adaptive, goal-directed behavior, and that such shifts may reflect accurate awareness of measurable changes in performance.

  1. Intercultural Training: Six Measures Assessing Training Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Andrea; Mertesacker, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop recommendations for measures assessing intercultural training needs for international human resource management. Based on scientific as well as application-oriented criteria the aim is to select six measures assessing general intercultural competencies and with the help of behaviour ratings in…

  2. Correlation between athlete training intensity and cardiac performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... Key words: Athlete, cardiac performance, correlation, training intensity ... Therefore, these two substances are important indicators to monitor intensity of .... conditions, athletes' energy can be enhanced, glycogen in the body ...

  3. Effects of high-intensity training and resumed training on macroelement and microelement of elite basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jiahong; He, Wangxiao; Huang, Hongen

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high-intensity training and resumed training in hot and humid environment on plasma macro- and microelements levels of elite Han Chinese basketball players. Ten well-trained elite basketball athletes' plasma macroelements (chlorin, sodium, potassium, and calcium), creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) were measured before and after a 2-h high-intensity training, and microelements (zinc, copper, iron, and selenium) were determined before and after a 1-week high-intensity training and after a 1-week resumed training. The blood CK and CK-MB levels of the elite basketball athletes were significantly increased (P 0.05) were found in zinc and copper levels; nevertheless, the levels of plasma selenium and plasma iron were significantly lower (P iron.

  4. Dissimilar Physiological and Perceptual Responses Between Sprint Interval Training and High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kimberly M; Olive, Brittany; LaValle, Kaylyn; Thompson, Heather; Greer, Kevin; Astorino, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) elicit similar cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations vs. endurance training. No study, however, has investigated acute physiological changes during HIIT vs. SIT. This study compared acute changes in heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), oxygen uptake (VO2), affect, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during HIIT and SIT. Active adults (4 women and 8 men, age = 24.2 ± 6.2 years) initially performed a VO2max test to determine workload for both sessions on the cycle ergometer, whose order was randomized. Sprint interval training consisted of 8 bouts of 30 seconds of all-out cycling at 130% of maximum Watts (Wmax). High-intensity interval training consisted of eight 60-second bouts at 85% Wmax. Heart rate, VO2, BLa, affect, and RPE were continuously assessed throughout exercise. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between HIIT and SIT for VO2 (p HIIT (209.3 ± 40.3 kcal) vs. SIT (193.5 ± 39.6 kcal). During HIIT, subjects burned significantly more calories and reported lower perceived exertion than SIT. The higher VO2 and lower BLa in HIIT vs. SIT reflected dissimilar metabolic perturbation between regimens, which may elicit unique long-term adaptations. If an individual is seeking to burn slightly more calories, maintain a higher oxygen uptake, and perceive less exertion during exercise, HIIT is the recommended routine.

  5. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  6. Endurance capacity and neuromuscular fatigue following high- vs moderate-intensity endurance training: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, T J; Collett, J; Howells, K; Morris, M G

    2017-02-16

    High-intensity exercise induces significant central and peripheral fatigue; however, the effect of endurance training on these mechanisms of fatigue is poorly understood. We compared the effect of cycling endurance training of disparate intensities on high-intensity exercise endurance capacity and the associated limiting central and peripheral fatigue mechanisms. Twenty adults were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 6-8×5 minutes at halfway between lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake [50%Δ]) or volume-matched moderate-intensity continuous training (CONT, ~60-80 minutes at 90% lactate threshold). Two time to exhaustion (TTE) trials at 50%Δ were completed pre- and post-training to assess endurance capacity; the two post-training trials were completed at the pretraining 50%Δ (same absolute intensity) and the "new" post-training 50%Δ (same relative intensity). Pre- and post-exercise responses to femoral nerve and motor cortex stimulation were examined to determine peripheral and central fatigue, respectively. HIIT resulted in greater increases in TTE at the same absolute and relative intensities as pre-training (148% and 43%, respectively) compared with CONT (38% and -4%, respectively) (P≤.019). Compared with pre-training, HIIT increased the level of potentiated quadriceps twitch reduction (-34% vs -43%, respectively, P=.023) and attenuated the level of voluntary activation reduction (-7% vs -3%, respectively, P=.047) following the TTE trial at the same relative intensity. There were no other training effects on neuromuscular fatigue development. This suggests that central fatigue resistance contributes to enhanced high-intensity exercise endurance capacity after HIIT by allowing greater performance to be extruded from the muscle. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. High-Intensity Training and Salivary Immunoglobulin A Responses in Professional Top-Level Soccer Players: Effect of Training Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Adam L; Wong, Del P; Dunlop, Gordon; Groussard, Carole; Kebsi, Wiem; Dellal, Alexandre; Morgans, Ryland; Zouhal, Hassane

    2016-09-01

    Owen, AL, Wong, DP, Dunlop, G, Groussard, C, Kebsi, W, Dellal, A, Morgans, R, and Zouhal, H. High-intensity training and salivary immunoglobulin A responses in professional top-level soccer players: Effect of training intensity. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2460-2469, 2016-This study aimed (a) to test the hypothesis that salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) would vary with training intensity sessions (low-intensity [LI] vs. high-intensity sessions [HI]) during a traditional training program divided into 4 training periods and (b) to identify key variables (e.g., GPS data, rating of perceived exertion [RPE], and training duration), which could affect s-IgA. Saliva samples of 10 elite professional soccer players were collected (a) before the investigation started to establish the baseline level and (b) before and after each 4 training sessions (LI vs. HI). Training intensity was monitored as internal (through heart rate responses and RPE) and external (through GPS) loads. High-intensity sessions were associated with higher external load (GPS) and with higher RPE. Baseline and pretraining s-IgA did not differ between the 4 training sessions both for HI and LI. Post-training s-IgA were not different (in absolute value and in percentage of change) between HI and LI sessions at the first 3 periods. However, at the fourth period, s-IgA concentration for HI session was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than the LI session. The percentage change between s-IgA post-training and s-IgA baseline concentrations differ significantly (p ≤ 0.05) between HI and LI training sessions. Significant correlations between s-IgA and training intensity were also noted. High-intensity soccer training sessions might cause a significant decrease in s-IgA values during the postexercise window as compared with LI sessions. This study encourages coaches to monitor s-IgA in routine, particularly during HI training periods, to take precautions to avoid upper respiratory tract infection in highly trained

  8. High-Intensity Interval Training as an Efficacious Alternative to Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training for Adults with Prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. High-intensity interval training (HIIT leads to improvements in various markers of cardiometabolic health but adherence to HIIT following a supervised laboratory intervention has yet to be tested. We compared self-report and objective measures of physical activity after one month of independent exercise in individuals with prediabetes who were randomized to HIIT (n=15 or traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, n=17. Method. After completing 10 sessions of supervised training participants were asked to perform HIIT or MICT three times per week for four weeks. Results. Individuals in HIIT (89 ± 11% adhered to their prescribed protocol to a greater extent than individuals in MICT (71 ± 31% as determined by training logs completed over one-month follow-up (P = 0.05, Cohen’s d = 0.75. Minutes spent in vigorous physical activity per week measured by accelerometer were higher in HIIT (24 ± 18 as compared to MICT (11 ± 10 at one-month follow-up (P = 0.049, Cohen’s d = 0.92. Cardiorespiratory fitness and systolic blood pressure assessed at one-month follow-up were equally improved (P’s < 0.05. Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that individuals with prediabetes can adhere to HIIT over the short-term and do so at a level that is greater than MICT.

  9. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  10. Review of High-intensity Interval Training in Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigenori; Mizoguchi, Tatsuya; Saeki, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    For the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is required. This involves optimal medical therapy, education on nutrition and exercise therapy, and smoking cessation. Of these, efficient exercise therapy is a key factor. A highly effective training protocol is therefore warranted, which requires a high rate of compliance. Although moderate-intensity continuous training has been the main training regimen recommended in cardiac rehabilitation guidelines, high-intensity interval training has been reported to be more effective in the clinical and experimental setting from the standpoint of peak oxygen uptake and central and peripheral adaptations. In this review, we illustrate the scientific evidence for high-intensity interval training. We then verify this evidence and discuss its significance and the remaining issues.

  11. Neurosciences intensive care medicine in initial neurosurgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E A C; Madder, H; Millo, J; Kearns, C F

    2009-04-01

    The authors describe a novel 4-month clinical placement in neurosciences intensive care medicine (NICM) undertaken in the first specialty registrar (ST1) year of neurosurgical training as part of a clinical neurosciences themed training year. Neurosurgery is unique among British surgical specialties in having pioneered themed early years in run-through training to replace basic surgical training in general surgical specialties as part of Modernising Medical Careers. After describing events leading to the new neurosurgical training, the knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired in NICM are highlighted alongside discussion of logistic aspects and future directions from an inaugural experience.

  12. Training intensities for aerobic exercise determined on untrained healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura,Mochiyoshi

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic training intensity from the maximal and submaximal running exercise in 21 untrained adult men. To accomplish this, we evaluated the relationship between physiological (oxygen intake and heart rate and physical parameters (running speed of training intensity, and determined the training intensity at the submaximal exercise. Oxygen intake and heart rate were measured by a treadmill test. The maximal oxygen intake (VO2 max, and the aerobic threshold (AerT and anaerobic threshold (AT were measured to determine respiratory gas exchange. Running capacity was measured by a 12-min running and treadmill test. For the maximal exercise, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.88, P < 0.01 between VO2 max and 12-min running distance (speed. In addition, the oxygen intake and heart rate at AerT and AT in the submaximal exercise were linearly correlated with running speed. Three levels of training intensity at the submaximal exercise were termed: light, moderate, and heavy. Since AerT was the lower limit intensity and AT was the upper limit, we took the middle of their values as the moderate intensity. The end point for the determination of the training intensity at the submaximal exercise was estimated to be 85% VO2 max and 180 beats.min-1.

  13. High-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training in the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    S Hussain; Macaluso, A; Pearson, S.

    2016-01-01

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease, but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged into the clinical environment has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superi...

  14. Analysis and comparison of intensity in specific soccer training sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Antonacci Condessa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the exercise intensity of four specific soccer training sessions (friendly and training match, tactical and technical workouts. Ten professional soccer players (24.2 ± 3.7 years, 177.9 ± 7.3 cm, 63.2 ± 4.6 mLO2•kg-1•min-l were recruited. A treadmill progressive interval test was performed to determine the players' VO2max, maximal heart rate (HRmax, HR-VO2 curve, and the heart rate corresponding to blood lactate concentrations of 2 and 4 mmol/L. The heart rate during the training sessions was used to estimate the exercise intensity and to classify them into intensity zones (low-intensity: 4 mmol/L. Exercise intensities were different among training sessions (friendly match: 86.0 ± 5.1% HRmax; training match: 81.2 ± 4.1% HRmax; tactical workout: 70.4 ± 5.3% HRmax; technical workout: 62.1 ± 3.6% HRmax. The friendly match presented the highest percentage of time performed in the high-intensity zone.

  15. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling : The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of

  16. Neuromuscular adaptations to 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training in well-trained athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjær, Tine; Meyland, Jacob; Raffalt, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training in well-trained athletes on jumping performance and underlying changes in biomechanics and neuromuscular adaptations. Nine well-trained athletes at high national competition level within sprinting and jumping disciplines...

  17. Affect-regulated exercise intensity: does training at an intensity that feels 'good' improve physical health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Gaynor; Alrumh, Amnah; Rowlands, Alex V

    2012-11-01

    Affect-regulated exercise to feel 'good' can be used to control exercise intensity amongst both active and sedentary individuals and should support exercise adherence. It is not known, however, whether affect-regulated exercise training can lead to physical health gains. The aim of this study was to examine if affect-regulated exercise to feel 'good' leads to improved fitness over the course of an 8-week training programme. A repeated measures design (pretest-posttest) with independent groups (training and control). 20 sedentary females completed a submaximal graded exercise test and were then allocated to either a training group or control group. The training group completed two supervised sessions and one unsupervised session per week for 8 weeks. Exercise intensity was affect-regulated to feel 'good'. Following the 8 weeks of training, both groups completed a second submaximal graded exercise test. Repeated measures analyses of variance indicated a significant increase in the time to reach ventilatory threshold in the training group (318 ± 23.7s) compared to control (248 ± 16.9s). Overall compliance to training was high (>92%). Participants in the training group exercised at intensities that would be classified as being in the lower range of the recommended guidelines (≈ 50% V˙O(2) max) for cardiovascular health. Affect-regulated exercise to feel 'good' can be used in a training programme to regulate exercise intensity. This approach led to a 19% increase in time to reach ventilatory threshold, which is indicative of improved fitness. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Learning Emotional Intelligence: Training & Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This core assessment provides an overview and training of the use of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the workplace. It includes a needs analysis for a local Chamber of Commerce, and outlines the importance of improving their organizational communication with the improvement of their EI. Behavioral objectives related to the skills needed are…

  19. High-intensity interval training is not superior to other forms of endurance training during cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Marcus; Eichinger, Jörg; Egger, Andreas; Droese, Silke; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity interval training has recently emerged as superior to continuous endurance training in cardiac rehabilitation upon other training regimes. Individually tailored continuous endurance training and pyramid training could induce comparable effects on peak work capacity as high intensity interval training. A prospective, randomized study. Effects of the following isocaloric cycle ergometer protocols on peak work capacity have been assessed in patients with coronary artery disease (n = 60) during 6 weeks of outpatient cardiac rehabilitation, i.e. 18 supervised sessions of exercise training: (1) continuous endurance training (n = 20): 33 min at 65-85% peak heart rate; (2) high intensity interval training (n = 20): 4 × 4 min intervals at 85-95% peak heart rate, each followed by 3 min of active recovery at 60-70% peak heart rate; (3) pyramid training (n = 20): 3 × 8 min of stepwise load increase and subsequent decrease from 65-95-65% peak heart rate, supplemented by 2 min recovery at 60-70% peak heart rate between pyramids. All protocols were preceded by 5 min of warm-up and followed by 5 min cool-down at 60-70% peak heart rate. Attendance during exercise sessions was 99.2%. There were significant increases in peak work capacity of comparable magnitude in all three training groups (begin vs. end: continuous endurance training: 136.0 ± 49.6 W vs. 163.4 ± 60.8 W (21.1 ± 8.5%); high-intensity interval training: 141.0 ± 60.4 W vs. 171.1 ± 69.8 W (22.8 ± 6.6%); pyramid training: 128.7 ± 50.6 W vs. 158.5 ± 57.9 W (24.8 ± 10.8%); within groups all p training protocols assessed in this study all led to significant increases in peak work capacity of comparable magnitude. Our findings suggest that these protocols can be used interchangeably, which will lead to further individualization of exercise prescription and may therefore result in improved adherence to lifelong

  20. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P

    2015-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.

  1. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  2. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  3. Circulating adiponectin concentration and body composition are altered in response to high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Cecilia M; Webb, Jessica J; Driller, Matthew W; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

    2013-08-01

    Adiponectin influences metabolic adaptations that would prove beneficial to endurance athletes, and yet to date there is little known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise, and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in an athlete population. This study aimed to determine the response of plasma adiponectin concentrations to acute exercise after 2 different training programs and to determine the influence of the training on body composition. Seven state-level representative rowers (age: 19 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], height: 1.77 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 74.0 ± 10.7 kg, VO2peak 62.1 ± 7.0 ml·kg·min) participated in the double-blind, randomized crossover investigation. Rowers performed an incremental graded exercise test before and after completing 4 weeks of high-intensity interval ergometer training and 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training. Rowers' body composition was assessed at baseline and after each training program. Significant increases in plasma adiponectin concentration occurred in response to maximal exercise after completion of the high-intensity interval training (p = 0.016) but not after traditional ergometer rowing training (p = 0.69). The high-intensity interval training also resulted in significant increases in mean 4-minute power output (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (p = 0.05), and a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.022). Mean 4-minute power output, VO2peak, and body fat percentage were not significantly different after 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training (p > 0.05). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training is associated with an increase in adiponectin concentration in response to maximal exercise and a reduction in body fat percentage. The potential for changes in adiponectin concentration to reflect positive training adaptations and athlete performance level should be further explored.

  4. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  5. Therapeutic effect of a moderate intensity interval training program ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic effect of a moderate intensity interval training program on the lipid profile ... Also, factors such as elevated total cholesterol (TC) and reduced high density ... (n=105; 58.27 ± 6.24 years) group remained sedentary during this period.

  6. [The advantages of the short intensive training course in endoscopic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A V; Khripun, A I; Ivanov, A A; Gushchin, A V; Tariverdiev, M L; Sazhin, A V

    2013-01-01

    The advantages of one-day training courses on the example of the short intensive course "manual suture in endoscopic surgery" are represented. The programme consists of the short 8-hours course, including theoretic lectures, practice seminars, virtual trainings and the trainee's self work under the control of the experienced supervisors. The preliminary assessment of the course, performed with the use of questionnaires and testing in small groups, showed it's unarguable efficacy for surgeons.

  7. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key points Steady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained students Mild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state training HIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval training Enjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program PMID:26664271

  8. Two weeks of moderate intensity continuous training, but not high intensity interval training increases insulin-stimulated intestinal glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiani, Kumail Kumar; Savolainen, Anna M; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Toivanen, Jussi; Ishizu, Tamiko; Yli-Karjanmaa, Minna; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Parkkola, Riitta; Kapanen, Jukka; Gronroos, Tove J; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Solin, Olof; Savisto, Nina; Ahotupa, Markku; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Knuuti, Juhani; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-02-09

    Similar to muscles, the intestine is also insulin resistant in obese subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Exercise training improves muscle insulin sensitivity, but its effects on intestinal metabolism are not known. We studied the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on intestinal glucose and free fatty acid uptake from circulation in humans. Twenty-eight healthy middle-aged sedentary men were randomized for two weeks of HIIT or MICT. Intestinal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and fasting free fatty acid uptake from circulation were measured using positron emission tomography and [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FTHA. In addition, effects of HIIT and MICT on intestinal Glut2 and CD36 protein expression were studied in rats. Training improved aerobic capacity (p=0.001) and whole-body insulin sensitivity (p=0.04), but not differently between HIIT and MICT. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake increased only after the MICT in the colon [HIIT=0%; MICT=37%] (p=0.02 for time*training) and tended to increase in the jejunum [HIIT=-4%; MICT=13%] (p=0.08 for time*training). Fasting free fatty acid uptake decreased in the duodenum in both groups [HIIT=-6%; MICT=-48%] (p=0.001 time) and tended to decrease in the colon in the MICT group [HIIT=0%; MICT=-38%] (p=0.08 for time*training). In rats, both training groups had higher Glut2 and CD36 expression compared to control animals. This study shows that already two weeks of MICT enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake while both training modes reduce fasting free fatty acid uptake in the intestine in healthy middle-aged men, providing an additional mechanism by which exercise training can improve whole body metabolism.

  9. Training in intensive care medicine. A challenge within reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Ortega, A; Rothen, H U; Franco, N; Rayo, L A; Martín-Loeches, I; Ramírez, P; Cuñat de la Hoz, J

    2014-01-01

    The medical training model is currently immersed in a process of change. The new paradigm is intended to be more effective, more integrated within the healthcare system, and strongly oriented towards the direct application of knowledge to clinical practice. Compared with the established training system based on certification of the completion of a series or rotations and stays in certain healthcare units, the new model proposes a more structured training process based on the gradual acquisition of specific competences, in which residents must play an active role in designing their own training program. Training based on competences guarantees more transparent, updated and homogeneous learning of objective quality, and which can be homologated internationally. The tutors play a key role as the main directors of the process, and institutional commitment to their work is crucial. In this context, tutors should receive time and specific formation to allow the evaluation of training as the cornerstone of the new model. New forms of objective summative and training evaluation should be introduced to guarantee that the predefined competences and skills are effectively acquired. The free movement of specialists within Europe is very desirable and implies that training quality must be high and amenable to homologation among the different countries. The Competency Based training in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe program is our main reference for achieving this goal. Scientific societies in turn must impulse and facilitate all those initiatives destined to improve healthcare quality and therefore specialist training. They have the mission of designing strategies and processes that favor training, accreditation and advisory activities with the government authorities.

  10. Pain intensity rating training: results from an exploratory study of the ACTTION PROTECCT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon M; Amtmann, Dagmar; Askew, Robert L; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Hunsinger, Matthew; Jensen, Mark P; McDermott, Michael P; Patel, Kushang V; Williams, Mark; Bacci, Elizabeth D; Burke, Laurie B; Chambers, Christine T; Cooper, Stephen A; Cowan, Penney; Desjardins, Paul; Etropolski, Mila; Farrar, John T; Gilron, Ian; Huang, I-zu; Katz, Mitchell; Kerns, Robert D; Kopecky, Ernest A; Rappaport, Bob A; Resnick, Malca; Strand, Vibeke; Vanhove, Geertrui F; Veasley, Christin; Versavel, Mark; Wasan, Ajay D; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2016-05-01

    Clinical trial participants often require additional instruction to prevent idiosyncratic interpretations regarding completion of patient-reported outcomes. The Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership developed a training system with specific, standardized guidance regarding daily average pain intensity ratings. A 3-week exploratory study among participants with low-back pain, osteoarthritis of the knee or hip, and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy was conducted, randomly assigning participants to 1 of 3 groups: training with human pain assessment (T+); training with automated pain assessment (T); or no training with automated pain assessment (C). Although most measures of validity and reliability did not reveal significant differences between groups, some benefit was observed in discriminant validity, amount of missing data, and ranking order of least, worst, and average pain intensity ratings for participants in Group T+ compared with the other groups. Prediction of greater reliability in average pain intensity ratings in Group T+ compared with the other groups was not supported, which might indicate that training produces ratings that reflect the reality of temporal pain fluctuations. Results of this novel study suggest the need to test the training system in a prospective analgesic treatment trial.

  11. Recognizing the intensity of strength training exercises with wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernek, Igor; Kurillo, Gregorij; Stiglic, Gregor; Bajcsy, Ruzena

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose a system based on a network of wearable accelerometers and an off-the-shelf smartphone to recognize the intensity of stationary activities, such as strength training exercises. The system uses a hierarchical algorithm, consisting of two layers of Support Vector Machines (SVMs), to first recognize the type of exercise being performed, followed by recognition of exercise intensity. The first layer uses a single SVM to recognize the type of the performed exercise. Based on the recognized type a corresponding intensity prediction SVM is selected on the second layer, specializing in intensity prediction for the recognized type of exercise. We evaluate the system for a set of upper-body exercises using different weight loads. Additionally, we compare the most important features for exercise and intensity recognition tasks and investigate how different sliding window combinations, sensor configurations and number of training subjects impact the algorithm performance. We perform all of the experiments for two different types of features to evaluate the feasibility of implementation on resource constrained hardware. The results show the algorithm is able to recognize exercise types with approximately 85% accuracy and 6% intensity prediction error. Furthermore, due to similar performance using different types of features, the algorithm offers potential for implementation on resource constrained hardware.

  12. The latest from the LHC : Training for higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Three weeks of intense machine development were brought to a satisfactory conclusion on the night of 21 September with the final validation of the machine protection systems for operation with bunch trains. The machine is now ready to accept more and more trains of bunches.   On Wednesday 22 September, the first physics fill was made using bunch trains, with 3 trains of 8 bunches per beam, providing 16 pairs of colliding bunches per experiment. This fill was used to restart operation for physics both for the machine and for the experiments. On Thursday, the number of bunches was increased to 56 per beam, providing 47 colliding pairs at Points 1, 5 and 8, and a smaller number at Point 2 to meet the requirements of ALICE. This is roughly the same intensity that we had in the machine in August. The first fill made under these conditions, fill 1366, brought an unexpected bonus. Bunches of nominal intensity were injected into the LHC with a smaller than usual transverse size, which was expected to cau...

  13. Block periodization of high-intensity aerobic intervals provides superior training effects in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, J; Ellefsen, S

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists. One group of cyclists performed block periodization, wherein the first week constituted five sessions of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by 3 weeks of one weekly HIT session and focus on low-intensity training (LIT) (BP; n = 10, VO2max  = 62 ± 2 mL/kg/min). Another group of cyclists performed a more traditional organization, with 4 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions interspersed with LIT (TRAD; n = 9, VO2max  = 63 ± 2 mL/kg/min). Similar volumes of both HIT and LIT was performed in the two groups. While BP increased VO2max , peak power output (Wmax) and power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-)] by 4.6 ± 3.7%, 2.1 ± 2.8%, and 10 ± 12%, respectively (P training compared with TRAD training (ES = 1.34, ES = 0.85, and ES = 0.71, respectively). The present study suggests that block periodization of training provides superior adaptations to traditional organization during a 4-week endurance training period, despite similar training volume and intensity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. `An observational report of intensive robotic and manual gait training in sub-acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conesa Lucas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of automated electromechanical devices for gait training in neurological patients is increasing, yet the functional outcomes of well-defined training programs using these devices and the characteristics of patients that would most benefit are seldom reported in the literature. In an observational study of functional outcomes, we aimed to provide a benchmark for expected change in gait function in early stroke patients, from an intensive inpatient rehabilitation program including both robotic and manual gait training. Methods We followed 103 sub-acute stroke patients who met the clinical inclusion criteria for Body Weight Supported Robotic Gait Training (BWSRGT. Patients completed an intensive 8-week gait-training program comprising robotic gait training (weeks 0-4 followed by manual gait training (weeks 4-8. A change in clinical function was determined by the following assessments taken at 0, 4 and 8 weeks (baseline, mid-point and end-point respectively: Functional Ambulatory Categories (FAC, 10 m Walking Test (10 MWT, and Tinetti Gait and Balance Scales. Results Over half of the patients made a clinically meaningful improvement on the Tinetti Gait Scale (> 3 points and Tinetti Balance Scale (> 5 points, while over 80% of the patients increased at least 1 point on the FAC scale (0-5 and improved walking speed by more than 0.2 m/s. Patients responded positively in gait function regardless of variables gender, age, aetiology (hemorrhagic/ischemic, and affected hemisphere. The most robust and significant change was observed for patients in the FAC categories two and three. The therapy was well tolerated and no patients withdrew for factors related to the type or intensity of training. Conclusions Eight-weeks of intensive rehabilitation including robotic and manual gait training was well tolerated by early stroke patients, and was associated with significant gains in function. Patients with mid-level gait dysfunction

  15. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (PTaekwondo competition performance in collegiate Taekwondo athletes. This could inform the future planning of Taekwondo athletes' pre-competition training, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  16. Sports Specialization and Intensive Training in Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Joel S

    2016-09-01

    Sports specialization is becoming the norm in youth sports for a variety of reasons. When sports specialization occurs too early, detrimental effects may occur, both physically and psychologically. If the timing is correct and sports specialization is performed under the correct conditions, the athlete may be successful in reaching specific goals. Young athletes who train intensively, whether specialized or not, can also be at risk of adverse effects on the mind and body. The purpose of this clinical report is to assist pediatricians in counseling their young athlete patients and their parents regarding sports specialization and intensive training. This report supports the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical report "Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout in Child and Adolescent Athletes." Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Intensive Sleep Re-Training: From Bench to Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Lack

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive sleep re-training is a promising new therapy for chronic insomnia. Therapy is completed over a 24-h period during a state of sleep deprivation. Improvements of sleep and daytime impairments are comparable to the use of stimulus control therapy but with the advantage of a rapid reversal of the insomnia. The initial studies have been laboratory based and not readily accessible to the patient population. However, new smart phone technology, using a behavioral response to external stimuli as a measure of sleep/wake state instead of EEG determination of sleep, has made this new therapy readily available. Technological improvements are still being made allowing the therapy to provide further improvements in the effectiveness of Intensive Sleep Re-training.

  18. The effect of progressive high-intensity inspiratory muscle training and fixed high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Ju-hyeon; Kim, Nan-soo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-one stroke patients were assigned to one of three groups: progressive load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 8), fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 6), and controls (n = 7). [Methods] The progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle tra...

  19. Effects of intensity and duration in aerobic high-intensity interval training in highly trained junior cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Sandbakk, Silvana B; Ettema, Gertjan; Welde, Boye

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training is more effective than shorter intervals at a higher intensity in highly trained endurance athletes. The sample comprised of 12 male and 9 female, national-level, junior cross-country skiers (age, 17.5 ± 0.4 years, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max): 67.4 ± 7.7 ml min kg), who performed 8-week baseline and 8-week intervention training periods on dry land. During the intervention period, a short-interval group (SIG, n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with short duration intervals (2- to 4-minute bouts, total duration of 15-20 minutes), a long-interval group (LIG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with long duration intervals (5- to 10-minute bouts, total duration of 40-45 minutes). The interval sessions were performed with the athletes' maximal sustainable intensity. A control group (CG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with low-intensity endurance training at 65-74% of maximal heart rate. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for time-trial performance on 12-km roller-ski skating and 7-km hill run. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT) were measured during treadmill running. After the intervention training period, the LIG-improved 12-km roller ski, 7-km hill run, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT by 6.8 ± 4.0%, 4.8 ± 2.6%, 3.7 ± 1.6%, and 5.8 ± 3.3%, respectively, from pre- to posttesting, and improved both performance tests and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT when compared with the SIG and the CG (all p < 0.05). The SIG improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max by 3.5 ± 3.2% from pre- to posttesting (p < 0.05), whereas the CG remained unchanged. As hypothesized, a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training improved endurance performance and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold more than shorter intervals at a higher

  20. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p < 0.01) and slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.04) compared with the CTL group. LIT and HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT had significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and cardiac conduction compared with the CTL and SED groups whilst HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT and HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health.

  1. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health.

  2. Is upper limb virtual reality training more intensive than conventional training for patients in the subacute phase after stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Iris; Skouen, Jan Sture; Hofstad, Håkon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Virtual reality (VR) training is thought to improve upper limb (UL) motor function after stroke when utilizing intensive training with many repetitions. The purpose of this study was to compare intensity and content of a VR training intervention to a conventional task-oriented interve......Background: Virtual reality (VR) training is thought to improve upper limb (UL) motor function after stroke when utilizing intensive training with many repetitions. The purpose of this study was to compare intensity and content of a VR training intervention to a conventional task...

  3. Training at non-damaging intensities facilitates recovery from muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yuta; Murakami, Taro; Mori, Tomohiro; Agata, Nobuhide; Kimura, Nahoko; Inoue-Miyazu, Masumi; Hayakawa, Kimihide; Hirano, Takayuki; Sokabe, Masahiro; Kawakami, Keisuke

    2017-02-01

    Resistance training promotes recovery from muscle atrophy, but optimum training programs have not been established. We aimed to determine the optimum training intensity for muscle atrophy. Mice recovering from atrophied muscles after 2 weeks of tail suspension underwent repeated isometric training with varying joint torques 50 times per day. Muscle recovery assessed by maximal isometric contraction and myofiber cross-sectional areas (CSAs) were facilitated at 40% and 60% maximum contraction strength (MC), but at not at 10% and 90% MC. At 60% and 90% MC, damaged and contained smaller diameter fibers were observed. Activation of myogenic satellite cells and a marked increase in myonuclei were observed at 40%, 60%, and 90% MC. The increases in myofiber CSAs were likely caused by increased myonuclei formed through fusion of resistance-induced myofibers with myogenic satellite cells. These data indicate that resistance training without muscle damage facilitates efficient recovery from atrophy. Muscle Nerve 55: 243-253, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effects of high intensity training and continuous endurance training on aerobic capacity and body composition in recreationally active runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01). Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η(2) = 0.36). Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63). Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active

  5. Influence of moderately intense strength training on flexibility in sedentary young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Elisa; Rhea, Matthew R; Simão, Roberto; Dias, Ingrid; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Novaes, Jefferson; Leite, Thalita; Blair, Jeff C; Bunker, Derek J

    2010-11-01

    The present study is the first to examine whether moderately intense resistance training improves flexibility in an exclusively young, sedentary women population. Twenty-four, young, sedentary women were divided into 3 groups as follows: agonist/antagonist (AA) training group, alternated strength training (AST) group, or a control group (CG). Training occurred every other day for 8 weeks for a total of 24 sessions. Training groups performed 3 sets of 10 to 12 repetitions per set except for abdominal training where 3 sets of 15 to 20 reps were performed. Strength (1 repetition maximum bench press) and flexibility were assessed before and after the training period. Flexibility was assessed on 6 articular movements: shoulder flexion and extension, horizontal shoulder adduction and abduction, and trunk flexion and extension. Both groups increased strength and flexibility significantly from baseline and significantly when compared with the CG (p ≤ 0.05). The AST group increased strength and flexibility significantly more than the AA group (p ≤ 0.05) in all but one measurement. This study shows that resistance training can improve flexibility in young sedentary women in 8 weeks.

  6. Aerobic Fitness for Young Athletes: Combining Game-based and High-intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C B; Kinugasa, T; Gill, N; Kilding, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the effect of game-based training (GT) vs. a mix of game-based training and high-intensity interval training (MT) on physical performance characteristics. 26 young athletes (13.9±0.3 years) were assigned to either GT (n=13) or MT (n=13) for 6 weeks. Game-based training consisted of 2×8-11 min 3 vs. 3 'bucketball' SSGs separated by 3 min of passive rest twice per week, while MT consisted of one SSGs session and one high-intensity session of 15 s runs at 90-95% of the speed reached at the end of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (VIFT) interspersed with 15 s passive recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (V˙ O2peak), VIFT, jump height, and speed were assessed pre- and post-training. Following training, V˙ O2peak (5.5±3.3%; ES=large) improved after MT, whereas VIFT improved after MT (6.6±3.2%; ES, large) and GT (4.2±5.5%, ES=small). 5-m sprint improved after GT (ES=small), while 20 m sprint and jump height were unchanged. In conclusion, while MT and GT were both effective at increasing performance parameters, greater effects were seen following MT. Therefore, MT should be considered as the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes.

  7. Inspiratory muscle training is used in some intensive care units, but many training methods have uncertain efficacy: a survey of French physiotherapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Bonnevie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Questions: How common is inspiratory muscle training by physiotherapists in the intensive care unit (ICU? Which patients receive the training? What methods are used to administer the training? Is maximal inspiratory pressure used to evaluate the need for the training and the patient's outcome after training? Design: Cross-sectional survey of all ICUs in France. Participants: Two hundred and sixty-five senior physiotherapists. Results: The response rate was 99% among eligible units. Therapist experience in ICU was significantly associated with the use of inspiratory muscle training (p = 0.02. Therapists mainly used inspiratory muscle training either systematically or specifically in patients who failed to wean from mechanical ventilation. The training was used significantly more in non-sedated patients (p < 0.0001. The most commonly nominated technique that respondents claimed to use to apply the training was controlled diaphragmatic breathing (83% of respondents, whereas 13% used evidence-based methods. Among those who applied some form of inspiratory muscle training, 16% assessed maximal inspiratory pressure. Six respondents (2%, 95% CI 1 to 5 used both an evidence-based method to administer inspiratory muscle training and the recommended technique for assessment of inspiratory muscle strength. Conclusion: Most physiotherapists in French ICUs who apply inspiratory muscle training use methods of uncertain efficacy without assessment of maximal inspiratory pressure. Further efforts need to be made in France to disseminate information regarding evidence-based assessment and techniques for inspiratory muscle training in the ICU. The alignment of inspiratory muscle training practice with evidence could be investigated in other regions. [Bonnevie T, Villiot-Danger J-C, Gravier F-E, Dupuis J, Prieur G, Médrinal C (2015 Inspiratory muscle training is used in some intensive care units, but many training methods have uncertain efficacy: a survey of

  8. VO2 kinetics and performance in soccer players after intense training and inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Krustrup, Peter; Gunnarsson, Thomas P.;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE:: To examine the effects of a short-term period with intensified training or training cessation of trained soccer players on VO2 kinetics at 75% maximal aerobic speed (MAS), oxidative enzymes and performance in repeated high intensity exercise. METHODS:: After the last match of the season...... 18 elite soccer players were, for a two-week period, assigned to a high intensity training group (HI, n=7) performing 10 training sessions mainly consisting of aerobic high intensity training (8×2 min) and speed endurance training (10-12×30-s sprints) or a training cessation group (TC, n=11...

  9. Clinical swallowing assessment in intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Aline Rodrigues; Moraes, Danielle Pedroni; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2013-01-01

    To report the results of the full clinical swallowing assessment in acute-care population in a large Brazilian teaching hospital. A prospective, descriptive clinical study was conducted during three months in a 30-bed adult clinical emergency ICU from a large Brazilian teaching hospital. Thirty-five patients consecutively referred to the Speech-Language Pathology Service according to our standard clinical practice were included. A full clinical swallowing assessment was completed and includes a Preliminary Assessment Protocol (PAP), a Dysphagia Risk Evaluation Protocol (DREP) and an Oral Feeding Transition Protocol (OFTP). In this study, the prevalence of OD in the ICU setting was of 63%, most of which were classified as moderate and moderate-severe (39%). Patients submitted to orotracheal intubation were very frequently referred to swallowing assessment (74%). The results of the statistical analyses revealed clinical indicators that could correctly classify patients as either having or not having OD on clinical tests. These include cough strength, coordination between breathing and speaking, dysphonia severity, and laryngeal elevation. Twenty six patients (74%) completed all protocols. Of these total, 38% were able to eat a regular diet. The practice with standardized protocols adds an important option for the management of oropharyngeal dysphagia in intensive care unit.

  10. High-intensity interval training has positive effects on performance in ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimo, M A; de Souza, E O; Wilson, J M; Carpenter, A L; Gilchrist, P; Lowery, R P; Averbuch, B; White, T M; Joy, J

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the well-known benefits that have been shown, few studies have looked at the practical applications of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of a HIIT program compared to traditional continuous endurance exercise training. 24 hockey players were randomly assigned to either a continuous or high-intensity interval group during a 4-week training program. The interval group (IG) was involved in a periodized HIIT program. The continuous group (CG) performed moderate intensity cycling for 45-60 min at an intensity that was 65% of their calculated heart rate reserve. Body composition, muscle thickness, anaerobic power, and on-ice measures were assessed pre- and post-training. Muscle thickness was significantly greater in IG (p=0.01) when compared to CG. The IG had greater values for both ∆ peak power (p<0.003) and ∆ mean power (p<0.02). Additionally, IG demonstrated a faster ∆ sprint (p<0.02) and a trend (p=0.08) for faster ∆ endurance test time to completion for IG. These results indicate that hockey players may utilize short-term HIIT to elicit positive effects in muscle thickness, power and on-ice performance.

  11. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.

  12. Sprint conditioning of junior soccer players: effects of training intensity and technique supervision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Haugen

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to compare the effects of 1 training at 90 and 100% sprint velocity and 2 supervised versus unsupervised sprint training on soccer-specific physical performance in junior soccer players. Young, male soccer players (17 ± 1 yr, 71 ± 10 kg, 180 ± 6 cm were randomly assigned to four different treatment conditions over a 7-week intervention period. A control group (CON, n = 9 completed regular soccer training according to their teams' original training plans. Three training groups performed a weekly repeated-sprint training session in addition to their regular soccer training sessions performed at A 100% intensity without supervision (100UNSUP, n = 13, B 90% of maximal sprint velocity with supervision (90SUP, n = 10 or C 90% of maximal sprint velocity without supervision (90UNSUP, n=13. Repetitions x distance for the sprint-training sessions were 15 x 20 m for 100UNSUP and 30 x 20 m for 90SUP and 90UNSUP. Single-sprint performance (best time from 15 x 20 m sprints, repeated-sprint performance (mean time over 15 x 20 m sprints, countermovement jump and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1 were assessed during pre-training and post-training tests. No significant differences in performance outcomes were observed across groups. 90SUP improved Yo-Yo IR1 by a moderate margin compared to controls, while all other effect magnitudes were trivial or small. In conclusion, neither weekly sprint training at 90 or 100% velocity, nor supervised sprint training enhanced soccer-specific physical performance in junior soccer players.

  13. Sprint conditioning of junior soccer players: effects of training intensity and technique supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Thomas; Tønnessen, Espen; Øksenholt, Øyvind; Haugen, Fredrik Lie; Paulsen, Gøran; Enoksen, Eystein; Seiler, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare the effects of 1) training at 90 and 100% sprint velocity and 2) supervised versus unsupervised sprint training on soccer-specific physical performance in junior soccer players. Young, male soccer players (17 ± 1 yr, 71 ± 10 kg, 180 ± 6 cm) were randomly assigned to four different treatment conditions over a 7-week intervention period. A control group (CON, n = 9) completed regular soccer training according to their teams' original training plans. Three training groups performed a weekly repeated-sprint training session in addition to their regular soccer training sessions performed at A) 100% intensity without supervision (100UNSUP, n = 13), B) 90% of maximal sprint velocity with supervision (90SUP, n = 10) or C) 90% of maximal sprint velocity without supervision (90UNSUP, n=13). Repetitions x distance for the sprint-training sessions were 15 x 20 m for 100UNSUP and 30 x 20 m for 90SUP and 90UNSUP. Single-sprint performance (best time from 15 x 20 m sprints), repeated-sprint performance (mean time over 15 x 20 m sprints), countermovement jump and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) were assessed during pre-training and post-training tests. No significant differences in performance outcomes were observed across groups. 90SUP improved Yo-Yo IR1 by a moderate margin compared to controls, while all other effect magnitudes were trivial or small. In conclusion, neither weekly sprint training at 90 or 100% velocity, nor supervised sprint training enhanced soccer-specific physical performance in junior soccer players.

  14. Personalized Metabolomics for Predicting Glucose Tolerance Changes in Sedentary Women After High-Intensity Interval Training

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L.; Gillen, Jenna B.; Gibala, Martin J.; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear. Herein, multi-segment injection capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is used as a high-throughput platform in metabolomics to assess dynamic responses of overweight/obese women (BMI > 25, n = 11) to standardized oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed before and after...

  15. Salivary nitric oxide and alpha-amylase as indexes of training intensity and load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M M; Bocanegra, O L; Teixeira, R R; Soares, S S; Espindola, F S

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the variation in salivary nitric oxide (NO), alpha-amylase (sAA) and serum markers of muscle injury during 21 weeks of training in elite swimmers. Samples of saliva and blood were collected once a month during 5 months from 11 male professional athletes during their regular training season. The variation in each marker throughout the 21 weeks was compared with the dynamics of training volume, intensity and load. Unstimulated whole saliva was assessed for NO and sAA whereas venous blood was assessed for lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and γ-glutamyltransferase. Nitric oxide and sAA showed a proportional response to the intensity of training. However, whereas the concentration of NO increased across the 21 weeks, the activity of sAA decreased. Similar variations in the concentration of NO and the markers of muscle injury were also observed. The higher concentration of NO might be attributed to changes in haemodynamics and muscle regenerative processes. On the other hand, autonomic regulation towards parasympathetic predominance might have been responsible for the decrease in sAA activity. These findings provide appealing evidence for the utilization of salivary constituents in sports medicine to monitor training programmes.

  16. Training response to high-intensity interval training in a 42-year-old man with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Christopher R; Daniels, Jonathan A; Caruso, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    To review the outcome of 12 weeks of periodized, high-intensity interval training (HIT) in a man with chronic traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). A 42-year-old man (180 cm tall, 68.4 kg and 32.0% Fat) with a C8/T1 motor complete SCI took part in 12 weeks of 3 days per week arm crank ergometry (ACE) interval training. Training consisted of a combination of HIT that included three times 5  min at ∼70% Peak Power (WPeak) and 5  min recovery (HIT5); four times 2.5  min at ∼85% WPeak and 5  min recovery (HIT2.5); ten times 1  min at ∼110% WPeak and 2  min recovery (HIT1). Heart rate (HR) zones were set as VO2 Peak improved about 45% and 52%, respectively, by week 6, without further improvement at week 12, HR TRIMP scores and power in training sessions trended upward over the 12-week program. Twelve weeks of HIT resulted in a large increase in peak aerobic power, as well as submaximal endurance performance in our participant. The early plateau in maximal testing supports the use of submaximal training assessment important in the long-term training monitoring for SCI.

  17. Eccentric resistance training intensity may affect the severity of exercise induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenoehrl, Timothy; Wessner, Barbara; Tschan, Harald; Vidotto, Claudia; Crevenna, Richard; Csapo, Robert

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the role of eccentric exercise intensity in the development of and recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Using a cross-over study design, 15 healthy, male college students were tested on two occasions. The training stimulus consisted of an exhaustive series of eccentric muscle contractions of the elbow flexors at either 100% (high intensity) or 50% (low intensity) of the individual concentric one-repetition maximum. Blood samples were taken at baseline as well as 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours postexercise, and analyzed for creatine kinase, myoglobin, interleukin-6 and prostaglandin-2. Additionally, upper arm circumference (CIRC) and DOMS-related sensation of pain (PAIN) were measured. Following high intensity training, CIRC was significantly greater (P=0.007). Further, creatine kinase, myoglobin and interleukin-6 tended to be higher, although the main effect of the factor "intensity" just failed to reach significance (creatine kinase: P=0.056, myoglobin: P=0.064, interleukin-6: P=0.091). No differences were found for prostaglandin-2 (P=0.783) and PAIN (P=0.147). When performed at greater intensity, fatiguing eccentric resistance exercise of the elbow flexors leads to greater muscle swelling and, potentially, increases in serum markers reflecting lesions in the muscle's cellular membrane.

  18. High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in the Prevention/Management of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed R; Macaluso, Andrea; Pearson, Stephen J

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superior extent to MICT. Since then, many studies have attempted to explore the potential clinical utility of HIIT, relative to MICT, with respect to treating numerous cardiovascular conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension. Despite this, however, the efficacy of HIIT in reversing the specific symptoms and risk factors of these cardiovascular pathologies is not well understood. HIIT is often perceived as very strenuous, which could render it unsafe for those at risk of or afflicted with CVD, but these issues are also yet to be reviewed. Furthermore, the optimal HIIT protocol for each of the CVD cohorts has not been established. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to (1) evaluate the efficacy of HIIT relative to MICT in the prevention and management of cardiovascular conditions, and (2) explore any potential safety issues surrounding the suitability and/or tolerability of HIIT for patients with CVD, and the potential optimal prescriptive variables of HIIT for application in the clinical environment.

  19. High-Intensity Training Improves Global and Segmental Strains in Severe Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Yair; Ertracht, Offir; Gershon, Itai; Bachner-Hinenzon, Noa; Reuveni, Tali; Atar, Shaul

    2017-05-01

    High-intensity training (HIT) is superior to moderate aerobic training (MAT) for improving quality of life in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) has recently been suggested for estimation of left ventricle global and regional function. We evaluated the utility of STE for characterizing differences in cardiac function following MAT or HIT in a CHF rat model. After baseline physiologic assessment, CHF was induced by means of coronary artery ligation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Repeated measurements confirmed the presence of CHF (ejection fraction 52 ± 10%, global circumferential strain (GCS) 10.5 ± 4, and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) 71 ± 11 mL⋅min(-1)⋅kg(-1); P training protocols: sedentary (SED), MAT, or HIT. After the training period, rats underwent the same measurements and were killed. Training intensity improved V˙O2max (73 ± 13 mL⋅min(-1)⋅kg(-1) in MAT [P  .05 vs baseline]). In addition, strains of specific segments adjacent to the infarct zone regained basal values (P > .05 vs baseline), whereas global cardiac functional parameters as assessed with the use of 2-dimensional echocardiography did not improve. High-intensity exercise training improved function in myocardial segments remote from the scar, which resulted in compensatory cardiac remodeling. This effect is prominent, yet it could be detected only with the use of STE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-intensity training reduces CD8+ T-cell redistribution in response to exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witard, O.C.; Turner, J.E.; Jackman, S.R.; Tipton, K.D.; Jeukendrup, A.E.; Kies, A.K.; Bosch, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We examined whether exercise-induced lymphocytosis and lymphocytopenia are impaired with high-intensity training. Methods: Eight trained cyclists (V·O2max = 64.2 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1) undertook 1 wk of normal-intensity training and a second week of high-intensity training. On day 7 of each w

  1. Enhancement of Skeletal Muscle in Aged Rats Following High-Intensity Stretch-Shortening Contraction Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Erik P; Naimo, Marshall A; Layner, Kayla N; Triscuit, Alyssa M; Chetlin, Robert D; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2016-08-03

    Exercise is the most accessible, efficacious, and multifactorial intervention to improve health and treat chronic disease. High-intensity resistance exercise, in particular, also maximizes skeletal muscle size and strength-outcomes crucial at advanced age. However, such training is capable of inducing muscle maladaptation when misapplied at old age. Therefore, characterization of parameters (e.g., mode and frequency) that foster adaptation is an active research area. To address this issue, we utilized a rodent model that allowed training at maximal intensity in terms of muscle activation and tested the hypothesis that muscles of old rats adapt to stretch-shortening contraction (SSC) training, provided the training frequency is sufficiently low. At termination of training, normalized muscle mass (i.e., muscle mass divided by tibia length) and muscle quality (isometric force divided by normalized muscle mass) were determined. For young rats, normalized muscle mass increased by ∼20% regardless of training frequency. No difference was observed for muscle quality values after 2 days versus 3 days per week training (0.65 ± 0.09 N/mg/mm vs. 0.59 ± 0.05 N/mg/mm, respectively). For old rats following 3 days per week training, normalized muscle mass was unaltered and muscle quality was 30% lower than young levels. Following 2 days per week training at old age, normalized muscle mass increased by 17% and muscle quality was restored to young levels. To investigate this enhanced response, oxidative stress was assessed by lipid peroxidation quantification. For young rats, lipid peroxidation levels were unaltered by training. With aging, baseline levels of lipid peroxidation increased by 1.5-fold. For old rats, only 2 days per week training decreased lipid peroxidation to levels indistinguishable from young values. These results imply that, appropriately scheduled high-intensity SSC training at old age is capable of restoring muscle to a younger phenotype in terms

  2. High-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous exercise training in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angadi, Siddhartha S; Mookadam, Farouk; Lee, Chong D; Tucker, Wesley J; Haykowsky, Mark J; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-09-15

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Exercise training is an established adjuvant therapy in heart failure; however, the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in HFpEF are unknown. We compared the effects of HIIT vs. moderate-intensity aerobic continuous training (MI-ACT) on peak oxygen uptake (V̇o₂peak), left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and endothelial function in patients with HFpEF. Nineteen patients with HFpEF (age 70 ± 8.3 yr) were randomized to either HIIT (4 × 4 min at 85-90% peak heart rate, with 3 min active recovery) or MI-ACT (30 min at 70% peak heart rate). Fifteen patients completed exercise training (HIIT: n = 9; MI-ACT: n = 6). Patients trained 3 days/wk for 4 wk. Before and after training patients underwent a treadmill test for V̇o₂peak determination, 2D-echocardiography for assessment of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) for assessment of endothelial function. HIIT improved V̇o₂peak (pre = 19.2 ± 5.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); post = 21.0 ± 5.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); P = 0.04) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction grade (pre = 2.1 ± 0.3; post = 1.3 ± 0.7; P = 0.02), but FMD was unchanged (pre = 6.9 ± 3.7%; post = 7.0 ± 4.2%). No changes were observed following MI-ACT. A trend for reduced left atrial volume index was observed following HIIT compared with MI-ACT (-3.3 ± 6.6 vs. +5.8 ± 10.7 ml/m(2); P = 0.06). In HFpEF patients 4 wk of HIIT significantly improved V̇o₂peak and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. HIIT may provide a more robust stimulus than MI-ACT for early exercise training adaptations in HFpEF. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Fisher

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI, blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group.28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2 participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure.A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185 in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05.Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1 improved SI, 2 reduced blood lipids, 3 decreased % body fat, and 4 improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or

  4. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M; Allison, David B

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or obese young men, with no clear advantage between these

  5. Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to high-intensity cycling before and after an 11-day intensified training period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, John; Corney, Robert; Kouris, Antonios; Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examined salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to two, different high-intensity, ∼30-min cycles separated by 2 h rest before and after an 11-day intensified training period. Twelve recreationally active, healthy males completed the study. Saliva samples were collected before, immediately after and 30 min after both bouts with salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations assessed. Compared with pre-training blunted exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone responses to both bouts post-training were observed (P 0.05). Fatigue and Burnout scores were higher post- compared with pre-training (P < 0.05). These high-intensity exercise bouts can detect altered hormonal responses following intensified training. This test could assess an athlete's current hormonal status, reductions in salivary cortisol and testosterone responses suggestive of increased fatigue.

  6. Improving fitness of elite handball players: small-sided games vs. high-intensity intermittent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, Antonio Dello; Eliakim, Alon; Meckel, Yoav

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) and small-sided games (SSGs) training on fitness variables of elite handball players. Eighteen highly trained players (mean age ± SD: 25.6 ± 0.5 years) were assigned to either HIIT or SSGs group training protocols twice per week for 8 weeks. The HIIT consisted of 12-24 × 15 seconds of high-intensity runs interspersed by 15 seconds of recovery. The SSGs training consisted of 3 against 3 small-sided handball games. Both training methods were matched for exercise duration and recovery at each training session. Before and after 8-week training, the following fitness variables were assessed-speed: 10- and 20-m sprint time, agility: handball agility specific test (HAST), upper arm strength: 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test, lower limb power: counter-movement jump tests with (CMJarm) and without (CMJ) arm movement, and aerobic fitness (yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 [YYIRTL1]). Significant improvement was found in the YYIRTL1 (23.3 and 26.3%, respectively), 10-m sprint (2.3 and 4.1%, respectively) and 20-m sprint (2.1 and 4%, respectively), HAST (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively), 1RM bench press (6.8 and 12.3%, respectively), CMJ (7.4 and 10.8%, respectively), and CMJarm (6.4 and 8.9%, respectively) following training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05 for all). There was a significantly greater improvement in 10- and 20-m sprint, HAST, 1RM, CMJ, and CMJarm following the SSGs training compared with the HIIT (p ≤ 0.05 for all). These results indicated that both HIIT and SSGs are effective training methods for fitness development among elite adult handball players. However, SSGs training may be considered as the preferred training regimen for improving handball-specific fitness variables during the in-season period.

  7. Strength training and detraining effects on muscular strength, anaerobic power, and mobility of inactive older men are intensity dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Fatouros, I; Kambas, A; Katrabasas, I; Nikolaidis, K; Chatzinikolaou, A; Leontsini, D; Taxildaris, K

    2005-01-01

    Background: Although strength training (ST) enhances physical function in the elderly, little is known about the effect of training intensity on training and detraining adaptations in musculoskeletal fitness.

  8. Cornu cervi pantotrichum supplementation improves physiological adaptions during intensive endurance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUANG, Wen-Ching; HUANG, Chi-Chang; CHUANG, Hsiao-Li; CHIU, Chien-Chao; CHEN, Wen-Chyuan; HSU, Mei-Chich

    2017-01-01

    Cornu cervi pantotrichum (CCP), used in traditional Chinese medicine, is a well-known yang-invigorating agent with multifunctional bioactivities. We previously showed, through an acute exercise challenge, that short-term CCP supplementation improved physical activities and fatigue-associated biochemical indices. Questions about the long-term effects of CCP treatment on exercise performance and physical fatigue, as well as safety, with intensive exercise training need further research. ICR-strain mice were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (SC); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (ET); and (3) ET with CCP treatment at 4,108 mg/kg/day (ET+CCP). We assessed the physical performance, body compositions, and serum levels of lactate, ammonia, glucose and creatine kinase (CK) after an acute exercise challenge. The ET and ET+CCP groups had significantly increased grip strength and endurance swimming time, and decreased serum lactate and ammonia levels after the acute exercise challenge than the SC group. Moreover, serum ammonia and CK levels in the ET+CCP group were significantly decreased when compared to that of the ET only group. In regard to the body composition, the ET+CCP group inhibits the decrease in fat tissue, and related biochemical changes induced by the high intensity endurance training CCP supplementation combined with high-intensity endurance exercise could significantly improve the physiological adaptions related to fatigue or energy consumption and maintain the fat composition when compared to treatment with training only. Therefore, CCP may potentially improve the physiological adaptions in intensive exercise training. PMID:28163267

  9. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  10. Effect of four weeks high intensity interval training versus aerobic exercise on metallothionein levels of myocardial tissue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative species produced during exercise can cause damages to some tissues such as kidney, liver and skeletal muscle. It seems that metallothionein plays a protective role against these actions. Objective: To assess the effect of four weeks of high intensity interval training versus aerobic exercise on metallothionein levels of myocardial tissue in healthy male rats. Methods: This experimental study was done on 36 male Wistar rats (2 months of age with an average weight of 180±20 in 2015.The rats were randomly divided into three groups: control (n=12, high intensity interval training (n=12, and aerobic training (n=12 groups. The experimental groups exercised according to the training program 5 days a week for 4 weeks. During this period, the control group did not have any training programs. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Findings: The results indicate no significant difference among the mean metallothionein in control, aerobic exercise and high intensity interval training groups. However, the amount of myocardial metallothionein increased as a result of high intensity interval training and decreased during aerobic exercise. Conclusion: It seems that the duration and intensity of exercise need to be adjusted in order to obtain better results.

  11. The feasibility and effectiveness of high-intensity boxing training versus moderate-intensity brisk walking in adults with abdominal obesity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Birinder S; Davies, Timothy B; Stewart, Matthew; Papalia, Shona; Atlantis, Evan

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed on exercise cycle or treadmill is considered safe and often more beneficial for fat loss and cardiometabolic health than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a 12-week boxing training (HIIT) intervention compared with an equivalent dose of brisk walking (MICT) in obese adults. Men and women with abdominal obesity and body mass index >25 kg/m(2) were randomized to either a boxing group or a brisk walking (control) group for 12 weeks. Each group engaged in 4 training sessions per week, equated for total physical activity. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment rates, assessment of training intensities, adherence and adverse events. Effectiveness was assessed pre and post intervention via pertinent obesity-, cardiovascular-, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes. Nineteen individuals expressed an interest and 63% (n = 12) consented. Recruitment was slower than anticipated (1.3 participants/week). The boxing group trained at a significantly higher intensity each week versus the brisk walking group (p boxing group experienced an adverse event; both continued to exercise with modifications to the exercise program. No other adverse events were noted. The boxing group attended more sessions (79% vs. 55%) and had a lower attrition rate (n = 0 vs. n = 2) than the walking group. Analysis of covariance revealed that the boxing group significantly improved body fat percentage (p = 0.047), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.026), augmentation index (AIx; p Boxing training (HIIT) in adults with abdominal obesity is feasible and may elicit a better therapeutic effect on obesity, cardiovascular, and HRQoL outcomes than an equivalent dose of brisk walking (MICT). Robustly designed randomized controlled trials are required to confirm these findings and inform clinical guidelines and practice for obesity

  12. High-intensity interval training vs. repeated-sprint training in tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Zimek, Rico; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and repeated-sprint training (RST) on aerobic fitness, tennis-specific endurance, linear and repeated-sprint ability (RSA), and jumping ability. Thirty-one competitive male tennis players took part in a training intervention of 6 weeks. The players were matched into 3 groups, HIIT (n = 11), RST (n = 12), or control group (CON, n = 9). The results showed significant time × intervention interactions for VO(2)peak, with a significant increase in the VO(2)peak level of 6.0% in HIIT (p = 0.008) and 4.9% in RST (p = 0.010), whereas no changes occurred in CON. However, the following differences were found between the intervention groups: The HIIT-induced greater improvements in tennis-specific endurance (HIIT 28.9% vs. RST 14.5%; p training strategy induced any effects on jumping and sprinting abilities. Both training interventions showed similar improvements in general aerobic fitness. Also, the present results suggest that RST represents a time-efficient stimulus for a simultaneous improvement of general and tennis-specific aerobic fitness as well for RSA.

  13. Time course of strength adaptations following high-intensity resistance training in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, A; Dvir, Z; Dragone, D; Mureddu, G; Bua, G; Deriu, Franca

    2017-04-01

    No evidence exists regarding the time course and clinical relevance of muscle strength improvements following resistance training in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal course and the clinical meaningfulness of the changes in strength induced by high-intensity resistance training and whether these changes impact on muscle endurance to fatigue and functional outcomes. PwMS with predominantly unilateral hyposthenia of the ankle dorsiflexors underwent a 6-week isokinetic training of the more affected ankle dorsiflexion muscles. Maximal strength was measured at baseline, during the training on a weekly basis, at the end of the intervention (POST) and at the 12-week follow-up. Muscle endurance to fatigue, mobility and walking outcomes were assessed at baseline, POST and follow-up. Reproducibility and responsiveness analyses were performed. Significant gains in muscle strength were already detected after 3 weeks of training with no further improvements in the following weeks. These improvements exceeded the cutoff values for relevant changes and were also positively correlated to improved muscle endurance to fatigue and mobility measures. None of the observed changes in muscle performance and functional outcomes was retained at the follow-up. Preliminary evidence showed that 3 weeks of high-intensity resistance training induces consistent and meaningful improvements in muscle performance of the ankle dorsiflexors in PwMS. These findings may have practical dose-response and cost-effectiveness implications in the management of MS-induced muscle weakness, potentially enhancing the understanding of the response to training exhibited by PwMS. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02010398; December 2013.

  14. Moderate intensity, but not high intensity, treadmill exercise training alters power output properties in myocardium from aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eunhee; Diffee, Gary M

    2012-11-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive decline in cardiac function, but endurance exercise training has been shown to retard a number of deleterious effects of aging. However, underlying mechanisms by which exercise training improves age-related decrements in myocardial contractile function are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on power output properties in permeablized (skinned) myocytes of old rats. Thirty-month-old rats were divided into sedentary control (C) and groups undergoing 11 weeks of treadmill exercise training at moderate intensity (MI) and at high intensity (HI). Peak power output normalized to maximal force was significantly increased in MI but not in HI compared to C with significant increases in atrial myosin light chain 1 in ventricle. These results suggest that MI exercise training is beneficial as a significant increase was seen in the ability of the myocardium to do work, but this effect was not seen with HI training.

  15. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but i...

  16. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training.......The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  17. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Almenning

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks.The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20, equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014. After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5 mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04. Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0 %, between-group difference (p = 0.08. Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4 pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04. There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group.High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot

  18. Personalized metabolomics for predicting glucose tolerance changes in sedentary women after high-intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear...

  19. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-04-18

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  20. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Howe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline, immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014 and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001 immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively, also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  1. Effects of high-intensity swimming training on the bones of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taewoong; Tanaka, Sakura; Naka, Tatsuki; Igawa, Shoji

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to assess the effects of high-intensity intermittent swimming training(HIT) on bone in ovariectomized rats. Six-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either sham operation or bilateral ovariectomy. After surgery, they were divided into the following four groups: 1) sham-operated sedentary (S), 2) sham-operated exercise training (SE), 3) OVX sedentary (O), 4) OVX exercise training (OE) 5) OVX given 17β-estradiol (OE2) and 6) OVX exercise training and given 17β-estradiol (OEE). SE, OE and OEE rats were used extremely high-intensity swim exercise. The rats repeated fourteen 20-s swimming bouts with a weight equivalent to 14, 15, and 16% of body weight for the first 5, the next 9, and the last 5 days, respectively. Between exercise bouts, a 10-s pause was allowed. HIT was originally designed as an exercise method; a method that very quickly induces an increase in the maximum oxygen intake (Tabata I et al., 1996). OEE and OE2 rats were subcutaneously injected ethanol with 25μg/kg body weight 17β-estradiol 3 times per week. Bone strength, bone mineral density and trabecular bone parameters were measured after a 8-weeks experimental period. Bone strength was significantly higher in the SE, OE, OE2 and OEE group compared with the O group. BV/TV was significant increase in the SE, OE groups compared with the O group. BMD showed no difference in the OE group compared with the O group. This study demonstrate some beneficial effects of postmenopausal osteoporosis of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on bone structure and strength.

  2. Effects of high-intensity swimming training on the bones of ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taewoong; Tanaka, Sakura; Naka, Tatsuki; Igawa, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the effects of high-intensity intermittent swimming training(HIT) on bone in ovariectomized rats. [Methods] Six-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either sham operation or bilateral ovariectomy. After surgery, they were divided into the following four groups: 1) sham-operated sedentary (S), 2) sham-operated exercise training (SE), 3) OVX sedentary (O), 4) OVX exercise training (OE) 5) OVX given 17β-estradiol (OE2) and 6) OVX exercise training and given 17β-estradiol (OEE). SE, OE and OEE rats were used extremely high-intensity swim exercise. The rats repeated fourteen 20-s swimming bouts with a weight equivalent to 14, 15, and 16% of body weight for the first 5, the next 9, and the last 5 days, respectively. Between exercise bouts, a 10-s pause was allowed. HIT was originally designed as an exercise method; a method that very quickly induces an increase in the maximum oxygen intake (Tabata I et al., 1996). OEE and OE2 rats were subcutaneously injected ethanol with 25μg/kg body weight 17β-estradiol 3 times per week. [Results] Bone strength, bone mineral density and trabecular bone parameters were measured after a 8-weeks experimental period. Bone strength was significantly higher in the SE, OE, OE2 and OEE group compared with the O group. BV/TV was significant increase in the SE, OE groups compared with the O group. BMD showed no difference in the OE group compared with the O group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrate some beneficial effects of postmenopausal osteoporosis of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on bone structure and strength. PMID:27757386

  3. Relearning of Writing Skills in Parkinson's Disease After Intensive Amplitude Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Evelien; Heremans, Elke; Vervoort, Griet; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Swinnen, Stephan P; Vandenberghe, Wim; Bergmans, Bruno; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Micrographia occurs in approximately 60% of people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although handwriting is an important task in daily life, it is not clear whether relearning and consolidation (ie the solid storage in motor memory) of this skill is possible in PD. The objective was to conduct for the first time a controlled study into the effects of intensive motor learning to improve micrographia in PD. In this placebo-controlled study, 38 right-handed people with PD were randomized into 2 groups, receiving 1 of 2 equally time-intensive training programs (30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks). The experimental group (n = 18) performed amplitude training focused at improving writing size. The placebo group (n = 20) received stretch and relaxation exercises. Participants' writing skills were assessed using a touch-sensitive writing tablet and a pen-and-paper test, pre- and posttraining, and after a 6-week retention period. The primary outcome was change in amplitude during several tests of consolidation: (1) transfer, using trained and untrained sequences performed with and without target zones; and (2) automatization, using single- and dual-task sequences. The group receiving amplitude training significantly improved in amplitude and variability of amplitude on the transfer and automatization task. Effect sizes varied between 7% and 17%, and these benefits were maintained after the 6-week retention period. Moreover, there was transfer to daily life writing. These results show automatization, transfer, and retention of increased writing size (diminished micrographia) after intensive amplitude training, indicating that consolidation of motor learning is possible in PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  4. A review of adolescent high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Greig R M; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Schofield, Grant

    2014-08-01

    Despite the promising evidence supporting positive effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the metabolic profile in adults, there is limited research targeting adolescents. Given the rising burden of chronic disease, it is essential to implement strategies to improve the cardiometabolic health in adolescence, as this is a key stage in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviours. This narrative review summarises evidence of the relative efficacy of HIIT regarding the metabolic health of adolescents. Methodological inconsistencies confound our ability to draw conclusions; however, there is meaningful evidence supporting HIIT as a potentially efficacious exercise modality for use in the adolescent cohort. Future research must examine the effects of various HIIT protocols to determine the optimum strategy to deliver cardiometabolic health benefits. Researchers should explicitly show between-group differences for HIIT intervention and steady-state exercise or control groups, as the magnitude of difference between HIIT and other exercise modalities is of key interest to public health. There is scope for research to examine the palatability of HIIT as an exercise modality for adolescents through investigating perceived enjoyment during and after HIIT, and consequent long-term exercise adherence.

  5. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis-Gravel, Guillaume; Hayami, Douglas; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Élise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effects of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and Mediterranean diet (MedD) counseling on glycemic control parameters, insulin resistance and β-cell function in obese subjects. The glycemic control parameters (fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin), insulin resistance, and β-cell function of 72 obese subjects (54 women; mean age = 53 ± 9 years) were assessed at baseline and upon completion of a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention program conducted at the cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation center of the Montreal Heart Institute, from 2009 to 2012. The program included 2-3 weekly supervised exercise training sessions (HIIT and resistance exercise), combined to MedD counseling. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mmol/L) (before: 5.5 ± 0.9; after: 5.2 ± 0.6; P fasting insulin (pmol/L) (before: 98 ± 57; after: 82 ± 43; P = 0.003), and insulin resistance, as assessed by the HOMA-IR score (before: 3.6 ± 2.5; after: 2.8 ± 1.6; P = 0.0008) significantly improved, but not HbA1c (%) (before: 5.72 ± 0.55; after: 5.69 ± 0.39; P = 0.448), nor β-cell function (HOMA-β, %) (before: 149 ± 78; after: 144 ± 75; P = 0.58). Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.

  6. Long-term efficacy of intensive cycle ergometer exercise training program for advanced COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Nittaya Phetsuk, Chalerm Liwsrisakun, Chaiwat Bumroongkit, Athavudh Deesomchok, Theerakorn Theerakittikul, Atikun Limsukon Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Exercise training has been incorporated into the international guidelines for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the long-term efficacy of the training program for patients with advanced COPD has never been evaluated in Thailand. Purpose: To determine the long-term efficacy of intensive cycle ergometer exercise program on various clinical parameters of patients with advanced COPD. Materials and methods: The patients with advanced COPD were separated into two groups: the intensive ergometer exercise program group and the control group. The clinical parameters of all the patients were assessed at baseline, every month for the first 3 months, and then every 3 months until they had completed the 24-month follow-up. Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare baseline mean differences between the groups. Repeated measure analysis was applied to determine the progress in all parameters during the entire follow-up period. Mean incase imputation method was applied to estimate the parameters of dropout cases. Results: A total of 41 patients were enrolled: 27 in the intensive ergometer exercise program group and 14 in the control group. The intensive cycle ergometer exercise program group showed statistically significant improvements in muscle strength (from month 1 till the end of the study, month 24, endurance time (from month 1 till the end of measurement, month 12 and clinically significant improvements in 6-minute walk distance (from month 2 until month 9, dyspnea severity by transitional dyspnea index (from month 1 till the end of the study, month 24, and quality of life (from month 1 till the end of

  7. Mean-field thalamocortical modeling of longitudinal EEG acquired during intensive meditation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggar, Manish; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-07-01

    Meditation training has been shown to enhance attention and improve emotion regulation. However, the brain processes associated with such training are poorly understood and a computational modeling framework is lacking. Modeling approaches that can realistically simulate neurophysiological data while conforming to basic anatomical and physiological constraints can provide a unique opportunity to generate concrete and testable hypotheses about the mechanisms supporting complex cognitive tasks such as meditation. Here we applied the mean-field computational modeling approach using the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) collected at three assessment points from meditating participants during two separate 3-month-long shamatha meditation retreats. We modeled cortical, corticothalamic, and intrathalamic interactions to generate a simulation of EEG signals recorded across the scalp. We also present two novel extensions to the mean-field approach that allow for: (a) non-parametric analysis of changes in model parameter values across all channels and assessments; and (b) examination of variation in modeled thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) connectivity over the retreat period. After successfully fitting whole-brain EEG data across three assessment points within each retreat, two model parameters were found to replicably change across both meditation retreats. First, after training, we observed an increased temporal delay between modeled cortical and thalamic cells. This increase provides a putative neural mechanism for a previously observed reduction in individual alpha frequency in these same participants. Second, we found decreased inhibitory connection strength between the TRN and secondary relay nuclei (SRN) of the modeled thalamus after training. This reduction in inhibitory strength was found to be associated with increased dynamical stability of the model. Altogether, this paper presents the first computational approach, taking core aspects of physiology and

  8. The effect of progressive high-intensity inspiratory muscle training and fixed high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Nan-Soo

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-one stroke patients were assigned to one of three groups: progressive load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 8), fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 6), and controls (n = 7). [Methods] The progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training participants undertook an exercise program for 20 minutes, three times weekly, for 6 weeks. After each session, diaphragm thickness was measured using ultrasonography. The diaphragm asymmetry ratio and diaphragm thickening ratio were standardized using a formula. [Results] After intervention, the diaphragm asymmetry ratio significantly differed among the three groups, and the diaphragm asymmetry ratio significantly increased in the control group. A significant increase was identified in the diaphragm thickening ratio within the progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training groups. [Conclusion] Progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training decreased the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients; this effect, in turn, increased the diaphragm thickening ratio in stroke patients. The two interventions examined here should be selectively applied to individuals in the clinical field.

  9. Effect of low-intensity training on transient kinetics of pulmonary oxygen uptake during moderate-intensity cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, A; Arima, S; Mitsuzono, R; Hirakoba, K

    2015-10-01

    It is unclear whether the slowed time constant of phase II in pulmonary oxygen uptake on-kinetics (V̇O2τ) in unfit and inactive men would be shortened by low exercise intensity (low-intensity) walking training. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the slowed V̇O2τ in sedentary population would speed up due to low-intensity walking training with high volume. Ten unfit and inactive male subjects (aged 26 to 50 yrs) underwent a low-intensity (30-40% of V̇O2max), long-duration (>60 min) training in the form of walking exercise 3-4 times a week for 12 weeks. We prospectively collected data on anthropometric, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), time constant of heart rate (HRτ) and V̇O2τ before training (0 wk; Pre) and every six weeks (6 wk; Mid, 12 wk; Post) from the beginning of the training. Anthropometric variables and V̇O2max showed no significant changes throughout the training program, whereas HRτ showed a tendency to be shortened with a progress of the training with no significant change. The slowed V̇O2τ at Pre (47.6±5.6 s) remained almost unchanged at Mid (48.8±4.9 s), but had a significant decrease at Post (40.5±7.9 s, Poxygen delivery to oxygen utilization at the site of gas exchange in active muscle tissue. We concluded that low-intensity walking training at beginning stage of training could contribute to the acceleration of the slowed V̇O2τ in unfit and inactive subjects.

  10. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leighton; Tiller, Nicholas B; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery and prevalence of entrainment in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. Thirteen male runners (Mage=20.2±1.9years; BMI=21.7±1.7; V̇O2 max=61.6±6.1mL·kg·min(-1)) completed three exercise sessions comprising 5×5-min bouts of high-intensity intervals interspersed with 3-min periods of passive recovery. During recovery, participants were administered positively-valenced music of a slow-tempo (55-65bpm), fast-tempo (125-135bpm), or a no-music control. A range of measures including affective responses, RPE, cardiorespiratory indices (gas exchange and pulmonary ventilation), and music tempo-respiratory entrainment were recorded during exercise and recovery. Fast-tempo, positively-valenced music resulted in higher Feeling Scale scores throughout recovery periods (p<0.01, ηp(2)=0.38). There were significant differences in HR during initial recovery periods (p<0.05, ηp(2)=0.16), but no other music-moderated differences in cardiorespiratory responses. In conclusion, fast-tempo, positively-valenced music applied during recovery periods engenders a more pleasant experience. However, there is limited evidence that music expedites cardiorespiratory recovery in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. These findings have implications for athletic training strategies and individuals seeking to make high-intensity exercise sessions more pleasant.

  11. Assessing the assessment in emergency care training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E W Dankbaar

    Full Text Available Each year over 1.5 million health care professionals attend emergency care courses. Despite high stakes for patients and extensive resources involved, little evidence exists on the quality of assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of commonly used formats in assessing emergency care skills.Residents were assessed at the end of a 2-week emergency course; a subgroup was videotaped. Psychometric analyses were conducted to assess the validity and inter-rater reliability of the assessment instrument, which included a checklist, a 9-item competency scale and a global performance scale.A group of 144 residents and 12 raters participated in the study; 22 residents were videotaped and re-assessed by 8 raters. The checklists showed limited validity and poor inter-rater reliability for the dimensions "correct" and "timely" (ICC = .30 and.39 resp.. The competency scale had good construct validity, consisting of a clinical and a communication subscale. The internal consistency of the (subscales was high (α = .93/.91/.86. The inter-rater reliability was moderate for the clinical competency subscale (.49 and the global performance scale (.50, but poor for the communication subscale (.27. A generalizability study showed that for a reliable assessment 5-13 raters are needed when using checklists, and four when using the clinical competency scale or the global performance scale.This study shows poor validity and reliability for assessing emergency skills with checklists but good validity and moderate reliability with clinical competency or global performance scales. Involving more raters can improve the reliability substantially. Recommendations are made to improve this high stakes skill assessment.

  12. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Jacob S; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor; Astorino, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (pHIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.

  13. Is upper limb virtual reality training more intensive than conventional training for patients in the subacute phase after stroke? An analysis of treatment intensity and content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Iris; Skouen, Jan Sture; Hofstad, Håkon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Virtual reality (VR) training is thought to improve upper limb (UL) motor function after stroke when utilizing intensive training with many repetitions. The purpose of this study was to compare intensity and content of a VR training intervention to a conventional task...... and graphical methods were used. Results: Patients in the VR group spent significantly more time actively practicing with an activity rate of 77.6 (8.9) % than patients in the CT 67.3 (13.9) %, (p = .003). This difference was attributed to the subgroup of patients with initially severe paresis (n = 22). While...

  14. THE EFFECTS OF REFLECTIVE TEACHING ON AN INTENSIVE TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Hua Lan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The preliminary case study was conducted to understand the effects of reflective teaching approach on English teachers' teaching performances in a short-term intensive teacher training program, and to know the participating English teachers’ feedback to the program. Totally 13 English teachers, who had taught English for 1 to 5 years, participated in this program for 3 weeks with 54 instruction hours. During the intensive program, teachers were asked to design lesson plans and demonstrate their lessons, while their peers, other experienced teachers, provided them with constructive feedback. In addition, the presenters self-assessed and reflected on their own teaching. Through several cycles of teaching demonstrations, peer-assessments, self-assessments and reflections, most teachers indicated that the reflective teaching approach was beneficial for sharpening their teaching skills, equipping them with additional teaching strategies and class management skills, and raising their awareness of the needs for examinations of their teaching reflectively in the future, and the importance of reflection of their own teaching for improvements. To give the teachers more inputs and inspirations, experienced teachers with creative teaching ideas were invited as guest speakers, and positive feedback to the guest speeches was also drawn. The findings of this study were expected to provide some pedagogical inspirations for the related fields, especially English teacher training in EFL contexts.

  15. An Investigation of the Intensity of Work Required to Elicit a Training Effect in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentswieg, Joel; Burrhus, Paulette

    Thirty volunteer college women are randomly assigned to different work intensities to determine the threshold of cardiovascular training for young, untrained women. A Quinton 607 Heartrate Controller maintined the specified work intensity on a treadmill. Training consisted of 15 minutes of work, three times per week for one month. Workload was…

  16. EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING AND CONTINUOUS ENDURANCE TRAINING ON AEROBIC CAPACITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuno Hottenrott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17 or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17 for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min-1.kg-1], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h-1] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min-1.kg-1], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h-1] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01. Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.36. Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63. Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners

  17. Assessing the Assessment: Rubrics Training for Pre-Service and New In-Service Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Lovorn

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies report that the use of rubrics may not improve the reliability of assessment if raters are not well trained on how to design and employ them effectively. The intent of this two-phase study was to test if training pre-service and new in-service teachers in the construction, use, and evaluation of rubrics would improve the reliability of their evaluations of writing assignments. Results of Phase 1 showed that raters were significantly influenced by mechanical characteristics of students' writing, and that using rubrics may not improve the reliability of assessment attributes if raters are not well trained on how to design and employ them effectively. Researchers asserted that without high quality, intense training, participants (N=355 who use rubrics to assess students' writing are usually just as subjective in their evaluative marks as those who do not use rubrics. In Phase 2, participants (N=55 received intense rubrics training prior to being presented with the two writing samples. Results of Phase 2 showed that rubrics training led to more reliable assessment of both writing samples.

  18. Aerobic and anaerobic changes with high-intensity interval training in active college-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Ewa; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Łuszczyk, Marcin; Laskowski, Radoslaw; Olek, Robert A; Gibson, Ann L

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the aerobic and anaerobic benefits of high-intensity interval training performed at a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 because little performance enhancement data exist based on this ratio. Recreationally active male volunteers (21 years, 184 cm, 81.5 kg) were randomly assigned to a training (interval training [IT] n = 10) or control group (n = 11). Baseline assessments were repeated after the last training session. Each participant underwent basic anthropometric assessment and performed a VO2max test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer and a 30-second Wingate test. Venous samples were acquired at the antecubital vein and subsequently processed for lactate (LA); samples were obtained at rest, and 5 and 15-minute post-Wingate test. The interval training used a cycling power output equivalent to 80% of VO2max (80% p VO2max) applied for 6 90-second bouts (each followed by 180-second rest) per session, 3 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. The control group maintained their normal routine for the 6-week period. Group × time repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that IT improved VO2max (5.5 ml · kg(-1) · min), anaerobic threshold (3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min), work output (12.5 J · kg(-1)), glycolytic work (11.5 J · kg(-1)), mean power (0.3 W · kg), peak power (0.4 W · kg(-1)), and max power (0.4 W · kg(-1)); p training program may rapidly restore or improve a client's or athlete's maximal functional capacity.

  19. Is High Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)/CrossFit® Safe for Military Fitness Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S.C.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Heinrich, Katie M.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Batchelor, David B.

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity functional training (HIFT) is a promising fitness paradigm that gained popularity among military populations. Rather than biasing workouts toward maximizing fitness domains such as aerobic endurance, HIFT workouts are designed to promote general physical preparedness. HIFT programs have proliferated due to concerns about the relevance of traditional physical training (PT), which historically focused on aerobic condition via running. Other concerns about traditional PT include: 1) the relevance of service fitness tests given current combat demands; 2) the perception that military PT is geared toward passing service fitness tests; and 3) that training for combat requires more than just aerobic endurance. Despite its’ popularity in the military, concerns have been raised about HIFT’s injury potential, leading to some approaches being labeled as “extreme conditioning programs” by several military and civilian experts. Given HIFT programs’ popularity in the military and concerns about injury, a review of data on HIFT injury potential is needed to inform military policy. The purpose of this review is to: 1) provide an overview of scientific methods used to appropriately compare injury rates among fitness activities; and 2) evaluate scientific data regarding HIFT injury risk compared to traditional military PT and other accepted fitness activities PMID:27391615

  20. Is High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)/CrossFit Safe for Military Fitness Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S C; Haddock, Christopher K; Heinrich, Katie M; Jahnke, Sara A; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Batchelor, David B

    2016-07-01

    High-intensity functional training (HIFT) is a promising fitness paradigm that gained popularity among military populations. Rather than biasing workouts toward maximizing fitness domains such as aerobic endurance, HIFT workouts are designed to promote general physical preparedness. HIFT programs have proliferated as a result of concerns about the relevance of traditional physical training (PT), which historically focused on aerobic condition via running. Other concerns about traditional PT include: (1) the relevance of service fitness tests given current combat demands, (2) the perception that military PT is geared toward passing service fitness tests, and (3) that training for combat requires more than just aerobic endurance. Despite its' popularity in the military, concerns have been raised about HIFT's injury potential, leading to some approaches being labeled as "extreme conditioning programs" by several military and civilian experts. Given HIFT programs' popularity in the military and concerns about injury, a review of data on HIFT injury potential is needed to inform military policy. The purpose of this review is to: (1) provide an overview of scientific methods used to appropriately compare injury rates among fitness activities and (2) evaluate scientific data regarding HIFT injury risk compared to traditional military PT and other accepted fitness activities.

  1. Supplemental Oxygen During High-Intensity Exercise Training in Nonhypoxemic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Steidle-Kloc, Eva; Weiss, Gertraud; Kaiser, Bernhard; Niederseer, David; Hartl, Sylvia; Tschentscher, Marcus; Egger, Andreas; Schönfelder, Martin; Lamprecht, Bernd; Studnicka, Michael; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-11-01

    Physical exercise training is an evidence-based treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients' peak work rate is associated with reduced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality. We assessed whether supplemental oxygen during exercise training in nonhypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease might lead to superior training outcomes, including improved peak work rate. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial. Twenty-nine patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aged 63.5 ± 5.9 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted, 46.4 ± 8.6) completed 2 consecutive 6-week periods of endurance and strength training with progressive intensity, which was performed 3 times per week with supplemental oxygen or compressed medical air (flow via nasal cannula: 10 L/min). Each session of electrocardiography-controlled interval cycling lasted 31 minutes and consisted of a warm-up, 7 cycles of 1-minute intervals at 70% to 80% of peak work rate alternating with 2 minutes of active recovery, and final cooldown. Thereafter, patients completed 8 strength-training exercises of 1 set each with 8 to 15 repetitions to failure. Change in peak work rate was the primary study end point. The increase in peak work rate was more than twice as high when patients exercised with supplemental oxygen compared with medical air (0.16 ± 0.02 W/kg vs 0.07 ± 0.02 W/kg; P exercise capacity. The impact of oxygen on peak work rate was 39.1% of the overall training effect, whereas it had no influence on strength gain (P > .1 for all exercises). We report that supplemental oxygen in nonhypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease doubled the effect of endurance training but had no effect on strength gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of preseason concurrent muscular strength and high-intensity interval training in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pui-lam; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Dellal, Alexandre; Wisloff, Ulrik

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the effect of concurrent muscular strength and high-intensity running interval training on professional soccer players' explosive performances and aerobic endurance. Thirty-nine players participated in the study, where both the experimental group (EG, n = 20) and control group (CG, n = 19) participated in 8 weeks of regular soccer training, with the EG receiving additional muscular strength and high-intensity interval training twice per week throughout. Muscular strength training consisted of 4 sets of 6RM (repetition maximum) of high-pull, jump squat, bench press, back half squat, and chin-up exercises. The high-intensity interval training consisted of 16 intervals each of 15-second sprints at 120% of individual maximal aerobic speed interspersed with 15 seconds of rest. EG significantly increased (p aerobic speed test, and maximal aerobic speed. High-intensity interval running can be concurrently performed with high load muscular strength training to enhance soccer players' explosive performances and aerobic endurance.

  3. Resistance training and detraining effects on flexibility performance in the elderly are intensity-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, Ioannis G; Kambas, Antonios; Katrabasas, Ioannis; Leontsini, Diamanda; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Douroudos, Ioannis; Aggelousis, Nikolaos; Taxildaris, Kiriakos

    2006-08-01

    The present investigation attempted to determine whether resistance exercise intensity affects flexibility and strength performance in the elderly following a 6-month resistance training and detraining period. Fifty-eight healthy, inactive older men (65- 78 yrs) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: a control group (C, n = 10), a low-intensity resistance training group (LI, n = 14, 40% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), a moderate-intensity resistance training group (MI, n = 12, 60% of 1RM), or a high-intensity resistance training group (HI, n = 14, 80% of 1RM). Subjects in exercise groups followed a 3 days per week, whole-body (10 exercises, 3 sets per exercise) protocol for 24 weeks. Training was immediately followed by a 24-week detraining period. Strength (bench and leg press 1RM) and range of motion in trunk, elbow, knee, shoulder, and hip joints were measured at baseline and during training and detraining. Resistance training increased upper- (34% in LI, 48% in MI, and 75% in HI) and lower-body strength (38% in LI, 53% in MI, and 63% in HI) in an intensity-dependent manner. Flexibility demonstrated an intensity-dependent enhancement (3-12% in LI, 6-22% in MI, and 8-28% in HI). Detraining caused significant losses in strength (70-98% in LI, 44-50% in MI, and 27-29% in HI) and flexibility (90-110% in LI, 30-71% in MI, and 23-51% in HI) in an intensity-dependent manner. Results indicate that resistance training by itself improves flexibility in the aged. However, intensities greater than 60% of 1RM are more effective in producing flexibility gains, and strength improvement with resistance training is also intensity-dependent. Detraining seems to reverse training strength and flexibility gains in the elderly in an intensity-dependent manner.

  4. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Larsson, Tanja Hultengren; Jørgensen, Majke;

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT c...

  5. Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

    2010-01-01

    Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its...... way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...... of the muscle and finally how will this affect the performance of the athlete. In addition, the review will deal with muscle hypertrophy and how it develops with strength training. Overall, it is not the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive up-date of the area, but to pin-point a few issues from which...

  6. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess trihalomethane exposures during competitive swimming training.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrom, A B; Pleil, J D; Berkoff, D C

    1997-01-01

    Alveolar breath sampling was used to assess trihalomethane (THM) exposures encountered by collegiate swimmers during a typical 2-hr training period in an indoor natatorium. The breath samples were collected at regular intervals before, during, and for 3 hr after a moderately intense training workout. Integrated and grab whole-air samples were collected during the training period to help determine inhalation exposures, and pool water samples were collected to help assess dermal exposures. Resu...

  7. Cardiac autonomic function and high-intensity interval training in middle-age men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Antti M; Tulppo, Mikko P; Eskelinen, Joonas J; Savolainen, Anna M; Kapanen, Jukka; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Huikuri, Heikki V; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2014-10-01

    The effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIT) on cardiac autonomic function are unclear. The present study assessed cardiac autonomic adaptations to short-term HIT in comparison with aerobic endurance training (AET). Twenty-six healthy middle-age sedentary men were randomized into HIT (n = 13, 4-6 × 30 s of all-out cycling efforts with 4-min recovery) and AET (n = 13, 40-60 min at 60% of peak workload) groups, performing six sessions within 2 wk. The participants underwent a 24-h ECG recording before and after the intervention and, additionally, recorded R-R interval data in supine position (5 min) at home every morning during the intervention. Mean HR and low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) power of R-R interval oscillation were analyzed from these recordings. Peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) increased in both groups (P training, most probably by inducing larger increases in cardiac vagal activity. The acute autonomic responses to the single HIT session were not modified by short-term training.

  8. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  9. Early skeletal muscle hypertrophy and architectural changes in response to high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seynnes, O R; de Boer, M; Narici, M V

    2007-01-01

    The onset of whole muscle hypertrophy in response to overloading is poorly documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the early changes in muscle size and architecture during a 35-day high-intensity resistance training (RT) program. Seven young healthy volunteers performed bilateral leg extension three times per week on a gravity-independent flywheel ergometer. Cross-sectional area (CSA) in the central (C) and distal (D) regions of the quadriceps femoris (QF), muscle architecture, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and electromyographic (EMG) activity were measured before and after 10, 20, and 35 days of RT. By the end of the training period, MVC and EMG activity increased by 38.9 +/- 5.7 and 34.8% +/- 4.7%, respectively. Significant increase in QF CSA (3.5 and 5.2% in the C and D regions, respectively) was observed after 20 days of training, along with a 2.4 +/- 0.7% increase in fascicle length from the 10th day of training. By the end of the 35-day training period, the total increase in QF CSA for regions C and D was 6.5 +/- 1.1 and 7.4 +/- 0.8%, respectively, and fascicle length and pennation angle increased by 9.9 +/- 1.2 and 7.7 +/- 1.3%, respectively. The results show for the first time that changes in muscle size are detectable after only 3 wk of RT and that remodeling of muscle architecture precedes gains in muscle CSA. Muscle hypertrophy seems to contribute to strength gains earlier than previously reported; flywheel training seems particularly effective for inducing these early structural adaptations.

  10. Weekly Time Course of Neuro-Muscular Adaptation to Intensive Strength Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Brown

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed description of the time course of muscular adaptation is rarely found in literature. Thus, models of muscular adaptation are difficult to validate since no detailed data of adaptation are available. In this article, as an initial step toward a detailed description and analysis of muscular adaptation, we provide a case report of 8 weeks of intense strength training with two active, male participants. Muscular adaptations were analyzed on a morphological level with MRI scans of the right quadriceps muscle and the calculation of muscle volume, on a voluntary strength level by isometric voluntary contractions with doublet stimulation (interpolated twitch technique and on a non-voluntary level by resting twitch torques. Further, training volume and isokinetic power were closely monitored during the training phase. Data were analyzed weekly for 1 week prior to training, pre-training, 8 weeks of training and 2 weeks of detraining (no strength training. Results show a very individual adaptation to the intense strength training protocol. While training volume and isokinetic power increased linearly during the training phase, resting twitch parameters decreased for both participants after the first week of training and stayed below baseline until de-training. Voluntary activation level showed an increase in the first 4 weeks of training, while maximum voluntary contraction showed only little increase compared to baseline. Muscle volume increased for both subjects. Especially training status seemed to influence the acute reaction to intense strength training. Fatigue had a major influence on performance and could only be overcome by one participant. The results give a first detailed insight into muscular adaptation to intense strength training on various levels, providing a basis of data for a validation of muscle fatigue and adaptation models.

  11. Effect of low- intensity continuous training on lung function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sci

    training (20-30 minutes of running at 40% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Lung function and .... index and the correlation index. Recovery index = Regression index x correlation Index ..... Fitness Parameters in Athletes. World Applied ...

  12. Clinical risk assessment in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asefzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical risk management focuses on improving the quality and safety of health care services by identifying the circumstances and opportunities that put patients at risk of harm and acting to prevent or control those risks. The goal of this study is to identify and assess the failure modes in the ICU of Qazvin′s Social Security Hospital (Razi Hospital through Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA. Methods: This was a qualitative-quantitative research by Focus Discussion Group (FDG performed in Qazvin Province, Iran during 2011. The study population included all individuals and owners who are familiar with the process in ICU. Sampling method was purposeful and the FDG group members were selected by the researcher. The research instrument was standard worksheet that has been used by several researchers. Data was analyzed by FMEA technique. Results: Forty eight clinical errors and failure modes identified, results showed that the highest risk probability number (RPN was in respiratory care "Ventilator′s alarm malfunction (no alarm" with the score 288, and the lowest was in gastrointestinal "not washing the NG-Tube" with the score 8. Conclusions: Many of the identified errors can be prevented by group members. Clinical risk assessment and management is the key to delivery of effective health care.

  13. Assessment of intensity effort of middle-aged adults practicing regular walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson A. Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Walking is one of the most commonly recommended activities for sedentary individuals. When performed at the correct intensity, it can provide cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, and other benefits by providing a training effect in addition to reducing the risk of death from cardiovascular diseases and other chronic health conditions. Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to assess whether individuals who practiced regular unsupervised walking carry out the activity safely and with sufficient effort intensity parameters to have a positive physiological (training effect. The secondary objective was to compare the training heart rate (HR and the stability of the HR within the ideal range of training between the sexes. Method: Individuals were selected from walking tracks within the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The study included subjects from 40 to 60 years of age who had practiced walking for at least two months prior to the study, walking at least three times a week. Individuals who agreed to participate in the survey were asked to walk 15 minutes at their usual pace with their HR measured every 5 minutes using a heart rate monitor. Their average walking HR was compared to the average training HR based on the formula: (220 - age × 70 to 80% that would result in a positive physiological training effect. Results: Of the 142 individuals evaluated, 25.4% achieved the average training HR. This result was significantly lower than those who did not achieve the average training HR while walking (p=0.002. There were significant differences between men and women who had reached the training HR (p=0.0001. Conclusion: The authors found that individuals who walk regularly performed outside the range of the ideal HR intensity that would cause a positive physiological effect and therefore would probably not achieve a beneficial training effect while walking.

  14. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Stephanie M; Taryn M. Hand; D. Enette Larson-Meyer; Kathleen J. Austin; Alexander, Brenda M.; Melinda M. Manore

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity ...

  15. Mapping and assessing clinical handover training interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Boshuizen, Els; Groene, Oliver; Van der Klink, Marcel; Kicken, Wendy; Drachsler, Hendrik; Barach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., Boshuizen, H. P. A., Groene, O., Van der Klink, M., Kicken, W., Drachsler, H., & Barach, P. (2012). Mapping and assessing clinical handover training interventions. British Medical Journal Quality & Safety, 21, i50-i57. doi:10.1136/bmjqs-2012-001169

  16. Assessment of delirium in the intensive care unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delirium is a prevalent problem in the intensive care unit (ICU),1–4 with an associated ... central nervous system; assessment of delirium impaired by lack of verbal ..... processed by the South Africa National Health Laboratory Service. Table 4: ...

  17. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy versus intensive bimanual training for children with hemiplegia - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Wolfgang; Thuemmler, Kerstin; Fleischer, Judith; Berger, Claudia; Meyer, Susanne; Wiedemann, Baerbel

    2013-10-01

    To clarify whether modified constraint-induced movement therapy provides greater improvement than intensive bimanual training both for motor functions and spontaneous use of the paretic arm and hand in everyday life activities. Randomized controlled, single-blind trial. Inpatient paediatric rehabilitation clinic. Forty-seven children with unilateral cerebral palsy or other non-progressive hemiplegia (aged 3.3-11.4 years) were randomly assigned to either a modified constraint-induced movement programme (kid-CIMT) or intensive bimanual training. Patients in the kid-CIMT group received 60 hours of unilateral constraint-induced and 20 hours of bimanual training over four weeks. Patients in the bimanual treatment group received 80 hours of bimanual training over four weeks. Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function and Assisting Hand Assessment. Modified constraint-induced therapy provided a significantly better outcome for isolated motor functions of the paretic arm than bimanual training (gain in Melbourne Assessment, percent score: 6.6 vs. 2.3, P= 0.033). Regarding spontaneous use both methods led to similar improvement (gain in Assisting Hand Assessment, percent score: 6.2 vs. 4.6, P= 0.579). More-disabled children showed greater improvement than less-disabled ones (correlation with Assisting Hand Assessment pretreatment score r = -0.40). Age did not affect treatment outcome. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy can improve isolated functions of the hemiplegic arm better than intensive bimanual training, but regarding spontaneous hand use in everyday life both methods lead to similar improvement. Improvements are generally greater in more impaired children. Age does not affect outcome.

  18. Low-intensity resistance training attenuates dexamethasone-induced atrophy in the flexor hallucis longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Anderson G; Krug, André L O; Herrera, Naiara A; Zago, Anderson S; Rush, James W E; Amaral, Sandra L

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the potential protective effect of low-intensity resistance training (RT) against dexamethasone (DEX) treatment induced muscle atrophy. Rats underwent either an 8 week period of ladder climbing RT or remained sedentary. During the last 10 days of the exercise protocol, animals were submitted to a DEX treatment or a control saline injection. Muscle weights were assessed and levels of AKT, mTOR, FOXO3a, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 proteins were analyzed in flexor hallucis longus (FHL), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus muscles. DEX induced blood glucose increase (+46%), body weight reduction (-19%) and atrophy in FHL (-28%) and TA (-21%) muscles, which was associated with a decrease in AKT and an increase in MuRF-1 proteins levels. Low-intensity RT prevented the blood glucose increase, attenuated the FHL atrophy effects of DEX, and was associated with increased mTOR and reductions in Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in FHL. In contrast, TA muscle atrophy and signaling proteins were not affected by RT. These are the first data to demonstrate that low-intensity ladder-climbing RT specifically mitigates the FHL atrophy, which is the main muscle recruited during the training activity, while not preventing atrophy in other limb muscle not as heavily recruited. The recruitment-dependent prevention of atrophy by low intensity RT likely occurs by a combination of attenuated muscle protein degradation signals and enhanced muscle protein synthesis signals including mTOR, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive training during infancy and adolescence accelerates adult associative learning: critical impact of age, stimulus contingency and training intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruss, Michael; Abraham, Andreas; Schäble, Sandra; Becker, Susann; Braun, Katharina

    2010-10-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that juvenile cognitive training shapes neural networks and behavior, and thereby determines the adult's capacity for learning and memory. In particular, we have shown that infant rats, even though they do not develop an active avoidance strategy in a two-way active avoidance task, show as adults accelerated learning in the same learning task. This indicates that a memory trace was formed in the infant rats, which most likely is recruited during adult training. To identify the learning conditions, which are essential prerequisites to form this memory trace in infancy or adolescence, we investigated the critical impact of: (i) age, (ii) CS-UCS contingency, and (iii) pre-training intensity on this facilitating effect. We observed: (i) an age-dependent improvement of avoidance learning, (ii) that the beneficial impact of infant or adolescent pre-training on adult learning increases with the age at pre-training, (iii) that CS-UCS contingency during infant pre-training was most efficient to accelerate adult learning, (iv) that pre-training intensity (i.e. number of pre-training trials) was positively correlated with the pre-training induced acceleration of adult learning, and (v) that infant rats, compared to adolescent rats, need a higher training intensity to show learning improvement as adults. These results indicate that infant rats develop a goal-oriented escape strategy, which during adult training is replaced by an avoidance strategy, facilitated by the recruitment of the CS-UCS association, which has been learned during infant training. Based on these results the future challenge will be to identify the specific contribution of prefronto-limbic circuits in infant and adult learning in relation to their functional maturation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intense Training as a Means to Improve Running Performance in Trained Runners and the Adaptation of Muscle Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper

    the period of increased frequency of SET, the value of combining an overload phase with tapering to improve 10-km performance is low. In line with the literature on "muscle memory", performing a second intervention of SET and a basic volume of aerobic training might have a greater impact on short...... compositions of intense training on performance, movement economy and muscular adaptations. The findings from the present PhD study suggest that performing intense training, in the form of speed endurance training (SET), for a relatively short period improves short and long-term performance. Both a prolonged...... period of SET as well as a period with increased frequency of SET improves short-term performance further, but a prolonged period does not extrapolate to further improved long-term performance not even if SET frequency is doubled. Short-term performance was better after 16 days of reduced training volume...

  1. High-intensity endurance training improves adiponectin mRNA and plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadasi, Mehrzad; Mohebbi, Hamid; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Hassan-Nia, Sadegh; Noroozi, Hamid; Pirooznia, Nazanin

    2012-04-01

    Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory protein that reduced in obesity. Exercise training may reduce the adipose tissue (AT), although it is not well known whether exercise-induced change in AT, increases the adiponectin mRNA expression and plasma concentrations or not; therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the adiponectin mRNA and plasma concentrations in middle-aged men after 12 weeks high-intensity exercise training and after a week detraining. Sixteen sedentary overweight and obese middle-aged men (age 41.18 ± 6.1 years; ± SD) volunteered to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to training group (n = 8) or control group (n = 8). The training group performed endurance training 4 days a week for 12 weeks at an intensity corresponding to 75-80% individual maximum oxygen consumption for 45 min. After 12 weeks of training, subjects underwent a week of detraining. The results showed that the BMI as well as central and peripheral AT volume were decreased in the training group compared to the control group (P training group resulted in a significant increase (P training compared to the control group (P training group. In conclusion, high-intensity endurance training caused an increase adiponectin mRNA in obese middle-aged men.

  2. EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Taha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postmenopausal hypertension is the most common risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As the exercises training conveys benefits of the setting of secondary prevention of hypertension. High intensity interval training (HIIT emerged as a new form of physical training and presents as therapeutic alternative to patients and health care professionals. This study aimed to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training on endothelial function in postmenopausal hypertension. Methods: Forty six mildly hypertensive postmenopausal women, their ages ranged from (45-55 years old, were randomly allocated to two groups: HIIT group (group-I; n=23 performed a high intensity interval training 3 times a week for 10 weeks at an intensity of (80-85% HR max for 40 minutes and control group (group-II; n=23 remains sedentary during this period. Serum nitric oxide (NO, vascular endothelial growth factor levels (VEGF and blood pressures were measured before and after intervention. Results: A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values by 9.5% and 7 % respectively, was seen after high intensity interval training which was accompanied by increase in NO and VEGF levels by 43.3% and 15.2 % respectively, while no significant change observed in the control group. Conclusion: High intensity interval training had obvious benefits in improving plasma No, VEGF concentrations and controlling hypertension in postmenopausal women.

  3. Aggravation of pulmonary diffusing capacity in highly trained athletes by 6 weeks of low-volume, low-intensity training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Olivier; Maimoun, Laurent; Coste, Olivier; Manetta, Jérôme; Boussana, Alain; Préfaut, Christian; Hue, Olivier

    2013-11-01

    Postexercise alveolar-capillary membrane-diffusing capacity (DLco) often decreases in highly trained endurance athletes and seems linked to their training status. To test the hypothesis that training status influences postexercise DLco, 13 male and 2 female triathletes (20.2 ± 4.4 y old, 175.2 ± 6.7 cm tall; weight in a range of 66.6 ± 7.4 kg to 67.4 ± 7.8 kg during the 1-y study) were randomized into experimental (n = 7) and control (n = 8) groups and performed VO(2max) cycle tests and simulated cycle-run successions (CR) of 30 min + 20 min after 3 periods in the competitive season. Both groups were tested before (pre- HTP) and after a 30-wk high-training period (HTP) with high training volume, intensity, and frequency. The experimental group was then also tested after a 6-wk low-training period (LTP) with low training volume, intensity, and frequency, while the control group continued training according to the HTP schedule for these 6 wk. Ventilatory data were collected continuously. DLco testing was performed before and 30, 60, and 120 min after the CR trials. Whatever the period or group, DLco was significantly decreased 30 min after CR, with a significantly greater decrease in the experimental group than the control group in LTP (-15.7% and -9.3% of DLco, respectively). Six weeks of low training volume and intensity were sufficient to reverse the effects of high training volume and intensity on the alveolar-capillary membrane after a CR succession in competitive triathletes.

  4. Gradually Increased Training Intensity Benefits Rehabilitation Outcome after Stroke by BDNF Upregulation and Stress Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical training is necessary for effective rehabilitation in the early poststroke period. Animal studies commonly use fixed training intensity throughout rehabilitation and without adapting it to the animals' recovered motor ability. This study investigated the correlation between training intensity and rehabilitation efficacy by using a focal ischemic stroke rat model. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion surgery. Sixty rats with successful stroke were then randomly assigned into four groups: control (CG, n=15, low intensity (LG, n=15, gradually increased intensity (GIG, n=15, and high intensity (HG, n=15. Behavioral tests were conducted daily to evaluate motor function recovery. Stress level and neural recovery were evaluated via plasma corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentration, respectively. GIG rats significantly (P<0.05 recovered motor function and produced higher hippocampal BDNF (112.87 ± 25.18 ng/g. GIG and LG rats exhibited similar stress levels (540.63 ± 117.40 nM/L and 508.07 ± 161.30 nM/L, resp., which were significantly lower (P<0.05 than that (716.90 ± 156.48 nM/L of HG rats. Training with gradually increased intensity achieved better recovery with lower stress. Our observations indicate that a training protocol that includes gradually increasing training intensity should be considered in both animal and clinical studies for better stroke recovery.

  5. Training and Assessment of Hysteroscopic Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savran, Mona Meral; Sørensen, Stine Maya Dreier; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    , of which 23 were performed in simulated settings. Overall, 10 studies used virtual-reality simulators and reported effect sizes for technical skills ranging from 0.31 to 2.65; 12 used inanimate models and reported effect sizes for technical skills ranging from 0.35 to 3.19. One study involved live animal...... on hysteroscopic educational interventions were selected without restrictions on study design, populations, language, or publication year. A qualitative data synthesis including the setting, study participants, training model, training characteristics, hysteroscopic skills, assessment parameters, and study...

  6. High-intensity exercise training for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training and diet are recommended for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that adults with prediabetes engage in ≥ 150 minutes per week of moderate activity and target a 7% weight loss. However, traditional moderate-intensity (MI) exercise training programs are often difficult to sustain for prediabetic adults; a commonly cited barrier to physical activity in this population is the "lack of time" to exercise. When matched for total energy expenditure, high-intensity (HI) exercise training has a lower overall time commitment compared with traditional low-intensity (LI) or MI exercise training. Several recent studies comparing HI exercise training with LI and MI exercise training reported that HI exercise training improves skeletal muscle metabolic control and cardiovascular function in a comparable and/or superior way relative to LI and MI exercise training. Although patients can accrue all exercise benefits by performing LI or MI activities such as walking, HI activities represent a time-efficient alternative to meeting physical activity guidelines. High-intensity exercise training is a potent tool for improving cardiometabolic risk for prediabetic patients with limited time and may be prescribed when appropriate.

  7. Moderate, but not vigorous, intensity exercise training reduces C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Michael V; Hathaway, Elizabeth D; Higgins, Simon; Forehand, Ronald L; Schmidt, Michael D; Evans, Ellen M

    2017-08-28

    Sprint interval cycle training is a contemporary popular mode of training but its relative efficacy, under conditions of matched energy expenditure, to reduce risk factors for cardiometabolic disease is incompletely characterised, especially in young women. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative efficacy of six weeks of moderate-intensity cycling (MOD-C) and vigorous sprint-interval cycling (VIG-SIC) on lipid profile, insulin (INS) and insulin resistance using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in inactive, overweight/obese (OW/OB) young women. Participants (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2), waist circumference ≥88 cm) were randomly assigned to MOD-C (20-30 min at 60-70% of heart rate reserve(HRR)) or VIG-SIC (5-7 repeated bouts 30-second maximal effort sprints, followed by four minutes of active recovery) supervised training three days/week for six weeks, with each group matched on energy expenditure. Adiposity (%Fat) was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Forty-four participants (20.4 ± 1.6 years, 65.9% Caucasian, 29.8 ± 4.1 kg/m(2)) were included in the analysis. The improvement in CRP observed in the MOD-C group was larger than the VIG-C group (p = .034). Overall, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels improved following training (p  .05). These results indicate MOD-C training may be more effective in reducing CRP than VIG-SIC.

  8. Physiological responses to successive days of intense training in competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, J P; Costill, D L; Flynn, M G; Mitchell, J B; Fink, W J; Neufer, P D; Houmard, J A

    1988-06-01

    To examine the physiological responses to successive days of intense training, 12 male collegiate swimmers doubled their training distance (4,266 +/- 264 to 8,970 +/- 161 m.d-1) while maintaining the intensity at approximately 95% VO2max for 10 d. Blood samples were obtained pre-exercise and immediately and 5 min after a sub-maximal (approximately 95% VO2max) front crawl swim (365.8 m) on days 0, 5, and 11. Swim performance was assessed from a maximal front crawl swim (365.8 m), two maximal front crawl sprints (22.9 m), and a semi-tethered swim power test. No significant changes were observed in performance. Pre-exercise serum cortisol (17.5 +/- 1.5, 19.5 +/- 1.6, and 20.6 +/- 1.2 micrograms.dl-1 for days 0, 5, and 11, respectively) and creatine kinase (56.2 +/- 7.7, 93.1 +/- 10.1, and 119.0 +/- 23.1 U.l-1 for days 0, 5, and 11, respectively) values were significantly elevated (P less than 0.05) on days 5 and 11 compared to day 0. Resting plasma catecholamine concentrations were higher but not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) at the end of the training period. Measurements of hemoglobin and hematocrit indicated a relative increase of 11.4 +/- 2.7% (P less than 0.05) in estimated plasma volume during the training period. Resting blood glucose values were unaffected by the training regimen while small but significant decreases in resting blood lactate values (1.01 +/- 0.06, 0.85 +/- 0.06, and 0.86 +/- 0.06 mmol.l-1 for days 0, 5, and 11, respectively) were observed on days 5 and 11. Resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure were not affected by the increased training load.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Feasibility and acceptability of a resilience training program for intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealer, Meredith; Conrad, David; Evans, John; Jooste, Karen; Solyntjes, Janet; Rothbaum, Barbara; Moss, Marc

    2014-11-01

    The critical nursing shortage is particularly apparent in specialty areas such as intensive care units (ICUs). Some nurses develop resilient coping strategies and adapt to stressful work experiences, mitigating the development of common maladaptive psychological symptoms. To determine if a multimodal resilience training program for ICU nurses was feasible to perform and acceptable to the study participants. In a randomized and controlled 12-week intervention study, treatment and control groups completed demographic questions and measures of resilience, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and burnout syndrome before and after the intervention. The intervention included a 2-day educational workshop, written exposure sessions, event-triggered counseling sessions, mindfulness-based stress reduction exercises, and a protocolized aerobic exercise regimen. Nurses in the intervention arm also completed satisfaction surveys for each component of the intervention. This mulitmodal resilience training program was feasible to conduct and acceptable to ICU nurses. Both nurses randomized to the treatment group and nurses randomized to the control group showed a significant decrease in PTSD symptom score after the intervention. A multifaceted resilience training program for ICU nurses was both feasible and acceptable. A sufficiently powered, randomized clinical trial is needed to assess the effect of the intervention on improving individuals' level of resilience and improving psychological outcomes such as symptoms of anxiety, depression, burnout syndrome, and PTSD. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  10. Intensive Training Induces Longitudinal Changes in Meditation State-related EEG Oscillatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish eSaggar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to focus one’s attention for an extended period of time can be increased through training in contemplative practices. However, the cognitive processes engaged during meditation that support trait changes in cognition are not well characterized. We conducted a longitudinal wait-list controlled study of intensive meditation training. Retreat participants practiced focused attention meditation techniques for three months during an initial retreat. Wait-list participants later undertook formally identical training during a second retreat. Dense-array scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG data were collected during six minutes of mindfulness of breathing meditation at three assessment points during each retreat. Second-order blind source separation, along with a novel semi-automatic artifact removal tool, was used for data preprocessing. We observed replicable reductions in meditative state-related beta-band power bilaterally over anteriocentral and posterior scalp regions. In addition, individual alpha frequency decreased across both retreats and in direct relation to the amount of meditative practice. These findings provide evidence for replicable longitudinal changes in brain oscillatory activity during meditation and increase our understanding of the cortical processes engaged during meditation that may support long-term improvements in cognition.

  11. Personalized metabolomics for predicting glucose tolerance changes in sedentary women after high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-08-28

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear. Herein, multi-segment injection capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is used as a high-throughput platform in metabolomics to assess dynamic responses of overweight/obese women (BMI > 25, n = 11) to standardized oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed before and after a 6-week HIIT intervention. Various statistical methods were used to classify plasma metabolic signatures associated with post-prandial glucose and/or training status when using a repeated measures/cross-over study design. Branched-chain/aromatic amino acids and other intermediates of urea cycle and carnitine metabolism decreased over time in plasma after oral glucose loading. Adaptive exercise-induced changes to plasma thiol redox and orthinine status were measured for trained subjects while at rest in a fasting state. A multi-linear regression model was developed to predict changes in glucose tolerance based on a panel of plasma metabolites measured for naïve subjects in their untrained state. Since treatment outcomes to physical activity are variable between-subjects, prognostic markers offer a novel approach to screen for potential negative responders while designing lifestyle modifications that maximize the salutary benefits of exercise for diabetes prevention on an individual level.

  12. The effect of nonpharmacological training on delirium identification and intervention strategies of intensive care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk Birge, Ayşegül; Tel Aydin, Hatice

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of nonpharmacological intervention training on delirium recognition and the intervention strategies of intensive care (ICU) nurses. This is a quasi-experimental study conducted using a pretest-posttest design. The study sample included a total of 95 patients staying in the medical ICU of a university hospital and 19 nurses working in these units. The data were collected using the Patient and Nurse Introduction, Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU, and Delirium Risk Factors, and Non-pharmacological Interventions in Delirium Prevention Forms. Delirium was identified in 26.5% and 20.9% of the patients in the pre- and posttraining phase, respectively. Patients with delirium had a longer duration of stay in the ICU, lower mean Glasgow Coma Scale score and a higher number of medications in daily treatment (pdelirium increased 8.5-fold by physical restriction and 3.4-fold by the presence of hypo/hypernatremia. The delirium recognition rate of nurses increased from 7.7% to 33.3% in the post-training phase. Our study results show that training can increase the efficiency of ICU nurses in the management of delirium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intensive training induces longitudinal changes in meditation state-related EEG oscillatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggar, Manish; King, Brandon G; Zanesco, Anthony P; Maclean, Katherine A; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Bridwell, David A; Shaver, Phillip R; Rosenberg, Erika L; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Ferrer, Emilio; Tang, Akaysha C; Mangun, George R; Wallace, B Alan; Miikkulainen, Risto; Saron, Clifford D

    2012-01-01

    The capacity to focus one's attention for an extended period of time can be increased through training in contemplative practices. However, the cognitive processes engaged during meditation that support trait changes in cognition are not well characterized. We conducted a longitudinal wait-list controlled study of intensive meditation training. Retreat participants practiced focused attention (FA) meditation techniques for three months during an initial retreat. Wait-list participants later undertook formally identical training during a second retreat. Dense-array scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) data were collected during 6 min of mindfulness of breathing meditation at three assessment points during each retreat. Second-order blind source separation, along with a novel semi-automatic artifact removal tool (SMART), was used for data preprocessing. We observed replicable reductions in meditative state-related beta-band power bilaterally over anteriocentral and posterior scalp regions. In addition, individual alpha frequency (IAF) decreased across both retreats and in direct relation to the amount of meditative practice. These findings provide evidence for replicable longitudinal changes in brain oscillatory activity during meditation and increase our understanding of the cortical processes engaged during meditation that may support long-term improvements in cognition.

  14. Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ) and mitochondrial content. This brief review considers the role of exercise intensity in mediating physiological adaptations to training, with a focus on the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism. With respect to skeletal muscle adaptations, cellular stress and the resultant metabolic signals for mitochondrial biogenesis depend largely on exercise intensity, with limited work suggesting that increases in mitochondrial content are superior after HIIT compared to MICT, at least when matched-work comparisons are made within the same individual. It is well established that SIT increases mitochondrial content to a similar extent to MICT despite a reduced exercise volume. At the whole-body level, V̇O2 max is generally increased more by HIIT than MICT for a given training volume, whereas SIT and MICT similarly improve V̇O2 max despite differences in training volume. There is less evidence available regarding the role of exercise intensity in mediating changes in skeletal muscle capillary density, maximum stroke volume and cardiac output, and blood volume. Furthermore, the interactions between intensity and duration and frequency have not been thoroughly explored. While interval training is clearly a potent stimulus for physiological remodelling in humans, the integrative response to this type of exercise warrants further attention, especially in comparison to traditional endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  15. Green tea consumption after intense taekwondo training enhances salivary defense factors and antibacterial capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuan-Pey Lin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg or an equal volume of water (W. Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W, immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W, and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W. Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA, lactoferrin, α-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and α-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, α-amylase activity and the ratio of α-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of α-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity.

  16. Effect of high-intensity hypoxic training on sea-level swimming performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truijens, M J; Toussaint, H M; Dow, J; Levine, B D

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that high-intensity hypoxic training improves sea-level performances more than equivalent training in normoxia. Sixteen well-trained collegiate and Masters swimmers (10 women, 6 men) completed a 5-wk training program, consisting of three high-intensity training sessions in a flume and supplemental low- or moderate-intensity sessions in a pool each week. Subjects were matched for gender, performance level, and training history, and they were assigned to either hypoxic [Hypo; inspired O2 fraction (Fi(O(2))) = 15.3%, equivalent to a simulated altitude of 2,500 m] or normoxic (Norm; Fi(O(2)) = 20.9%) interval training in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. All pool training occurred under Norm conditions. The primary performance measures were 100- and 400-m freestyle time trials. Laboratory outcomes included maximal O(2) uptake (Vo(2 max)), anaerobic capacity (accumulated O(2) deficit), and swimming economy. Significant (P = 0.02 and swimming performances and Vo(2 max) in well-trained swimmers, with no additive effect of hypoxic training.

  17. Training frequency and intensity in the rehabilitation of chronic nonspecific low back pain: an exploratory review

    OpenAIRE

    Verbrugghe, Jonas; Agten, Anouk; Smeets, Wout; Eijnde, Bert O.; Vandenabeele, Frank; Timmermans, Annick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain is one of the most frequently occurring musculoskeletal disorders1 and it causes the highest global disability rates compared to any other condition1. Exercise therapy can improve pain and disability in persons with nonspecific chronic low back pain (CNSLBP), however optimal training frequency and intensity for rehabilitation settings are not known2. Purpose/Aim The purpose of this review is 1) to inventory training frequencies and intensities that are us...

  18. Effect of high-intensity training on endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Mia; Krawcyk, Rikke Steen; Kruuse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exercise improves endothelial dysfunction, the key manifestation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and is recommended in both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular rehabilitation. Disagreement remains, however, on the role of intensity of exercise. The purpose of this review...... was to gather current knowledge on the effects of high-intensity training versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on endothelial function in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in PubMed database, Embase and Cochrane libraries and on PEDro using...... the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies were restricted to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients, and healthy subjects as general reference. Interventions comprised of high-intensity training alone, high-intensity training compared to moderate...

  19. Time-course changes of oxidative stress response to high-intensity discontinuous training versus moderate-intensity continuous training in masters runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vezzoli

    Full Text Available Beneficial systemic effects of regular physical exercise have been demonstrated to reduce risks of a number of age-related disorders. Antioxidant capacity adaptations are amongst these fundamental changes in response to exercise training. However, it has been claimed that acute physical exercise performed at high intensity (>60% of maximal oxygen uptake may result in oxidative stress, due to reactive oxygen species being generated excessively by enhanced oxygen consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT, characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on oxidative damage. Twenty long-distance masters runners (age 47.8 ± 7.8 yr on the basis of the individual values of gas exchange threshold were assigned to a different 8-weeks training program: continuous moderate-intensity training (MOD, n = 10 or HIDT (n = 10. In both groups before (PRE and after (POST training we examined the following oxidative damage markers: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as marker of lipid peroxidation; protein carbonyls (PC as marker of protein oxidation; 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OH-dG as a biomarker of DNA base modifications; and total antioxidant capacity (TAC as indicator of the overall antioxidant system. Training induced a significant (p<0.05 decrease in resting plasma TBARS concentration in both MOD (7.53 ± 0.30 and 6.46 ± 0.27 µM, PRE and POST respectively and HIDT (7.21 ± 0.32 and 5.85 ± 0.46 µM, PRE and POST respectively. Resting urinary 8-OH-dG levels were significantly decreased in both MOD (5.50 ± 0.66 and 4.16 ± 0.40 ng mg(-1creatinine, PRE and POST respectively and HIDT (4.52 ± 0.50 and 3.18 ± 0.34 ng mg(-1creatinine, PRE and POST respectively. Training both in MOD and HIDT did not significantly modify plasma levels of PC. Resting plasma TAC was reduced in MOD while no significant changes were observed in HIDT. In conclusion

  20. A Standardized System of Training Intensity Guidelines for the Sports of Track and Field and Cross Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Christopher P.; Pemberton, Cynthia Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate quantification of training intensity is an essential component of a training program (Rowbottom, 2000). A training program designed to optimize athlete performance abilities cannot be practically planned or implemented without a valid and reliable indication of training intensity and its effect on the physiological mechanisms of the human…

  1. Changes in VO2 Max. Resulting from Bicycle Training at Different Intensities Holding Total Mechanical Work Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund A., Jr.; Franks, B. Don

    Effects of different training intensities on oxygen intake were determined in this study. Sixteen male subjects aged 16-18 were randomly assigned to one of three training groups or a control group. The training groups trained 3 days per week on bicycle ergometers at different intensities (85 percent, 75 percent, or 65 percent of heart rate…

  2. Assessment of liquefaction potential during earthquakes by arias intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.E.; Mitchell, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    An Arias intensity approach to assess the liquefaction potential of soil deposits during earthquakes is proposed, using an energy-based measure of the severity of earthquake-shaking recorded on seismograms of the two horizontal components of ground motion. Values representing the severity of strong motion at depth in the soil column are associated with the liquefaction resistance of that layer, as measured by in situ penetration testing (SPT, CPT). This association results in a magnitude-independent boundary that envelopes initial liquefaction of soil in Arias intensity-normalized penetration resistance space. The Arias intensity approach is simple to apply and has proven to be highly reliable in assessing liquefaction potential. The advantages of using Arias intensity as a measure of earthquake-shaking severity in liquefaction assessment are: Arias intensity is derived from integration of the entire seismogram wave form, incorporating both the amplitude and duration elements of ground motion; all frequencies of recorded motion are considered; and Arias intensity is an appropriate measure to use when evaluating field penetration test methodologies that are inherently energy-based. Predictor equations describing the attenuation of Arias intensity as a function of earthquake magnitude and source distance are presented for rock, deep-stiff alluvium, and soft soil sites.

  3. Carbohydrate dependence during hard-intensity exercise in trained cyclists in the competitive season: importance of training status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetta, J; Brun, J F; Maimoun, L; Galy, O; Coste, O; Maso, F; Raibaut, J L; Benezis, C; Lac, G; Mercier, J

    2002-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that intensive endurance training increases CHO utilisation during hard-intensity exercise, seven competitive road cyclists (Cy) performed three 50-min steady-state exercise tests on a cycle ergometer above their ventilatory threshold (+ 15 %) over the course of a cycling season (January [ET1], May [ET2] and September [ET3]). We compared the data with the baseline values of seven sedentary controls (Sed). CHO oxidation in Cy was higher in ET2 and ET3 than in ET1 (p competitive cyclists increase CHO oxidation during hard-intensity exercise over the course of a season, but show a decline by the end of the season in association with the appearance of an overtraining state. Thus, well-trained cyclists develop a CHO dependence, which is modified with training status.

  4. The Effect of Intensive Bimanual Training on Coordination of the Hands in Children with Congenital Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ya-Ching; Casertano, Lorenzo; Hillman, Andrew; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested efficacy of intensive bimanual training in improving the quality and quantity of affected hand use in children with hemiplegia. However, it is not known whether such training affects the coordination of the two hands. In the present study, 20 children with congenital hemiplegia (age 4-10 years; MACS levels I-II) were…

  5. Case study into the effect of intensive mass training on chronic pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the results from a case study into the effects of intensive reading training on a patient with acquired pure alexia disorder. The training targeted the various stages of the basic reading process based on the theories of the psycholinguistic language model as a mixture of bot...

  6. Effects of an Intensive Disability-Focused Training Experience on University Faculty Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher; Lombardi, Allison; Seely, John R.; Gerdes, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluates the short-term effects of a disability-focused training on the disability-related self-efficacy of university faculty. Three consecutive cohorts of faculty (N = 102) participated in an intensive four-day training institute focused on understanding and supporting university students with disabilities. Self-efficacy for…

  7. Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity or high volume training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eStöggl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: high-volume training (HVT, ‘threshold-training’ (THR, high-intensity interval training (HIIT and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 62.6±7.1 mL∙min-1∙kg-1 were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over nine weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. Results: POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml∙min∙kg-1 or 11.7%, P0.05. Conclusion: POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables.

  8. Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Type Exercise Performance in Trained Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakayiru, Jean; Jonvik, Kristin L.; Trommelen, Jorn; Pinckaers, Philippe J. M.; Senden, Joan M.; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Verdijk, Lex B.

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club) participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study. All subjects participated in two test days in which high-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed using the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Subjects ingested nitrate-rich (140 mL; ~800 mg nitrate/day; BR) or a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA) for six subsequent days, with at least eight days of wash-out between trials. The distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary outcome measure, while heart rate (HR) was measured continuously throughout the test, and a single blood and saliva sample were collected just prior to the test. Six days of BR ingestion increased plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations in comparison to PLA (p < 0.001), and enhanced Yo-Yo IR1 test performance by 3.4 ± 1.3% (from 1574 ± 47 to 1623 ± 48 m; p = 0.027). Mean HR was lower in the BR (172 ± 2) vs. PLA trial (175 ± 2; p = 0.014). Six days of BR ingestion effectively improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. PMID:28327503

  9. Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Type Exercise Performance in Trained Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nyakayiru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study. All subjects participated in two test days in which high-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed using the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Subjects ingested nitrate-rich (140 mL; ~800 mg nitrate/day; BR or a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA for six subsequent days, with at least eight days of wash-out between trials. The distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary outcome measure, while heart rate (HR was measured continuously throughout the test, and a single blood and saliva sample were collected just prior to the test. Six days of BR ingestion increased plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations in comparison to PLA (p < 0.001, and enhanced Yo-Yo IR1 test performance by 3.4 ± 1.3% (from 1574 ± 47 to 1623 ± 48 m; p = 0.027. Mean HR was lower in the BR (172 ± 2 vs. PLA trial (175 ± 2; p = 0.014. Six days of BR ingestion effectively improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players.

  10. Physical capacity after 7 weeks of low-intensity wheelchair training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Rosaline; De Groot, Sonja; Swart, Karin M. A.; Van Der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To simulate the effect of low-intensity exercise in early rehabilitation, we investigated the effect of a 7-week low-intensity norm duration hand rim wheelchair training on the physical capacity in untrained able-bodied individuals. Method. Twenty-five able-bodied participants were randomly

  11. Physical capacity after 7 weeks of low-intensity wheelchair training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Rosaline; De Groot, Sonja; Swart, Karin M. A.; Van Der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To simulate the effect of low-intensity exercise in early rehabilitation, we investigated the effect of a 7-week low-intensity norm duration hand rim wheelchair training on the physical capacity in untrained able-bodied individuals. Method. Twenty-five able-bodied participants were randomly

  12. Low cadence interval training at moderate intensity does not improve cycling performance in highly trained veteran cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eKristoffersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of low cadence training at moderate intensity on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, gross efficiency, freely chosen cadence and leg strength in veteran cyclists. Method: Twenty-two well trained veteran cyclists (age: 47 ±6 years, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max: 57.9 ±3.7 ml. kg-1. min-1 were randomized into two groups, a low cadence training group and a freely chose cadence training group. Respiratory variables, power output, cadence and leg strength were tested before and after a 12 weeks training intervention period. The low cadence training group performed 12 weeks of moderate (73-82 % of maximal heart rate (HRmax interval training (5 x 6 min with a cadence of 40 revolutions per minute (rpm two times a week, in addition to their usual training. The freely chosen cadence group added 90 minutes of training at freely chosen cadence at moderate intensity. Results: No significant effects of the low cadence training on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, power output, cadence, gross efficiency or leg strength was found. The freely chosen cadence group significantly improved both VO2max (58.9±2.4 vs. 62.2±3.2 ml. kg-1. min-1, VO2 consumption at lactate threshold (49.4 ±3.8 vs. 51.8±3.5 ml. kg-1. min-1 and during the 30 min performance test (52.8±3.0 vs. 54.7±3.5 ml. kg-1. min-1, and power output at lactate threshold (284 ±47 vs. 294 ±48 W and during the 30 min performance test (284±42 vs. 297±50 W. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of low cadence (40 rpm interval training at moderate intensity (73-82 % of HRmax twice a week does not improve aerobic capacity, cycling performance or leg strength in highly trained veteran cyclists. However, adding training at same intensity (% of HRmax and duration (90 minutes weekly at freely chosen cadence seems beneficial for performance and physiological adaptations.

  13. Manpower, Personnel, and Training Assessment (MPTA) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Training Assessment (MPTA) Handbook Richard A Tauson and Wayne Cream Human Research and Engineering Directorate, ARL...Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Human Systems Integration Directorate, G-1 Office 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S

  14. Motor Training in Degenerative Spinocerebellar Disease: Ataxia-Specific Improvements by Intensive Physiotherapy and Exergames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthis Synofzik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is essentially involved in movement control and plays a critical role in motor learning. It has remained controversial whether patients with degenerative cerebellar disease benefit from high-intensity coordinative training. Moreover, it remains unclear by which training methods and mechanisms these patients might improve their motor performance. Here, we review evidence from different high-intensity training studies in patients with degenerative spinocerebellar disease. These studies demonstrate that high-intensity coordinative training might lead to a significant benefit in patients with degenerative ataxia. This training might be based either on physiotherapy or on whole-body controlled videogames (“exergames”. The benefit shown in these studies is equal to regaining one or more years of natural disease progression. In addition, first case studies indicate that even subjects with advanced neurodegeneration might benefit from such training programs. For both types of training, the observed clinical improvements are paralleled by recoveries in ataxia-specific dysfunctions (e.g., multijoint coordination and dynamic stability. Importantly, for both types of training, the retention of the effects seems to depend on the frequency and continuity of training. Based on these studies, we here present preliminary recommendations for clinical practice, and articulate open questions that might guide future studies on neurorehabilitation in degenerative spinocerebellar disease.

  15. Effect of exercise intensity and volume on persistence of insulin sensitivity during training cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpeyi, Sudip; Tanner, Charles J; Slentz, Cris A; Duscha, Brian D; McCartney, Jennifer S; Hickner, Robert C; Kraus, William E; Houmard, Joseph A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise prescriptions differing in volume or intensity also differ in their ability to retain insulin sensitivity during an ensuing period of training cessation. Sedentary, overweight/obese subjects were assigned to one of three 8-mo exercise programs: 1) low volume/moderate intensity [equivalent of approximately 12 miles/wk, 1,200 kcal/wk at 40-55% peak O(2) consumption (Vo(2peak)), 200 min exercise/wk], 2) low volume/vigorous intensity ( approximately 12 miles/wk, 1,200 kcal/wk at 65-80% Vo(2peak), 125 min/wk), and 3) high volume/vigorous intensity ( approximately 20 miles/wk, 2,000 kcal/wk at 65-80% Vo(2peak), 200 min/wk). Insulin sensitivity (intravenous glucose tolerance test, S(I)) was measured when subjects were sedentary and at 16-24 h and 15 days after the final training bout. S(I) increased with training compared with the sedentary condition (P sedentary, pretraining values after 15 days of training cessation in the low-volume/vigorous-intensity group. In contrast, at 15 days S(I) was significantly elevated compared with sedentary (P intensity, high volume/vigorous intensity). In the high-volume/vigorous-intensity group, indexes of muscle mitochondrial density followed a pattern paralleling insulin action by being elevated at 15 days compared with pretraining; this trend was not evident in the low-volume/moderate-intensity group. These findings suggest that in overweight/obese subjects a relatively chronic persistence of enhanced insulin action may be obtained with endurance-oriented exercise training; this persistence, however, is dependent on the characteristics of the exercise training performed.

  16. Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of embedding high intensity interval training into the school day: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Costigan, S.A.; Eather, N.; Plotnikoff, R.C.; Taaffe, D R; E. Pollock; S.G. Kennedy; Lubans, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    Current physical activity and fitness levels among adolescents are low, increasing the risk of chronic disease. Although the efficacy of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving metabolic health is now well established, it is not known if this type of activity can be effective to improve adolescent health. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of embedding HIIT into the school day. A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in o...

  17. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleg, Jerome L

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  18. The advantages of the communicative and intensive methods combining in a train-ing course of foreign students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Samosenkova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors view the methodological approaches to teaching foreign languages and give the definition of a teaching method. The authors consider that for the formation of communicative competence of students it is necessary to search new methods of teaching and substantiate the appropriateness and effectiveness of unifying of communicative and intensive methods in the process of teaching Russian language. The authors also describe the features and principles of intensive communicative training.

  19. Similar health benefits of endurance and high-intensity interval training in obese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Corte de Araujo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare two modalities of exercise training (i.e., Endurance Training [ET] and High-Intensity Interval Training [HIT] on health-related parameters in obese children aged between 8 and 12 years. METHODS: Thirty obese children were randomly allocated into either the ET or HIT group. The ET group performed a 30 to 60-minute continuous exercise at 80% of the peak heart rate (HR. The HIT group training performed 3 to 6 sets of 60-s sprint at 100% of the peak velocity interspersed by a 3-min active recovery period at 50% of the exercise velocity. HIT sessions last ~70% less than ET sessions. At baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, aerobic fitness, body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed. RESULTS: BOTH THE ABSOLUTE (ET: 26.0%; HIT: 19.0% and the relative VO(2 peak (ET: 13.1%; HIT: 14.6% were significantly increased in both groups after the intervention. Additionally, the total time of exercise (ET: 19.5%; HIT: 16.4% and the peak velocity during the maximal graded cardiorespiratory test (ET: 16.9%; HIT: 13.4% were significantly improved across interventions. Insulinemia (ET: 29.4%; HIT: 30.5% and HOMA-index (ET: 42.8%; HIT: 37.0% were significantly lower for both groups at POST when compared to PRE. Body mass was significantly reduced in the HIT (2.6%, but not in the ET group (1.2%. A significant reduction in BMI was observed for both groups after the intervention (ET: 3.0%; HIT: 5.0%. The responsiveness analysis revealed a very similar pattern of the most responsive variables among groups. CONCLUSION: HIT and ET were equally effective in improving important health related parameters in obese youth.

  20. High-intensity interval training (HIIT for patients with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanna M. Ross

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT. HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared to energy expenditure-matched MCT, a greater amount of work is performed at a higher intensity during a single exercise session which is achieved by alternating high-intensity exercise intervals with low-intensity exercise or rest intervals. Emerging research suggests that this same training method can provide beneficial effects for patients with a chronic disease and should be included in the comprehensive medical management plan. Accordingly, a major consideration in developing an individual exercise prescription for a patient with a chronic disease is the selection of an appropriate exercise strategy. In order to maximize exercise training benefits, this strategy should be tailored to the individual's need. The focus of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the current literature regarding the use of HIIT to enhance the functional capacity of individuals with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes diseases.

  1. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) for patients with chronic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leanna M. Ross; Ryan R. Porter; J. Larry Durstine

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT). HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared to energy expenditure-matched MCT, a greater amount of work is performed at a higher intensity during a single exercise session which is achieved by alternating high-intensity exercise intervals with low-intensity exercise or rest intervals. Emerging research suggests that this same training method can provide beneficial effects for patients with a chronic disease and should be included in the comprehensive medical management plan. Accordingly, a major consideration in developing an individual exercise prescription for a patient with a chronic disease is the selection of an appropriate exercise strategy. In order to maximize exercise training benefits, this strategy should be tailored to the individual’s need. The focus of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the current literature regarding the use of HIIT to enhance the functional capacity of individuals with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes diseases.

  2. Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

    2010-01-01

    of the muscle and finally how will this affect the performance of the athlete. In addition, the review will deal with muscle hypertrophy and how it develops with strength training. Overall, it is not the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive up-date of the area, but to pin-point a few issues from which...... way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...

  3. Intensive dynamic training for females with chronic neck/shoulder pain. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randløv, A; Østergaard, Mikkel; Manniche, C;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical effectiveness of an intensive three-month training programme with a less intensive programme on females suffering from chronic neck/shoulder pain. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observer-blinded clinical trial including 12-month pretreatment follow-up. SETTING......: Patients were referred to the Departments of Rheumatology and Physical Medicine at Hvidovre Hospital by their general practitioners. Training was undertaken at a satellite clinic for physiotherapy of Hvidovre Hospital. SUBJECTS: Female patients aged 18-65 years suffering from chronic neck/shoulder pain...... for a minimum of six months. INTERVENTION: Patients were examined by a physician in order to exclude serious diseases. They were then randomized to either an intensive neck/shoulder training programme or a programme of lesser intensity but of similar duration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scales measuring pain...

  4. Intensive Working Memory Training Produces Functional Changes in Large-scale Frontoparietal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Todd W; Waskom, Michael L; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-04-01

    Working memory is central to human cognition, and intensive cognitive training has been shown to expand working memory capacity in a given domain. It remains unknown, however, how the neural systems that support working memory are altered through intensive training to enable the expansion of working memory capacity. We used fMRI to measure plasticity in activations associated with complex working memory before and after 20 days of training. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to train on either a dual n-back working memory task or a demanding visuospatial attention task. Training resulted in substantial and task-specific expansion of dual n-back abilities accompanied by changes in the relationship between working memory load and activation. Training differentially affected activations in two large-scale frontoparietal networks thought to underlie working memory: the executive control network and the dorsal attention network. Activations in both networks linearly scaled with working memory load before training, but training dissociated the role of the two networks and eliminated this relationship in the executive control network. Load-dependent functional connectivity both within and between these two networks increased following training, and the magnitudes of increased connectivity were positively correlated with improvements in task performance. These results provide insight into the adaptive neural systems that underlie large gains in working memory capacity through training.

  5. The effects of short-term high-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training on plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadizad, Sajad; Avansar, Alireza Salimi; Ebrahim, Khosrow; Avandi, Mohsen; Ghasemikaram, Mansour

    2015-03-01

    Exercise training is an effective method of weight management, and knowing about its influence on the hormones involved in the regulation of food intake and inflammation could be useful for body weight management. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT) on nesfatin-1, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Thirty sedentary overweight men (Mean±SD; age, 25±1 years) were divided into three (n=10) body mass index-matched groups. The participants in the training groups performed either HIIT or MCT protocols 3 days per week for 6 weeks followed by a week of detraining. Plasma IL-6 and TNF-α did not significantly change after training, but nesfatin increased significantly only with HIIT compared with the control group (ptraining (ptraining levels in the HIIT group. Both the HIIT and MCT groups had similar effects on inflammatory markers and insulin resistance in men who are overweight, but the HIIT seems to have better anorectic effects (as indicated by nesfatin) compared with MCT.

  6. Intense piano training on self-efficacy and physiological stress in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugos, Jennifer A; Kochar, Simran; Maxfield, Nathan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an intense piano training program on general self-efficacy, musical self-efficacy, and physiological stress in older adults. Self-efficacy refers to perceived beliefs regarding the performance of domain-specific tasks or activities, which contribute to psychological and physical health. A key challenge is to identify activities that promote self-efficacy in the aging population. Seventeen healthy community-dwelling older adults (60-85 years) with little to no previous musical training participated in a within subjects experimental design. Measures of self-efficacy and cortisol levels were administered over three time points: an initial pre-testing session, a second pre-testing following a two-week no treatment control period, and a post-testing session upon the completion of piano training. Intense piano training consisted of 30 hours of training (3 hours per day) in which high levels of achievement were required. Results of a three-way Repeated Measures ANOVA over all time points with pairwise comparisons revealed significantly (p < .05) enhanced musical self-efficacy post-training, F (2, 32) = 11.5, p < .001, d = .79. No significant changes in general self-efficacy or cortisol levels were found. These results suggest that domain-specific self-efficacy may increase as a result of short-term intense music training; however, short-term music training may not be sufficient to transfer to general self-efficacy.

  7. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen

    2016-01-01

    for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers.......This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON......). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest...

  8. Cardiorespiratory Effects of One-Legged High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia and Hypoxia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Verena; Semsch, Mona; Mosbach, Florian; Burtscher, Martin

    2016-06-01

    A higher-than-average maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), is closely associated with decreased morbidity and mortality and improved quality of life and acts as a marker of cardiorespiratory fitness. Although there is no consensus about an optimal training method to enhance VO2max, nevertheless training of small muscle groups and repeated exposure to hypoxia seem to be promising approaches. Therefore, this study was aimed at gaining innovative insights into the effects of small muscle group training in normoxia and hypoxia. Thirteen healthy participants were randomly assigned to the hypoxic (HG, n = 7) or normoxic (NG, n = 6) training group. Both groups completed nine high-intensity interval training sessions in 3 wks. The NG performed the training in normoxia (FiO2: 0.21; ~ 600 m) and the HG in hypoxia (FiO2: 0.126; ~ 4500 m). Each session consisted of 4 x 4 min one-legged cycling at 90% of maximal heart rate separated by 4 min recovery periods. Before and after the intervention period, VO2max and peak power output (Wmax) and responses to submaximal cycling (100 and 150 watts) were assessed in a laboratory cycling test. Peak power output significantly improved within both groups (9.6 ± 4.8% and 12.6 ± 8.9% for HG and NG, respectively) with no significant interaction (p = 0.277). However, VO2max only significantly increased after training in hypoxia from 45.4 ± 10.1 to 50.0 ± 9.8 ml/min/kg (10.8 ± 6.0%; p = 0.002) with no significant interaction (p = 0.146). The maximal O2-pulse improved within the HG and demonstrated a significant interaction (p = 0.040). One-legged cycling training significantly improved VO2max and peak power output. Training under hypoxic conditions may generate greater effects on VO2max than a similar training in normoxia and is considered as a promising training method for improving cardiorespiratory fitness. Key pointsNine sessions of one-legged high-intensity interval training significantly improved physical fitness.One-legged hypoxic

  9. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling: The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of the upper body, and how training contributes to improvements in performance capacity is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of HIIT and MICT on the physiological capacity and handcycling performance of able-bodied men in a well-controlled laboratory setting. Methods: Twenty four recreationally active men (22 ± 2 years; 1.84 ± 0.04 m; 79 ± 10 kg) were matched on incremental handcycling pre-test performance (peakPO) and then randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT, or a non-training control group (CON, 3 × n = 8). Participants in HIIT completed 14 interval training sessions, performing 4 × 4 min intervals at 85% heart rate reserve (%HRR), and seven continuous training sessions at 55 %HRR (every 2nd training session of the week). Participants in MICT performed 21 training sessions of 30 min at 55 %HRR. After the intervention, changes in peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2) and peak power output (peakPO) were compared within and between HIIT, MICT and CON. Results: The average external training load per training session did not differ between MICT and HIIT (p = 0.713). Improvements after HIIT in peakVO2 (22.2 ± 8.1%) and peakPO (47.1 ± 20.7%) were significantly larger compared with MICT and CON (p HIIT occurred despite training 22% less time than MICT. No significant changes were found in CON. Discussion: As in lower body endurance sports, HIIT proved to be very effective in improving the physiological and performance capacity of upper body exercise. Whilst physiological capacity in both training groups improved significantly compared with CON, the present study shows that peakVO2 and peakPO improved more after HIIT than after MICT in able

  10. Effect of acute caffeine ingestion on EPOC after intense resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, T A; Martin, B J; Wong, K; Schachtsiek, L

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of acute caffeine (CAF) intake on postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after intense resistance training. Fourteen strength-trained men (mean ± SD age and mass =23.1 ± 4.2 yr and 83.4 ± 13.2 kg, respectively) who were caffeine users initially completed one-repetition maximum testing (1-RM) of four exercises: bench press, leg press, lat row, and shoulder press. On each of two days separated by one week, they completed four sets of each exercise to fatigue at 70-80% 1-RM, which was preceded by ingestion of CAF (6 mg/kg) or placebo. Pre-exercise, indirect calorimetry was used to assess energy expenditure for 35 min; this was repeated for 75 min postexercise while subjects remained seated in a quiet lab. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to examine differences in gas exchange variables across time and treatment. Results revealed that EPOC was significantly higher (PEPOC and energy expenditure pre-and post-exercise, yet the magnitude of this effect is relatively small.

  11. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) improves physical performance and frailty in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldeen, Kenneth Ladd; Lasky, Ginger; Leiker, Merced Maria; Pang, Manhui; Personius, Kirkwood Ely; Troen, Bruce Robert

    2017-06-17

    Sarcopenia and frailty are highly prevalent in older individuals, increasing the risk of disability and loss of independence. High intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide a robust intervention for both sarcopenia and frailty by achieving both strength and endurance benefits with lower time commitments than other exercise regimens. To better understand the impacts of HIIT during aging, we compared 24-month-old C57BL/6J sedentary mice with those that were administered 10-minute uphill treadmill HIIT sessions three times per week over 16 weeks. Baseline and endpoint assessments included body composition, physical performance, and frailty based upon criteria from the Fried physical frailty scale. HIIT trained mice demonstrated dramatic improvement in grip strength (HIIT 10.9% versus -3.9% in sedentary mice), treadmill endurance (32.6% versus -2.0%), and gait speed (107.0% versus 39.0%). Muscles from HIIT mice also exhibited greater mass, larger fiber size, and an increase in mitochondrial biomass. Furthermore, HIIT exercise showed dramatic reduction in frailty scores in 5 of 6 mice that were frail or pre-frail at baseline, with 4 ultimately becoming non-frail. The uphill treadmill HIIT exercise sessions were well tolerated by aged mice and led to dramatic performance gains, improvement in underlying muscle physiology, and reduction in frailty. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Treating NAFLD in OLETF rats with vigorous-intensity interval exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A; Fletcher, Justin A; Morris, E Matthew; Meers, Grace M; Laughlin, M Harold; Booth, Frank W; Sowers, James R; Ibdah, Jamal A; Thyfault, John P; Rector, R Scott

    2015-03-01

    There is increasing use of high-intensity interval-type exercise training in the management of many lifestyle-related diseases. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that vigorous-intensity interval exercise is as effective as traditional moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) outcomes in obese, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. OLETF rats (age, 20 wk; n = 8-10 per group) were assigned to sedentary (O-SED), moderate-intensity exercise training (O-MOD EX; 20 m·min(-1), 15% incline, 60 min·d(-1), 5 d·wk(-1) of treadmill running), or vigorous-intensity interval exercise training (O-VIG EX; 40 m·min(-1), 15% incline, 6 × 2.5 min bouts per day, 5 d·wk(-1) of treadmill running) groups for 12 wk. Both MOD EX and VIG EX effectively lowered hepatic triglycerides, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), perivenular fibrosis, and hepatic collagen 1α1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression (vs O-SED, P training programs for patients with NAFLD.

  13. Central arterial pressure assessment with intensity POF sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Cátia; Gonçalves, Steve; Antunes, Paulo; Bastos, José M.; Pinto, João. L.; André, Paulo

    2015-09-01

    The central pressure monitoring is considered a new key factor in hypertension assessment and cardiovascular prevention. In this work, it is presented the central arterial systolic pressure assessment with an intensity based POF sensor. The device was tested in four subjects, and stable pulse waves were obtained, allowing the calculation of the central pressure for all the subjects. The results shown that the sensor performs reliably, being a simple and low-cost solution to the intended application.

  14. Effects of high-intensity interval training on the VO2 response during severe exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Edge, Johann; Bishop, David

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the effect of high-intensity interval training on the VO2 response during severe, constant-load exercise. Prior to, and following training, 10 females (V O2 peak 37.4+/-6.0 mL kg-1 min-1) performed a graded exercise test to determine VO2 peak and lactate threshold (LT) and a 6 min cycle test (CT) at the pre-training VO2 peak intensity. Training involved high-intensity intervals (2 min work, 1 min rest) performed 3x week for 8 weeks. Breath-by-breath data from 0 to 6 min during the CT were smoothed using 5s averages and fit to a bi-exponential model starting from 20s. Training resulted in significant improvements in VO2 max (2.34+/-0.37-2.78+/-0.30 L min-1), power at VO2 max (170+/-26-204+/-25 W) and power at LT (113+/-17-136+/-20 W) (pVO2 response showed a significant increase in the amplitude of the primary phase (A1) (1396+/-103-1695+/-100 mL min-1; pVO2 (VO2 EE), with no difference (p>0.05) in the time constants of either phase or the amplitude of the slow component (318+/-67-380+/-48 mL; p=0.15). In conjunction, accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) (43.7+/-9.8-17.2+/-2.8 mL O2 eq kg-1) and anaerobic contribution to the CT (19.4+/-4.4-7.2+/-1.2%) were significantly reduced. In contrast to previous moderate-intensity research, a high-intensity interval training program increased A1 and VO2 EE for the same absolute exercise intensity, decreasing the AOD during a severe-intensity CT.

  15. High intensity interval training favourably affects antioxidant and inflammation mRNA expression in early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patrick S; Briskey, David R; Scanlan, Aaron T; Coombes, Jeff S; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-12-01

    Increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammation have been linked to the progression of chronic kidney disease. To reduce oxidative stress and inflammation related to chronic kidney disease, chronic aerobic exercise is often recommended. Data suggests high intensity interval training may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of differing modes of exercise, along with explanations of mechanisms responsible for observed effects, are lacking. This study assessed effects of eight weeks of high intensity interval training (85% VO2max), versus low intensity exercise (45-50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour, in an animal model of early-stage chronic kidney disease. We examined kidney-specific mRNA expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidase 1; Gpx1, superoxide dismutase 1; Sod1, and catalase; Cat) and inflammation (kidney injury molecule 1; Kim1 and tumour necrosis factor receptor super family 1b; Tnfrsf1b), as well as plasma F2-isoprostanes, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Compared to sedentary behaviour, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Sod1 (p=0.01) and Cat (pinflammation.

  16. Preliminary safety analysis of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in persons with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Daniel L; Boyne, Pierce; Rockwell, Bradley; Gerson, Myron; Khoury, Jane; Kissela, Brett; Dunning, Kari

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess safety via electrocardiographic (ECG), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and orthopedic responses to 3 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols in persons with stroke. Eighteen participants (10 male; 61.9 + 8.3 years of age; 5.8 + 4.2 years poststroke) completed a symptom-limited graded exercise test (GXT) with ECG monitoring to screen for eligibility and determine HR peak. The 3 HIIT protocols involved repeated 30 s bursts of treadmill walking at maximum speed alternated with rest periods of 30 s (P30), 1 min (P60), or 2 min (P120). Sessions were performed in random order and included 5 min warm up, 20 min HIIT, and 5 min cool down. Variables measured included ECG activity, BP, HR, signs and symptoms of cardiovascular intolerance, and orthopedic concerns. Generalized linear mixed models and Tukey-Kramer adjustment were used to compare protocols using p HIIT session. HIIT elicited HRs in excess of 88% of measured HRpeak including 6 (P30), 8 (P60), and 2 (P120) participants eliciting a HR response above their GXT HRpeak. Both maximum BP and HR were significantly higher in P30 and P60 relative to P120. Preliminary data indicate that persons with chronic stroke who have been prescreened with an ECG stress test, a symptom-limited GXT, and a harness for fall protection may safely participate in HIIT, generating substantially higher HRs than what is seen in traditional moderate intensity training.

  17. Intensive Stuttering Modification Therapy: A Multidimensional Assessment of Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, Michael; Roy, Nelson; Callister, Thomas; Merrill, Ray M.

    2005-01-01

    Nineteen adults who stutter participated in a 3-week intensive stuttering modification treatment program (the Successful Stuttering Management Program [SSMP]). A series of 14 fluency and affective-based measures were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 6 months after treatment. Measures included stuttering frequency; the…

  18. A New Tool to Assess the Perception of Stretching Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sandro R; Vaz, João R; Gomes, Luis; Silvestre, Rui; Hilário, Edgar; Cordeiro, Nuno; Carnide, Filomena; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Mil-Homens, Pedro

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale to assess the perception of stretching intensity below and above the maximal range of motion. Experiments were conducted through a passive leg extension angle-torque assessment to healthy population (n = 90). In the study's first phase, the visual, numerical, and description of the stretching intensity scale (SIS) components were developed. The visual analog scale (VAS) score, absolute magnitude estimation (AME) score, and verbal stretching intensity symptom descriptors were assessed for different stretching intensities. In the second phase, the SIS was tested for validity, reliability, scale production, and estimation properties as well as responsiveness to stretching. In the first phase, a high correlation was found between SIS score and range of motion (ROM), as well as SIS and torque in both submaximal (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.89-0.99, r = 0.88-0.99) and supramaximal (ICC = 0.75-0.86, r = 0.68-0.88) stretching intensities. The AME and VAS scores fitted well in an exponential model for submaximal stretching intensities (y = 14.829e, ICC = 0.97 [0.83-0.99], r = 0.98), and in a linear model for supramaximal stretching intensities (y = 0.7667x - 25.751, ICC = 0.97 [0.89-0.99], r = 0.9594). For the second phase, a high correlation was found between SIS score and ROM (r = 0.70-0.76, ICC = 0.76-0.85), as well as SIS and torque (r = 0.62-0.88, ICC = 0.57-0.85). The interday reliability was high to produce (r = 0.70, ICC = 0.70 [0.50-0.83]) or estimate (r = 0.89, ICC = 0.89 [0.82-0.93]) stretching intensities. The acute stretching effects on ROM and passive torque were detectable using the SIS. It is expected a high application in assessing the stretch intensity using the SIS in future studies and practical interventions.

  19. High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitness in Obese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Kazakova, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Mehus, Ingar; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bard; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of 12 weeks of isocaloric programs of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or a short-duration HIIT (1/2HIIT) inducing only half the energy deficit on a cycle ergometer, on body weight and composition, cardiovascular fitness, resting metabolism rate (RMR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), nonexercise physical activity (PA) levels and fasting and postprandial insulin response in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women), with a mean BMI of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg/m2 and a mean age of 34.4 ± 8.8 years were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: HIIT (n = 16), MICT (n = 14) or 1/2HIIT (n = 16) and exercise was performed 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Overall, there was a significant reduction in body weight, waist (p training protocols of HIIT or MICT (or 1/2HIIT inducing only half the energy deficit) exert similar metabolic and cardiovascular improvements in sedentary obese individuals.

  20. High-intensity interval versus moderate-intensity continuous training: Superior metabolic benefits in diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningning; Liu, Yang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Deliang

    2017-08-23

    Exercise is beneficial in obesity, however, the debate about the value of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been long lasting. Therefore, here we have compared the possible beneficial effects of two different exercise training regimes in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Following 7wk. on high fat diet (HFD), ten-week-old male ICR mice (n=30) were assigned to HIIT, distance-matched MICT or remained sedentary for the next 8 constitutive weeks while maintaining the dietary treatments. Age-matched sedentary mice with standard diet were used as a control (n=10). Exercise was performed on a motorized treadmill for 5days a week. Both modes of exercise ameliorated adiposity and related metabolic dysfunction induced by HFD and sedentary lifestyle, while mice following HIIT exhibited significantly lower body weight, percentage of fat mass and smaller adipocyte size. HIIT was more favorable in preventing liver lipid accumulation by restoring mRNA levels of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis (SREBP1, ACC1, FAS) and β-oxidation (PPARα, CPT1a, HAD). In addition, HIIT was more efficient in mitigating adipose tissue inflammation and insulin insensitivity, partly dependent on abrogating phosphorylation of JNK/IRS1 (Ser307) pathway. Moreover, only HIIT led to pronounced beige adipocyte recruitment in inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue. We conclude that HIIT contribute a more favorable regulation of metabolic dysfunctions in DIO mice compared with MICT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling: The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of the upper body, and how training contributes to improvements in performance capacity is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of HIIT and MICT on the physiological capacity and handcycling performance of able-bodied men in a well-controlled laboratory setting. Methods: Twenty four recreationally active men (22 ± 2 years; 1.84 ± 0.04 m; 79 ± 10 kg) were matched on incremental handcycling pre-test performance (peakPO) and then randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT, or a non-training control group (CON, 3 × n = 8). Participants in HIIT completed 14 interval training sessions, performing 4 × 4 min intervals at 85% heart rate reserve (%HRR), and seven continuous training sessions at 55 %HRR (every 2nd training session of the week). Participants in MICT performed 21 training sessions of 30 min at 55 %HRR. After the intervention, changes in peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2) and peak power output (peakPO) were compared within and between HIIT, MICT and CON. Results: The average external training load per training session did not differ between MICT and HIIT (p = 0.713). Improvements after HIIT in peakVO2 (22.2 ± 8.1%) and peakPO (47.1 ± 20.7%) were significantly larger compared with MICT and CON (p sports, HIIT proved to be very effective in improving the physiological and performance capacity of upper body exercise. Whilst physiological capacity in both training groups improved significantly compared with CON, the present study shows that peakVO2 and peakPO improved more after HIIT than after MICT in able-bodied men. It is advised to include HIIT into training regimes of recreational and competitive handcyclists to improve the upper body endurance

  2. Limitations in intense exercise performance of athletes - effect of speed endurance training on ion handling and fatigue development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying fatigue development and limitations for performance during intense exercise have been intensively studied during the past couple of decades. Fatigue development may involve several interacting factors and depends on type of exercise undertaken and training level...... and power output during intense exercise. Regular speed endurance training (SET), i.e. exercise performed at intensities above that corresponding to maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max ), enhances intense exercise performance. However, most of the studies that have provided mechanistic insight...

  3. Continuous Exercise but Not High Intensity Interval Training Improves Fat Distribution in Overweight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley E. Keating

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT or placebo (PLA on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P<0.001, which increased significantly in CONT (23.8±3.0% and HIIT (22.3±3.5% but not PLA (3.1±5.0%. There was a near-significant main effect for percentage trunk fat, with trunk fat reducing in CONT by 3.1±1.6% and in PLA by 1.1±0.4%, but not in HIIT (increase of 0.7±1.0% (P=0.07. There was a significant reduction in android fat percentage in CONT (2.7±1.3% and PLA (1.4±0.8% but not HIIT (increase of 0.8±0.7% (P=0.04. Conclusion. These data suggest that HIIT may be advocated as a time-efficient strategy for eliciting comparable fitness benefits to traditional continuous exercise in inactive, overweight adults. However, in this population HIIT does not confer the same benefit to body fat levels as continuous exercise training.

  4. The effects of traditional, superset, and tri-set resistance training structures on perceived intensity and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Jonathon J S; Till, Kevin; Read, Dale B; Roe, Gregory A B; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Phibbs, Padraic J; Jones, Ben

    2017-07-11

    Investigate the acute and short-term (i.e., 24 h) effects of traditional (TRAD), superset (SS), and tri-set (TRI) resistance training protocols on perceptions of intensity and physiological responses. Fourteen male participants completed a familiarisation session and three resistance training protocols (i.e., TRAD, SS, and TRI) in a randomised-crossover design. Rating of perceived exertion, lactate concentration ([Lac]), creatine kinase concentration ([CK]), countermovement jump (CMJ), testosterone, and cortisol concentrations was measured pre, immediately, and 24-h post the resistance training sessions with magnitude-based inferences assessing changes/differences within/between protocols. TRI reported possible to almost certainly greater efficiency and rate of perceived exertion, although session perceived load was very likely lower. SS and TRI had very likely to almost certainly greater lactate responses during the protocols, with changes in [CK] being very likely and likely increased at 24 h, respectively. At 24-h post-training, CMJ variables in the TRAD protocol had returned to baseline; however, SS and TRI were still possibly to likely reduced. Possible increases in testosterone immediately post SS and TRI protocols were reported, with SS showing possible increases at 24-h post-training. TRAD and SS showed almost certain and likely decreases in cortisol immediately post, respectively, with TRAD reporting likely decreases at 24-h post-training. SS and TRI can enhance training efficiency and reduce training time. However, acute and short-term physiological responses differ between protocols. Athletes can utilise SS and TRI resistance training, but may require additional recovery post-training to minimise effects of fatigue.

  5. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity steady-state training in UK cardiac rehabilitation programmes (HIIT or MISS UK): study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Gordon; Nichols, Simon; Hamborg, Thomas; Bryning, Lucy; Tudor-Edwards, Rhiannon; Markland, David; Mercer, Jenny; Birkett, Stefan; Ennis, Stuart; Powell, Richard; Begg, Brian; Haykowsky, Mark J; Banerjee, Prithwish; Ingle, Lee; Shave, Rob; Backx, Karianne

    2016-11-16

    Current international guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) advocate moderate-intensity exercise training (MISS, moderate-intensity steady state). This recommendation predates significant advances in medical therapy for coronary heart disease (CHD) and may not be the most appropriate strategy for the 'modern' patient with CHD. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) appears to be a safe and effective alternative, resulting in greater improvements in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). To date, HIIT trials have predominantly been proof-of-concept studies in the laboratory setting and conducted outside the UK. The purpose of this multicentre randomised controlled trial is to compare the effects of HIIT and MISS training in patients with CHD attending UK CR programmes. This pragmatic study will randomly allocate 510 patients with CHD to 8 weeks of twice weekly HIIT or MISS training at 3 centres in the UK. HIIT will consist of 10 high-intensity (85-90% peak power output (PPO)) and 10 low-intensity (20-25% PPO) intervals, each lasting 1 min. MISS training will follow usual care recommendations, adhering to currently accepted UK guidelines (ie, >20 min continuous exercise at 40-70% heart rate reserve). Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, 8 weeks and 12 months. The primary outcome for the trial will be change in VO2 peak as determined by maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Secondary measures will assess physiological, psychosocial and economic outcomes. The study protocol V.1.0, dated 1 February 2016, was approved by the NHS Health Research Authority, East Midlands-Leicester South Research Ethics Committee (16/EM/0079). Recruitment will start in August 2016 and will be completed in June 2018. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at national and international scientific meetings and are expected to inform future national guidelines for exercise training in UK CR. NCT02784873; pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  6. Enjoyment of high-intensity interval training in an overweight/obese cohort: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2017-01-01

    Exercise enjoyment has been shown to be important for adherence. Minimal data exist on enjoyment of intense exercise, especially in clinical populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate enjoyment levels of overweight and obese subjects undergoing 3 weeks of high-intensity interval training. Forty-two generally healthy overweight and obese men and women (body mass index = 30·8 ± 4·8 kg × m(-2) ) volunteered for this study. Exercise enjoyment was quantified using the Exercise Enjoyment Scale before and after each of nine total interval training sessions, over a three-week period. Heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at the end of each interval and training session. There were no significant differences in enjoyment between training groups (P > 0·05). Exercise enjoyment improved significantly over the three-week training phase (P high to begin training: mean ± SD: 4·2 ± 1·0 out of a 7 point scale. Heart rate and RPE were significantly reduced (P training (day 9). High-intensity interval training may be an enjoyable form of exercise for overweight and obese men and women. Enjoyment levels may continue to increase following initial introduction to this type of training. Due to the small time demand and high enjoyment, interval training may be an effective exercise approach in a sedentary population. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [What is the choice of training in neonatal intensive care? Analysis of wishes from 106 neonatologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriot, D; Nasimi, A; Berthier, M; Cardona, J; Van Ditzhuyzen, O; Gambert, C

    1996-03-01

    Improvement of the care to the neonate relys on an increased number of pediatricians in nurseries and adequate neonatal resuscitation training. A questionaire about the optimal modes of neonatal resuscitation training was sent to 132 pediatricians in charge of a neonatal unit or a neonatal intensive care unit. Response rate was 80.3%. The training program was targeted to be regional for the organization and for the evaluation. Nevertheless, 41% of answers also favored local evaluation. Duties in neonatal intensive care unit or transportation system, with differences among areas, were the proposed training choices. The pediatrician was considered to be the first person as an instructor and also as a learner in a multidisciplinary training program. Cooperation between primary and tertiary centers physicians was proposed as the best way for training. Proposed criteria for evaluating training efficacy included neonatal mortality and meconium aspiration syndrome rates. Government funding was suggested in 92% of answers. It seems necessary to perform a wide neonatal resuscitation training program. This multidisciplinary approach should be regional and follow the guidelines of the neonatal study group.

  8. Muscle mechanical properties of strength and endurance athletes and changes after one week of intensive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Simola, Rauno Álvaro; Raeder, Christian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    The study investigates whether tensiomyography (TMG) is sensitive to differentiate between strength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue after either one week of intensive strength (ST) or endurance (END) training. Fourteen strength (24.1±2.0years) and eleven endurance athletes (25.5±4.8years) performed an intensive training period of 6days of ST or END, respectively. ST and END groups completed specific performance tests as well as TMG measurements of maximal radial deformation of the muscle belly (Dm), deformation time between 10% and 90% Dm (Tc), rate of deformation development until 10% Dm (V10) and 90% Dm (V90) before (baseline), after training period (post1), and after 72h of recovery (post2). Specific performance of both groups decreased from baseline to post1 (Ptraining, Dm, V10, and V90 were reduced in the ST (Pstrength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue and recovery especially in strength training.

  9. Correlations between injury, training intensity, and physical and mental exhaustion among college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Rheba E; Symonds, Matthew L

    2010-03-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to obtain information concerning injury incidence and perceptions of training intensities and fatigue levels among college athletes via a survey study. A second purpose was to illuminate correlations between the collected data. This study employed an investigator-designed survey instrument administered to 411 NCAA Division II male and female athletes, with 149 completed responses. The survey included 3 themes: injury incidence, training intensity, and physical and mental exhaustion. Men and women spent 4.5 days per week training using moderate- and high-intensity levels. Fifty percent of the total number of athletes reported chronic injury. During the competition season, physical exhaustion occurred "frequently" 30.86 and 23.53% of the time with men and women, respectively. In the noncompetition season, physical exhaustion was "frequently" experienced 19.75 and 17.65% of the time among men and women, respectively. Statistically significant correlations (p injury for men and chronic injury for women. Also, training intensity levels and physical and mental exhaustion for men and women were statistically significant. The current investigators found the training involved 2-3 hours of moderate to high intensity 4.5 days per week both during competition and noncompetition; women and men spent 2-3 hours of light intensity 1.31 and 1.45 days per week, respectively. Women and men in addition to training, engaged in 3.78 and 4.43 hours of leisure physical activity per week. The investigators recommend tapering, periodization, and rest to help avoid overuse syndrome, overreaching, and overtraining that leads to excessive physical and mental exhaustion and injury.

  10. Self-selected resistance training intensity in healthy women: the influence of a personal trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Hoffman, Jay R; Kang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the influence of resistance training with a personal trainer versus unsupervised resistance training on the self-selected intensities used by women during resistance exercise. Forty-six resistance-trained women (age = 26.6 +/- 6.4 years; body mass = 64.2 +/- 10.9 kg) who either trained individually (n = 27; No PT) or with a personal trainer (n = 19; PT) were carefully instructed to select a weight they used in their own resistance training workouts that enabled the completion of 10 repetitions for the chest press (CP), leg press (LP), seated row (SR), and leg extension (LE) exercises. Each participant was subsequently tested for one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength on each exercise, and the self-selected intensity was calculated based on a percent of each 1RM value. For self-selected relative intensity, the PT group selected significantly greater intensities for LP (50% vs. 41%), CP (57.4% vs. 48%), and SR (56% vs. 42%) whereas a trend (p = 0.10) was observed for LE (43% vs. 38%) compared with No PT. Overall, the average self-selected intensity for all exercises was approximately 51.4% in PT group and approximately 42.3% in the No PT group. 1RM values for LP, LE, and SR were greater in the PT than No PT group. Ratings of perceived exertion values were significantly greater in the PT compared with the No PT group for CP, LE, and SR but not LP. These results indicate that resistance training under the supervision of a personal trainer leads to greater initial 1RM strength values, self-selection of greater workout intensities, and greater ratings of perceived exertion values during resistance exercise.

  11. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  12. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Mair

    Full Text Available Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14 and middle-aged (n = 14 females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1 and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm. Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool.

  13. High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ∼7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance.

  14. Effects of intensity and duration of exercise on muscular responses to training of thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, José-Luis L; Ruz, Antonio; Martí-Korff, Silvia; Estepa, José-Carlos; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Werkman, Jutta; Sobotta, Mathias; Lindner, Arno

    2007-05-01

    This study examined the effects of the intensity and duration of exercise on the nature and magnitude of training adaptations in muscle of adolescent (2-3 yr old) racehorses. Six thoroughbreds that had been pretrained for 2 mo performed six consecutive conditioning programs of varying lactate-guided intensities [velocities eliciting blood lactate concentrations of 2.5 mmol/l (v2.5) and 4 mmol/l (v4), respectively] and durations (5, 15, 25 min). Pre- and posttraining gluteus muscle biopsies were analyzed for myosin heavy chain content, fiber-type composition, fiber size, capillarization, and fiber histochemical oxidative and glycolytic capabilities. Although training adaptations were similar in nature, they varied greatly in magnitude among the different training protocols. Overall, the use of v4 as the exercise intensity for 25 min elicited the most consistent training adaptations in muscle, whereas the minimal training stimulus that evoked any significant change was identified with exercises of 15 min at v2.5. Within this range, muscular adaptations showed significant trends to be proportional to the exercise load of specific training programs. Taken together, these data suggest that muscular adaptations to training in horses occur on a continuum that is based on the exercise intensity and duration of training. The practical implications of this study are that exercises for 15 to 25 min/day at velocities between v2.5 and v4 can improve in the short term (3 wk) the muscular stamina in thoroughbreds. However, exercises of 5-15 min at v4 are necessary to enhance muscular features related to strength (hypertrophy).

  15. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummela, A; Hynynen, E; Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H

    2016-03-01

    The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR) the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7), who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8) who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-week training periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-week training period HIGH group increased their VO2max (P = 0.005) more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039) and high-frequency power (HFP) increased (P = 0.003) in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in VO2max during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.

  16. [Metabolic response to high intensity exercise training in sedentary hyperglycemic and hypercholesterolemic women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez L, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Flores O, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Campos J, Christian; Carrasco, Vanesa; Martínez S, Cristian; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2013-10-01

    High intensity training could be an effective way of improving health on individuals at high metabolic risk. To investigate the effects of a high intensity training intervention on metabolic-related markers in sedentary women at high metabolic risk. Forty six sedentary women with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m² were assigned to four groups, according to their metabolic profile; hyperglycemia (H, n = 12), hyperglycemia/hypercholesterolemia (HH, n = 13), normoglycemia (N, n = 10) and normoglycemia/hypercholesterolemia (NH, n = 11). For 12 weeks and five days per week, subjects performed seven intervals of high intensity training (20 to 30 seconds) during a training session of 20 minutes. Anthropometric (body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference) and metabolic variables (glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and TG) were measured at baseline, at 6 and 12 weeks of intervention. BMI and waist circumference decreased significantly after 12 weeks of intervention. Similarly, glucose decreased significantly after 12 weeks of intervention in all groups. The reduction was of higher magnitude in those groups with hyperglycemia (H = -16%, HH = -22%, N = -7,5%, NH = -9,6%). However, lipid profile (TG, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) improved significantly only in the hypercholesterolemic groups. Physical activity programs incorporating high intensity training can improve glucose and lipid profile in women with metabolic disorders. Moreover, this benefit is greatest in those individuals with highest metabolic burden.

  17. Cytokine Pattern is Affected by Training Intensity in Women Futsal Players

    OpenAIRE

    Zar, Abdossaleh; Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Miri, Maryamosadat; Abedi, Hassan Ali; Salesi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    To find the relation between exercise and cytokines, we examined the effect of the training intensity on the levels of cytokines, including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interlukine-4 (IL-4) and interlukine-4/interferon-gamma ratio (IL-4/IFN-γ ratio) in female Futsal players. Twelve well-trained female college Futsal players aged 19~22 participated in this study. The athletes completed 30-min of running at 60~65% maximal heart rate [moderate-intensity exercise], and 30-min of running at 75~80% ma...

  18. The mediating role of training utility in the relationship between training needs assessment and organizational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van Eerde; K.C.S. Tang; G. Talbot

    2008-01-01

    In a survey among respondents from 96 organizations, we found that the utility of training partially mediated the relationship between Training Needs Assessment (TNA) comprehensiveness and the effectiveness of the organization. We did not find an effect of training quantity on training utility and o

  19. Training Staff to Implement Brief Stimulus Preference Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldy, Christina R.; Rapp, John T.; Capocasa, Kelli

    2014-01-01

    We trained 9 behavioral staff members to conduct 2 brief preference assessments using 30-min video presentations that contained instructions and modeling. After training, we evaluated each staff member's implementation of the assessments in situ. Results indicated that 1 or 2 training sessions for each method were sufficient for teaching each…

  20. Review of Formative Assessment Use and Training in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    This literature review examines formative assessment education practices currently being utilized in Africa, as well as recent research regarding professional development on such assessments. Two main conclusions about formative assessment use and training, as well as a set of recommendations about teacher training on formative assessment, can be…

  1. Preoperative high-intensity training in frail old patients undergoing pulmonary resection for NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Rosario; Meoli, Ilernando; Cennamo, Antonio; Perrotta, Fabio; Saverio Cerqua, Francesco; Montesano, Raffaele; Curcio, Carlo; Lassandro, Francesco; Stefanelli, Francesco; Grella, Edoardo; Tafuri, Domenico; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Bianco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic surgery remains the better therapeutic option for non-small cell lung cancer patients that are diagnosed in early stage disease. Preoperative lung function assessment includes respiratory function tests (RFT) and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Vo2 peak, FEV1 and DLCO as well as recognition of performance status, presence of co-morbidities, frailty indexes, and age predict the potential impact of surgical resection on patient health status and survival risk. In this study we have retrospectively assessed the benefit of a high-intensity preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP) in 14 patients with underlying lung function impairment prior to surgery. Amongst these, three patients candidate to surgical resection exhibited severe functional impairment associated with high score of frailty according CHS and SOF index, resulting in a substantial mortality risk. Our observations indicate that PRP appear to reduce the mortality and morbidity risk in frail patients with concurrent lung function impairment undergoing thoracic surgery. PRP produced improvement of VO2 peak degree and pulmonary function resulting in reduced postoperative complications in high-risk patients from our cases. Our results indicate that a preoperative training program may improve postoperative clinical outcomes in fraillung cancer patients with impaired lung function prior to surgical resection.

  2. Nutritional strategies to support adaptation to high-intensity interval training in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibala, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are characterized by intermittent high-intensity activity patterns. Typically, play consists of short periods of very intense or all-out efforts interspersed with longer periods of low-intensity activity. Fatigue is a complex, multi-factorial process, but intense intermittent exercise performance can potentially be limited by reduced availability of substrates stored in skeletal muscle and/or metabolic by-products associated with fuel breakdown. High-intensity interval training (HIT) has been shown to induce adaptations in skeletal muscle that enhance the capacity for both oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism. Nutrient availability is a potent modulator of many acute physiological responses to exercise, including various molecular signaling pathways that are believed to regulate cellular adaptation to training. Several nutritional strategies have also been reported to acutely alter metabolism and enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise performance. However, relatively little is known regarding the effect of chronic interventions, and whether supplementation over a period of weeks or months augments HIT-induced physiological remodeling and promotes greater performance adaptations. Theoretically, a nutritional intervention could augment HIT adaptation by improving energy metabolism during exercise, which could facilitate greater total work and an enhanced chronic training stimulus, or promoting some aspect of the adaptive response during recovery, which could lead to enhanced physiological adaptations over time.

  3. High-intensity training vs. traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE:: to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and evaluate potential benefits with reference to common interventions; i.e. prolonged exercise and strength training. METHODS:: 36 untrained men were divided into groups...... in cardiorespiratory fitness was superior in INT (14+/-2% increase in VO2max) compared to the other two exercise interventions (7+/-2% and 3+/-2% increases). The blood glucose concentration 2 hours following oral ingestion of 75 g of glucose was lowered to a similar extent following training in the INT (from 6...

  4. Impact of long-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training on subclinical inflammation in overweight/obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa-Neto, José; Antunes, Barbara M M; Campos, Eduardo Z; Rodrigues, Jhennyfer; Ferrari, Gustavo D; Rosa Neto, José C; Bueno, Carlos R; Lira, Fábio S

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor able to trigger several inflammatory alterations and the imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine productions. Physical exercise is an important strategy for reduction of inflammatory established process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 16 weeks of three exercise training programs in the inflammatory profile and insulin resistance in overweight/obesity. Thirty two men and women (46.4±10.1 years; 162.0±9.1 cm; 82.0±13.6 kg) were divided into three groups for training on a treadmill: continuous at 70% maximum heart rate (HRmax) 5 times a week (CONT); 1×4 min (1-bout) and 4×4 min (high intensity interval training, HIIT) at 90% HRmax 3 times a week. Interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), insulin and adiponectin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance was calculated. After 16 weeks of training blood concentrations of IL-6 decreased in the HIIT group (P=0.035), TNF-α decreased in the CONT (P=0.037) and increased in HIIT (P=0.001) and adiponectin decreased in the three training models. There was a trend towards decreased body weight and body mass index (BMI) after HIIT only (P=0.059 and P=0.060, respectively). Despite the decrease of adiponectin and the increase of TNF-α in HIIT group, insulin sensitivity showed a trend for improvement (P=0.08). HIIT program decreased IL-6 at rest and although not significant was the only who tended to decrease total body weight and BMI. Taken together, our data suggest that both HIIT as well as CONT exercises training program promotes changes in inflammatory profile in overweight/obesity, but dissimilar response is seen in TNF-α levels.

  5. Comparison of Different Forms of Exercise Training in Patients With Cardiac Disease: Where Does High-Intensity Interval Training Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, Mathieu; Ribeiro, Paula A B; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we discuss the most recent forms of exercise training available to patients with cardiac disease and their comparison or their combination (or both) during short- and long-term (phase II and III) cardiac rehabilitation programs. Exercise training modalities to be discussed include inspiratory muscle training (IMT), resistance training (RT), continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Particular emphasis is placed on HIIT compared or combined (or both) with other forms such as CAET or RT. For example, IMT combined with CAET was shown to be superior to CAET alone for improving functional capacity, ventilatory function, and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure. Similarly, RT combined with CAET was shown to optimize benefits with respect to functional capacity, muscle function, and quality of life. Furthermore, in recent years, HIIT has emerged as an alternative or complementary (or both) exercise modality to CAET, providing equivalent if not superior benefits to conventional continuous aerobic training with respect to aerobic fitness, cardiovascular function, quality of life, efficiency, safety, tolerance, and exercise adherence in both short- and long-term training studies. Finally, short-interval HIIT was shown to be useful in the initiation and improvement phases of cardiac rehabilitation, whereas moderate- or longer-interval (or both) HIIT protocols appear to be more appropriate for the improvement and maintenance phases because of their high physiological stimulus. We now propose progressive models of exercise training (phases II-III) for patients with cardiac disease, including a more appropriate application of HIIT based on the scientific literature in the context of a multimodal cardiac rehabilitation program.

  6. A Needs Assessment Model for Establishing Personnel Training Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Robert K.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The article presents the Special Education Needs Assessment Priorities model which establishes training priorities for both regular and special educators. The model consists of four stages: identification of competencies, development of discrepancies, setting training priorities, and resource allocation. (SB)

  7. Quality assessment of randomized clinical trial in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Giulliano Peixoto; Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; Barbosa, Luciano Timbó; Duarte, José Lira

    2009-03-01

    A randomized clinical trial is a prospective study that compares the effect and value of interventions in human beings, of one or more groups vs. a control group. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of published randomized clinical trials in Intensive care in Brazil. All randomized clinical trials in intensive care found by manual search in Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva from January 2001 to March 2008 were assessed to evaluate their description by the quality scale. Descriptive statistics and a 95 % confidence interval were used for the primary outcome. Our primary outcome was the randomized clinical trial quality. Our search found 185 original articles, of which 14 were randomized clinical trials. Only one original article (7.1%) showed good quality. There was no statistical significance between the collected data and the data shown in the hypothesis of this search. It can be concluded that in the sample of assessed articles 7% of the randomized clinical trials in intensive care published in a single intensive care journal in Brazil, present good methodological quality.

  8. Sensory intensity assessment of olive oils using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Ana C A; Dias, Luís G; Rodrigues, Nuno; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oils may be commercialized as intense, medium or light, according to the intensity perception of fruitiness, bitterness and pungency attributes, assessed by a sensory panel. In this work, the capability of an electronic tongue to correctly classify olive oils according to the sensory intensity perception levels was evaluated. Cross-sensitivity and non-specific lipid polymeric membranes were used as sensors. The sensor device was firstly tested using quinine monohydrochloride standard solutions. Mean sensitivities of 14±2 to 25±6 mV/decade, depending on the type of plasticizer used in the lipid membranes, were obtained showing the device capability for evaluating bitterness. Then, linear discriminant models based on sub-sets of sensors, selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm, were established enabling to correctly classify 91% of olive oils according to their intensity sensory grade (leave-one-out cross-validation procedure). This capability was further evaluated using a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure, showing that the electronic tongue allowed an average correct classification of 80% of the olive oils used for internal-validation. So, the electronic tongue can be seen as a taste sensor, allowing differentiating olive oils with different sensory intensities, and could be used as a preliminary, complementary and practical tool for panelists during olive oil sensory analysis.

  9. The change in thyroid hormone signaling by altered training intensity in male rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmana, Ronny; Iwasaki, Toshiharu; Iizuka, Yuki; Amano, Izuki; Shimokawa, Noriaki; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2016-08-31

    Aerobic (sub lactate threshold; sub-LT) exercise training facilitates oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis of skeletal muscle. Thyroid hormone (TH) also facilitates such metabolic events. Thus, we studied whether TH signaling pathway is activated by treadmill training. Male adult rats received 30 min/day treadmill training with different exercise intensity for 12 days. Then plasma lactate and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were measured. By lactate levels, rats were divided into stationary control (SC, 0 m/min), sub-LT (15 m/min) and supra lactate threshold (supra-LT; 25 m/min) training groups. Immediately after the last training, the soleus muscles were dissected out to measure TH receptor (TR) mRNA and protein expressions. Other rats received intraperitoneal injection of T3, 24 h after the last training and sacrificed 6 h after the injection to measure TH target gene expression. TSH level was suppressed in both sub-LT and supra-LT groups during the exercise. TRβ1 mRNA and protein levels were increased in sub-LT group. Sensitivity to T3 was altered in several TH-target genes by training. Particularly, induction of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase β1 expression by T3 was significantly augmented in sub-LT group. These results indicate that sub-LT training alters TH signaling at least in part by increasing TRβ1 expression. Such TH signaling alteration may contribute metabolic adaptation in skeletal muscle during physical training.

  10. Pre-training Assessment Through the Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth; Wong; Reggie; Kwan; Jimmy; SF; Chan

    2002-01-01

    Web-based training is growing quickly in popularit y for professionals in industrial organizations and large enterprises. The savings in cost and time are significant. The instructor-led trainings are bounded by time and place, not to mention the cost involved in traveling, accommodation and training venue. However, in the most online training courses, all trainees are given same training materials and teaching paradigms. The problem of differentia ting the trainees' abilities is the main concern. We n...

  11. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Çakır-Atabek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8 and untrained (N=8 men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p0.05. Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50% is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80% is required to evoke protein oxidation.

  12. Crew resource management training in the intensive care unit: a multisite controlled before-after study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, P.F.; Bruijne, M. de; Dyck, C. van; So, R.L.; Tangkau, P.; Wagner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a growing awareness today that adverse events in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more often caused by problems related to non-technical skills than by a lack of technical, or clinical, expertise. Team training, such as crew resource management (CRM), aims to improve these non

  13. High-Frequency, Moderate-Intensity Training in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a five-day-a-week, moderate-intensity aerobic training program were studied in previously sedentary middle-aged women. After 10 weeks of graduated-length sessions of continuous exercise, the subjects showed a 20 percent improvement in maximal oxygen uptake but no change in body weight or composition. Results are discussed.…

  14. Effectiveness of the Modified Intensive Toilet Training Method on Teaching Toilet Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Avsar; Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effectiveness of a modified version of Azrin and Foxx's (1971) intensive toilet training method on teaching of toilet skills to children with autism. This method consists of administering extra fluids and a time schedule, but does not use overcorrection procedures. Implementation requires a study of six…

  15. Effectiveness of the Modified Intensive Toilet Training Method on Teaching Toilet Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Avsar; Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effectiveness of a modified version of Azrin and Foxx's (1971) intensive toilet training method on teaching of toilet skills to children with autism. This method consists of administering extra fluids and a time schedule, but does not use overcorrection procedures. Implementation requires a study of six…

  16. The intensity distribution among well-trained and elite endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Leonhard Stöggl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a pyramidal TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT. World-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called polarized TID (i.e. significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training, rather than a pyramidal or threshold (THR TID. In contrast to the pyramidal TID, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals. The aims of the present review are to: 1 summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; 2 provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; 3 address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and 4 highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies.

  17. Assessment of Delirium in Intensive Care Unit Patients: Educational Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judith M; Van Aman, M Nancy; Schneiderhahn, Mary Elizabeth; Edelman, Robin; Ercole, Patrick M

    2017-05-01

    Delirium is an acute brain dysfunction associated with poor outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Critical care nurses play an important role in the prevention, detection, and management of delirium, but they must be able to accurately assess for it. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) instrument is a reliable and valid method to assess for delirium, but research reveals most nurses need practice to use it proficiently. A pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate the success of a multimodal educational strategy (i.e., online learning module coupled with standardized patient simulation experience) on critical care nurses' knowledge and confidence to assess and manage delirium using the CAM-ICU. Participants (N = 34) showed a significant increase (p assess and manage delirium following the multimodal education. No statistical change in knowledge of delirium existed following the education. A multimodal educational strategy, which included simulation, significantly added confidence in critical care nurses' performance using the CAM-ICU. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2017;48(5):239-244. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. High-intensity knee extensor training restores skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønstad, Eivind; Rognmo, Oivind; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Dedichen, Hans Henrich; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Håberg, Asta K; Bjørk Ingul, Charlotte; Wisløff, Ulrik; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2012-11-01

    Improving reduced skeletal muscle function is important for optimising exercise tolerance and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. By applying high-intensity training to a small muscle group, we hypothesised a normalisation of muscle function. Seven patients with COPD performed 6 weeks (3 days·week(-1)) of high-intensity interval aerobic knee extensor exercise training. Five age-matched healthy individuals served as a reference group. Muscle oxygen uptake and mitochondrial respiration of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after the 6-week training programme. Initial peak work and maximal mitochondrial respiration were reduced in COPD patients and improved significantly after the training programme. Peak power and maximal mitochondrial respiration in vastus lateralis muscle increased to the level of the control subjects and were mainly mediated via improved complex I respiration. Furthermore, when normalised to citrate synthase activity, no difference in maximal respiration was found either after the intervention or compared to controls, suggesting normal functioning mitochondrial complexes. The present study shows that high-intensity training of a restricted muscle group is highly effective in restoring skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

  19. High intensity interval training vs. high-volume running training during pre-season conditioning in high-level youth football: a cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, Oliver; Schnittker, Reinhard; Schulte-Zurhausen, Roman; Müller, Florian; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at comparing the endurance effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with high-volume running training (HVT) during pre-season conditioning in 20 high-level youth football players (15.9 (s 0.8) years). Players either conducted HVT or HIIT during the summer preparation period. During winter preparation they performed the other training programme. Before and after each training period several fitness tests were conducted: multi-stage running test (to assess the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and maximal running velocity (Vmax)), vertical jumping height, and straight sprinting. A significant increase from pre- to post-test was observed in IAT velocity (P velocity during the incremental exercise test also slightly increased with time (P = 0.09). Forty per cent (HIIT) and 15% (HVT) of all players did not improve IAT beyond baseline variability. The players who did not respond to HIIT were significantly slower during 30 m sprinting than responders (P = 0.02). No further significant differences between responders and non-responders were observed. Jump heights deteriorated significantly after both training periods (P football players during pre-season conditioning.

  20. Early phase interference between low-intensity running and power training in moderately trained females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Kostas; Methenitis, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    performed after lower-body power training impairs the exercise-induced adaptation in stretch-shortening cycle jumping performance (vertical jump height, peak power), during the first 6 weeks of training, which may be partially linked to inhibited muscle fiber hypertrophy and muscle fiber conduction velocity........94 %, p > 0.05). Maximum isometric force, RFD, and half squat 1-RM increased similarly in both groups. Muscle fiber type composition was not altered in either group. Muscle fiber cross sectional area increased only after PT (17.5 ± 17.4, 14.5 ± 10.4, 20.36 ± 11.3 %, in type I, IIA, and IIX fibers...

  1. Isometric strength training lowers the O2 cost of cycling during moderate-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Majerczak, Joanna; Grandys, Marcin; Duda, Krzysztof; Grassi, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    The effect of maximal voluntary isometric strength training of knee extensor muscles on pulmonary V'O(2) on-kinetics, the O(2) cost of cycling and peak oxygen uptake (V'O(2peak)) in humans was studied. Seven healthy males (mean ± SD, age 22.3 ± 2.0 years, body weight 75.0 ± 9.2 kg, V'O(2peak) 49.5 ± 3.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) performed maximal isometric strength training lasting 7 weeks (4 sessions per week). Force during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) increased by 15 % (P < 0.001) after 1 week of training, and by 19 % (P < 0.001) after 7 weeks of training. This increase in MVC was accompanied by no significant changes in the time constant of the V'O(2) on-kinetics during 6 min of moderate and heavy cycling intensities. Strength training resulted in a significant decrease (by ~7 %; P < 0.02) in the amplitude of the fundamental component of the V'O(2) on-kinetics, and therefore in a lower O(2) cost of cycling during moderate cycling intensity. The amplitude of the slow component of V'O(2) on-kinetics during heavy cycling intensity did not change with training. Training had no effect on the V'O(2peak), whereas the maximal power output reached at V'O(2peak) was slightly but significantly increased (P < 0.05). Isometric strength training rapidly (i.e., after 1 week) decreases the O(2) cost of cycling during moderate-intensity exercise, whereas it does not affect the amplitude of the slow component of the V'O(2) on-kinetics during heavy-intensity exercise. Isometric strength training can have beneficial effects on performance during endurance events.

  2. Role of intensive training in the growth and maturation of artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Robert M; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Armstrong, Neil; Beunen, Gaston P; Caine, Dennis; Daly, Robin M; Lewis, Richard D; Rogol, Alan D; Russell, Keith

    2013-09-01

    Short stature and later maturation of youth artistic gymnasts are often attributed to the effects of intensive training from a young age. Given limitations of available data, inadequate specification of training, failure to consider other factors affecting growth and maturation, and failure to address epidemiological criteria for causality, it has not been possible thus far to establish cause-effect relationships between training and the growth and maturation of young artistic gymnasts. In response to this ongoing debate, the Scientific Commission of the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG) convened a committee to review the current literature and address four questions: (1) Is there a negative effect of training on attained adult stature? (2) Is there a negative effect of training on growth of body segments? (3) Does training attenuate pubertal growth and maturation, specifically, the rate of growth and/or the timing and tempo of maturation? (4) Does training negatively influence the endocrine system, specifically hormones related to growth and pubertal maturation? The basic information for the review was derived from the active involvement of committee members in research on normal variation and clinical aspects of growth and maturation, and on the growth and maturation of artistic gymnasts and other youth athletes. The committee was thus thoroughly familiar with the literature on growth and maturation in general and of gymnasts and young athletes. Relevant data were more available for females than males. Youth who persisted in the sport were a highly select sample, who tended to be shorter for chronological age but who had appropriate weight-for-height. Data for secondary sex characteristics, skeletal age and age at peak height velocity indicated later maturation, but the maturity status of gymnasts overlapped the normal range of variability observed in the general population. Gymnasts as a group demonstrated a pattern of growth and maturation similar to

  3. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleg, Jerome L.

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation. PMID:27635241

  4. Gradually increased training intensity benefits rehabilitation outcome after stroke by BDNF upregulation and stress suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Ke, Zheng; Yip, Shea Ping; Hu, Xiao-ling; Zheng, Xiao-xiang; Tong, Kai-yu

    2014-01-01

    Physical training is necessary for effective rehabilitation in the early poststroke period. Animal studies commonly use fixed training intensity throughout rehabilitation and without adapting it to the animals' recovered motor ability. This study investigated the correlation between training intensity and rehabilitation efficacy by using a focal ischemic stroke rat model. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion surgery. Sixty rats with successful stroke were then randomly assigned into four groups: control (CG, n = 15), low intensity (LG, n = 15), gradually increased intensity (GIG, n = 15), and high intensity (HG, n = 15). Behavioral tests were conducted daily to evaluate motor function recovery. Stress level and neural recovery were evaluated via plasma corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration, respectively. GIG rats significantly (P BDNF (112.87 ± 25.18 ng/g). GIG and LG rats exhibited similar stress levels (540.63 ± 117.40 nM/L and 508.07 ± 161.30 nM/L, resp.), which were significantly lower (P stroke recovery.

  5. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racil, G; Coquart, J B; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.017). The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was significant (p = 0.019, ES = 0.48 and p = 0.010, ES = 0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively). The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP) (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively) followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  6. Intensive gait training in toddlers with cerebral palsy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Herskind

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduced muscle growth may be involved in the development of contractures in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Here, we report data from a pilot study of intensive gait training in CP toddlers. Methods: Five children with CP aged 8-30 months performed activity-based gait training for one hour/day, five days/week for three consecutive months. Included children were diagnosed with spastic CP, had a Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS score of I–II, and were not epileptic. All children wore pedometers during training. Before and after the training period, kinematic and qualitative gait analysis, clinical and objective evaluation of spasticity, Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66, and ultrasound of the affected medial gastrocnemius (MG muscle were performed. Two children were also tested before and after three months of receiving only standard care (SC. Results: On average 1410 steps/session were logged during 63 days of training. More steps were achieved at home than at a central facility. During training, MG muscle volume increased significantly, while it decreased for SC children. Gait improved qualitatively in all children, and GMFM-66 score improved in four of the five children. Similar improvements were seen among the SC children. Two children had pathologically increased muscle stiffness prior to training, which was reduced during training. Reflex stiffness was unchanged in all five children. Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that intensive gait training may increase muscle volume, improve walking skills and reduce passive muscle stiffness in toddlers with CP.

  7. Fitness and Health Effects of Frequent Intense Training in 8-10-Year Old Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Nejst

    the intervention study demonstrate that significant structural and functional musculoskeletal adaptations can be achieved from well-controlled high-intensity training in a school-based setting, especially from 3x40 minutes of SSG and CST. The overall fitness effects of the low-volume training (5x12 minutes of SSG....... In fact, the evidence of beneficial effects convinced Danish politicians to design a school curriculum with 45 minutes of physical activity every day, which should enable every child to fulfil the recommendations of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) every day when supplemented...... with organised and unorganised leisure time activities. The issues addressed in this thesis are the physiological responses to small-sided football and other high-intensity activities. Paper I showed that recreational small-sided football games are highly intense for 9-12-year-old boys and that 5v5 provides...

  8. A Mechanism Underlying Preventive Effect of High-Intensity Training on Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kaori; Sato, Koji; Suemoto, Ken; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Fuku, Noriyuki; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Tsuji, Katsunori; Xu, Yuzhong; Liu, Xin; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Tabata, Izumi

    2017-09-01

    We examined effects of high-intensity training on chemically induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rat colon. We also investigated mechanisms that may underlie the results obtained, with a focus on secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), which has been proposed as an exercise-related factor of colon cancer prevention. After an administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, F344 rats executed high-intensity intermittent swimming training (HIIST) (twelve 20-s swimming with a weight [16% body weight] with 10-s pauses between the bouts) 5 d·wk for 4 wk. The acute and chronic effects of the HIIST on SPARC were evaluated in rats. We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator on SPARC in rat serum and epitrochlearis muscle. In human subjects, we determined serum SPARC after exhaustive bicycling consisting of six to seven bouts of exercise at 170% V˙O2max with 10-s rests between the bouts (high-intensity intermittent bicycling [HIIB]). The SPARC mRNA in human vastus lateralis was measured before and after the HIIB for 4 d·wk for 6 wk (HIIB-training [HIIBT]). The numbers of ACF were lower in the HIIST (47 ± 22) compared with the control (122 ± 47) rats (P < 0.05). SPARC in epitrochlearis and serum after HIIS of the trained rat was higher than that in the control resting rats. In vitro and vivo AMPK stimulation increased mRNA and SPARC protein in rat epitrochlearis, respectively. The human serum SPARC after the HIIB was elevated. SPARC mRNA in human muscle was elevated after the HIIBT. The results demonstrated that HIIST inhibits 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon ACF development. This effect may be explained by SPARC induction by the exercise intensity-related factor AMPK, potentially explaining the preventive effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training against colon cancer.

  9. Application of the speed-duration relationship to normalize the intensity of high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Ferguson

    Full Text Available The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8 then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4, 6 min (WR6 and 8 min (WR8, interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min. A sub-group of subjects (n = 6 also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (P0.050. However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m, 3 (136.9±38.9 m, and 4 (136.7±39.3 m, compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050. These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols.

  10. Application of the speed-duration relationship to normalize the intensity of high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wilson, John; Birch, Karen M; Kemi, Ole J

    2013-01-01

    The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM) relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8) then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4), 6 min (WR6) and 8 min (WR8), interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT) on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min). A sub-group of subjects (n = 6) also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT) to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (PHIIT, there was no difference in tLIM of each of the 4 bouts (Bout 1: 229±27 s; Bout 2: 262±37 s; Bout 3: 235±49 s; Bout 4: 235±53 s; P>0.050). However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m), 3 (136.9±38.9 m), and 4 (136.7±39.3 m), compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050). These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols.

  11. Amino acid supplements and recovery from high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carwyn P M; Pearson, David R

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether short-term amino acid supplementation could maintain a short-term net anabolic hormonal profile and decrease muscle cell damage during a period of high-intensity resistance training (overreaching), thereby enhancing recovery and decreasing the risk of injury and illness. Eight previously resistance trained males were randomly assigned to either a high branched chain amino acids (BCAA) or placebo group. Subjects consumed the supplement for 3 weeks before commencing a fourth week of supplementation with concomitant high-intensity total-body resistance training (overreaching) (3 x 6-8 repetitions maximum, 8 exercises). Blood was drawn prior to and after supplementation, then again after 2 and 4 days of training. Serum was analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase. Serum testosterone levels were significantly higher (p creatine kinase levels were significantly lower (p resistance training. These findings suggest that short-term amino acid supplementation, which is high in BCAA, may produce a net anabolic hormonal profile while attenuating training-induced increases in muscle tissue damage. Athletes' nutrient intake, which periodically increases amino acid intake to reflect the increased need for recovery during periods of overreaching, may increase subsequent competitive performance while decreasing the risk of injury or illness.

  12. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

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    A Nummela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7, who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8 who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-weektraining periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-weektraining period HIGH group increased their V0Zmax (P = 0.005 more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039 and high-frequency power (HFP increased (P = 0.003 in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in V0Zmax during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001. The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.

  13. Heart rate-based training intensity and its impact on injury incidence among elite-level professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Adam L; Forsyth, Jacky J; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Connelly, Sean P; Chamari, Karim

    2015-06-01

    Elite-level professional soccer players are suggested to have increased physical, technical, tactical, and psychological capabilities when compared with their subelite counterparts. Ensuring these players remain at the elite level generally involves training many different bodily systems to a high intensity or level within a short duration. This study aimed to examine whether an increase in training volume at high-intensity levels was related to injury incidence, or increased the odds of sustaining an injury. Training intensity was monitored through time spent in high-intensity (T-HI) and very high-intensity (T-VHI) zones of 85-level professional players may be possible if greater focus is placed on the training intensity and volume over a period of time ensuring the potential reduction of fatigue or overuse injuries. In addition, it is important to understand the optimal training load at which adaptation occurs without raising the risk of injury.

  14. Suicide Risk Assessment Training for Psychology Doctoral Programs: Core Competencies and a Framework for Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Johnson, Shara M; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Rausch, Emilie M; Conroy, Mary Alice

    2013-02-01

    Clinical and counseling psychology programs currently lack adequate evidence-based competency goals and training in suicide risk assessment. To begin to address this problem, this article proposes core competencies and an integrated training framework that can form the basis for training and research in this area. First, we evaluate the extent to which current training is effective in preparing trainees for suicide risk assessment. Within this discussion, sample and methodological issues are reviewed. Second, as an extension of these methodological training issues, we integrate empirically- and expert-derived suicide risk assessment competencies from several sources with the goal of streamlining core competencies for training purposes. Finally, a framework for suicide risk assessment training is outlined. The approach employs Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) methodology, an approach commonly utilized in medical competency training. The training modality also proposes the Suicide Competency Assessment Form (SCAF), a training tool evaluating self- and observer-ratings of trainee core competencies. The training framework and SCAF are ripe for empirical evaluation and potential training implementation.

  15. High-intensity exercise training produces morphological and biochemical changes in adrenal gland of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalucci, A; Ferrucci, M; Fulceri, F; Lazzeri, G; Lenzi, P; Toti, L; Serpiello, F R; La Torre, A; Gesi, M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of training are dependent on complex, adaptive changes which are induced by acute physical exercise at different levels. In particular, evidence shows that the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, as well as the sympatho-adrenomedullary system, is mainly involved in mediating the physiological effects of physical exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate, through a morphological and biochemical approach, the effects of training on the adrenal gland of mice, following two different protocols consisting of either low- or high-intensity training. Mice were run daily on a motorised treadmill for 8 weeks, at a velocity corresponding to 60% (low-intensity exercise) or 90% (high-intensity exercise) of the maximal running velocity previously determined by an incremental exercise test. We found that physical exercise produced an increase in the adrenal gland size compared with the control (sedentary) mice. The increase was 31.04% for mice that underwent high-intensity exercise and 10.08% for mice that underwent low intensity exercise, and this appeared to be the result of an increase in the area of both the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla. Morphological analysis of the adrenal cortex showed that both types of exercise produced an increase in cytoplasmic vacuoles in steroidogenic cells, appearing more abundant after high-intensity exercise. No change was found in the reticulate zone. In the adrenal medulla, despite the absence of morphological changes, immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine β-hydroxylase and phenyl-ethanolamine-N-methyltransferase demonstrated an increased immunopositivity for these cathecolamine-synthesizing enzymes after intense exercise. These results were confirmed by immunoblot accompanied by densitometric analysis.

  16. [Pain assessment in the premature newborn in Intensive Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luciano Marques; Pereira, Monick Piton; dos Santos, Leandro Feliciano Nery; de Santana, Rosana Castelo Branco

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the process of pain identification in premature by the professional staff of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital in the interior of Bahia, Brazil. This is a quantitative descriptive exploratory study that was made through a form applied to twenty-four health professional of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The data were analyzed in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The results showed 100% of professionals believed that newborns feel pain, 83.3% knew the pain as the fifth vital sign to be evaluated; 54,8% did not know the pain assessment scales; 70.8% did not use scales and highlighted behavioral and physiological signs of the newborn as signs suggestive of pain. Thus, it is important that professionals understand the pain as a complex phenomenon that demands early intervention, ensuring the excellence of care.

  17. Endothelial function does not improve with high-intensity continuous exercise training in SHR: implications of eNOS uncoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battault, Sylvain; Singh, François; Gayrard, Sandrine; Zoll, Joffrey; Reboul, Cyril; Meyer, Grégory

    2016-02-01

    Exercise training is a well-recognized way to improve vascular endothelial function by increasing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. However, in hypertensive subjects, unlike low- and moderate-intensity exercise training, the beneficial effects of continuous high-intensity exercise on endothelial function are not clear, and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of high-intensity exercise on vascular function, especially on the NO pathway, in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). These effects were studied on WKY, sedentary SHR and SHR that exercised at moderate (SHR-MOD) and high intensity (SHR-HI) on a treadmill (1 h per day; 5 days per week for 6 weeks at 55% and 80% of their maximal aerobic velocity, respectively). Endothelial function and specific NO contributions to acetylcholine-mediated relaxation were evaluated by measuring the aortic ring isometric forces. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and phosphorylation (ser1177) were evaluated by western blotting. The total aortic and eNOS-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed using electron paramagnetic resonance in aortic tissue. Although the aortas of SHR-HI had increased eNOS levels without alteration of eNOS phosphorylation, high-intensity exercise had no beneficial effect on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, unlike moderate exercise. This result was associated with increased eNOS-dependent ROS production in the aortas of SHR-HI. Notably, the use of the recoupling agent BH4 or a thiol-reducing agent blunted eNOS-dependent ROS production in the aortas of SHR-HI. In conclusion, the lack of a positive effect of high-intensity exercise on endothelial function in SHR was mainly explained by redox-dependent eNOS uncoupling, resulting in a switch from NO to O2(-) generation.

  18. Damage-consistent hazard assessment - the revival of intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klügel, Jens-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Proposed key-note speech (Introduction of session). Current civil engineering standards for residential buildings in many countries are based on (frequently probabilistic) seismic hazard assessments using ground motion parameters like peak ground accelerations or pseudo displacements as hazard parameters. This approach has its roots in the still wide spread force-based design of structures using simplified methods like linear response spectra in combination with equivalent static forces procedures for the design of structures. In the engineering practice this has led to practical problems because it's not economic to design structures against the maximum forces of earthquakes. Furthermore, a completely linear-elastic response of structures is seldom required. Different types of reduction factors (performance-dependent response factors) considering for example overstrength, structural redundancy and structural ductility have been developed in different countries for compensating the use of simplified and conservative design methods. This has the practical consequence that the methods used in engineering as well as the output results of hazard assessment studies are poorly related to the physics of damaging. Reliable predictions for the response of structures under earthquake loading using such simplified design methods are not feasible. In dependence of the type of structures damage may be controlled by hazard parameters that are different from ground motion accelerations. Furthermore, a realistic risk assessment has to be based on reliable predictions of damage. This is crucial for effective decision-making. This opens the space for a return to the use of intensities as the key output parameter of seismic hazard assessment. Site intensities (e.g. EMS-98) are very well correlated to the damage of structures. They can easily be converted into the required set of engineering parameters or even directly into earthquake time-histories suitable for structural analysis

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on body adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, S E; Johnson, N A; Mielke, G I; Coombes, J S

    2017-08-01

    Interval training (including high-intensity interval training [HIIT] and sprint interval training [SIT]) is promoted in both scientific and lay media as being a superior and time-efficient method for fat loss compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). We evaluated the efficacy of HIIT/SIT when directly compared with MICT for the modulation of body adiposity. Databases were searched to 31 August 2016 for studies with exercise training interventions with minimum 4-week duration. Meta-analyses were conducted for within-group and between-group comparisons for total body fat percentage (%) and fat mass (kg). To investigate heterogeneity, we conducted sensitivity and meta-regression analyses. Of the 6,074 studies netted, 31 were included. Within-group analyses demonstrated reductions in total body fat (%) (HIIT/SIT: -1.26 [95% CI: -1.80; -0.72] and MICT: -1.48 [95% CI: -1.89; -1.06]) and fat mass (kg) (HIIT/SIT: -1.38 [95% CI: -1.99; -0.77] and MICT: -0.91 [95% CI: -1.45; -0.37]). There were no differences between HIIT/SIT and MICT for any body fat outcome. Analyses comparing MICT with HIIT/SIT protocols of lower time commitment and/or energy expenditure tended to favour MICT for total body fat reduction (p = 0.09). HIIT/SIT appears to provide similar benefits to MICT for body fat reduction, although not necessarily in a more time-efficient manner. However, neither short-term HIIT/SIT nor MICT produced clinically meaningful reductions in body fat. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Sleep monitoring of a six-day microcycle in strength and high-intensity training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; Endler, Stefan; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of microcycles in eccentric strength and high-intensity interval training (HIT) on sleep parameters and subjective ratings. Forty-two well-trained athletes (mean age 23.2 ± 2.4 years) were either assigned to the strength (n = 21; mean age 23.6 ± 2.1 years) or HIT (n = 21; mean age 22.8 ± 2.6 years) protocol. Sleep monitoring was conducted with multi-sensor actigraphy (SenseWear Armband™, Bodymedia, Pittsburg, PA, USA) and sleep log for 14 days. After a five-day baseline phase, participants completed either eccentric accented strength or high-intensity interval training for six days, with two training sessions per day. This training phase was divided into two halves (part 1 and 2) for statistical analyses. A three-day post phase concluded the monitoring. The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes was applied at baseline, end of part 2, and at the last post-day. Mood ratings were decreased during training, but returned to baseline values afterwards in both groups. Sleep parameters in the strength group remained constant over the entire process. The HIT group showed trends of unfavourable sleep during the training phase (e.g., objective sleep efficiency at part 2: mean = 83.6 ± 7.8%, F3,60 = 2.57, P = 0.06, [Formula: see text] = 0.114) and subjective improvements during the post phase for awakenings (F3,60 = 2.96, P = 0.04, [Formula: see text] = 0.129) and restfulness of sleep (F3,60 = 9.21, P strength training, and sufficient sleep time should be emphasised and monitored.

  1. Metabolic and respiratory adaptations during intense exercise following long-sprint training of short duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Claire; Bernard, Olivier; Enea, Carina; Jalab, Chadi; Hanon, Christine

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to determine metabolic and respiratory adaptations during intense exercise and improvement of long-sprint performance following six sessions of long-sprint training. Nine subjects performed before and after training (1) a 300-m test, (2) an incremental exercise up to exhaustion to determine the velocity associated with maximal oxygen uptake (v-VO(2max)), (3) a 70-s constant exercise at intensity halfway between the v-VO(2max) and the velocity performed during the 300-m test, followed by a 60-min passive recovery to determine an individual blood lactate recovery curve fitted to the bi-exponential time function: [Formula: see text], and blood metabolic and gas exchange responses. The training program consisted of 3-6 repetitions of 150-250 m interspersed with rest periods with a duration ratio superior or equal to 1:10, 3 days a week, for 2 weeks. After sprint training, reduced metabolic disturbances, characterized by a lower peak expired ventilation and carbon dioxide output, in addition to a reduced peak lactate (P < 0.05), was observed. Training also induced significant decrease in the net amount of lactate released at the beginning of recovery (P < 0.05), and significant decrease in the net lactate release rate (NLRR) (P < 0.05). Lastly, a significant improvement of the 300-m performance was observed after training. These results suggest that long-sprint training of short durations was effective to rapidly prevent metabolic disturbances, with alterations in lactate accumulation and gas exchange, and improvement of the NLRR. Furthermore, only six long-sprint training sessions allow long-sprint performance improvement in active subjects.

  2. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Espinoza Salinas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? Method The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Results Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91. Conclusion In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  3. Regulating explosive resistance training intensity using the rating of perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Brandi S; Knutzen, Kathleen M; Skogsberg, Nikolaus J

    2012-03-01

    Explosive resistance training (ERT) improves older adults' strength and power, and methods to make this form of training more accessible and useful to older adults are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale would predict a broad range of ERT intensities on the leg press with older adults. If successful, then a load-RPE relationship could be used to regulate the intensity of training loads for ERT with older adults, allowing the elimination of maximal strength testing. Twenty-one older adults (≥65 years) with resistance training experience took part in 2 testing sessions. Session 1: Subjects performed high-velocity repetitions on the leg press for up to 9 loads (from 60 to 140% body weight) presented in quasi-randomized order, and then reported their RPE for each load. Session 2: A 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength test was conducted. Regression analysis revealed that the average RPE across subjects for each load strongly predicted the average %1RM across subjects (R2 = 99.5%; p < 0.001). This allows the establishment of a load-RPE relationship for use in selecting ERT loads for older adults on the leg press. For example, high-intensity loads (70-90% 1RM) that would elicit both strength and power gains when used with ERT aligned with an RPE of 14-16. Lighter loads that may be useful for training for power, but not strength (<70% 1RM), were identified with RPE scores of 13 and lower. The load-RPE relationship may simplify the regulation of intensity of ERT with older adults on the leg press, where the exercising older adult could be guided to select loads according to their RPE.

  4. Intensive unilateral core training improves trunk stability without preference for trunk left or right rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yushin; Kim, Jungjin; Yoon, BumChul

    2015-01-01

    It is possible to increase multi-directional trunk stability using co-activation. However, it is unclear whether there is a preference for left or right trunk rotation after intensive unilateral stability training. The aim of this study was to examine the directional preference in trunk rotational stability after unilateral core training. This study was conducted on 16 female basketball players. For eight weeks, eight participants performed unilateral core training that focused on one side of the trunk. The remaining eight participants were not provided any additional training. To determine rotational trunk stability, all participants were requested to maintain an upright sitting posture against sudden, external, left or right rotational perturbations of the trunk. Angular displacement of the trunk was measured using a motion analyzer. At the end of the training period, the angular displacement in response to the perturbation was reduced for both rotational directions (left: −26%, right: −24%) in the trained group (p stability improved without particular directional preference in response to unilateral core training. This result adds to our understanding of the nature of trunk stability and multi-directional improvement. Intervention study, Level 1b.

  5. Does rating of perceived exertion result in target exercise intensity during interval training in cardiac rehabilitation? A study of the Borg scale versus a heart rate monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamot, Inger-Lise; Forbord, Siv Hege; Karlsen, Trine; Støylen, Asbjørn

    2014-09-01

    To assess whether rating of perceived exertion using the Borg 6-20 scale is a valid method for achieving target exercise intensity during high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation. A single-group cross-over design. Ten participants (56 (6.5) years) who were enrolled in a high-intensity interval training cardiac rehabilitation program were recruited. A target exercise intensity of Borg 17 (very hard) was used for exercise intensity guidance in the initial four exercise sessions that took place before a cardiopulmonary exercise test, as in usual care rehabilitation. The heart rate was recorded and blinded to the participants. After performing the test, the participants were then instructed using heart rate monitors openly for exercise guidance in four subsequent exercise sessions, at an intensity corresponding to 85-95% of peak heart rate. The mean exercise intensity during high-intensity bouts was 82% (6%) of peak heart rate for the rating of perceived exertion and 85% (6%) using heart rate monitors (p=0.005). Bland-Altman limits of agreement analysis with a mean bias showed a bias of 2.97 (-2.08, 8.02) percentage points for the two methods. Exercise intensity was highly repeatable with intra-class correlations of 0.95 (95% CI 0.86-0.99, pexercise sessions using rating of perceived exertion and percentage of peak heart rate for intensity control, respectively. Rating of perceived exertion results in an exercise intensity below target during high-intensity interval training bouts in cardiac rehabilitation. Heart rate monitoring should be used for accurate intensity guidance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Affective Responses to Repeated Sessions of High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saanijoki, Tiina; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Savolainen, Anna M; Vahlberg, Tero; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2015-12-01

    Vigorous exercise feels unpleasant, and negative emotions may discourage adherence to regular exercise. We quantified the subjective affective responses to short-term high-intensity interval training (HIT) in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training (MIT). Twenty-six healthy middle-age (mean age, 47 ± 5 yr; mean VO2peak, 34.2 ± 4.1 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) sedentary men were randomized into HIT (n = 13, 4-6 × 30 s of all-out cycling efforts at approximately 180% of peak workload with 4-min recovery) or MIT (n = 13, 40- to 60-min continuous cycling at 60% of peak workload) groups, performing six sessions within two weeks. Perceived exertion, stress, and affective state were recorded before, during, and after each session. Perceived exertion and arousal were higher, and affective state, more negative during the HIT than that during MIT sessions (P training. Peak oxygen consumption increased (P training). Short-term HIT and MIT are equally effective in improving aerobic fitness, but HIT increases experience of negative emotions and exertion in sedentary middle-age men. This may limit the adherence to this time-effective training mode, even though displeasure lessens over time and suggests similar mental adaptations to both MIT and HIT.

  7. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coroama, Vlad C., E-mail: vcoroama@gmail.com [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hilty, Lorenz M. [Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestrasse 14, 8050 Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  8. Effectiveness of classroom based crew resource management training in the intensive care unit: study design of a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemper Peter F

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crew resource management (CRM has the potential to enhance patient safety in intensive care units (ICU by improving the use of non-technical skills. However, CRM evaluation studies in health care are inconclusive with regard to the effect of this training on behaviour and organizational outcomes, due to weak study designs and the scarce use of direct observations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of CRM training on attitude, behaviour and organization after one year, using a multi-method approach and matched control units. The purpose of the present article is to describe the study protocol and the underlying choices of this evaluation study of CRM in the ICU in detail. Methods/Design Six ICUs participated in a paired controlled trial, with one pre-test and two post test measurements (respectively three months and one year after the training. Three ICUs were trained and compared to matched control ICUs. The 2-day classroom-based training was delivered to multidisciplinary groups. Typical CRM topics on the individual, team and organizational level were discussed, such as situational awareness, leadership and communication. All levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework (reaction, learning, behaviour and organisation were assessed using questionnaires, direct observations, interviews and routine ICU administration data. Discussion It is expected that the CRM training acts as a generic intervention that stimulates specific interventions. Besides effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, the assessment of the barriers and facilitators will provide insight in the implementation process of CRM. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR1976

  9. Effectiveness of classroom based crew resource management training in the intensive care unit: study design of a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Peter F; de Bruijne, Martine; van Dyck, Cathy; Wagner, Cordula

    2011-11-10

    Crew resource management (CRM) has the potential to enhance patient safety in intensive care units (ICU) by improving the use of non-technical skills. However, CRM evaluation studies in health care are inconclusive with regard to the effect of this training on behaviour and organizational outcomes, due to weak study designs and the scarce use of direct observations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of CRM training on attitude, behaviour and organization after one year, using a multi-method approach and matched control units. The purpose of the present article is to describe the study protocol and the underlying choices of this evaluation study of CRM in the ICU in detail. Six ICUs participated in a paired controlled trial, with one pre-test and two post test measurements (respectively three months and one year after the training). Three ICUs were trained and compared to matched control ICUs. The 2-day classroom-based training was delivered to multidisciplinary groups. Typical CRM topics on the individual, team and organizational level were discussed, such as situational awareness, leadership and communication. All levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework (reaction, learning, behaviour and organisation) were assessed using questionnaires, direct observations, interviews and routine ICU administration data. It is expected that the CRM training acts as a generic intervention that stimulates specific interventions. Besides effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, the assessment of the barriers and facilitators will provide insight in the implementation process of CRM. Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR1976.

  10. Psychological Assessment Training in Clinical Psychology Doctoral Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihura, Joni L; Roy, Manali; Graceffo, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed American Psychological Association-accredited clinical psychology doctoral programs' (n = 83) training in psychological assessment-specifically, their coverage of various assessment topics and tests in courses and practica, and whether the training was optional or required. We report results overall and separately per training model (clinical science, scientist-practitioner, and practitioner-focused). Overall, our results suggest that psychological assessment training is as active, or even more active, than in previous years. Areas of increased emphasis include clinical interviewing and psychometrics; multimethod, outcomes, health, and collaborative or therapeutic assessment; and different types of cognitive and self-report personality tests. All or almost all practice-focused programs offered training with the Thematic Apperception Test and Rorschach compared to about half of the scientist-practitioner programs and a third of the clinical science programs. Although almost all programs reported teaching multimethod assessment, what constitutes different methods of assessing psychopathology should be clarified in future studies because many programs appear to rely on one method-self-report (especially clinical science programs). Although doctoral programs covered many assessment topics and tests in didactic courses, there appears to be a shortage of program-run opportunities for students to obtain applied assessment training. Finally, we encourage doctoral programs to be familiar with (a) internships' assessment expectations and opportunities, (b) the professional guidelines for assessment training, and (c) the American Psychological Association's requirements for preinternship assessment competencies.

  11. Reduced leptin level is independently of fat mass changes and hunger scores from high-intensity intermittent plus strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daniela S; Gonçalves Panissa, Valéria L; Mello Antunes, Barbara; Poleto de Oliveira, Flaviane; Bernardes Malta, Raoni; Santos Caldeira, Renan; Zapaterra Campos, Eduardo; Duarte Pimentel, Gustavo; Franchini, Emerson; Santos Lira, Fábio

    2017-05-09

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) plus strength training on body composition, hormone related to energetic balance (leptin), and hunger scores in physically active non-obese men. Sixteen men were allocated in two different groups, training group (n=10) performed a combined HIIT (5 km, 1 min of effort interspersed by 1 min of rest in passive recovery) followed by strength exercise session (three sets, with load of 8-12 repetition maximum) twice a week, during 8 weeks, while control group (n=6) did not suffer any intervention. Hunger scores, leptin concentrations and body composition were assessed. Body composition, fasting leptin and hunger score were compared through two-way analysis (group and period) with repeated measures in the second factor while leptin and hunger scores in exercise session pre- and post-8weeks through two-way analysis (period and time of measurement) with repeated measures in the second factor. The fasting leptin decreased pre- to post-8week in training group (7.7 ± 4.9 to 2.9 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p = 0.012). For leptin response to exercise session there was main effect of training period, with higher values pre- (6.5 ± 3.9 ng/ml) than post-training (2.6 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p < 0.001). For hunger scores there was effect of time of measurement (p <0.001), decreasing after breakfast and increasing over the experiment. Combined HIIT plus strength training were able to promote alterations in a hormone related to energy balance independent of body composition and hunger index alterations in physically active non-obese men.

  12. Heart rate' based training intensity and its impact on injury incidence amongst elite level professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Adam L; Forsyth, Jacky J; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Connelly, Sean; Chamari, Karim

    2014-12-24

    Elite level professional soccer players are suggested to have increased physical, technical, tactical and psychological capabilities when compared to their sub-elite counterparts. Ensuring these players remain at the elite level generally involves training many different bodily systems to a high intensity or level within a short duration. This study aimed to examine whether an increase in training volume at high intensity levels were related to injury incidence, or increased the odds of sustaining an injury. Training intensity was monitored through time spent in high- (T-HI) and very high- (T-VHI) intensity zones of 85-level players may be possible if greater focus is placed on the training intensity and volume over a period of time ensuring the potential reduction of fatigue or overuse injuries. In addition, it is important to understand the optimal training load at which adaptation occurs without raising the risk of injury.

  13. Inspiratory muscle training facilitates weaning from mechanical ventilation among patients in the intensive care unit: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Elkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does inspiratory muscle training improve inspiratory muscle strength in adults receiving mechanical ventilation? Does it improve the duration or success of weaning? Does it affect length of stay, reintubation, tracheostomy, survival, or the need for post-extubation non-invasive ventilation? Is it tolerable and does it cause adverse events? Design: Systematic review of randomised trials. Participants: Adults receiving mechanical ventilation. Intervention: Inspiratory muscle training versus sham or no inspiratory muscle training. Outcome measures: Data were extracted regarding: inspiratory muscle strength and endurance; the rapid shallow breathing index; weaning success and duration; duration of mechanical ventilation; reintubation; tracheostomy; length of stay; use of non-invasive ventilation after extubation; survival; readmission; tolerability and adverse events. Results: Ten studies involving 394 participants were included. Heterogeneity within some meta-analyses was high. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that the training significantly improved maximal inspiratory pressure (MD 7 cmH2O, 95% CI 5 to 9, the rapid shallow breathing index (MD 15 breaths/min/l, 95% CI 8 to 23 and weaning success (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.76. Although only assessed in individual studies, significant benefits were also reported for the time spent on non-invasive ventilation after weaning (MD 16 hours, 95% CI 13 to 18, length of stay in the intensive care unit (MD 4.5 days, 95% CI 3.6 to 5.4 and length of stay in hospital (MD 4.4 days, 95% CI 3.4 to 5.5. Weaning duration decreased in the subgroup of patients with known weaning difficulty. The other outcomes weren’t significantly affected or weren’t measured. Conclusion: Inspiratory muscle training for selected patients in the intensive care unit facilitates weaning, with potential reductions in length of stay and the duration of non-invasive ventilatory support after extubation. The heterogeneity

  14. Assessing Overreaching With Heart-Rate Recovery: What Is the Minimal Exercise Intensity Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Meur, Yann; Buchheit, Martin; Aubry, Anaël; Coutts, Aaron J; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Faster heart-rate recovery (HRR) after high to maximal exercise (≥90% of maximal heart rate) has been reported in athletes suspected of functional overreaching (f-OR). This study investigated whether this response would also occur at lower exercise intensity. Responses of HRR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were compared during an incremental intermittent running protocol to exhaustion in 20 experienced male triathletes (8 control subjects and 13 overload subjects led to f-OR) before and immediately after an overload training period and after a 1-wk taper. Both groups demonstrated an increase in HRR values immediately after the training period, but this change was very likely to almost certainly larger in the f-OR group at all running intensities (large to very large differences, eg, +16 ± 7 vs +3 ± 5 beats/min, in the f-OR and control groups at 11 km/h, respectively). The highest between-groups differences in changes in HRR were reported at 11 km/h (13 ± 4 beats/min) and 12 km/h (10 ± 6 beats/min). A concomitant increase in RPE at all intensities was reported only in the f-OR group (large to extremely large differences, +2.1 ± 1.5 to +0.7 ± 1.5 arbitrary units). These findings confirm that faster HRR does not systematically predict better physical performance. However, when interpreted in the context of the athletes' fatigue state and training phase, HRR after submaximal exercise may be more discriminant than HRR measures taken after maximal exercise for monitoring f-OR. These findings may be applied in practice by regularly assessing HRR after submaximal exercise (ie, warm-up) for monitoring endurance athletes' responses to training.

  15. Warm-up strategy and high-intensity endurance performance in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of warm-up exercise intensity and subsequent recovery on intense endurance performance, selected blood variables and the VO2 response. METHODS: Twelve highly trained male cyclists (VO2-max: 72.4±8.0·mL/min/kg, incremental-test peak power output (iPPO): 432±31 W......; means±SD) performed three warm-up strategies lasting 20 min before a 4-min maximal performance test (PT). Strategies consisted of moderate intensity exercise (50%iPPO) followed by 6 min of recovery (MOD6) or progressive-high intensity exercise (10-100%iPPO and 2x20-s sprints) followed by recovery for 6...... to HI20 (7.85±0.82 L; P=0.008) and MOD6 (7.90±0.74 L; P=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Warm-up exercise including race-pace and sprint intervals combined with short recovery can reduce subsequent performance in a 4-min maximal test in highly trained cyclists. Thus, a reduced time at high exercise intensity...

  16. Effects of intensive arm training with the rehabilitation robot ARMin II in chronic stroke patients: four single-cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nef Tobias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robot-assisted therapy offers a promising approach to neurorehabilitation, particularly for severely to moderately impaired stroke patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intensive arm training on motor performance in four chronic stroke patients using the robot ARMin II. Methods ARMin II is an exoskeleton robot with six degrees of freedom (DOF moving shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. Four volunteers with chronic (≥ 12 months post-stroke left side hemi-paresis and different levels of motor severity were enrolled in the study. They received robot-assisted therapy over a period of eight weeks, three to four therapy sessions per week, each session of one hour. Patients 1 and 4 had four one-hour training sessions per week and patients 2 and 3 had three one-hour training sessions per week. Primary outcome variable was the Fugl-Meyer Score of the upper extremity Assessment (FMA, secondary outcomes were the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT, the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS, the Maximal Voluntary Torques (MVTs and a questionnaire about ADL-tasks, progress, changes, motivation etc. Results Three out of four patients showed significant improvements (p Conclusion Data clearly indicate that intensive arm therapy with the robot ARMin II can significantly improve motor function of the paretic arm in some stroke patients, even those in a chronic state. The findings of the study provide a basis for a subsequent controlled randomized clinical trial.

  17. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Sobol, Nanna Aue; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. METH...

  18. ELECTRIC INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY, TRAINING, AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TREMEL, CHARLES L

    2007-06-28

    The objective of this Electric Infrastructure Technology, Training and Assessment Program was to enhance the reliability of electricity delivery through engineering integration of real-time technologies for wide-area applications enabling timely monitoring and management of grid operations. The technologies developed, integrated, tested and demonstrated will be incorporated into grid operations to assist in the implementation of performance-based protection/preventive measures into the existing electric utility infrastructure. This proactive approach will provide benefits of reduced cost and improved reliability over the typical schedule-based and as needed maintenance programs currently performed by utilities. Historically, utilities have relied on maintenance and inspection programs to diagnose equipment failures and have used the limited circuit isolation devices, such as distribution main circuit breakers to identify abnormal system performance. With respect to reliable problem identification, customer calls to utility service centers are often the sole means for utilities to identify problem occurrences and determine restoration methodologies. Furthermore, monitoring and control functions of equipment and circuits are lacking; thus preventing timely detection and response to customer outages. Finally, the two-way flow of real-time system information is deficient, depriving decision makers of key information required to effectively manage and control current electric grid demands to provide reliable customer service in abnormal situations. This Program focused on advancing technologies and the engineering integration required to incorporate them into the electric grid operations to enhance electrical system reliability and reduce utility operating costs.

  19. VO2max trainability and high intensity interval training in humans: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Andrew P; Carter, Rickey E; Ogle, Eric A; Joyner, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Endurance exercise training studies frequently show modest changes in VO2max with training and very limited responses in some subjects. By contrast, studies using interval training (IT) or combined IT and continuous training (CT) have reported mean increases in VO2max of up to ~1.0 L · min(-1). This raises questions about the role of exercise intensity and the trainability of VO2max. To address this topic we analyzed IT and IT/CT studies published in English from 1965-2012. Inclusion criteria were: 1)≥ 3 healthy sedentary/recreationally active humans training duration 6-13 weeks, 3) ≥ 3 days/week, 4) ≥ 10 minutes of high intensity work, 5) ≥ 1:1 work/rest ratio, and 6) results reported as mean ± SD or SE, ranges of change, or individual data. Due to heterogeneity (I(2) value of 70), statistical synthesis of the data used a random effects model. The summary statistic of interest was the change in VO2max. A total of 334 subjects (120 women) from 37 studies were identified. Participants were grouped into 40 distinct training groups, so the unit of analysis was 40 rather than 37. An increase in VO2max of 0.51 L · min(-1) (95% CI: 0.43 to 0.60 L · min(-1)) was observed. A subset of 9 studies, with 72 subjects, that featured longer intervals showed even larger (~0.8-0.9 L · min(-1)) changes in VO2max with evidence of a marked response in all subjects. These results suggest that ideas about trainability and VO2max should be further evaluated with standardized IT or IT/CT training programs.

  20. VO2max trainability and high intensity interval training in humans: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Bacon

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise training studies frequently show modest changes in VO2max with training and very limited responses in some subjects. By contrast, studies using interval training (IT or combined IT and continuous training (CT have reported mean increases in VO2max of up to ~1.0 L · min(-1. This raises questions about the role of exercise intensity and the trainability of VO2max. To address this topic we analyzed IT and IT/CT studies published in English from 1965-2012. Inclusion criteria were: 1≥ 3 healthy sedentary/recreationally active humans <45 yrs old, 2 training duration 6-13 weeks, 3 ≥ 3 days/week, 4 ≥ 10 minutes of high intensity work, 5 ≥ 1:1 work/rest ratio, and 6 results reported as mean ± SD or SE, ranges of change, or individual data. Due to heterogeneity (I(2 value of 70, statistical synthesis of the data used a random effects model. The summary statistic of interest was the change in VO2max. A total of 334 subjects (120 women from 37 studies were identified. Participants were grouped into 40 distinct training groups, so the unit of analysis was 40 rather than 37. An increase in VO2max of 0.51 L · min(-1 (95% CI: 0.43 to 0.60 L · min(-1 was observed. A subset of 9 studies, with 72 subjects, that featured longer intervals showed even larger (~0.8-0.9 L · min(-1 changes in VO2max with evidence of a marked response in all subjects. These results suggest that ideas about trainability and VO2max should be further evaluated with standardized IT or IT/CT training programs.

  1. Elderly men with moderate and intense training lifestyle present sustained higher antibody responses to influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Adriana Ladeira; Silva, Léia Cristina Rodrigues; Fernandes, Juliana Ruiz; Matias, Manuella de Sousa Toledo; Boas, Lucy Santos; Machado, Clarisse Martins; Garcez-Leme, Luiz Eugênio; Benard, Gil

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to verify whether different levels of training performed regularly and voluntarily for many years could have an impact on one of the main issues of immunosenescence: the poor response to vaccines. We recruited 61 healthy elderly men (65-85 years old), 23 with a moderate training (MT) lifestyle (for 17.0 ± 3.2 years), 22 with an intense training (IT) lifestyle (for 25.9 ± 3.4 years), and 16 without a training lifestyle (NT). Fitness was evaluated through the IPAQ and VO2max consumption. The participants were evaluated regarding cognitive aspects, nutritional status, depression, and quality of life. Antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay prior to influenza vaccination and at 6 weeks and 6 months post-vaccination. Strains used were B, H3N2, and H1N1. Our groups were matched for most characteristics, except for those directly influenced by their lifestyles, such as BMI, VO2max, and MET. In general, MT and IT elderly men showed significantly higher antibody titers to the three vaccine strains post-vaccination than NT elderly men. There were also higher titers against B and H1N1 strains in the trained groups before vaccination. Additionally, there were higher proportions of seroprotected (titers ≥1:40) individuals in the pooled trained groups both at 6 weeks (B and H3N2, p < 0.05) and 6 months (H1N1, p < 0.05; B, p = 0.07). There were no significant differences between the MT and IT groups. Either a moderate or an intense training is associated with stronger and longstanding antibody responses to the influenza vaccine, resulting in higher percentages of seroprotected individuals.

  2. Augmented Reality Mentor for Training Maintenance Procedures: Interim Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    ARI Research Note 2014-04 Augmented Reality Mentor for Training Maintenance Procedures: Interim Assessment Louise...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Augmented Reality Mentor for Training Maintenance Procedures: Interim Assessment 5a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...Representative and Subject Matter POC: Dr. William R. Bickley 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words): The Augmented Reality Mentor is a 2-yr advanced

  3. Three Reflections on Assessing Safety Training Needs: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Wood, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Needs assessment plays an important role in training and human performance improvement efforts, but the literature contains little research on this topic. This study extended previous research on the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) model of needs assessment by examining its implementation to determine environmental and occupational health…

  4. A rater training protocol to assess team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, Walter; Nannicelli, Anna P; Seivert, Nicholas P; Sohn, Min-Woong; Rozenfeld, Ranna; Woods, Donna M; Holl, Jane L

    2015-01-01

    Simulation-based methodologies are increasingly used to assess teamwork and communication skills and provide team training. Formative feedback regarding team performance is an essential component. While effective use of simulation for assessment or training requires accurate rating of team performance, examples of rater-training programs in health care are scarce. We describe our rater training program and report interrater reliability during phases of training and independent rating. We selected an assessment tool shown to yield valid and reliable results and developed a rater training protocol with an accompanying rater training handbook. The rater training program was modeled after previously described high-stakes assessments in the setting of 3 facilitated training sessions. Adjacent agreement was used to measure interrater reliability between raters. Nine raters with a background in health care and/or patient safety evaluated team performance of 42 in-situ simulations using post-hoc video review. Adjacent agreement increased from the second training session (83.6%) to the third training session (85.6%) when evaluating the same video segments. Adjacent agreement for the rating of overall team performance was 78.3%, which was added for the third training session. Adjacent agreement was 97% 4 weeks posttraining and 90.6% at the end of independent rating of all simulation videos. Rater training is an important element in team performance assessment, and providing examples of rater training programs is essential. Articulating key rating anchors promotes adequate interrater reliability. In addition, using adjacent agreement as a measure allows differentiation between high- and low-performing teams on video review. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  5. Development of low-volume, high-intensity, aerobic-type interval training for elderly Japanese men: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuka, Yosuke; Matsubara, Muneaki; Hamasaki, Ai; Hiramatsu, Yuji; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify 1) the feasibility of a novel exercise protocol (elderly Japanese male version of high-intensity interval aerobic training: EJ-HIAT) and 2) its preliminary data (%V̇O2peak, rating of perceived exertion) in comparison with traditional moderate-intensity continuous aerobic training (MICT). Twenty-one sedentary elderly men, aged 60-69 years, performed two exercise protocols: EJ-HIAT, consisting of 3 sets of 2-3-min cycling at 75-85%V̇O2peak with 1-2-min active rests at 50%V̇O2peak between sets, and MICT, consisting of 40-min cycling at 65%V̇O2peak. The completion rate, defined as the rate of participants who 1) did not demand withdrawal, 2) were not interrupted by the tester, and 3) did not change the workload during either exercise protocol, of EJ-HIAT was similar to that of MICT (EJ-HIAT: 100%, MICT: 95.2%). Maximal perceived exertion ratings assessed by Borg scale were also similar between EJ-HIAT and MICT. However, objectively measured maximal intensity assessed by %V̇O2peak was higher for EJ-HIAT than for MICT (EJ-HIAT: 86.0 ± 5.6%, MICT: 67.1 ± 6.4%). These results suggested that EJ-HIAT has good feasibility and perceived exertion similar to MICT despite having higher objectively measured intensity than MICT. An intervention aimed as identifying the effects of EJ-HIAT on exercise tolerance should be performed in the future. UMIN000021185 (February 26, 2016).

  6. New treatment of cellulite with infrared-LED illumination applied during high-intensity treadmill training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, Fernanda Rossi; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2011-08-01

    Phototherapy improves cellular activation which is an important factor for the treatment of cellulite. The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate the effects of a new (noninvasive and nonpharmacological) clinical procedure to improve body aesthetics: infrared-LED (850 nm) plus treadmill training. Twenty women (25-55 years old) participated in this study. They were separated in two groups: the control group, which carried out only the treadmill training (n = 10), and the LED group, with phototherapy during the treadmill training (n = 10). The training was performed for 45 minutes twice a week over 3 months at intensities between 85% and 90% maximal heart rate (HR(max)). The irradiation parameters were 39 mW/cm(2) and a fluence of 106 J/cm(2). The treatment was evaluated by interpreting body composition parameters, photographs and thermography. This was primarily a treatment for cellulite with a reduction of saddlebag and thigh circumference. At the same time, the treadmill training prevented an increase of body fat, as well as the loss of lean mass. Moreover, thermal images of the temperature modification of the thighs are presented. These positive effects can result in a further improvement of body aesthetics using infrared-LED together with treadmill training.

  7. Effect of moderate-intensity exercise training on the cognitive function of young adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastula, Robert M; Stopka, Christine B; Delisle, Anthony T; Hass, Chris J

    2012-12-01

    In addition to cognitive impairment, young adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are also more likely to be in poor health. Exercise may help ameliorate both of these deficits. While the health benefits of exercise are well documented and understood, the cognitive benefits of exercise are emerging. Exercise has been shown to improve the cognitive function of young, old, and diseased populations but few studies have evaluated the effect of exercise training on the cognitive functioning of individuals with IDs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moderate-intensity exercise training on the cognitive function of young adults with IDs. Fourteen students (age, 19.4 ± 1.3 years) with mild to moderate IDs participated in an 8-week comprehensive exercise intervention program based on circuit training, aerobic dancing, and adapted sport activities. Sessions lasted 45 minutes, and intensity was maintained at 60-70% of maximum heart rate (HR(max)). Aerobic fitness was assessed via the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) step test, and intellectual functioning was assessed via 3 subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities once before and after the intervention. Performance was significantly improved on all 3 cognitive tests (all, p Aerobic fitness also significantly improved (p speed, a measure taking into account each individual's performance on the 3 subtests, was 103%. The mean individual improvement in aerobic fitness was 17.5%. Moderate-intensity exercise training can yield robust improvements in the cognitive functioning and aerobic fitness of young adults with IDs. These effects support the inclusion of exercise into the lives of young adults with ID to promote their physical and cognitive health. Fourteen students (age, 19.4 ± 1.3 years) with mild to moderate IDs participated in an 8-week comprehensive exercise intervention program based on circuit training, aerobic dancing, and adapted sport activities

  8. Consensus development of core competencies in intensive and critical care medicine training in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyun; Xi, Xiuming; Ma, Penglin; Qiu, Haibo; Yu, Kaijiang; Tang, Yaoqing; Qian, Chuanyun; Fang, Qiang; Wang, Yushan; Yu, Xiangyou; Xu, Yuan; Du, Bin

    2016-10-16

    The aim of this study is to develop consensus on core competencies required for postgraduate training in intensive care medicine. We used a combination of a modified Delphi method and a nominal group technique to create and modify the list of core competencies to ensure maximum consensus. Ideas were generated modified from Competency Based Training in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe collaboration (CoBaTrICE) core competencies. An online survey invited healthcare professionals, educators, and trainees to rate and comment on these competencies. The output from the online survey was edited and then reviewed by a nominal group of 13 intensive care professionals to identify each competence for importance. The resulting list was then recirculated in the nominal group for iterative rating. The online survey yielded a list of 199 competencies for nominal group reviewing. After five rounds of rating, 129 competencies entered the final set defined as core competencies. We have generated a set of core competencies using a consensus technique which can serve as an indicator for training program development.

  9. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  10. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Tong, Tom K.; Qiu, Weifeng; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Shi

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session) high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n = 15), MICT (n = 15), or no training (CON, n = 13) for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA) and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2), ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2), and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p > 0.05) were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%), total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg), and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg), gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg), and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p > 0.05) regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency. PMID:28116314

  11. The effects of two different swimming training periodization on physiological parameters at various exercise intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier; Dalamitros, Athanasios; Ribeiro, João; Sousa, Ana; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, J Paulo

    2017-05-01

    This study analysed the effects of two different periodization strategies on physiological parameters at various exercise intensities in competitive swimmers. Seventeen athletes of both sexes were divided to two groups, the traditional periodization (TPG, n = 7) and the reverse periodization group (RPG, n = 10). Each group followed a 10-week training period based on the two different periodization strategies. Before and after training, swimming velocity (SV), energy expenditure (EE), energy cost (EC) and percentage of aerobic (%Aer) and anaerobic (%An) energy contribution to the swimming intensities corresponding to the aerobic threshold (AerT), the anaerobic threshold (AnT) and the velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max) were measured. Both groups increased the %An at the AerT and AnT intensity (P ≤ .05). In contrast, at the AnT intensity, EE and EC were only increased in TPG. Complementary, %Aer, %An, EE and EC at vVO2max did not alter in both groups (P > .05); no changes were observed in SV in TPG and RPG at all three intensities. These results indicate that both periodization schemes confer almost analogous adaptations in specific physiological parameters in competitive swimmers. However, given the large difference in the total training volume between the two groups, it is suggested that the implementation of the reverse periodization model is an effective and time-efficient strategy to improve performance mainly for swimming events where the AnT is an important performance indicator.

  12. Arm and leg substrate utilization and muscle adaptation after prolonged low-intensity training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2010-01-01

    the review will address the available studies on low-intensity training performed separately with arm or legs or as whole-body training to evaluate if this leads to different adaptations in arm and leg muscle resulting in different substrate utilization patterns during separate arm or leg exercise...... partitioning between endogenous and exogenous substrate during arm and leg exercise will be debated. Moreover the review will probe if differences between arm and leg muscle are merely a result of different training status rather than a qualitative difference in limb substrate regulation. Along this line......This review will focus on current data where substrate metabolism in arm and leg muscle is investigated and discuss the presence of higher carbohydrate oxidation and lactate release observed during arm compared with leg exercise. Furthermore, a basis for a possible difference in substrate...

  13. Feasibility and Impact of High-Intensity Walking Training in Frail Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovich, Margaret K; Conroy, David E; Hornby, T George

    2017-09-23

    To investigate the impact of high-intensity walking training (HIWT) on prefrail and frail older adults, five assisted living residents underwent a supervised 12-session intervention. The intervention consisted of 30 min of HIWT at 70-80% of heart rate reserve or ratings of 15 to 17 (hard to very hard) on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion scale. Training included walking at fast speeds, multi-directions, stairs, and outdoor surfaces with and without an assistive device. Training significantly reduced frailty using the SHARE-FI (p = .008), increased fast gait speed (p = .01), improved 6-min walk test distance (p = .03), and enhanced Berg Balance Scale scores (p = .03). There were no adverse events and all participants reached target training intensity in all 12 sessions. Participants viewed the walking intervention as highly satisfactory (9.6/10 on a Likert scale) and 100% recommended that the assisted living facility should offer HIWT as part of routine programming.

  14. Jump-Squat Performance and Its Relationship With Relative Training Intensity in High-Level Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Víctor; Ortega-Becerra, Manuel A; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2015-11-01

    To examine the relationship between the relative load in full squats and the height achieved in jump-squat (JS) exercises and to determine the load that maximizes the power output of high-level athletes. Fifty-one male high-level track-and-field athletes (age 25.2 ± 4.4 y, weight 77. ± 6.2 kg, height 179.9 ± 5.6 cm) who competed in sprinting and jumping events took part in the study. Full-squat 1-repetition-maximum (1-RM) and JS height (JH) with loads from 17 to 97 kg were measured in 2 sessions separated by 48 h. Individual regression analyses showed that JH (R2 = .992 ± .005) and the jump decrease (JD) that each load produced with respect to the unloaded countermovement jump (CMJ) (R2 = .992 ± 0.007) are highly correlated with the full-squat %1-RM, which means that training intensities can be prescribed using JH and JD values. The authors also found that the load that maximizes JS's power output was 0%RM (ie, unloaded CMJ). These results highlight the close relationship between JS performance and relative training intensity in terms of %1-RM. The authors also observed that the load that maximizes power output was 0%1-RM. Monitoring jump height during JS training could help coaches and athletes determine and optimize their training loads.

  15. Pacing, the missing piece of the puzzle to high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadow, E K; Gordon, N; Abbiss, C R; Peiffer, J J

    2015-03-01

    This study examined physiological and perceptual responses to matched work high-intensity interval training using all-out and 2 even-paced methodologies. 15 trained male cyclists performed 3 interval sessions of three 3-min efforts with 3 min of active recovery between efforts. The initial interval session was completed using all-out pacing, with the following 2 sessions being completed with computer- and athlete-controlled pacing in a randomised and semi-counterbalanced manner. Computer- and athlete-controlled intervals were completed at the mean power from the corresponding interval during the all-out trial. Oxygen consumption and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded during each effort. 20 min following each session, participants completed a 4-km time trial and provided sessional rating of perceived exertion. Oxygen consumption was greater during all-out (54.1±6.6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1); pintervals. Distribution of pace throughout high-intensity interval training can influence perceptual and metabolic stress along with subsequent performance and should be considered during the prescription of such training.

  16. Needs assessment to improve neonatal intensive care in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, K J; Kowalkowski, M A; Treviño, R; Cabrera-Meza, G; Thomas, E J; Kaplan, H C; Profit, J

    2015-08-01

    At the time of the research, Dr Weiss was a clinical fellow in neonatal-perinatal medicine at Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital. Dr Profit was on faculty at Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology. He held a secondary appointment in the Department of Medicine, Section of Health Services Research and conducted his research at the VA Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence where he collaborated with Dr Kowalkowski.: Improving the quality of neonatal intensive care is an important health policy priority in Mexico. A formal assessment of barriers and priorities for quality improvement has not been undertaken. To provide guidance to providers and policy makers with regard to addressing opportunities for better care delivery in Mexican neonatal intensive care units. To conduct a needs assessment regarding improvement of quality of neonatal intensive care delivery in Mexico. Spanish-language survey administered to a volunteer sample of Mexican neonatal care providers attending a large paediatric conference in Mexico in June 2011. Survey domains included institutional context of quality improvement, barriers, priorities, safety culture, and respondents' characteristics. Results were analysed using descriptive analyses of frequencies, proportions and percentage positive response (PPR) rates. Of 91 respondents, the majority identified neonatology as their primary specialty (n = 48, 65%) and were physicians (n = 55, 73%). Generally, providers expressed a desire to improve quality of care (PPR 69%) but reported notable deterrents. Respondents (n, %) identified family inability to pay (38, 48%), overcrowded work areas (38, 44%), insufficient financial reimbursement (25, 36%), lack of availability of nurses (26, 30%), ancillary staff (25, 29%), and subspecialists (22, 25%) as the principal barriers. Respiratory care (27, 39%)--reduction of mechanical ventilation and

  17. Endurance training intensity does not mediate interference to maximal lower-body strength gain during short-term concurrent training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson J Fyfe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT. Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; V ̇O 2peak, 44 ± 11 mL∙kg-1•min-1 were ranked by one-repetition maximum (1-RM leg press strength and randomly allocated tounderwent 8 weeks (3 sessions•wk-1 of either: 1 HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n=8, 2 work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n=7, or 3 RT performed alone (RT group, n=8. Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ performance and body composition (DXA were obtained before (PRE, mid-way (MID, and after (POST eight weeks of training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM] leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ±90% confidence interval; 38.5 ±8.5%; effect size [ES] ±90% confidence interval; 1.26 ±0.24; P<0.001, HIT+RT (28.7 ±5.3%; ES, 1.17 ±0.19; P<0.001 and MICT+RT (27.5 ±4.6%, ES, 0.81 ±0.12; P<0.001; however, the magnitude of this change was greater for RT vs. both HIT+RT (7.4 ±8.7%; ES, 0.40 ±0.40 and MICT+RT (8.2 ±9.9%; ES, 0.60 ±0.45. There were no substantial between-group differences in 1-RM bench press strength gain. RT induced greater changes in peak CMJ force vs. HIT+RT (6.8 ±4.5%; ES, 0.41 ±0.28 and MICT+RT (9.9 ±11.2%; ES, 0.54 ±0.65, and greater improvements in maximal CMJ rate of force development (RFD vs. HIT+RT (24.1 ±26.1%; ES, 0.72 ±0.88. Lower-body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ±2.0%; ES; 0.33 ±0.16; P=0.023 and MICT+RT (3.6 ±2.4%; ES; 0.45 ±0.30; P=0.052; however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ±1.6%; ES; 0.13 ±0.12; P=0.069. We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work

  18. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients with Substance Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grete Flemmen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with substance use disorder (SUD suffer a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and other lifestyle diseases compared to the general population. High intensity training has been shown to effectively reduce this risk, and therefore we aimed to examine the feasibility and effect of such training in SUD patients in clinical treatment in the present study. 17 males and 7 females (32 ± 8 yr in treatment were randomized to either a training group (TG, treadmill interval training in 4 × 4 minutes at 90–95% of maximal heart rate, 3 days a week for 8 weeks, or a conventional rehabilitation control group (CG. Baseline values for both groups combined at inclusion were 44 ± 8 (males and 34 ± 9 (females mL · min−1 · kg−1, respectively. 9/12 and 7/12 patients completed the TG and CG, respectively. Only the TG significantly improved (15 ± 7% their maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, from 42.3 ± 7.2 mL · min−1 · kg−1 at pretest to 48.7 ± 9.2 mL · min−1 · kg−1 at posttest. No between-group differences were observed in work economy, and level of insomnia (ISI or anxiety and depression (HAD, but a significant within-group improvement in depression was apparent for the TG. High intensity training was feasible for SUD patients in treatment. This training form should be implemented as a part of the rehabilitation since it, in contrast to the conventional treatment, represents a risk reduction for cardiovascular disease and premature death.

  19. Effect of high-intensity training on endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Kolmos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exercise improves endothelial dysfunction, the key manifestation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and is recommended in both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular rehabilitation. Disagreement remains, however, on the role of intensity of exercise. The purpose of this review was to gather current knowledge on the effects of high-intensity training versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on endothelial function in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients. Methods: A systematic review was performed in PubMed database, Embase and Cochrane libraries and on PEDro using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies were restricted to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients, and healthy subjects as general reference. Interventions comprised of high-intensity training alone, high-intensity training compared to moderate-intensity continuous exercise, or no training, with endothelial function as outcome measure. Endothelial function was measured either physiologically by flow-mediated dilatation and/or by systemic biomarkers. Data were analyzed descriptively due to non-comparability for a meta-analysis to be performed. Results: A total of 20 studies were included in the review. Although there was great heterogenecity in design, population and exercise protocols, all studies found high-intensity training to be safe. High-intensity training was equal to moderate-intensity continuous exercise through improvement in endothelial function in 15 of the 20 selected studies, as measured by flow-mediated dilatation, nitric oxide bioavailability and circulating biomarkers. Only a few studies examined high-intensity training in cerebrovascular patients, none with endothelial function as outcome. Conclusion: High-intensity training is promising as a time-efficient exercise strategy in cardiovascular rehabilitation, but data on endothelial effects in cerebrovascular rehabilitation are

  20. Production of intense attosecond vector beam pulse trains based on harmonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉晶; 廖国前; 陈黎明; 李玉同; 王伟民; 张杰

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first report on the harmonics generated by an intense femtosecond vector beam that is normally incident on a solid target. By using 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) codes, we observe the third and the fifth harmonic signals with the same vector structure as the driving beam, and obtain an attosecond vector beam pulse train. We also show that the conversion efficiencies of the third and the fifth harmonics reach their maxima for a plasma density of four times the critical density due to the plasma resonating with the driving force. This method provides a new means of generating intense extreme ultraviolet (XUV) vector beams via ultra-intense laser-driven harmonics.

  1. Rationale and design of the Exercise Intensity Trial (EXCITE: A randomized trial comparing the effects of moderate versus moderate to high-intensity aerobic training in women with operable breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herndon James E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Exercise Intensity Trial (EXcITe is a randomized trial to compare the efficacy of supervised moderate-intensity aerobic training to moderate to high-intensity aerobic training, relative to attention control, on aerobic capacity, physiologic mechanisms, patient-reported outcomes, and biomarkers in women with operable breast cancer following the completion of definitive adjuvant therapy. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 174 postmenopausal women (58 patients/study arm with histologically confirmed, operable breast cancer presenting to Duke University Medical Center (DUMC will be enrolled in this trial following completion of primary therapy (including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. After baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomized to one of two supervised aerobic training interventions (moderate-intensity or moderate/high-intensity aerobic training or an attention-control group (progressive stretching. The aerobic training interventions will include 150 mins.wk-1 of supervised treadmill walking per week at an intensity of 60%-70% (moderate-intensity or 60% to 100% (moderate to high-intensity of the individually determined peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak between 20-45 minutes/session for 16 weeks. The progressive stretching program will be consistent with the exercise interventions in terms of program length (16 weeks, social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction, and duration (20-45 mins/session. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak, as measured by an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test. Secondary endpoints include physiologic determinants that govern VO2peak, patient-reported outcomes, and biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence/mortality. All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and after the intervention (16 weeks. Discussion EXCITE is designed to investigate the intensity of aerobic training required to induce optimal

  2. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training as a Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, C; Ramirez-Campillo, R; Martinez-Salazar, C; Mancilla, R; Flores-Opazo, M; Cano-Montoya, J; Ciolac, E G

    2016-08-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the effects of low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIT) on cardiometabolic risk and exercise capacity in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sedentary overweight/obese T2DM women (age=44.5±1.8 years; BMI=30.5±0.6 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a tri-weekly running-based HIT program (n=13) or non-exercise control follow-up (CON; n=10). Glycemic control, lipid and blood pressure levels, endurance performance, and anthropometry were measured before and after the follow-up (16 weeks) in both groups. Medication intake was also assessed throughout the follow-up. Improvements (P<0.05) on fasting glucose (14.3±1.4%), HbA1c (12.8±1.1%), systolic blood pressure (3.7±0.5 mmHg), HDL-cholesterol (21.1±2.8%), triglycerides (17.7±2.8%), endurance performance (9.8±1.0%), body weight (2.2±0.3%), BMI (2.1±0.3%), waist circumference (4.0±0.5%) and subcutaneous fat (18.6±1.4%) were found after HIT intervention. Patients of HIT group also showed reductions in daily dosage of antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive medication during follow-up. No changes were found in any variable of CON group. The HIT-induced improvements occurred with a weekly time commitment 56-25% lower than the minimal recommended in current guidelines. These findings suggest that low-volume HIT may be a time-efficient intervention to treat T2DM women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF A SHORT TERM HIGH-INTENSITY CIRCUIT TRAINING EXERCISE IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Takakura

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity is one non-communicable disease threatening to become the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Japan is no exception especially in the younger population. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of high-intensity circuit exercise training (HICET in university students. The second purpose is to examine the factors influencing exercise adherence. Methods: This study was a home based experimental study with 65 healthy participants from the Osaka Kawasaki Rehabilitation University, Japan. An independent variable was the 7-minute HICET and a dependent variable was the physical fitness test (PFT results. All participants were instructed to perform once daily a cycle of HICET, 2-3 times a week non-consecutively for 8 weeks. Pre and post PFT scores for men and women were compared for the effectiveness of the program. A brief survey was conducted 8 weeks after the completion of the study. Results: Both groups showed improvement in sit-up, push-up, and 5-minute run after the 8 week HICET. The changes between pre and post scores were significant in all but the 5-minute run for women. Discontinuation rate 8 weeks after the study was higher in women than in men, but not statistically significant with no dropouts during intervention. Discussion: An 8 week home based HICET significantly improved strength for both genders and endurance for men of the university students when measured by PFT. The exercise barriers should be assessed and adapted to fit individual needs to improve adherence rate.

  4. The specificity of training prescription and physiological assessment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas; Morris, Tessa; Whyte, Greg

    2009-04-01

    The aims in this review are: (1) to identify physiological determinants of performance; (2) to consider training specificity by examining aerobic, team and racket sports, strength and power activities, and cross-training and concurrent training methods; and (3) to evaluate the role of specificity in the physiological assessment of performance determinants. Assessment of the physiological determinants of performance is an integral part of sports science support for elite athletes. Laboratory and field-based physiological assessments are fundamental elements in profiling athletes, assessing training adaptations, and interrogating programme efficacy. The relatively small and highly specific adaptations associated with high-performance training call for valid, reliable, and sensitive methods of assessment. Recent advances in the physiological assessment of athletes have led to the development of a plethora of laboratory and field-based procedures. In the assessment of the athlete, there is a tension between the high reliability and low ecological validity of laboratory assessments and the low reliability and high validity of field-based methods. In an attempt to enhance ecological validity of training and physiological assessment, various sports-specific ergometers have been designed. This development has helped to match fitness assessment procedures to the demands of the sport concerned.

  5. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  6. Effects of high intensity training and high volume training on endothelial microparticles and angiogenic growth factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Wahl

    Full Text Available AIMS: Endothelial microparticles (EMP are complex vesicular structures shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells. As endurance exercise affects the endothelium, the objective of the study was to examine levels of EMP and angiogenic growth factors following different endurance exercise protocols. METHODS: 12 subjects performed 3 different endurance exercise protocols: 1. High volume training (HVT; 130 min at 55% peak power output (PPO; 2. 4 × 4 min at 95% PPO; 3. 4 × 30 sec all-out. EMPs were quantified using flow cytometry after staining platelet-poor-plasma. Events positive for Annexin-V and CD31, and negative for CD42b, were classified as EMPs. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, migratory inhibiting factor (MIF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF were determined by ELISA technique. For all these measurements venous blood samples were taken pre, 0', 30', 60' and 180' after each intervention. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were performed to explore the effect of collected sera on target endothelial functions and MP uptake capacities. RESULTS: VEGF and HGF significantly increased after HIT interventions. All three interventions caused a significant decrease in EMP levels post exercise compared to pre values. The sera taken after exercise increased the uptake of EMP in target endothelial cells compared to sera taken under resting conditions, which was shown to be phosphatidylserin-dependent. Increased EMP uptake was associated with an improved protection of target cells against apoptosis. Sera taken prior and after exercise promoted target endothelial cell migration, which was abrogated after inhibition of VEGF. CONCLUSION: Physical exercise leads to decreased EMP levels and promotes a phosphatidylserin-dependent uptake of EMP into target endothelial cells, which is associated with a protection of target cells against apoptosis.

  7. Five Weeks of Sprint and High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Paddling Performance in Adolescent Surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Oliver R L; Secomb, Josh L; Parsonage, Joanna R; Lundgren, Lina E; Abbiss, Chris R; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-09-01

    Farley, ORL, Secomb, JL, Parsonage, JR, Lundgren, LE, Abbiss, CR, and Sheppard, JM. Five weeks of sprint and high-intensity interval training improves paddling performance in adolescent surfers. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2446-2452, 2016-The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of sprint interval training (SIT; 10 seconds) and high-intensity interval training (HIT; 30 seconds) on surfing athletes paddling performance (400-m time trial and repeat-sprint paddle performance). Twenty-four competitive adolescent surfers (19 male, 5 female; age = 14.4 ± 1.3 years, mass: 50.1 ± 10.7 kg, and stature: 159.9 ± 10.3 cm) were assigned to perform either 5 weeks of SIT and HIT. Participants completed a repeated-sprint paddle ability test (RSPT, 15-m surfboard sprint paddle initiated every 40 seconds × 10 bouts) and 400-m endurance surfboard paddle time trial before and after training. High-intensity interval training decreased the total time to complete the 400 m by 15.8 ± 16.1 seconds (p = 0.03), and SIT decreased the total time to complete the RSPT by 6.5 ± 4.3 seconds (p = 0.02). Fatigue index during the RSPT (first-slowest effort) was lower after HIT and SIT (p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). There were no significant differences in performance changes in the 400 m (total time) and RSPT (total time, fastest 15 m time, and peak velocity) between HIT and SIT. Our study indicates that HIT and SIT may be implemented to the training program of surfers to improve aerobic and repeat-sprint paddle ability, both of which are identified as key aspects of the sport. In addition, these findings indicate that 400-m paddle and RSPT can discriminate between aerobic and anaerobic training adaptations, with aerobic gains likely from HIT and anaerobic gains from SIT.

  8. Environmental Assessment for Vigilant Warrior Training Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    However, several large companies , including Hyundai Motors , have opened factories in the Montgomery area since 2000, contributing additional...Montgomery Public Schools 4,524 3. Baptist Health 4,300 4. Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama, LLC 3,171 5. Alfa Insurance Companies 2,568 6. City...training sessions at the existing Vigilant Warrior training facility located on 201 acres in Elmore County that is leased from Alabama Power Company

  9. Effects of high-intensity exercise training in a pulmonary rehabilitation programme for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Jer; Lan, Chou-Chin; Chen, Ning-Hung; Huang, Chung-Chi; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Cho, Hsio-Ying; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2007-05-01

    The benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with COPD depend on the intensity of training. Traditional pulmonary rehabilitation programmes (PRPs) do not consistently achieve high-intensity training and have variable training effects. This study examined the effects of high-intensity exercise training on cardiac and pulmonary function in COPD patients. Patients with COPD participated in a 6-week, cardiopulmonary exercise test-based PRP. Spirometry, 6-min walking distance and cardiopulmonary exercise test were used to evaluate cardiopulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and endurance at rest, during exercise and before and after the programme. Patients were encouraged to complete high-intensity exercise with a targeted training intensity of at least 75% maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2)). Thirty-four COPD patients were enrolled into the study; 16 completed the high-intensity training, 18 did not. At the end of the 12-session PRP, submaximal exercise capacity (6-min walking distance, 461.8 +/- 77.2-502.7 +/- 66.9 m, P training and those who did not. Only the patients who completed high-intensity training had significant improvements in FVC (2.47 +/- 0.70-2.70 +/- 0.62 L, P = 0.024) at rest, maximal exercise capacity (peak VO(2), 1001.6 +/- 286.4-1116.1 +/- 320.4 mL/min, P = 0.020) and work efficiency (7.3 +/- 1.4-8.4 +/- 1.8 mL/min/watt, P = 0.026). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the change in the physiological parameters before and after exercise. Exercise training in a PRP improved submaximal exercise capacity. Only patients who completed high-intensity exercise training showed improvements in maximal exercise capacity, FVC and work efficiency.

  10. Simulation team training for improved teamwork in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandahl, Christer; Gustafsson, Helena; Wallin, Carl-Johan; Meurling, Lisbet; Øvretveit, John; Brommels, Mats; Hansson, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to describe implementation of simulator-based medical team training and the effect of this programme on inter-professional working in an intensive care unit (ICU). Over a period of two years, 90 percent (n = 152) of the staff of the general ICU at Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden, received inter-professional team training in a fully equipped patient room in their own workplace. A case study method was used to describe and explain the planning, formation, and results of the training programme. In interviews, the participants reported that the training had increased their awareness of the importance of effective communication for patient safety. The intervention had even had an indirect impact by creating a need to talk, not only about how to communicate efficaciously, but also concerning difficult care situations in general. This, in turn, had led to regular reflection meetings for nurses held three times a week. Examples of better communication in acute situations were also reported. However, the findings indicate that the observed improvements will not last, unless organisational features such as staffing rotas and scheduling of rounds and meetings can be changed to enable use of the learned behaviours in everyday work. Other threats to sustainability include shortage of staff, overtime for staff, demands for hospital beds, budget cuts, and poor staff communication due to separate meetings for nurses and physicians. The present results broaden our understanding of how to create and sustain an organizational system that supports medical team training.

  11. CTA in acute stroke: short intensive training intervention is highly effective in improving radiologists' performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cora, E A; Ford, G A; Flynn, D; Gonsalves, P; White, P

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether focussed radiology training in reporting stroke computed tomography angiography (CTA) improved diagnostic performance of general radiology specialty trainees staffing regional on call rotas. A validated case archive (VCA) consisting of 50 hyperacute stroke CTA cases was developed for a full day course on CTA interpretation. Training days were organised ensuring all local trainees had a chance to attend. The rate of major and minor amendments by neuroradiology consultants were reviewed in 252 on-call radiology trainee reports. Before training, radiology trainees had a total discrepancy (reporting error) rate of 37%: 12% major, 25% minor. Following CTA training, the total discrepancy rate was not significantly reduced (34%) but there was a substantial reduction in major discrepancies to 4% (p=0.037; odds ratio=3.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08 to 10.12). An intensive training course based on a hyperacute stroke VCA significantly reduced major discrepancies in stroke CTA interpretation for radiology trainees. The ability of radiology trainees to recognise large vessel occlusions and other significant findings improved. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youqing; Huang, Guoyuan; McCormick, Bryan P; Song, Tao; Xu, Xiangfeng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8). All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06), as well as higher corticosterone levels (P training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  13. Increased Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Decreased Sympathetic Modulation Are Involved in Vascular Adjustments Induced by Low-Intensity Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fabrício N; Mesquita, Thassio R R; Melo, Vitor U; Mota, Marcelo M; Silva, Tharciano L T B; Santana, Michael N; Oliveira, Larissa R; Santos, Robervan V; Miguel Dos Santos, Rodrigo; Lauton-Santos, Sandra; Santos, Marcio R V; Barreto, Andre S; Santana-Filho, Valter J

    2016-01-01

    Resistance training is one of the most common kind of exercise used nowadays. Long-term high-intensity resistance training are associated with deleterious effects on vascular adjustments. On the other hand, is unclear whether low-intensity resistance training (LI-RT) is able to induce systemic changes in vascular tone. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic LI-RT on endothelial nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability of mesenteric artery and cardiovascular autonomic modulation in healthy rats. Wistar animals were divided into two groups: exercised (Ex) and sedentary (SED) rats submitted to the resistance (40% of 1RM) or fictitious training for 8 weeks, respectively. After LI-RT, hemodynamic measurements and cardiovascular autonomic modulation by spectral analysis were evaluated. Vascular reactivity, NO production and protein expression of endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase isoforms (eNOS and nNOS, respectively) were evaluated in mesenteric artery. In addition, cardiac superoxide anion production and ventricle morphological changes were also assessed. In vivo measurements revealed a reduction in mean arterial pressure and heart rate after 8 weeks of LI-RT. In vitro studies showed an increased acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation and greater NOS dependence in Ex than SED rats. Hence, decreased phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction was found in Ex rats. Accordingly, LI-RT increased the NO bioavailability under basal and ACh stimulation conditions, associated with upregulation of eNOS and nNOS protein expression in mesenteric artery. Regarding autonomic control, LI-RT increased spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, which was associated to reduction in both, cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation. No changes in cardiac superoxide anion or left ventricle morphometric parameters after LI-RT were observed. In summary, these results suggest that RT promotes beneficial vascular adjustments favoring augmented endothelial NO bioavailability and

  14. Autonomic Function Predicts Fitness Response to Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, A M; Tulppo, M P; Eskelinen, J J; Savolainen, A M; Kapanen, J; Heinonen, I H A; Hautala, A J; Hannukainen, J C; Kalliokoski, K K

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that baseline cardiac autonomic function and its acute response to all-out interval exercise explains individual fitness responses to high-intensity interval training (HIT). Healthy middle-aged sedentary men performed HIT (n=12, 4-6×30 s of all-out cycling efforts with 4-min recovery) or aerobic training (AET, n=9, 40-60 min at 60% of peak workload in exercise test [Loadpeak]), comprising 6 sessions within 2 weeks. Low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power of R-R interval oscillation were analyzed from data recorded at supine and standing position (5+5 min) every morning during the intervention. A significant training effect (ptraining*group interaction, was observed in Loadpeak and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Pre-training supine LF/HF ratio, an estimate of sympathovagal balance, correlated with training outcome in Loadpeak (Spearman's rho [rs]=-0.74, p=0.006) and VO2peak (rs=- 0.59, p=0.042) in the HIT but not the AET group. Also, the mean change in the standing LF/HF ratio in the morning after an acute HIT exercise during the 1(st) week of intervention correlated with training response in Loadpeak (rs=- 0.68, p=0.014) and VO2peak (rs=-0.60, p=0.039) with HIT but not with AET. In conclusion, pre-training cardiac sympathovagal balance and its initial alterations in response to acute HIT exercise were related to fitness responses to short-term HIT. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. OUTCOMES OF ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT IN ADULT LANGUAGE TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Brândușa Elena Octavia ȚEICAN

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the switch from traditional assessment to alternative, formative assessment, in other words assessment for learning, in adult language training. We focused on two aspects of formative assessment: self-assessment and peer-assessment, methods that can be used as teaching tools in communicative language teaching in adult English classes. Reportedly, these methods lead to improved results in language learning and production, as well as in motivation and...

  16. Oxidative capacity and glycogen content increase more in arm than leg muscle in sedentary women after intense training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Connolly, Luke; Weihe, Pál

    2015-01-01

    training was evaluated. A group of sedentary premenopausal women aged 45±6 years (±SD) with expected high adaptive potential in both upper- and lower-extremity muscle groups participated. After random allocation to high-intensity swimming (HIS, n=21), moderate-intensity swimming (MOS, n=21), soccer (SOC, n...... lateralis in sedentary women, and 'high-intensity low-volume' training is a more efficient regime than 'low-intensity high-volume' training for increasing the aerobic capacity of m. deltoideus.......The hypothesis that the adaptive capacity is higher in human upper- than lower-body skeletal muscle was tested. Furthermore, the hypothesis that more pronounced adaptations in upper-body musculature can be achieved by 'low-volume high-intensity' as compared to 'high-volume low-intensity' exercise...

  17. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Trexler, Eric T; Wingfield, Hailee L; Blue, Malia N M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two practical interval training protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, lipids and body composition in overweight/obese women. Thirty women (mean ± SD; weight: 88.1 ± 15.9 kg; BMI: 32.0 ± 6.0 kg · m(2)) were randomly assigned to ten 1-min high-intensity intervals (90%VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or five 2-min high-intensity intervals (80-100% VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or control. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), peak power output (PPO), body composition and fasting blood lipids were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of training, completed 3 days per week. Results from ANCOVA analyses demonstrated no significant training group differences for any primary variables (P > 0.05). When training groups were collapsed, 1MIN and 2MIN resulted in a significant increase in PPO (∆18.9 ± 8.5 watts; P = 0.014) and time to exhaustion (∆55.1 ± 16.4 s; P = 0.001); non-significant increase in VO2 peak (∆2.36 ± 1.34 ml · kg(-)(1) · min(-)(1); P = 0.185); and a significant decrease in fat mass (FM) (-∆1.96 ± 0.99 kg; P = 0.011). Short-term interval exercise training may be effective for decreasing FM and improving exercise tolerance in overweight and obese women.

  18. Training Programmes for Distance Education Professionals: An Analytical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. MISRA

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Present paper seeks to analyze the impact of training programmes on distance education professionals of Indira Gandhi National Open University, (IGNOU. The objective of the paper is to identify the training needs of Distance Education Professionals to manage distance education affairs of IGNOU, to evaluate the effectiveness of existing training programmes, to develop a feasible training and professional development model for distance education Professionals (DEPs and to suggest initiatives in existing training for the skill development of DEPs for effective career growth and development. Attempt has been made to apply statistical tools such as skewness, kurtosis, regression and correlation on a different set of variables to assess the impact of the training programmes on DE professionals such as teachers and academics. While addressing the objectives of the study it is revealed that some of the indicators have opened up scope for improvement. Nevertheless trainees have expressed mixed reaction on the quality of training pgrammes with respect to content, methodology and effectiveness. Based on the analysis a workable training model has also been suggested where emphasis on the Common Training Approach (CTA has been given besides, work specific training. For the over all professional development of DEPs a suitable training strategy has been worked out which ensures training at different strata that includes primary, secondary & tertiary level considering the experience & job requirements of the professionals.

  19. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouerghi N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nejmeddine Ouerghi,1,2 Marwa Khammassi,1 Sami Boukorraa,1 Moncef Feki,2 Naziha Kaabachi,2 Anissa Bouassida,1,3 1Research Unit, Sportive Performance and Physical Rehabilitation, High Institute of Sports and Physical Education of Kef, University of Jendouba, Kef, Tunisia, 2Laboratory of Biochemistry, Rabta Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, El Manar University, Tunis, 3Physiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Ibn el Jazzar, Sousse, Tunisia Background: Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods: The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8 comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results: Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]. Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05], but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05. During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein

  20. Differences of energy intake and energy expenditure of elite Taekwondo players receiving summer vs. winter intensive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang Ok

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the energy expenditure and energy intake as an experiment of energy balance of elite Taekwondo players receiving summer vs. winter intensive training. The summer training group (STG, n = 15) and the winter training group (WTG, n = 18) wore an accelerometer for the measurement of energy expenditure and maintained a daily dietary record for measurement of energy intake, for seven consecutive days during summer or winter intensive training. The total energy expenditure (TEE) (834.1 kcal, p Taekwondo players should be considered.

  1. High-Intensity Training Improves Exercise Performance in Elite Women Volleyball Players During a Competitive Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-11-01

    Purkhús, E, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. High-intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3066-3072, 2016-Elite women volleyball players (n = 25; mean ± SD: age, 19 ± 5 years; height, 171 ± 7 cm; weight, 63 ± 10 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high-intensity training (HIT; n = 13) group and a control (CON; n = 12) group. In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT performed 6-10 × 30-seconds all-out running intervals separated by 3-minute recovery periods 3 times per week during a 4-week in-season period whereas CON only completed the team training sessions and games. Preintervention and postintervention, all players completed the arrowhead agility test (AAT), a repeated sprint test (RST; 5 × 30 meters separated by 25 seconds of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 minute rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT in week 1 was 152 ± 4 m and increased (p ≤ 0.05) by 4.6% (159 ± 3 m) in week 4. The AAT performance improved (p ≤ 0.05) by 2.3% (18.87 ± 0.97-18.44 ± 1.06 seconds) and RST by 4.3% postintervention in the HIT group only. Baseline RST fatigue index was 7.0 ± 2.9 and 6.2 ± 5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (p ≤ 0.05) to 2.7 ± 3.0% posttraining in HIT and remained unaltered in CON (5.5 ± 5.0%). In HIT, Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance improved by 12.6 and 18.3% postintervention, respectively, with greater (p ≤ 0.05) Yo-yo IR1 change scores than in CON. In conclusion, additional high-intensity in-season training performed as interval running improved agility, repeated sprint ability, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in elite women volleyball players.

  2. Physical training at sub-threshold intensity reduces the prevalence of hepatic steatosis after high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemar Guedes da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of swimming physical training with sub-threshold load on the prevalence of hepatic steatosis in Wistar rats fed high-fat diets (cafeteria or baru. After 2 months of cafeteria diet administration, the rats were separated into 6 groups: Sedentary or Trained Baru diet; Sedentary or Trained Cafeteria diet; Sedentary or Trained standard diet. The trained groups were subjected to swimming exercise at sub-threshold intensity (2% of body weight during 8 weeks, 5x/week, 1h/day. The body weight and hepatohistological changes were analyzed. Sedentary groups fed high-fat diets presented higher body weight gain when compared to control trained group. The swimming training at the proposed intensity was able to prevent the hepatic steatosis in rats fed high-fat diets.

  3. Interindividual Variation in the Relationship of Different Intensity Markers—A Challenge for Targeted Training Prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tim; Hecksteden, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Training intensities are frequently prescribed as relative workloads based on a single reference value (e.g. maximum oxygen uptake). However, exercise-induced physical strain is multifaceted and large interindividual variability in intensity markers has been reported for constant load exercise with standardized relative intensity. This questions the accuracy of (univariate) relative intensities in targeting specific training stimuli. The present trial aims to investigate interindividual variability in the relationship of strain indicators using interpolated performance curves derived from constant load tests at different workloads. This approach enables the prediction of other indicators based on a chosen reference and subsequent comparison of predictive accuracy between group-based and individualized regression models. Methods 15 competitive cyclists completed a stepwise incremental cycling test followed by 5 constant load tests with the same absolute workloads as in the stepwise incremental test. The highest of theses workloads which yielded a lactate (BLa) steady state was repeated enabling estimation of intraindividual variability. From constant load tests, the courses of BLa relative to the respective reference value (e.g. %VO2peak) were interpolated by polynomial regression. Variability between individual regression curves was analyzed by mixed modeling. Predictive accuracy was estimated as the sum of squared differences between predicted and observed values. Results The proportion of total variation in the course of BLa relative to the respective reference parameter accounted for by subject identity ranged between 36 and 51%. A significant increase in predictive accuracy was observed for VO2peak and HRmax, respectively, as predicting parameters. Conclusion These results are in support of a multivariable, individualized approach to intensity prescriptions when aiming at accurately targeted perturbations of homeostasis. PMID:27788182

  4. Effect of intense swimming training on rhinitis in high-level competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougault, V; Turmel, J; Boulet, L P

    2010-08-01

    Rhinitis is commonly reported by swimmers. Seasonal allergic rhinitis may impair athletes' performance and quality of life (QOL). No data are currently available on the changes of nasal symptoms during and after a swimming season. We aimed to determine in competitive swimmers: (1) the prevalence of rhinitis and its impact on their QOL during an intense training programme, (2) the changes in nasal symptoms and QOL after a resting period and (3) the relationship between rhinitis and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Thirty-nine swimmers and 30 healthy controls answered the Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) and scored nasal symptoms on a seven-point Likert scale during the week preceding their visit. Subjects had allergy skin prick tests and a methacholine challenge. Peak nasal inspiratory flows were also measured. The athletes performed these tests during an intense training period (V1), outside the pollen season and after at least 2 weeks without swimming (V2). At V1, rhinitis symptoms were reported by 74% of swimmers and 40% of controls (Pswimming training is associated with an increase in nasal symptoms and impairment in QOL in most competitive swimmers. Such an increase is not related to seasonal allergen exposure in atopic athletes and probably results from chlorine derivative exposure.

  5. Can Trained Runners Effectively Attenuate Impact Acceleration During Repeated High-Intensity Running Bouts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clansey, Adam C; Lake, Mark J; Wallace, Eric S; Feehally, Tom; Hanlon, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged high-intensity running on impact accelerations in trained runners. Thirteen male distance runners completed two 20-minute treadmill runs at speeds corresponding to 95% of onset of blood lactate accumulation. Leg and head accelerations were collected for 20 s every fourth minute. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scores were recorded during the third and last minute of each run. RPE responses increased (P run to the end (17.7 ± 1.5, very hard) of the second run. Runners maintained their leg impact acceleration, impact attenuation, stride length, and stride frequency characteristics with prolonged run duration. However, a small (0.11-0.14g) but significant increase (P < .001) in head impact accelerations were observed at the end of both first and second runs. It was concluded that trained runners are able to control leg impact accelerations during sustained high-intensity running. Alongside the substantial increases in perceived exertion levels, running mechanics and frequency domain impact attenuation levels remained constant. This suggests that the present trained runners are able to cope from a mechanical perspective despite an increased physiological demand.

  6. Short and intense tailor-made notched music training against tinnitus: the tinnitus frequency matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Teismann

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is one of the most common diseases in industrialized countries. Here, we developed and evaluated a short-term (5 subsequent days and intensive (6 hours/day tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT for patients suffering from chronic, tonal tinnitus. We evaluated (i the TMNMT efficacy in terms of behavioral and magnetoencephalographic outcome measures for two matched patient groups with either low (≤8 kHz, N = 10 or high (>8 kHz, N = 10 tinnitus frequencies, and the (ii persistency of the TMNMT effects over the course of a four weeks post-training phase. The results indicated that the short-term intensive TMNMT took effect in patients with tinnitus frequencies ≤8 kHz: subjective tinnitus loudness, tinnitus-related distress, and tinnitus-related auditory cortex evoked activity were significantly reduced after TMNMT completion. However, in the patients with tinnitus frequencies >8 kHz, significant changes were not observed. Interpreted in their entirety, the results also indicated that the induced changes in auditory cortex evoked neuronal activity and tinnitus loudness were not persistent, encouraging the application of the TMNMT as a longer-term training. The findings are essential in guiding the intended transfer of this neuro-scientific treatment approach into routine clinical practice.

  7. Short and intense tailor-made notched music training against tinnitus: the tinnitus frequency matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teismann, Henning; Okamoto, Hidehiko; Pantev, Christo

    2011-01-01

    Tinnitus is one of the most common diseases in industrialized countries. Here, we developed and evaluated a short-term (5 subsequent days) and intensive (6 hours/day) tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT) for patients suffering from chronic, tonal tinnitus. We evaluated (i) the TMNMT efficacy in terms of behavioral and magnetoencephalographic outcome measures for two matched patient groups with either low (≤8 kHz, N = 10) or high (>8 kHz, N = 10) tinnitus frequencies, and the (ii) persistency of the TMNMT effects over the course of a four weeks post-training phase. The results indicated that the short-term intensive TMNMT took effect in patients with tinnitus frequencies ≤8 kHz: subjective tinnitus loudness, tinnitus-related distress, and tinnitus-related auditory cortex evoked activity were significantly reduced after TMNMT completion. However, in the patients with tinnitus frequencies >8 kHz, significant changes were not observed. Interpreted in their entirety, the results also indicated that the induced changes in auditory cortex evoked neuronal activity and tinnitus loudness were not persistent, encouraging the application of the TMNMT as a longer-term training. The findings are essential in guiding the intended transfer of this neuro-scientific treatment approach into routine clinical practice.

  8. Sand training: Exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammatory responses to matched-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Henry; Dawson, Brian; Binnie, Martyn J; Pinnington, Hugh; Sim, Marc; Clemons, Tristan D; Peeling, Peter

    2017-07-01

    This study compared markers of muscle damage and inflammation elevated by a matched-intensity interval running session on soft sand and grass surfaces. In a counterbalanced, repeated-measures and crossover design, 10 well-trained female athletes completed 2 interval-based running sessions 1 week apart on either a grass or a sand surface. Exercise heart rate (HR) was fixed at 83-88% of HR maximum. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 24 h post-exercise, and analysed for myoglobin (Mb) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Perceptual ratings of exertion (RPE) and muscle soreness (DOMS) were recorded immediately post- and 24 h post-exercise. A significant time effect showed that Mb increased from pre- to post-exercise on grass (p = .008) but not on sand (p = .611). Furthermore, there was a greater relative increase in Mb on grass compared with that on sand (p = .026). No differences in CRP were reported between surfaces (p > .05). The HR, RPE and DOMS scores were not significantly different between conditions (p  >  .05). These results suggest that in response to a matched-intensity exercise bout, markers of post-exercise muscle damage may be reduced by running on softer ground surfaces. Such training strategy may be used to minimize musculoskeletal strain while still incurring an equivalent cardiovascular training stimulus.

  9. Right ventricular metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Marja A; Leskinen, Tuija; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-09-01

    Despite the recent studies on structural and functional adaptations of the right ventricle (RV) to exercise training, adaptations of its metabolism remain unknown. We investigated the effects of short-term, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on RV glucose and fat metabolism. Twenty-eight untrained, healthy 40-55 yr-old-men were randomized into HIIT (n = 14) and MICT (n = 14) groups. Subjects performed six supervised cycle ergometer training sessions within 2 wk (HIIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4-min recovery; MICT session: 40-60 min at 60% peak O2 uptake). Primary outcomes were insulin-stimulated RV glucose uptake (RVGU) and fasted state RV free fatty acid uptake (RVFFAU) measured by positron emission tomography. Secondary outcomes were changes in RV structure and function, determined by cardiac magnetic resonance. RVGU decreased after training (-22% HIIT, -12% MICT, P = 0.002 for training effect), but RVFFAU was not affected by the training (P = 0.74). RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, respectively, increased +5 and +7% for HIIT and +4 and +8% for MICT (P = 0.002 and 0.005 for training effects, respectively), but ejection fraction mildly decreased (-2% HIIT, -4% MICT, P = 0.034 for training effect). RV mass and stroke volume remained unaltered. None of the observed changes differed between the training groups (P > 0.12 for group × training interaction). Only 2 wk of physical training in previously sedentary subjects induce changes in RV glucose metabolism, volumes, and ejection fraction, which precede exercise-induced hypertrophy of RV.

  10. Maximal lactate steady state and the upper boundary of heavy intensity domain in trained cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Coelho Greco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the validity of maximum lactate steady state (MLSS for the identification of the upper limit of the heavy-intensity domain in well-trained cyclists. Fourteen male cyclists (25.5 ± 4.4 years, 69.5 ± 7.8 kg, 175.8 ± 7.5 cm underwent the following tests on different days: incremental exercise test until exhaustion to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, and 2 to 4 constant submaximal load tests to determine MLSS. VO2 obtained in the 30th min was significantly higher than that obtained in the 3rd min of exercise performed at 100% MLSS (3379.3 ± 250.1 vs. 3496.7 ± 280.2 ml/min, p0.05. These results suggest that during heavy exercise (MLSS VO2 does not present stability when values obtained around the 3rd minute of exercise are used as reference. MLSS does not seem to be the upper limit of the heavy-intensity domain in trained subjects since VO2peak is not reached by the end of 30 min of exercise when exercise is performed above this intensity (~ 5%.

  11. Automated assessment of medical training evaluation text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei; Gladding, Sophia; Aylward, Michael; Borman-Shoap, Emily; Melton, Genevieve B

    2012-01-01

    Medical post-graduate residency training and medical student training increasingly utilize electronic systems to evaluate trainee performance based on defined training competencies with quantitative and qualitative data, the later of which typically consists of text comments. Medical education is concomitantly becoming a growing area of clinical research. While electronic systems have proliferated in number, little work has been done to help manage and analyze qualitative data from these evaluations. We explored the use of text-mining techniques to assist medical education researchers in sentiment analysis and topic analysis of residency evaluations with a sample of 812 evaluation statements. While comments were predominantly positive, sentiment analysis improved the ability to discriminate statements with 93% accuracy. Similar to other domains, Latent Dirichlet Analysis and Information Gain revealed groups of core subjects and appear to be useful for identifying topics from this data.

  12. Low-volume high-intensity swim training is superior to high-volume low-intensity training in relation to insulin sensitivity and glucose control in inactive middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2016-01-01

    to an inactive control (n = 20; CON), a high-intensity low-volume (n = 21; HIT) or a low-intensity high-volume (n = 21; LIT) training group. During the 15-week intervention period, HIT performed 3 weekly 6-10 × 30-s all-out swimming intervals (average heart rate (HR) = 86 ± 3 % HRmax) interspersed by 2-min...... adhesion molecule 1 had decreased (P training strategy for improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and biomarkers of vascular function...

  13. High-intensity interval training in patients with lifestyle-induced cardiometabolic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Kassia S; Wisløff, Ulrik; Coombes, Jeff S

    2014-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong determinant of morbidity and mortality. In athletes and the general population, it is established that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in improving CRF. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the efficacy and safety of HIIT compared to MICT in individuals with chronic cardiometabolic lifestyle diseases. The included studies were required to have a population sample of chronic disease, where poor lifestyle is considered as a main contributor to the disease. The procedural quality of the studies was assessed by use of a modified Physiotherapy Evidence Base Database (PEDro) scale. A meta-analysis compared the mean difference (MD) of preintervention versus postintervention CRF (VO2peak) between HIIT and MICT. 10 studies with 273 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Participants had coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity. There was a significantly higher increase in the VO2peak after HIIT compared to MICT (MD 3.03 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 2.00 to 4.07), equivalent to 9.1%. HIIT significantly increases CRF by almost double that of MICT in patients with lifestyle-induced chronic diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Assessing the Training Potential of MTDS in Exercise First Wave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehr, S.E.; Schurig, M.; Jacobs, L.R.M.A.; Pal, J. van der; Bennett, W.; Schreiber, B.

    2005-01-01

    Exercise First WAVE (EFW) was conducted in November 2004 and was the first large-scale NATO MTDS event that focused on investigating and providing COMAO training for warfighters and mission support staff in a distributed synthetic environment. To assess the training potential of EFW, the NATO partne

  15. Assessment of competence and progressive independence in postgraduate clinical training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, M.G.; Voorhuis, M.; Teunissen, P.W.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Cate, O.T.J. ten; Braat, D.D.M.; Scheele, F.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: At present, competency-based, outcome-focused training is gradually replacing more traditional master-apprentice teaching in postgraduate training. This change requires a different approach to the assessment of clinical competence, especially given the decisions that must be made about the

  16. Assessing Low-Intensity Relationships in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Andreas; Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten; Zweig, Katharina Anna; Horvát, Emőke-Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    Many large network data sets are noisy and contain links representing low-intensity relationships that are difficult to differentiate from random interactions. This is especially relevant for high-throughput data from systems biology, large-scale ecological data, but also for Web 2.0 data on human interactions. In these networks with missing and spurious links, it is possible to refine the data based on the principle of structural similarity, which assesses the shared neighborhood of two nodes. By using similarity measures to globally rank all possible links and choosing the top-ranked pairs, true links can be validated, missing links inferred, and spurious observations removed. While many similarity measures have been proposed to this end, there is no general consensus on which one to use. In this article, we first contribute a set of benchmarks for complex networks from three different settings (e-commerce, systems biology, and social networks) and thus enable a quantitative performance analysis of classic node similarity measures. Based on this, we then propose a new methodology for link assessment called z* that assesses the statistical significance of the number of their common neighbors by comparison with the expected value in a suitably chosen random graph model and which is a consistently top-performing algorithm for all benchmarks. In addition to a global ranking of links, we also use this method to identify the most similar neighbors of each single node in a local ranking, thereby showing the versatility of the method in two distinct scenarios and augmenting its applicability. Finally, we perform an exploratory analysis on an oceanographic plankton data set and find that the distribution of microbes follows similar biogeographic rules as those of macroorganisms, a result that rejects the global dispersal hypothesis for microbes. PMID:27096435

  17. Assessing Low-Intensity Relationships in Complex Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Andreas; Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten; Zweig, Katharina Anna; Horvát, Emőke-Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    Many large network data sets are noisy and contain links representing low-intensity relationships that are difficult to differentiate from random interactions. This is especially relevant for high-throughput data from systems biology, large-scale ecological data, but also for Web 2.0 data on human interactions. In these networks with missing and spurious links, it is possible to refine the data based on the principle of structural similarity, which assesses the shared neighborhood of two nodes. By using similarity measures to globally rank all possible links and choosing the top-ranked pairs, true links can be validated, missing links inferred, and spurious observations removed. While many similarity measures have been proposed to this end, there is no general consensus on which one to use. In this article, we first contribute a set of benchmarks for complex networks from three different settings (e-commerce, systems biology, and social networks) and thus enable a quantitative performance analysis of classic node similarity measures. Based on this, we then propose a new methodology for link assessment called z* that assesses the statistical significance of the number of their common neighbors by comparison with the expected value in a suitably chosen random graph model and which is a consistently top-performing algorithm for all benchmarks. In addition to a global ranking of links, we also use this method to identify the most similar neighbors of each single node in a local ranking, thereby showing the versatility of the method in two distinct scenarios and augmenting its applicability. Finally, we perform an exploratory analysis on an oceanographic plankton data set and find that the distribution of microbes follows similar biogeographic rules as those of macroorganisms, a result that rejects the global dispersal hypothesis for microbes.

  18. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda, N.M.M.; Seeger, J.P.; Stevens, G.G.; Hijmans-Kersten, B.T.P.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Bellersen, L.; Lamfers, E.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF pa

  19. Effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on endothelial function and cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Tucker, Wesley J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Sweazea, Karen L; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) at improving endothelial function and maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max) in obese adults. Eighteen participants [35.1 ± 8.1 (SD) yr; body mass index = 36.0 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)] were randomized to 8 wk (3 sessions/wk) of either HIIT [10 × 1 min, 90-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), 1-min active recovery] or MICT (30 min, 70-75% HRmax). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased after HIIT (5.13 ± 2.80% vs. 8.98 ± 2.86%, P = 0.02) but not after MICT (5.23 ± 2.82% vs. 3.05 ± 2.76%, P = 0.16). Resting artery diameter increased after MICT (3.68 ± 0.58 mm vs. 3.86 ± 0.58 mm, P = 0.02) but not after HIIT (4.04 ± 0.70 mm vs. 4.09 ± 0.70 mm; P = 0.63). There was a significant (P = 0.02) group × time interaction in low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC) between MICT (0.63 ± 2.00% vs. -2.79 ± 3.20%; P = 0.03) and HIIT (-1.04 ± 4.09% vs. 1.74 ± 3.46%; P = 0.29). V̇o2 max increased (P HIIT (2.19 ± 0.65 l/min vs. 2.64 ± 0.88 l/min) and MICT (2.24 ± 0.48 l/min vs. 2.55 ± 0.61 l/min). Biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and endothelial function were unchanged. HIIT and MICT produced different vascular adaptations in obese adults, with HIIT improving FMD and MICT increasing resting artery diameter and enhancing L-FMC. HIIT required 27.5% less total exercise time and ∼25% less energy expenditure than MICT.

  20. Higher Precision of Heart Rate Compared with VO2 to Predict Exercise Intensity in Endurance-Trained Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Victor M; den Tillaar, Roland Van; Marques, Mario C

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg) with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s(-1) with a 0.56 m·s(-1) increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 181 ± 13 beats·min(-1). The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99) with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods. Key pointsHeart rate is used in the control of exercise intensity in endurance sports.However, few studies have quantified the precision of its relationship with oxygen uptake in highly trained runners.We evaluated twelve elite half-marathon runners during track running at various intensities and established three regressions: oxygen uptake / heart rate; heart rate / running velocity and oxygen uptake / running velocity.The three regressions presented, respectively, imprecision of 4,2%, 2,75% and 4,5% at the velocity associated with the 4 mmol·L(-1) threshold.The results of the present study show that, in highly trained runners

  1. Identifying Nursing Computer Training Requirements using Web-based Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Ghazi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Our work addresses issues of inefficiency and ineffectiveness in the training of nurses in computer literacy by developing an adaptive questionnaire system. This system works to identify the most effective training modules by evaluating applicants for pre-training and post-training. Our system, Systems Knowledge Assessment Tool (SKAT, aims to increase training proficiency, decrease training time and reduce costs associated with training by identifying areas of training required, and those which are not required for training, targeted to each individual. Based on the project’s requirements, a number of HTML documents were designed to be used as templates in the implementation stage. During this stage, the milestone principle was used, in which a series of coding and testing was performed to generate an error-free product.The decision-making process and it is components, as well as knowing the priority of each attribute in the application is responsible for determining the required training for each applicant. Thus, the decision-making process is an essential aspect of system design and greatly affects the training results of the applicant. The SKAT system has been evaluated to ensure that the system meets the project’s requirements. The evaluation stage was an important part of the project and required a number of nurses with different roles to evaluate the system. Based on their feedback, changes were made.

  2. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments, a training and resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VALERO, O.J.

    1998-11-03

    The intention of the ''Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Training and Resource Guide'' is to help Hanford waste generators identify ways to reduce waste through the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P20A) process. This document presents pollution prevention tools and provides a step-by-step approach for conducting assessments.

  3. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  4. Virus activation and immune function during intense training in rugby football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, R; Shimizu, K; Kimura, F; Takemura, M; Suzuki, K; Akama, T; Kono, I; Akimoto, T

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that highly trained athletes are more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) compared with the general population. Upper respiratory symptoms (URS) often appear as either primary invasion of pathogenic organisms and/or reactivation of latent viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between EBV reactivation and the appearance of URS during intensive training in collegiate rugby football players. We evaluated EBV-DNA expression in saliva and examined the relationship between onset of URS and daily changes in EBV-DNA as well as secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels among 32 male collegiate rugby football players during a 1-month training camp. The EBV-DNA expression tended to be higher in subjects who exhibited sore throat (p=0.07) and cough (p=0.18) than that of those who had no symptoms, although their differences were not significant. The SIgA level was significantly lower 1 day before the EBV-DNA expression (p<0.05). The number of URS increased along with the EBV-DNA expression and decrease of SIgA levels. These results suggest that the appearance of URS is associated with reactivation of EBV and reduction of SIgA during training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. An intensive self care training programme reduces admissions for the treatment of plantar ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, H; Newcombe, L

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes, in detail, an intensive 14 day Self Care Training Programme that is conducted at Lalgadh Leprosy Services Centre in Nepal. An evaluation of the programme was undertaken in which hospital admission for infected plantar ulceration was the outcome measure. It was found that those who had undertaken the programme were less likely to have been admitted for hospital treatment in a 3-month follow-up period (chi 2 = 5.1, P = 0.02). An odds ratio of 1:1.8 (95% CI = 0.15-0.01) was also calculated. This paper presents an overview of the issues related to impairment, a description of the Self Care Training Programme, an analysis of the evaluation results and a discussion of the findings.

  6. Fitness and Health Effects of Frequent Intense Training in 8-10-Year Old Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Nejst

    Physical activity for children has been much debated in recent years. Everyone has seemed to agree that it is important for children to exercise for the sake of physiological health, but cognitive functions and psycho-social behaviour are now also considered to be affected by physical activity. I...... other aspects of using small sided ball games in schools as part of physical education.......) compared to children active in other sports. Paper III and IV described the long-term training effects of frequent intense small-sided ball games (SSG), interval running (IT) and circuit strength training (CST) for 8-10-year-old school children. Analysis of baseline-to-10-months change scores showed...

  7. 551 training needs assessment of cocoa farmers association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-08-26

    Aug 26, 2013 ... assessed cocoa farmers' training needs on soil management techniques in Cross River State of ... the area of use of simple soil analysis tool to determine soil fertility (74.2%), .... help to enhance farmers' productivity for better.

  8. Assessment of training needs of extension personnel in agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of training needs of extension personnel in agricultural research institutes and agricultural ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from 65 respondents.

  9. Acute effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training sessions on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Zaccaria; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Ribeiro, Diego Oliveira; Pinto, Stephanie Santana

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) during and after two treadmill protocols, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (CONT), in young adult men. The sample was comprised by 26 physically active men aged between 18 and 35 years engaged in aerobic training programs. They were divided into two groups: HIIT (n = 14) which performed eight 20 s bouts at 130% of the velocity associated with the maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill with 10 s of passive rest, or CONT (n = 12) which performed 30 min running on a treadmill at a submaximal velocity equivalent to 90-95% of the heart rate associated with the anaerobic threshold. Data related to oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) and EE were measured during the protocols and the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated for both sessions. No difference was found between groups for mean [Formula: see text] (HIIT: 2.84 ± 0.46 L min(-1); CONT: 2.72 ± 0.43 L min(-1)) and EE per minute (HIIT: 14.36 ± 2.34 kcal min(-1); CONT: 13.21 ± 2.08 kcal min(-1)) during protocols. Regarding total EE during session, CONT resulted in higher values compared to HIIT (390.45 ± 65.15; 55.20 ± 9.33 kcal, respectively). However, post-exercise EE and EPOC values were higher after HIIT (69.31 ± 10.88; 26.27 ± 2.28 kcal, respectively) compared to CONT (55.99 ± 10.20; 13.43 ± 10.45 kcal, respectively). These data suggest that supramaximal HIIT has a higher impact on EE and EPOC in the early phase of recovery when compared to CONT.

  10. Autonomic cardiovascular modulation in masters and young cyclists following high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nattai R; Reaburn, Peter R; Doering, Thomas M; Argus, Christos K; Driller, Matthew W

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed at examining the autonomic cardiovascular modulation in well-trained masters and young cyclists following high-intensity interval training (HIT). Nine masters (age 55.6 ± 5.0 years) and eight young cyclists (age 25.9 ± 3.0 years) completed a HIT protocol of 6 x 30 sec at 175% of peak power output, with 4.5-min' rest between efforts. Immediately following HIT, heart rate and R-R intervals were monitored for 30-min during passive supine recovery. Autonomic modulation was examined by i) heart rate recovery in the first 60-sec of recovery (HRR60); ii) the time constant of the 30-min heart rate recovery curve (HRRτ); iii) the time course of the root mean square for successive 30-sec R-R interval (RMSSD30); and iv) time and frequency domain analyses of subsequent 5-min R-R interval segments. No significant between-group differences were observed for HRR60 (P = 0.096) or HRRτ (P = 0.617). However, a significant interaction effect was found for RMSSD30 (P = 0.021), with the master cyclists showing higher RMSSD30 values following HIT. Similar results were observed in the time and frequency domain analyses with significant interaction effects found for the natural logarithm of the RMSSD (P = 0.008), normalised low-frequency power (P = 0.016) and natural logarithm of high-frequency power (P = 0.012). Following high-intensity interval training, master cyclists demonstrated greater post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation compared to young cyclists, indicating that physical training at older ages has significant effects on autonomic function.

  11. Cardioprotective Effect of High Intensity Interval Training and Nitric Oxide Metabolites (NO2-, NO3-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar FALLAHI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on nitric oxide metabolites (NO2-, NO3- and myocardial infarct size after Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R injury in healthy male rats.Methods: A total of 44 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including HIIT (n=8, HIIT + IR protocol (n=14, control (n=8, and control + IR (n=14. Each training session of HIIT consisted of 1 hour of exercise in three stages: 6-minute running at 50-60% VO2max for warm-up; 7 intervals of 7-minute running on treadmill with a slope of 50 to 20° (4 minutes with an intensity of 80-100% VO2max and 3 minutes at 50-60% VO2max; and 5-minute running at 50-60% VO2max for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Nitric Oxide (NO and its metabolites were measured by using Griess reaction test.  Results: The results showed that eight weeks of exercise training exerted a significantly increasing effect on nitrite (8.55 µmol per liter, equivalent to 34.79%, nitrate (62.02 µmol per liter, equivalent to 149.48%, and NOx (66 µmol per liter, equivalent to 98.11% in the HIIT group compared with the control group. The results showed myocardial infract size (IS was significantly smaller (23.2%, P<0.001 in the exercise training group compared with the control group.Conclusion: Incremental changes in NO-NO3-, NO2- axis are one of mechanisms through which HIIT program can protect the heart from I/R injury and decrease myocardial infarction.   

  12. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cottrell Greg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but it is unknown whether HIT has the capacity to improve insulin action and hence glycemic control. Methods Sixteen young men (age: 21 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.7 ± 3.1 kg·m-2; VO2peak: 48 ± 9 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed 2 weeks of supervised HIT comprising of a total of 15 min of exercise (6 sessions; 4–6 × 30-s cycle sprints per session. Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial, and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT were determined before and after training. Results Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose, insulin and NEFA concentration-time curves were all reduced (12%, 37%, 26% respectively, all P -1, P = 0.058. Insulin sensitivity, as measured by the Cederholm index, was improved by 23% (P Conclusion The efficacy of a high intensity exercise protocol, involving only ~250 kcal of work each week, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise regimes.

  13. High-Intensity Interval Training, Appetite, and Reward Value of Food in the Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Holst, Jens; Finlayson, Graham; Wisloff, Ulrik; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil; Kulseng, Bård

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the effect of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 wk of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or short-duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: MICT (n = 14), HIIT (n = 16), or short-duration HIIT (n = 16). Exercise was performed three times per week for 12 wk. Subjective feelings of appetite and plasma levels of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 were measured before and after a standard breakfast (every 30 min up to 3 h), before and after the exercise intervention. Fat and sweet taste preferences and food reward were measured using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. A significant increase in fasting and postprandial feelings of hunger was observed with the exercise intervention (P = 0.01 and P = 0.048, respectively), but no effect of group and no interaction. No significant effect of exercise intervention, group, or interaction was found on fasting or postprandial subjective feelings of fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption or plasma concentration of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1. No changes in food preference or reward over time, differences between groups, or interactions were found. This study suggests that chronic HIIT has no independent effect on appetite or food reward when compared with an isocaloric program of MICT in obese individuals.

  14. The Benefits of High-Intensity Functional Training Fitness Programs for Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C; Heinrich, Katie M; Jahnke, Sara A; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2016-11-01

    High intensity functional training (HIFT) programs are designed to address multiple fitness domains, potentially providing improved physical and mental readiness in a changing operational environment. Programs consistent with HIFT principals such as CrossFit, SEALFIT and the US Marine Corps' High Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) are increasingly popular among military personnel. The goal of HIFT programs is to produce high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, endurance and strength that exceed those achieved by following current physical activity recommendations. Given the investment in and popularity of HIFT in the military, it is important to consider the potential impact of this approach to fitness training for the health of military personnel and their risk of training injury. In a previous report in this journal, we addressed the question of whether HIFT was associated with higher injury rates compared to other exercise programs. We argued that concerns about the injury potential of HIFT exercise programs were not supported by the scientific literature to date, although additional research was needed to directly compare injury rates in approaches such as CrossFit to traditional military fitness programs. In this article we will review the scientific data on the practical, health and fitness benefits of HIFT exercise programs for military populations. Practical benefits to HIFT exercise programs include shorter training times and volumes, exercises which simulate combat tasks, lower equipment costs, reduced potential for boredom and adaptation as a result of constant variation, less injury potential compared to high volume endurance training, and scalability to all fitness levels and rehabilitation needs. For instance, HIFT training volumes are typically between 25% to nearly 80% less than traditional military fitness programs without reductions in fitness outcomes. HIFT program also provide an impressive range of health benefits such as the promotion of

  15. The level of effort, rather than muscle exercise intensity determines strength gain following a six-week training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chang-Hao; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of voluntary motor effort during a low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) muscle exercise training program on increasing muscle strength. Eighteen young and healthy individuals were randomly assigned to one of three groups: high mental effort (HME), low mental effort (LME), or a no-training control (CTRL) group. Training lasted for 6weeks (15min/day, 5days/week). The participants' right-elbow flexor muscle strength was measured before and after the training program. After training, the HME group gained 20.47±8.33% (P=0.01) strength while the LME and CTRL groups had negligible strength changes (1.89±0.96% and -3.27±2.61%, respectively; P>0.05) despite muscle contraction intensity (30% MVC) sustained during training was the same for the HME and LME groups. These results suggest that the level of effort involved in resistance exercise training plays a critical role in determining the amount of strength augmentation. The finding that high effort combined with low-level physical exercise training can significantly increase muscle strength has rehabilitation applications as many patients and frail older adults have difficulties in participating in high-intensity exercise training such as lifting heavy weights. High effort plus low-level muscle exercise might serve as a safe training regimen for effective muscle strengthening in vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. EFFECT OF EXERCISE TRAINING OF DIFFERENT INTENSITIES ON ANTI-INFLAMMATORY REACTION IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.–S. Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of high- and low-intensity exercise training on inflammatory reaction of blood and skeletal muscle in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats (243 ± 7 g, 8 weeks. The rats completed treadmill running in either high-intensity exercise (6 weeks of exercise training, acute bouts of exercise or low-intensity exercise (6 weeks of exercise training. Non-running, sedentary rats served as controls. To induce diabetes mellitus, rats received a peritoneal injection of STZ (50 mg · kg-1. Rats were sacrificed immediately after an acute bout of exercise and 6 weeks of exercise training. Inflammatory factors were analyzed by ELISA and by immune blotting from the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. In the serum, inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4 and reactive oxygen species (ROS (nitric oxide and malondialdehyde increased in diabetic rats. However, all exercise training groups displayed reduced inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. In skeletal muscles, low-intensity exercise training, but not high intensity exercise, reduced the levels of COX-2, iNOS, and MMP-2, which were otherwise markedly elevated in the presence of STZ. Moreover, the levels of GLUT-4 and MyoD were effectively increased by different exercise intensity and exercise duration. Low-intensity exercise training appeared most effective to reduce diabetes-related inflammation. However, high-intensity training also reduced inflammatory factors in tissue-specific muscles. The data implicate regular exercise in protecting against chronic inflammatory diseases, such as diabetes.

  17. Effect of exercise training of different intensities on anti-inflammatory reaction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-S; Lee, Y-H; Kim, J-C; Ko, Y-H; Yoon, C-S; Yi, H-K

    2014-03-01

    The study investigated the effect of high- and low-intensity exercise training on inflammatory reaction of blood and skeletal muscle in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats (243 ± 7 g, 8 weeks). The rats completed treadmill running in either high-intensity exercise (6 weeks of exercise training, acute bouts of exercise) or low-intensity exercise (6 weeks of exercise training). Non-running, sedentary rats served as controls. To induce diabetes mellitus, rats received a peritoneal injection of STZ (50 mg · kg(-1)). Rats were sacrificed immediately after an acute bout of exercise and 6 weeks of exercise training. Inflammatory factors were analyzed by ELISA and by immune blotting from the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. In the serum, inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (nitric oxide and malondialdehyde) increased in diabetic rats. However, all exercise training groups displayed reduced inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. In skeletal muscles, low-intensity exercise training, but not high intensity exercise, reduced the levels of COX-2, iNOS, and MMP-2, which were otherwise markedly elevated in the presence of STZ. Moreover, the levels of GLUT-4 and MyoD were effectively increased by different exercise intensity and exercise duration. Low-intensity exercise training appeared most effective to reduce diabetes-related inflammation. However, high-intensity training also reduced inflammatory factors in tissue-specific muscles. The data implicate regular exercise in protecting against chronic inflammatory diseases, such as diabetes.

  18. Continuous and high-intensity interval training: which promotes higher pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno R R Oliveira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the psychological responses to continuous (CT and high-intensity interval training (HIT sessions. METHODS: Fifteen men attended one CT session and one HIT session. During the first visit, the maximum heart rate, VO2Peak and respiratory compensation point (RCP were determined through a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. The HIT stimulus intensity corresponded to 100% of VO2Peak, and the average intensity of both sessions was maintained at 15% below the RCP. The order of the sessions was randomized. Psychological and physiological variables were recorded before, during and after each session. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the average percentages of VO2 during the two exercise sessions (HIT: 73.3% vs. CT: 71.8%; p = 0.779. Lower responses on the feeling scale (p≤0.01 and higher responses on the felt arousal scale (p≤0.001 and the rating of perceived exertion were obtained during the HIT session. Despite the more negative feeling scale responses observed during HIT and a greater feeling of fatigue (measured by Profile of Mood States afterwards (p<0.01, the physical activity enjoyment scale was not significantly different between the two conditions (p = 0.779. CONCLUSION: Despite the same average intensity for both conditions, similar psychological responses under HIT and CT conditions were not observed, suggesting that the higher dependence on anaerobic metabolism during HIT negatively influenced the feeling scale responses.

  19. Eye tracking for skills assessment and training: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Tony; Pucher, Philip H; Sodergren, Mikael H; Sriskandarajah, Kumuthan; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The development of quantitative objective tools is critical to the assessment of surgeon skill. Eye tracking is a novel tool, which has been proposed may provide suitable metrics for this task. The aim of this study was to review current evidence for the use of eye tracking in training and assessment. A systematic literature review was conducted in line with PRISMA guidelines. A search of EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, Maternity and Infant Care, PsycINFO, and Transport databases was conducted, till March 2013. Studies describing the use of eye tracking in the execution, training or assessment of a task, or for skill acquisition were included in the review. Initial search results returned 12,051 results. Twenty-four studies were included in the final qualitative synthesis. Sixteen studies were based on eye tracking in assessment and eight studies were on eye tacking in training. These demonstrated feasibility and validity in the use of eye tracking metrics and gaze tracking to differentiate between subjects of varying skill levels. Several training methods using gaze training and pattern recognition were also described. Current literature demonstrates the ability of eye tracking to provide reliable quantitative data as an objective assessment tool, with potential applications to surgical training to improve performance. Eye tracking remains a promising area of research with the possibility of future implementation into surgical skill assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Peter M; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas; Flück, Daniela; Bangsbo, Jens; Lundby, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇o2) kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age 26 ± 2 yr; mean ± SD) performed six HIT sessions (8-12 × 60 s at incremental test peak power; 271 ± 52 W) over a 2-wk period. Before and after the HIT period, V̇o2 kinetics was modeled during moderate-intensity cycling (110 ± 19 W). Mitochondrial function was assessed with high-resolution respirometry (HRR), and maximal activities of oxidative enzymes citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) were accordingly determined. In response to HIT, V̇o2 kinetics became faster (τ: 20.4 ± 4.4 vs. 28.9 ± 6.1 s; P CIIP) (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings support that selected measures of mitochondrial function obtained with HRR are important for fast V̇o2 kinetics and better markers than maximal oxidative enzyme activity in describing the speed of the V̇o2 response during moderate-intensity exercise.

  1. Embracing the new paradigm of assessment in residency training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, C; Østergaard, D; Scherpbier, A

    2003-01-01

    . Also there is a shift in the concept of assessment in that instruction and assessment are no longer seen as being separate in time and purpose, but as integral parts of the learning process. The nature of the new paradigm for assessment is well described but the challenge to programme directors...... is to specify the evaluation situations and develop appropriate methods. This paper describes the intrinsic rational validation process in outlining an assessment programme for first-year anaesthesiology residency training according to the new paradigm. The applicability to other residency programmes and higher......-level training in anaesthesiology is discussed. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Jan...

  2. Repeated sprints, high-intensity interval training, small-sided games: theory and application to field sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, James J; Reed, Jacob P; Leiting, Keith; Chiang, Chieh-Ying; Stone, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Due to the broad spectrum of physical characteristics necessary for success in field sports, numerous training modalities have been used develop physical preparedness. Sports like rugby, basketball, lacrosse, and others require athletes to be not only strong and powerful but also aerobically fit and able to recover from high-intensity intermittent exercise. This provides coaches and sport scientists with a complex range of variables to consider when developing training programs. This can often lead to confusion and the misuse of training modalities, particularly in the development of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning. This review outlines the benefits and general adaptations to 3 commonly used and effective conditioning methods: high-intensity interval training, repeated-sprint training, and small-sided games. The goals and outcomes of these training methods are discussed, and practical implementations strategies for coaches and sport scientists are provided.

  3. Validation of a model of intensive training in digestive laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Silvia; Díaz-Güemes, Idoia; Usón, Jesús; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to assess a laparoscopic training model for general surgery residents. Twelve general surgery residents carried out a training program, consisting of a theoretical session (one hour) and a hands-on session on simulator (7 h) and on animal model (13 h). For the first and last repetitions of simulator tasks and the Nissen fundoplication technique, time and scores from the global rating scale objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) were registered. Before and after the course, participants performed 4 tasks on the virtual reality simulator LAPMentor™: 1) hand-eye coordination, 2) hand-hand coordination, 3) transference of objects and 4) cholecystectomy task, registering time and movement metrics. Moreover, the residents completed a questionnaire related to the training components on a 5-point rating scale. The last repetition of the tasks and the Nissen fundoplication technique were performed faster and with a higher OSATS score. After the course, the participants performed all LAPMentor™ tasks faster, increasing the speed of movements in all tasks. Number of movements decreased in tasks 2, 3 and 4; as well as path length in tasks 2 and 4. Training components were positively rated by residents, being the suture task the aspect best rated (4.90 ± 0.32). This training model in digestive laparoscopic surgery has demonstrated to be valid for the improvement of basic and advanced skills of general surgery residents. Intracorporeal suturing and the animal model were the best rated training elements. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Neutrophil and Monocyte Bactericidal Responses to 10 Weeks of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Sedentary Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Bartlett

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils and monocytes are key components of the innate immune system that undergo age-associated declines in function. This study compared the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on immune function in sedentary adults. Twenty-seven (43 ± 11 years healthy sedentary adults were randomized into ten weeks of either a HIIT (>90% maximum heart rate or MICT (70% maximum heart rate group training program. Aerobic capacity (VO2peak, neutrophil and monocyte bacterial phagocytosis and oxidative burst, cell surface receptor expression, and systemic inflammation were measured before and after the training. Total exercise time commitment was 57% less for HIIT compared to that for MICT while both significantly improved VO2peak similarly. Neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst and monocyte phagocytosis and percentage of monocytes producing an oxidative burst were improved by training similarly in both groups. Expression of monocyte but not neutrophil CD16, TLR2, and TLR4 was reduced by training similarly in both groups. No differences in systemic inflammation were observed for training; however, leptin was reduced in the MICT group only. With similar immune-enhancing effects for HIIT compared to those for MICT at 50% of the time commitment, our results support HIIT as a time efficient exercise option to improve neutrophil and monocyte function.

  5. Neutrophil and Monocyte Bactericidal Responses to 10 Weeks of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Sedentary Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, David B; Shepherd, Sam O; Wilson, Oliver J; Adlan, Ahmed M; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Shaw, Christopher S; Lord, Janet M

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils and monocytes are key components of the innate immune system that undergo age-associated declines in function. This study compared the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on immune function in sedentary adults. Twenty-seven (43 ± 11 years) healthy sedentary adults were randomized into ten weeks of either a HIIT (>90% maximum heart rate) or MICT (70% maximum heart rate) group training program. Aerobic capacity (VO2peak), neutrophil and monocyte bacterial phagocytosis and oxidative burst, cell surface receptor expression, and systemic inflammation were measured before and after the training. Total exercise time commitment was 57% less for HIIT compared to that for MICT while both significantly improved VO2peak similarly. Neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst and monocyte phagocytosis and percentage of monocytes producing an oxidative burst were improved by training similarly in both groups. Expression of monocyte but not neutrophil CD16, TLR2, and TLR4 was reduced by training similarly in both groups. No differences in systemic inflammation were observed for training; however, leptin was reduced in the MICT group only. With similar immune-enhancing effects for HIIT compared to those for MICT at 50% of the time commitment, our results support HIIT as a time efficient exercise option to improve neutrophil and monocyte function.

  6. Effects of Low-Volume, High-Intensity Training on Performance in Competitive Swimmers: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Frank J; Comyns, Thomas M; Burrows, Emma; Warrington, Giles D

    2017-03-01

    Nugent, FJ, Comyns, TM, Burrows, E, and Warrington, GD. Effects of low-volume, high-intensity training on performance in competitive swimmers: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 837-847, 2017-The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the extent and quality of the current research literature to determine the effects of low-volume, high-intensity training (HIT) on physiological performance and swimming performance in competitive swimmers. The methodology followed the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. A search of relevant databases and conference proceedings was performed until December 2015. The inclusion criteria were (a) competitive swimmers, (b) ≥4 weeks HIT intervention, (c) comparison group had to involve a higher training volume, (d) outcome measures of physiological and swimming performance, and (e) all experimental study designs. Quality assessment was performed using the Quality Index checklist. Results indicate that of the 538 studies retrieved, 7 studies met the inclusion criteria. Six of the 7 studies found that an HIT intervention resulted in significant improvements in physiological performance. Four of the 7 studies found that HIT resulted in significant improvements in swimming performance, whereas none of the 7 studies resulted in a reduction in physiological or swimming performance. Despite the positive findings of this review, the short study duration is a limitation to a number of studies. The current evidence on the effects of HIT on performance is promising; however, it is difficult to draw accurate conclusions until further research has been conducted.

  7. Two weeks of high-intensity interval training improves novel but not traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Bert; Cockcroft, Emma J; Williams, Craig A; Harris, Sam; Gates, Phillip E; Jackman, Sarah R; Armstrong, Neil; Barker, Alan R

    2015-09-15

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, but no study has identified the influence of HIIT on endothelial and autonomic function in this group. Thirteen 13- to 14-yr-old adolescents (6 girls) completed six HIIT sessions over 2 wk. Each training session consisted of eight to ten 1-min repetitions of cycling at 90% peak power interspersed with 75 s of unloaded cycling. Traditional (triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and blood pressure) and novel [flow-mediated dilation (FMD), heart rate variability (HRV)] CVD risk factors were assessed in a fasted and postprandial state before (PRE), 1 day after (POST-1D), and 3 days after (POST-3D) training. Aerobic fitness was determined PRE and POST-3D. Two weeks of HIIT had no effect on aerobic fitness or traditional CVD risk factors determined in the fasted or postprandial state (P > 0.15). Compared with PRE, fasted FMD was improved POST-1D [P = 0.003, effect size (ES) = 0.70] but not POST-3D (P = 0.32, ES = 0.22). Fasted FMD was greater POST-1D compared with POST-3D (P = 0.04, ES = 0.48). Compared with PRE, postprandial FMD was greater POST-1D (P 0.32 for all). Two weeks of HIIT enhanced endothelial function and HRV without improvements in traditional CVD risk factors. However, most of this favorable adaptation was lost POST-3D, suggesting that regularly performing high-intensity exercise is needed to maintain these benefits. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O Shepherd

    Full Text Available Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max, cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT.Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2 were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1. MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1. VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention.Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT and 128±44 min (MICT (p<0.05, with greater adherence to HIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; p<0.05. HIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (p<0.05. HIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (p<0.05. No difference between HIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables.HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  9. Physical work capacity after 7 wk of wheelchair training : effect of intensity in able-bodied subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; van Croonenborg, J J; Wolff, I; Dallmeijer, A J; Hollander, A P

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to study the effects of a 7-wk wheelchair training program on physical work capacity in able-bodied subjects. Effects of training intensities of 50 and 70% heart rate (HR) reserve (HRR) were studied for different subject groups. METHODS: Twenty-seven

  10. Physical work capacity after 7 wk of wheelchair training : effect of intensity in able-bodied subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; van Croonenborg, J J; Wolff, I; Dallmeijer, A J; Hollander, A P

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to study the effects of a 7-wk wheelchair training program on physical work capacity in able-bodied subjects. Effects of training intensities of 50 and 70% heart rate (HR) reserve (HRR) were studied for different subject groups. METHODS: Twenty-seven able-bodie

  11. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenios Evgeniou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.

  12. Endurance and sprint benefits of high-intensity and supramaximal interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicioni-Kolsky, Daniel; Lorenzen, Christian; Williams, Morgan David; Kemp, Justin Guy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of two different interval training programs-high-intensity interval training (HIT) and supramaximal interval training (SMIT)-on measures of sprint and endurance performance. Physically active individuals (Females: n=32; age 19.3, s=2.2 years; mass 67.6, s=9.1 kg; stature 172.7, s=6.6 cm. Males: n=23; age 20.0, s=2.7 years; mass 71.3, s=8.3 kg; stature 176.6, s=5.8 cm) completed pre-testing that comprised (1) 3000 m time-trial, (2) 40 m sprint, and (3) repeated sprint ability (RSA-6×40 m sprints, 24 s active recovery) performance. Participants were then matched for average 3000 m running velocity (AV) and randomly assigned to one of three groups: (i) HIT, n=19, 4 min at 100% AV, 4 min passive recovery, 4-6 bouts per session; (ii) SMIT, n=20, 30 s at 130% AV, 150 s passive recovery, 7-12 bouts per session; and (iii) control group, n=16, 30 min continuous running at 75% AV. Groups trained three times per week for six weeks. When time to complete each test were compared among groups: (i) improvements in 3000 m time trial performance were greater following SMIT than continuous running, and (ii) improvements in 40 m sprint and RSA performance were greater following SMIT than HIT and continuous running. In addition, a gender effect was observed for the 3000 m time trial only, where females changed more following the training intervention than males. In summary, for concurrent improvements in endurance, sprint and repeated sprint performance, SMIT provides the greatest benefits for physically active individuals.

  13. Early Intensive Leg Training to Enhance Walking in Children With Perinatal Stroke: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Caitlin; Livingstone, Donna; Brunton, Kelly; Teves, Michelle; Zewdie, Ephrem; Smith, Allison; Ciechanski, Patrick; Gorassini, Monica A; Kirton, Adam; Watt, Man-Joe; Andersen, John; Yager, Jerome; Yang, Jaynie F

    2017-08-01

    Development of motor pathways is modulated by activity in these pathways, when they are maturing (ie, critical period). Perinatal stroke injures motor pathways, including the corticospinal tracts, reducing their activity and impairing motor function. Current intervention for the lower limb emphasizes passive approaches (stretching, braces, botulinum toxin injections). The study hypothesis was that intensive, early, child-initiated activity during the critical period will enhance connectivity of motor pathways to the legs and improve motor function. The study objective was to determine whether early intervention with intensive activity is better than standard care, intervention delivered during the proposed critical period is better than after, and the outcomes are different when the intervention is delivered by a physical therapist in an institution vs. a parent at home. A prospective, delay-group, single-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) and a parallel, cohort study of children living beyond commuting distance and receiving an intervention delivered by their parent. The RCT intervention was provided in university laboratories, and parent training was provided in the childs home. Children 8 months to 3 years old with MRI-confirmed perinatal ischemic stroke and early signs of hemiparesis. Intensive, play-based leg activity with weights for the affected leg and foot, 1 hour/day, 4 days/week for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 score. Secondary outcomes were motion analysis of walking, full-day step counts, motor evoked potentials from transcranial magnetic stimulation, and patellar tendon reflexes. Inter-individual heterogeneity in the severity of the stroke and behavioral differences are substantial but measurable. Differences in intervention delivery and assessment scoring are minimized by standardization and training. The intervention, contrary to current practice, could change physical therapy interventions for children

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Chinese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m(-2)) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO2: 150 mmHg, FIO2: 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO2: 117 mmHg, FIO2: 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2peak), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in [Formula: see text]O2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min(-1) (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min(-1) (+26.1%)] and peak O2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM (p < 0.05). Although the 5-wk HIIT led to significant improvements in the ratios of TC/HDL-C (p = 0.035) and TG/HDL-C (p = 0.027), no significant group effects were found on the serum variables. Further, no significant changes in body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either

  15. CRM Assessment: Determining the Generalization of Rater Calibration Training. Summary of Research Report: Gold Standards Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David P.

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which pilot instructors are trained to assess crew resource management (CRM) skills accurately during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) scenarios is critical. Pilot instructors must make accurate performance ratings to ensure that proper feedback is provided to flight crews and appropriate decisions are made regarding certification to fly the line. Furthermore, the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requires that instructors be trained explicitly to evaluate both technical and CRM performance (i.e., rater training) and also requires that proficiency and standardization of instructors be verified periodically. To address the critical need for effective pilot instructor training, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) reviewed the relevant research on rater training and, based on "best practices" from this research, developed a new strategy for training pilot instructors to assess crew performance. In addition, we explored new statistical techniques for assessing the effectiveness of pilot instructor training. The results of our research are briefly summarized below. This summary is followed by abstracts of articles and book chapters published under this grant.

  16. High-Intensity Interval Training for Overweight Adolescents: Program Acceptance of a Media Supported Intervention and Changes in Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Herget

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity interval training (HIIT consists of short intervals of exercise at high intensity intermitted by intervals of lower intensity and is associated with improvement of body composition and metabolic health in adults. Studies in overweight adolescents are scarce. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in overweight adolescents to compare acceptance and attendance of HIIT with or without weekly motivational encouragement through text messages and access to a study website. HIIT was offered for six months (including summer vacation twice a week (60 min/session. Participation rates were continuously assessed and acceptance was measured. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after six months. Twenty-eight adolescents participated in this study (age 15.5 ± 1.4; 54% female. The standard deviation score for body mass index over all participants was 2.33 at baseline and decreased by 0.026 (95% CI −0.048 to 0.10 units, p = 0.49. Waist to height ratio was 0.596 at baseline and decreased by 0.013 (95% CI 0.0025 to 0.024, p = 0.023. Participation within the first two months ranged from 65% to 75%, but fell to 15% within the last three months. Attendance in the intervention group was 14% (95% CI −8 to 37, p = 0.18, higher than the control group. Overall program content was rated as “good” by participants, although high drop-out rates were observed. Summer months constitute a serious problem regarding attendance. The use of media support has to be assessed further in appropriately powered trials.

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training for Overweight Adolescents: Program Acceptance of a Media Supported Intervention and Changes in Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Sabine; Reichardt, Sandra; Grimm, Andrea; Petroff, David; Käpplinger, Jakob; Haase, Michael; Markert, Jana; Blüher, Susann

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) consists of short intervals of exercise at high intensity intermitted by intervals of lower intensity and is associated with improvement of body composition and metabolic health in adults. Studies in overweight adolescents are scarce. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in overweight adolescents to compare acceptance and attendance of HIIT with or without weekly motivational encouragement through text messages and access to a study website. HIIT was offered for six months (including summer vacation) twice a week (60 min/session). Participation rates were continuously assessed and acceptance was measured. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after six months. Twenty-eight adolescents participated in this study (age 15.5 ± 1.4; 54% female). The standard deviation score for body mass index over all participants was 2.33 at baseline and decreased by 0.026 (95% CI −0.048 to 0.10) units, p = 0.49. Waist to height ratio was 0.596 at baseline and decreased by 0.013 (95% CI 0.0025 to 0.024), p = 0.023. Participation within the first two months ranged from 65% to 75%, but fell to 15% within the last three months. Attendance in the intervention group was 14% (95% CI −8 to 37), p = 0.18, higher than the control group. Overall program content was rated as “good” by participants, although high drop-out rates were observed. Summer months constitute a serious problem regarding attendance. The use of media support has to be assessed further in appropriately powered trials. PMID:27834812

  18. Benchmarking Dosimetric Quality Assessment of Prostate Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthi, Sashendra, E-mail: sasha.senthi@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Gill, Suki S. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Haworth, Annette; Kron, Tomas; Cramb, Jim [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Rolfo, Aldo [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Thomas, Jessica [Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Duchesne, Gillian M. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hamilton, Christopher H.; Joon, Daryl Lim [Radiation Oncology Department, Austin Repatriation Hospital, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia); Bowden, Patrick [Radiation Oncology Department, Tattersall' s Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To benchmark the dosimetric quality assessment of prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy and determine whether the quality is influenced by disease or treatment factors. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data from 155 consecutive men treated radically for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy to 78 Gy between January 2007 and March 2009 across six radiotherapy treatment centers. The plan quality was determined by the measures of coverage, homogeneity, and conformity. Tumor coverage was measured using the planning target volume (PTV) receiving 95% and 100% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 95%} and V{sub 100%}, respectively) and the clinical target volume (CTV) receiving 95% and 100% of the prescribed dose. Homogeneity was measured using the sigma index of the PTV and CTV. Conformity was measured using the lesion coverage factor, healthy tissue conformity index, and the conformity number. Multivariate regression models were created to determine the relationship between these and T stage, risk status, androgen deprivation therapy use, treatment center, planning system, and treatment date. Results: The largest discriminatory measurements of coverage, homogeneity, and conformity were the PTV V{sub 95%}, PTV sigma index, and conformity number. The mean PTV V{sub 95%} was 92.5% (95% confidence interval, 91.3-93.7%). The mean PTV sigma index was 2.10 Gy (95% confidence interval, 1.90-2.20). The mean conformity number was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.79). The treatment center independently influenced the coverage, homogeneity, and conformity (all p < .0001). The planning system independently influenced homogeneity (p = .038) and conformity (p = .021). The treatment date independently influenced the PTV V{sub 95%} only, with it being better at the start (p = .013). Risk status, T stage, and the use of androgen deprivation therapy did not influence any aspect of plan quality. Conclusion: Our study has benchmarked measures

  19. Dietary thiamin and riboflavin intake and blood thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in college swimmers undergoing intensive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akiko; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu; Ishikawa, Tomoji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of high-intensity physical activity during training on the biochemical status of thiamin and riboflavin in athletes. Thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in whole blood of a group of 19 athletes (6 men and 13 women) were measured during a low-intensity preparatory period and compared with measurements taken during a high-intensity training period. Additional variables measured included anthropometric characteristics, estimated energy expenditure during swim training, distance covered, resting energy expenditure obtained by indirect calorimetry, estimated energy requirement per day, and dietary intake of energy, thiamin, and riboflavin estimated from 3-day food records. For both male and female subjects, no major changes were observed in anthropometric characteristics or dietary intake, but energy expenditure during swim training per day significantly increased in the intensive-training period (496 ± 0 kcal in the preparation period compared with 995 ± 96 kcal in the intensive-training period for male subjects [p < .001] and 361 ± 27 kcal vs. 819 ± 48 kcal, respectively, for female subjects [p < .001]). Blood thiamin concentration decreased significantly during the intensive-training period compared with the preparation period (41 ± 6 ng/ml decreased to 36 ± 3 ng/ml for male subjects [p = .048], and 38 ± 10 ng/ml decreased to 31 ± 5 ng/ml for female subjects [p = .004]); however, the concentration of riboflavin was unchanged. These results suggest that intense training affects thiamin concentration, but not riboflavin concentration, in the whole blood of college swimmers.

  20. Intensive Class Training Model for Developing Lecturers’English Competence at IAIN Imam Bonjol Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmayenti Darmayenti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research and Development (R&D project was used to develop lecturers’ English competence particularly on speaking and writing at State Institute of Islamic Studies of Imam Bonjol Padang.  The lecturers need to develop their competence in English in order to prepare themselves to add new information of lecturing materials and writing papers. Borg and Gall’s steps were used to develop the model. Twenty active lecturers who had s2 and s3 program, who were randomly selected, participated on this research. During the process of the research, observation, questionnaire, and TOEFL test, speaking and writing tests were used to collect the data. The experimental research type and one group pre test- post test design were used to conduct the research. The result of the research showed that 74% of respondents need intensive class training model to develop their English competence. The implementation of intensive class training model gave a significant effect toward lecturers’ English competence. It is concluded that this model is more effective to improve lecturers’ on English competences. Therefore, it is recommended that this model can be implemented at IAIN Imam Bonjol Padang in order to develop lecturers’ English competences and to enhance the quality of lecturers.

  1. High-intensity interval training in patients with coronary heart disease: Prescription models and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paula A B; Boidin, Maxime; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Gayda, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as an alternative and/or complementary exercise modality to continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET) in CHD patients. However, the literature contains descriptions of many HIIT protocols with different stage durations, nature of recovery and intensities. In this review, we discuss the most recent forms of validated HIIT protocols in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and how to prescribe and use them during short- and long-term (phase II and III) cardiac rehabilitation programs. We also compare the superior and/or equivalent short- and long-term effects of HIIT versus CAET on aerobic fitness, cardiovascular function, and quality of life; their efficiency, safety, and tolerance; and exercise adherence. Short interval HIIT was found beneficial for CHD patients with lower aerobic fitness and would ideally be used in initiation and improvement stages. Medium and/or long interval HIIT protocols may be beneficial for CHD patients with higher aerobic fitness, and would be ideally used in the improvement and maintenance stages because of their high physiological stimulus. Finally, we propose progressive individualized models of HIIT programs (phase II to III) for patients with CHD and how to ideally use them according to the clinical status of patients and phase of the cardiac rehabilitation program.

  2. High-intensity interval training prevents oxidant-mediated diaphragm muscle weakness in hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Drobner, Juliane; Fischer, Tina; Werner, Sarah; Linke, Axel; Mangner, Norman; Schuler, Gerhard; Adams, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a key risk factor for heart failure, with the latter characterized by diaphragm muscle weakness that is mediated in part by increased oxidative stress. In the present study, we used a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt mouse model to determine whether hypertension could independently induce diaphragm dysfunction and further investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sham-treated (n = 11), DOCA-salt-treated (n = 11), and DOCA-salt+HIIT-treated (n = 15) mice were studied over 4 wk. Diaphragm contractile function, protein expression, enzyme activity, and fiber cross-sectional area and type were subsequently determined. Elevated blood pressure confirmed hypertension in DOCA-salt mice independent of HIIT (P HIIT. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein expression tended to decrease (∼30%; P = 0.06) in DOCA-salt vs. sham- and DOCA-salt+HIIT mice, whereas oxidative stress increased (P HIIT further prevented direct oxidant-mediated diaphragm contractile dysfunction (P HIIT.-Bowen, T. S., Eisenkolb, S., Drobner, J., Fischer, T., Werner, S., Linke, A., Mangner, N., Schuler, G., Adams, V. High-intensity interval training prevents oxidant-mediated diaphragm muscle weakness in hypertensive mice.

  3. Intensive Class Training Model for Developing Lecturers’English Competence at IAIN Imam Bonjol Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmayenti Darmayenti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research and Development (R&D project was used to develop lecturers’ English competence particularly on speaking and writing at State Institute of Islamic Studies of Imam Bonjol Padang.  The lecturers need to develop their competence in English in order to prepare themselves to add new information of lecturing materials and writing papers. Borg and Gall’s steps were used to develop the model. Twenty active lecturers who had s2 and s3 program, who were randomly selected, participated on this research. During the process of the research, observation, questionnaire, and TOEFL test, speaking and writing tests were used to collect the data. The experimental research type and one group pre test- post test design were used to conduct the research. The result of the research showed that 74% of respondents need intensive class training model to develop their English competence. The implementation of intensive class training model gave a significant effect toward lecturers’ English competence. It is concluded that this model is more effective to improve lecturers’ on English competences. Therefore, it is recommended that this model can be implemented at IAIN Imam Bonjol Padang in order to develop lecturers’ English competences and to enhance the quality of lecturers.

  4. Mental fatigue negatively influences manual dexterity and anticipation timing but not repeated high-intensity exercise performance in trained adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Fowler, Nicholas; George, Oliver; Joyce, Samuel; Hankey, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a period of mental fatigue on manual dexterity, anticipation timing and repeated high intensity exercise performance. Using a randomised, repeated measures experimental design, eight physically trained adults (mean age = 24.8 ± 4.1 years) undertook a 40 minute vigilance task to elicit mental fatigue or a control condition followed by four repeated Wingate anaerobic performance tests. Pre, post fatigue/control and post each Wingate test, manual dexterity (Seconds), coincidence anticipation (absolute error) were assessed. A series of two (condition) by six (time) ways repeated measures ANOVAs indicated a significant condition by time interactions for manual dexterity time (p = 0.021) and absolute error (p = 0.028). Manual dexterity and coincidence anticipation were significantly poorer post mental fatigue compared with control. There were no significant differences in mean power between conditions or across trials (all p > 0.05).

  5. Intermittent and continuous high-intensity exercise training induce similar acute but different chronic muscle adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Andrew J R; Percival, Michael E; Tricarico, Steven; Little, Jonathan P; Cermak, Naomi; Gillen, Jenna B; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed in an 'all-out' manner (e.g. repeated Wingate tests) is a time-efficient strategy to induce skeletal muscle remodelling towards a more oxidative phenotype. A fundamental question that remains unclear, however, is whether the intermittent or 'pulsed' nature of the stimulus is critical to the adaptive response. In study 1, we examined whether the activation of signalling cascades linked to mitochondrial biogenesis was dependent on the manner in which an acute high-intensity exercise stimulus was applied. Subjects performed either four 30 s Wingate tests interspersed with 4 min of rest (INT) or a bout of continuous exercise (CONT) that was matched for total work (67 ± 7 kJ) and which required ∼4 min to complete as fast as possible. Both protocols elicited similar increases in markers of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, as well as Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) mRNA expression (main effects for time, P ≤ 0.05). In study 2, we determined whether 6 weeks of the CONT protocol (3 days per week) would increase skeletal muscle mitochondrial content to a similar extent to what we have previously reported after 6 weeks of INT. Despite similar acute signalling responses to the CONT and INT protocols, training with CONT did not increase the maximal activity or protein content of a range of mitochondrial markers. However, peak oxygen uptake was higher after CONT training (from 45.7 ± 5.4 to 48.3 ± 6.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1); P muscle adaptations to low-volume, all-out HIIT. Despite the lack of skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations, our data show that a training programme based on a brief bout of high-intensity exercise, which lasted <10 min per session including warm-up, and performed three times per week for 6 weeks, improved peak oxygen uptake in young healthy subjects.

  6. Dose-Response of High-Intensity Training (HIT on Atheroprotective miRNA-126 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Schmitz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: MicroRNA-126 (miR-126 exerts beneficial effects on vascular integrity, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque stability. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the dose-response relationship of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on miR-126-3p and -5p levels.Methods: Sixty-one moderately trained individuals (females = 31 [50.8%]; 22.0 ± 1.84 years were consecutively recruited and allocated into three matched groups using exercise capacity. During a 4-week intervention a HIIT group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out, a progressive HIIT (proHIIT group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out with one extra session every week (up to 7 × 30 s and a low-intensity training (LIT control group performed three exercise sessions/week for 25 min <75% of maximum heart rate. Exercise miR-126-3p/-5p plasma levels were determined using capillary blood from earlobes.Results: No exercise-induced increase in miR-126 levels was detected at baseline, neither in the LIT (after 25 min low-intensity running nor the HIIT groups (after 4 min of high-intensity running. After the intervention, the LIT group presented an increase in miR-126-3p, while in the HIIT group, miR-126-3p levels were still reduced (all p < 0.05. An increase for both, miR-126-3p and -5p levels (all p < 0.05, pre- vs. during and post-exercise was detected in the proHIIT group. Between group analysis revealed that miR-126-3p levels after LIT and proHIIT increased by 2.12 ± 2.55 and 1.24 ± 2.46 units (all p < 0.01, respectively, compared to HIIT (−1.05 ± 2.6 units.Conclusions: LIT and proHIIT may be performed to increase individual miR-126 levels. HIIT without progression was less effective in increasing miR-126.

  7. The effect of a 10-week high-intensity interval training and ginger consumption on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women

    OpenAIRE

    Shila Nayebifar; Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour; Toba Kazemi; Seyed Hosein Abtahi Eivary; Mehdi Mogharnasi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by doing regular physical exercises and using herbal supplements. The present study is aimed at assessing ginger supplement and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women. Materials and Methods: The present study is a randomized, experimental, and controlled one in which thirty healthy overweight women aged 20–30 years were randomly divided into three equal...

  8. Effect of 8 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Levels of Adiponectin and Leptin in Overweight Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar Avazpor; Jamal Fazel Kalkhoran; Hojat Allah Amini

    2016-01-01

    Background: High intensity interval training (HIIT) is a novel training method which has received most attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in overweight nurses.Materials and Methods: 27 nurses (mean age 25.81±60 years, height 158.01±67 cm and weight 69.41±25 kg) were voluntarily selected and randomly assigned to three groups (each group 9 subjects): 1. HIIT (...

  9. Tunable High-Intensity Electron Bunch Train Production Based on Nonlinear Longitudinal Space Charge Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yan, Lixin; Du, Yingchao; Zhou, Zheng; Su, Xiaolu; Zheng, Lianmin; Wang, Dong; Tian, Qili; Wang, Wei; Shi, Jiaru; Chen, Huaibi; Huang, Wenhui; Gai, Wei; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity trains of electron bunches with tunable picosecond spacing are produced and measured experimentally with the goal of generating terahertz (THz) radiation. By imposing an initial density modulation on a relativistic electron beam and controlling the charge density over the beam propagation, density spikes of several-hundred-ampere peak current in the temporal profile, which are several times higher than the initial amplitudes, have been observed for the first time. We also demonstrate that the periodic spacing of the bunch train can be varied continuously either by tuning launching phase of a radio-frequency gun or by tuning the compression of a downstream magnetic chicane. Narrow-band coherent THz radiation from the bunch train was also measured with μ J -level energies and tunable central frequency of the spectrum in the range of ˜0.5 to 1.6 THz. Our results pave the way towards generating mJ-level narrow-band coherent THz radiation and driving high-gradient wakefield-based acceleration.

  10. Tunable High-Intensity Electron Bunch Train Production Based on Nonlinear Longitudinal Space Charge Oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yan, Lixin; Du, Yingchao; Zhou, Zheng; Su, Xiaolu; Zheng, Lianmin; Wang, Dong; Tian, Qili; Wang, Wei; Shi, Jiaru; Chen, Huaibi; Huang, Wenhui; Gai, Wei; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2016-05-05

    High-intensity trains of electron bunches with tunable picosecond spacing are produced and measured experimentally with the goal of generating terahertz (THz) radiation. By imposing an initial density modulation on a relativistic electron beam and controlling the charge density over the beam propagation, density spikes of several-hundred-ampere peak current in the temporal profile, which are several times higher than the initial amplitudes, have been observed for the first time. We also demonstrate that the periodic spacing of the bunch train can be varied continuously either by tuning launching phase of a radiofrequency gun or by tuning the compression of a downstream magnetic chicane. Narrow-band coherent THz radiation from the bunch train was also measured with μJ-level energies and tunable central frequency of the spectrum in the range of ~0.5 to 1.6 THz. Our results pave the way towards generating mJ-level narrow-band coherent THz radiation and driving high-gradient wakefield-based acceleration.

  11. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Larsson, Tanja Hultengren; Jørgensen, Majke

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT...... (60.4±4.0 vs. 60.3±4.0 s; n = 13 and 133.2±6.4 vs. 132.6±7.7 s; n = 14) and CON (60.2±3.7 vs. 60.6±3.8 s; n = 15 and 133.5±7.0 vs. 133.3±7.6 s; n = 15). Maximal oxygen uptake during swimming was similar before and after the intervention in both the HIT (4.0±0.9 vs. 3.8±1.0 l O2×min-1; n = 14) and CON...

  12. Comparing Fat Oxidation in an Exercise Test with Moderate-Intensity Interval Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaea Alkahtani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compared fat oxidation rate from a graded exercise test (GXT with a moderate-intensity interval training session (MIIT in obese men. Twelve sedentary obese males (age 29 ± 4.1 years; BMI 29.1 ± 2.4 kg·m-2; fat mass 31.7 ± 4.4 %body mass completed two exercise sessions: GXT to determine maximal fat oxidation (MFO and maximal aerobic power (VO2max, and an interval cycling session during which respiratory gases were measured. The 30-min MIIT involved 5-min repetitions of workloads 20% below and 20% above the MFO intensity. VO2max was 31.8 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 and all participants achieved ≥ 3 of the designated VO2max test criteria. The MFO identified during the GXT was not significantly different compared with the average fat oxidation rate in the MIIT session. During the MIIT session, fat oxidation rate increased with time; the highest rate (0.18 ± 0.11 g·min- 1 in minute 25 was significantly higher than the rate at minute 5 and 15 (p ≤ 0.01 and 0.05 respectively. In this cohort with low aerobic fitness, fat oxidation during the MIIT session was comparable with the MFO determined during a GXT. Future research may consider if the varying workload in moderate-intensity interval training helps adherence to exercise without compromising fat oxidation.

  13. Effects of prolonged intensive training on the resting levels of salivary immunoglobulin A and cortisol in adolescent volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T L; Lin, H C; Ko, M H; Chang, C K; Fang, S H

    2012-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of prolonged intensive training on adolescent athletes. This study investigated the differences in mucosal immune functions and stress responses between intensively trained male adolescent volleyball players and age-matched sedentary controls. Twelve male volleyball players (16.5 [0.7] years of age) and sixteen healthy sedentary male volunteers (17.1 [0.6] years of age) participated in this study. Volleyball players were engaged in regular and year-round training. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from volleyball players during the high-intensity training period and from the counterparts at the same timepoints after at least 18 hours of rest. Concentrations of salivary total protein, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), cortisol, and lactoferrin were measured. Results of this study revealed that the SIgA concentrations and the ratio of SIgA/total protein in volleyball players were significantly lower compared with those in sedentary controls. However, the salivary cortisol concentrations and the ratio of cortisol/total protein in volleyball players were markedly higher compared with those in sedentary controls. No significant difference was observed in lactoferrin levels between volleyball players and sedentary controls. The findings of this study suggest that the prolonged intensive training may elicit a sustained stress and induce a suppressive effect on mucosal immunity in regularly and intensively trained adolescent athletes.

  14. The effect of a short-term training period on physiological parameters and running performance: intensity distribution versus constant- intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J; Dalamitros, Athanasios A; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T

    2016-11-04

    This study compared the effect of two training strategies differing on the weekly intensity distribution on physiological parameters and running performance in moderately trained endurance athletes. Thirty male athletes were equally divided into three groups, one following an increasing weekly aerobic intensity distribution (EXP1), one with constant weekly aerobic intensitydistribution (EXP2) and a control one, following a freely chosen program (CON). Before the training intervention, athletes performed a maximal exercise treadmill test to quantify the different zones allowing training to be controlled, based on blood lactate concentration values (BLa), over a 4- week period. Changes in exercise heart rate (HR), running velocity and rate of perceived exertion at three exercise intensities corresponding to 2.5, 4 and 8 mmol·l-1 of BLa were analyzed at three testing conditions: before (pre), after two (mid) and four weeks (post). A significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in running velocity at the intensity of 8 mmol·l-1 in EXP1 group was revealed at mid (5.5%) and post condition (11.5%), while EXP2 group showed a significant decrease in exercise HR at 4 mmol·l-1 between pre (6.7%) and post condition (9.0%) (p ≤ 0.05). The rest of the examined variables showed only trivial changes in both experimental groups at all testing conditions (p > 0.05). In addition, no changes were observed in CON group in any of the variables tested. These results demonstrate that depending on the training goal, different intensity variation strategies should be followed to induce the desired adaptations.

  15. [Consensus document on ultrasound training in Intensive Care Medicine. Care process, use of the technique and acquisition of professional skills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuela Azcárate, J M; Clau-Terré, F; Vicho Pereira, R; Guerrero de Mier, M; Carrillo López, A; Ochagavia, A; López Pérez, J M; Trenado Alvarez, J; Pérez, L; Llompart-Pou, J A; González de Molina, F J; Fojón, S; Rodríguez Salgado, A; Martínez Díaz, M C; Royo Villa, C; Romero Bermejo, F J; Ruíz Bailén, M; Arroyo Díez, M; Argueso García, M; Fernández Fernández, J L

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound has become an essential tool in assisting critically ill patients. His knowledge, use and instruction requires a statement by scientific societies involved in its development and implementation. Our aim are to determine the use of the technique in intensive care medicine, clinical situations where its application is recommended, levels of knowledge, associated responsibility and learning process also implement the ultrasound technique as a common tool in all intensive care units, similar to the rest of european countries. The SEMICYUC's Working Group Cardiac Intensive Care and CPR establishes after literature review and scientific evidence, a consensus document which sets out the requirements for accreditation in ultrasound applied to the critically ill patient and how to acquire the necessary skills. Training and learning requires a structured process within the specialty. The SEMICYUC must agree to disclose this document, build relationships with other scientific societies and give legal cover through accreditation of the training units, training courses and different levels of training.

  16. Oxidative capacity and glycogen content increase more in arm than leg muscle in sedentary women after intense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Connolly, Luke; Weihe, Pál; Iuliano, Enzo; Krustrup, Peter; Saltin, Bengt; Mohr, Magni

    2015-07-15

    The hypothesis that the adaptive capacity is higher in human upper- than lower-body skeletal muscle was tested. Furthermore, the hypothesis that more pronounced adaptations in upper-body musculature can be achieved by "low-volume high-intensity" compared with "high-volume low-intensity" exercise training was evaluated. A group of sedentary premenopausal women aged 45 ± 6 yr (± SD) with expected high adaptive potential in both upper- and lower-extremity muscle groups participated. After random allocation to high-intensity swimming (HIS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MOS, n = 21), soccer (SOC, n = 21) or a nontraining control group (CON, n = 20), the training groups completed three workouts per week for 15 wk. Resting muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle and deltoideus muscle before and after the intervention. After the training intervention, a larger (P sedentary women, and "high-intensity low-volume" training is a more efficient regime than "low-intensity high-volume" training for increasing the aerobic capacity of the deltoideus muscle. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. A motorized pellet dispenser to deliver high intensity training of the single pellet reaching and grasping task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Espín, Abel; Forero, Juan; Schmidt, Emma K A; Fouad, Karim; Fenrich, Keith K

    2017-08-25

    The single pellet reaching and grasping (SPG) task is widely used to study forelimb motor performance in rodents and to provide rehabilitation after neurological disorders. Nonetheless, the time necessary to train animals precludes its use in settings where high-intensity training is required. In the current study, we developed a novel high-intensity training protocol for the SPG task based on a motorized pellet dispenser and a dual-window enclosure. We tested the protocol in naive adult rats and found 1) an increase in the intensity of training without increasing the task time and without affecting the overall performance of the animals, 2) a reduction in the variability within and between experiments in comparison to manual SPG training, and 3) a reduction in the time required to conduct experiments. In summary, we developed and tested a novel protocol for SPG training that provides higher-intensity training while reducing the variability of results observed with other protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Christensen, Peter M; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on phospholemman (FXYD1) expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10-12 × ∼30-s sprints) two or three times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4-5 × 3-4 min at 90-95% of peak aerobic power output) 1-2 times per week for 7 wk and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol, and protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (12%), phospholamban (PLN) (16%), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) γ/δ (25%) was higher (P exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 Ser-68 phosphorylation, compared with before the intervention. CaMKII, Thr-287, and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 Thr-56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β, Thr-638/641, and mTOR Ser-2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN Thr-17 phosphorylation were also higher (P exercise. Furthermore, higher expression of CaMKII and PLN, as well as increased phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr-287 may have improved intracellular Ca(2+) handling.

  19. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller;

    2016-01-01

    -3 times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4-5 x 3-4 min at 90-95% of peak aerobic power output) 1-2 times per week for seven weeks and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol and protein expression......The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclist replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10-12 x ~30-s sprints) 2...... and during exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 ser68 phosphorylation, compared to before the intervention. CaMKII thr287 and eEF2 thr56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β thr638/641 and mTOR ser2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN...

  20. High-intensity sprint training inhibits mitochondrial respiration through aconitase inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Filip J; Schiffer, Tomas A; Ørtenblad, Niels; Zinner, Christoph; Morales-Alamo, David; Willis, Sarah J; Calbet, Jose A; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Boushel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Intense exercise training is a powerful stimulus that activates mitochondrial biogenesis pathways and thus increases mitochondrial density and oxidative capacity. Moderate levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during exercise are considered vital in the adaptive response, but high ROS production is a serious threat to cellular homeostasis. Although biochemical markers of the transition from adaptive to maladaptive ROS stress are lacking, it is likely mediated by redox sensitive enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism. One potential enzyme mediating such redox sensitivity is the citric acid cycle enzyme aconitase. In this study, we examined biopsy specimens of vastus lateralis and triceps brachii in healthy volunteers, together with primary human myotubes. An intense exercise regimen inactivated aconitase by 55-72%, resulting in inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by 50-65%. In the vastus, the mitochondrial dysfunction was compensated for by a 15-72% increase in mitochondrial proteins, whereas H2O2 emission was unchanged. In parallel with the inactivation of aconitase, the intermediary metabolite citrate accumulated and played an integral part in cellular protection against oxidative stress. In contrast, the triceps failed to increase mitochondrial density, and citrate did not accumulate. Instead, mitochondrial H2O2 emission was decreased to 40% of the pretraining levels, together with a 6-fold increase in protein abundance of catalase. In this study, a novel mitochondrial stress response was highlighted where accumulation of citrate acted to preserve the redox status of the cell during periods of intense exercise.

  1. Training Needs Assessment in Occupational Risk Prevention into Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Garcia, Antonio; Alonso-Morillejo, Enrique; Pozo-Munoz, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of needs plays a relevant role in the training for preventing of risks at work into school, as it is a scientific procedure to identify and prioritise problems existing within an educative context. This type of assessment is the starting point for a subsequent planning of the educative interventions that will enable pupils and…

  2. Assessment Practices and Training Needs of Early Childhood Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Luckner, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment plays a critical role in the planning and delivery of quality services for young children and their families. The purpose of this study was to identify the current assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. A large sample of early childhood professionals responded to a comprehensive survey. The most…

  3. Assessment of prior learning in adult vocational education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Vibe; Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    the assessment is based on a scholastic perception of the students’ needs for training, reflecting one of the most important challenges in APL: how can practical experience be transformed into credits for the knowledge parts of the programs? The study shows that by combining several APL methods and comparing...... the teachers’ assessments the teachers respond to the issues of validity and reliability. However, validity and reliability might be even further strengthened, if the competencies are well defined, if the education system is aware ofsecuring a reasonable balance between knowing how, knowing that, and knowing...... why, and if the teachers are adequately trained for the assessment procedures....

  4. Low intensity, high frequency vibration training to improve musculoskeletal function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A Novotny

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine if low intensity, high frequency vibration training impacted the musculoskeletal system in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, relative to healthy mice. Three-week old wildtype (n = 26 and mdx mice (n = 22 were randomized to non-vibrated or vibrated (45 Hz and 0.6 g, 15 min/d, 5 d/wk groups. In vivo and ex vivo contractile function of the anterior crural and extensor digitorum longus muscles, respectively, were assessed following 8 wks of vibration. Mdx mice were injected 5 and 1 days prior to sacrifice with Calcein and Xylenol, respectively. Muscles were prepared for histological and triglyceride analyses and subcutaneous and visceral fat pads were excised and weighed. Tibial bones were dissected and analyzed by micro-computed tomography for trabecular morphometry at the metaphysis, and cortical geometry and density at the mid-diaphysis. Three-point bending tests were used to assess cortical bone mechanical properties and a subset of tibiae was processed for dynamic histomorphometry. Vibration training for 8 wks did not alter trabecular morphometry, dynamic histomorphometry, cortical geometry, or mechanical properties (P ≥ 0.34. Vibration did not alter any measure of muscle contractile function (P ≥ 0.12; however the preservation of muscle function and morphology in mdx mice indicates vibration is not deleterious to muscle lacking dystrophin. Vibrated mice had smaller subcutaneous fat pads (P = 0.03 and higher intramuscular triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.03. These data suggest that vibration training at 45 Hz and 0.6 g did not significantly impact the tibial bone and the surrounding musculature, but may influence fat distribution in mice.

  5. Low intensity, high frequency vibration training to improve musculoskeletal function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Susan A; Mader, Tara L; Greising, Angela G; Lin, Angela S; Guldberg, Robert E; Warren, Gordon L; Lowe, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if low intensity, high frequency vibration training impacted the musculoskeletal system in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, relative to healthy mice. Three-week old wildtype (n = 26) and mdx mice (n = 22) were randomized to non-vibrated or vibrated (45 Hz and 0.6 g, 15 min/d, 5 d/wk) groups. In vivo and ex vivo contractile function of the anterior crural and extensor digitorum longus muscles, respectively, were assessed following 8 wks of vibration. Mdx mice were injected 5 and 1 days prior to sacrifice with Calcein and Xylenol, respectively. Muscles were prepared for histological and triglyceride analyses and subcutaneous and visceral fat pads were excised and weighed. Tibial bones were dissected and analyzed by micro-computed tomography for trabecular morphometry at the metaphysis, and cortical geometry and density at the mid-diaphysis. Three-point bending tests were used to assess cortical bone mechanical properties and a subset of tibiae was processed for dynamic histomorphometry. Vibration training for 8 wks did not alter trabecular morphometry, dynamic histomorphometry, cortical geometry, or mechanical properties (P ≥ 0.34). Vibration did not alter any measure of muscle contractile function (P ≥ 0.12); however the preservation of muscle function and morphology in mdx mice indicates vibration is not deleterious to muscle lacking dystrophin. Vibrated mice had smaller subcutaneous fat pads (P = 0.03) and higher intramuscular triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.03). These data suggest that vibration training at 45 Hz and 0.6 g did not significantly impact the tibial bone and the surrounding musculature, but may influence fat distribution in mice.

  6. Modelling Beginning Teachers' Assessment Literacy: The Contribution of Training, Self-Efficacy, and Conceptions of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Vered, Adi; Alhija, Fadia Nasser-Abu

    2015-01-01

    Teachers devote a substantial amount of their time to assessment-related activities. This study aimed to describe beginning teachers' assessment literacy and to examine a structural model that binds assessment literacy with assessment training, self-efficacy, and conceptions of assessment. Data were collected from 327 Israeli inductee teachers and…

  7. Modelling Beginning Teachers' Assessment Literacy: The Contribution of Training, Self-Efficacy, and Conceptions of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Vered, Adi; Alhija, Fadia Nasser-Abu

    2015-01-01

    Teachers devote a substantial amount of their time to assessment-related activities. This study aimed to describe beginning teachers' assessment literacy and to examine a structural model that binds assessment literacy with assessment training, self-efficacy, and conceptions of assessment. Data were collected from 327 Israeli inductee teachers and…

  8. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men

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    Zwetsloot KA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kevin A Zwetsloot,1 Casey S John,1 Marcus M Lawrence,1 Rebecca A Battista,1 R Andrew Shanely1,2 1Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA; 2Human Performance Laboratory, North Carolina Research Campus, Appalachian State University, Kannapolis, NC, USA Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine: 1 the extent to which an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT increases systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and 2 whether 2 weeks of HIIT training alters the inflammatory response. Eight recreationally active males (aged 22±2 years performed 2 weeks of HIIT on a cycle ergometer (six HIIT sessions at 8–12 intervals; 60-second intervals, 75-second active rest at a power output equivalent to 100% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake (VO2max. Serum samples were collected during the first and sixth HIIT sessions at rest and immediately, 15, 30, and 45 minutes post-exercise. An acute session of HIIT induced significant increases in interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with rest. The concentrations of interferon-γ, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1β were unaltered with an acute session of HIIT. Two weeks of training did not alter the inflammatory response to an acute bout of HIIT exercise. Maximal power achieved during a VO2max test significantly increased 4.6%, despite no improvements in VO2max after 2 weeks of HIIT. These data suggest that HIIT exercise induces a small inflammatory response in young, recreationally active men; however, 2 weeks of HIIT does not alter this response. Keywords: cycle ergometer, inflammatory cytokines, exercise training

  9. Echocardiographic Evaluation of the Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Cardiac Morphology and Function

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    Saadatnia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background High-intensity interval training (HIIT is a time-efficient alternative to traditional prolonged training. In contrast to ample evidence describing the effects of prolonged training, there are few data describing cardiovascular adaptations arising from HIIT interventions. Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of HIIT on heart morphology and function in untrained male subjects. Patients and Methods Twenty-two young men (age = 23.34 ± 2.56 years, weight = 72.47 ± 12.01 kg, and height = 174.10 ± 5.75 cm were recruited and randomly assigned into control (n = 10 and HIIT (n = 12 groups. Echocardiography was used to evaluate left ventricular mass (LVM, end-systolic volume (ESV, end-diastolic volume (EDV, interventricular septal wall thickness (IVSWT, stroke volume, and ejection fraction (EF. Also, the Bruce treadmill test was employed to estimate VO2max. Results The HIIT subjects showed a significant increase in EDV (P = 0.001, LVM (P = 0.002, stroke volume (P = 0.003, and EF (P = 0.001. However, there was no change in ESV due to HIIT (P = 0.916. Additionally, following HIIT, IVSWT (P = 0.227, despite exhibiting a slight increase, was not significantly different from pre-training levels. Conclusions HIIT in previously untrained subjects led to a significant change in left ventricle (LV morphology, correlating with improvement in aerobic power (VO2max. Cardiac remodeling was characterized by an increased EDV and a similar increase in LVM.

  10. Combined insulin treatment and intense exercise training improved basal cardiac function and Ca(2+)-cycling proteins expression in type 1 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Douairon Lahaye, Solène; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Malardé, Ludivine; Zguira, Sami; Vincent, Sophie; Lemoine Morel, Sophie; Carré, François; Rannou Bekono, Françoise

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of 8 weeks of intense exercise training combined with insulin treatment on the Ca(2+)-cycling protein complex expression and their functional consequences on cardiac function in type 1 diabetic rat hearts. Diabetic Wistar rats were randomly assigned into the following groups: received no treatment, insulin-treated diabetic, trained diabetic, and trained insulin-treated diabetic. A control group was also included. Insulin treatment and (or) treadmill intense exercise training were conducted over 8 weeks. Basal cardiac function was evaluated by Langendorff technique. Cardiac expression of the main Ca(2+)-cycling proteins (RyR2, FKBP 12.6, SERCA2, PLB, NCX1) was assessed by Western blot. Diabetes altered basal cardiac function (±dP/dt) and decrease the expression of the main Ca(2+)-cycling proteins expression: RyR2, SERCA2, and NCX1 (p < 0.05). Whereas combined treatment was not able to normalize -dP/dt, it succeeded to normalize +dP/dt of diabetic rats (p < 0.05). Moreover, both insulin and intense exercise training, applied solely, increased the expression of the Ca(2+)-cycling proteins: RyR2, SERCA2, PLB. and NCX1 (p < 0.05). But this effect was higher when the 2 treatments were combined. These data are the first to show that combined insulin treatment and intense exercise training during diabetes synergistically act on the expression of the main Ca(2+)-cycling proteins, providing insights into mechanisms by which the dual treatment during diabetes improves cardiac function.

  11. Moderate Intensity Resistance Training Significantly Elevates Testosterone following Upper Body and Lower Body Bouts When Total Volume is Held Constant

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    Robert Rietjens

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is unknown whether resistance training intensity or total volume of work affects the acute testosterone response to a greater extent. Purpose: Therefore, the circulating testosterone response was investigated following four resistance training protocols where total volume of work was held constant: moderate intensity (70% 1RM upper body (bench press, bent barbell row, and military press, moderate intensity lower body (squat and deadlift, high intensity (90% 1RM upper body, high intensity lower body. Methods: Total volume of work performed by each participant between protocols was maintained by adjusting the number of sets and or repetitions performed. Ten healthy, resistance trained men volunteered, and performed exercise protocols on separate days in a counterbalanced order. Capillary blood was obtained via finger stick at baseline (pre, immediately following the exercise session (post, and 1h post for the determination of testosterone concentration. Data were analyzed using a factorial ANOVA and significance was accepted at p≤ 0.05. Results: Both moderate intensity resistance protocols (upper and lower body significantly increased testosterone concentration (p=0.026, and p=0.024 respectively, whereas the high intensity protocols elevated testosterone but failed to achieve significance (upper p=0.272, lower p=0.658. No difference was noted in post session testosterone concentration between upper and lower body protocols for either moderate (p=0.248 or high intensity (p=0.990. Conclusion: This may be useful for novice resistance trained individuals because it provides evidence that moderate intensity is sufficient to increase testosterone compared to high intensity protocols that could be associated with a greater risk of injury. Keywords: hormone response, equal total work, high intensity protocol

  12. A pilot study examining the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie Toohey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in cancer survivors. Methods Cancer survivors within 24 months post-diagnosis were randomly assigned into the low-volume high-intensity interval training group (n = 8 or the continuous low to moderate intensity training group (n = 8 group for 36 sessions (12 weeks of supervised exercise. The low-volume high-intensity interval training (LVHIIT group performed 7 × 30 s intervals (≥85% maximal heart rate and the continuous low to moderate intensity training (CLMIT group performed continuous aerobic training for 20 min (≤55% maximal heart rate on a stationary bike or treadmill. Results Significant improvements (time were observed for 13 of the 23 dependent variables (ES 0.05–0.61, p ≤ 0.05. An interaction effect was observed for six minute walk test (18.53% [32.43–4.63] ES 0.50, p ≤ 0.01 with the LVHIIT group demonstrating greater improvements. Conclusion These preliminary findings suggest that both interventions can induce improvements in quality of life, functional capacity and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. The LVHIIT program was well tolerated by the participants and our results suggest that LVHIIT is the preferred modality to improve fitness (6MWT; it remains to be seen which intervention elicits the most clinically relevant outcomes for patients. A larger sample size with a control group is required to confirm the significance of these findings.

  13. GABAergic inhibition modulates intensity sensitivity of temporally patterned pulse trains in the inferior collicular neurons in big brown bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Rui-Hong; Wu, Fei-Jian; Jen, Philip H-S; Sun, Xin-De

    2007-12-25

    The echolocating big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) emit trains of frequency-modulated (FM) biosonar signals with duration, amplitude, repetition rate, and sweep structure changing systematically during interception of their prey. In the present study, the sound stimuli of temporally patterned pulse trains at three different pulse repetition rates (PRRs) were used to mimic the sounds received during search, approach, and terminal stages of echolocation. Electrophysiological method was adopted in recordings from the inferior colliculus (IC) of midbrain. By means of iontophoretic application of bicuculline, the effect of GABAergic inhibition on the intensity sensitivity of IC neurons responding to three different PRRs of 10, 30 and 90 pulses per second (pps) was examined. The rate-intensity functions (RIFs) were acquired. The dynamic range (DR) of RIFs was considered as a criterion of intensity sensitivity. Comparing the average DR of RIFs at different PRRs, we found that the intensity sensitivity of some neurons improved, but that of other neurons decayed when repetition rate of stimulus trains increased from 10 to 30 and 90 pps. During application of bicuculline, the number of impulses responding to the different pulse trains increased under all stimulating conditions, while the DR differences of RIFs at different PRRs were abolished. The results indicate that GABAergic inhibition was involved in modulating the intensity sensitivity of IC neurons responding to pulse trains at different PRRs. Before and during bicuculline application, the percentage of changes in responses was maximal in lower stimulus intensity near to the minimum threshold (MT), and decreased gradually with the increment of stimulus intensity. This observation suggests that GABAergic inhibition contributes more effectively to the intensity sensitivity of the IC neurons responding to pulse trains at lower sound level.

  14. Short-term low-intensity blood flow restricted interval training improves both aerobic fitness and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, M F M; Caputo, F; Corvino, R B; Denadai, B S

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of four different interval-training protocols on aerobic fitness and muscle strength. Thirty-seven subjects (23.8 ± 4 years; 171.7 ± 9.5 cm; 70 ± 11 kg) were assigned to one of four groups: low-intensity interval training with (BFR, n = 10) or without (LOW, n = 7) blood flow restriction, high-intensity interval training (HIT, n = 10), and combined HIT and BFR (BFR + HIT, n = 10, every session performed 50% as BFR and 50% as HIT). Before and after 4 weeks training (3 days a week), the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ), maximal power output (Pmax ), onset blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and muscle strength were measured for all subjects. All training groups were able to improve OBLA (BFR, 16%; HIT, 25%; HIT + BFR, 22%; LOW, 6%), with no difference between groups. However, VO2max and Pmax improved only for BFR (6%, 12%), HIT (9%, 15%) and HIT + BFR (6%, 11%), with no difference between groups. Muscle strength gains were only observed after BFR training (11%). This study demonstrates the advantage of short-term low-intensity interval BFR training as the single mode of training able to simultaneously improve aerobic fitness and muscular strength.

  15. Assessing Counter-Terrorism field training with multiple behavioral measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, V Alan; Johnston, Joan H

    2013-09-01

    Development of behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills is an essential element of Counter-Terrorism training, particularly in the field. Three classes of behavioral measures were collected in an assessment of skill acquisition during a US Joint Forces Command-sponsored course consisting of Combat Tracking and Combat Profiling segments. Measures included situational judgment tests, structured behavioral observation checklists, and qualitative assessments of the emergence of specific knowledge-skills-attitudes over the course of the training. The paper describes statistical evidence across the three types of measures that indicate that behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills were successfully acquired by most students (a mix of Army and civilian law enforcement personnel) during the field training exercises. Implications for broader training of these critical skills are also discussed.

  16. Effect of Schisandrae on stress system of soldiers undergone high-intensity military training

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    Nan XIA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the changes in basic serum levels of hypothalamus-pituitrin-adrenal (HPA axis, hypothalamus-pituitrin-gonad (HPG axis and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-2 and IL-6 in repeated acute stress caused by one-week intensive training, and study the effects of oral administration of Schisandrae, salidroside and Schisandrae compound on the contents of those stress hormones and cytokines mentioned above. Methods One hundred and twenty healthy soldiers chosen from junior infantry combat troops who had never received long-term amphibious training were randomly divided into four groups (30 each: group A (Schisandrae compound group, group B (Schisandrae group, group C (salidroside group and group D (control group. Each and every soldier of all the groups underwent high-intensity composite military training, 8 hours per day, for a week. Venous blood sampling was collected at 7:00-8:00 a.m. before and after the training, respectively. Levels of cortisol (CORT, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, testosterone (T, IL-1, IL-2 and IL-6 in different groups were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA. The changes in the levels of all the above mentioned hormones and cytokines in every group were observed and compared. Results In group D, as compared with the pre-stress levels, no marked difference was found in the levels of serum CORT and ACTH (P>0.05, but the levels of T and IL-6 significantly decreased (P0.05. In group C, the levels of T and IL-6 significantly decreased (P0.05. In group A, the serum levels of CORT, ACTH, T, IL-1 and IL-6 significantly decreased, while that of IL-2 significantly increased (P<0.01. As compared with group D, the level of ACTH in group A and group B, the level of IL-2 in group C significantly decreased (P<0.05. Conclusions  Schisandrae and Schisandrae compound have a marked and lasting inhibitory effect on the activation of HPA axis and the elevation of serum CORT levels induced by stress, while the similar

  17. Environmental Scanning: Assessing Local Business Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Craig A.; Huntington, Robin B.

    Environmental scanning (ES) is a formal process of assessing trends and forecasting events which can influence an institution so that the potential challenges and opportunities can be effectively anticipated during strategic planning activities. The goal of ES is the implementation of proactive, anticipatory policies that will be robust under a…

  18. Prescribing cycle training intensity from the six-minute walk test for patients with COPD

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    Luxton Nia

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycle training intensity for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is normally based on an incremental cycle test. Such tests are expensive and not readily available to clinicians. The six-minute walk test (6MWT has been proposed as an alternative to an incremental cycle test for this purpose, based on the findings of previous research that the peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak for the incremental cycle test and the 6MWT was equivalent in participants with COPD. A regression equation relating distance walked on the 6MWT and peak work rate (Wpeak on the incremental cycle test has been described. The aim of this study is to measure the physiological responses to constant load cycle exercise performed at an intensity of 60% Wpeak determined from the 6MWT in participants with stable COPD. Methods/Design This study is a prospective, repeated measures design. Thirty-five participants with stable COPD and mild to severe lung disease will be recruited from referrals to pulmonary rehabilitation. Subjects with co-morbidities limiting exercise performance will be excluded. Two 6MWTs will be performed. The better 6MWT will be used to calculate Wpeak for cycle exercise from a regression equation. After 30 minutes rest, subjects will perform ten minutes of constant-load cycle exercise at 60% of the calculated Wpeak. During all exercise, cardiorespiratory and metabolic data (Cosmed K4b2, dyspnoea and rate of perceived exertion (RPE will be recorded. The VO2 measured at the end of cycle exercise will be compared to VO2peak of the 6MWT (VO2bike/VO2walk. Pearson's correlation coefficient will be calculated for the relationship between VO2bike and VO2walk. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, with Bonferroni correction, will be performed to determine whether the ratio of VO2bike/VO2walk is affected by disease severity. Discussion This novel study will measure the physiological responses to cycle exercise, in terms of VO2

  19. Hormonal and Physiological Adaptations to High-Intensity Interval Training in Professional Male Canoe Polo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhlouvand, Mohsen; Khalili, Erfan; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Gharaat, Mohammadali

    2016-03-01

    This study compared the effects of 2 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs in professional male canoe polo athletes. Responses of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), peak and mean anaerobic power output (PPO and MPO), blood volume, and hormonal adaptations to HIIT were examined. Male athletes (n = 21, age: 24 ± 3 years; height: 181 ± 4 cm; mass: 85 ± 6 kg; and body fat: 12.9 ± 2.7%) were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups (N = 7): (a) (G1) interval paddling with variable volume (6, 7, 8, 9, 9, 9, 8, 7, 6 repetitions per session from first to ninth session, respectively) × 60 second at lowest velocity that elicited VO2peak (vVO2peak), 1:3 work to recovery ratio; (b) (G2) interval paddling with variable intensity (6 × 60 second at 100, 110, 120, 130, 130, 130, 120, 110, 100% vVO2peak from first to ninth session, respectively, 1:3 work to recovery); and (c) (GCON) the control group performed three 60 minutes paddling sessions (75% vVO2peak) per week for 3 weeks. High-intensity interval training resulted in significant (except as shown) increases compared with pretest, in VO2peak (G1 = +8.8% and G2 = +8.5%), heart rate at VT (b·min) (G1 = +9.7% and G2 = +5.9%) and (%maximum) (G1 = +6.9%; p = 0.29 and G2 = +6.5%), PPO (G1 = +9.7% and G2 = +12.2%), MPO (G1 = +11.1%; p = 0.29 and G2 = +16.2%), total testosterone (G1 = +29.4% and G2 = +16.7%), total testosterone/cortisol ratio (G1 = +40.9% and G2 = +28.1%), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (G1 = +1.7% and G2 = +1.3%). No significant changes were found in GCON. High-intensity interval paddling may improve both aerobic and anaerobic performances in professional male canoe polo athletes under the conditions of this study.

  20. Effect of high-intensity training versus moderate training on peak oxygen uptake and chronotropic response in heart transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, C H; Snoer, M; Christensen, S;

    2014-01-01

    In heart transplant (HTx) recipients, there has been reluctance to recommend high-intensity interval training (HIIT) due to denervation and chronotropic impairment of the heart. We compared the effects of 12 weeks' HIIT versus continued moderate exercise (CON) on exercise capacity and chronotropic...... response in stable HTx recipients >12 months after transplantation in a randomized crossover trial. The study was completed by 16 HTx recipients (mean age 52 years, 75% males). Baseline peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ) was 22.9 mL/kg/min. HIIT increased VO2peak by 4.9 ± 2.7 mL/min/kg (17%) and CON by 2.6 ± 2.......2 mL/kg/min (10%) (significantly higher in HIIT; p HIIT, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p = 0.037) with no significant change in CON (p = 0.241; between group difference p = 0.027). Peak heart rate (HRpeak ) increased significantly by 4.3 beats per minute (p = 0...

  1. Left ventricular vascular and metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate intensity continuous training: a randomized trial in healthy middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Heinonen, Ilkka; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Hakala, Juuso; Heiskanen, Marja A; Motiani, Kumail K; Virtanen, Kirsi; Pärkkä, Jussi P; Knuuti, Juhani; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-12-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has become popular, time-sparing alternative to moderate intensity continuous training (MICT), although the cardiac vascular and metabolic effects of HIIT are incompletely known. We compared the effects of 2-week interventions with HIIT and MICT on myocardial perfusion and free fatty acid and glucose uptake. Insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake was decreased by training without any significantly different response between the groups, whereas free fatty acid uptake remained unchanged. Adenosine-stimulated myocardial perfusion responded differently to the training modes (change in mean HIIT: -19%; MICT: +9%; P = 0.03 for interaction) and was correlated with myocardial glucose uptake for the entire dataset and especially after HIIT training. HIIT and MICT induce similar metabolic and functional changes in the heart, although myocardial vascular hyperaemic reactivity is impaired after HIIT, and this should be considered when prescribing very intense HIIT for previously untrained subjects. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of obtaining the health benefits of exercise, although the cardiac effects of this training mode are incompletely known. We compared the effects of short-term HIIT and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) interventions on myocardial perfusion and metabolism and cardiac function in healthy, sedentary, middle-aged men. Twenty-eight healthy, middle-aged men were randomized to either HIIT or MICT groups (n = 14 in both) and underwent six cycle ergometer training sessions within 2 weeks (HIIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4 min recovery, MICT session 40-60 min at 60% V̇O2 peak ). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) was performed to measure cardiac structure and function and positron emission tomography was used to measure myocardial perfusion at baseline and during adenosine stimulation, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (MGU) and fasting free

  2. Effects of a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Treadmill Training on Corticomotor Excitability following Stroke: Implications for Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinear, James W.; Kanekar, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT) has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1) in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticomotor excitability of paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Results. HIIT alone reduced paretic TA M1 excitability in 7 of 11 participants by ≥ 10%. e-tDCS+HIITT increased paretic TA M1 excitability and decreased nonparetic TA M1 excitability. Conclusions. HIITT suppresses corticomotor excitability in some people with chronic stroke. When HIITT is preceded by tDCS in combination with a skill acquisition task, the asymmetry of between-hemisphere corticomotor excitability is reduced. Significance. This study provides preliminary data indicating that the cardiovascular benefits of HIITT may be achieved without suppressing motor excitability in some stroke survivors. PMID:27738524

  3. Effects of a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Treadmill Training on Corticomotor Excitability following Stroke: Implications for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1 in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was used to assess corticomotor excitability of paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior (TA muscles. Results. HIIT alone reduced paretic TA M1 excitability in 7 of 11 participants by ≥ 10%. e-tDCS+HIITT increased paretic TA M1 excitability and decreased nonparetic TA M1 excitability. Conclusions. HIITT suppresses corticomotor excitability in some people with chronic stroke. When HIITT is preceded by tDCS in combination with a skill acquisition task, the asymmetry of between-hemisphere corticomotor excitability is reduced. Significance. This study provides preliminary data indicating that the cardiovascular benefits of HIITT may be achieved without suppressing motor excitability in some stroke survivors.

  4. Mediterranean diet, moderate-to-high intensity training, and health-related quality of life in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta-Díaz, L; Fernández, J M; Da Silva-Grigoletto, M; Rosado-Alvarez, D; Gómez-Garduño, A; Gómez-Delgado, F; López-Miranda, J; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Fuentes-Jiménez, F

    2013-08-01

    Much recent research has focused on the benefits of the Mediterranean diet on risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition numerous investigations have also demonstrated that moderate and high-intensity endurance training may induce greater beneficial adaptations in body composition and cardiometabolic risk than low-intensity endurance training. How a model of Mediterranean diet with and without moderate-to-high intensity training influences health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical fitness in MetS patients is unknown. A total of 45 sedentary MetS males and females (50⊟66 years) were randomly divided into two groups: (a) hypocaloric, normoproteic Mediterranean diet (MeD); and (b) the same diet plus periodized moderate-to-high intensity training (MeDE) for 12 weeks. HRQoL (EuroQol and SF-36 questionnaires), fitness, response to submaximal exercise, and risk factors of MetS were determined before and after treatment. MeD improved some physical and mental domains of HRQoL (physical function, vitality, general physical health, emotional role, and self-perception of health) and resulted in weight loss and improvement of MetS risk factors (intra-group p high intensity training may lead to greater improvement in HRQoL through a greater effect on physical and functional fitness, bodyweight, and risk factors than diet alone.

  5. Motor intensive anti-gravity training improves performance in dynamic balance related tasks in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malling, Anne Sofie B; Jensen, Bente R

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the effect of training on motor performance in persons with Parkinson's disease (PDP) is dependent on motor intensity. However, training of high motor intensity can be hard to apply in PDP due to e.g. bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. Therefore, the aim was to study the effect of motor intensive training performed in a safe anti-gravity environment using lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) technology on performance during dynamic balance related tasks. Thirteen male PDP went through an 8-week control period followed by 8 weeks of motor intensive antigravity training. Seventeen healthy males constituted a control group (CON). Performance during a five repetition sit-to-stand test (STS; sagittal plane) and a dynamic postural balance test (DPB; transversal plane) was evaluated. Effect measures were completion time, functional rates of force development, directional changes and force variance. STS completion time improved by 24% to the level of CON which was explained by shorter sitting-time and standing-time and larger numeric rate of force change during lowering to the chair, indicating faster vertical directional change and improved relaxation. DPB completion time tended to improve and was accompanied by improvements of functional medial and lateral rates of force development and higher vertical force variance during DPB. Our results suggest that the performance improvements may relate to improved inter-limb coordination. It is concluded that 8 weeks of motor intensive training in a safe LBPP environment improved performance during dynamic balance related tasks in PDP.

  6. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  7. Biochemical assessment of physical training: a tool to sports dietitians-nutritionists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz Urdampilleta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The high demand in athletes creates the need to control the process of adaptation to training. The aim of this review is to analyze the biochemical parameters of utility for biological control of the athlete, and provide tools to sports dietitian-nutritionist in the follow-up of the training.Glucose and lipid profile parameters are widely used but insufficient to control training. The lactic acid level in the plasma is the most common tool to assess training load, where values higher than 4 mmol/l, suggest an intensive training. Other enzymes in high concentrations such as creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and two transaminases: glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT or aspartate transaminase (AST or aspartate aminotransferase (AAT and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT or alanine transaminase or aminotransferase (ALT suggest that the training load was high producing microscopic tearing of the muscle fibers. Determination of other substrates such as ammonia, glutamine, or testosterone/cortisol ratio, used to detect a possible overtraining syndrome. Likewise the latest research suggest that high cortisol levels decrease the immune system.Moreover, an increase of urea, alanine or ketone bodies are related to muscle glycogen stores depleted. Therefore, the information provided by these parameters is useful for the sports dietitian-nutritionist for dietary and nutritional interventions to achieve more effective in function of the training goals.

  8. Acute Responses To Resistance And High Intensity Interval Training In Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nigel; Dulson, Deborah; Logan, Greig; Warbrick, Isaac; Merien, Fabrice; Lubans, David

    2016-08-16

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute physiological responses within and between resistance training (RT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) matched for time and with comparable effort, in a school setting. Seventeen early adolescents (12.9 ± 0.3 y) performed both RT (2-5 repetitions perceived short of failure at the end of each set) and HIIT (90% of age predicted maximum heart rate), equated for total work set and recovery period durations comprising of 12 'sets' of 30 s work followed by 30 s recovery (total session time 12 min). Variables of interest included oxygen consumption, set and session heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and change in salivary cortisol (SC), salivary alpha amylase (SαA), and blood lactate (BL) from pre- to post-session. Analyses were conducted to determine responses within and between the two different protocols. For both RT and HIIT there were very large increases pre- to post-trial for SC and BL, and only BL increased greater in HIIT (9.1 ± 2.6 mmol·L) than RT (6.8 ± 3.3 mmol·L). Mean set HR for both RT (170 ± 9.1 bpm) and HIIT (179 ± 5.6 bpm) was at least 85% of HR maximum. VO2 over all 12 sets was greater for HIIT (33.8 ± 5.21 mL·kg·min) than RT (24.9 ± 3.23 mL·kg·min). Brief, repetitive, intermittent forays into high, but not supra-maximal intensity exercise utilising either RT or HIIT appeared to be a potent physiological stimulus in adolescents.

  9. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Thomas Songstad

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats.Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats, echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples.Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04 and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02 in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014, superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001 and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049 in the fetal heart.Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  10. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85–90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Results Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Conclusions Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated. PMID:26566220

  11. Improved VO2max and time trial performance with more high aerobic intensity interval training and reduced training volume: a case study on an elite national cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Øyvind; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Haave, Marius; Helgerud, Jan

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated to what extent more high aerobic intensity interval training (HAIT) and reduced training volume would influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and time trial (TT) performance in an elite national cyclist in the preseason period. The cyclist was tested for VO2max, cycling economy (C(c)), and TT performance on an ergometer cycle during 1 year. Training was continuously logged using heart rate monitor during the entire period. Total monthly training volume was reduced in the 2011 preseason compared with the 2010 preseason, and 2 HAIT blocks (14 sessions in 9 days and 15 sessions in 10 days) were performed as running. Between the HAIT blocks, 3 HAIT sessions per week were performed as cycling. From November 2010 to February 2011, the cyclist reduced total average monthly training volume by 18% and cycling training volume by 60%. The amount of training at 90-95% HRpeak increased by 41%. VO2max increased by 10.3% on ergometer cycle. TT performance improved by 14.9%. C(c) did not change. In conclusion, preseason reduced total training volume but increased amount of HAIT improved VO2max and TT performance without any changes in C(c). These improvements on cycling appeared despite that the HAIT blocks were performed as running. Reduced training time, and training transfer from running into improved cycling form, may be beneficial for cyclists living in cold climate areas.

  12. Plasma trace elements levels are not altered by submaximal exercise intensities in well-trained endurance euhydrated athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Haro, Carlos; Soria, Marisol; López-Colón, José L; Llorente, María T; Escanero, Jesús F

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of relative exercise intensity on various plasma trace elements in euhydrated endurance athletes. Twenty-seven well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycloergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg⁻¹, workload increased by 0.5 W kg⁻¹ every 10 min until exhaustion. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration ([La⁻](b)), and plasma ions (Zn, Se, Mn and Co) were measured at rest, at the end of each stage, and 3, 5 and 7 min post-exercise. Urine specific gravity (U(SG)) was measured before and after the test, and subjects drank water ad libitum. Fat oxidation (FAT(OXR)), carbohydrate oxidation (CHO(OXR)), energy expenditure from fat (EE(FAT)), from carbohydrates (EE(CHO)) and total EE (EE(T)) were estimated using stoichiometric equations. A repeated measure (ANOVA) was used to compare plasma ion levels at each exercise intensity level. The significance level was set at Pathletes does not provoke a change in plasma trace element levels, suggesting that plasma volume plays an important role in the homeostasis of these elements during exercise.

  13. Long-term effects of low-intensity exercise training on fat metabolism in weight-reduced obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aggel-Leijssen, Dorien P; Saris, Wim H; Hul, Gabby B; Van Baak, Marleen A

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of long-term continuation of low-intensity exercise training on weight maintenance, substrate metabolism, and beta-adrenergic-mediated fat oxidation in weight-reduced obese men. Preceding this part of the study, subjects lost 15 +/- 6 kg of body weight by energy restriction with or without low-intensity exercise training. Twenty-nine subjects (diet group, n = 15; diet + exercise group, n = 14) participated in the follow-up study of 40 weeks in which the former diet + exercise group continued their exercise training program. Pre- and postfollow-up, measurements of body weight, body composition, maximal aerobic capacity and substrate oxidation during rest, exercise, and recovery with or without infusion of the beta-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol (PRP), were performed. Over the follow-up period, body weight, fat mass, and fat free mass increased in both groups (P training sessions was negatively correlated with regain of body weight (r = -.6, P training after weight reduction did not limit regain of body weight, unless exercise training was frequently performed. Relative (beta-adrenergic-mediated) fat oxidation and energy expenditure were maintained at postdiet level whether or not low-intensity exercise training was performed during follow-up. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of strength and high-intensity training on jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance performance in prepubertal soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrete, Carlos; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luís; de Villarreal, Eduardo Sáez

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 26-week on-field combined strength and high-intensity training on the physical performance capacity among prepubertal soccer players who were undertaking a competitive phase of training. Twenty-four prepubertal soccer players between the age of 8 and 9 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: a control (C; n = 13) and an experimental group (S; n = 11). Both groups performed an identical soccer-training program, whereas the S group also performed combined strength and high-intensity training before the soccer-specific training. The 15-m sprint time (seconds), countermovement jump (CMJ) displacement, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IE), and Sit and Reach flexibility were each measured before (baseline) and after 9 (T2), 18 (T3), and 26 weeks (posttest) of training. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested at baseline. After 26 weeks, significant improvements were found in the CMJ (6.72%; effect size [ES] = 0.37), Yo-Yo IE (49.57%, ES = 1.39), and Flexibility (7.26%; ES = 0.37) variables for the S group. Conversely, significant decreases were noted for the CMJ (-10.82%; ES = 0.61) and flexibility (-13.09%; ES = 0.94) variables in the C group. A significant negative correlation was found between 15-m sprint time and CMJ (r = -0.77) and Yo-Yo IE (r = -0.77) in the S group. Specific combined strength and high-intensity training in prepubertal soccer players for 26 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to soccer. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for prepubertal soccer players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport.

  15. Online Assessment of Athletic Training Education Outcomes and Program Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. David Carr

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of the Online Assessment of Athletic Training Education system (OAATE, a tool for assessing student achievement in the knowledge domains necessary for certification as an athletic trainer. The system also assesses students' satisfaction with important dimensions of their individual degree programs. By making use of current database and communication technologies, we have developed a system that addresses important, unmet needs in the field of Athletic Training education. The design of the system makes it a dynamic, easily extensible tool that could be applied in a wide variety of education domains beyond its current setting. In addition, because of its Internet-based delivery system, the tool may be widely-used throughout the world, with benefits accruing to students, program instructors and administrators, and researchers in the field of education. Keywords: Education Assessment, Database, Information/Communication Technologies, Online Assessment.

  16. Multimodal high-intensity interval training increases muscle function and metabolic performance in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Stephanie; Knapp, Kelly; Lackie, Amy; Lewry, Colin; Horvey, Karla; Benko, Chad; Trinh, Jason; Butcher, Scotty

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient method of improving aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity. In most individuals, however, HIIT using modalities such as cycling, running, and rowing does not typically result in increased muscle strength, power, or endurance. The purpose of this study is to compare the physiological outcomes of traditional HIIT using rowing (Row-HIIT) with a novel multimodal HIIT (MM-HIIT) circuit incorporating multiple modalities, including strength exercises, within an interval. Twenty-eight recreationally active women (age 24.7 ± 5.4 years) completed 6 weeks of either Row-HIIT or MM-HIIT and were tested on multiple fitness parameters. MM-HIIT and Row-HIIT resulted in similar improvements (p HIIT group had significant (p HIIT group had no increase in any muscle performance variable (p values 0.33-0.90). Post-training, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat (64.2 ± 13.6 vs. 45.8 ± 16.2 kg, p = 0.02), 1RM press (33.2 ± 3.8 vs. 26.0 ± 9.6 kg, p = 0.01), and squat endurance (23.9 ± 12.3 vs. 10.2 ± 5.6 reps, p HIIT group than in the Row-HIIT group. MM-HIIT resulted in similar aerobic and anaerobic adaptations but greater muscle performance increases than Row-HIIT in recreationally active women.

  17. High-intensity Fitness Training Among a National Sample of Male Career Firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Jahnke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and fitness have been identified as key health concerns among USA firefighters yet little is known about the current habits related to exercise and diet. In particular, high-intensity training (HIT has gained increasing popularity among this population but limited quantitative data are available about how often it is used and the relationship between HIT and other outcomes. Using survey methodology, the current study evaluated self-reported HIT and diet practice among 625 male firefighters. Almost one-third (32.3% of participants reported engaging in HIT. Body composition, as measured by waist circumference and percentage body fat, was significantly related to HIT training, with HIT participants being approximately half as likely to be classified as obese using body fat [odds ratio (OR = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.34–0.78] or waist circumference (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98. Those who engaged in HIT were more than twice as likely as those who did not (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.42–3.55 to meet fitness recommendations. Findings highlight directions for future prevention and intervention efforts.

  18. Assessment of radiation awareness training in immersive virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisker, Vaughn E., III

    The prospect of new nuclear power plant orders in the near future and the graying of the current workforce create a need to train new personnel faster and better. Immersive virtual reality (VR) may offer a solution to the training challenge. VR technology presented in a CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) provides a high-fidelity, one-to-one scale environment where areas of the power plant can be recreated and virtual radiation environments can be simulated, making it possible to safely expose workers to virtual radiation in the context of the actual work environment. The use of virtual reality for training is supported by many educational theories; constructivism and discovery learning, in particular. Educational theory describes the importance of matching the training to the task. Plant access training and radiation worker training, common forms of training in the nuclear industry, rely on computer-based training methods in most cases, which effectively transfer declarative knowledge, but are poor at transferring skills. If an activity were to be added, the training would provide personnel with the opportunity to develop skills and apply their knowledge so they could be more effective when working in the radiation environment. An experiment was developed to test immersive virtual reality's suitability for training radiation awareness. Using a mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative measures, the subjects' performances before and after training were assessed. First, subjects completed a pre-test to measure their knowledge prior to completing any training. Next they completed unsupervised computer-based training, which consisted of a PowerPoint presentation and a PDF document. After completing a brief orientation activity in the virtual environment, one group of participants received supplemental radiation awareness training in a simulated radiation environment presented in the CAVE, while a second group, the control group, moved directly to the

  19. Behavior of testosterone and cortisol during an intensity-controlled high-volume training period measured by a training task-specific test in men rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rämson, Raul; Jürimäe, Jaak; Jürimäe, Toivo; Mäestu, Jarek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the stress hormones testosterone and cortisol after a task-specific exercise during a high-volume endurance training cycle in men rowers. Eight highly trained men rowers were investigated during a high-volume, low-intensity training period. A 2-hour, low-intensity, long-distance rowing (LDT) test was conducted at baseline, after a high-volume period, and after the recovery period. Training and performance intensities were obtained at the graded incremental test, were preset individually, and were the same during all LDTs. Fasting blood samples were taken during the same days as the LDTs. Exercise-induced blood samples were taken before, 5 minutes after, and 30 minutes after (post 30') the completion of each LDT. There were no significant changes in fasting cortisol and testosterone values during the whole study period, and there were no significant changes in cortisol and testosterone concentrations during the LDT. However, testosterone concentration was significantly decreased at post 30' compared with posttest values during the second LDT that was held after the 2-week high-training-volume period, and, during the second LDT, post 30' values of cortisol tended to be decreased compared with posttest values (p = 0.063). In conclusion, changes in the concentrations of testosterone and cortisol after long-distance rowing indicate decreased adaptivity after the training-specific performance test.

  20. Effects of a high-intensity interval training program versus a moderate-intensity continuous training program on maximal oxygen uptake and blood pressure in healthy adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda Serna, Víctor Hugo; Arango Vélez, Elkin Fernando; Gómez Arias, Rubén Darío; Feito, Yuri

    2016-08-18

    Participation in aerobic exercise generates increased cardiorespiratory fitness, which results in a protective factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. High-intensity interval training might cause higher increases in cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training; nevertheless, current evidence is not conclusive. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the effect of high-intensity interval training with total load duration of 7.5 min per session. A randomized controlled trial will be performed on two groups of healthy, sedentary male volunteers (n = 44). The study protocol will include 24 exercise sessions, three times a week, including aerobic training on a treadmill and strength training exercises. The intervention group will perform 15 bouts of 30 s, each at an intensity between 90 % and 95 % of maximal heart rate. The control group will complete 40 min of continuous exercise, ranging between 65 % and 75 % of maximal heart rate. The primary outcome measure to be evaluated will be maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure will be evaluated as secondary outcome measures. Waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition will also be evaluated. Epidemiological evidence shows the link between VO2max and its association with chronic conditions that trigger CVD. Therefore, finding ways to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure it is of vital importance to public health. NCT02288403 . Registered on 4 November 2014.

  1. Validation of a measurement tool for self-assessment of teamwork in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, J; Shulruf, B; Torrie, J; Frengley, R; Boyd, M; Paul, A; Yee, B; Dzendrowskyj, P

    2013-09-01

    Teamwork is an important contributor to patient safety and a validated teamwork measurement tool could help healthcare teams identify areas for improvement and measure progress. We explored the psychometric properties of a teamwork measurement tool when used for self-assessment. We hypothesized that the tool had a valid factor structure and that scores from participants and external assessors would correlate. Forty intensive care teams (one doctor, three nurses) participated in four simulated emergencies, and each independently rated their team's performance at the end of each case using the teamwork measurement tool, without prior training in the use of the tool. We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and compared factor structure between participants and external assessors (using previously reported data). Scores from participants and external assessors were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient. EFA demonstrated items loaded onto three distinct factors which were supported by the CFA. We found significant correlations between external and participant scores for overall teamwork scores and the three factors. Participants agreed with external assessors on the ranking of overall team performance but scored themselves significantly higher than external assessors. The teamwork measurement tool has a valid structure when used for self-assessment. Participant and external assessor scores correlated significantly, suggesting that participants could discriminate between different levels of performance, although leniency in self-assessed scores indicated the need for calibration. This tool could help structure reflection on teamwork and potentially facilitate self-directed, workplace-based improvement in teamwork.

  2. Effect of vitamin E succinate on inflammatory cytokines induced by high-intensity interval training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sarir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Scope: The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin E under moderate exercises has been evaluated. However, the effect of vitamin E succinate, which has more potent anti-inflammatory effect than other isomers of vitamin E has not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E succinate on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a and interleukin-6 (IL-6 production induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 24 rats were randomly divided into control (C, supplementation (S, HIIT, and HIIT + supplementation (HIIT+S groups. HIIT training protocol on a treadmill (at a speed of 40-54 m/min and vitamin E succinate supplementation (60 mg/kg/day was conducted for 6 weeks. Results: Serum IL-6 in the HIIT group significantly increased compared with the C group (350.42 ± 123.31 pg/mL vs 158.60 ± 41.96 pg/mL; P = 0.002. Also, serum TNF-a concentrations significantly enhanced (718.15 ± 133.42 pg/mL vs 350.87 ± 64.93 pg/mL; P = 0.001 in the HIIT group compared with the C group. Treatment of the training group with vitamin E numerically reduced IL-6 and TNF-a when compared with the HIIT group (217.31 ± 29.21 and 510.23 ± 217.88, respectively, P > 0.05. However, no significant changes were observed in serum TNF-a (P = 0.31 and IL-6 (P = 0.52 concentrations in the HIIT + S group compared with the C group. Conclusion: HIIT-induced IL-6 and TNF-α decreased by administration of Vitamin E succinate.

  3. High-intensity resistance training attenuates dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, André L O; Macedo, Anderson G; Zago, Anderson S; Rush, James W E; Santos, Carlos F; Amaral, Sandra L

    2016-05-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of high-intensity resistance training (RT) on dexamethasone (DEX)-induced muscle atrophy in flexor hallucis longus (FHL), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus (SOL) muscles. Rats underwent either high-intensity RT or were kept sedentary. In the last 10 days they received either DEX (0.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) or saline. DEX reduced body weight (-21%), food intake (-28%), FHL and TA muscle mass (-20% and -18%, respectively), and increased muscle-specific ring finger 1 (MuRF-1) protein level (+37% and +45.5%). RT attenuated FHL muscle atrophy through a combination of low increase in MuRF-1 protein level (-3.5%) and significant increases in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (+63%) and p70S6K (+46% and +49% for control and DEX, respectively) protein levels. RT attenuated DEX-induced muscle atrophy through a combination of increases in mTOR and p70S6K protein levels and a low increase in MuRF-1 protein level. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Two-photon double ionization of neon using an intense attosecond pulse train

    CERN Document Server

    Manschwetus, B; Campi, F; Maclot, S; Coudert-Alteirac, H; Lahl, J; Wikmark, H; Rudawski, P; Heyl, C M; Farkas, B; Mohamed, T; L'Huillier, A; Johnsson, P

    2016-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of two-photon double ionization of neon using an intense extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse train (APT) in a photon energy regime where both direct and sequential mechanisms are allowed. For an APT generated through high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in argon we achieve a total pulse energy close to 1 $\\mu$J, a central energy of 35 eV and a total bandwidth of $\\sim30$ eV. The APT is focused by broadband optics in a neon gas target to an intensity of $3\\cdot10^{12} $W$\\cdot$cm$^{-2}$. By tuning the photon energy across the threshold for the sequential process the double ionization signal can be turned on and off, indicating that the two-photon double ionization predominantly occurs through a sequential process. The demonstrated performance opens up possibilities for future XUV-XUV pump-probe experiments with attosecond temporal resolution in a photon energy range where it is possible to unravel the dynamics behind direct vs. sequential double ionization and the asso...

  5. Effects of inspiratory muscle training upon recovery time during high intensity, repetitive sprint activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, L M; McConnell, A K; Jones, D A

    2002-07-01

    The present study examined the influence of specific inspiratory muscle training (IMT) upon recovery time during repetitive sprint activity, as well as the physiological and perceptual responses to fixed intensity shuttle running. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 24 male repetitive sprint athletes were assigned randomly to either an IMT (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12) group. The self-selected recovery time during a repetitive sprint test and the physiological response to submaximal endurance exercise were determined. Following completion of baseline and pre-intervention measures, the IMT group performed 30 inspiratory efforts twice daily against a resistance equivalent to 50 % maximum inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) for 6 wk. The placebo group performed 60 breaths once daily, for 6 wk, at a resistance equivalent to 15 % MIP, a load known to elicit negligible changes in respiratory muscle function. The IMT group improved total recovery time during the repetitive sprint test by 6.2 +/- 1.1 % (mean +/- SEM) above the changes noted for the placebo group (p = 0.006). Blood lactate and perceptual responses to submaximal exercise were also significantly attenuated following IMT (p attenuates the blood lactate and perceptual responses to submaximal endurance exercise. In addition, the present study provides new evidence that IMT improves recovery time during high intensity, intermittent exercise in repetitive sprint athletes.

  6. Effectiveness of A 16-week High-intensity Cardio-resistance Training (HICRT) Program in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Tina A; Greene, Daniel R; Ward, Nathan J; Reeser, Ginger E; Allen, Courtney M; Baumgartner, Nicholas W; Cohen, Neal J; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H; Barbey, Aron K

    2017-06-21

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel, 16-week High-Intensity Cardio-Resistance Training (HICRT) program on measures of aerobic fitness, agility, aerobic power, muscular endurance, lower body explosive power, and self-reported activity level. The intervention group (N=129; 63 f, 24.65±5.55 y) had a baseline VO2max of 39.83±9.13. These individuals participated in 26, 70-minute exercise sessions, and 4 fitness testing sessions. Participants were matched with a non-exercise control group, paired by sex, age, and baseline VO2max. Matched controls (N = 129, 63 f, 24.26±5.59 y) had a baseline VO2max of 39.86±8.59 and completed pre- and post-intervention VO2max testing only. The results demonstrate that participants in the fitness intervention group significantly increased their VO2max (2.72±0.31, Mdiff±SE; ptests. Specifically, significant improvements were observed for the 1-minute rower (5.32±0.505, Mdiff±SE; ptests (1.79±0.169, Mdiff±SE; p<0.001). No significant improvements were observed for the shuttle run (p=0.173) or standing long jump (p=0.137). These findings demonstrate the efficacy of a novel, HICRT intervention across multiple dimensions of fitness for young and middle aged adults. HICRT affords flexibility for tailoring to meet desired health and fitness outcomes and makes perceivably daunting high-intensity functional training and multimodal sports training more accessible to general, traditionally non-athletic, populations.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  7. Salivary hormones, IgA, and performance during intense training and tapering in judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Gleeson, Michael; Nassis, George P

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the time course of change of salivary testosterone (sT), cortisol (sC), and IgA (SIgA); mood state; and performance capacity during a 2-week taper in judo athletes and to examine the diurnal variation in these salivary markers. Eleven male judo athletes completed 5 weeks of training: 1 week of normal training (NORM), 2 weeks of intensified training (INT), and 2 weeks of exponential tapering (TAPER). Once per week subjects completed vertical and horizontal countermovement jump tests, a grip strength test, a Special Judo Fitness Test, a multistage aerobic fitness test, a 3 × 300-m run test, and anthropometric measurement. Subjects also completed questionnaires to assess mood state and muscle soreness. Two daily saliva samples (at 0700 and 1900) were collected at the end of each week during NORM and INT and every day during TAPER. Increased morning sT, decreased evening sC, lower muscle soreness, and enhanced mood state (p TAPER. A significant 7.0% improvement in 3 × 300-m performance time, a 6.9% improvement in the vertical jump (p TAPER. The higher values of salivary variables were observed in the morning. This study indicates that salivary hormones display diurnal variation. Furthermore, changes in hormonal responses, mood state, and muscle soreness precede enhancements in performance and mucosal immunity, suggesting that judo athletes taper for at least a week before competition.

  8. Metabolic effects of resistance or high-intensity interval training among glycemic control-nonresponsive children with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, C; Ramírez-Campillo, R; Ramírez-Vélez, R; Martínez, C; Castro-Sepúlveda, M; Alonso-Martínez, A; Izquierdo, M

    2017-07-31

    Little evidence exists on which variables of body composition or muscular strength mediates more glucose control improvements taking into account inter-individual metabolic variability to different modes of exercise training. We examined 'mediators' to the effects of 6-weeks of resistance training (RT) or high-intensity interval training (HIT) on glucose control parameters in physically inactive schoolchildren with insulin resistance (IR). Second, we also determined both training-induce changes and the prevalence of responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to decrease the IR level. Fifty-six physically inactive children diagnosed with IR followed a RT or supervised HIT program for 6 weeks. Participants were classified based on ΔHOMA-IR into glycemic control R (decrease in homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) training-induced changes to glucose control parameters; and third the report of R and NR to improve body composition, cardiovascular, metabolic and performance variables. Mediation analysis revealed that improvements (decreases) in abdominal fat by the waist circumference can explain more the effects (decreases) of HOMA-IR in physically inactive schoolchildren under RT or HIT regimes. The same analysis showed that increased one-maximum repetition leg-extension was correlated with the change in HOMA-IR (β=-0.058; P=0.049). Furthermore, a change in the waist circumference fully mediated the dose-response relationship between changes in the leg-extension strength and HOMA-IR (β'=-0.004; P=0.178). RT or HIT were associated with significant improvements in body composition, muscular strength, blood pressure and cardiometabolic parameters irrespective of improvement in glycemic control response. Both glucose control RT-R and HIT-R (respectively), had significant improvements in mean HOMA-IR, mean muscular strength leg-extension and mean measures of adiposity. The improvements in the lower body strength and the decreases in waist circumference can explain more

  9. Teaching and Assessing Communication Skills in Medical Undergraduate Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Jyoti Nath; Anshu, -; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Gupta, Piyush; Singh, Tejinder

    2016-06-08

    Good communication skills are essential for an optimal doctor-patient relationship, and also contribute to improved health outcomes. Although the need for training in communication skills is stated as a requirement in the 1997 Graduate Medical Education Regulations of the Medical Council of India, formal training in these skills has been fragmentary and non-uniform in most Indian curricula. The Vision 2015 document of the Medical Council of India reaffirms the need to include training in communication skills in the MBBS curriculum. Training in communication skills needs approaches which are different from that of teaching other clinical subjects. It is also a challenge to ensure that students not only imbibe the nuances of communication and interpersonal skills, but adhere to them throughout their careers. This article addresses the possible ways of standardizing teaching and assessment of communication skills and integrating them into the existing curriculum.

  10. Assessing seniors' user experience (UX) of exergames for balance training