WorldWideScience

Sample records for assess residue contributions

  1. Consumption-based approach for assessing the contribution of hospitals towards the load of pharmaceutical residues in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Kristell S; Ort, Christoph; Kateley, Diana; Allen, Belinda; Escher, Beate I; Keller, Jurg

    2012-09-15

    Hospitals are considered as major sources of pharmaceutical residues discharged to municipal wastewater, but recent experimental studies showed that the contribution of hospitals to the loads of selected, quantifiable pharmaceuticals in sewage treatment plant (STP) influents was limited. However such conclusions are made based on the experimental analysis of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater which is hindered by a number of factors such as access to suitable sampling sites, difficulties in obtaining representative samples and availability of analytical methods. Therefore, this study explores a refined and extended consumption-based approach to predict the contribution of six selected Australian hospitals to the loads of 589 pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater. In addition, the possibility that hospital-specific substances are present at levels that may pose a risk for human health was evaluated. For 63 to 84% of the pharmaceuticals investigated, the selected hospitals are not a major point source with individual contributions likely to be less than 15% which is in line with previous experimental studies. In contrast, between 10 and 20% of the pharmaceuticals consumed in the selected hospitals are exclusively used in these hospitals. For these hospital-specific substances, 57 distinct pharmaceuticals may cause concerns for human health as concentrations predicted in hospital effluents are less than 100-fold lower than effect thresholds. However, when concentrations were predicted in the influent of the corresponding STP, only 12 compounds (including the antineoplastic vincristine, the antibiotics tazobactam and piperacillin) remain in concentration close to effect thresholds, but further decrease is expected after removal in STP, dilution in the receiving stream and drinking water treatment. The results of this study suggest that risks of human exposure to the pharmaceuticals exclusively administered in the investigated hospitals are limited and

  2. Assessing the underlying breast cancer risk of Chinese females contributed by dietary intake of residual DDT from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Zhao, Meirong; Zhou, Shanshan; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    The greatest concern over DDT exposure in China arose since the early 1990s for the rising breast cancer incidence, and the cause still remains to be elucidated. An extensive survey of DDT background in agricultural soils, covered the entire region of China, was conducted. DDT at concentrations greater than 100 ng/g (the China's Farmland Environmental Quality Evaluation Standards for Edible Agricultural Products) was found to impact 42.3 million Chinese population. Considering the geographical differences with diverse DDT contributions and different diet products and habits, the average daily dietary intake was modeled and estimated to be 0.34 μg/kg p,p'-DDE (the main bioactive constituent in DDT). Population attributable fraction derived from a case-control study from 78 women with breast cancer and 72 controls was used to assess the DDT exposure risk to breast cancer. Based on the estimated population attributable fraction with a median value of 0.6% (IQR 0.23-2.11%), the excess annual breast cancer incidence rate attributable to p,p'-DDE exposure averaged 0.06×10(-5) with significant spatial variations varying from 0.00021×10(-5) to 11.05×10(-5) in Chinese females. Exposure to DDT is a contributor to breast cancer, but the overall limited relative risk and population attributable fraction imply confounding factors for breast cancer in Chinese females. Exposure risk in a regional scale helps understand the cause and prevention of breast cancer. Our mapping and modeling method could be used to assess other environmental carcinogens and related cancer diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  4. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-01-01

     In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerat...

  5. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna; Kärrman, Erik; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Magnusson, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suit able for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study. A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach Was Outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as wel...

  6. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-10-15

    In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed. Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu

  7. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  8. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  9. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  10. Life cycle assessment of shredder residue management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Damgaard, Anders; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    wood waste, wood waste for recycling and district heating pipes. The LCA was conducted using the EASETECH LCA model developed by DTU Environment for the environmental assessment of waste management systems and environmental technologies. The LCA was conducted in accordance with the LCA principles...

  11. The contribution of coevolving residues to the stability of KDO8P synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon H Ackerman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary tree of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate (KDO8P synthase (KDO8PS, a bacterial enzyme that catalyzes a key step in the biosynthesis of bacterial endotoxin, is evenly divided between metal and non-metal forms, both having similar structures, but diverging in various degrees in amino acid sequence. Mutagenesis, crystallographic and computational studies have established that only a few residues determine whether or not KDO8PS requires a metal for function. The remaining divergence in the amino acid sequence of KDO8PSs is apparently unrelated to the underlying catalytic mechanism.The multiple alignment of all known KDO8PS sequences reveals that several residue pairs coevolved, an indication of their possible linkage to a structural constraint. In this study we investigated by computational means the contribution of coevolving residues to the stability of KDO8PS. We found that about 1/4 of all strongly coevolving pairs probably originated from cycles of mutation (decreasing stability and suppression (restoring it, while the remaining pairs are best explained by a succession of neutral or nearly neutral covarions.Both sequence conservation and coevolution are involved in the preservation of the core structure of KDO8PS, but the contribution of coevolving residues is, in proportion, smaller. This is because small stability gains or losses associated with selection of certain residues in some regions of the stability landscape of KDO8PS are easily offset by a large number of possible changes in other regions. While this effect increases the tolerance of KDO8PS to deleterious mutations, it also decreases the probability that specific pairs of residues could have a strong contribution to the thermodynamic stability of the protein.

  12. Assessing ambition of nationally determined contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höhne, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    A key for a successful new international climate agreement by December 2015 will be the collective assessment of ambition of individual proposals by countries on how and how much to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. We conclude that there is nothing right or wrong in choosing one or several of these approaches to assess the level of ambition of contributions. An approach using several of many methods described can take into account the difference in national circumstances.

  13. Assessment of residual life of fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a loop type sodium cooled fast reactor and has been in operation since 1985. As a part of regulatory requirement for relicensing, residual life assessment had to be carried out. The systems are made of SS 316, and designed for creep and fatigue. The design life for creep is 100,000 h at 550°C. The design fatigue cycle for operation from shutdown to full power varies from component to component. In general, most of the components are designed for 2000 cycles. The reactor has operated mostly below the design temperatures. It is seen that enough creep-fatigue life is available for the non-replaceable, permanent components. The residual life was found to be governed by the residual ductility of the Grid Plate supporting the core after neutron irradiation. Fast flux measurements were carried out at the grid plate location. Samples were irradiated and tensile tested. Results indicate the allowable dpa for a 10% residual ductility criterion as 4.37. This gave a residual life of ~ 6 Effective Full Power Years for the reactor as of Feb 2012. Measures to reduce the neutron dose on the grid plate are being taken. (author)

  14. Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sanchez-Bayo

    Full Text Available Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees.

  15. Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. PMID:24718419

  16. Residual stress effects in LMFBR fracture assessment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooton, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Two post-yield fracture mechanics methods, which have been developed into fully detailed failure assessment procedures for ferritic structures, have been reviewed from the point of view of the manner in which as-welded residual stress effects are incorporated, and comparisons then made with finite element and theoretical models of centre-cracked plates containing residual/thermal stresses in the form of crack-driving force curves. Applying the procedures to austenitic structures, comparisons are made in terms of failure assessment curves and it is recommended that the preferred method for the prediction of critical crack sizes in LMFBR austenitic structures containing as-welded residual stresses is the CEGB-R6 procedure based on a flow stress defined at 3% strain in the parent plate. When the prediction of failure loads in such structures is required, it is suggested that the CEGB-R6 procedure be used with residual/thermal stresses factored to give a maximum total stress of flow stress magnitude

  17. Benchmark on residual stress modeling in fracture mechanics assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, S.; Deschanels, H.; Chapuliot, S.; Le Delliou, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of development in analytical defect assessment methods for the RSE-M and RCC-MRx codes, new work on the consideration of residual stresses is initiated by AREVA, CEA and EDF. The first step of this work is the realization of a database of F.E. reference cases. To validate assumptions and develop a good practice guideline for the consideration of residual stresses in finite element calculations, a benchmark between AREVA, CEA and EDF is going-on. A first application presented in this paper focuses on the analysis of the crack initiation of aged duplex stainless steel pipes submitted to an increasing pressure loading. Residual stresses are related to pipe fabrication process and act as shell bending condition. Two tests were performed: the first with an internal longitudinal semi-elliptical crack and the second with an external crack. The analysis first focuses on the ability to accurately estimate the measured pressure at the crack initiation of the two tests. For that purpose, the comparison of results obtained with different methods of taking into account the residual stresses (i.e. thermal fields or initial strain field). It then validates post-treatment procedures for J or G determination, and finally compares of the results obtained by the different partners. It is then shown that the numerical models can integrate properly the impact of residual stresses on the crack initiation pressure. Then, an excellent agreement is obtained between the different numerical evaluations of G provided by the participants to the benchmark so that best practice and reference F.E. solutions for residual stresses consideration can be provided based on that work. (authors)

  18. Contribution of Eucalyptus Harvest Residues and Nitrogen Fertilization to Carbon Stabilization in Ultisols of Southern Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Caparelli Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Eucalyptus forests in southern Bahia (BA are planted in soils with a sandy surface layer and humid tropical climate, conditions that lead to soil carbon (C decomposition. Recent studies have shown that nitrogen (N may be important for soil C stabilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of Eucalyptus harvest residues and nitrogen fertilization to C stabilization in Ultisols of southern BA. The experiment was conducted in Eucalyptus clonal plantations cultivated in two regions of Eunápolis, BA, Brazil, with different clay content: southern region (140 g kg-1 of clay and western region (310 g kg-1 of clay. Five treatments were evaluated: one control (CTR, without Eucalyptus harvest residues and N fertilization, and four treatments with harvest residues combined with four rates of N fertilization: 0, 25, 50, and 100 kg ha-1. Soil samples were collected from the 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.40, and 0.40-0.60 m layers at the beginning and the end of the experiment (36 months. The amount of C and N and the C and N isotopic ratio (δ13C and δ15N of particulate organic matter (POM and mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM were determined. In the southern region after 36 months, the C-MAOM stocks in the 0.00-0.10 m layer of the CTR decreased by 33 %. The addition of harvest residue followed by 100 kg ha-1 N increased C-POM and N-POM stocks (0.00-0.10 m compared to the CTR, and the final N-POM stocks and residue-C recovery in the surface soil layer were positively correlated with the increase in N fertilization rates. In the western region, residue maintenance resulted in increased C-MAOM stocks (0.00-0.10 m compared to the CTR, but an increase in N availability reduced this increment. The increase in N fertilization rates did not alter C stocks, but reduced N stocks of POM and MAOM in the upper soil layer. At the end of the experiment, N fertilizer recovery (0.00-0.60 m was similar among the regions evaluated. In

  19. International symposium on restoration of environments with radioactive residues. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    After the use of radioactive materials or the utilization of nuclear energy, some radioactive residues may remain in the environment and give rise to the exposure of persons living or working in that environment. Most commonly, these residues are the result of human activities that have been carried out in the past without proper regard to the internationally accepted radiation protection requirements for practices, or at that time when those requirements were less stringent than today. Of course unforeseen events such as accidents of concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material can also lead to higher levels of radioactive residues in theenvironment. The purpose of this Symposium is to foster an information exchange on the restoration of environments with radioactive residues. This includes the principles and criteria for guiding decision making and the methodologies for assessing the radiological situation and developing remediation plans for the human habitats affected. The overall aim is to promote an international consensus on the relevant issues in these areas. This document contains 51 presentations delivered during oral and poster sessions. Each of the presentations was separately indexed and provided with an abstract.

  20. International symposium on restoration of environments with radioactive residues. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    After the use of radioactive materials or the utilization of nuclear energy, some radioactive residues may remain in the environment and give rise to the exposure of persons living or working in that environment. Most commonly, these residues are the result of human activities that have been carried out in the past without proper regard to the internationally accepted radiation protection requirements for practices, or at that time when those requirements were less stringent than today. Of course unforeseen events such as accidents of concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material can also lead to higher levels of radioactive residues in the environment. The purpose of this Symposium is to foster an information exchange on the restoration of environments with radioactive residues. This includes the principles and criteria for guiding decision making and the methodologies for assessing the radiological situation and developing remediation plans for the human habitats affected. The overall aim is to promote an international consensus on the relevant issues in these areas. This document contains 51 presentations delivered during oral and poster sessions. Each of the presentations was separately indexed and provided with an abstract

  1. Remediation of deltamethrin contaminated cotton fields: residual and adsorption assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Uzaira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan occupies a significant global position in the growing of high quality cotton. The extensive application of pesticides on agricultural products leads to environmental risk due to toxic residues in air, water and soil. This study examined the chemodynamic effect of Deltamethrin on cotton fields. Samples were collected from the cotton fields of D.G. Khan, Pakistan and analyzed for heavy metal speciation patterns. Batch experiments were administered in order to study the adsorption of Deltamethrin in cotton fields. The effect of different factors including pH, adsorbate dose, and adsorbent mass on adsorption were studied. It was observed that in general, adsorption increased with increases in the mass of adsorbate, although the trends were irregular. Residual fractions of deltamethrin in the soil and water of cotton fields were analyzed to assess concentrations of xenobiotics bound to soil particles. Results indicated that such residues are significantly higher in soil samples due to high Koc in comparison to water, indicating the former is an efficient degradation agent. Results from the batch experiment resulted in 95% removal with alkaline pH and an adsorbent-adsorbate ratio of 250:1. These results may be used to environment friendly resource management policies.

  2. Assessment of elimination profile of albendazole residues in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busatto, Zenaís; de França, Welliton Gonçalves; Cyrino, José Eurico Possebon; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato

    2018-01-01

    Few drugs are specifically regulated for aquaculture. Thus this study considered albendazole (ABZ) as a potential drug for use in fish, which, however, is not yet regulated for this application. ABZ is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic approved for farmed ruminants and recently considered for treatment of fish parasites. It is the subject of careful monitoring because of potential residues in animal products. This study evaluated the depletion of ABZ and its main known metabolites: albendazole sulfoxide - ABZSO, albendazole sulfone - ABZSO 2 and albendazole amino sulfone - ABZ-2-NH 2 SO 2 , in the fillets of the Neotropical Characin pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, which were fed diets containing 10 mg ABZ kg -1 body weight in a single dose. Fish were euthanised at 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after medication and the depletion profiles of ABZ, each metabolite and the sum of all marker residues were assessed and evaluated taking into account methodological variations regarding determination of the maximum residue limits adopted by different international regulating agencies for estimation of the withdrawal period (WP). The estimated WPs ranged from 2 to 7 days.

  3. Minimal Residual Disease Assessment in Lymphoma: Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Alex F; Armand, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Standard methods for disease response assessment in patients with lymphoma, including positron emission tomography and computed tomography scans, are imperfect. In other hematologic malignancies, particularly leukemias, the ability to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) is increasingly influencing treatment paradigms. However, in many subtypes of lymphoma, the application of MRD assessment techniques, like flow cytometry or polymerase chain reaction-based methods, has been challenging because of the absence of readily detected circulating disease or canonic chromosomal translocations. Newer MRD detection methods that use next-generation sequencing have yielded promising results in a number of lymphoma subtypes, fueling the hope that MRD detection may soon be applicable in clinical practice for most patients with lymphoma. MRD assessment can provide real-time information about tumor burden and response to therapy, noninvasive genomic profiling, and monitoring of clonal dynamics, allowing for many possible applications that could significantly affect the care of patients with lymphoma. Further validation of MRD assessment methods, including the incorporation of MRD assessment into clinical trials in patients with lymphoma, will be critical to determine how best to deploy MRD testing in routine practice and whether MRD assessment can ultimately bring us closer to the goal of personalized lymphoma care. In this review article, we describe the methods available for detecting MRD in patients with lymphoma and their relative advantages and disadvantages. We discuss preliminary results supporting the potential applications for MRD testing in the care of patients with lymphoma and strategies for including MRD assessment in lymphoma clinical trials.

  4. Assessing the Availability of Wood Residues and Residue Markets in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Delton R. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A statewide mail survey of primary and secondary wood product manufacturers was undertaken to quantify the production and consumption of wood residues in Virginia. Two hundred and sixty-six wood product manufacturers responded to the study and they provided information on the production, consumption, markets, income or disposal costs, and disposal methods of wood residues. Hardwood and pine sawmills produce approximately 66 percent of Virginia's wood residues. Virginia's wood product man...

  5. Amino acid residues that contribute to substrate specificity of class A beta-lactamase SME-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majiduddin, Fahd K; Palzkill, Timothy

    2005-08-01

    Carbapenem antibiotics are used as antibiotics of last resort because they possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and are not easily hydrolyzed by beta-lactamases. Recently, class A enzymes, such as the SME-1, NMC-A, and IMI-1 beta-lactamases, have been identified with the capacity to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. Traditional class A beta-lactamases, such as TEM-1 and SHV-1, are unable to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics and exhibit some differences in sequence from those that are able to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. The positions that differ may contribute to the unique substrate specificity of the class A carbapenemase SME-1. Codons in the SME-1 gene representing residues 104, 105, 132, 167, 237, and 241 were randomized by site-directed mutagenesis, and functional mutants were selected for the ability to hydrolyze imipenem, ampicillin, or cefotaxime. Although several positions are important for hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics, no single position was found to uniquely contribute to carbapenem hydrolysis. The results of this study support a model whereby the carbapenemase activity of SME-1 is due to a highly distributed set of interactions that subtly alter the structure of the active-site pocket.

  6. Amino Acid Residues That Contribute to Substrate Specificity of Class A β-Lactamase SME-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majiduddin, Fahd K.; Palzkill, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Carbapenem antibiotics are used as antibiotics of last resort because they possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and are not easily hydrolyzed by β-lactamases. Recently, class A enzymes, such as the SME-1, NMC-A, and IMI-1 β-lactamases, have been identified with the capacity to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. Traditional class A β-lactamases, such as TEM-1 and SHV-1, are unable to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics and exhibit some differences in sequence from those that are able to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. The positions that differ may contribute to the unique substrate specificity of the class A carbapenemase SME-1. Codons in the SME-1 gene representing residues 104, 105, 132, 167, 237, and 241 were randomized by site-directed mutagenesis, and functional mutants were selected for the ability to hydrolyze imipenem, ampicillin, or cefotaxime. Although several positions are important for hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics, no single position was found to uniquely contribute to carbapenem hydrolysis. The results of this study support a model whereby the carbapenemase activity of SME-1 is due to a highly distributed set of interactions that subtly alter the structure of the active-site pocket. PMID:16048956

  7. Radiological assessment of an area with uranium residual material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Sanchez, Danyl; Cancio, David; Alvarez, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    As a result of a pilot project developed at the old Spanish 'Junta de Energia Nuclear' to extract uranium from ores, tailings materials were generated. Most of these residual materials were sent back to different uranium mines, but a small amount of it was mixed with conventional building materials and deposited near the old plant until the surrounding ground was flattened. The affected land is included in an area under institutional control and used as recreational area. At the time of processing, uranium isotopes were separated but other radionuclides of the uranium decays series as 230 Th, 226 Ra and daughters remain in the residue. Recently, the analyses of samples taken at different ground's depths confirm their presence. This paper presents the methodology used to calculate the derived concentration level to ensure the reference dose level of 0.1 mSv y-1 used as radiological criteria. In this study, a radiological impact assessment was performed modelling the area as recreational scenario. The modelization study was carried out with the code RESRAD considering as exposure pathways, external irradiation, inadvertent ingestion of soil, inhalation of resuspended particles, and inhalation of outdoor radon ( 222 Rn). As result was concluded that, if the concentration of 226 Ra in the first 15 cm of soil is lower than, 0.34 Bq g-1 , the dose would not exceed the reference dose. Applying this value as a derived concentration level and comparing with the results of measurements on the ground, some areas with a concentration of activity slightly higher than latter were found. In these zones the remediation proposal has been to cover with a layer of 15 cm of clean material. This action represents a reduction of 85% of the dose and ensures compliance with the reference dose. (author)

  8. Contribution of the residue at position 4 within classical nuclear localization signals to modulating interaction with importins and nuclear targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate M; Di Antonio, Veronica; Bellucci, Luca; Thomas, David R; Caporuscio, Fabiana; Ciccarese, Francesco; Ghassabian, Hanieh; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Forwood, Jade K; Jans, David A; Palù, Giorgio; Alvisi, Gualtiero

    2018-08-01

    Nuclear import involves the recognition by importin (IMP) superfamily members of nuclear localization signals (NLSs) within protein cargoes destined for the nucleus, the best understood being recognition of classical NLSs (cNLSs) by the IMPα/β1 heterodimer. Although the cNLS consensus [K-(K/R)-X-(K/R) for positions P2-P5] is generally accepted, recent studies indicated that the contribution made by different residues at the P4 position can vary. Here, we apply a combination of microscopy, molecular dynamics, crystallography, in vitro binding, and bioinformatics approaches to show that the nature of residues at P4 indeed modulates cNLS function in the context of a prototypical Simian Virus 40 large tumor antigen-derived cNLS (KKRK, P2-5). Indeed, all hydrophobic substitutions in place of R impaired binding to IMPα and nuclear targeting, with the largest effect exerted by a G residue at P4. Substitution of R with neutral hydrophobic residues caused the loss of electrostatic and van der Waals interactions between the P4 residue side chains and IMPα. Detailed bioinformatics analysis confirmed the importance of the P4 residue for cNLS function across the human proteome, with specific residues such as G being associated with low activity. Furthermore, we validate our findings for two additional cNLSs from human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA polymerase catalytic subunit UL54 and processivity factor UL44, where a G residue at P4 results in a 2-3-fold decrease in NLS activity. Our results thus showed that the P4 residue makes a hitherto poorly appreciated contribution to nuclear import efficiency, which is essential to determining the precise nuclear levels of cargoes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Context on the Contribution of Individual Harmonics to Residue Pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockel, Hedwig E; Alsindi, Sami; Hardy, Charles; Carlyon, Robert P

    2017-12-01

    There is evidence that the contribution of a given harmonic in a complex tone to residue pitch is influenced by the accuracy with which the frequency of that harmonic is encoded. The present study investigated whether listeners adjust the weights assigned to individual harmonics based on acquired knowledge of the reliability of the frequency estimates of those harmonics. In a two-interval forced-choice task, seven listeners indicated which of two 12-harmonic complex tones had the higher overall pitch. In context trials (60 % of all trials), the fundamental frequency (F0) was 200 Hz in one interval and 200 + ΔF0 Hz in the other. In different (blocked) conditions, either the 3rd or the 4th harmonic (plus the 7th, 9th, and 12th harmonics), were replaced by narrowband noises that were identical in the two intervals. Feedback was provided. In randomly interspersed test trials (40 % of all trials), the fundamental frequency was 200 + ΔF0/2 Hz in both intervals; in the second interval, either the third or the fourth harmonic was shifted slightly up or down in frequency with equal probability. There were no narrowband noises. Feedback was not provided. The results showed that substitution of a harmonic by noise in context trials reduced the contribution of that harmonic to pitch judgements in the test trials by a small but significant amount. This is consistent with the notion that listeners give smaller weight to a harmonic or frequency region when they have learned that this frequency region does not provide reliable information for a given task.

  10. Assessment of pesticide residues in tomatoes and watermelons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the levels of pesticide residues in selected fruits from major markets in Dar es Salaam city. Samples of tomatoes and watermelons were analysed for eighteen organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by dichloromethane: ...

  11. Assessment of pesticide residues on selected vegetables of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Shah, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the pesticide residues on selected summer vegetables. Five vegetables were grown with three replicates in a split plot randomized complete block design. Pesticides were sprayed on vegetables thrice at regular intervals each after 15 days. At maturity the pesticides residues were extracted from edible and leaf portions using anhydrous sodium sulfate and ethyl acetate while adsorption chromatography technique was used for cleanup. The extracts were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and analysis of the compounds. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the pesticides residues on edible portions whereas highly significant differences (p<0.001) were observed for the leafy portions. The residual level of cypermethrin was highest (16.2 mg kg/sup -1/) in edible portion of bitter gourd, while Lambdacyhalothrin and Mancozeb residues were detected high (4.50 mg kg/sup -1/, 6.26 mg kg/sup -1/) in edible portion of bitter gourd and Cucumber respectively. Cypermethrin residues were high (1.86 mg kg/sup -1/) in Okra leaves. Mancozeb and Lambdacyhalothrin residual level was high (1.23 mg kg/sup -1/, and 0.0002 mg kg/sup -1/) in chili and tomato leaves. Cypermethrin residues were readily detected in edible and leaf portion of the selected vegetables. (author)

  12. comparative assessment residual soils in residual soils in parts of e

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    residual soil formed from Zuma rock. The Zuma r is an igneous .... The liquid limit (LL) is the lowest water content above which soil .... where this effect begins to be counteracted by the saturation of the ... retaining walls, tunnel linings and timbering of excavation. .... event of pore pressure build up due to excessive moisture.

  13. Assessment of procurement systems for unutilized logging residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the forest after clear-cutting operation with cutto- length harvesting method. ... as system-2 can be preferable for the initial supply chain configuration in Turkey. ... Key words: logging residue, forest biomass, chipping, supply cost, biomass ...

  14. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost across the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Lisa R; Karayanidis, Frini; Fulham, Ross; Provost, Alexander; Michie, Patricia T; Heathcote, Andrew; Hsieh, Shulan

    2014-01-01

    In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost) and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost). These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs). Moreover, residual reaction time mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these "mixed" repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011). In this paper, we analyze stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. These findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.

  15. Cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment of syngas electricity from woody biomass residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongmei Gu; Richard Bergman

    2017-01-01

    Forest restoration and fire suppression activities in the western United States have resulted in large volumes of low-to-no value residues. An environmental assessment would enable greater use while maintaining environmental sustainability of these residues for energy products. One internationally accepted sustainable metric tool that can assess environmental impacts...

  16. Assessment of biomass residue availability and bioenergy yields in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Kamp, Andreas; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2014-01-01

    is expected to increase with more efficient applications, such as the production of biogas and liquid biofuels for cooking, transportation and the generation of power. The aim of this study is to establish the amount of Ghana's energy demand that can be satisfied by using the country's crop residues, animal...... manure, logging residues and municipal waste. The study finds that the technical potential of bioenergy from these sources is 96 PJ in 2700 Mm3 of biogas or 52 PJ in 2300 ML of cellulosic ethanol. The biogas potential is sufficient to replace more than a quarter of Ghana's present woodfuel use...

  17. On residual stress prescriptions for fitness for service assessment of pipe girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Pingsha; Song, Shaopin; Zhang, Jinmiao; Kim, Myung H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a detailed assessment of some of the existing residual stress profiles stipulated in widely used fitness-for-service assessment codes and standards, such as BS 7910 Appendix Q and API 579 RP Annex E, by taking advantage of some comprehensive residual stress studies that have recently become available. After presenting a case study on which residual stress measurements are available for validating finite element based residual stress analysis procedure, residual stress profiles stipulated in BS 7910 for pipe girth welds are selected for detailed evaluation by comparing residual stress distribution characteristics shown in parametric finite element results. A shell theory based full-field residual stress profile estimation scheme is then presented to illustrate how an improved estimation of residual stress profiles can be achieved in light of some of the deficiencies in BS 7910 and API 579 identified in this study. - Highlights: • Critically assessed girth weld residual stress profiles in major FFS Codes and Standards. • Identified deficiencies in relating to pipe geometry, heat input, and axial distance from weld. • Presented a shell theory based scheme for prescribing full-field residual stress profiles

  18. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation during biodegradation of ibuprofen in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Karolina M., E-mail: karolina.nowak@ufz.de [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Girardi, Cristobal; Miltner, Anja [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Gehre, Matthias [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schäffer, Andreas [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kästner, Matthias [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Non-extractable residues (NER) formed during biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil are considered to be mainly composed of parent compounds or their primary metabolites with hazardous potential. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, the soil NER may also contain microbial biomass components, for example fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are subsequently incorporated into non-living soil organic matter (SOM) and are stabilised ultimately forming hardly extractable residues of biogenic origin. We investigated biodegradation of {sup 13}C{sub 6}-ibuprofen, in particular the metabolic incorporation of the {sup 13}C-label into FA and AA and their fate in soil over 90 days. {sup 13}C-FA and {sup 13}C-AA amounts in the living microbial biomass fraction initially increased, then decreased over time and were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool. The {sup 13}C-FA in the non-living SOM remained stable from day 59 whereas the contents of {sup 13}C-AA slightly increased until the end. After 90 days, nearly all NER were biogenic as they were made up almost completely by natural biomass compounds. The presented data demonstrated that the potential environmental risks related to the ibuprofen-derived NER are overestimated. - Highlights: ► Biogenic residue formation during microbial degradation of ibuprofen was studied. ► Nearly all non-extractable residues derived from ibuprofen were biogenic. ► Fatty acids and amino acids formed biogenic non-extractable residues and were stabilised in soil. ► Environmental risks of ibuprofen-derived non-extractable residues are overestimated.

  19. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost in young and old adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Rebecca Whitson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost. These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs. Moreover, residual RT mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these ‘mixed’ repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011. In this study, we examine stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. We argue that, together with evidence of greater proactive control and more cautious responding for these trials, these findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.

  20. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation during biodegradation of ibuprofen in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Karolina M.; Girardi, Cristobal; Miltner, Anja; Gehre, Matthias; Schäffer, Andreas; Kästner, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Non-extractable residues (NER) formed during biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil are considered to be mainly composed of parent compounds or their primary metabolites with hazardous potential. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, the soil NER may also contain microbial biomass components, for example fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are subsequently incorporated into non-living soil organic matter (SOM) and are stabilised ultimately forming hardly extractable residues of biogenic origin. We investigated biodegradation of 13 C 6 -ibuprofen, in particular the metabolic incorporation of the 13 C-label into FA and AA and their fate in soil over 90 days. 13 C-FA and 13 C-AA amounts in the living microbial biomass fraction initially increased, then decreased over time and were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool. The 13 C-FA in the non-living SOM remained stable from day 59 whereas the contents of 13 C-AA slightly increased until the end. After 90 days, nearly all NER were biogenic as they were made up almost completely by natural biomass compounds. The presented data demonstrated that the potential environmental risks related to the ibuprofen-derived NER are overestimated. - Highlights: ► Biogenic residue formation during microbial degradation of ibuprofen was studied. ► Nearly all non-extractable residues derived from ibuprofen were biogenic. ► Fatty acids and amino acids formed biogenic non-extractable residues and were stabilised in soil. ► Environmental risks of ibuprofen-derived non-extractable residues are overestimated

  1. Forging And Milling Contribution On Residual Stresses For A Textured Biphasic Titanium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, C.; Fabre, A.; Barrallier, L.; Molinas, O.

    2011-01-01

    Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al is a biphasic titanium alloy (α+β) used in aeronautical applications for its mechanical properties, such as its yield strength of 1200 MPa and it weighs 40% less than steel. This alloy is particularly useful for vital parts with complex geometry, because of its high forging capability. In order to predict the capability for fatigue lifetime, the designers need to know the residual stresses. X-Ray diffraction is the main experimental technique used to determine residual stresses on the surface. In this case, stress levels are primarily influenced by the complex forging and milling process. On this alloy in particular, it may be difficult to characterize stress due to modification of the microstructure close to the surface. Results obtained by x-ray analysis depend on the correct definition of the shape of the diffraction peaks. The more precisely defined the position of the peak, the more accurately the stresses are evaluated. This paper presents a method to detect if residual stresses can be characterized by x-ray diffraction. The characterization of hardness seems to be a relevant technique to quickly analyze the capability of x-ray diffraction to determine residual stresses.

  2. Powder addition assessment of manganese residue ceramic matrix coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, A.C.R. da; Santos, O.C.; Leao, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of recycled materials in the composition of new products follows the production's worldwide trending, meeting new technological requirements and environmental concerns. This work aims to utilize the residue of manganese dust on ceramic mass for the production of ceramic coating. The raw materials were characterized by both x-ray fluorescence and diffraction. The powder residue added to clay in the percentage of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% (measured in weight) was compressed by a uniaxial pressing of 30MPa and the sintering temperatures were 900°, 1000° and 1100°. The samples were analysed in relation to flexural strength, bulk density, water absorption and linear shrinkage. The microstructural variation was also analysed by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The results showed that there is a viability for the production of porcelain ceramic coating (A3 and A4 formulations) and stoneware (A2 formulation) according to the specification of technical standards. author)

  3. Contribution of continuous assessment to student learning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study seeks to find out whether continuous assessment contributes to students' performance mathematics. The objectives of this study were to find out whether; Students see continuous assessment as a motivating factor in their learning, there is any workload involved in filling of continuous assessment termly, ...

  4. Enantiomeric fraction and isomeric composition to assess sources of DDT residues in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Carme; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Pilar

    2015-11-01

    Chiral pesticides such as o,p'-DDT can undergo enantioselective microbial degradation in soil. Hence, the enantiomeric fraction (EF) of o,p'-DDT was used as an approach to assess potential recent inputs of DDT in the lower part of the Ebro River basin (NE Spain), a region heavily impacted by agricultural and industrial activities, including a dicofol production and a chloro-alkali plants. The EFs of five out of nineteen soils were not different from the racemic value (0.505±0.010), confirming that the Ebro River and some of its tributaries, Segre and Cinca rivers, transported fresh DDT residues despite its ban in Spain during the 90 s. o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios in soils suggest that recent use of technical DDT and/or DDT-contaminated dicofol may be responsible for the fresh DDT inputs in the Segre River, while in the Ebro River, they indicate a dominant contribution of technical DDT, likely related to the residues accumulated by the chloro-alkali plant discharges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Forest residue baling due diligence assessment, proving and transport trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Transport is known to be the most significant cost element to wood fuel supply cost, with the cost of comminution being the most variable depending on the method chosen. It has been shown in previous studies that wood fuel compaction in the form of compression can significantly increase the net load capability of the transport systems currently available, thereby leading to significant savings in delivered price. The study identified the Fiberpac residue compression machine suitable for use under UK conditions. The Fiberpac machine was trialled for a period of approximately 6 months to gain information on productivity, reliability and production costs. (author)

  6. Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models using residuals from estimated item response functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee

    2013-07-01

    Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models.

  7. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation during biodegradation of ibuprofen in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Karolina M; Girardi, Cristobal; Miltner, Anja; Gehre, Matthias; Schäffer, Andreas; Kästner, Matthias

    2013-02-15

    Non-extractable residues (NER) formed during biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil are considered to be mainly composed of parent compounds or their primary metabolites with hazardous potential. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, the soil NER may also contain microbial biomass components, for example fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are subsequently incorporated into non-living soil organic matter (SOM) and are stabilised ultimately forming hardly extractable residues of biogenic origin. We investigated biodegradation of (13)C(6)-ibuprofen, in particular the metabolic incorporation of the (13)C-label into FA and AA and their fate in soil over 90 days. (13)C-FA and (13)C-AA amounts in the living microbial biomass fraction initially increased, then decreased over time and were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool. The (13)C-FA in the non-living SOM remained stable from day 59 whereas the contents of (13)C-AA slightly increased until the end. After 90 days, nearly all NER were biogenic as they were made up almost completely by natural biomass compounds. The presented data demonstrated that the potential environmental risks related to the ibuprofen-derived NER are overestimated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-term contributions of cover crop surface residue return to soil carbon and nitrogen contents in temperate Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Wu, Hanwen; Li, Guangdi; Chen, Chengrong

    2016-11-01

    Cover crop species are usually grown to control weeds. After cover crop harvest, crop residue is applied on the ground to improve soil fertility and crop productivity. Little information is available about quantifying the contributions of cover crop application to soil total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents in temperate Australia. Here, we selected eight cover crop treatments, including two legume crops (vetch and field pea), four non-legume crops (rye, wheat, Saia oat, and Indian mustard), a mixture of rye and vetch, and a nil-crop control in temperate Australia to calculate the contributions of cover crops (crop growth + residue decomposition) to soil C and N contents. Cover crops were sown in May 2009 (autumn). After harvest, the crop residue was placed on the soil surface in October 2009. Soil and crop samples were collected in October 2009 after harvest and in May 2010 after 8 months of residue decomposition. We examined cover crop residue biomass, soil and crop total C and N contents, and soil microbial biomass C and N contents. The results showed that cover crop application increased the mean soil total C by 187-253 kg ha -1 and the mean soil total N by 16.3-19.1 kg ha -1 relative to the nil-crop treatment, except for the mixture treatment, which had similar total C and N contents to the nil-crop control. Cover crop application increased the mean soil microbial biomass C by 15.5-20.9 kg ha -1 and the mean soil microbial biomass N by 4.5-10.2 kg ha -1 . We calculated the apparent percentage of soil total C derived from cover crop residue C losses and found that legume crops accounted for 10.6-13.9 %, whereas non-legume crops accounted for 16.4-18.4 % except for the mixture treatment (0.2 %). Overall, short-term cover crop application increased soil total C and N contents and microbial biomass C and N contents, which might help reduce N fertilizer use and improve sustainable agricultural development.

  9. Assessment of Residual Stresses in 3013 Inner and Outer Containers and Teardrop Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prime, Michael Bruce [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); DeWald, Adrian T. [Hill Engineering, LLC, Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)

    2015-12-08

    This report is an assessment performed by LANL that examines packaging for plutonium-bearing materials and the resilience of its design. This report discusses residual stresses in the 3013 outer, the SRS/Hanford and RFETS/LLNL inner containers, and teardrop samples used in studies to assess the potential for SCC in 3013 containers. Residual tensile stresses in the heat affected zones of the closure welds are of particular concern.

  10. Assessment of the residual lifetime of the units 3 and 4 of the Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojkinski, G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to present the methodology for the residual lifetime assessment for the buildings and facilities during the decommissioning. An analysis of the existing facilities and constructions is made and requirements for further exploitation are set. A quantitative assessment is made of the residual lifetime for the buildings and auxiliary objects for the units 3 and 4. A detailed analysis is made for the ventilation systems and other equipment. Recommendations are given for the extension of the equipment lifetime

  11. Assessment of Residual Stresses in 3013 Inner and Outer Containers and Teardrop Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, Mary Ann; Prime, Michael Bruce; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Berg, John M.; Clausen, Bjorn; Worl, Laura Ann; DeWald, Adrian T.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an assessment performed by LANL that examines packaging for plutonium-bearing materials and the resilience of its design. This report discusses residual stresses in the 3013 outer, the SRS/Hanford and RFETS/LLNL inner containers, and teardrop samples used in studies to assess the potential for SCC in 3013 containers. Residual tensile stresses in the heat affected zones of the closure welds are of particular concern.

  12. Biomass Residues from Agriculture and Potential Contribution towards Modern Energy Supply in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Access to modern energy services especially in developing countries is an urgent issue. Globally, 1.3 billion people do not have access to modern energy and the services associated with it. Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions have profound lack of modern energy access. The objective of this ......Access to modern energy services especially in developing countries is an urgent issue. Globally, 1.3 billion people do not have access to modern energy and the services associated with it. Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions have profound lack of modern energy access. The objective...... of this paper is to understand the role that residues obtained from agricultural practices could be utilised in providing electricity for use in West African countries. Selected countries include: Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo. The study utilized methods developed by Mendu et. al. 2012, Mabeeet. al. 2010...

  13. CONTRIBUTION OF QUADRATIC RESIDUE DIFFUSERS TO EFFICIENCY OF TILTED PROFILE PARALLEL HIGHWAY NOISE BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Monazzam ، P. Nassiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation on the acoustic performance of tilted profile parallel barriers with quadratic residue diffuser (QRD tops and faces. A 2D boundary element method (BEM is used to predict the barrier insertion loss. The results of rigid and with absorptive coverage are also calculated for comparisons. Using QRD on the top surface and faces of all tilted profile parallel barrier models introduced here is found to improve the efficiency of barriers compared with rigid equivalent parallel barrier at the examined receiver positions. Applying a QRD with frequency design of 400 Hz on 5 degrees tilted parallel barrier improves the overall performance of its equivalent rigid barrier by 1.8 dB(A. Increase in the treated surfaces with reactive elements shifts the effective performance toward lower frequencies. It is found that by tilting the barriers from 0 to 10 degrees in parallel set up, the degradation effects in parallel barriers is reduced but the absorption effect of fibrous materials and also diffusivity of the quadratic residue diffuser is reduced significantly. In this case all the designed barriers have better performance with 10 degrees tilting in parallel set up. The most economic traffic noise parallel barrier which produces significantly high performance, is achieved by covering the top surface of the barrier closed to the receiver by just a QRD with frequency design of 400 Hz and tilting angle of 10 degrees. The average A-weighted insertion loss in this barrier is predicted to be 16.3 dB (A.

  14. Dietary Exposure Assessment of Danish Consumers to Dithiocarbamate Residues in Food: a Comparison of the Deterministic and Probabilistic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Andersen, Jens Hinge; Petersen, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Probabilistic and deterministic estimates of the acute and chronic exposure of the Danish populations to dithiocarbamate residues were performed. The Monte Carlo Risk Assessment programme (MCRA 4.0) was used for the probabilistic risk assessment. Food consumption data were obtained from...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-02. Residue data for 5721 samples from the monitoring programme conducted in the period 1998-2003 were used for dithiocarbamates, which had been determined as carbon disulphide. Contributions from 26 commodities were included in the calculations. Using...... the probabilistic approach, the daily acute intakes at the 99.9% percentile for adults and children were 11.2 and 28.2 mu g kg(-1) body weight day(-1), representing 5.6% and 14.1% of the ARfD for maneb, respectively. When comparing the point estimate approach with the probabilistic approach, the outcome...

  15. Reliability assessment of underground pipelines under the combined effect of active corrosion and residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirat, A.; Mohamed-Chateauneuf, A.; Chaoui, K.

    2006-01-01

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. Reliability analysis is recognized as a powerful decision-making tool for risk-based design and maintenance. Both the residual stresses generated during the manufacturing process and in-service corrosion reduce the ability to resist internal and external loading. In this study, the residual stress distribution in large diameter pipes has been characterized experimentally in order to be coupled with the corrosion model. During the pipe lifetime, residual stress relaxation occurs due to the loss of pipe thickness as material layers are consumed by corrosion. The reliability-based assessment of residual stress effects is applied to underground pipelines under a roadway, with and without active corrosion. It has been found that the residual stress greatly increases the failure probability, especially in the early stage of the pipe lifetime

  16. Identification of transmembrane domain 6 & 7 residues that contribute to the binding pocket of the urotensin II receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Brian J; Domazet, Ivana; Beaulieu, Marie-Eve; Yan, Li Ping; Guillemette, Gaétan; Lavigne, Pierre; Escher, Emanuel; Leduc, Richard

    2009-04-15

    Urotensin II (U-II), a cyclic undecapeptide, is the natural ligand of the urotensin II (UT) receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor. In the present study, we used the substituted-cysteine accessibility method to identify specific residues in transmembrane domains (TMDs) six and seven of the rat urotensin II receptor (rUT) that contribute to the formation of the binding pocket of the receptor. Each residue in the R256(6.32)-Q283(6.59) fragment of TMD6 and the A295(7.31)-T321(7.57) fragment of TMD7 was mutated, individually, to a cysteine. The resulting mutants were expressed in COS-7 cells, which were subsequently treated with the positively charged methanethiosulfonate-ethylammonium (MTSEA) or the negatively charged methanethiosulfonate-ethylsulfonate (MTSES) sulfhydryl-specific alkylating agents. MTSEA treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the binding of TMD6 mutants F268C(6.44) and W278C(6.54) and TMD7 mutants L298C(7.34), T302C(7.38), and T303C(7.39) to (125)I-U-II. MTSES treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the binding of two additional mutants, namely L282C(6.58) in TMD6 and Y300C(7.36) in TMD7. These results suggest that specific residues orient themselves within the water-accessible binding pocket of the rUT receptor. This approach, which allowed us to identify key determinants in TMD6 and TMD7 that contribute to the UT receptor binding pocket, enabled us to further refine our homology-based model of how U-II interacts with its cognate receptor.

  17. Development of residual stress analysis procedure for fitness-for-service assessment of welded structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun; Dong, P.; Prager, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a state of art review of existing residual stress analysis techniques and representative solutions is presented in order to develop the residual stress analysis procedure for Fitness-For-Service(FFS) assessment of welded structure. Critical issues associated with existing residual stress solutions and their treatments in performing FFS are discussed. It should be recognized that detailed residual stress evolution is an extremely complicated phenomenon that typically involves material-specific thermomechanical/metallurgical response, welding process physics, and structural interactions within a component being welded. As a result, computational procedures can vary significantly from highly complicated numerical techniques intended only to elucidate a small part of the process physics to cost-effective procedures that are deemed adequate for capturing some of the important features in a final residual stress distribution. Residual stress analysis procedure for FFS purposes belongs to the latter category. With this in mind, both residual stress analysis techniques and their adequacy for FFS are assessed based on both literature data and analyses performed in this investigation

  18. Assessment of interplay between UV wavelengths, material surfaces and food residues in open surface hygiene validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abban, Stephen; Jakobsen, Mogens; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    The use of UV-visible radiation for detecting invisible residue on different surfaces as a means of validating cleanliness was investigated. Wavelengths at 365, 395, 435, 445, 470 and 490 nm from a monochromator were used to detect residues of beef, chicken, apple, mango and skim milk. These were....... It is important when UV-systems are used as real-time tools for assessing cleanliness of surfaces that the surface materials being illuminated are taken into account in the choice of lamp wavelength, in addition to expected residue. This will ensure higher confidence in results during the use of UV-light for real...

  19. Contributions of conserved residues at the gating interface of glycine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Leung, Ada W Y; Galpin, Jason D

    2011-01-01

    and the in vivo nonsense suppression method to incorporate unnatural amino acids to probe the electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions of five highly conserved side chains near the interface, Glu-53, Phe-145, Asp-148, Phe-187, and Arg-218. Our results suggest a salt bridge between Asp-148 in loop 7 and Arg-218......Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are chloride channels that mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission and are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC) family. The interface between the ligand binding domain and the transmembrane domain of pLGICs has been proposed to be crucial...

  20. Assessment of pesticide residues and trace element contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All intensive agriculture, like periurban agriculture, uses massive inputs such as agrochemicals. This study aims to assess the environmental impacts of agrochemical use in periurban agriculture in Togo. It was based on the chemical analyses of soil, water and vegetable samples. These analyses were carried out by gas ...

  1. Assessment of pesticide residues and trace element contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    It was based on the chemical analyses of soil, water and vegetable samples. ... of the fine fraction (under 2 mm) were conserved away from light for ... To assess the migration and accumulation of trace elements ..... metals from sewage sludge in an agricultural soil. ... Pesticides and heavy metals in drinking water, soils.

  2. Residual life assessment of thick wall boiler parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, M.; Rayatpour, M.

    2004-01-01

    Thick wall components of boiler, such as headers, main steam lines and hot reheat lines, operate at high temperature and stress condition. This condition makes various failure mechanisms to activate during service exposure that gradually deteriorate the microstructure of components. Consequently, knowing about metallurgical condition and remaining life sensitive components particularly in power plants with at least 100,000 her life time is of considerable importance. In this regard, to eliminate unexpected interruptions and reduce the repairing costs, life assessment technology is being used. Various life assessment methods have been developed for power plants components and entered industrial fields. In the present work, remaining life of drums, headers and main steam lines of a power plant were evaluated, using microstructural, hardness changes and dimensional checking methods with non destructive tests. The results show that, the components have appropriate condition according to their service life. Further more, it was revealed that hardness evaluation technique is not a reliable evaluation criteria and various methods should be used for accurate life assessment

  3. Assessment of factors contributing to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change has brought with it some forms of extreme weather events. One of such is heavy rainfall which often leads to flood. In recent times, flood disaster has been a regular occurrence destroying lives and property. This study was carried out to identify and assess contributing factors to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

  4. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  5. Depleted uranium residual radiological risk assessment for Kosovo sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, Marco; Pugliese, Mariagabriella

    2003-01-01

    During the recent conflict in Yugoslavia, depleted uranium rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of areas in Kosovo with depleted uranium penetrators and dust. Although chemical toxicity is the most significant health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict. Uranium munitions are considered to be a source of radiological contamination of the environment. Based on measurements and estimates from the recent Balkan Task Force UNEP mission in Kosovo, we have estimated effective doses to resident populations using a well-established food-web mathematical model (RESRAD code). The UNEP mission did not find any evidence of widespread contamination in Kosovo. Rather than the actual measurements, we elected to use a desk assessment scenario (Reference Case) proposed by the UNEP group as the source term for computer simulations. Specific applications to two Kosovo sites (Planeja village and Vranovac hill) are described. Results of the simulations suggest that radiation doses from water-independent pathways are negligible (annual doses below 30 μSv). A small radiological risk is expected from contamination of the groundwater in conditions of effective leaching and low distribution coefficient of uranium metal. Under the assumptions of the Reference Case, significant radiological doses (>1 mSv/year) might be achieved after many years from the conflict through water-dependent pathways. Even in this worst-case scenario, DU radiological risk would be far overshadowed by its chemical toxicity

  6. Global warming impact assessment of a crop residue gasification project—A dynamic LCA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic LCA is proposed considering time-varying factors. • Dynamic LCA is used to highlight GHG emission hotspots of gasification projects. • Indicators are proposed to reflect GHG emission performance. • Dynamic LCA alters the static LCA results. • Crop residue gasification project has high GHG abatement potential. - Abstract: Bioenergy from crop residues is one of the prevailing sustainable energy sources owing to the abundant reserves worldwide. Amongst a wide variety of energy conversion technologies, crop residue gasification has been regarded as promising owing to its higher energy efficiency than that of direct combustion. However, prior to large-scale application of crop residue gasification, the lifetime environmental performance should be investigated to shed light on sustainable strategies. As traditional static life cycle assessment (LCA) does not include temporal information for dynamic processes, we proposed a dynamic life cycle assessment approach, which improves the static LCA approach by considering time-varying factors, e.g., greenhouse gas characterization factors and energy intensity. As the gasification project can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) discharge compared with traditional direct fuel combustion, trade-offs between the benefits of global warming mitigation and the impact on global warming of crop residue gasification should be considered. Therefore, indicators of net global warming mitigation benefit and global warming impact mitigation period are put forward to justify the feasibility of the crop residue gasification project. The proposed dynamic LCA and indicators were then applied to estimate the life cycle global warming impact of a crop residue gasification system in China. Results show that the crop residue gasification project has high net global warming mitigation benefit and a short global warming impact mitigation period, indicating its prominent potential in alleviating global warming impact. During

  7. Summary of the engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Lowman site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of radioactive sands and residues and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 191,000 tons of radioactive sands, residues, and contaminated soils at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown radioactive sands and external gamma radiation also are factors

  8. Engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Lowman site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of radioactive sands and residues and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, and investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 191,000 tons of radioactive sands, residues, and contaminated soils at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown radioactive sands and external gamma radiation also are factors

  9. Assessment of long-term pH developments in leachate from waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    influenced by changes in pH over time. The paper presents an approach for assessing pH changes in leachate from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control (APC) residues. Residue samples were subjected to a stepwise batch extraction method in order to obtain residue samples at a range...... of pH Values (similar to common pH-dependence tests), and then on these samples to determine leaching of alkalinity as well as remaining solid phase alkalinity. On a range of APC residues covering various pretreatment and disposal options, this procedure was used to determine leachable and residual...... alkalinity as a function of pH. Mass balance calculations for typical disposal scenarios were used to provide data on pH as a function of the liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio in the leaching system. Regardless of residue type and pretreatment, pH was found to stay above 7 for L/S ratios up to about 2000 L kg(-1...

  10. Construction of a risk assessment system for chemical residues in agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Shinai; Hong, Jiyeon; Lee, Dayeon; Paik, Minkyoung

    2014-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of chemical residues in agricultural and food products has been performed by various government bodies in South Korea. These bodies have made attempts to systematically manage this information by creating a monitoring database system as well as a system based on these data with which to assess the health risk of chemical residues in agricultural products. Meanwhile, a database system is being constructed consisting of information about monitoring and, following this, a demand for convenience has led to the need for an evaluation tool to be constructed with the data processing system. Also, in order to create a systematic and effective tool for the risk assessment of chemical residues in foods and agricultural products, various evaluation models are being developed, both domestically and abroad. Overseas, systems such as Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model: Food Commodity Intake Database and Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System are being used; these use the US Environmental Protection Agency as a focus, while the EU has developed Pesticide Residue Intake Model for assessments of pesticide exposure through food intake. Following this, the National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) created the Agricultural Products Risk Assessment System (APRAS) which supports the use and storage of monitoring information and risk assessments. APRAS efficiently manages the monitoring data produced by NAAS and creates an extraction feature included in the database system. Also, the database system in APRAS consists of a monitoring database system held by the NAAS and food consumption database system. Food consumption data is based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This system is aimed at exposure and risk assessments for chemical residues in agricultural products with regards to different exposure scenarios.

  11. RESIDUAL OPERATIONAL RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ELEMENTS OF POWER ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Khoroshilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a specific assessment of heat resistant steel residual resource which  is  based  on  time determination of pore output on grain boundary with due account of an operational temperature, chemical composition and structure of the investigated steel.

  12. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  13. Assessment of long-term leaching from waste incineration air-pollution-control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Mosbæk, Hans; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of long-term leaching from MSWI air-pollution-control (APC) residues is discussed with respect to use in environmental impact assessment, such as life-cycle assessment (LCA). A method was proposed for estimating leaching as a function of the liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio in a long......-term perspective (L/S 5000l/kg). Data for changes in residue pH as a function of L/S was used in combination with pH dependent leaching data to predict leachate concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Ba, Mg, Ni, Pb, S, Pb, V and Zn as a function of L/S. Mass balance calculations were used to determine the element fractions...... leached with respect to L/S. The estimated long-term leaching from a semi-dry residue and a fly ash was compared with short-term leaching determined by batch tests at L/S 10l/kg, both carbonated and non-carbonated versions of the residues were investigated. Generally, very high L/S ratios above 2000l...

  14. Assessment of residual error for online cone-beam CT-guided treatment of prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, Daniel; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Lockman, David; Yan Di; Vargas, Carlos; Ivaldi, Giovanni; Wong, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) implemented on board a medical accelerator is available for image-guidance applications in our clinic. The objective of this work was to assess the magnitude and stability of the residual setup error associated with CBCT online-guided prostate cancer patient setup. Residual error pertains to the uncertainty in image registration, the limited mechanical accuracy, and the intrafraction motion during imaging and treatment. Methods and Materials: The residual error for CBCT online-guided correction was first determined in a phantom study. After online correction, the phantom residual error was determined by comparing megavoltage portal images acquired every 90 deg. to the corresponding digitally reconstructed radiographs. In the clinical study, 8 prostate cancer patients were implanted with three radiopaque markers made of high-winding coils. After positioning the patient using the skin marks, a CBCT scan was acquired and the setup error determined by fusing the coils on the CBCT and planning CT scans. The patient setup was then corrected by moving the couch accordingly. A second CBCT scan was acquired immediately after the correction to evaluate the residual target setup error. Intrafraction motion was evaluated by tracking the coils and the bony landmarks on kilovoltage radiographs acquired every 30 s between the two CBCT scans. Corrections based on soft-tissue registration were evaluated offline by aligning the prostate contours defined on both planning CT and CBCT images. Results: For ideal rigid phantoms, CBCT image-guided treatment can usually achieve setup accuracy of 1 mm or better. For the patients, after CBCT correction, the target setup error was reduced in almost all cases and was generally within ±1.5 mm. The image guidance process took 23-35 min, dictated by the computer speed and network configuration. The contribution of the intrafraction motion to the residual setup error was small, with a standard deviation of

  15. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: The importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Butera, Stefania; Kosson, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens......Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis......, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system...

  16. Assessment of pesticide residues in vegetables from the Western Usambara and Uruguru Mountains in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtashobya, Lewis A

    2017-09-25

    Assessment of levels of pesticide residues in vegetables was carried out in some villages in the Western Usambara and Uluguru Mountains of Tanzania where varieties of vegetables are grown. Tomatoes and cabbages were the most popular enterprise grown all year round and therefore were selected as the model crops for this study. Analysis of the cleaned sample extracts on a gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and confirmation on the Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed dominance of organochlorine pesticides. Organophosphorous pesticides (parathion and marathion) were only detected in some samples, however, in most cases with higher concentrations compared to organochlorine pesticides. Levels of pesticide residues detected in vegetables were up to: parathion 5.07 μg/Kg, marathion 3.73 μg/Kg, α-endosulfan 0.32 μg/Kg, β-endosulfan 0.53 μg/Kg, dieldrin 1.36 μg/Kg, γ-HCH 0.25 μg/Kg, α-HCH 0.09 μg/Kg, and p, p'-DDT 0.64 μg/Kg. These results clearly show that vegetables are contaminated with different pesticide residues. However, the total levels of pesticide residues in both tomatoes and cabbages are lower than their respective codex alimentarius maximum residue levels (MRLs). This means that the vegetables produced in the area are suitable for human consumption.

  17. Automatic Assessment of Pathological Voice Quality Using Higher-Order Statistics in the LPC Residual Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiYeoun Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A preprocessing scheme based on linear prediction coefficient (LPC residual is applied to higher-order statistics (HOSs for automatic assessment of an overall pathological voice quality. The normalized skewness and kurtosis are estimated from the LPC residual and show statistically meaningful distributions to characterize the pathological voice quality. 83 voice samples of the sustained vowel /a/ phonation are used in this study and are independently assessed by a speech and language therapist (SALT according to the grade of the severity of dysphonia of GRBAS scale. These are used to train and test classification and regression tree (CART. The best result is obtained using an optima l decision tree implemented by a combination of the normalized skewness and kurtosis, with an accuracy of 92.9%. It is concluded that the method can be used as an assessment tool, providing a valuable aid to the SALT during clinical evaluation of an overall pathological voice quality.

  18. Assessment of the radiological conditions in areas of Kuwait with residues of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabianca, T.; Danesi, P.R.; Linsley, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 1991 Gulf War was the first conflict in which DU munitions were used extensively. After this conflict, questions arose regarding the possible link between exposure to ionizing radiation from DU and harmful biological effects. In view of these concerns, the Government of Kuwait, in February 2001, requested the IAEA to conduct an assessment to evaluate the possible radiological impact of residues of DU munitions from the 1991 Gulf War at 11 locations in Kuwait. For this purpose, the IAEA assembled a team of senior experts, who visited Kuwait in September 2001 to carry out a preliminary assessment of the sites and to evaluate the available information. In February 2002 scientists from the IAEA, the Spiez Laboratory (Switzerland), representing UNEP, and the Radiation Protection Department of the Ministry of Health of Kuwait, carried out a sampling campaign at these sites. Around 200 environmental samples, including soil, water and vegetation, were collected during the campaign and subsequently analysed. This study constitutes the first comprehensive radiological assessment of compliance with international radiation protection criteria and standards for areas with residues of DU munitions conducted under the auspices of the IAEA. The findings of this investigation indicate that DU does not pose a radiological hazard to the population of Kuwait. Annual radiation doses arising from exposure to DU residues would be of a few micro-sieverts, well below the annual doses from natural sources of radiation and far below the reference level recommended by the IAEA as a criterion to help establish whether remedial actions are necessary. DU penetrators can still be found at some of the locations visited. Prolonged skin contact with these residues is the only possible pathway that could result in exposures of radiological significance. As long as access to these areas remains restricted, the likelihood that members of the public could come into contact with these residues is low

  19. Analysis and radiological assessment of residues containing NORM materials resulting from earlier activities including modelling of typical industrial residues. Pt. 1. Historical investigation of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and concepts for site identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, Andreas; Niedermayer, Matthias; Sitte, Beate; Hamel, Peter Michael

    2007-01-01

    Natural radionuclides are part of the human environment and of the raw materials used. Technical processes may cause their accumulation in residues, and the result will be so-called NORM materials (Naturally occurring radioactive material). The amended Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2001) specifies how the public should be protected, but there are also residues dating back before the issuing of the StrlSchV 2001, the so-called NORM residues. The project intended to assess the risks resulting from these residues. It comprises four parts. Part 1 was for clarification of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and for the development of concepts to detect them. The criterion for their radiological relevance was their activity per mass unit and the material volume accumulated through the centuries. The former was calculated from a wide bibliographic search in the relevant literature on radiation protection, while the mass volume was obtained by a detailed historical search of the consumption of materials that may leave NORM residues. These are, in particular, residues from coal and ore mining and processing. To identify concrete sites, relevant data sources were identified, and a concept for identification of concrete NORM residues was developed on this basis. (orig.) [de

  20. Materials for Nuclear Plants From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The clamor for non-carbon dioxide emitting energy production has directly  impacted on the development of nuclear energy. As new nuclear plants are built, plans and designs are continually being developed to manage the range of challenging requirement and problems that nuclear plants face especially when managing the greatly increased operating temperatures, irradiation doses and extended design life spans. Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments  provides a comprehensive treatment of the structural materials for nuclear power plants with emphasis on advanced design concepts.   Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments approaches structural materials with a systemic approach. Important components and materials currently in use as well as those which can be considered in future designs are detailed, whilst the damage mechanisms responsible for plant ageing are discussed and explained. Methodologies for materials characterization, material...

  1. Computer-aided assessment of regional abdominal fat with food residue removal in CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Caturegli, Giorgio; Davatzikos, Christos; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-11-01

    Separate quantification of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat regions is essential to understand the role of regional adiposity as risk factor in epidemiological studies. Fat quantification is often based on computed tomography (CT) because fat density is distinct from other tissue densities in the abdomen. However, the presence of intestinal food residues with densities similar to fat may reduce fat quantification accuracy. We introduce an abdominal fat quantification method in CT with interest in food residue removal. Total fat was identified in the feature space of Hounsfield units and divided into subcutaneous and visceral components using model-based segmentation. Regions of food residues were identified and removed from visceral fat using a machine learning method integrating intensity, texture, and spatial information. Cost-weighting and bagging techniques were investigated to address class imbalance. We validated our automated food residue removal technique against semimanual quantifications. Our feature selection experiments indicated that joint intensity and texture features produce the highest classification accuracy at 95%. We explored generalization capability using k-fold cross-validation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with variable k. Losses in accuracy and area under ROC curve between maximum and minimum k were limited to 0.1% and 0.3%. We validated tissue segmentation against reference semimanual delineations. The Dice similarity scores were as high as 93.1 for subcutaneous fat and 85.6 for visceral fat. Computer-aided regional abdominal fat quantification is a reliable computational tool for large-scale epidemiological studies. Our proposed intestinal food residue reduction scheme is an original contribution of this work. Validation experiments indicate very good accuracy and generalization capability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Regulations and decisions in environmental impact assessment of residues radioactivity content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adir Janete Godoy dos

    2005-01-01

    Surveillance of natural radionuclides in the environment did not have high priority over many years compared to that of man-made radioactivity. There is, however, an increasing interest in such measurements since enhanced exposure to natural radioactivity is receiving the same legal weight as any other radiation exposure. In this context the surveillance of technologically enhanced naturally occurring materials, called TENORM becomes important. In Brazil, the industries of processing and chemical compounds production were developed based on mining, milling, transformation and manufacture of ores from sedimentary origin, ignea or metamorphic, which must determine the radioactive composition of the generated solid wastes and residues. Many solids residues stored in the environment has been of environmental concern facing the industries and environmentalists in Brazil as it presents a potential threat to the surrounding environment and to individuals occupationally exposed. Radiation protection regulations have not been applied yet to these industries, as the Brazilian regulatory agency (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN) has only recently published a regulatory guide concerning mining and milling of naturally occurring radioactive materials, which may generate enhanced concentrations of radionuclides. With respect to external and internal exposure to natural radionuclides from the solid residues storage, the nuclides of 232 Th, 235 U and 238 U decay chains are relevant, due to the exposure of workers as well as of members of the public. Radionuclides released from a source can be present as ions, molecules, complexes, mononuclear or polynuclear species, colloids, pseudocolloids, particles or fragments varying in size (nominal molecular mass), structure, morphology, density, valence and charge properties. One of the main points in environmental impact assessment is to identify whether the chemical availability is under influence of these speciation

  3. RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE RESIDUAL CORTICAL FUNCTION OF OBSTRUCTIVE NEPHROPATHIES

    OpenAIRE

    川村, 寿一; 伊藤, 坦; 王, 本欽; 吉田, 修; 藤田, 透

    1980-01-01

    The diagnostic value of 99m-Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy was assessed in 156 kidneys of 107 patients with a variety of obstructive nephropathies. DMSA renal cortical imaging well demonstrated morphological changes in the renal parenchyma around the dilated pelvocalyceal system. DMSA renal uptake, as a marker of cortical functioning mass, paralleled the grading of the hydronephrotic changes on IVP. DMSA renal scintigram well visualizes the residual functioning area in the renal parenchyma and DM...

  4. The Use of Quantitative SPECT/CT Imaging to Assess Residual Limb Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    of secondary health ef- fects following traumatic extremity injuries places a significant physical and psychosocial burden on SMs with LL and LS...been reported as the most important health -related physical condition con- tributing to a reduced QoL among veterans who had sustained a traumatic...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0669 TITLE: The Use of Quantitative SPECT/CT Imaging to Assess Residual Limb Health PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  5. Pesticide residue assessment in three selected agricultural production systems in the Choluteca River Basin of Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammerbauer, J.; Moncada, J.

    1999-01-01

    There is a basic lack of information about the presence of pesticide residues in the environment in Central America. Over the period of February 1995 to June 1997, river, well, lagoon and spring water samples, as well as soil, fish tissue, lagoon bed sediments and some foodstuffs were taken from the greater Cholutecan River Basin of Honduras and analyzed for pesticide residues. These were collected at three separate sites (La Lima, Zamorano and Choluteca), each characterized by differing agricultural production systems. The main pesticide residues found in soil samples were dieldrin and p,p'-DDT, while river water samples were found to have detectable levels of heptachlor, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, with lagoon and well water also being shown to contain heptachlor. These pesticides detected were in more than 20% of the samples assessed. In river water samples more pesticide residues at higher concentrations were found to be associated with areas of more intensive agricultural production. The fewest pesticides with lowest concentrations were found in the small subwatershed associated with traditional agricultural production. Although the pesticides found in the soils at the three sites were generally similar they tended to be higher in the southern part of the Cholutecan watershed, followed by the central zone, with the lowest concentrations being found in the more traditional production zone. In lagoon and well water samples more pesticides, but mostly in lower concentrations were detected at the traditional production site than at the others. Ten pesticide compounds were detected in fish tissue, mainly organochlorines, some of which were also found in lagoon sediments. In terms of food products, almost no pesticides were detected in vegetables, but the kidney adipose tissue taken from slaughtered cows was shown to have a tendency to contain some organochlorines. Spring water in the traditional agricultural production zone contained three organochlorine compounds

  6. A method for assessing residual NAPL based on organic chemical concentrations in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Mackay, D.M.; Cherry, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Ground water contamination by non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals is a serious concern at many industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. NAPL in the form of immobile residual contamination, or pools of mobile or potentially mobile NAPL, can represent continuing sources of ground water contamination. In order to develop rational and cost-effective plans for remediation of soil and ground water contamination at such sites, it is essential to determine if non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals are present in the subsurface and delineate the zones of NAPL contamination. Qualitatively, soil analyses that exhibit chemical concentrations in the percent range or >10,000 mg/kg would generally be considered to indicate the presence of NAPL. However, the results of soil analyses are seldom used in a quantitative manner to assess the possible presence of residual NAPL contamination when chemical concentrations are lower and the presence of NAPL is not obvious. The assessment of the presence of NAPL in soil samples is possible using the results of chemical and physical analyses of the soil, and the fundamental principles of chemical partitioning in unsaturated or saturated soil. The method requires information on the soil of the type typically considered in ground water contamination studies and provides a simple tool for the investigators of chemical spill and waste disposal sites to assess whether soil chemical analyses indicate the presence of residual NAPL in the subsurface

  7. Life-cycle assessment of selected management options for air pollution control residues from waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Based on available technology and emission data seven selected management options for air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. Scenarios were evaluated with respect to both non-toxicity impact categories (e.g. global warming) and toxicity related impact categories (e.g. ecotoxicity and human toxicity). The assessment addressed treatment and final placement of 1 tonne of APC residue in seven scenarios: 1) direct landfilling without treatment (baseline), 2) backfilling in salt mines, 3) neutralization of waste acid, 4) filler material in asphalt, 5) Ferrox stabilization, 6) vitrification, and 7) melting with automobile shredder residues (ASR). The management scenarios were selected as examples of the wide range of different technologies available worldwide while at the same time using realistic technology data. Results from the LCA were discussed with respect to importance of: energy consumption/substitution, material substitution, leaching, air emissions, time horizon aspects for the assessment, and transportation distances. The LCA modeling showed that thermal processes were associated with the highest loads in the non-toxicity categories (energy consumption), while differences between the remaining alternatives were small and generally considered insignificant. In the toxicity categories, all treatment/utilization options were significantly better than direct landfilling without treatment (lower leaching), although the thermal processes had somewhat higher impacts than the others options (air emissions). Transportation distances did not affect the overall ranking of the management alternatives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of agroforestry residue potentials for the bioeconomy in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorenz, Andrea; Wietschel, Lars; Stindt, Dennis; Tuma, Axel

    2018-03-01

    The biobased chemical industry is characterised by strong growth. Innovative products and materials such as biopolymers have been developed, and current European demand for biopolymers exceeds the domestic supply. Agroforestry residues can serve as main sources of the basic building blocks for chemicals and materials. This work assesses sustainably available agroforestry residues to feed a high added-value materials and product bioeconomy. To evaluate bioeconomic potential, a structured three-step approach is applied. Cultivation practices, sustainability issues, legislative restrictions, technical limitations and competitive applications are considered. All data regarding bioeconomic potential are processed on a regional level and mapped by ArcGIS. Our results identify wheat straw as the most promising source in the agricultural sector, followed by maize stover, barley straw and rape straw, which all contain a total concentration of lignocellulose of more than 80% of dry matter. In the forestry sector, residue bark from two coniferous species, spruce and pine, is the most promising source, with approximately 70% lignocellulose. Additionally, coniferous bark contains considerable amounts of tannin, which has attracted increasing interest for industrial utilisation. A sensitivity analysis concerning removal rates, residue-to-crop ratios, changes in farming technologies and competing applications is applied at the end of the study to consolidate our results.

  9. Risk assessment for children exposed to DDT residues in various milk types from the Greek market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Ioannis N; Goumenou, Marina; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Ozcagli, Eren; Vynias, Dionysios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of residues of DDT and its metabolites was monitored in 196 cow milk samples of various pasteurized commercial types collected from the Greek market. Residue levels were determined by GC-MS analysis. In 97.4% of the samples at least one DDT isomer or one of the DDT metabolites was detected, in levels not exceeding the maximum permitted residue level by the EU. Hazard Index for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects was estimated under two assumptions: a) using DDT concentrations from positive samples and b) imputing LOD/2 as an arbitrary concentration for negative samples. No statistically significant differences in detected or summed residue (p > 0.05) concentrations between different milk types were observed, with the exception of specific metabolites of DDT in some milk types. Exposure assessment scenarios were developed for children aged 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 years old based on estimated body weights and daily milk consumption. Hazard Indices for non-carcinogenic effects were below 0.109 covering also carcinogenic effects according to WHO approach. The cancer risk values for carcinogenic effects according to the US EPA Cancer Benchmark Concentration approach, ranged from 0.4 to 18. For both effects the highest values were calculated for the 1- to 3-year-old age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Residual Isocyanates in Medical Devices and Products: A Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a pilot qualitative and quantitative assessment of residual isocyanates and their potential initial exposures in neonates, as little is known about their contact effect. After a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU stockroom inventory, polyurethane (PU and PU foam (PUF devices and products were qualitatively evaluated for residual isocyanates using Surface SWYPE ™ . Those containing isocyanates were quantitatively tested for methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI species, using UPLC-UV-MS/MS method. Ten of 37 products and devices tested, indicated both free and bound residual surface isocyanates; PU/PUF pieces contained aromatic isocyanates; one product contained aliphatic isocyanates. Overall, quantified mean MDI concentrations were low (4,4‘-MDI = 0.52 to 140.1 pg/mg and (2,4‘-MDI = 0.01 to 4.48 pg/mg. The 4,4‘-MDI species had the highest measured concentration (280 pg/mg. Commonly used medical devices/products contain low, but measurable concentrations of residual isocyanates. Quantifying other isocyanate species and neonatal skin exposure to isocyanates from these devices and products requires further investigation.

  11. Dynamic integrated assessment of bioenergy technologies for energy production utilizing agricultural residues: An input–output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic input–output model is developed with bioenergy technologies complemented. • Availability of agricultural residues for bioenergy technologies is evaluated. • Trends in electricity and biofuel production are simulated dynamically. • Net profit and GHG mitigation contribution of bioenergy technologies are assessed. • Combustion power generation and briquette fuel are more advantageous. - Abstract: In order to facilitate regional agricultural residue utilization for energy production through bioenergy technologies, a dynamic input–output model is developed to estimate and assess the energy, economic and environmental performances of industrialization of five bioenergy technologies within a 15-year time horizon. Electricity and solid, gaseous and liquid biofuels are energy products of bioenergy technologies. Bioenergy technologies are complemented into regional input–output framework and combined with socioeconomic activities aided by their bottom-up economic and energy parameters. The simulation results for the target area indicate that the agricultural residues available for bioenergy technologies could amount to 55.16 million t, facilitating to 8.38 million t coal-equivalent bioenergy production by 2025. A 3.1% net reduction in accumulative greenhouse gas emission compared with the “business as usual” case could be achieved owing to substitution of fossil energy with electricity and biofuels produced by bioenergy technologies. From energy production, economic benefits and greenhouse gas mitigation three aspects integratedly, direct-combustion power generation and briquette fuel are more advantageous in the target area. The quantified energy, economic and environmental performances of bioenergy technologies are expected to give recommendations for their industrial development.

  12. Assessing the potentials of agricultural residues for energy: What the CDM experience of India tells us about their availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhau, Antoine; Fallot, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The potential of agricultural residues has been assessed worldwide and at different scales. Interpreting results so as to determine the possible role of this biomass feedstock in energy supplies, requires a clearer understanding of the conditions in which residues can effectively be mobilized for energy production. The experience of India with hundreds of projects where agricultural residues are transformed to heat and power partially sold to the grid, is analyzed and checked against the residue potentials that have been assessed in this country. We find that, in the absence of technological improvements in biomass conversion, the apparent success of Indian bioenergy projects is not sustainable in the long run due to rapid exhaustion effects on residue availability, coupled with the increasing costs that would be difficult to compensate by higher electricity tariffs. We also identify there is a serious agricultural issue which needs to be addressed in regard to degraded soils; this could lead to the reallocation of all primary residues, as well as part of secondary residues to soil and livestock needs. Such perspectives are considered within three contrasted scenario storylines. - Highlights: • India generates 572.10 6 t crop residues, 15–25% are potentially available. • Registered CDM projects for electricity generation use 17% of this energy source. • Some residues will be exhausted before the implementation of planned projects. • Residue scarcity translates to new markets with rising prices. • Increased tariffs will be necessary to compensate biomass cost increase

  13. The treatment of residual stress in fracture assessment of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.; Knowles, J.

    1992-01-01

    The treatment of weld residual stress in the fracture assessment of cylindrical pressure vessels is considered through partitioning the stress into membrane, bending and self-balancing through wall components. The influence of each on fracture behavior is discussed. Stress intensity factor solutions appropriate to each type of stress are presented. Short range, medium range and long range stress categories are identified according to simple rules relating the effect of increasing crack length to stress intensity factor and ligament net stress. Proposals are made on how the stress intensity factor from these stress types may be incorporated into a Kr, Lr based fracture assessment

  14. Residue Levels and Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Pistachio Nuts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Emami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pistachio is one of the main nutrients, not only as a strategic crop but also as a main type of nut, in Iranians’ food cycle. The aim of this study was to measure the relative safety of Iranian pistachio based on the standard pesticide’s residue limits, which should be monitored and assessed in the cultivation of pistachio in order to confirm its public health. Methods: Fifty samples of pistachios of different brands were collected from Tehran markets in 2015. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe sampling method was used in order to determine the pesticide’s residue in the pistachio nuts by Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC/MS.The method was validated with related parameters. Recovery took place at five concentration rates (n=3 ranging from 81.40% to 93.08% with the majority of RelativeStandard Deviation being lower than 20%. Limits of detection and quantification for all the pesticides were 2µg/kg and10µg/kg, respectively. The validated method seemed to be appropriate for the analysis of pesticide’s residue in pistachio nuts. Results: Identified pesticides included Fenitrothion, Carbaryl and Diazinon. Detectable pesticide’s residue existed in 10% (5 samples of the samples. Conclusion: All the results were compared with the Iran’s National Standards and the European Maximum Residue Limits. As compared to the acceptable daily intake, the calculated daily intake of each pesticide was much lower than the standard level, which could not cause any public health problem.

  15. Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Popescu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, which have fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence, hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB, and it analyses the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040. Current hydropower production is estimated based on historical available data, while future energy production is deduced from the available water in the catchment (estimated based on measured hydrographs of the past years, whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970–2000 and topographical characteristics of the area.

    Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called VAPIDRO-ASTE released by the Research on Energy System (Italy. The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering first that the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served, and then hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

  16. Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I.; Brandimarte, L.; Perera, M. S. U.; Peviani, M.

    2012-08-01

    La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which have fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence, hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB), and it analyses the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040). Current hydropower production is estimated based on historical available data, while future energy production is deduced from the available water in the catchment (estimated based on measured hydrographs of the past years), whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970-2000) and topographical characteristics of the area. Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called VAPIDRO-ASTE released by the Research on Energy System (Italy). The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering first that the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served, and then hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

  17. [Joint application of mathematic models in assessing the residual risk of hepatitis C virus transmitted through blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Jia, Yao; Xie, Yun-zheng; Li, Xiu-mei; Liu, Xiao-ying; Wu, Xiao-fei

    2011-09-01

    The practicable and effective methods for residual risk assessment on transfusion-transmitted disease was to establish the mathematic models. Based on the characteristics of the repeat donors which donated their blood on a regular base, a model of sero-conversion during the interval of donations was established to assess the incidence of the repeat donors. Based on the characteristics of the prevalence in the population, a model of 'prevalence increased with the age of the donor' was established to assess the incidence of those first-time donors. And based on the impact of the windows period through blood screening program, a model of residual risk associated with the incidence and the length of the windows period was established to assess the residual risk of blood transfusion. In this paper, above said 3 kinds of mathematic models were jointly applied to assess the residual risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) which was transmitted through blood transfusion in Shanghai, based on data from the routine blood collection and screening program. All the anti-HCV unqualified blood donations were confirmed before assessment. Results showed that the residual risk of HCV transmitted through blood transfusion during Jan. 1(st), 2007 to Dec. 31(st), 2008 in Shanghai was 1:101 000. Data showed that the results of residual risk assessment with mathematic models was valuable. The residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV in Shanghai was at a safe level, according to the results in this paper.

  18. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium sand residues at the Lowman, Idaho, site. Services normally include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 90,000 tons of sand residues at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation is also a factor. The two alternative actions presented are dike construction, fencing, and maintenance (Option I); and consolidation of the piles, addition of a 2-ft-thick stabilization cover, and on-site cleanup (Option II). Both options include remedial action at off-site structures. Cost estimates for the two options are $393,000 and $590,000

  19. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium sand residues at the Lowman, Idaho, site. Services normally include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 90,000 tons of sand residues at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation is also a factor. The two alternative actions presented are dike construction, fencing, and maintenance (Option I); and consolidation of the piles, addition of a 2-ft-thick stabilization cover, and on-site cleanup (Option II). Both options include remedial action at off-site structures. Cost estimates for the two options are $393,000 and $590,000.

  20. Distinct Residues Contribute to Motility Repression and Autoregulation in the Proteus mirabilis Fimbria-Associated Transcriptional Regulator AtfJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Nadine J; Chan, Kun-Wei; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Pearson, Melanie M

    2016-08-01

    Proteus mirabilis contributes to a significant number of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, where coordinated regulation of adherence and motility is critical for ascending disease progression. Previously, the mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbria-associated transcriptional regulator MrpJ has been shown to both repress motility and directly induce the transcription of its own operon; in addition, it affects the expression of a wide range of cellular processes. Interestingly, 14 additional mrpJ paralogs are included in the P. mirabilis genome. Looking at a selection of MrpJ paralogs, we discovered that these proteins, which consistently repress motility, also have nonidentical functions that include cross-regulation of fimbrial operons. A subset of paralogs, including AtfJ (encoded by the ambient temperature fimbrial operon), Fim8J, and MrpJ, are capable of autoinduction. We identified an element of the atf promoter extending from 487 to 655 nucleotides upstream of the transcriptional start site that is responsive to AtfJ, and we found that AtfJ directly binds this fragment. Mutational analysis of AtfJ revealed that its two identified functions, autoregulation and motility repression, are not invariably linked. Residues within the DNA-binding helix-turn-helix domain are required for motility repression but not necessarily autoregulation. Likewise, the C-terminal domain is dispensable for motility repression but is essential for autoregulation. Supported by a three-dimensional (3D) structural model, we hypothesize that the C-terminal domain confers unique regulatory capacities on the AtfJ family of regulators. Balancing adherence with motility is essential for uropathogens to successfully establish a foothold in their host. Proteus mirabilis uses a fimbria-associated transcriptional regulator to switch between these antagonistic processes by increasing fimbrial adherence while simultaneously downregulating flagella. The discovery of multiple

  1. An environmental assessment of electricity production from slaughterhouse residues. Linking urban, industrial and waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santagata, R.; Ripa, M.; Ulgiati, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal by-products use for electricity generation is investigated as a case-study. • Different methodological approaches to deal with by-products are explored in LCA. • Adopting a holistic perspective is crucial to achieve a circular economy framework. - Abstract: The food processing industry continues to grow, generating large amount of organically rich waste flows per year: these processors face significant economic and environmental pressures for appropriate conversion and disposal of these waste flows. Solid waste disposal problems, mostly in highly urbanized environments, energy shortages (primarily oil) and/or high petroleum prices, as well as environmental issues such as the shrinking landfill capacity, can all be addressed by converting waste material into useful and saleable products. This paper brings to the attention a possible strategy in order to meet the general EU directives concerning the residues utilization and percentage contribution for the total energy consumption by 2020, by evaluating the use of animal by-products (category 3, as defined in the directive 2002/1774/EC) for energy purposes. Slaughterhouse waste represents an important potential source of renewable energy: on average, 40–50% of a live animal is waste, with a potential energy content close to diesel fuel. Treatment of animal waste from slaughterhouse and the subsequent conversion to electricity is investigated as a case study in the Campania Region (Italy): the animal waste undergoes a rendering process, to separate a protein-rich fraction useful for animal meal production and a fat-rich fraction, to be combusted in a diesel engine for power and heat generation (CHP). An environmental assessment of the entire process is performed by means of LCA, providing a quantitative understanding of the plant processing. The study aims to understand to what extent electricity production from animal fat is environmentally sound and if there are steps and/or components

  2. Magnitude of cyantraniliprole residues in tomato following open field application: pre-harvest interval determination and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhat, Farag; Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Shalaby, Shehata

    2018-02-05

    Cyantraniliprole is an anthranilic diamide insecticide, belonging to the ryanoid class, with a broad range of applications against several pests. In the presented work, a reliable analytical technique employing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD) for analyzing cyantraniliprole residues in tomato was developed. The method was then applied to field-incurred tomato samples collected after applications under open field conditions. The latter aimed to ensure the safe application of cyantraniliprole to tomato and contribute the derived residue data to the risk assessment under field conditions. Sample preparation involved a single step extraction with acetonitrile and sodium chloride for partitioning. The extract was purified utilizing florisil as cleanup reagent. The developed method was further evaluated by comparing the analytical results with those obtained using the QuEChERS technique. The novel method outbalanced QuEChERS regarding matrix interferences in the analysis, while it met all guideline criteria. Hence, it showed excellent linearity over the assayed concentration and yielded satisfactory recovery rate in the range of 88.9 to 96.5%. The half-life of degradation of cyantraniliprole was determined at 2.6 days. Based on the Codex MRL, the pre-harvest interval (PHI) for cyantraniliprole on tomato was 3 days, after treatment at the recommended dose. To our knowledge, the present work provides the first record on PHI determination of cyantraniliprole in tomato under open field conditions in Egypt and the broad Mediterranean region.

  3. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenzel, Paula V., E-mail: p.v.prenzel@student.rug.nl; Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl

    2014-02-15

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution.

  4. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenzel, Paula V.; Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution

  5. Assessing potential forest and steel inter-industry residue utilisation by sequential chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makela, M.

    2012-10-15

    Traditional process industries in Finland and abroad are facing an emerging waste disposal problem due recent regulatory development which has increased the costs of landfill disposal and difficulty in acquiring new sites. For large manufacturers, such as the forest and ferrous metals industries, symbiotic cooperation of formerly separate industrial sectors could enable the utilisation waste-labeled residues in manufacturing novel residue-derived materials suitable for replacing commercial virgin alternatives. Such efforts would allow transforming the current linear resource use and disposal models to more cyclical ones and thus attain savings in valuable materials and energy resources. The work described in this thesis was aimed at utilising forest and carbon steel industry residues in the experimental manufacture of novel residue-derived materials technically and environmentally suitable for amending agricultural or forest soil properties. Single and sequential chemical extractions were used to compare the pseudo-total concentrations of trace elements in the manufactured amendment samples to relevant Finnish statutory limit values for the use of fertilizer products and to assess respective potential availability under natural conditions. In addition, the quality of analytical work and the suitability of sequential extraction in the analysis of an industrial solid sample were respectively evaluated through the analysis of a certified reference material and by X-ray diffraction of parallel sequential extraction residues. According to the acquired data, the incorporation of both forest and steel industry residues, such as fly ashes, lime wastes, green liquor dregs, sludges and slags, led to amendment liming capacities (34.9-38.3%, Ca equiv., d.w.) comparable to relevant commercial alternatives. Only the first experimental samples showed increased concentrations of pseudo-total cadmium and chromium, of which the latter was specified as the trivalent Cr(III). Based on

  6. Environmental assessment of post-consumer wood and forest residues gasification: The case study of Barcelona metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puy, Neus; Rieradevall, Joan; Bartroli, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    An energy and environmental analysis of post-consumer wood and forest residues gasification in metropolitan areas is carried out to determine the most critical stages of their life cycle. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology is used to identify the environmental load of three defined scenarios: (1) Post-consumer wood from recycling points; (2) Post-consumer wood from bulky wastes; and (3) Forest residues. The stages considered are biomass pre-treatment, transport and gasification. Biomass pre-treatment comprise different steps: separation, chipping, sifting, post-chipping for all the scenarios; except for the drying step which is only entailed to Scenario 3. The midpoint impact categories taken into account are: abiotic depletion (AD), global warming (GW), ozone layer depletion (ODP), human toxicity (HT), acidification (A) and eutrophication (E). Results show that, due to the high physical requirements for biomass gasification, the most appropriate biomass is that of Scenario 1, since forest residues require a drying stage, which involves high energy consumption and high environmental impact. Energy consumption in biomass pre-treatment and transport stages is low compared to the energy obtained from gasification, which represents the 5% in Scenario 1; 7% in Scenario 2; and 13% in Scenario 3. Biomass pre-treatment is associated to an important contribution in AD and ODP impact categories, calculated as 71% and 98% of the overall impact. The transport stage is of no significant influence either in the scenarios or in the impact categories (less than 24% of the overall impact). Finally, gasification represents an impact of 3-78% of the different impact categories. (author)

  7. The value of breast lumpectomy margin assessment as a predictor of residual tumor burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wazer, David E.; Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K.; Schmid, Christopher H.; Ruthazer, Robin; Kramer, Bradley; Safaii, Homa; Graham, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Margin assessment is commonly used as a guide to the relative aggressiveness of therapy for breast conserving treatment (BCT), though its value as a predictor of the presence, type, or extent of residual tumor has not been conclusively studied. Controversy continues to exist as to what constitutes a margin that is 'positive', 'close', or 'negative'. We attempt to address these issues through an analysis of re-excision specimens. Patients and Methods: As part of an institutional prospective practice approach for BCT, 265 cases with AJCC Stage I/II carcinoma with an initial excision margin that was ≤2 mm or indeterminate were subjected to re-excision. The probability of residual tumor (+RE) was evaluated with respect to tumor size, histopathologic subtype, relative closeness of the measured margin, the extent of margin positivity graded as focal, minimal, moderate, or extensive, and the extent of specimen processing as reflected in the number of cut sections per specimen volume (S:V ratio). The amount of residual tumor was graded as microscopic, small, medium, or large. The histopathologic subtype of tumor in the re-excision specimen was classified as having an invasive component (ICa) or pure DCIS (DCIS). Results: The primary excision margin was positive, >0≤1 mm, 1.1-2 mm, and indeterminate in 60%, 18%, 5%, and 17%, respectively. The predominant histopathologies in the initial excision specimens were invasive ductal (IDC) (50%) and tumors with an extensive intraductal component (EIC) (43%). The histopathology of the initial excision specimen was highly predictive of the histopathology of tumor found on re-excision, as residual DCIS was found in 60% of +RE specimens with initial histopathology of EIC compared to 26% for IDC (p 0.001). Neither the extent of margin positivity nor the extent of tumor in the re-excision were significantly related to the initial histopathologic subtype; however, a +RE was seen in 59% of EIC, 43% of IDC, and 32% of invasive

  8. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: The importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, E., E-mail: elia@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Butera, S. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Kosson, D.S. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Box 1831 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Van Zomeren, A. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Department of Environmental Risk Assessment, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Van der Sloot, H.A. [Hans van der Sloot Consultancy, Dorpsstraat 216, 1721 BV Langedijk (Netherlands); Astrup, T.F. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Relevance of metal leaching in waste management system LCAs was assessed. • Toxic impacts from leaching could not be disregarded. • Uncertainty of toxicity, due to background activities, determines LCA outcomes. • Parameters such as pH and L/S affect LCA results. • Data modelling consistency and coverage within an LCA are crucial. - Abstract: Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system boundaries. The importance of data quality and parameter selection in the overall LCA results was evaluated, and an innovative method to assess metal transport into the environment was applied, in order to determine emissions to the soil and water compartments for use in an LCA. It was found that toxic impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities in the scenario (e.g. electricity production). Based on the analysis of relevant parameters relative to leaching, and on general results

  9. Assessment of ASME code examinations on regenerative, letdown and residual heat removal heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, Stephen R.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.; Simonen, Fredric A.; Tinsley, G A.; Lydell, B.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Inservice inspection requirements for pressure retaining welds in the regenerative, letdown, and residual heat removal heat exchangers are prescribed in Section XI Articles IWB and IWC of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Accordingly, volumetric and/or surface examinations are performed on heat exchanger shell, head, nozzle-to-head, and nozzle-to-shell welds. Inspection difficulties associated with the implementation of these Code-required examinations have forced operating nuclear power plants to seek relief from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The nature of these relief requests are generally concerned with metallurgical, geometry, accessibility, and radiation burden. Over 60% of licensee requests to the NRC identify significant radiation exposure burden as the principle reason for relief from the ASME Code examinations on regenerative heat exchangers. For the residual heat removal heat exchangers, 90% of the relief requests are associated with geometry and accessibility concerns. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was funded by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to review current practice with regard to volumetric and/or surface examinations of shell welds of letdown heat exchangers regenerative heat exchangers and residual (decay) heat removal heat exchangers Design, operating, common preventative maintenance practices, and potential degradation mechanisms are reviewed. A detailed survey of domestic and international PWR-specific operating experience was performed to identify pressure boundary failures (or lack of failures) in each heat exchanger type and NSSS design. The service data survey was based on the PIPExp- database and covers PWR plants worldwide for the period 1970-2004. Finally a risk assessment of the current ASME Code inspection requirements for residual heat removal, letdown, and regenerative heat exchangers is performed. The results are then reviewed to discuss the examinations relative to plant safety and

  10. An ecotoxic risk assessment of residue materials produced by the plasma pyrolysis/vitrification (PP/V) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, N; Santos, Oliveira J F; Camacho, S L; Circeo, L J

    2002-01-01

    Plasma is the fourth state of matter, following the three states of solid, liquid and gas. Experience has amply demonstrated that solids exposed to the oxygen-deficient plasma flame are converted to liquid, and liquid exposed to the same flame is converted to gas. A low amount of vitrified solid residue material usually remains at the end of this process. Plasma pyrolysis/vitrification (PP/V) has been demonstrated as a safe, efficient, cost-effective technology for the treatment of wastes, including hazardous wastes. Besides the low amounts of gaseous byproducts that PP/V produces, the solid vitrified residue presents a low leachability of pollutants. Studies have been performed in many countries in order to assess the leachability of chemical substances. But from the results of identified studies, none has reported results on the ecotoxicological properties of the leachates. The aim of this study was to contribute to the assessment of ecotoxic risk of four different vitrified materials. Vitrified samples of contaminated soils, municipal solid wastes, and incinerator bottom ashes were submitted to the European leaching pre-standard test number prEN 12457-2. The leachates were analyzed for 22 chemical parameters. The biological characterization comprised the assessment of bioluminescence inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum bacterium, growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata algae and the germination inhibition of Lactuca sativa vegetable. The chemical and ecotoxicological results were analyzed according to the French proposal of Criteria on the Evaluation Methods of Waste Toxicity (CEMWT) and a Toxicity Classification System (TCS). The chemical and ecotoxicological results indicated a low leachability of pollutants and a low toxicity level of leachates. All samples studied were as below the TCS class 1 level (no significant toxicity observed) and as non-ecotoxic for CEMWT. Therefore, the environmental ecotoxic risk of the analyzed vitrified samples

  11. Bibliometric assessment of the Latin-American contributions in dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Polania, Felipe; Perilla-Gonzalez, Yuliana; Martinez-Pulgarin, Dayron F; Baquero-Rodriguez, Juan D; Munoz-Urbano, Marcela; Lagos-Gallego, Mariana; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas, Soraya; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Despite efforts in prevention and control of dengue, it is still a public health problem in the region. There are estimations of 13 million people affected in the Americas, therefore, it is of outmost importance to research it. An assessment on the Latin- American contributions on dengue was done. Bibliometric study at SCI (1980- 2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), LILACS (1980- 2013). Different study types, characterized by years, city/country of origin, journals and more productive authors, by country, cites and H index have been conducted. At SCI, 2598 articles were retrieved (21% of the total). Brazil was found to be the highest contributor (31.2%), then Puerto Rico (12.9%) and Mexico (10.7%). At Scopus, there are 2646 articles (16.7% of the total), 31.2% Brazil, 11.1% Mexico, 9.3% Cuba; the region received 41881 citations, 25.4% from Brazil (H index=45), 14.4% Cuba (H index=35) and 12.88% Puerto Rico (H index=38); 9.1% in Brazil were from Fundação Oswaldo Cruz; 1.6% of Mexico corresponded to Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, 4.9% of Cuba are from Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri. At Medline, there are 2799 records (33.9% from Brazil). At SciELO there are 825 records (46.6% Brazil). At LILACS, there are 1178 records (46.8% Brazil). Brazil is the best producer in the region. In Puerto Rico and Brazil, there observed the epidemiologic burden of the disease. Scientific production in bibliographical data bases, particularly regional, is low, as compared to the high impact of the disease of in urban zones of the region.

  12. AN ASSESSMENT OF CITIZEN CONTRIBUTED GROUND REFERENCE DATA FOR LAND COVER MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Foody

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that an accuracy assessment should be part of a thematic mapping programme. Authoritative good or best practices for accuracy assessment have been defined but are often impractical to implement. Key reasons for this situation are linked to the ground reference data used in the accuracy assessment. Typically, it is a challenge to acquire a large sample of high quality reference cases in accordance to desired sampling designs specified as conforming to good practice and the data collected are normally to some degree imperfect limiting their value to an accuracy assessment which implicitly assumes the use of a gold standard reference. Citizen sensors have great potential to aid aspects of accuracy assessment. In particular, they may be able to act as a source of ground reference data that may, for example, reduce sample size problems but concerns with data quality remain. The relative strengths and limitations of citizen contributed data for accuracy assessment are reviewed in the context of the authoritative good practices defined for studies of land cover by remote sensing. The article will highlight some of the ways that citizen contributed data have been used in accuracy assessment as well as some of the problems that require further attention, and indicate some of the potential ways forward in the future.

  13. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: the importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, E; Butera, S; Kosson, D S; Van Zomeren, A; Van der Sloot, H A; Astrup, T F

    2015-04-01

    Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system boundaries. The importance of data quality and parameter selection in the overall LCA results was evaluated, and an innovative method to assess metal transport into the environment was applied, in order to determine emissions to the soil and water compartments for use in an LCA. It was found that toxic impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities in the scenario (e.g. electricity production). Based on the analysis of relevant parameters relative to leaching, and on general results of the study, recommendations are provided regarding the use of leaching data in LCA studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental assessment of mild bisulfite pretreatment of forest residues into fermentable sugars for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaneshiudu, Ikechukwu C; Ganguly, Indroneil; Pierobon, Francesca; Bowers, Tait; Eastin, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Sugar production via pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic feedstock, in this case softwood harvest residues, is a critical step in the biochemical conversion pathway towards drop-in biofuels. Mild bisulfite (MBS) pretreatment is an emerging option for the breakdown and subsequent processing of biomass towards fermentable sugars. An environmental assessment of this process is critical to discern its future sustainability in the ever-changing biofuels landscape. The subsequent cradle-to-gate assessment of a proposed sugar production facility analyzes sugar made from woody biomass using MBS pretreatment across all seven impact categories (functional unit 1 kg dry mass sugar), with a specific focus on potential global warming and eutrophication impacts. The study found that the eutrophication impact (0.000201 kg N equivalent) is less than the impacts from conventional beet and cane sugars, while the global warming impact (0.353 kg CO2 equivalent) falls within the range of conventional processes. This work discusses some of the environmental impacts of designing and operating a sugar production facility that uses MBS as a method of treating cellulosic forest residuals. The impacts of each unit process in the proposed facility are highlighted. A comparison to other sugar-making process is detailed and will inform the growing biofuels literature.

  15. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase...... layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals...... and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment...

  16. Inspection procedure of buildings for the purpose of subsequent assessment of their residual life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolina Tat’yana Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers and asserts the need to obtain the results of inspection of a building at the stage of its commissioning in order to apply comprehensive methodology for assessing its residual life. The author proposes to build regression relationship by correlating the levels of the time series dynamics of stress at certain points of the object calculation scheme considering the results of subsequent surveys. It allows estimating the wear rate of structural elements. The assessment of the reliability and durability of the building frame in a deterministic form is based on the limit states method. The application of this method allows taking into account the random nature of not only the combination of existing loads, but also the strength properties of construction materials by creating a system of safety factors.

  17. Sustainability of bioethanol production from wheat with recycled residues as evaluated by Emergy assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppola, F.; Bastianoni, S.; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    , were considered. Material and energy flows were assessed to evaluate the bioethanol yield, the production efficiency in terms of Emergy used compared to energy produced (transformity), and the environmental load (ELR) in terms of use of non-renewable resources. These three indicators varied among......An Emergy assessment study of 24 bioethanol production scenarios was carried out for the comparison of bioethanol production using winter wheat grains and/or straw as feedstock and conversion technologies based on starch (1st generation) and/or lignocellulose (2nd generation). An integrated biomass...... utilization system (IBUS) was used for combining the two kinds of feedstock. The crop was cultivated under four combinations of Danish soil conditions (sand or sandy loam) and crop managements (organic or conventional). For each of the production processes, two scenarios, with or without recycling of residues...

  18. Assessing Psychological Health: The Contribution of Psychological Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskill, Ann; Denovan, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Balanced assessment of mental health involves assessing well-being and strengths as well as psychopathology. The character strengths of curiosity, gratitude, hope, optimism and forgiveness are assessed in 214 new undergraduates and their relationships to mental health, subjective well-being and self-esteem explored. Scoring the mental health scale…

  19. Not carbon neutral: Assessing the net emissions impact of residues burned for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Mary S.

    2018-03-01

    Climate mitigation requires emissions to peak then decline within two decades, but many mitigation models include 100 EJ or more of bioenergy, ignoring emissions from biomass oxidation. Treatment of bioenergy as ‘low carbon’ or carbon neutral often assumes fuels are agricultural or forestry residues that will decompose and emit CO2 if not burned for energy. However, for ‘low carbon’ assumptions about residues to be reasonable, two conditions must be met: biomass must genuinely be material left over from some other process; and cumulative net emissions, the additional CO2 emitted by burning biomass compared to its alternative fate, must be low or negligible in a timeframe meaningful for climate mitigation. This study assesses biomass use and net emissions from the US bioenergy and wood pellet manufacturing sectors. It defines the ratio of cumulative net emissions to combustion, manufacturing and transport emissions as the net emissions impact (NEI), and evaluates the NEI at year 10 and beyond for a variety of scenarios. The analysis indicates the US industrial bioenergy sector mostly burns black liquor and has an NEI of 20% at year 10, while the NEI for plants burning forest residues ranges from 41%-95%. Wood pellets have a NEI of 55%-79% at year 10, with net CO2 emissions of 14-20 tonnes for every tonne of pellets; by year 40, the NEI is 26%-54%. Net emissions may be ten times higher at year 40 if whole trees are harvested for feedstock. Projected global pellet use would generate around 1% of world bioenergy with cumulative net emissions of 2 Gt of CO2 by 2050. Using the NEI to weight biogenic CO2 for inclusion in carbon trading programs and to qualify bioenergy for renewable energy subsidies would reduce emissions more effectively than the current assumption of carbon neutrality.

  20. Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

    2011-08-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

  1. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia, E-mail: nataliaquinete@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Metrologia em Quimica, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Energia, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Fernandes, Daniella R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Avelar, Andre de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Geografia, Instituto de Geociencias, CCMN, Bloco F, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-919 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Erthal Santelli, Ricardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: > The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. > PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. > Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. > Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. > A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  2. Assessing the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted infections in the Philippine blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hilton Y; Belizario, Vicente Y; Juban, Noel R; Alejandria, Marissa M; Castillo-Carandang, Nina; Arcellana-Nuqui, Elizabeth; Mirasol, Ma Angelina; Cordero, Cynthia P; Sison, Olivia T; Rivera, Adovich S

    2014-09-01

    Due to a USAID-funded study on blood banks, a national policy was instituted in 1994 that set standards for Philippine blood services, promoted voluntary donation, and led to a ban on commercial blood banks. In this follow-up study, we assess the safety of the supply by determining the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted infections (syphilis, hepatitis B and C, HIV). We also identified unsafe facility practices and generated policy recommendations. A 1992 study found that transfusion-ready blood was not safe using the LQAS method (P > 0.05). We found that the 2012 residual risk became 0 to 0.9 percent attributable to the national policy. We noted poor to fair adherence to this policy. We identified unsafe practices such as use of rapid tests and lack of random blood retesting. Training and use of regional networks may improve safety. Despite improvement in safety, facilities complain of funding and logistical issues regarding compliance with the policy.

  3. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia; Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos; Fernandes, Daniella R.; Souza Avelar, Andre de; Erthal Santelli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: → The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. → PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. → Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. → Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. → A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  4. Assessment of heavy metal residues in water, fish tissue and human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: Residual levels of lead, chromium, cadmium and zinc in water and fish tissue from. Ubeji River ... Key Words : Heavy metal residues , Fish tissue, Human blood, Ubeji River. ... is of critical concern because of their toxicity and.

  5. Middle School Assessments that Contribute to Literacy Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Kevin; Whitley, Meredith A.; Manson, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Assessment in physical education is not new. What is new is a national focus on teacher evaluation systems that include the use of student achievement scores from administered assessments. An additional educational focus is on the implementation of Common Core Learning Standards in all subject areas, including physical education. Physical…

  6. Supporting Peer Assessment of Individual Contributions in Groupwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raban, Richard; Litchfield, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The ability to assess the work of others is a core attribute for most professionals. To develop this graduate attribute in our students requires the learning of self and peer evaluation, feedback, and review skills. This paper discusses the changing design of peer assessment and the impact of a new groupwork support tool within a capstone…

  7. Exploring assessment factors contributing to students' study strategies: literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    "Assessment steers students' learning" is a statement that has been used repeatedly without solid evidence in the literature. This manuscript aims to evaluate the published literatures on the effect of teaching learning environment in particular, the implemented assessment on students' learning

  8. Assessment of the potential radiological impact of residual contamination in the Maralinga and Emu areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.M.; Smith, J.

    1990-10-01

    The report presents an assessment of potential doses to future inhabitants of the Maralinga and Emu areas of Southern Australia, where nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s resulted in widespread residual radioactive contamination. Annual effective doses of several millisieverts would be expected to result from continual occupancy within contours enclosing areas of several hundred square kilometres. Larger predicted annual effective doses - of the order of 0.5 Sv -would be expected to occur from 100% occupancy in small regions immediately surrounding the test sites, but continual occupancy of such areas is highly unlikely because of their small size. The most significant dose pathways are inhalation of resuspended activity and ingestion of soil by infants. An analysis of the effects of uncertainties in the dose calculation indicated the uncertainty distribution on predicted doses from the inhalation pathway. (author)

  9. Assessing the contribution of Community-Based Natural Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adisa, B.O.

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Adisa, Banji O. ... Key words: Assessment, community-based, natural resources, socio-environmental sustainability, ... Natural resources occur within environments that are.

  10. Assessment of residual active chlorine in sodium hypochlorite solutions after dissolution of porcine incisor pulpal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, R M; Smith, T K; Kidd, B A; Evans, G E; Moule, A J

    2013-12-01

    In previous studies, surfactant-containing Hypochlor brands of sodium hypochlorite showed better tissue solubilizing abilities than Milton; differences not explained by original active chlorine content or presence of surfactant. It was postulated that exhaustion of active chlorine content could explain differences. This study aimed to assess whether Milton's poorer performance was due to exhaustion of active chlorine. Parallel experiments assessed the influence of titration methods, and the presence of chlorates, on active chlorine measurements. Time required to dissolve one or groups of 10 samples of porcine incisor pulp samples in Milton was determined. Residual active chlorine was assessed by thermometric titration. Iodometric and thermometric titration was carried out on samples of Milton. Chlorate content was also measured. Dissolution of single and 10 pulp samples caused a mean loss of 1% and 3% respectively of active chlorine, not being proportional to tissue dissolved. Thermometric ammonium ion titration resulted in 10% lower values than iodometric titration. Chlorate accounted for much of this difference. Depletion of active chlorine is not the reason for differences in tissue dissolving capabilities of Milton. Thermometric ammonium ion titration gives more accurate measurement of active chlorine content than iodometric titration. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Radio reduction of the vitamin K in ethanolic solution: Contribution to radical oxidation study of a glutamic residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fackir, L.

    1995-01-01

    The biological action of vitamin K may involve mono electronic exchanges. Therefore, in this work we achieved a radiolytical study on one land, of mono electronic reduction of vitamin K hydroquinone symbolized by KHsubn pp. We also studied the vitamin K2 model of glutamic residue( B - Glu ) by radiolytic mean. The study of radical mechanisms of vitamin K1 reduction in ethanolic solution showed that vitamin K1 is a good sensor of free radicals alpha - hydroxyethyles ( R sup . ) issued from the radiolysis of vitamin K1 ethanolic solutions, saturated with N sub2 O. The final product is hydroquinone K sub 1 H sub 2. It has been demonstrated that mono electronic reduction can be also initiated by solvated electrons. The mono electronic oxidation of K H sub p has been studied in ethanolic solution.The results showed that K H sub p is a good sensor of peroxyl radicals model (RO sub2) sup . issues from ethanol. The oxidation leads to the formation a dimeric from of the quinone K. All these results showed that the free radicals R sup . centred on carbon are efficient reducing agents of vitamin K1, and that the peroxyl radicals R Osub2 centred on oxygen are possible oxidants of KH sub p. At the end and for modeling the eventual interaction of semi quinonic radical with glutamic acid. We have irradiated mixture of vitamin K1 and a compound having a glutamic residue, the concentration ratio (B-Glu) sub 0/ (K sub 1) sub 0 varying for 0,03 to 1. The obtained results showed that the yield of vitamin K sub 1 disappearance is superior to G (R sup .)/R for low concentration of B-Glu. 80 figs., 5 tabs., 105 refs. (F. M.)

  12. Contribution of tryptophan residues to the combining site of a monoclonal anti dinitrophenyl spin-label antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglister, J.; Bond, M.W.; Frey, T.; Leahy, D.; Levitt, M.; McConnell, H.M.; Rule, G.S.; Tomasello, J.; Whittaker, M.

    1987-01-01

    Two Fab fragments of the monoclonal anti dinitrophenyl (DNP) spin-label antibody AN02 were prepared by recombination of specifically deuterated heavy and light chains. In the recombinant H(I)L(II) all the tyrosines and phenylalanines were perdeuterated as were the tryptophan residues of the heavy chain. In the recombinant H(II)L(I) all the tyrosines and phenylalanines were perdeuterated as were the tryptophan residues of the light chain. Saturation of three resonances of H(I)L(II), assigned to tryptophan protons of the light chain, resulted in magnetization transfer to the aromatic proton at position 6 of the DNP ring and to the CH2 protons of the glycines linked to the DNP in a diamagnetic hapten (DNP-DG). Saturation of three resonances of H(II)L(I) assigned to tryptophan protons of the heavy chain resulted in magnetization transfer to the CH2 protons of the glycines in DNP-DG. From the dependence of the magnetization transfer on the irradiation time, the cross relaxation rates between the involved protons were estimated. The inferred distances between these protons of the hapten and certain tryptophan protons are 3-4 A. It is concluded that in the combining site of AN02 there is one tryptophan from the light chain and one tryptophan from the heavy chain that are very near the hapten. When all tyrosines and phenylalanines were perdeuterated and all tryptophan aromatic protons were deuterated except for the protons at positions 2 and 5, titration of the Fab fragments with variable amounts of paramagnetic hapten showed that one proton from the light chain tryptophan is near (less than 7 A) the unpaired electron and that three other protons are significantly closer than 15 A

  13. Contribution of tryptophan residues to the combining site of a monoclonal anti dinitrophenyl spin-label antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anglister, J.; Bond, M.W.; Frey, T.; Leahy, D.; Levitt, M.; McConnell, H.M.; Rule, G.S.; Tomasello, J.; Whittaker, M.

    1987-09-22

    Two Fab fragments of the monoclonal anti dinitrophenyl (DNP) spin-label antibody AN02 were prepared by recombination of specifically deuterated heavy and light chains. In the recombinant H(I)L(II) all the tyrosines and phenylalanines were perdeuterated as were the tryptophan residues of the heavy chain. In the recombinant H(II)L(I) all the tyrosines and phenylalanines were perdeuterated as were the tryptophan residues of the light chain. Saturation of three resonances of H(I)L(II), assigned to tryptophan protons of the light chain, resulted in magnetization transfer to the aromatic proton at position 6 of the DNP ring and to the CH2 protons of the glycines linked to the DNP in a diamagnetic hapten (DNP-DG). Saturation of three resonances of H(II)L(I) assigned to tryptophan protons of the heavy chain resulted in magnetization transfer to the CH2 protons of the glycines in DNP-DG. From the dependence of the magnetization transfer on the irradiation time, the cross relaxation rates between the involved protons were estimated. The inferred distances between these protons of the hapten and certain tryptophan protons are 3-4 A. It is concluded that in the combining site of AN02 there is one tryptophan from the light chain and one tryptophan from the heavy chain that are very near the hapten. When all tyrosines and phenylalanines were perdeuterated and all tryptophan aromatic protons were deuterated except for the protons at positions 2 and 5, titration of the Fab fragments with variable amounts of paramagnetic hapten showed that one proton from the light chain tryptophan is near (less than 7 A) the unpaired electron and that three other protons are significantly closer than 15 A.

  14. Assessing residual cancer cells using MRI and US after preoperative chemotherapy in primary breast cancer to omit surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Madoka; Sawaki, Masataka; Hattori, Masaya; Yoshimura, Akiyo; Ishiguro, Junko; Kotani, Haruru; Gondo, Naomi; Adachi, Yayoi; Kataoka, Ayumi; Onishi, Sakura; Sugino, Kayoko; Iwata, Hiroji

    2018-04-04

    Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US) are used to assess residual lesions after preoperative chemotherapy before surgery. However, residual lesion assessments based on preoperative imaging often differ from postoperative pathologic diagnoses. We retrospectively reviewed the accuracy of preoperative residual lesion assessments, including ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cases to find criteria for cases in which surgery can be omitted. We reviewed 201 patients who received preoperative chemotherapy and surgery in our hospital from January 2013 to November 2016. Presurgical evaluations regarding the possible existence of residual lesions, and clinical Complete Response (cCR) or non-cCR, were compared with postoperative pathological diagnoses. Of the 201 patients, 52 were diagnosed with cCR, and 39 with pathological complete response (pCR). Predictions for residual lesions were 86.4% sensitive, 76.9% specific, and 84.6% accurate. When patients were divided into 4 groups by estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 status, sensitivity in each group was ER + /HER2 - : 91.4%; ER - /HER2 - : 94.1%; ER + /HER2 + : 78.6%; and ER - /HER2 + : 78.5%. Of the 22 patients preoperatively assessed with cCR, but diagnosed with non-pCR, the median invasive residual tumor size was 2 mm (range 0-46 mm); 5 patients (22.7%) had only DCIS. Predicting residual lesions after preoperative chemotherapy by using MRI and US is a reasonable strategy. However, current methods are inadequate for identifying patients who can omit surgery; therefore, a new strategy for detecting small tumors in these patients is needed.

  15. Assessing the contribution of Community-Based Natural Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed Community-Based Natural Resources Management Programme (CBNRMP) for environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were gathered through a structured interview schedule from 120 rural dwellers participating in CBNRMP. Data collected were described with descriptive statistical ...

  16. Solution-focused educational assessment: a contribution to inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Kathleen Brown; Dr. Jacqueline van Swet; Drs. José Wichers-Bots

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands and in the United States, the assessment process is changing for children who present learning and behavioural challenges in school. Evaluations for eligibility determinations and support planning are shifting along with disability models and tensions over the provision of

  17. Advancing the Contribution of Occupational Epidemiology to Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaanderen, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The identification and quantification of risk factors that are characterized by low exposure levels, moderately increased risks, and unspecific exposure-disease relations is a major challenge facing risk assessment today. Occupational epidemiological studies can play a role in addressing this

  18. MOLECULAR MODELING STUDY OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF SIDE AMINO ACID RESIDUES OF POLYMYXIN B3 TO ITS BINDING WITH E.COLI OUTER MEMBRANE LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnyak Yu. V.

    2014-12-01

    polymyxins have been analyzed. Changes of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of alanine-derivatives of polymyxin and binding energies in dependence on the alanine substituent position were parallel, except Ala2- PmВ3 mutant. Conclusions Polymyxin’s side Dab residues, especially Dab1, Dab5, Dab 8 and Dab9, essentially contribute to the energy of polymyxin В3 binding with LPS of the outer membrane. Contribution of the others polymyxin’s side residues to the binding energy of the complex of polymyxin В3 with LPS was insignificant.

  19. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  20. Residual life assessment of French PWR vessel head penetrations through metallurgical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, C.; Boudot, R.; Benhamou, C.; Gelpi, A.

    1994-01-01

    In September 1991, a vessel head penetration was found leaking at Bugey 3 plant during the hydrotest included in the framework of decennial In Service Inspections. Non destructive examinations performed afterwards on several other plants have shown some cracked penetrations. Destructive expertise confirmed quickly that again this new problem is related to stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 used as base material. During the last 15 years, similar cracking have been met in steam generator tubes and secondly in pressurizer instrumentation tubes. In spite of all the work performed since that time an extension appears to be necessary for explaining the features of this new event; however material sensitivity, stress and temperature still remain the key parameters governing the behavior of Alloy 600 in PWR environment. In this paper, only the material sensitivity of vessel head penetrations is examined through metallurgical analysis in relation with SCC tests. On the basis of vessel head field experience in combination with thermomechanical process used for fabrication of original bars criteria for a sensitivity ranking of penetrations are proposed. Metallurgical investigations and SCC tests were carried out to support this sensitivity ranking. The final aim is to use such information among those quoted above for assessment of vessel heads residual life. This document is an overview of the work performed in France concerning the material sensitivity of forged Alloy 600. It represents an important part of the assessments and investigations undertaken in France on the stress corrosion cracking phenomenon affecting the reactor vessel head penetrations in PWR's

  1. Assessment of runoff contributing catchment areas in rainfall runoff modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    In numerical modelling of rainfall caused runoff in urban sewer systems an essential parameter is the hydrological reduction factor which defines the percentage of the impervious area contributing to the surface flow towards the sewer. As the hydrological processes during a rainfall are difficult...... to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literature values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literature values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchment. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  2. Direct and retrospective assessment of factors contributing to compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G; Redlin, Jennifer; Crosby, Ross; Stickney, Marcella; Mitchell, Jim; Wonderlich, Stephen; Faber, Ronald; Smyth, Joshua

    2003-03-01

    Compulsive buying is a disorder that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The results of a handful of studies suggest that compulsive buying occurs in response to negative emotions and results in a decrease in the intensity of the negative emotions. In this investigation, we used interview and self-monitoring methods to evaluate the antecedents and consequences of compulsive buying in a sample of women who met criteria for compulsive buying on the compulsive buying scale (J. Consumer Res. 19 (1992) 459). As a group, the participants reported negative emotions as the most common antecedents to compulsive buying, and euphoria or relief from the negative emotions as the most common consequence of compulsive buying. These findings were consistent across the interview and self-monitoring assessment methods. The implications for assessment and treatment are discussed.

  3. Alternative fuels from forest residues for passenger cars - an assessment under German framework conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtig, O.; Leible, L.; Kälber, S.; Kappler, g.; Spicher, U.

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the available volumes, biogenic residues are a promising resource for renewable fuels for passenger cars to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we compare three fuels from forest residues under German framework conditions: biogenic electricity, substitute natural gas (SNG), and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. Methods Fuels from forest residues are compared with regard to their technical efficiency (here defined as ‘pkm per kg b...

  4. The ovens of the industry of the cement and their contribution to the handling of solid residuals and dangerous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveros Rojas, Marcelo

    1995-01-01

    The substitution of certain row matters in the process of elaboration of the cement, as flying ashes, polluted soils with petroleum, muds of the industry of the petroleum, oxides of the industry of the steel, foundry sand and tires, they can replace until 40% of the necessities of energy of a cement oven contributing to improve the conservation of the environment. This new technology is using with success in United States and some countries of Europe

  5. Relative contribution of residual renal function and different measures of adequacy to survival in hemodialysis patients: an analysis of the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis (NECOSAD)-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termorshuizen, Fabian; Dekker, Friedo W.; van Manen, Jeannette G.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2004-01-01

    A high delivered Kt/V(urea) (dKt/V(urea)) is advocated in the U.S. National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines on hemodialysis (HD) adequacy, irrespective of the presence of residual renal function. The contribution of treatment adequacy and residual renal function to

  6. A Contribution to the Built Heritage Environmental Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žarnić, R.; Rajčić, V.; Skordaki, N.

    2015-08-01

    The understanding and assessment of environmental impact on heritage assets is of the highest importance for heritage preservation through well-organized maintenance based on proper decision-making. The effort towards development of protocol that would enable comparison of data on heritage assets in Europe and Mediterranean countries was done through EU Project European Cultural Heritage Identity Card. The special attention was paid to classification of environmental and man-induced risks to heritage. In the present paper the idea of EU CHIC is presented. Environmental risks are discussed in context of their influence on structure of heritage buildings that are exposed to sudden environmental impacts.

  7. The contribution of assessment experiences to student teachers’ self-efficacy in competence-based education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Dr. Mien Segers; Dr. Mart van Dinther; Prof. Dr. Filip Dochy

    2015-01-01

    Earlier research argues that educational programmes based on social cognitive theory are successful in improving students’ self-efficacy. Focusing on some formative assessment characteristics, this qualitative research intends to study in-depth how student teachers’ assessment experiences contribute

  8. Contribution to the study of the interactions between residual stresses and oxygen dissolution in a reactive deformable solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raceanu, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this PhD work is to highlight the interactions between the mechanical stress and the chemical composition within diffusion of matter process for a reactive solid. The chronological evolution of our work goes from a parametric numerical study to an experimental study and reveals the role of mechanical stresses on the oxygen diffusion process. Different origins of mechanical stress were first numerically analysed from the point of view of their impacts on the process of oxygen diffusion into a metal (Zr) or a ceramic (UO 2 ) subjected to an oxidizing environment. This approach allowed us: - to identify a surface treatment (shot-peening) able to generate a residual specific stress field, as a starting point for an experimental study implementation in order to validate the numerical study conclusions; - to highlight the ability of the stress field on the stabilisation of the morphology of an undulated metal/oxide interface (case of Zr). In the experimental approach, different techniques were used to characterize the material (GDOS, SEM, TGA, hole-drilling method, micro-hardness tests). They permitted the detection of a strong influence of shot-peening on the oxidation rate. The comparison of experimental and numerical simulation results reveals strong interactions between stress and compositions fields induced by the different treatments (shot-peening and/or pre-oxidation). This study opens up many opportunities in the understanding of multi-physics coupling effects being very useful for the optimization of mechanical and chemical surface-treatments, able furthermore to favour the diffusion (nitriding, cementation) or to slow it down (corrosion). (author) [fr

  9. Analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cows identify potential mechanisms contributing to differences in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yali; Bickhart, Derek M; Chung, Hoyoung; Hutchison, Jana L; Norman, H Duane; Connor, Erin E; Liu, George E

    2012-11-01

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cows identified as having high or low feed efficiency as estimated by residual feed intake (RFI). We detected 443 candidate CNV regions (CNVRs) that represent 18.4 Mb (0.6 %) of the genome. To investigate the functional impacts of CNVs, we created two groups of 30 individual animals with extremely low or high estimated breeding values (EBVs) for RFI, and referred to these groups as low intake (LI; more efficient) or high intake (HI; less efficient), respectively. We identified 240 (~9.0 Mb) and 274 (~10.2 Mb) CNVRs from LI and HI groups, respectively. Approximately 30-40 % of the CNVRs were specific to the LI group or HI group of animals. The 240 LI CNVRs overlapped with 137 Ensembl genes. Network analyses indicated that the LI-specific genes were predominantly enriched for those functioning in the inflammatory response and immunity. By contrast, the 274 HI CNVRs contained 177 Ensembl genes. Network analyses indicated that the HI-specific genes were particularly involved in the cell cycle, and organ and bone development. These results relate CNVs to two key variables, namely immune response and organ and bone development. The data indicate that greater feed efficiency relates more closely to immune response, whereas cattle with reduced feed efficiency may have a greater capacity for organ and bone development.

  10. Concrete structures. Contribution to the safety assessment of existing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. COUTO

    Full Text Available The safety evaluation of an existing concrete structure differs from the design of new structures. The partial safety factors for actions and resistances adopted in the design phase consider uncertainties and inaccuracies related to the building processes of structures, variability of materials strength and numerical approximations of the calculation and design processes. However, when analyzing a finished structure, a large number of unknown factors during the design stage are already defined and can be measured, which justifies a change in the increasing factors of the actions or reduction factors of resistances. Therefore, it is understood that safety assessment in existing structures is more complex than introducing security when designing a new structure, because it requires inspection, testing, analysis and careful diagnose. Strong knowledge and security concepts in structural engineering are needed, as well as knowledge about the materials of construction employed, in order to identify, control and properly consider the variability of actions and resistances in the structure. With the intention of discussing this topic considered complex and diffuse, this paper presents an introduction to the safety of concrete structures, a synthesis of the recommended procedures by Brazilian standards and another codes, associated with the topic, as well a realistic example of the safety assessment of an existing structure.

  11. Anorexia nervosa and nutritional assessment: contribution of body composition measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Lama; Godart, Nathalie; Melchior, Jean Claude; Pichard, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The psychiatric condition of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) is affected by their nutritional status. An optimal assessment of the nutritional status of patients is fundamental in understanding the relationship between malnutrition and the psychological symptoms. The present review evaluates some of the available methods for measuring body composition in patients with AN. We searched literature in Medline using several key terms relevant to the present review in order to identify papers. Only articles in English or French were reviewed. A brief description is provided for each body composition technique, with its applicability in AN as well as its limitation. All methods of measuring body composition are not yet validated and/or feasible in patients with AN. The present review article proposes a practical approach for selecting the most appropriate methods depending on the setting, (i.e. clinical v. research) and the goal of the assessment (initial v. follow-up) in order to have a more personalised treatment for patients suffering from AN.

  12. An Approach to Assess Observation Impact Based on Observation-Minus-Forecast Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todling, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Langland and Baker (2004) introduced an approach to assess the impact of observations on the forecasts. In that, a state-space aspect of the forecast is defined and a procedure is derived that relates changes in the aspect with changes in the initial conditions associated with the assimilation of observations) ultimately providing information about the impact of individual observations on the forecast. Some features of the approach are to be noted. The typical choice of forecast aspect employed in related works is rather arbitrary and leads to an incomplete assessment of the observing system. Furthermore, the state-space forecast aspect requires availability of a verification state that should ideally be uncorrelated with the forecast but in practice is not. Lastly, the approach involves the adjoint operator of the entire data assimilation system and as such it is constrained by the validity of this operator. In this presentation, an observation-space metric is used that, for a relatively time-homogeneous observing system, allows inferring observation impact on the forecast without some of the limitations above. Specifically, using observation-minus-forecast residuals leads to an approach with the following features: (i) it suggests a rather natural choice of forecast aspect, directly linked to the analysis system and providing full assessment of the observations; (ii) it naturally avoids introducing undesirable correlations in the forecast aspect by verifying against the observations; and (iii) it does not involve linearization and use of adjoints; therefore being applicable to any length of forecast. The state and observation-space approaches might be complementary to some degree, and involve different limitations and complexities. Illustrations are given using the NASA GEOS-5 data.

  13. Differential contributions of ubiquitin-modified APOBEC3G lysine residues to HIV-1 Vif-induced degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Tiffany; Shao, Qiujia; Wang, Weiran; Wang, Yudi; Wang, Chenliang; Kinlock, Ballington; Liu, Bindong

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (A3G) is a host restriction factor that impedes HIV-1 replication. Viral integrity is salvaged by HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif), which mediates A3G polyubiquitination and subsequent cellular depletion. Previous studies have implied that A3G polyubiquitination is essential for Vif-induced degradation. However, the contribution of polyubiquitination to the rate of A3G degradation remains unclear. Here we show that A3G po...

  14. Contributions to safety assessment of the radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, Petre; Didita, Liana; Ionescu, Alice; Deaconu, Viorel

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the progress in the frame of the safety assessments related to the potential near-surface Romanian National Repository, as well as to the geological repository in salt rock for CANDU spent fuel. The safety assessment of the near-surface repository follows the ISAM methodology. The repository design consists of a vault, in which the wastes resulted from the operation and decommissioning of the CANDU reactor from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) are disposed off. The repository is located nearby the CNPP. A layered unsaturated zone overlying a variable thickness confined aquifer, which consists of barremian limestones, characterizes the site. The interface with biosphere is considered to be the Danube-Black Sea Channel. The paper summarizes the results of the post-closure safety assessment for the design scenario and the prediction of the radionuclide release in the liquid phase. As to the final disposal of the CANDU spent fuel from the CNPP, we assumed that the repository is built in a salt dome. Romania has important salt formations, some of them being potentially suitable for hosting a repository. Up to now there are no detailed characterization studies of such formations in Romania, from the point of view of the suitability as a repository site. Therefore, generic data for hydrogeological characterization of the site have been used, coming from the Gorleben site in Germany. The spent fuel containers are disposed off in galleries, somewhere 500 m bellow the cap rock of the salt dome. The temporal loading scheme of the repository is based on a sequential filing of the disposal fields, with a delay of 10 years between filling of two neighbouring disposal areas. The disposal fields are accessed via a shaft. After filling of a disposal gallery, the remaining space is backfilled with salt powder and the gallery is sealed with compacted salt bricks. The access galleries are also backfilled and sealed. Only the reference scenario is considered, in

  15. An assessment of the meteoritic contribution to the Martian soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, G.J.; McKay, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The addition of meteoritic material to the Mars soils should perturb their chemical compositions, as has been detected for soils on the Moon and sediments on Earth. Using the measured mass influx at Earth and estimates of the Mars/Earth flux ratio, the authors estimate the continuous, planet-wide meteoritic mass influx on Mars to be between 2,700 and 59,000 t/yr. If distributed uniformly into a soil with a mean planetary production rate of 1 m/b.y., consistent with radar estimates of the soil depth overlaying a bouldered terrain in the Tharsis region, their estimated mass influx would produce a meteoritic concentration in the Mars soil ranging from 2 to 29% by mass. Analysis of the Viking X ray fluorescence data indicates that the Mars soil composition is inconsistent with typical basaltic rock fragments but can be fit by a mixture of 60% basaltic rock fragments and 40% meteoritic material. The meteoritic influx they calculate is sufficient to provide most or all of the material required by the Clark and Baird model. Particles in the mass range from 10 -7 to 10 -3 g, about 60-1,200 μm in diameter, contribute 80% of the total mass flux of meteoritic material in the 10 -13 to 10 6 g mass range at Earth. On Earth atmospheric entry all but the smallest particles (generally ≤ 50 μm in diameter) in the 10 -7 to 10 -3 g mass range are heated sufficiently to melt or vaporize. Mars, because of its lower escape velocity and larger atmospheric scale height, is a much more favorable site for unmelted survival of micrometeorites on atmospheric deceleration. They calculate that a significant fraction of particles throughout the 60-1,200 μm diameter range will survive Mars atmospheric entry unmelted

  16. Assessing food allergy risks from residual peanut protein in highly refined vegetable oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.M.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Rubingh, C.M.; Remington, B.C.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Houben, G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Refined vegetable oils including refined peanut oil are widely used in foods. Due to shared production processes, refined non-peanut vegetable oils can contain residual peanut proteins. We estimated the predicted number of allergic reactions to residual peanut proteins using probabilistic risk

  17. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, D Amutha; Boccaccini, A R; Deegan, D; Cheeseman, C R

    2008-11-01

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable.

  18. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: Current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amutha Rani, D.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Deegan, D.; Cheeseman, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable

  19. Conductivity Profile Determination by Eddy Current for Shot Peened Superalloy Surfaces Toward Residual Stress Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.; Lo, C. C. H.; Frishman, A. M.; Lee, C.; Nakagawa, N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an eddy current model-based method for inverting near-surface conductivity deviation profiles of surface treated materials from swept-high frequency eddy current (SHFEC) data. This work forms part of our current research directed towards the development of an electromagnetic nondestructive technique for assessing residual stress of shot-peened superalloy components. The inversion procedure is based on the use of a parameterized function to describe the near-surface conductivity as a function of depth for a shot-peened surface, and the laterally uniform multi-layer theory of Cheng, Dodd and Deeds to calculate the resulting coil impedance deviations. The convergence of the inversion procedure has been tested against synthesized eddy current data. As a demonstration, the conductivity deviation profiles of a series of Inconel 718 specimens, shot peened at various Almen intensities, have been obtained by inversion. Several consistency tests were conducted to examine the reliability of the inverted conductivity profiles. The results show that conductivity deviation profiles can be reliably determined from SHFEC data within the accuracy of the current measurement system

  20. Urease activity as an index for assessing the maturity of cow manure and wheat residue vermicomposts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudkolai, Saber Tayebi; Nourbakhsh, Farshid

    2017-06-01

    The establishment of a reliable index is an essential need to assess the degree of stability and maturity of solid wastes vermicomposts. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vermicomposting process on some chemical (pH, EC, OC, TN, lignin and C:N ratio) and biochemical properties of the cow manure (CM) and wheat residue (WR). Results demonstrated that during vermicomposting process of CM and WR urease activity was highly correlated with the time of vermicomposting (r=-0.97 ∗∗ for CM and r=-0.99 ∗∗ for WR), and well able to show the stability of organic waste. The urease activity showed significant correlations with the C:N ratio during the vermicomposting of CM and WR (r=0.89 ∗ and r=0.93 ∗∗ respectively) therefore it can be considered as a reliable indicator for determining the maturity and stability of organic wastes during vermicomposting process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Production of hydrolysate from processed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus residues and assessment of its antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Miotto BERNARDI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to produce protein hydrolysates from by-products of the Nile tilapia fileting process, and to assess the effects of different hydrolysis times on the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysed animal-based protein, in free form and incorporated into a food matrix. Gutted tilapia heads and carcasses were hydrolysed by Alcalase® for different hydrolysis times producing six hydrolysates. The protein content, degree of hydrolysis, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity by the ORAC, FRAP and TEAC methods were analysed. Three mini-hamburger formulations were produced and the lipidic oxidation of mini-hamburger was determined by TBARS. The protein contained in the residue was completely recovered in the process. The hydrolysates varied in their degree of hydrolysis, but presented similar levels of antioxidant activity. In the mini-hamburgers the hydrolysate was capable of delaying oxidation after 7 days of storage. Hydrolysis of tilapia processing by-products produced peptides may be used in the formulation of functional foods.

  2. Probabilistic residual life assessment of high temperature pipings in nuclear power plants against creep fatigue damage: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Residual life assessment of components of nuclear power plants is essential for their operational safety, reliability and financial viability. The high risks involved in the event of failures in nuclear power plants have led to the development of design philosophies that incorporate extreme conservatism in design. The implications of such conservatism in design leads to more frequent maintenance operations than necessary

  3. Assessment of potential ORNL contributions to supply of molybdenum-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, C.L.; Collins, E.D.

    1996-04-01

    The most widely used, and probably the most important, single radioisotope in commerce is 99 Mo. Although the present supply is adequate, there are many vulnerabilities in the supply picture. Resources available at ORNL could be applied to help ensure the continued availability of this critically needed radioisotope. This assessment considers the ways in which ORNL might participate in DOE efforts to develop and maintain a domestic source of 99 Mo for medical needs. The primary recommendation presented here is that ORNL obtain DOE support for development of an improved method for providing 99 Mo to the user community. Specifically, development and demonstration of a system based on irradiation of enriched stable 98 Mo, as opposed to fission of 235 U, is recommended. Such a system would (1) alleviate the need for using highly enriched uranium as target material (nonproliferation and criticality safety concerns); (2) alleviate the need to produce a large volume of unwanted fission product wastes (safety and cost concerns); (3) promote the need for enriched 98 Mo, which can be produced in the ORNL calutrons or plasma separation equipment; and (4) promote the need for a high-flux reactor, such as the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

  4. Uncertainty Estimate in Resources Assessment: A Geostatistical Contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Luis Eduardo de; Costa, Joao Felipe C. L.; Koppe, Jair C.

    2004-01-01

    For many decades the mining industry regarded resources/reserves estimation and classification as a mere calculation requiring basic mathematical and geological knowledge. Most methods were based on geometrical procedures and spatial data distribution. Therefore, uncertainty associated with tonnages and grades either were ignored or mishandled, although various mining codes require a measure of confidence in the values reported. Traditional methods fail in reporting the level of confidence in the quantities and grades. Conversely, kriging is known to provide the best estimate and its associated variance. Among kriging methods, Ordinary Kriging (OK) probably is the most widely used one for mineral resource/reserve estimation, mainly because of its robustness and its facility in uncertainty assessment by using the kriging variance. It also is known that OK variance is unable to recognize local data variability, an important issue when heterogeneous mineral deposits with higher and poorer grade zones are being evaluated. Alternatively, stochastic simulation are used to build local or global uncertainty about a geological attribute respecting its statistical moments. This study investigates methods capable of incorporating uncertainty to the estimates of resources and reserves via OK and sequential gaussian and sequential indicator simulation The results showed that for the type of mineralization studied all methods classified the tonnages similarly. The methods are illustrated using an exploration drill hole data sets from a large Brazilian coal deposit

  5. Electrostatic contribution of surface charge residues to the stability of a thermophilic protein: benchmarking experimental and predicted pKa values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ho Chan

    Full Text Available Optimization of the surface charges is a promising strategy for increasing thermostability of proteins. Electrostatic contribution of ionizable groups to the protein stability can be estimated from the differences between the pKa values in the folded and unfolded states of a protein. Using this pKa-shift approach, we experimentally measured the electrostatic contribution of all aspartate and glutamate residues to the stability of a thermophilic ribosomal protein L30e from Thermococcus celer. The pKa values in the unfolded state were found to be similar to model compound pKas. The pKa values in both the folded and unfolded states obtained at 298 and 333 K were similar, suggesting that electrostatic contribution of ionizable groups to the protein stability were insensitive to temperature changes. The experimental pKa values for the L30e protein in the folded state were used as a benchmark to test the robustness of pKa prediction by various computational methods such as H++, MCCE, MEAD, pKD, PropKa, and UHBD. Although the predicted pKa values were affected by crystal contacts that may alter the side-chain conformation of surface charged residues, most computational methods performed well, with correlation coefficients between experimental and calculated pKa values ranging from 0.49 to 0.91 (p<0.01. The changes in protein stability derived from the experimental pKa-shift approach correlate well (r = 0.81 with those obtained from stability measurements of charge-to-alanine substituted variants of the L30e protein. Our results demonstrate that the knowledge of the pKa values in the folded state provides sufficient rationale for the redesign of protein surface charges leading to improved protein stability.

  6. Bioethanol production from corn stover residues. Process design and Life Cycle Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bari, I.; Dinnino, G.; Braccio, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, the mass and energy balance along with a land-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is described for a corn stover-to-ethanol industrial process assumed to consist of the main technologies being researched at ENEA TRISAIA: pretreatment by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis. The modelled plant has a processing capacity of 60kt/y (dimensioned on realistic supplying basins of residues in Italy); biomass is pre-treated by acid catalyzed-steam explosion; cellulose and hemicelluloses are hydrolyzed and separately fermented; enzymes are on-site produced. The main target was to minimize the consumption of fresh water, enzymes and energy. The results indicate that the production of 1kg bio ethanol (95.4 wt%) requires 3.5 kg biomass dry matter and produces an energy surplus up to 740 Wh. The main purpose of the LCA analysis was to assess the environmental impact of the entire life cycle from the bio ethanol production up to its end-use as E10 blended gasoline. Boustead Model was used as tool to compile the life cycle inventory. The results obtained and discussed in this reports suffer of some limitations deriving from the following main points: some process yields have been extrapolated according to optimistic development scenarios; the energy and steam recovery could be lower than that projected because of lacks in the real systems; water recycle could be limited by the yeast tolerance toward the potential accumulation of toxic compounds. Nevertheless, the detailed process analysis here provided has its usefulness in: showing the challenging targets (even if they are ambitious) to bet on to make the integrated process feasible; driving the choice of the most suitable technologies to bypass some process bottlenecks [it

  7. Life cycle assessment of innovative technology for energy production from automotive shredder residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Caterina; Masoni, Paolo; Salvati, Fabio; Tolve, Pietro

    2015-07-01

    Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) is a problematic waste material remaining after shredding and recovery processes of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs). Its heterogeneous grain size and composition make difficult its recovery or disposal. Although ASR accounts for approximately 20% to 25% of the weight of an ELV, the European Union (EU)'s ELV Directive (2000/53/EC) requires that by 2015 a minimum 95% of the weight of an ELV must be reused or recovered, including a 10% weight energy recovery. The quantity of ASR is relevant: Approximately 2.4 million tons are generated in the EU each year and most of it is sent to landfills. This article describes a life cycle model of the "TEKNE-Fluff" process designed to make beneficial use of ASR that is based on the results of an experimental pilot plant for pyro-gasification, combustion, cogeneration, and emissions treatment of ASR. The goal of the research was the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to identify the environmental hot spots of the "TEKNE system" and use scenario analysis to check solutions to improve its environmental profile, supporting the design and industrialization process. The LCA was conducted based on data modeled from the experimental campaign. Moreover, different scenarios on shares of electricity and thermal energy produced by the cogeneration system and alternative treatment processes for the waste produced by the technology were compared. Despite the limitation of the research (results based on scaling up experimental data by modeling), impact assessment results are promising and sufficiently robust, as shown by Monte Carlo analysis. The TEKNE technology may become an interesting solution for the problem of ASR management: Besides representing an alternative to landfill disposal, the energy produced could avoid significant impacts on fossil resources depletion (a plant of 40,000 tons/y capacity could produce ∼ 147,000 GJ/yr, covering the annual need of ∼ 13,500 households). © 2015

  8. Probabilistic risk assessment of exposure to leucomalachite green residues from fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yung-Lin; Chimeddulam, Dalaijamts; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2013-12-01

    To assess the potential risk of human exposure to carcinogenic leucomalachite green (LMG) due to fish consumption, the probabilistic risk assessment was conducted for adolescent, adult and senior adult consumers in Taiwan. The residues of LMG with the mean concentration of 13.378±20.56 μg kg(-1) (BFDA, 2009) in fish was converted into dose, considering fish intake reported for three consumer groups by NAHSIT (1993-1996) and body weight of an average individual of the group. The lifetime average and high 95th percentile dietary intakes of LMG from fish consumption for Taiwanese consumers were estimated at up to 0.0135 and 0.0451 μg kg-bw(-1) day(-1), respectively. Human equivalent dose (HED) of 2.875 mg kg-bw(-1) day(-1) obtained from a lower-bound benchmark dose (BMDL10) in mice by interspecies extrapolation was linearly extrapolated to oral cancer slope factor (CSF) of 0.035 (mgkg-bw(-1)day(-1))(-1) for humans. Although, the assumptions and methods are different, the results of lifetime cancer risk varying from 3×10(-7) to 1.6×10(-6) were comparable to those of margin of exposures (MOEs) varying from 410,000 to 4,800,000. In conclusions, Taiwanese fish consumers with the 95th percentile LADD of LMG have greater risk of liver cancer and need to an action of risk management in Taiwan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring and exposure assessment of pesticide residues in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) from five provinces of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Luo, Jinhui; Xie, Defang

    2016-11-01

    Residues of 14 pesticides were determined in 150 cowpea samples collected in five southern Chinese provinces in 2013 and 2014.70% samples were detected one or more residues. 61.3% samples were illegal mainly because of detection of unauthorized pesticides. 14.0% samples contained more than three pesticides. Deterministic and probabilistic methods were used to assess the chronic and acute risk of pesticides in cowpea to eight subgroups of people. Deterministic assessment showed that the estimated short-term intakes (ESTIs) of carbofuran were 1199.4%-2621.9% of the acute reference doses (ARfD) while the rates were 985.9%-4114.7% using probabilistic assessment. Probabilistic assessment showed 4.2%-7.8% subjects may suffer from unacceptable acute risk from carbofuran contaminated cowpeas from the five provinces (especially children). But undue concern is not necessary, because all the estimations are based on conservative assumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A strategy for accommodating residual stresses in the assessment of repair weldments based upon measurement of near surface stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, E.J.; Hallam, K.R.; Flewitt, P.E.J.

    2005-01-01

    On many occasions repairs are undertaken to ferritic steel weldments on plant either during construction or to remove service induced defects. These repaired weldments are subsequently put into service with or without a post-weld heat treatment. In either case, but particularly for the latter, there is a need to accommodate the associated residual stresses in structural integrity assessments such as those based upon the R6 failure avoidance procedure. Although in some circumstances the residual macro-stresses developed within weldments of components and structures can be calculated this is not so readily achieved in the case of residual stresses introduced by repair welds. There is a range of physical and mechanical techniques available to undertake the measurement of macro-residual stresses. Of these X-ray diffraction has the advantage that it is essentially non-destructive and offers the potential for evaluating stresses, which exist in the near surface layer. Although for many structural integrity assessments both the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses have to be accommodated it is not practical to make destructive measurements on weld repaired components and structures to establish the through section distribution of stresses. An approach is to derive a description of the appropriate macro-stresses by a combination of measurement and calculation on trial ferritic steel repair weldments. Surface measurements on the plant can then be made to establish the relationship between the repaired component or structure and the trial weld and thereby improve confidence in predicted stresses and their distribution from the near-surface measured values. Hence X-ray diffraction measurements at the near-surface of the plant weldment can be used to underwrite the quality of the repair by confirming the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses used for the integrity assessment to demonstrate continued safe operation

  11. Residual life assessment of overhead transmission lines 110 kV and above and determination of their reconstruction terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uteuliyev Bauyrzhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is given a method for assessment the residual life of overhead transmission lines on reinforced concrete supports with centrifuged poles. Reinforced concrete poles of supports, wires and lightning protection cables are adopted as the main elements. The intensity of change in the actual state parameters of these elements is determined by the laws of random variables distribution that allow predicting the residual life and the timing of repairs and reconstruction of overhead transmission lines. The parameters of natural climatic conditions and other external factors are considered by including of coefficients into the formula for changing the actual state parameters.

  12. The relative contribution of waves, tides, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels on U.S. West Coast sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Katherine A.; Ruggiero, Peter; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand how individual processes combine to cause flooding and erosion events, we investigate the relative contribution of tides, waves, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels (TWLs) at the shoreline of U.S. West Coast sandy beaches. Extreme TWLs, defined as the observed annual maximum event and the simulated 100 year return level event, peak in Washington, and are on average larger in Washington and Oregon than in California. The relative contribution of wave-induced and still water levels (SWL) to the 100 year TWL event is similar to that of the annual maximum event; however, the contribution of storm surge to the SWL doubles across events. Understanding the regional variability of TWLs will lead to a better understanding of how sea level rise, changes in storminess, and possible changes in the frequency of major El Niños may impact future coastal flooding and erosion along the U.S. West Coast and elsewhere.

  13. Dissipation pattern and risk assessment studies of triazophos residues on capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) using GLC-FPD and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yadwinder; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-10-01

    The present study was carried out to observe the dissipation pattern of triazophos on capsicum and risk assessment of its residues on human beings and to suggest a waiting period for the safety of consumers. Following two applications of triazophos (Truzo 40 EC) at 500 and 1000 g a.i. ha(-1), the average initial deposits were found to be 3.61 and 6.26 mg kg(-1), respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg(-1) in 10 and 15 days at the recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. The calculated values of half-life were 2.31 and 2.14 days at recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. Theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) values were found to be 28.8 and 41.6 μg person(-1) day(-1) at 500 and 1000 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively, and found to be below the maximum permissible intake on capsicum fruit on the 7th day. Therefore, a waiting period of 7 days is suggested for consumption of capsicum sprayed with triazophos at the recommended dosages.

  14. Integrated assessment of soil quality after application of the biogas fermentation residues - a laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesiński, Arkadiusz; Cybulska, Krystyna; Płatkowski, Maciej; Stręk, Michał; Jarnuszewski, Grzegorz; Wrońska, Ilona; Mularewicz, Piotr; Kajdan, Tomasz; Biczak, Robert; Kołosowski, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    The aim of study was to determine the impact of three different biogas fermentation residues on some chemical and biochemical characteristics in sandy soil. The laboratory experiment was carried out on loamy sand. Residues were added to soil samples in the forms of pulp, drought, and granulate at dosages of 10, 50, and 100 g·kg-1. The reference was the soil sample without residues. On day 28, the content of macroelements and heavy metals was determined. In addition, on days 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56, the content of biomass and the activities of some hydrolases and oxidoreductases were assayed. Results showed that the application of all fermentation residues caused an increase in most of the chemical parameters. The highest impact on pH and the content of Ctot, Ntot, Stot, K, and P was observed in the soil treated with granulate, whereas the increase in the content of heavy metals was the highest after the drought application. The effect of biogas fermentation residues on all hydrolases and o-diphenol oxidase activities was mostly significant, but depended on the kind of residues and the day of experiment. Biomass content and the activity of dehydrogenase were increased in the whole experiment.

  15. Distribution and assessment of residual mercury from gold mining in Changbai Mountain Range Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, D.; Wang, N.; Ai, J. C.; Zhang, G.; Liu, X. J.

    2016-08-01

    Gold mining was first initiated in Jiapigou area, Huadian city of Northeastern China about 200 years ago. Before 2006, the mercury amalgamation technique was used in the gold mining process, which led to severe mercury contamination. The aim of this paper is to explore the influences of residual mercury on the environment media after eliminating the amalgamation process to extract gold. The mercury concentrations of the atmosphere and the soil were determined in autumn of 2011 and spring of 2012. The soil environmental quality was assessed by the index of geoaccumulation. The results indicated that the maximum value of gaseous mercury was 25ng•m-3 in autumn and 19.5ng•m-3 in spring; the maximum value of mercury in the soil was 2.06mg•kg-1 in autumn and 2.51mg•kg-1in spring. It can be seen that the peak concentrations of the gaseous mercury happened at the gold mine area and tailings, while the peak mercury concentrations in the soil were located at the places near the mining sites and the residential area in the valley. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the total mercury contents between the atmosphere and the soil showed a significant correlation, which indicated that there was certain circulation of the mercury between the regional atmosphere and soil. In general, after the elimination of the amalgamation technique in gold extraction, the distance to the mercury source, the special conditions of hilly weather and landforms and the mercury exchange flux are the main factors of mercury contamination.

  16. Peer assessment of individual contributions to a group project: Student perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kench, Peter L.; Field, Nikki; Agudera, Maila; Gill, Margo

    2009-01-01

    Group work has many benefits for a student's professional development but it is difficult to determine the individual contributions to the group assessment tasks. Peer assessment of an individual's contribution to group work can be used to encourage student participation. It is important that the method of peer assessment is fair and that the students' submissions be treated confidentially. A model for peer assessment of individual contributions to the group assessment is described. Students who did not participate adequately in the group were penalised resulting in a reduced individual grade. Perceptions of the peer assessment method are reported for students enrolled (n = 169) in the subject 'Medical Radiations Project'. The questionnaire showed a positive student response towards the peer assessment model.

  17. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkotter, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.

    2011-01-01

    contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic...... into the impact on public health and health care practice of those technologies that are actually introduced. This paper aims to give an overview of the major assessment instruments in public health [ health technology assessment (HTA), health needs assessment (HNA) and health impact assessment (HIA)] which could...... medicine as an analytic framework. The selected assessment methodologies predominantly cover 2 to 4 phases within the T1-T4 system. HTA delivers the most complete set of methodologies when assessing health applications. HNA can be used to prioritize areas where genomic health applications are needed...

  18. Amended final report on the safety assessment of polyacrylamide and acrylamide residues in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Polyacrylamide is a polymer of controllable molecular weight formed by the polymerization of acrylamide monomers available in one of three forms: solid (powder or micro beads), aqueous solution, or inverse emulsions (in water droplets coated with surfactant and suspended in mineral oil). Residual acrylamide monomer is likely an impurity in most Polyacrylamide preparations, ranging from cosmetic formulations, at concentrations ranging from 0.05% to 2.8%. Residual levels of acrylamide in Polyacrylamide can range from dogs treated with Polyacrylamide at doses up to 464 mg/kg body weight showed no signs of toxicity. Several 2-year chronic oral toxicity studies in rats and dogs fed diets containing up to 5% Polyacrylamide had no significant adverse effects. Polyacrylamide was not an ocular irritant in animal tests. No compound-related lesions were noted in a three-generation reproductive study in which rats were fed 500 or 2000 ppm Polyacrylamide in their diet. Polyacrylamide was not carcinogenic in several chronic animal studies. Human cutaneous tolerance tests performed to evaluate the irritation of 5% (w/w) Polyacrylamide indicated that the compound was well tolerated. Acrylamide monomer residues do penetrate the skin. Acrylamide tested in a two-generation reproductive study at concentrations up to 5 mg/kg day(- 1) in drinking water, was associated with prenatal lethality at the highest dose, with evidence of parental toxicity. The no adverse effects level was close to the 0.5 mg/kg day(- 1) dose. Acrylamide tested in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) reproductive and neurotoxicity study at 3, 10, and 30 ppm produced no developmental or female reproductive toxicity. However, impaired fertility in males was observed, as well as minimal neurotoxic effects. Acrylamide neurotoxicity occurs in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, likely through microtubule disruption, which has been suggested as a possible mechanism for genotoxic effects of acrylamide in

  19. Environmental toxicity and radioactivity assessment of a titanium-processing residue with potential for environmental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Binet, Monique T; Yuan, Zheng; Gissi, Francesca; Koppel, Darren J; Adams, Merrin S

    2013-07-01

    Thorough examination of the physicochemical characteristics of a Ti-processing residue was undertaken, including mineralogical, geochemical, and radiochemical characterization, and an investigation of the environmental toxicity of soft-water leachate generated from the residue. Concentrations of most metals measured in the leachate were low; thus, the residue is unlikely to leach high levels of potentially toxic elements on exposure to low-ionic strength natural waters. Relative to stringent ecosystem health-based guidelines, only chromium concentrations in the leachate exceeded guideline concentrations for 95% species protection; however, sulfate was present at concentrations known to cause toxicity. It is likely that the high concentration of calcium and extreme water hardness of the leachate reduced the bioavailability of some elements. Geochemical modeling of the leachate indicated that calcium and sulfate concentrations were largely controlled by gypsum mineral dissolution. The leachate was not toxic to the microalga Chlorella sp., the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, or the estuarine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The Ti-processing residue exhibited an absorbed dose rate of 186 nGy/h, equivalent to an annual dose of 1.63 mGy and an annual effective dose of 0.326 mGy. In summary, the results indicate that the Ti-processing residue examined is suitable for productive use as an environmental amendment following 10 to 100 times dilution to ameliorate potential toxic effects due to chromium or sulfate. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  20. Nutrient assessment of olive leaf residues processed by solid-state fermentation as an innovative feedstuff additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P-J; Huang, L-X; Zhang, C-H; Zhang, Y-L

    2016-07-01

    Olive leaf residue feedstuff additives were prepared by solid-state fermentation (SSF), and its feeding effects on broiler chickens were examined. The fermentation's nutrient value, that is, protein enrichment, cellulase activity, tannic acid degradation and amino acid enhancement, was determined. The effect of different strains, including molds (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma viride) and yeasts (Candida utilis, Candida tropicalis and Geotrichum candidum), and the fermentation time on the nutrient values of the feedstuff additives was investigated. The experimental results showed that the optimal parameters for best performance were A. niger and C. utilis in a 1 : 1 ratio (v/v) in co-culture fermentation for 5 days. Under these conditions, the total content of amino acids in the fermented olive leaf residues increased by 22·0% in comparison with that in the raw leaf residues. Both Glutamic acid and Aspartic acid contents were increased by more than 25·4%. Broiler chickens fed with different amounts of feedstuff additives were assessed. The results demonstrated that the chicken weight gains increased by 120%, and normal serum biochemical parameters were improved significantly after 10% of the feedstuff additives were supplemented to the daily chicken feed for 28 days. The co-culture combination of A. niger and C. utilis with SSF for olive leaf residue had the best nutrient values. The addition of 10% fermented olive leaf residue facilitated the chicken growth and development. This study reveals that olive leaf residues fermented by SSF exhibited considerable potential as feed additives for feeding poultry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Coping with residual stresses in the integrity assessment of an as-welded repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, N.

    1989-11-01

    One of a series of large scale tests on pressure vessels is described, in which a defect was deliberately introduced into an as-welded (i.e. not stress relieved) repair weld. The behaviour of the vessel during pressurization to failure was carefully monitored and the actual performance compared with theoretical predictions. The influence of residual welding stresses on ductile crack growth from pre-existing defects is discussed in the light of the results of this test and of previous tests in the series. The tests have confirmed that residual stresses can exert a significant effect on the growth of fatigue cracks. However, in tests for which the failure mechanism is predominantly controlled by collapse of the remaining ligament, the development of plasticity during pressurization to failure will tend to remove any local residual stresses. (author)

  2. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    of the European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) were found in five samples from Italy. A number of samples were rinsed to study the possible reduction of residues. For copper, iprodione, procymidone and dithiocarbamates a significant effect of rinsing was found (20-49% reduction of residues). However......(-1) for pesticides and 21 mu g day(-1) for copper. Correspondingly, the intakes from South African grapes were 2.6 and 5.7 mu g day(-1) respectively. When the total exposure of pesticides from grapes were related to acceptable daily intake, expressed as the sum of Hazard Quotients, the exposure were...... approximately 0.5% for Italian samples and 1% for South African samples....

  3. The inclusion of weld residual stress in fracture margin assessments of embrittled nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyses were performed to determine the impact of weld residual stresses in a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) on (1) the generation of pressure temperature (P-T) curves required for maintaining specified fracture prevention margins during nuclear plant startup and shutdown, and (2) the conditional probability of vessel failure due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) loading. The through wall residual stress distribution in an axially oriented weld was derived using measurements taken from a shell segment of a canceled RPV and finite element thermal stress analyses. The P-T curve derived from the best estimate load analysis and a t / 8 deep flaw, based on K Ic , was less limiting than the one derived from the current methodology prescribed in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The inclusion of the weld residual stresses increased the conditional probability of cleavage fracture due to PTS loading by a factor ranging from 2 to 4

  4. A method for predicting individual residue contributions to enzyme specificity and binding-site energies, and its application to MTH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James J P

    2016-11-01

    A new method for predicting the energy contributions to substrate binding and to specificity has been developed. Conventional global optimization methods do not permit the subtle effects responsible for these properties to be modeled with sufficient precision to allow confidence to be placed in the results, but by making simple alterations to the model, the precisions of the various energies involved can be improved from about ±2 kcal mol -1 to ±0.1 kcal mol -1 . This technique was applied to the oxidized nucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase enzyme MTH1. MTH1 is unusual in that the binding and reaction sites are well separated-an advantage from a computational chemistry perspective, as it allows the energetics involved in docking to be modeled without the need to consider any issues relating to reaction mechanisms. In this study, two types of energy terms were investigated: the noncovalent interactions between the binding site and the substrate, and those responsible for discriminating between the oxidized nucleotide 8-oxo-dGTP and the normal dGTP. Both of these were investigated using the semiempirical method PM7 in the program MOPAC. The contributions of the individual residues to both the binding energy and the specificity of MTH1 were calculated by simulating the effect of mutations. Where comparisons were possible, all calculated results were in agreement with experimental observations. This technique provides fresh insight into the binding mechanism that enzymes use for discriminating between possible substrates.

  5. Contribution of the study of a nuclear reactor accident: residual power aspects and thermodynamic of U-UO_2 and UO_2-ZrO_2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baichi, Mehdi

    2001-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of early delocalization and fission product releases during the formation of corium coming from a nuclear reactor accident. The first part deals with an analysis of corium cooling. The contribution to the power of each corium element has been calculated with time. The main elements are represented but the addition of Pu, Mo and Nb has been proposed. The last release experimental data taken into account result in a loss of residual power of 25% exclusive of corium between the emergency stop and ten days. The second part deals with the early delocalization observed during Vercors experiments. A critical selection on the U-UO_2 and UO_2-ZrO_2 systems has been carried out. In order to complete the small and inconsistent data, thermodynamic activity measurements have been performed by mass spectrometry. The UO_2 activity on UO_2-ZrO_2 presents a positive deviation from ideality at 2200 K and approximates ideality at 2400 K. All the data have been used for optimizing the systems with Thermo-Calc. This work has allowed to calculate the ternary systems and to define the required approach to analyze the metallic phase and corium oxides densities. (author) [fr

  6. Application of secondary and residual stresses to the assessment of the structural integrity of nuclear power-generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banahan, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    Magnox nuclear power stations were built in the 1960s to design codes that, in general, required weldments to be subject to a post-weld heat treatment to remove residual stresses. Implicit in this was the assumption that the heat treatment reduced the stresses significantly such that as stated in the codes 'stresses caused by fabrication and welding are practically annulled'. However, it has since been realised that the stresses remaining, although small, could still be significant when incorporated into the subsequently developed failure avoidance methodologies such as R6. Moreover, either at the time of construction or during the operating life, repairs are undertaken to remove manufacturing or service-induced defects. These repairs can be put into service with or without a post-weld heat treatment. As a consequence of a paucity of data for the two- and three-dimensional distribution of the magnitude of these stresses, extremely conservative values of stresses have been adopted to ensure that the plant is secure against the design intent throughout the service life. In this paper, the requirements of the failure-avoidance methodology R6 Revision 4 are briefly reviewed with respect to the categorisation of secondary and residual stresses and the application of the three approaches for determining the as-welded residual stress distribution at room temperature. These three levels comprise, Level 1, simple estimates, Level 2, bounding profiles, and Level 3, detailed evaluation. Examples are presented where knowledge of the residual stresses has been an important component of the overall integrity assessment. The first relates to multi-pass weldments in superheater headers fabricated from a ferritic steel and the second to the weldments in the standpipes, both at Magnox power stations with concrete pressure vessels. Although in these cases the weldments had been subject to a post-weld heat treatment, the remaining residual stresses presented a significant challenge to

  7. Assessment of the PCDD/F fate from MSWI residue used in road construction in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreddine, R; François, D

    2009-01-01

    MSWI fly ash is susceptible to contain high amount of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans. However, the use of MSWI residue for road construction started in France at a period when MSWI Bottom Ash and MSWI fly ash were not separated. From four old road sites, MSWI residue, road soils, reference soils and geo-textiles were sampled and their PCDD/F contents were analyzed. MSWI residue show a great heterogeneity but also high amounts of PCDD/F (14-2960 ng I-TEQ kg(-1)dm). Soils underlying the road show less heterogeneity and PCDD/F contents between 0.57 and 7.23 ng I-TEQ kg(-1)dm, lower than ordinary soils. Moreover, the specific analysis of the 17 toxic PCDD/F congeners (notably the 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) indicates the very low harmfulness of road soils. The study also allows to assert the relation between the MSWI residue particle size and the PCDD/F content.

  8. Eddy Current Nondestructive Residual Stress Assessment in Shot-Peened Nickel-Base Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blodgett, M.P.; Yu, F.; Nagy, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Shot peening and other mechanical surface enhancement methods improve the fatigue resistance and foreign-object damage tolerance of metallic components by introducing beneficial near-surface compressive residual stresses and hardening the surface. However, the fatigue life improvement gained via surface enhancement is not explicitly accounted for in current engine component life prediction models because of the lack of accurate and reliable nondestructive methods that could verify the presence of compressive near-surface residual stresses in shot-peened hardware. In light of its frequency-dependent penetration depth, the measurement of eddy current conductivity has been suggested as a possible means to allow the nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stresses in surface-treated components. This technique is based on the so-called piezoresistivity effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of electrical resistivity. We found that, in contrast with most other materials, surface-treated nickel-base superalloys exhibit an apparent increase in electrical conductivity at increasing inspection frequencies, i.e., at decreasing penetration depths. Experimental results are presented to illustrate that the excess frequency-dependent apparent eddy current conductivity of shot-peened nickel-base superalloys can be used to estimate the absolute level and penetration depth of the compressive residual stress layer both before and after partial thermal relaxation

  9. Aging assessment of Residual Heat Removal systems in Boiling Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.J.; Aggarwal, S.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of aging on Residual Heat Removal systems in Boiling Water Reactors have been studied as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The aging phenomena has been characterized by analyzing operating experience from various national data bases. In addition, actual plant data was obtained to supplement and validate the data base findings

  10. Assessment of residual DDE at four remediated Hanford waste sites, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linville, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the extent and distribution of residual DDE, a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), across the four waste sites by sampling ground-dwelling insects and bird eggs, evaluating the use of insects for monitoring contamination pathways, and determining the species of passerine birds present and the number of nesting pairs utilizing the waste sites

  11. Neglect of lactation stage leads to naive assessment of residual feed intake in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingjie; Berglund, B.; Fikse, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a candidate trait for feed efficiency in dairy cattle. We investigated the influence of lactation stage on the effect of energy sinks in defining RFI and the genetic parameters for RFI across lactation stages for primiparous dairy cattle. Our analysis included 747 pr...

  12. Monitoring, exposure and risk assessment of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh or dried fruits and vegetables in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tiantian; Huang, Weisu; Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Liying; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Hu, Yinzhou

    2017-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide residues in 20 kinds of products collected from 23 provinces of China (Jilin, Beijing, Shanxi, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan, Gansu, Neimenggu, Xinjiang and Hainan) were analysed, and a health risk assessment was performed. The detection rates of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, dried vegetables and dried fruits were 11.1-95.9%, 12.6-92.3%, 70.3-80.0% and 26.0-100.0%, respectively; the mean concentrations of residues were 2.7-120.8, 3.8-35.7, 26.9-99.1 and 12.0-1120.4 mg kg -1 , respectively. The results indicated that fresh vegetables and dried products are critical products; the daily intakes (EDIs) for children were higher than others; the hazard indexes (HI) for four groups were 0.019-0.033, 0.001-0.005, 0.007-0.016 and 0.002-0.005 at P50, respectively. But the HI was more than 1 at P99 by intake dried fruits and vegetables. Although the risk for consumers was acceptable on the whole, children were the most vulnerable group. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicated that the level of sulfur dioxide residues was the most influential variable in this model. Thus, continuous monitoring and stricter regulation of sulfites using are recommended in China.

  13. Dynamics, Residue and Risk Assessment of Nitenpyram in Rice and Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUAN Xue-xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Residues dynamics, final residual levels and dietary intake risk of nitenpyram in rice and paddy field were investigated in three dif-ferent regions of China(Shandong, Henan and Anhui. A method was illustrated to detect nitenpyram residues in paddy, plant, brown rice, paddy water and soil. The residues in paddy and rice were extracted with methanol+phosphate buffer(0.2 mol·L-1, pH=7.0(60+40, adjust pH to 2.5, then cleaned up with solid phase extraction column and 0.22 μm filter membrane, and then analyzed by HPLC with an ul-traviolet detector at 260 nm. When spiked 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 mg·kg-1, the recoveries of nitenpyram in paddy plant and brown rice were 78.4%~94.7% and 84.0%~94.2%, respectively. The residues in paddy water and soil were extracted with phosphate buffer (0.2 mol·L-1, pH=7.0, when spiked 0.01, 0.5, 1.0 mg·kg-1, the recoveries of nitenpyram in paddy water and soil were 84.6%~98.0% and 93.7%~97.1%, respective-ly, which indicated this method match the requirement of the detection. Two years results showed that nitenpyram belongs to easily degraded pesticides, because all half-lives were below 1.4 d in rice plant, as well as below 4.2 d in paddy water. Final residual levels of nitenpyram in rice were all below 0.05 mg·kg-1,which was far below the Japanese maximum residue limit(0.5 mg·kg-1. The risk quotients (RQs were low for different populations in China, which indicated its low risk in rice. Therefore, the rice with nitenpyram applied, according to the recom-mend method, 45 g·hm-2 application once, with 21 days collection interval, was safe.

  14. Assessment of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticide Residues in Cigarette Tobacco with a Novel Cell Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridon Kintzios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional analysis of pesticide residues in analytical commodities, such as tobacco and tobacco products is a labor intensive procedure, since it is necessary to cover a wide range of different chemicals, using a single procedure. Standard analysis methods include extensive sample pretreatment (with solvent extraction and partitioning phases and determination by GC and HPLC to achieve the necessary selectivity and sensitivity for the different classes of compounds under detection. As a consequence, current methods of analysis provide a limited sample capacity. In the present study, we report on the development of a novel cell biosensor for detecting organophosphate and carbamate pesticide residues in tobacco. The sensor is based on neuroblastoma N2a cells and the measurement of changes of the cell membrane potential, according to the working principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA. The presence of pesticide residues is detected by the degree of inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE. The sensor instantly responded to both the organophoshate pesticide chlorpyriphos and the carbamate carbaryl in a concentration-dependent pattern, being able to detect one part per billion (1 ppb. Additionally, tobacco leaf samples (in blended dry form were analyzed with both the novel biosensor and conventional methods, according to a double-blind protocol. Pesticide residues in tobacco samples caused a considerable cell membrane hyperpolarization to neuroblastoma cells immobilized in the sensor, as indicated by the increase of the negative sensor potential, which was clearly distinguishable from the sensor’s response against pesticide-free control samples. The observed response was quite reproducible, with an average variation of +5,6%. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that treatment of the cells with either chlorpyrifos or carbaryl was associated with increased [Ca2+]cyt . The novel biosensor offers fresh

  15. Residue levels and risk assessment of pesticides in nuts of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Shen, Danyu; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Ding, Ming; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-02-01

    The pesticide residue levels of three nuts (chestnut, walnut, pinenut) collected from seven main producing areas of China were investigated. Twenty-nine pesticides, including organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and two fungicides (triadimefon and buprofezin) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Four OPs (acephate, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and parathion-methyl) were found in 11.4% samples, with the concentrations of 19.0 µg kg(-1) to 74.0 µg kg(-1). Six OCs (DDT, HCH, endosulfan, quintozene, aldrin and dieldrin) were found in 18.2% samples, with the concentrations of 2.0 µg kg(-1) to 65.7 µg kg(-1). Among OCs, p,p-DDE and α-HCH were the dominant isomer for DDT and HCH. Five PYs (fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, bifenthrin and cyhalothrin) were found in 15.9% samples, with the concentrations of 2.5 µg kg(-1) to 433.0 µg kg(-1). Fenpropathrin was the most frequently detected pesticide. In addition, triadimefon and buprofezin were detected only in two samples. For the tested nuts, 25.0% samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 9.1% samples with five pesticide residues. The residue of 15.9% samples was higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. The short-term risks for the tested nuts were below 1.2%, and the highest long-term risk was 12.58%. The cumulative risk (cHI) for the tested pesticides were 8.43% (OPs), 0.42% (OCs), 12.82% (PYs) and 0.15% (fungicides), respectively. The total cHI was 21.82%. There was no significant health risk for consumers via nuts consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validity and reliability of a novel 3D scanner for assessment of the shape and volume of amputees' residual limb models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Seminati

    Full Text Available Objective assessment methods to monitor residual limb volume following lower-limb amputation are required to enhance practitioner-led prosthetic fitting. Computer aided systems, including 3D scanners, present numerous advantages and the recent Artec Eva scanner, based on laser free technology, could potentially be an effective solution for monitoring residual limb volumes.The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Artec Eva scanner (practical measurement against a high precision laser 3D scanner (criterion measurement for the determination of residual limb model shape and volume.Three observers completed three repeat assessments of ten residual limb models, using both the scanners. Validity of the Artec Eva scanner was assessed (mean percentage error <2% and Bland-Altman statistics were adopted to assess the agreement between the two scanners. Intra and inter-rater reliability (repeatability coefficient <5% of the Artec Eva scanner was calculated for measuring indices of residual limb model volume and shape (i.e. residual limb cross sectional areas and perimeters.Residual limb model volumes ranged from 885 to 4399 ml. Mean percentage error of the Artec Eva scanner (validity was 1.4% of the criterion volumes. Correlation coefficients between the Artec Eva and the Romer determined variables were higher than 0.9. Volume intra-rater and inter-rater reliability coefficients were 0.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Shape percentage maximal error was 2% at the distal end of the residual limb, with intra-rater reliability coefficients presenting the lowest errors (0.2%, both for cross sectional areas and perimeters of the residual limb models.The Artec Eva scanner is a valid and reliable method for assessing residual limb model shapes and volumes. While the method needs to be tested on human residual limbs and the results compared with the current system used in clinical practice, it has the potential to quantify shape and volume

  17. Toward Fairness in Assessing Student Groupwork: A Protocol for Peer Evaluation of Individual Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellenz, Martin R.

    2006-01-01

    A key challenge for management instructors using graded groupwork with students is to find ways to maximize student learning from group projects while ensuring fair and accurate assessment methods. This article presents the Groupwork Peer-Evaluation Protocol (GPEP) that enables the assessment of individual contributions to graded student…

  18. The Contribution of Sustainability Assessment to Policy Development in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Wim

    2015-01-01

    This article builds upon the experiences and results of the application of sustainability assessment instruments in higher education. First, a short overview of existing sustainability assessment tools will be provided, as well as their contribution towards the integration of sustainability in higher education. Second, a reflective case focuses on…

  19. Assessing the contribution of beach-cast seagrass wrack to global GHGs emissions: experimental models, problems and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misson, Gloria; Incerti, Guido; Alberti, Giorgio; Delle Vedove, Gemini; Pirelli, Tiziana; Peressotti, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Carbon stock in coastal seagrass ecosystems is estimated to be 4.2-8.4 Pg C. While covering less than 0.2% of the ocean floor, seagrasses store about 10% of the carbon buried in the oceans each year. However, such a potential contribution is reduced by the annual loss of seagrasses globally (-1.5% per year) mainly because of anthropogenic coastal development and climate change. Like many terrestrial higher plants, marine seagrasses lose their old leaves during annual or inter-annual senescence, and a significant proportion of these residues is transported in surface waters and washed up on shores by surf, tides and winds. This beach-cast seagrass wrack provides important ecosystem services, such as reducing wave impact, protecting beaches from erosion, providing habitat to bird and invertebrate species that colonize shorelines, and being a primary food resource for beach detritivores. However, accumulation of seagrass wrack on beaches, following degradation of meadows, can negatively impact tourism. Therefore, wrack piles are frequently collected and disposed of in landfills or biomass waste facilities, and the adoption of these management practices implies substantial environmental and economic costs. On the other hand, wrack piles might be a significant source of greenhouse emissions (GHGs). Recent studies reported CO2 emission rates and suggested possible mitigation options, such as energy conversion and biochar production through pyrolysis. Even though quantitative estimates of both seagrass coastal distribution and residues disposal to seashores are partially available, at least at regional level, the assessment of their contribution to global GHGs emissions is still lacking, due to a knowledge gap about the effects of peculiar environmental conditions of beach ecosystems on seagrass decay rates. In this framework, we propose an experimental model to assess seagrass wrack decomposition dynamics in both controlled conditions and experimental fields in North

  20. Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praphulla Chandra, Boggarapu; Sinha, Vinayak

    2016-04-01

    benzene and ensure compliance with the NAAQS. Calculations of excessive lifetime cancer risk due to benzene amount to 25 and 10 per million inhabitants for children and adults, respectively, exceeding the USEPA threshold of 1 per million inhabitants. Annual exposure to isocyanic acid was close to 1 ppb, the concentration considered to be sufficient to enhance risks for cardiovascular diseases and cataracts. This study makes a case for urgent mitigation of post-harvest paddy residue fires as the unknown synergistic effect of multi-pollutant exposure due to emissions from this anthropogenic source may be posing grave health risks to the population of the N.W. IGP. This work has been published very recently and the citation to the complete work is: B.P. Chandra, Vinayak Sinha, Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide, Environment International, Volume 88, March 2016, Pages 187-197, ISSN 0160-4120, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.12.025.

  1. Intention stability assessed using residual change scores moderates the intention-behaviour association: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Alicia A; McDermott, Máirtín S; Allen, Mark S

    2017-12-01

    Intention stability is considered to be one of the key pre-requisites for a strong association between intention and behaviour. It has been claimed, however, that studies examining the moderating impact of intention stability may be invalid, as they have relied on statistically inferior methods. Residual change scores have been suggested as a more appropriate method of measuring change (or lack thereof) in constructs. The aim of the current study, therefore, is to test whether intention stability, calculated using residual change scores, moderates the intention-physical activity behaviour association. A total of 163 participants (124 women, 39 men) completed questionnaires online at three time points separated by 14 day intervals. The moderating impact of intention stability was assessed using multiple linear regression followed up using simple slope analyses to identify the direction of any effect. The interaction of intention and intention stability was found to significantly improve the overall model fit. Intentions had a stronger positive association with behaviour when intentions were more stable than when they were more unstable. However, sensitivity analyses revealed that the association was not robust and reduced to non-significant with the removal of potential multivariate outliers. Future research should use residual change scores as the preferred method of assessing intention stability.

  2. Assessment of residual stress of 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging using the contour method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheng [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Yang, Yinfei, E-mail: yyfgoat@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Li, Liang [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Chen, Bo; Tian, Hui [Xi’an Aircraft Industrial (Group) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710000 (China)

    2015-09-17

    The cold-compression stress relief process has been used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings. However, this method does not completely relieve the stress. Longitudinal residual stresses in 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging were measured with contour method. The measuring procedure of the contour method including specimen cutting under clamps with a wire electrical discharge machine, contour measurement of the cut surface with a laser scanner, careful data processing and elastic finite element analysis was introduced in detail. In addition, multiple cuts were used to map cross sectional stress at different cut surfaces. Finally, the longitudinal residual stress throughout the cut plane was mapped, and through thickness longitudinal stress profiles were also analyzed. Investigated results suggest that spatial variation of stress distribution can be attributed to the non-uniform plastic deformation of the cold-compression stress relief process. The overall reduction of peak stress magnitudes is approximately 43–79%.

  3. Eco-efficiency assessment of options for metal recovery from incineration residues: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Grégoire; Spoerri, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Residues from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Switzerland have been a hot topic in recent years, both in the research and practice communities. Regarded by many as an economically and environmentally sound solution to this issue, technological retrofitting of existing grate incinerators has the dual purpose of enhancing the metal recovery of bottom and fly ashes and improving the inertization of residues to be landfilled. How does context influence the economic and environmental performance of this particular technological option? Under which conditions would this technological option be implemented nationwide in the future? What are stakeholders' views on sustainable transitions of MSW incineration? We propose a three-stage methodological procedure to address these questions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of residual stress of 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging using the contour method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Yang, Yinfei; Li, Liang; Chen, Bo; Tian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The cold-compression stress relief process has been used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings. However, this method does not completely relieve the stress. Longitudinal residual stresses in 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging were measured with contour method. The measuring procedure of the contour method including specimen cutting under clamps with a wire electrical discharge machine, contour measurement of the cut surface with a laser scanner, careful data processing and elastic finite element analysis was introduced in detail. In addition, multiple cuts were used to map cross sectional stress at different cut surfaces. Finally, the longitudinal residual stress throughout the cut plane was mapped, and through thickness longitudinal stress profiles were also analyzed. Investigated results suggest that spatial variation of stress distribution can be attributed to the non-uniform plastic deformation of the cold-compression stress relief process. The overall reduction of peak stress magnitudes is approximately 43–79%

  5. Assessment of pesticide residues in some fruits using gas chromatography coupled with micro electron capture detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, Y.; Sherazi, S.T.H.; Bhanger, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    A very sensitive analytical method for the determination of 26 pesticides in some fruits based on solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup was developed using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with micro electron capture detector (mu ECD). The identity of the pesticides was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent for the extraction of pesticide residues with assistance of sonication. For cleanup an octadecyl, C18 SPE column was used. A linear response of mu ECD was observed for all pesticides with good correlation coefficients (>0.9992). Proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of pesticide residues in the orange, apple, and grape fruits. Average recoveries achieved for all of the pesticides at fortification levels of 0.05, 1.0 and 2.0 mu g g/sup -1/ in analyzed fruits were above 90% with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 6%. (author)

  6. Residual Inequity: Assessing the Unintended Consequences of New York City’s Clean Heat Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Daniel; Lee, W. Victoria; Hernández, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Energy policies and public health are intimately intertwined. In New York City, a series of policies, known as the Clean Heat Program (CHP), were designed to reduce air pollution by banning residual diesel fuel oils, #6 in 2015 and #4 by 2030. This measure is expected to yield environmental and public health benefits over time. While there is near-universal compliance with the #6 ban, a substantial number of buildings still use #4. In this paper, geographic analysis and qualitative interviews with stakeholders were used to interrogate the CHP’s policy implementation in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. A total of 1724 (53%) of all residential residual fuel burning buildings are located in this region. Stakeholders reflected mostly on the need for the program, and overall reactions to its execution. Major findings include that government partnerships with non-governmental organizations were effectively employed. However, weaknesses with the policy were also identified, including missed opportunities for more rapid transitions away from residual fuels, unsuccessful outreach efforts, cost-prohibitive conversion opportunities, and (the perception of) a volatile energy market for clean fuels. Ultimately, this analysis serves as a case study of a unique and innovative urban policy initiative to improve air quality and, consequently, public health. PMID:29324717

  7. Residual Inequity: Assessing the Unintended Consequences of New York City's Clean Heat Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Daniel; Lee, W Victoria; Hernández, Diana

    2018-01-11

    Energy policies and public health are intimately intertwined. In New York City, a series of policies, known as the Clean Heat Program (CHP), were designed to reduce air pollution by banning residual diesel fuel oils, #6 in 2015 and #4 by 2030. This measure is expected to yield environmental and public health benefits over time. While there is near-universal compliance with the #6 ban, a substantial number of buildings still use #4. In this paper, geographic analysis and qualitative interviews with stakeholders were used to interrogate the CHP's policy implementation in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. A total of 1724 (53%) of all residential residual fuel burning buildings are located in this region. Stakeholders reflected mostly on the need for the program, and overall reactions to its execution. Major findings include that government partnerships with non-governmental organizations were effectively employed. However, weaknesses with the policy were also identified, including missed opportunities for more rapid transitions away from residual fuels, unsuccessful outreach efforts, cost-prohibitive conversion opportunities, and (the perception of) a volatile energy market for clean fuels. Ultimately, this analysis serves as a case study of a unique and innovative urban policy initiative to improve air quality and, consequently, public health.

  8. Residual Inequity: Assessing the Unintended Consequences of New York City’s Clean Heat Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Carrión

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy policies and public health are intimately intertwined. In New York City, a series of policies, known as the Clean Heat Program (CHP, were designed to reduce air pollution by banning residual diesel fuel oils, #6 in 2015 and #4 by 2030. This measure is expected to yield environmental and public health benefits over time. While there is near-universal compliance with the #6 ban, a substantial number of buildings still use #4. In this paper, geographic analysis and qualitative interviews with stakeholders were used to interrogate the CHP’s policy implementation in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. A total of 1724 (53% of all residential residual fuel burning buildings are located in this region. Stakeholders reflected mostly on the need for the program, and overall reactions to its execution. Major findings include that government partnerships with non-governmental organizations were effectively employed. However, weaknesses with the policy were also identified, including missed opportunities for more rapid transitions away from residual fuels, unsuccessful outreach efforts, cost-prohibitive conversion opportunities, and (the perception of a volatile energy market for clean fuels. Ultimately, this analysis serves as a case study of a unique and innovative urban policy initiative to improve air quality and, consequently, public health.

  9. On using residual risk to assess the cost effectiveness and health protectiveness of remedy selection at superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, Peter T.; Kastenberg, William E.

    1998-01-01

    This article examines the importance of determining residual risk and its impact on remedy selection at Superfund Sites. Within this examination, risks are assessed using probabilistic models that incorporate the uncertainty and variability of the input parameters, and utilize parameter distributions based on current and applicable site-specific data. Monte Carlo methods are used to propagate these uncertainties and variabilities through the risk calculations resulting in a distribution for the estimate of both risk and residual risk. Such an approach permits an informed decision based on a broad information base which involves considering the entire uncertainty distribution of risk rather than a point estimate for each exposure scenario. Using the probabilistic risk estimates, with current and applicable site-specific data, alternative decisions regarding cleanup are obtained for two Superfund Sites

  10. Life cycle assessment of residual lignocellulosic biomass-based jet fuel with activated carbon and lignosulfonate as co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, Francesca; Eastin, Ivan L; Ganguly, Indroneil

    2018-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels are emerging as a valuable alternative to petroleum-based fuels for their potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel dependence. In this study, residual woody biomass from slash piles in the U.S. Pacific Northwest is used as a feedstock to produce iso-paraffinic kerosene, through the production of sugar and subsequent patented proprietary fermentation and upgrading. To enhance the economic viability and reduce the environmental impacts of iso-paraffinic kerosene, two co-products, activated carbon and lignosulfonate, are simultaneously produced within the same bio-refinery. A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for the residual woody biomass-based bio-jet fuel and compared against the cradle-to-grave LCA of petroleum-based jet fuel. This paper also discusses the differences in the environmental impacts of the residual biomass-based bio-jet fuel using two different approaches, mass allocation and system expansion, to partition the impacts between the bio-fuel and the co-products, which are produced in the bio-refinery. The environmental assessment of biomass-based bio-jet fuel reveals an improvement along most critical environmental criteria, as compared to its petroleum-based counterpart. However, the results present significant differences in the environmental impact of biomass-based bio-jet fuel, based on the partitioning method adopted. The mass allocation approach shows a greater improvement along most of the environmental criteria, as compared to the system expansion approach. However, independent of the partitioning approach, the results of this study reveal that more than the EISA mandated 60% reduction in the global warming potential could be achieved by substituting petroleum-based jet fuel with residual woody biomass-based jet fuel. Converting residual woody biomass from slash piles into bio-jet fuel presents the additional benefit of avoiding the impacts of slash pile burning in the forest, which

  11. Assessment of imidacloprid and acetamiprid residues in okra and eggplant grown in peri-urban areas and their dietary intake in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, A.; Akhtar, S.; Randhawa, M.; Binyameen, M.

    2018-01-01

    This research work was designed to estimate the gradually increasing use of insecticides on vegetables to create awareness among the consumers regarding their insecticide residues. The main aim of this study is to highlight the harmful effects of insecticides in comparison with dietary intake assessment of vegetables. In this regard, total 180 (n = 60×3) samples of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and eggplant (Solanum melongena) comprising of 30 samples vegetable were collected from the peri-urban farming system of Multan, Faisalabad and Gujranwala to assess insecticide residues along with their dietary intake assessment. The selected samples were quantified for the insecticide residues by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique equipped with UV/Visible detector. Results revealed that imidacloprid residues found in eggplant (0.226 mg Kg-1) and okra (0.176 mg Kg-1) from Multan region were greater than the residues reported from Gujranwala and Faisalabad. Out of all analyzed samples for imidacloprid and acetamaprid residues, 58% and 65% samples contained detectable residues respectively. Whereas 10% and 15% samples exceeded their maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by European Commission. Dietary intake assessment for imidacloprid and acetamiprid was calculated as per their maximum permissible intake (MPI) values i.e. 3.84 and 4.48 mg person-1day-1, respectively, which revealed that although a reasonable proportion of samples exceeded MRLs but their consumption was found within safe limit. (author)

  12. Assessment of Dithiocarbamate Residues on Tomatoes Conventionally Grown in Uganda and the Effect of Simple Washing to Reduce Exposure Risk to Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atuhaire, Aggrey; Kaye, Emmanuel; Mutambuze, Innocent Louis

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide misuse by farmers poses health risks to consumers. This study assessed the level of dithiocarbamate residues in tomatoes acquired from 20 farmers and 25 market vendors in Wakiso District, how simple washing affects these residues, and the potential chronic health risk for Ugandans eatin...

  13. The Contribution of Project Environmental Assessment to Assessing and Managing Cumulative Effects: Individually and Collectively Insignificant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Bram; Liu, Jialang; Hackett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores the opportunities and constraints to project-based environmental assessment as a means to support the assessment and management of cumulative environmental effects. A case study of the hydroelectric sector is used to determine whether sufficient information is available over time through project-by-project assessments to support an adequate understanding of cumulative change. Results show inconsistency from one project to the next in terms of the components and indicators assessed, limited transfer of baseline information between project assessments over time, and the same issues and concerns being raised by review panels-even though the projects reviewed are operating in the same watershed and operated by the same proponent. Project environmental assessments must be managed, and coordinated, as part of a larger system of impact assessment, if project-by-project assessments are to provide a meaningful forum for learning and understanding cumulative change. The paper concludes with recommendations for improved project-based assessment practice in support of cumulative effects assessment and management.

  14. Assessment of the Local Residual Stresses of 7050-T7452 Aluminum Alloy in Microzones by the Instrumented Indentation with the Berkovich Indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M.; Huang, C. H.; Wang, X. X.; Yang, F.; Zhang, N.; Li, F. G.

    2017-10-01

    The local residual stresses in microzones are investigated by the instrumented indentation method with the Berkovich indenter. The parameters required for determination of residual stresses are obtained from indentation load-penetration depth curves constructed during instrumented indentation tests on flat square 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy specimens with a central hole containing the compressive residual stresses generated by the cold extrusion process. The force balance system with account of the tensile and compressive residual stresses is used to explain the phenomenon of different contact areas produced by the same indentation load. The effect of strain-hardening exponent on the residual stress is tuned-off by application of the representative stress σ_{0.033} in the average contact pressure assessment using the Π theorem, while the yield stress value is obtained from the constitutive function. Finally, the residual stresses are calculated according to the proposed equations of the force balance system, and their feasibility is corroborated by the XRD measurements.

  15. BfR recommendations for the health assessment of chlorate residues in food

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2014-01-01

    During industry quality control activities and official food surveillance, residues of chlorate were found in fruit and vegetables. Chlorates are the salts of chloric acid HClO3. In the past, sodium and potassium chlorate were used as herbicides. In the EU, the use of chlorate-containing plant protection products or biocidal products is no longer allowed. However, chlorate can be formed as a by-product when chlorine-containing substances are used, e.g. for cleaning or disinfection purpos...

  16. Preliminary assessment of biodiesel generation from meat industry residues in Baja California, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, Lydia; Montero, Gisela; Stoytcheva, Margarita; Campbell, Hector; Lambert, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Oil derived fuels constituted a main energy source during the last fifty years, although their high price limited their accessibility. Prospective studies indicated that economic and environmental problems promoted biodiesel production using biomass and residues like animal fat, along with meat and bones, among others. The regional inventory of the available fat in meat industry, as well as the estimation of the biodiesel potential production demonstrated that the biodiesel generated from animal fat, combined with diesel from oil in a 2% biodiesel blend could power 25% of the trucks and passenger vehicles registered in 2007 in Baja California, Mexico. (author)

  17. Nondestructive Induced Residual Stress Assessment in Superalloy Turbine Engine Components Using Induced Positron Annihilation (IPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rideout, C. A.; Ritchie, S. J.; Denison, A.

    2007-01-01

    Induced Positron Analysis (IPA) has demonstrated the ability to nondestructively quantify shot peening/surface treatments and relaxation effects in single crystal superalloys, steels, titanium and aluminum with a single measurement as part of a National Science Foundation SBIR program and in projects with commercial companies. IPA measurement of surface treatment effects provides a demonstrated ability to quantitatively measure initial treatment effectiveness along with the effect of operationally induced changes over the life of the treated component. Use of IPA to nondestructively quantify surface and subsurface residual stresses in turbine engine materials and components will lead to improvements in current engineering designs and maintenance procedures

  18. An Assessment of Subsurface Residual Stress Analysis in SLM Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mishurova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V bridges were additively fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM under different scanning speed conditions, to compare the effect of process energy density on the residual stress state. Subsurface lattice strain characterization was conducted by means of synchrotron diffraction in energy dispersive mode. High tensile strain gradients were found at the frontal surface for samples in an as-built condition. The geometry of the samples promotes increasing strains towards the pillar of the bridges. We observed that the higher the laser energy density during fabrication, the lower the lattice strains. A relief of lattice strains takes place after heat treatment.

  19. Novel processing of Barkhausen noise signal for assessment of residual stress in surface ground components exhibiting poor magnetic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashista, M.; Paul, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) technique has been utilised to assess surface integrity of steels. But the BNA technique is not very successful in evaluating surface integrity of ground steels that exhibit poor micro-magnetic response. A new approach has been proposed for the processing of BN signal and two newly proposed parameters, namely 'count' and 'event', have been shown to correlate linearly with the residual stress upon grinding, with judicious choice of user defined 'threshold', even when the micro-magnetic response of the work material is poor. In the present study, residual stress induced upon conventional plunge surface grinding of hardened bearing steel has been investigated along with unhardened bearing steel for benchmarking. Moreover, similar correlation has been established, when primarily compressive stress is induced upon high speed grinding using cBN wheel with moderately deep cut suppressing the micro-magnetic response from the ground medium carbon steel as the work material. - Highlights: → The problem of work materials exhibiting poor BN response and poor Barkhausen Noise response is identified. → A novel signal processing strategy is introduced to address the issue of poor micro-magnetic response of some ferromagnetic material. → Potential of newly introduced BN parameters has been studied. → These two BN parameters exhibited linear correlation with residual stress for work material with poor micro-magnetic response.

  20. Protein-RNA interface residue prediction using machine learning: an assessment of the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Rasna R; Caragea, Cornelia; Lewis, Benjamin A; Towfic, Fadi; Terribilini, Michael; El-Manzalawy, Yasser; Dobbs, Drena; Honavar, Vasant

    2012-05-10

    RNA molecules play diverse functional and structural roles in cells. They function as messengers for transferring genetic information from DNA to proteins, as the primary genetic material in many viruses, as catalysts (ribozymes) important for protein synthesis and RNA processing, and as essential and ubiquitous regulators of gene expression in living organisms. Many of these functions depend on precisely orchestrated interactions between RNA molecules and specific proteins in cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which proteins recognize and bind RNA is essential for comprehending the functional implications of these interactions, but the recognition 'code' that mediates interactions between proteins and RNA is not yet understood. Success in deciphering this code would dramatically impact the development of new therapeutic strategies for intervening in devastating diseases such as AIDS and cancer. Because of the high cost of experimental determination of protein-RNA interfaces, there is an increasing reliance on statistical machine learning methods for training predictors of RNA-binding residues in proteins. However, because of differences in the choice of datasets, performance measures, and data representations used, it has been difficult to obtain an accurate assessment of the current state of the art in protein-RNA interface prediction. We provide a review of published approaches for predicting RNA-binding residues in proteins and a systematic comparison and critical assessment of protein-RNA interface residue predictors trained using these approaches on three carefully curated non-redundant datasets. We directly compare two widely used machine learning algorithms (Naïve Bayes (NB) and Support Vector Machine (SVM)) using three different data representations in which features are encoded using either sequence- or structure-based windows. Our results show that (i) Sequence-based classifiers that use a position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM

  1. Contribution of promoting the green residence assessment scheme to energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhiyu; Yuan, Hongping; Shen, Liyin

    2012-01-01

    Green residence development has been one of the important strategies for promoting sustainable urban development. Governments throughout the world have been encouraging property developers to deliver green properties. In line with this development, governments have been implementing various assessment programs to certify green residential buildings with the aim of contributing to sustainable urban development. With reference to the Chinese construction practice, this paper examines the effectiveness of the green residence assessment scheme toward its defined aim through investigating the contents and procedures of the green residence assessment scheme by referring to the practices of Chongqing city in western China. Based on the results of five case studies and five semi-structured interviews, this study reveals the significant contribution from implementing the green residence assessment scheme particularly to energy saving in residential buildings. Further, the green residence assessment scheme promotes the application of green building materials and green construction technologies in the entire process of delivering and operating residential buildings. The findings provide valuable references for further investigating alternative methods to achieve better energy saving in developing residential buildings. - Highlights: ► Energy saving in residence development is important for sustainable urban development. ► Green residence assessment scheme contributes significantly to energy saving in residences. ► Green residence assessment promotes application of environmentally friendly building materials and technologies

  2. Assessment of the gasification characteristics of some agricultural and forest industry residues using a laboratory gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R O; Goss, J R

    1979-01-01

    Gasification means here the reaction of solid fuels with air to yield a low calorific value gas, suitable as a fuel. The solid fuels considered are agricultural and forest industry residues. A laboratory-scale downdraft gasifier was used to study the gasification properties of certain biomass fuels. The grate is the most critical part of the gasifier. Two designs were tested: a rotating eccentric grate and a perforated steel basket. The latter was specifically designed for use with granular fuels such as mulled walnut shells. Batch tests were performed with different biomass fuels and at varying fuel consumption rates. The composition of the generated gas and the mass and heat balances were determined. Substantial closure errors are reported. These are considered to be the result of tars in the gas which were not accounted for. Yields varied from 75.5% in the case of walnut shells to 46% for rice hulls. With a biomass fuel consisting of a mixture of two sizes of walnut shells, yields in excess of 80% were recorded at high fuel consumption rates. Some practical aspects concerning the gasification of biomass fuels and problems associated with cotton gin trash, rice hulls, and wood residues are discussed.

  3. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Some Fruits Using Gas Chromatography Coupled with Micro Electron Capture Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Bhanger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A very sensitive analytical method for the determination of 26 pesticides in some fruits based on solid phase extraction (SPE cleanup was developed using gas chromatography (GC coupled with micro electron capture detector (μECD. The identity of the pesticides was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS using selected ion monitoring (SIM mode. Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent for the extraction of pesticide residues with assistance of sonication. For cleanup an octadecyl, C18 SPE column was used. A linear response of μECD was observed for all pesticides with good correlation coefficients (>0.9992. Proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of pesticide residues in the orange, apple, and grape fruits. Average recoveries achieved for all of the pesticides at fortification levels of 0.05, 1.0 and 2.0 μg g-1 in analyzed fruits were above 90% with relative standard deviations (RSD less than 6

  4. Persistence and risk assessment of emamectin benzoate residues on okra fruits and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Mandal, Kousik; Chahil, G S; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate, a synthetic derivative of abamectin, is found effective against fruit borer and jassid in okra crops. The present studies were carried out to study the dissipation pattern of emamectin benzoate on okra and to suggest a suitable waiting period for the safety of consumers. Following three applications of emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) at 68.1 and 136.2 g a.i. ha-1, the average initial deposits of emamectin benzoate were observed to be 0.22 and 0.42mg kg-1, respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg-1 after 5 days at both the dosages. Soil samples collected after 15 days did not reveal the presence of emamectin benzoate at LOQ of 0.05 mg kg-1. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) of emamectin benzoate is 0.0005 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, which means an adult of 55 kg weight can safely tolerate an intake of 27.50 microg emamectin benzoate. Assuming an average consumption of 80 g okra fruit and multiplying it by average and maximum residues observed on 0 day at recommended dosage, the intake of emamectin benzoate comes out to be about 20 Itg and these values are quite safe in comparison to its ADI. These studies, therefore, suggest that the use of emamectin benzoate at the minimum effective dosages do not seem to pose any hazards to the consumers if a waiting period of 1 day is observed.

  5. Assessment of the Residual Life of Steam Pipeline Material beyond the Computational Working Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Sroka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of durability for the material of repair welded joints made from (13HMF 14MoV6-3 steel after long-term service, and from material in the as-received condition and after long-term service. Microstructure examinations using a scanning electron microscope, hardness measurements and creep tests of the basic material and welded joints of these steels were carried out. These tests enabled the time of further safe service of the examined repair welded joints to be determined in relation to the residual life of the materials. The evaluation of residual life and disposable life, and thus the estimation and determination of the time of safe service, is of great importance for the operation of components beyond the design service life. The obtained test results are part of the materials’ characteristics developed by the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy for steels and welded joints made from these steels to work under creep conditions.

  6. A technique for the assessment of the masses of residual plutonium in gloveboxes using thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, B.; Godward, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    A means of measuring the mass of residual plutonium in gloveboxes in the size range 1 to 10 m 3 has been developed using multiple thermoluminescent detectors. By optimising the location and the number of detectors, and by using suitable filtration, the mean response from them has been made insensitive to the distribution and the composition of the plutonium. It is possible to detect 10 g of plutonium in the largest glovebox considered. The measurement and mass estimation processes have been reduced to simple operations which can be carried out by skilled industrial staff. The routine application of the technique has been arranged to minimise disturbance to be production work going on in the gloveboxes by making unattended measurements during silent hours

  7. A Nobel Prize for empirical macroeconometrics: assessing the contributions of Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Sent, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the contributions of the 2011 Nobel Prize winners, Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims. They received the prize ‘for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy’. The paper illustrates that Sargent entertained different interpretations of

  8. Residue behavior and risk assessment of mixed formulation of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr in chieh-qua under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian Xiang; Liu, Cong Yun; Lu, Da Hai; Chen, Jia Jia; Deng, Yi Cai; Wang, Fu Hua

    2015-10-01

    A simple and rapid method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr residues in chieh-qua. Field trials were designed to investigate the dissipation and terminal residue behavior of the mixed formulation of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr in chieh-qua in Guangzhou and Nanning areas. Risk assessment was performed by calculating the risk quotient (RQ) values. The developed analytical method exhibited recoveries of 89.9-110.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.8-12.5% at the spiked levels of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/kg. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.003 mg/kg, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 mg/kg for both imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr. It was found that the half-lives of imidacloprid in chieh-qua under field conditions were 3.3 and 3.5 days in Guangzhou and Nanning at a dose of 180 g ai/ha, while the half-lives of chlorfenapyr were 3.3 and 2.6 days, respectively. The terminal residues of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr were from 0.01 to 0.21 mg/kg and from 0.01 to 0.46 mg/kg, respectively. Results of dietary exposure assessment showed that the RQ values were much lower than 1, indicating that the risk of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr applied in chieh-qua was negligible to human health under recommended dosage and good agricultural practices. The proposed study would provide guidance for safe and reasonable use of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr in chieh-qua cultivation in China.

  9. Life cycle assessment of integrated solid state anaerobic digestion and composting for on-farm organic residues treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangyang; Manandhar, Ashish; Li, Guoxue; Shah, Ajay

    2018-03-20

    Driven by the gradual changes in the structure of energy consumption and improvements of living standards in China, the volume of on-farm organic solid waste is increasing. If untreated, these unutilized on-farm organic solid wastes can cause environmental problems. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of different on-farm organic waste (which includes dairy manure, corn stover and tomato residue) treatment strategies, including anaerobic digestion (AD), composting, and AD followed by composting. The input life cycle inventory data are specific to China. The potential environmental impacts of different waste management strategies were assessed based on their acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ecotoxicity potential (ETP), and resource depletion (RD). The results show that the preferred treatment strategy for dairy manure is the one that integrated corn stover and tomato residue utilization and solid state AD technologies into the system. The GWP of integrated solid state AD and composting was the least, which is -2900 kg CO 2 eq/ t of dairy manure and approximately 14.8 times less than that of current status (i.e., liquid AD of dairy manure). Solid state AD of dairy manure, corn stover and tomato residues is the most favorable option in terms of AP, EP and ETP, which are more than 40% lower than that of the current status (i.e., AP: 3.11 kg SO 2 , EP: -0.94 kg N, and ETP: -881 CTUe (Comparative Toxic Units ecotoxicity)). The results also show that there is a significant potential for AP, EP, ETP, and GWP reduction, if AD is used prior to composting. The scenario analysis for transportation distance showed that locating the AD plant and composting facility on the farm was advantageous in terms of all the life cycle impact categories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography is Comparable to MRI in the Assessment of Residual Breast Cancer Following Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavika K; Hilal, Talal; Covington, Matthew; Zhang, Nan; Kosiorek, Heidi E; Lobbes, Marc; Northfelt, Donald W; Pockaj, Barbara A

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the performance of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) compared to MRI in the assessment of tumor response in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST). The institutional review board approved this study. From September 2014 to June 2017, we identified patients with pathologically confirmed invasive breast cancer who underwent NST. All patients had both CESM and MRI performed pre- and post-NST with pathological assessment after surgical management. Size of residual malignancy on post-NST CESM and MRI was compared with surgical pathology. Lin concordance and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to assess agreement. Bland-Altman plots were used to visualize the differences between tumor size on imaging and pathology. Sixty-five patients were identified. Mean age was 52.7 (range 30-76) years. Type of NST included chemotherapy in 53 (82%) and endocrine therapy in 12 (18%). Mean tumor size after NST was 14.6 (range 0-105) mm for CESM and 14.2 mm (range 0-75 mm) for MRI compared with 19.6 (range 0-100) mm on final surgical pathology. Equivalence tests demonstrated that mean tumor size measured by CESM (p = 0.009) or by MRI (p = 0.01) was equivalent to the mean tumor size measured by pathology within - 1 and 1-cm range. Comparing CESM versus MRI for assessment of complete response, the sensitivity was 95% versus 95%, specificity 66.7% versus 68.9%, positive predictive value 55.9% versus 57.6%, and negative predictive value 96.7% versus 96.9% respectively. CESM was comparable to MRI in assessing residual malignancy after completion of NST.

  11. Residual life assessment of major LWR components: NPAR approach and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Weidenhamer, G.H.; Vora, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear plant aging research (NPAR) program is systematically addressing the technical issues associated with understanding and managing aging of major LWR components. Twenty-one major components have been identified and prioritized according to their relevance to plant safety. Qualitative aging assessment has identified pertinent design features, materials, stressors, environments, aging mechanisms. and failure modes for each of the components. Emerging inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods to characterize aging damage and mitigation methods to reduce the damage are currently being assessed. The results of all these assessments are used to develop life-assessment procedures for the components and are included in appropriate documents supporting the regulatory requirements for license renewal. (author)

  12. The contribution of health technology assessment, health needs assessment, and health impact assessment to the assessment and translation of technologies in the field of public health genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkötter, N; Vondeling, H; Blancquaert, I; Mekel, O C L; Kristensen, F B; Brand, A

    2011-01-01

    The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the impact on public health and health care practice of those technologies that are actually introduced. This paper aims to give an overview of the major assessment instruments in public health [health technology assessment (HTA), health needs assessment (HNA) and health impact assessment (HIA)] which could contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic medicine as an analytic framework. The selected assessment methodologies predominantly cover 2 to 4 phases within the T1-T4 system. HTA delivers the most complete set of methodologies when assessing health applications. HNA can be used to prioritize areas where genomic health applications are needed or to identify infrastructural needs. HIA delivers information on the impact of technologies in a wider scope and promotes informed decision making. HTA, HNA and HIA provide a partly overlapping and partly unique set of methodologies and infrastructure for the translation and assessment of genomic health applications. They are broad in scope and go beyond the continuum of T1-T4 translational research regarding policy translation. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Global assessment of river flood protection benefits and corresponding residual risks under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wee Ho; Yamazaki, Dai; Koirala, Sujan; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Kanae, Shinjiro; Dadson, Simon J.; Hall, Jim W.

    2016-04-01

    Global warming increases the water-holding capacity of the atmosphere and this could lead to more intense rainfalls and possibly increasing natural hazards in the form of flooding in some regions. This implies that traditional practice of using historical hydrological records alone is somewhat limited for supporting long-term water infrastructure planning. This has motivated recent global scale studies to evaluate river flood risks (e.g., Hirabayashi et al., 2013, Arnell and Gosling, 2014, Sadoff et al., 2015) and adaptations benefits (e.g., Jongman et al., 2015). To support decision-making in river flood risk reduction, this study takes a further step to examine the benefits and corresponding residual risks for a range of flood protection levels. To do that, we channelled runoff information of a baseline period (forced by observed hydroclimate conditions) and each CMIP5 model (historic and future periods) into a global river routing model called CaMa-Flood (Yamazaki et al., 2011). We incorporated the latest global river width data (Yamazaki et al., 2014) into CaMa-Flood and simulate the river water depth at a spatial resolution of 15 min x 15 min. From the simulated results of baseline period, we use the annual maxima river water depth to fit the Gumbel distribution and prepare the return period-flood risk relationship (involving population and GDP). From the simulated results of CMIP5 model, we also used the annual maxima river water depth to obtain the Gumbel distribution and then estimate the exceedance probability (historic and future periods). We apply the return period-flood risk relationship (above) to the exceedance probability and evaluate the flood protection benefits. We quantify the corresponding residual risks using a mathematical approach that is consistent with the modelling structure of CaMa-Flood. Globally and regionally, we find that the benefits of flood protection level peak somewhere between 20 and 500 years; residual risks diminish

  14. Bioenergy from crops and biomass residues: a consequential life-cycle assessment including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Biofuels are promising means to reduce fossil fuel depletion and mitigate greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. However, recent studies questioned the environmental benefits earlier attributed to biofuels, when these involve land-use changes (direct/indirect, i.e., dLUC/iLUC) (1-5). Yet, second...... to represent the actual environmental impacts. This study quantified the GHG emissions associated with a number of scenarios involving bioenergy production (as combined-heat-and-power, heating, and transport biofuel) from energy crops, industrial/agricultural residues, algae, and the organic fraction...... of municipal solid waste. Four conversion pathways were considered: combustion, fermentation-to-ethanol, fermentation-to-biogas, and thermal gasification. A total of 80 bioenergy scenarios were assessed. Consequential life-cycle assessment (CLCA) was used to quantify the environmental impacts. CLCA aimed...

  15. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  16. Application of the Rietveld method to assess chromium(VI) speciation in chromite ore processing residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    The Rietveld method allows the quantification of crystalline phases and amorphous material identified by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and other diffraction methods. The method assists in determining the speciation of contaminants in solid matrices both qualitatively and quantitatively in a statistically defensible approach, as it does not focus on a microscale. Rietveld was applied to chromite ore processing residue (COPR), a cementitious waste containing hexavalent chromium. Calcium aluminum chromium oxide hydrates (CACs) were the crystalline phases identified by XRPD that bind Cr 6+ in COPR according to their chemical formula. Rietveld quantification, combined with mass balances on Cr 6+ , showed that CACs may bind Cr 6+ in variable percentages, ranging from 25% to 85%. Analysis of duplicate samples showed that material variability is the predominant factor of uncertainty in evaluating the role of CACs in Cr 6+ speciation, provided that a consistent quantification strategy is pursued. The choice of strategy was performed on the basis of the pertinent literature, preliminary analyses of the equipment and the software settings, and mass balances. The correlation between the average CAC-bound Cr 6+ concentration and the total Cr 6+ for five samples (R 2 = 0.94), extracted from different zones and soil borings, suggests that CACs are a primary sink for Cr 6+ in COPR

  17. Assessment of the advantages of a residual heat removal system inside the reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the framework of research on diversified means for removing the residual heat from pressurized water reactors, the CEA is studying a passive system called RRP (Refroidissement du Reacteur au Primaire, or primary circuit cooling system), which includes integrated heat-exchangers and a layout of the internal structures so as to obtain convection from the primary circuit inside the vessel, whatever the state of the loops. This system is operational for all primary circuit temperatures and pressures, as well as for a wide range of conditions: it is independent of the state of the loops, even if the volume of water in the primary circuit is small, it is compatible with either a passive or an active operation mode, and compatible with any other decay heat removal systems. An evaluation is presented here of the performance of the RRP system in the event of a small primary circuit break in a totally passive operation mode without the intervention of another system. The results of this evaluation show the interest of such a system: a clear increase of the time-delay for the implementation of a low pressure safety injection system, no need for the use of a high pressure safety injection system. (author). 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  18. Ecotoxicological assessment of dewatered drinking water treatment residue for environmental recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Wendling, Laura A; Pei, Yuansheng

    2017-09-01

    The beneficial recycle of drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) in environmental remediation has been demonstrated in many reports. However, the lack of information concerning the potential toxicity of dewatered DWTR hinders its widespread use. The present study examined the ecotoxicity of dewatered aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) DWTR leachates to a green alga, Chlorella vulgaris. Data from the variations of cell density and chlorophyll a content suggested that algal growth in DWTR leachates was inhibited. The algal cellular oxidation stress was initially induced but completely eliminated within 72 h by antioxidant enzymes. The expression of three photosynthesis-related algae genes (psaB, psbC, and rbcL) also temporarily decreased (within 72 h). Moreover, the algal cells showed intact cytomembranes after exposure to DWTR leachates. Further investigation confirmed that inhibition of algal growth was due to DWTR-induced phosphorus (P) deficiency in growth medium, rather than potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and Al) contained in DWTR. Interestingly, the leachates could potentially promote algal growth via increasing the supply of new components (e.g. calcium, kalium, magnesium, and ammonia nitrogen) from DWTR. In summary, based on the algae toxicity test, the dewatered Fe/Al DWTR was nontoxic and its environment recycling does not represent an ecotoxicological risk to algae.

  19. Assessment of Fecal Microflora Changes in Pigs Supplemented with Herbal Residue and Prebiotic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Kumar Samanta

    Full Text Available Antibiotic usage in animals as a growth promoter is considered as public health issue due to its negative impact on consumer health and environment. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of herbal residue (ginger, Zingiber officinale, dried rhizome powder and prebiotic (inulin as an alternative to antibiotics by comparing fecal microflora composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The grower pigs were offered feed containing antibiotic (tetracycline, ginger and inulin separately and un-supplemented group served as control. The study revealed significant changes in the microbial abundance based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs among the groups. Presumptive identification of organisms was established based on the fragment length of OTUs generated with three restriction enzymes (MspI, Sau3AI and BsuRI. The abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Selonomonas sp., Methylobacterium sp. and Denitrobacter sp. was found significantly greater in inulin supplemented pigs. Similarly, the abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Selonomonas sp., and Phascolarcobacterium faecium was found significantly greater in ginger supplemented pigs. In contrast, the abundance of OTUs representing pathogenic microorganisms Atopostipes suicloacalis and Bartonella quintana str. Toulouse was significantly reduced in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The OTUs were found to be clustered under two major phylotypes; ginger-inulin and control-tetracycline. Additionally, the abundance of OTUs was similar in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The results suggest the potential of ginger and prebioticsto replace antibiotics in the diet of grower pig.

  20. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobeen Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g−1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation.

  1. Assessment of the advantages of a residual heat removal system inside the reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, G.M. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1995-09-01

    In the framework of research on diversified means for removing residual heat from pressurized water reactors, the CEA is studying a passive system called RRP (Refroidissement du Reacteur au Primaire, or primary circuit cooling system). This system consists of integrated heat-exchangers and a layout of the internal structures so as to obtain convection from the primary circuit inside the vessel, whatever the state of the loops. This system is operational for all primary circuit temperatures and pressures, as well as for a wide range of conditions: such as independent from the state of the loops, low volume of water in the primary circuit, compatibility with either a passive or an active operation mode, and compatibility with any other decay heat removal systems. This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of the RRP system in the event of a small primary circuit break in a totally passive operation mode without the intervention of any another system. The results of this evaluation show the potential interest of such a system: a clear increase of the time-delay for the implementation of a low pressure safety injection system and no need for the use of a high pressure safety injection system.

  2. Residual indicator bacteria in autosampler tubing: a field and laboratory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, J M; Hunt, W F; Guest, R M; McCarthy, D T

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in surface waters has become a worldwide cause for concern. As efforts are made to reduce this contamination, monitoring is integral to documenting and evaluating water quality improvements. Autosamplers are beneficial in such monitoring efforts, as large data sets can be generated with minimized effort. The extent to which autosamplers can be utilized for microbial monitoring is largely unknown due to concerns over contamination. Strict sterilization regimes for components contacting the water being sampled are difficult, and sometimes logistically implausible, when utilizing autosamplers. Field experimentation showed contamination of fecal coliform in autosamplers to be more of a concern than that of Escherichia coli. Further study in a controlled laboratory environment suggested that tubing configuration has a significant effect on residual E. coli concentrations in sampler tubing. The amount of time that passed since the last sample was collected from a given sampler (antecedent dry weather period - DWP) tubing was also a significant factor. At a DWP of 7 days, little to no contamination was found. Thus, simple protocols such as providing positive drainage of tubing between sample events and programming samplers to include rinses will reduce concerns of contamination in autosamplers.

  3. Assessing microbiological water quality in drinking water distribution systems with disinfectant residual using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Simon; Lipphaus, Patrick; Green, James; Parsons, Simon; Weir, Paul; Juskowiak, Kes; Jefferson, Bruce; Jarvis, Peter; Nocker, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Flow cytometry (FCM) as a diagnostic tool for enumeration and characterization of microorganisms is rapidly gaining popularity and is increasingly applied in the water industry. In this study we applied the method to obtain a better understanding of total and intact cell concentrations in three different drinking water distribution systems (one using chlorine and two using chloramines as secondary disinfectants). Chloramine tended to result in lower proportions of intact cells than chlorine over a wider residual range, in agreement with existing knowledge that chloramine suppresses regrowth more efficiently. For chlorinated systems, free chlorine concentrations above 0.5 mg L(-1) were found to be associated with relatively low proportions of intact cells, whereas lower disinfectant levels could result in substantially higher percentages of intact cells. The threshold for chlorinated systems is in good agreement with guidelines from the World Health Organization. The fact that the vast majority of samples failing the regulatory coliform standard also showed elevated proportions of intact cells suggests that this parameter might be useful for evaluating risk of failure. Another interesting parameter for judging the microbiological status of water, the biological regrowth potential, greatly varied among different finished waters providing potential help for investment decisions. For its measurement, a simple method was introduced that can easily be performed by water utilities with FCM capability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of pesticide residues in flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba; Alghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Ahmed, Zubair

    2014-01-01

    The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g(-1) for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation.

  5. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  6. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Zavaglia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA, to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS. The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a ‘map of stroke’.

  7. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a 'map of stroke'.

  8. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D.; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C.

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a ‘map of stroke’. PMID:26448908

  9. The verification tests of residual radioactivity measurement and assessment techniques for buildings and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, T.; Ishikura, T.; Yoshimura, Yukio; Nakazawa, M.; Makino, S.; Urayama, K.; Kawasaki, S.

    1996-01-01

    According to the standard procedure for decommissioning a commercial nuclear power plant (CNPP) in Japan, controlled areas will be released for unrestricted use before the dismantling of a reactor building. If manual survey and sampling techniques were applied to measurement for unrestricted release on and in the extensive surface of the building, much time and much specialized labor would be required to assess the appropriateness of the releasing. Therefore the authors selected the following three techniques for demonstrating reliability and applicability of the techniques for CNPPs: (1) technique of assessing radioactive concentration distribution on the surface of buildings (ADB); (2) technique of assessing radioactive permeation distribution in the concrete structure of buildings (APB); (3) technique of assessing radioactive concentration distribution in soil (ADS). These tests include the techniques of measuring and assessing very low radioactive concentration distribution on the extensive surfaces of buildings and the soil surrounding of a plant with automatic devices. Technical investigation and preliminary study of the verification tests were started in 1990. In the study, preconditions were clarified for each technique and the performance requirements were set up. Moreover, simulation models have been constructed for several feasible measurement method to assess their performance in terms of both measurement test and simulation analysis. Fundamental tests have been under way using small-scale apparatuses since 1994

  10. Residue behavior and risk assessment of imidacloprid applied on greenhouse-cultivated strawberries under different application conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Tao; Sun, Caixia; Zhao, Hua; Tang, Tao; Zhang, Changpeng; Yu, Ruixian; Wang, Xinquan; Wang, Qiang; Dai, Fen; Zhao, Xueping

    2018-02-01

    A risk assessment for imidacloprid applied on strawberries under different conditions was performed after residue determination using the quick, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. The application conditions were varied according to the applied dosage, addition of a plant oil or organosilicon surfactant, water volume, and sprayer type. The degradation dynamics of imidacloprid on strawberries followed first-order kinetics. At applied doses of 30-60 g a.i. ha -1 , the half-lives of imidacloprid were 2.89-3.46, 1.98-3.65, and 2.57-2.77 days after application without a surfactant or with a plant oil or organosilicon surfactant, respectively. For water volumes of 112.5, 225, 450, 675, and 900 L ha -1 , the half-lives of imidacloprid applied in the presence of the plant oil surfactant were 3.30, 7.70, 5.33, 7.70, and 6.30 days, respectively. The half-lives after application with a knapsack mist duster, electric sprayer, and manual sprayer were 2.16, 5.77, and 7.70 days, respectively. The health risk assessment revealed risk quotients less than 1 in all cases, indicating that the application of imidacloprid poses a low health risk to humans after a pre-harvest interval of 10 days under our application conditions. The risk assessment results can provide reference data for setting a reasonable maximum residue limit for imidacloprid on strawberries in China.

  11. Technique for the residual life assessment of high temperature components based on creep-rupture testing on welded miniature specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzillo, A.; Guardamagna, C.; Moscotti, L.; Ranzani, L. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    Following the present trend in the development of advanced methodologies for residual life assessment of high temperature components operating in power plants, particularly in non destructive methods, a testing technique has been set up at ENEL-CRAM based on creep-rupture testa in an argon on welded miniature specimens. Five experimental systems for creep-rupture tests in an argon atmosphere have been set up which include high accuracy systems, vacuum chambers and exrwnsometer devices. With the aim of establishing and validating the suitability of the experimental methodology, creep-rupture and interrupted creep testing programmes have been performed on miniature specimens (2 mm diameter and 10 mm gauge lenght). On the basis of experience gathered by various European research laboratories, a miniature specimen construction procedure has been developed using a laser welding technique for joining threaded heads to sample material. Low alloy ferritic steels, such as virgin 2.25CrlMo, 0.5Cr 0.5Mo 0.25V, and IN 738 superalloy miniature specimens have been investigated and the results, compared with those from standard specimens, show a regular trend in deformation vs time. Additional efforts to provide guidelines for material sampling from each plant component will be required in order to reduce uncertainties in residual life prediction.

  12. Assessing Potential of VIIRS Data for Contribution to a Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the contributions by the Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC) towards using Visible Infrared Imager / Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data in assessing the damage to forests. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandates development of national Early Warning System (EWS) for forest threat monitoring and mitigation. NASA Stennis is working with the US Forest Service to develop needed components of this EWS. The use of MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales is a componet of this program. This RPC experiment was initiated to assess potential of the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, for monitoring forest disturbance at broad scales and thereby contributing to the EWS. This presentation reviews the potential use of the VIIRS to examine the damage to forests caused by gyspy moths in the West Virginia and Virginia area.

  13. Residual kidney function after donor nephrectomy. Assessment by 99mTc-MAG3-Clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamscho, N.; Doebert, N.; Menzel, C.; Berner, U.; Zaplatnikov, K.; Gruenwald, F.; Wilhelm, A.; Gossmann, J.; Scheuermann, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated the long-term residual renal function after donor nephrectomy using 99m Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycin (MAG3)-clearance. Donors, methods: Altogether 49 kidney donors were examined using 99m Tc-MAG3-clearance after nephrectomy for donation to a relative (m:f=11.38; age 55±27 years). The donors were examined 16±8 years postoperatively (1.5-26 years). 42 donors (86%) showed normal creatinine values, whereas the other seven (14%) exhibited slightly elevated levels. 20 donors were examined pre- and postoperatively and compared intraindividually. The kidney function was compared to the age adapted normal values of healthy persons with two kidneys (67-133% of age related mean). Results: After nephrectomy all donors showed a normal perfusion, good secretion, merely physiological intrarenal transit and a normal elimination from the kidneys. The 99m Tc-MAG3-clearance was 69±15% of the normal mean value of healthy carriers of two kidneys regardless of the gender. 20 donors with a preoperative examination showed a significantly reduced total renal function from 84±15% of the mean normal value preoperatively to 60±15% postoperatively (p 99m Tc-MAG3-clearance measured prior to nephrectomy and the clearance levels after nephrectomy. Also, no correlation between the preoperative 99m Tc-MAG3-clearance and the postoperative serum creatinine values could be observed. Althogether, 22% of the donors (11/49) developed arterial hypertension 10±8 years after donation (1-23 years). This corresponds to the normal age prevalence of hypertension in the carriers of two kidneys. Three donors suffered from arterial hypertension prior to the operation. Conclusion: Kidney donors with normal or slightly elevated creatinine values postoperatively show a 99m Tc-MAG3 clearance value of 69% of the mean value of healthy carriers of two kidneys. This may serve as a reference value for healthy carriers of one kidney. In our study we demonstrated a good compensation of the contralateral

  14. IFC Jobs Study : Assessing Private Sector Contributions to Job Creation and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This report is the result of an open-source study to assess the direct and indirect effects of private sector activity on job creation. The report examines how and under what conditions the private sector can best contribute to job creation and poverty reduction. The private sector, which provides some 90 percent of jobs in developing countries, must be at the core of any response to this ...

  15. Rigid Residue Scan Simulations Systematically Reveal Residue Entropic Roles in Protein Allostery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kalescky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intra-protein information is transmitted over distances via allosteric processes. This ubiquitous protein process allows for protein function changes due to ligand binding events. Understanding protein allostery is essential to understanding protein functions. In this study, allostery in the second PDZ domain (PDZ2 in the human PTP1E protein is examined as model system to advance a recently developed rigid residue scan method combining with configurational entropy calculation and principal component analysis. The contributions from individual residues to whole-protein dynamics and allostery were systematically assessed via rigid body simulations of both unbound and ligand-bound states of the protein. The entropic contributions of individual residues to whole-protein dynamics were evaluated based on covariance-based correlation analysis of all simulations. The changes of overall protein entropy when individual residues being held rigid support that the rigidity/flexibility equilibrium in protein structure is governed by the La Châtelier's principle of chemical equilibrium. Key residues of PDZ2 allostery were identified with good agreement with NMR studies of the same protein bound to the same peptide. On the other hand, the change of entropic contribution from each residue upon perturbation revealed intrinsic differences among all the residues. The quasi-harmonic and principal component analyses of simulations without rigid residue perturbation showed a coherent allosteric mode from unbound and bound states, respectively. The projection of simulations with rigid residue perturbation onto coherent allosteric modes demonstrated the intrinsic shifting of ensemble distributions supporting the population-shift theory of protein allostery. Overall, the study presented here provides a robust and systematic approach to estimate the contribution of individual residue internal motion to overall protein dynamics and allostery.

  16. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource...... of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher...... with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it is constrained by limited information available about the composition of flows in the system as well as about secondary production...

  17. Assessment of single-shell tank residual-liquid issues at Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K.S.; Stout, L.A.; Napier, B.A.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Landstrom, D.K.

    1983-06-01

    This report provides an assessment of the overall effectiveness and implications of jet pumping the interstitial liquids (IL) from single-shell tanks at Hanford. The jet-pumping program, currently in progress at Hanford, involves the planned removal of IL contained in 89 of the 149 single-shell tanks and its transfer to double-shell tanks after volume reduction by evaporation. The purpose of this report is to estimate the public and worker doses associated with (1) terminating pumping immediately, (2) pumping to a 100,000-gal limit per tank, (3) pumping to a 50,000-gal limit per tank, and (4) pumping to the maximum practical liquid removal level of 30,000 gal. Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of these various levels of pumping in minimizing any undue health and safety risks to the public or worker is also presented

  18. Noaa contributions to the 1995 IPCC assessments: A summary of the current and future activities of the intergovernmental panel on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albritton, D.; Levy, J.

    1993-05-01

    Contents: introduction -the IPCC and NOAA; NOAA contributions to the IPCC 1995 science assessment; NOAA contributions to the IPCC 1995 impacts, adaptation, and mitigation assessment; NOAA contributions to the 1995 IPCC economics and greenhouse-gas scenario assessment

  19. Residual creep life assessment by change of martensitic lath structure in modified 9Cr-1Mo steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Kota; Takeda, Masaaki; Maruyama, Kouichi; Komine, Ryuji; Nagae, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel has a martensitic lath structure. Recovery of the lath structure takes place in the course of creep. Microstructural degradation due to the recovery results in the acceleration of creep rate and the subsequent failure of a specimen. Change of lath width during creep of the steel was quantitatively investigated to propose a residual life assessment methodology based on the recovery process. Since the steel was tempered at 1053 K, the lath structure is thermally stable at the testing temperatures (848 K - 923 K). However, recovery of lath structure readily takes place during creep, indicating that the recovery is induced by creep deformation. Lath width d increases with creep strain and saturates to a value d s determined by creep stress. The increase of d is faster at a higher stress and temperature. A normalized change in lath width, Δd/Δd s , was introduced to explain the variation of lath growth rate with creep stress and temperature. Δd is the change in lath width from the initial value d 0 , and Δd s is the difference between d s , and d 0 . Δd/Δd s is uniquely related to creep strain ε and the relationship is independent of creep stress as well as creep temperature. This Δd/Δd s -ε relationship obtained by an accelerated creep test at a higher temperature or stress is applicable to any creep condition including service conditions of engineering plants. Creep strain can be evaluated from the measurement of Δd/Δd s based on the Δd/Δd s -ε relationship. A creep curve under any creep condition can readily be calculated by creep data of the steel. Combining these information one can assess residual life of a structural component made of the steel. (author)

  20. A pilot study using residual newborn dried blood spots to assess the potential role of cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii in the etiology of congenital hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Regina M; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Mei, Joanne V; Dollard, Sheila C; Frias, Jaime L; Shaw, Gary M; Canfield, Mark A; Meyer, Robert E; Jones, Jeffrey L; Lorey, Fred; Honein, Margaret A

    2013-07-01

    Congenital hydrocephalus is a condition characterized by accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain. Prenatal infections are risk factors for some birth defects. This pilot study investigated whether residual dried blood spots (DBS) could be used to assess infections as risk factors for birth defects by examining the associations between prenatal infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) with congenital hydrocephalus. Case-infants with hydrocephalus (N=410) were identified among live-born infants using birth defects surveillance systems in California, North Carolina, and Texas. Control-infants without birth defects were randomly selected from the same geographic areas and time periods as case-infants (N=448). We tested residual DBS from case- and control-infants for T. gondii immunoglobulin M and CMV DNA. When possible, we calculated crude odds ratios (cORs) and confidence intervals (CIs). Evidence for prenatal T. gondii infection was more common among case-infants (1.2%) than control-infants (0%; p=0.11), and evidence for prenatal CMV infection was higher among case-infants (1.5%) than control-infants (0.7%; cOR: 2.3; 95% CI: 0.48, 13.99). Prenatal infections with T. gondii and CMV occurred more often among infants with congenital hydrocephalus than control-infants, although differences were not statistically significant. This pilot study highlighted some challenges in using DBS to examine associations between certain infections and birth defects, particularly related to reduced sensitivity and specimen storage conditions. Further study with increased numbers of specimens and higher quality specimens should be considered to understand better the contribution of these infections to the occurrence of congenital hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  2. Assessing the role of internal climate variability in Antarctica's contribution to future sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. Y.; Forest, C. E.; Pollard, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) has the potential to be a major contributor to future sea-level rise (SLR). Current projections of SLR due to AIS mass loss remain highly uncertain. Better understanding of how ice sheets respond to future climate forcing and variability is essential for assessing the long-term risk of SLR. However, the predictability of future climate is limited by uncertainties from emission scenarios, model structural differences, and the internal variability that is inherently generated within the fully coupled climate system. Among those uncertainties, the impact of internal variability on the AIS changes has not been explicitly assessed. In this study, we quantify the effect of internal variability on the AIS evolutions by using climate fields from two large-ensemble experiments using the Community Earth System Model to force a three-dimensional ice sheet model. We find that internal variability of climate fields, particularly atmospheric fields, among ensemble members leads to significantly different AIS responses. Our results show that the internal variability can cause about 80 mm differences of AIS contribution to SLR by 2100 compared to the ensemble-mean contribution of 380-450 mm. Moreover, using ensemble-mean climate fields as the forcing in the ice sheet model does not produce realistic simulations of the ice loss. Instead, it significantly delays the onset of retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet for up to 20 years and significantly underestimates the AIS contribution to SLR by 0.07-0.11 m in 2100 and up to 0.34 m in the 2250's. Therefore, because the uncertainty caused by internal variability is irreducible, we seek to highlight a critical need to assess the role of internal variability in projecting the AIS loss over the next few centuries. By quantifying the impact of internal variability on AIS contribution to SLR, policy makers can obtain more robust estimates of SLR and implement suitable adaptation strategies.

  3. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Radiology: Resources and Scholarly Opportunities to Contribute to Required Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aine Marie; Mullan, Patricia B

    2018-05-01

    Teaching and assessing trainees' professionalism now represents an explicit expectation for Accreditation Council Graduate Medical Education-accredited radiology programs. Challenges to meeting this expectation include variability in defining the construct of professionalism; limits of traditional teaching and assessment methods, used for competencies historically more prominent in medical education, for professionalism; and emerging expectations for credible and feasible professionalism teaching and assessment practices in the current context of health-care training and practice. This article identifies promising teaching resources and methods that can be used strategically to augment traditional teaching of the cognitive basis for professionalism, including role modeling, case-based scenarios, debriefing, simulations, narrative medicine (storytelling), guided discussions, peer-assisted learning, and reflective practice. This article also summarizes assessment practices intended to promote learning, as well as to inform how and when to assess trainees as their professional identities develop over time, settings, and autonomous practice, particularly in terms of measurable behaviors. This includes assessment tools (including mini observations, critical incident reports, and appreciative inquiry) for authentic assessment in the workplace; engaging multiple sources (self-, peer, other health professionals, and patients) in assessment; and intentional practices for trainees to take responsibility for seeking our actionable feedback and reflection. This article examines the emerging evidence of the feasibility and value added of assessment of medical competency milestones, including professionalism, coordinated by the Accreditation Council Graduate Medical Education in radiology and other medical specialties. Radiology has a strategic opportunity to contribute to scholarship and inform policies in professionalism teaching and assessment practices. Copyright © 2018 The

  4. Application of laser interferometry for assessment of surface residual stress by determination of stress-free state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Dong Il; Lee, Nak Kyu; Choi, Tae Hoon; Na, Kyoung Hoan

    2003-01-01

    The total relaxed stress in annealing and the thermal strain/stress were obtained from the identification of the residual stress-free state using Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI). The residual stress fields in case of both single and film/substrate systems were modeled using the thermo-elastic theory and the relationship between relaxed stresses and displacements. We mapped the surface residual stress fields on the indented bulk Cu and the 0.5 μm Au film by ESPI. In indented Cu, the normal and shear residual stress are distributed over -1.7 GPa to 700 MPa and -800 GPa to 600 MPa respectively around the indented point and in deposited Au film on Si wafer, the tensile residual stress is uniformly distributed on the Au film from 500 MPa to 800 MPa. Also we measured the residual stress by the X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) for the verification of above residual stress results by ESPI

  5. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  6. Long-Term Warming Trends in Korea and Contribution of Urbanization: An Updated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo-Joung; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Min, Seung-Ki; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Choi, Youngeun; Boo, Kyung-On; Shim, Sungbo

    2017-10-01

    This study conducted an updated analysis of the long-term temperature trends over South Korea and reassessed the contribution of the urbanization effect to the local warming trends. Linear trends were analyzed for three different periods over South Korea in order to consider possible inhomogeneity due to changes in the number of available stations: recent 103 years (1912-2014), 61 years (1954-2014), and 42 years (1973-2014). The local temperature has increased by 1.90°C, 1.35°C, and 0.99°C during the three periods, respectively, which are found 1.4-2.6 times larger than the global land mean trends. The countries located in the northern middle and high latitudes exhibit similar warming trends (about 1.5 times stronger than the global mean), suggesting a weak influence of urbanization on the local warming over South Korea. Urbanization contribution is assessed using two methods. First, results from "city minus rural" methods showed that 30-45% of the local warming trends during recent four decades are likely due to the urbanization effect, depending on station classification methods and analysis periods. Results from an "observation minus reanalysis" method using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) data sets (v2 and v2c) indicated about 25-30% contribution of the urbanization effect to the local warming trend during the recent six decades. However, the urbanization contribution was estimated as low as 3-11% when considering the century-long period. Our results confirm large uncertainties in the estimation of urbanization contribution when using shorter-term periods and suggest that the urbanization contribution to the century-long warming trends could be much lower.

  7. Assessing the social sustainability contribution of an infrastructure project under conditions of uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Leonardo A.; Yepes, Víctor; Pellicer, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the viability of a public infrastructure includes economic, technical and environmental aspects; however, on many occasions, the social aspects are not always adequately considered. This article proposes a procedure to estimate the social sustainability of infrastructure projects under conditions of uncertainty, based on a multicriteria deterministic method. The variability of the method inputs is contributed by the decision-makers. Uncertain inputs are treated through uniform and beta PERT distributions. The Monte Carlo method is used to propagate uncertainty in the method. A case study of a road infrastructure improvement in El Salvador is used to illustrate this treatment. The main results determine the variability of the short and long-term social improvement indices by infrastructure and the probability of the position in the prioritization of the alternatives. The proposed mechanism improves the reliability of the decision making early in infrastructure projects, taking their social contribution into account. The results can complement environmental and economic sustainability assessments. - Highlights: •Estimate the social sustainability of infrastructure projects under conditions of uncertainty •The method uses multicriteria and Monte Carlo techniques and beta PERT distributions •Determines variability of the short and long term social improvement •Determines probability in the prioritization of alternatives •Improves reliability of decision making considering the social contribution

  8. Common-but-differentiated-Responsibilities for adaptation financing. An assessment of the contributions of countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellink, R. [Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Den Elzen, M. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Aikinga, H.; Bergsm, E.; Berkhout, F.; Dekker, T.; Gupta, J. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-03-15

    Climate change may cause most harm to countries that have historically contributed the least to greenhouse gas emissions and land-use change. This paper identifies deontology, solidarity and consequentialism as the principles that can serve as a basis for a fair international burden sharing scheme of climate change adaptation costs. We translate these principles into criteria that can be applied in assigning a share of the financial burden to individual countries, namely historical responsibility, equality and capacity to pay. Specific political and scientific choices are discussed, highlighting implications for international burden-sharing schemes. A hybrid approach, combining historical responsibility and capacity to pay seems a promising starting point for international negotiations on the design of burden-sharing schemes. From the numerical assessment, it is clear that UNFCCC Annex I countries carry the greatest burden under most scenarios, but contributions differ substantially subject to the choice of an indicator for capacity to pay. The contributions are less sensitive to choices related to responsibility calculations, apart from those associated with land-use related emissions. Assuming the costs of climate adaptation are USD100 billion per year, the total financial contribution by the Annex I countries would be in the range of USD 55-68 billion per year.

  9. Reliability, validity, and significance of assessment of sense of contribution in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Jiro; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Fujii, Yasuhito

    2014-01-29

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Sense of Contribution Scale (SCS), a newly developed, 7-item questionnaire used to measure sense of contribution in the workplace. Workers at 272 organizations answered questionnaires that included the SCS. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analyses for internal consistency and validity varied from 1,675 to 2,462 (response rates 54.6%-80.2%). Fifty-four workers were included in the analysis of test-retest reliability (response rate, 77.1%). The SCS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's α coefficients in men and women were 0.85 and 0.86, respectively) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91). Significant (p workplace bullying, and procedural and interactional justice. The SCS is a psychometrically satisfactory measure of sense of contribution in the workplace. The SCS provides a new and useful instrument to measure sense of contribution, which is independently associated with mental health in workers, for studies in organizational science, occupational health psychology and occupational medicine.

  10. Assessment of Nano Cellulose from Peach Palm Residue as Potential Food Additive: Part II: Preliminary Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Dayanne Regina Mendes; Mendonça, Márcia Helena; Helm, Cristiane Vieira; Magalhães, Washington L E; de Muniz, Graciela Ines Bonzon; Kestur, Satyanarayana G

    2015-09-01

    High consumption of dietary fibers in the diet is related to the reduction of the risk of non-transmitting of chronic diseases, prevention of the constipation etc. Rich diets in dietary fibers promote beneficial effects for the metabolism. Considering the above and recognizing the multifaceted advantages of nano materials, there have been many attempts in recent times to use the nano materials in the food sector including as food additive. However, whenever new product for human and animal consumption is developed, it has to be tested for their effectiveness regarding improvement in the health of consumers, safety aspects and side effects. However, before it is tried with human beings, normally such materials would be assessed through biological tests on a living organism to understand its effect on health condition of the consumer. Accordingly, based on the authors' finding reported in a previous paper, this paper presents body weight, biochemical (glucose, cholesterol and lipid profile in blood, analysis of feces) and histological tests carried out with biomass based cellulose nano fibrils prepared by the authors for its possible use as food additive. Preliminary results of the study with mice have clearly brought out potential of these fibers for the said purpose.

  11. Biogas from landfills embankments: the Brazilian contribution for the management of urban solid residues and the greenhouse effect mitigation through the mechanisms for clean development; Biogas de aterros: a contribuicao do Brasil na gestao de residuos solidos urbanos e na mitigacao do efeito estufa atraves dos mecanismos de desenvolvimento limpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Gleide B.M.; Guimaraes, Hoji Y' a Henda da R.; Andrade, Euridice S. Mamede de; Teixeira, Gisele Pereira; Freitas, Marcos A.V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    This paper studies the clean development mechanism (CDM) for sanitary sewage in Brazil, as instruments for flexibilization and mitigation of the effects of climate changes coming from the global heating. This research presents the assessments of the CDM projects for sanitary sewage in Brazil, considering the Project Conception Documents (PCD) approved until November 2007. The paper presents some methodologies for studying of energy generation potential from the biogas originated in sanitary sewage. The paper also contributes to projects of carbon credit commercialization, and relevance of the CDM instrument for the adequate management expansion of the residence solid residues as well, and advances in the implantation of sanitary embankments in Brazil.

  12. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9

  13. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9.

  14. Assessing the Formation of Ungrouped Achondrite Northwest Africa 8186: Residue, Crystallization Product, or Recrystallized Chondrite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; McCubbin, F. M.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of primitive achondrites, metachondrites, and type 7 chondrites challenge the long held idea that all chondrites and achondrites form on separate parent bodies. These meteorites have experienced metamorphic temperatures above petrologic type 6 and have partially melted to various degrees. However, because of their isotopic and compositional similarities to both undifferentiated and differentiated groups, the provenance of these 'type 6+' meteorites remains largely unknown. CK and CV chondrites have recently been linked to a few achondrites due to their strong compositional, mineralogical, and isotopic similarities], suggesting a common origin between these meteorites. Although CVs have generally undergone low degrees of alteration near petrologic type 3, CKs have experienced a wide range of thermal alteration from petrologic type 3 to 6. Thermal evolution models on early accreting bodies predict that an early forming body can partially differentiate due to radiogenic heating, and, as a result, form radial layers of material increasing in thermal grade (types 3 to 6+) from the unmelted chondritic surface towards the differentiated core.Northwest Africa (NWA) 8186 is an ungrouped achondrite that provides compelling evidence for higher degrees of thermal processing and/or melting and differentiation on some CK/CV parent bodies. NWA 8186 plots on the CCAM line on a 3-oxygen isotope diagram directly with CK and CV chondrites and also plots with the CKs in regards to Cr isotopes. This meteorite is dominated by Nickel(II)Oxygen-rich olivine (less than 80%), lacks iron metal, and contains four oxide phases, indicating a high fOxygen (above FMQ) similar to the CKs. Additionally, NWA 8186 does not contain chondrules. We have further investigated the origins of NWA 8186 by examining and comparing the bulk composition of this CK-like achondrite with CK and CV chondrites, allowing us to assess the various scenarios in which NWA 8186 may have formed from

  15. Three C-terminal residues from the sulphonylurea receptor contribute to the functional coupling between the KATP channel subunits SUR2A and Kir6.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Julien P; Revilloud, Jean; Moreau, Christophe J; Vivaudou, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are metabolic sensors formed by the association of the inward rectifier potassium channel Kir6.2 and the sulphonylurea receptor SUR2A. SUR2A adjusts channel gating as a function of intracellular ATP and ADP and is the target of pharmaceutical openers and blockers which, respectively, up- and down-regulate Kir6.2. In an effort to understand how effector binding to SUR2A translates into Kir6.2 gating modulation, we examined the role of a 65-residue SUR2A fragment linking transmembrane domain TMD2 and nucleotide-binding domain NBD2 that has been shown to interact with Kir6.2. This fragment of SUR2A was replaced by the equivalent residues of its close homologue, the multidrug resistance protein MRP1. The chimeric construct was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and characterized using the patch-clamp technique. We found that activation by MgADP and synthetic openers was greatly attenuated although apparent affinities were unchanged. Further chimeragenetic and mutagenetic studies showed that mutation of three residues, E1305, I1310 and L1313 (rat numbering), was sufficient to confer this defective phenotype. The same mutations had no effects on channel block by the sulphonylurea glibenclamide or by ATP, suggesting a role for these residues in activatory – but not inhibitory – transduction processes. These results indicate that, within the KATP channel complex, the proximal C-terminal of SUR2A is a critical link between ligand binding to SUR2A and Kir6.2 up-regulation. PMID:18450778

  16. Assessment of bioavailability of weathered oil residues using caged bivalves (Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis) as indicator organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleczinski, C.F.; Costa, H.J.; Rigatti, M.J.; Wong, M.C.; Boehm, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    In April 1988, an estimated 400,000 gallons of San Joaquin Valley crude oil spilled into Peyton Slough and subsequently into Suisun Bay from an oil refinery in Martinez, California. The crude oil initially impacted a number of ecologically sensitive environments including estuarine water, marsh grasses, marsh and shoreline sediment, and intertidal sediment. A four-year oil weathering study was performed to determine the concentrations of environmentally important compounds in the stranded oil, to monitor changes in these concentrations over time, and to assess the potential long-term impact of the spilled oil in these various environments. As a result of marked differences in the rate of weathering at the different sites, a bioaccumulation component was added to the original study design in order to assess the bioavailability of crude oil residues remaining four-years post spill. Caged bivalves (Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis) were deployed at the three study sites as sentinel organisms and exposed for three months. Sediments and organism tissues were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) assemblages characteristics of the spilled oil. Advanced hydrocarbon fingerprinting techniques (e.g., double ratio plots of characteristic alkyl PAHs) were used to match distributions in the organisms and in the study site sediments

  17. A quantitative assessment of risks of heavy metal residues in laundered shop towels and their use by workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Kevin; Magee, Brian

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a risk assessment of exposure to metal residues in laundered shop towels by workers. The concentrations of 27 metals measured in a synthetic sweat leachate were used to estimate the releasable quantity of metals which could be transferred to workers' skin. Worker exposure was evaluated quantitatively with an exposure model that focused on towel-to-hand transfer and subsequent hand-to-food or -mouth transfers. The exposure model was based on conservative, but reasonable assumptions regarding towel use and default exposure factor values from the published literature or regulatory guidance. Transfer coefficients were derived from studies representative of the exposures to towel users. Contact frequencies were based on assumed high-end use of shop towels, but constrained by a theoretical maximum dermal loading. The risk estimates for workers developed for all metals were below applicable regulatory risk benchmarks. The risk assessment for lead utilized the Adult Lead Model and concluded that predicted lead intakes do not constitute a significant health hazard based on potential worker exposures. Uncertainties are discussed in relation to the overall confidence in the exposure estimates developed for each exposure pathway and the likelihood that the exposure model is under- or overestimating worker exposures and risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of residual tissue viability by exercise testing in recent myocardial infarction: comparison of the electrocardiogram and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margonato, A; Ballarotto, C; Bonetti, F; Cappelletti, A; Sciammarella, M; Cianflone, D; Chierchia, S L

    1992-04-01

    The assessment of residual myocardial viability in infarcted areas is relevant for subsequent management and prognosis but requires expensive technology. To evaluate the possibility that simple, easily obtainable clinical markers may detect the presence of within-infarct viable tissue, the significance of exercise-induced ST elevation occurring in leads exploring the area of a recent Q wave myocardial infarction was assessed. Twenty-five patients with recent (less than 6 months) myocardial infarction were studied. All had angiographically documented coronary artery disease, diagnostic Q waves (n = 24) or negative T waves (n = 25) on the rest 12-lead electrocardiogram and exhibited during exercise greater than or equal to 1.5 mm ST segment elevation (n = 17) or isolated T wave pseudonormalization (n = 8) in the infarct-related leads. ST-T wave changes were reproduced in all patients during thallium-201 exercise myocardial scintigraphy. A fixed perfusion defect was observed in 24 of the 25 patients. A reversible defect was seen in 16 (94%) of 17 patients who exhibited transient ST elevation during exercise but in only 4 (50%) of the 8 patients who had only T wave pseudonormalization. In conclusion, in patients with recent myocardial infarction, analysis of simple ST segment variables obtained during exercise testing may allow a first-line discrimination of those who may potentially benefit from a revascularization procedure.

  19. Techno-economic Assessment of Integrated Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Combined Heat and Power Production from Lignocellulose Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Magdeldin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste biomass as a mean for global carbon dioxide emissions mitigation remains under-utilized. This is mainly due to the low calorific value of virgin feedstock, characterized generally with high moisture content. Aqueous processing, namely hydrothermal liquefaction in subcritical water conditions, has been demonstrated experimentally to thermally densify solid lignocellulose into liquid fuels without the pre-requisite and energy consuming drying step. This study presents a techno-economic evaluation of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction system with downstream combined heat and power production from forest residues. The utilization of the liquefaction by-products and waste heat from the elevated processing conditions, coupled with the chemical upgrading of the feedstock enables the poly-generation of biocrude, electricity and district heat. The plant thermal efficiency increases by 3.5 to 4.6% compared to the conventional direct combustion case. The economic assessment showed that the minimum selling price of biocrude, based on present co-products market prices, hinders commercialization and ranges between 138 EUR to 178 EUR per MWh. A sensitivity analysis and detailed discussion on the techno-economic assessment results are presented for the different process integration and market case scenarios.

  20. Residual radioactivity investigation and radiological assessments for self-disposal of concrete waste in nuclear fuel processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Jeung Gun; Ryu, Jae Bong; Cho, Suk Ju; Yoo, Sung Hyun; Song, Jung Ho; Baek, Hoon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Shin, Jin Seong; Park, Hyun Kyoun

    2007-01-01

    In this study, domestic regulatory requirement was investigated for self-disposal of concrete waste from nuclear fuel processing facility. And after self-disposal as landfill or recycling/reuse, the exposure dose was evaluated by RESRAD Ver. 6.3 and RESRAD BUILD Ver. 3.3 computing code for radiological assessments of the general public. Derived clearance level by the result of assessments for the exposure dose of the general public is 0.1071Bq/g (3.5% enriched uranium) for landfill and 0.05515 Bq/cm 2 (5% enriched uranium) for recycling/reuse respectively. Also, residual radioactivity of concrete waste after decontamination was investigated in this study. The result of surface activity is 0.01Bq/cm 2 for emitter and the result of radionuclide analysis for taken concrete samples from surface of concrete waste is 0.0297Bq/g for concentration of 238 U, below 2w/o for enrichment of 235 U and 0.0089Bq/g for artificial contamination of 238 U respectively. Therefore, radiological hazard of concrete waste by self-disposal as landfill and recycling/reuse is below clearance level to comply with clearance criterion provided for Notice No. 2001-30 of the MOST and Korea Atomic Energy Act

  1. The Assessment of Pesticides Residues in Some Organic Cultivated and Wild-Collected Medicinal Plants in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    FERDI BRAHUSHI; ENDRIT KULLAJ

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide residues in environment are found in soil, water and plants due to the extensive use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. The residues of pesticides in medicinal plants are of high concern as they are toxic for human life since these plants are used for medicinal purposes. The objective of current study was to estimate the presence of pesticide residues in some organic cultivated and wild-collected medicinal plants in Albania during the years 2010–2013. The determination of pest...

  2. Observational assessment of the role of nocturnal residual-layer chemistry in determining daytime surface particulate nitrate concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prabhakar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses an analysis of combined airborne and ground observations of particulate nitrate (NO3−(p concentrations made during the wintertime DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically resolved observations relevant to Air Quality study at one of the most polluted cities in the United States – Fresno, CA – in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV and focuses on developing an understanding of the various processes that impact surface nitrate concentrations during pollution events. The results provide an explicit case-study illustration of how nighttime chemistry can influence daytime surface-level NO3−(p concentrations, complementing previous studies in the SJV. The observations exemplify the critical role that nocturnal chemical production of NO3−(p aloft in the residual layer (RL can play in determining daytime surface-level NO3−(p concentrations. Further, they indicate that nocturnal production of NO3−(p in the RL, along with daytime photochemical production, can contribute substantially to the buildup and sustaining of severe pollution episodes. The exceptionally shallow nocturnal boundary layer (NBL heights characteristic of wintertime pollution events in the SJV intensify the importance of nocturnal production aloft in the residual layer to daytime surface concentrations. The observations also demonstrate that dynamics within the RL can influence the early-morning vertical distribution of NO3−(p, despite low wintertime wind speeds. This overnight reshaping of the vertical distribution above the city plays an important role in determining the net impact of nocturnal chemical production on local and regional surface-level NO3−(p concentrations. Entrainment of clean free-tropospheric (FT air into the boundary layer in the afternoon is identified as an important process that reduces surface-level NO3−(p and limits buildup during pollution episodes. The influence of dry deposition of HNO

  3. Assessing Factors Contributing to Cyanobacteria Harmful Algal Blooms in U.S. Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salls, W. B.; Iiames, J. S., Jr.; Lunetta, R. S.; Mehaffey, M.; Schaeffer, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Cyanobacteria Harmful Algal Blooms (CHABs) in inland lakes have emerged as a major threat to water quality from both ecological and public health standpoints. Understanding the factors and processes driving CHAB occurrence is important in order to properly manage ensuring more favorable water quality outcomes. High water temperatures and nutrient loadings are known drivers of CHABs; however, the contribution of landscape variables and their interactions with these drivers remains relatively unstudied at a regional or national scale. This study assesses upstream landscape variables that may contribute to or obstruct/delay nutrient loadings to freshwater systems in several hundred inland lakes in the Upper Mid-western and Northeastern United States. We employ multiple linear regression and random forest modeling to determine which variables contribute most strongly to CHAB occurrence. This lakeshed-based approach will rank the impact of each landscape variable on cyanobacteria levels derived from satellite remotely sensed data from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) sensor for the 2011 bloom season (July - October).

  4. Risk Assessment: Factors Contributing to Discomfort for Menopausal Women in Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mehdi; Seifi, Bahar; Heidari, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the Factors contributing to discomfort for menopausal women in workplace and the perceived effects of working conditions on menopausal symptoms, and to produce recommendations for managers and women. This study was a review article. We searched PubMed and Science Direct for articles related to menopause and workplace. Keywords included: menopause AND workplace OR occupational health or menopausal women AND managers. Because we aimed to update the literature following the 2011 review of menopause and workplace, only English-language articles published between 2011 and 2017 were included. This review showed that how managers could be help and awareness and what should be done for menopausal women in workplace by risk assessment. Many risk factors are contributing to discomfort for menopausal women in workplace and managers should be assessed them. Managers should be aware that menopausal transition causes difficulty for some women at work, then occupational health and safety and health promotion policies will be increasingly important. It may help inform the development of tailored occupational health policies and programs that cater for the needs of women as they transition through menopause in the workplace.

  5. Residues R199H200 of prototype foamy virus transactivator Bel1 contribute to its binding with LTR and IP promoters but not its nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Qinglin; Tan, Juan; Cui, Xiaoxu; Luo, Di; Yu, Miao; Liang, Chen; Qiao, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    Prototype foamy virus encodes a transactivator called Bel1 that enhances viral gene transcription and is essential for PFV replication. Nuclear localization of Bel1 has been reported to rely on two proximal basic motifs R 199 H 200 and R 221 R 222 R 223 that likely function together as a bipartite nuclear localization signal. In this study, we report that mutating R 221 R 222 R 223 , but not R 199 H 200 , relocates Bel1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, suggesting an essential role for R 221 R 222 R 223 in the nuclear localization of Bel1. Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R 199 H 200 disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. Results of EMSA reveal that the R 199 H 200 residues are vital for the binding of Bel1 to viral promoter DNA. Moreover, mutating R 199 H 200 in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R 221 R 222 R 223 . Collectively, our findings suggest that R 199 H 200 directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA and are indispensible for Bel1 transactivation activity. - Highlights: • The R 221 R 222 R 223 residues are essential for the nuclear localization of Bel1. • Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R 199 H 200 disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. • The R 199 H 200 residues directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA. • Mutating R 199 H 200 in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R 221 R 222 R 223

  6. Assessment of China's renewable energy contribution during the 12th Five Year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lixuan; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Raczkowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China has been ambitious in investing and developing renewable energy technologies, aiming to enhance its energy security, mitigate its energy-related CO 2 emissions and develop renewable energy industry. The 12th Five Year Plan (2011–2015) has set clear targets on installed capacities of different renewable energy technologies. This study aimed to assess the possible contribution of 12th Five Year Plan for China's future energy system and identify factors that might influence its impacts. First, current status of renewable energy development in China has been reviewed. Then several energy scenarios have been developed in an hourly simulation using an energy system analysis tool EnergyPLAN. It was identified that existing grid bottleneck would greatly reduce the potential contribution of renewable installations in terms of share of renewable electricity generation, share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy and system CO 2 emissions. In contrast, improving technical performance of renewable energy technologies and sectoral energy efficiency plays an important role in increasing the share of renewables and promoting China’s energy system transition. Finally, some policy suggestions were drawn to facilitate a better implementation of the renewable energy plan. - Highlights: • China's renewable energy contribution during the 12th Five Year Plan was assessed. • Non-fossil fuel targets in primary energy for 2015 and 2020 could be easily achieved. • Grid bottlenecks severely decrease the share of RES-E in electricity generation through the 12th Five Year Period. • Improved technical performance of renewable technologies and sectoral energy efficiency are extremely important for achieving higher RES-E share. • Several policy suggestions were drawn

  7. Reliability, Validity, and Significance of Assessment of Sense of Contribution in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Sense of Contribution Scale (SCS, a newly developed, 7-item questionnaire used to measure sense of contribution in the workplace. Workers at 272 organizations answered questionnaires that included the SCS. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analyses for internal consistency and validity varied from 1,675 to 2,462 (response rates 54.6%–80.2%. Fifty-four workers were included in the analysis of test–retest reliability (response rate, 77.1%. The SCS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α coefficients in men and women were 0.85 and 0.86, respectively and test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91. Significant (p < 0.001, positive, moderate correlations were found between the SCS score and scores for organization-based self-esteem and work engagement in both genders, which support the SCS’s convergent and discriminant validity. The criterion validity of the SCS was supported by the finding that in both genders, the SCS scores were significantly (p < 0.05 and inversely associated with psychological distress and sleep disturbance in crude and in multivariable analyses that adjusted for demographics, organization-based self-esteem, work engagement, effort–reward ratio, workplace bullying, and procedural and interactional justice. The SCS is a psychometrically satisfactory measure of sense of contribution in the workplace. The SCS provides a new and useful instrument to measure sense of contribution, which is independently associated with mental health in workers, for studies in organizational science, occupational health psychology and occupational medicine.

  8. Validation of a standard field test method in four countries to assess the toxicity of residues in dung of cattle treated with veterinary medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floate, Kevin D.; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Hanafi, Jamal; Jud, Priska; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean Pierre; Scheffczyk, Adam; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Sautot, Lucille; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.

    2016-01-01

    Registration of veterinary medical products includes the provision that field tests may be required to assess potential nontarget effects associated with the excretion of product residues in dung of treated livestock (phase II, tier B testing). However, regulatory agencies provide no guidance on

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE RESIDUAL TUMOR IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE MYELOMA BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF THE FREE LIGHT CHAINS OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN BLOOD SERUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Мitina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the multiple myeloma treatment with chemotherapy including bortezomib was assessed based on determination of the level of immunoglobulin free light chains in blood serum. The method enables estimation of changes in kinetic parameters of the residual tumor, detection of the disease course prognosis, and the choice of the optimal approach to the disease therapy.

  10. Elevated post-void residual volume in a geriatric post-hip fracture assessment in women-associated factors and risk of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuotio, Maria S; Luukkaala, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo

    2018-04-09

    Multiple factors contribute to elevated post-void residual urine volumes (PVR), but they may indicate detrusor underactivity (DU), especially in older women. The aim here was to examine factors associated with and prognostic significance of elevated PVR in a geriatric post-hip fracture assessment in a female population. Consecutive female hip fracture patients (n = 409) aged 65 years and older were included. PVR was measured by bladder scanner. PVR of 160 ml or more was deemed elevated. Age-adjusted univariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of the domains of the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) with elevated PVR. Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the age-adjusted association of an elevated PVR with 1-year mortality. Of the patients, 64 (15.6%) had elevated PVR. Having urinary or fecal incontinence, difficulties in physical activities of daily living, malnutrition, poor performance on Timed Up and Go and Elderly Mobility Scale were significantly associated with elevated PVR. Difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living, renal dysfunction, constipation, polypharmacy, nocturia, cognitive impairment and depressive mood were not associated with elevated PVR. Elevated PVR significantly increased the risk of mortality 1 year post hip fracture. Elevated PVR is relatively common in older female hip fracture patients and associated with physical functioning, malnutrition and risk of mortality. Even though a causal relationship cannot be confirmed, the findings may suggest a relationship between DU and physical frailty. PVR deserves to be included in the CGA of frail older patients including women.

  11. Assessment of radon-induced health risk for occupants of a house built on uranium ore residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clero, E.; Marie, L.; Challeton-De Vathaire, C.; Laurier, D.; Rannou, A.

    2016-01-01

    At the request of French public authorities, the Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety has assessed the radiological situation of a house built on uranium ore residues in Haute-Vienne and the health risks induced from exposure to radon for all occupants. Classified as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization, radon is a proven cause of lung cancer in case of regular inhalation over a long period, and the risk increases with cumulative exposure. Radon exposure was reconstructed for various standard profiles of house occupancy. A risk model derived from a European epidemiological study was used to calculate the lifetime probability of death from lung cancer according to these standard profiles. Risk assessment of the occupants of the house highlighted the following main findings. For a resident school child having been exposed to radon from birth to the age of 7, the lifetime relative risk (LRR) was estimated at 5. For last adult and young adult residents having lived more than 10 years in the house, the probability of death from lung cancer was in the same order of magnitude as that of a regular cigarette smoker, with a LRR from 10 to 13 and a lifetime probability of death from lung cancer between 3 and 4%. If these individuals smoked regularly, in addition to being exposed to radon, this probability would be between 6 and 32% (supposing an additive or multiplicative interaction). For former occupants (non-smokers) having been exposed 10 years during childhood, the LRR was two-fold lower. For children having been in day care in the house, the increased probability of death from lung cancer was low, with a LRR lower than 2. Supposing, as in adults, that the risk decreases beyond 30 years after the end of radon exposure, the increase was almost zero for former occupants exposed during childhood and during day care, with a LRR close to 1. (authors)

  12. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and atrazine residues in Maize Produced in Ghana using GC-ECD/ GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miensah, E.D.

    2015-07-01

    Maize is consumed by over 95% of the Ghanaian populace and the practice of using atrazine, lindane and other organochlorine pesticides in its production has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on human health and the environment. A field survey was conducted in this study to assess farmers’ knowledge of safe handling and use of these chemicals as well as toxicity awareness and symptoms among farmers and traders. Residues of the pesticides in maize samples as well as the potential health risk associated with exposure to them were also evaluated. Data obtained from the field survey indicate that a large proportion of farmers are at risk of pesticide poisoning through occupational exposure. Over 80 % of applicators do not apply safety precautions during pesticide mixing and application; resulting in considerable prevalence of pesticide related illnesses in the study area. Residues of lindane and atrazine were below detection limits of 0.005 mg/kg and 0.010 mg/kg respectively of the GC-ECD/MS used for the analysis; except in the Ashanti region where atrazine was 0.05 mg/kg which is within the EU-MRL of 0.1 mg/kg. However, minute concentrations of other organochlorines (endrin- 0.007 mg/kg; heptachlor- 0.023 mg/kg; alpha-endosulfan- 0.013 mg/kg) were found in maize samples from Brong Ahafo, Eastern, Central and Upper west regions. Though endrin and alpha-endosulfan were below the EU-MRL of 0.01 mg/kg and 0.10 mg/kg respectively, heptachlor was slightly above the EU-MRL of 0.01 mg/kg. The estimated doses for all these other organochlorines pesticides do not pose direct hazard to human health because their estimated dose values were lower than toxic thresholds and reference doses. However, due to the unsafe application practices by applicators, there exists a potential risk for systemic and carcinogenic health effects by these chemicals in the study area. (au)

  13. Radioactive waste management: the contribution of expert assessments to the implementation of safe management channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnus, F.; Jouve, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The national Radioactive Materials and Waste Management (PNGMDR) sets objectives and defines waste management channels for all radioactive wastes produced in France. Within this framework, IRSN (Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety) expertise aims at assessing the consistency and robustness of the technical solutions set in place by the plan. As a result of this assessment, the main safety issues and priorities for upgrading the safety of the various facilities that will receive and treat waste are identified on the one hand, while possible foreseen weaknesses in terms of storage or treatment capacities are put into light on the other hand. To carry out such assessment, IRSN backs on its 'in depth' knowledge of facilities, acquired through the examination of each major step of waste management facility life (creation, commissioning, re-examination of safety...). This knowledge feeds in turn the examination of the waste management strategies implemented by operators. In addition, special attention is given to the achievement of waste packages of favourable properties as well as to the conditions for their safe disposal, since these two aspects are most often key factors for optimizing the safety of the whole management channel. By its capacity to overlook all steps of waste management channels, from production to final disposal, IRSN intends to contribute to the objective of enhancing the global safety of the management of radioactive waste. (authors)

  14. Breast MR imaging for the assessment of residual disease following initial surgery for breast cancer with positive margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krammer, Julia [University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Price, Elissa R. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Division of Women' s Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jochelson, Maxine S.; Watson, Elizabeth; Morris, Elizabeth A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Murray, Melissa P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    To determine the accuracy of post-operative MR in predicting residual disease in women with positive margins, emphasizing the size thresholds at which residual disease can be confidently identified. This IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study included 175 patients with MR after positive margins following initial surgery for breast cancer. Two expert readers independently re-evaluated MR images for evidence of residual disease at the surgical cavity and multifocal/multicentric disease. All patients underwent definitive surgery and MR findings were correlated to histopathology. 139/175 (79.4%) patients had residual disease at surgery. Average overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for residual disease at the surgical cavity were 73%, 72%, 91% and 45%, respectively. The readers identified 42/45 (93%, reader 1) and 43/45 (95%, reader 2) patients with residual invasive disease at the cavity of ≥5 mm and 22/22 (100%, both readers) patients with disease ≥10 mm. Average sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for unknown multifocal/multicentric disease were 90%, 96%, 93% and 86%, respectively. Post-operative breast MR can accurately depict ≥5-mm residual disease at the surgical cavity and unsuspected multifocal/multicentric disease. These findings have the potential to lead to more appropriate selection of second surgical procedures in women with positive margins. (orig.)

  15. Breast MR imaging for the assessment of residual disease following initial surgery for breast cancer with positive margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, Julia; Price, Elissa R.; Jochelson, Maxine S.; Watson, Elizabeth; Morris, Elizabeth A.; Murray, Melissa P.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of post-operative MR in predicting residual disease in women with positive margins, emphasizing the size thresholds at which residual disease can be confidently identified. This IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study included 175 patients with MR after positive margins following initial surgery for breast cancer. Two expert readers independently re-evaluated MR images for evidence of residual disease at the surgical cavity and multifocal/multicentric disease. All patients underwent definitive surgery and MR findings were correlated to histopathology. 139/175 (79.4%) patients had residual disease at surgery. Average overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for residual disease at the surgical cavity were 73%, 72%, 91% and 45%, respectively. The readers identified 42/45 (93%, reader 1) and 43/45 (95%, reader 2) patients with residual invasive disease at the cavity of ≥5 mm and 22/22 (100%, both readers) patients with disease ≥10 mm. Average sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for unknown multifocal/multicentric disease were 90%, 96%, 93% and 86%, respectively. Post-operative breast MR can accurately depict ≥5-mm residual disease at the surgical cavity and unsuspected multifocal/multicentric disease. These findings have the potential to lead to more appropriate selection of second surgical procedures in women with positive margins. (orig.)

  16. Should measurement of maximum urinary flow rate and residual urine volume be a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme in female incontinence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Pia; Mouritsen, L; Andersen, J Thorup

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of routine measurements of urinary flow rate and residual urine volume as a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme for women with urinary incontinence in detecting clinical significant bladder emptying problems. MATERIAL AND METHODS....... Twenty-six per cent had a maximum flow rate less than 15 ml/s, but only 4% at a voided volume > or =200 ml. Residual urine more than 149 ml was found in 6%. Two women had chronic retention with overflow incontinence. Both had typical symptoms with continuous leakage, stranguria and chronic cystitis...

  17. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maga, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  18. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maga, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  19. Bulgarian Contribution to World Science and Main Criteria for Assessing the Achievements of Scientists [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The status and the new developments in world science are both discussed. The transition from the ‘normal science’ (Kuhn to the ‘post-normal science’ (Funtowicz & Ravetz is commented. The integration processes in science, the mass higher education and its mcdonaldization are also considered. The difference between ‘science’ and ‘surrogate science’ is explained. The existence of marginal journals as an attribute of the surrogate science is discussed. Such a broad-based consideration allows a realistic assess of the contribution of Bulgarian scientists in the development of world science to be made. Some of the most important scientific achievements made by Bulgarians are listed.

  20. Contribution of occupational therapy to the assessment of competence: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Marie; Huynh, Tammy; Giroux, Dominique; Bottari, Carolina

    2016-06-01

    Many occupational therapists contribute to the assessment of competence to take care of oneself and manage one’s affairs, but few guidelines exist regarding this practice with adults who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study explored the ability of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Profile (IADL Profile) to capture competence following a TBI. Task performance on the IADL Profile of a 46-year-old man (ML) who was found to be incompetent following a severe TBI was compared to eight control subjects (mean age 49.3 ± 4.2 years). The IADL Profile scores, observable behaviours, and verbalizations were compared using descriptive statistics (M, SD) and qualitative analyses. The independence level of ML was lower than that of the control subjects on seven of the eight tasks of the IADL Profile (p competence. © CAOT 2016.

  1. The Wada Test: contributions to standardization of the stimulus for language and memory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäder Maria Joana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wada Test (WT is part of the presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy. The WT is not standardized and the protocols differ in important ways, including stimulus type of material presented for memory testing, timing of presentations and methods of assessment. The aim of this study was to contribute to establish parameters for a WT to Brazilian population investigating the performance of 100 normal subjects, without medication. Two parallel models were used based on Montreal Procedure adapted from Gail Risse's (MEG-MN,EUA protocol. The proportions of correct responses of normal subjects submitted to two parallel WT models were investigated and the two models were compared. The results showed that the two models are similar but significant differences among the stimulus type were observed. The results suggest that the stimulus type may influence the results of the WT and should be considered when constructing models and comparing different protocols.

  2. 15N dilution technique of assessing the contribution of nitrogen fixation to rice plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, Wilbur; Watanabe, Iwao

    1983-01-01

    An attempt to correlate the positive nitrogen balance in rice-soil system with the 15 N dilution in rice plants was made to see if isotope dilution can be used to assess the contribution of nitrogen fixation to the nitrogen nutrition of rice. 15 N ammonium sulfate and sucrose were added to the moist soil in pots to label biomass nitrogen fraction. The rice-soil system with higher nitrogen gain had lower 15 N content in the rice plants. When the surface of pots was covered with black cloths to suppress photodependent N 2 fixation, no significant nitrogen gain was observed. Significant gain was found in the rice-flooded soil system exposed to light, and the 15 N content of plants decreased in allowing the photodependent N 2 fixation by blue-green algae symbiosis. The contribution of plant nitrogen derived from photodependent N 2 fixation was estimated to be 20-30 % of the positive nitrogen gain in the system by the 15 N dilution technique using the rice-covered soil as reference system. (Mori, K.)

  3. /sup 15/N dilution technique of assessing the contribution of nitrogen fixation to rice plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, W; Watanabe, Iwao [International Rice Research Inst., College, Laguna (Phillippines)

    1983-06-01

    An attempt to correlate the positive nitrogen balance in rice-soil system with the /sup 15/N dilution in rice plants was made to see if isotope dilution can be used to assess the contribution of nitrogen fixation to the nitrogen nutrition of rice. /sup 15/N ammonium sulfate and sucrose were added to the moist soil in pots to label biomass nitrogen fraction. The rice-soil system with higher nitrogen gain had lower /sup 15/N content in the rice plants. When the surface of pots was covered with black cloths to suppress photodependent N/sub 2/ fixation, no significant nitrogen gain was observed. Significant gain was found in the rice-flooded soil system exposed to light, and the /sup 15/N content of plants decreased in allowing the photodependent N/sub 2/ fixation by blue-green algae symbiosis. The contribution of plant nitrogen derived from photodependent N/sub 2/ fixation was estimated to be 20-30 % of the positive nitrogen gain in the system by the /sup 15/N dilution technique using the rice-covered soil as reference system.

  4. Implementing a Sustainability Balanced Scorecard to Contribute to the Process of Organisational Legitimacy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Bowrey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of a Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC as a contributing factor in the process of organisational legitimacy assessment. The methodological approach in this study is supported by the application of content analysis to identify and examine the disclosed sustainability indicators of a major Australian financial institution (Westpac. The theoretical lens of legitimacy theory and the Balanced Scorecard (BSC are used as points of reference to inform and structure the overall theoretical framework of this study. The results indicate that the four perspectives of a traditional BSC correlate with the main sources of influential inputs to Westpac’s sustainability reporting. In addition, the SBSC presented in this article successfully illustrates focal areas of reporting practice, providing a succinct overview of an organisation’s reporting activities. The primary contributions of this research are to the literature on social and environmental disclosures, including the research of Do, Tilt and Tilling (2007, and Baxter, Chua and Strong (2010 and the provision of a practical technique to illustrate the focal activity of an organisation’s social and environmental reporting as part of the legitimisation process.

  5. Seismic hazard assessment of the Province of Murcia (SE Spain): analysis of source contribution to hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mayordomo, J.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2007-10-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Province of Murcia in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral accelerations [SA( T)] is presented in this paper. In contrast to most of the previous studies in the region, which were performed for PGA making use of intensity-to-PGA relationships, hazard is here calculated in terms of magnitude and using European spectral ground-motion models. Moreover, we have considered the most important faults in the region as specific seismic sources, and also comprehensively reviewed the earthquake catalogue. Hazard calculations are performed following the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology using a logic tree, which accounts for three different seismic source zonings and three different ground-motion models. Hazard maps in terms of PGA and SA(0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 s) and coefficient of variation (COV) for the 475-year return period are shown. Subsequent analysis is focused on three sites of the province, namely, the cities of Murcia, Lorca and Cartagena, which are important industrial and tourism centres. Results at these sites have been analysed to evaluate the influence of the different input options. The most important factor affecting the results is the choice of the attenuation relationship, whereas the influence of the selected seismic source zonings appears strongly site dependant. Finally, we have performed an analysis of source contribution to hazard at each of these cities to provide preliminary guidance in devising specific risk scenarios. We have found that local source zones control the hazard for PGA and SA( T ≤ 1.0 s), although contribution from specific fault sources and long-distance north Algerian sources becomes significant from SA(0.5 s) onwards.

  6. Examining language functions: a reassessment of Bastian's contribution to aphasia assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Marjorie P

    2013-08-01

    Henry Charlton Bastian (1837-1915) developed his network model of language processing, modality deficits and correlated lesion localizations in the 1860s and was a leading clinical authority for over four decades. Although his ideas are little referenced today, having been overshadowed by his more eminent Queen Square colleague John Hughlings Jackson, his work on aphasia and paralysis was highly regarded by contemporaries. This paper traces Bastian's lasting but largely unattributed contribution to the development of standardized clinical assessment of language disorders. From 1867 onwards, Bastian trained generations of medical students in neurology. In his 1875 book On Paralysis there is evidence in his case descriptions that Bastian had already implemented a detailed set of procedures for examining aphasic patients. In 1886, Bastian published a 'Schema for the Examination of Aphasic and Amnesic Persons'. Bastian insisted on the utility of this battery for diagnosis, classification and lesion localization; he argued that its consistent use would allow the development of a patient corpus and the comparison of cases from other hospitals. In 1898 his Treatise on Aphasia included a list of 34 questions that were to be used to examine all patients to provide detailed and systematic evidence of spared and impaired abilities in all receptive and expressive modalities. Bastian's contribution to the development of standardized clinical aphasia assessment is reassessed through detailed analysis of his publications and those of his contemporaries as well as new material from archives and casebooks. This evidence demonstrates that his approach to diagnosis of language and other cognitive impairments has propagated through the decades. His legacy can be seen in the approach to standardized aphasia testing developed in the latter 20th century through to today.

  7. Assessment of Ex-Vitro Anaerobic Digestion Kinetics of Crop Residues Through First Order Exponential Models: Effect of LAG Phase Period and Curve Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic studies of AD (Anaerobic Digestion process are useful to predict the performance of digesters and design appropriate digesters and also helpful in understanding inhibitory mechanisms of biodegradation. The aim of this study was to assess the anaerobic kinetics of crop residues digestion with buffalo dung. Seven crop residues namely, bagasse, banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw were selected from the field and were analyzed on MC (Moisture Contents, TS (Total Solids and VS (Volatile Solids with standard methods. In present study, three first order exponential models namely exponential model, exponential lag phase model and exponential curve factor model were used to assess the kinetics of the AD process of crop residues and the effect of lag phase and curve factor was analyzed based on statistical hypothesis testing and on information theory. Assessment of kinetics of the AD of crop residues and buffalo dung follows the first order kinetics. Out of the three models, the simple exponential model was the poorest model, while the first order exponential curve factor model is the best fit model. In addition to statistical hypothesis testing, the exponential curve factor model has least value of AIC (Akaike's Information Criterion and can generate methane production data more accurately. Furthermore, there is an inverse linear relationship between the lag phase period and the curve factor.

  8. Assessment of ex-vitro anaerobic digestion kinetics of crop residues through first order exponential models: effect of lag phase period and curve factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Brohi, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic studies of AD (Anaerobic Digestion) process are useful to predict the performance of digesters and design appropriate digesters and also helpful in understanding inhibitory mechanisms of biodegradation. The aim of this study was to assess the anaerobic kinetics of crop residues digestion with buffalo dung. Seven crop residues namely, bagasse, banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw were selected from the field and were analyzed on MC (Moisture Contents), TS (Total Solids) and VS (Volatile Solids) with standard methods. In present study, three first order exponential models namely exponential model, exponential lag phase model and exponential curve factor model were used to assess the kinetics of the AD process of crop residues and the effect of lag phase and curve factor was analyzed based on statistical hypothesis testing and on information theory. Assessment of kinetics of the AD of crop residues and buffalo dung follows the first order kinetics. Out of the three models, the simple exponential model was the poorest model, while the first order exponential curve factor model is the best fit model. In addition to statistical hypothesis testing, the exponential curve factor model has least value of AIC (Akaike's Information Criterion) and can generate methane production data more accurately. Furthermore, there is an inverse linear relationship between the lag phase period and the curve factor. (author)

  9. Environmental dredging residual generation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patmont, Clay; LaRosa, Paul; Narayanan, Raghav; Forrest, Casey

    2018-05-01

    The presence and magnitude of sediment contamination remaining in a completed dredge area can often dictate the success of an environmental dredging project. The need to better understand and manage this remaining contamination, referred to as "postdredging residuals," has increasingly been recognized by practitioners and investigators. Based on recent dredging projects with robust characterization programs, it is now understood that the residual contamination layer in the postdredging sediment comprises a mixture of contaminated sediments that originate from throughout the dredge cut. This mixture of contaminated sediments initially exhibits fluid mud properties that can contribute to sediment transport and contamination risk outside of the dredge area. This article reviews robust dredging residual evaluations recently performed in the United States and Canada, including the Hudson River, Lower Fox River, Ashtabula River, and Esquimalt Harbour, along with other projects. These data better inform the understanding of residuals generation, leading to improved models of dredging residual formation to inform remedy evaluation, selection, design, and implementation. Data from these projects confirm that the magnitude of dredging residuals is largely determined by site conditions, primarily in situ sediment fluidity or liquidity as measured by dry bulk density. While the generation of dredging residuals cannot be avoided, residuals can be successfully and efficiently managed through careful development and implementation of site-specific management plans. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:335-343. © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  10. Single molecule TPM analysis of the catalytic pentad mutants of Cre and Flp site-specific recombinases: contributions of the pentad residues to the pre-chemical steps of recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Cheng, Yong-Song; Ma, Chien-Hui; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2015-01-01

    Cre and Flp site-specific recombinase variants harboring point mutations at their conserved catalytic pentad positions were characterized using single molecule tethered particle motion (TPM) analysis. The findings reveal contributions of these amino acids to the pre-chemical steps of recombination. They suggest functional differences between positionally conserved residues in how they influence recombinase-target site association and formation of ‘non-productive’, ‘pre-synaptic’ and ‘synaptic’ complexes. The most striking difference between the two systems is noted for the single conserved lysine. The pentad residues in Cre enhance commitment to recombination by kinetically favoring the formation of pre-synaptic complexes. These residues in Flp serve a similar function by promoting Flp binding to target sites, reducing non-productive binding and/or enhancing the rate of assembly of synaptic complexes. Kinetic comparisons between Cre and Flp, and between their derivatives lacking the tyrosine nucleophile, are consistent with a stronger commitment to recombination in the Flp system. The effect of target site orientation (head-to-head or head-to-tail) on the TPM behavior of synapsed DNA molecules supports the selection of anti-parallel target site alignment prior to the chemical steps. The integrity of the synapse, whose establishment/stability is fostered by strand cleavage in the case of Flp but not Cre, appears to be compromised by the pentad mutations. PMID:25765648

  11. Residual determination and risk assessment of buprofezin in plum (Prunus domestica) grown in open-field conditions following the application of three different formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Humayun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Sung-Woo; Lee, Han Sol; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Lee, Young-Jun; Chung, Hyung Suk; Lieu, Truong; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Shin, Ho-Chul; Im, Geon-Jae; Hong, Su Myeong; Shim, Jae-Han

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the residual level and perform a risk assessment on buprofezin formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder, and suspension concentrate over various treatment schedules in plum (Prunus domestica). The samples were extracted with an AOAC quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe, 'QuEChERS', method after major modifications. As intrinsic interferences were observed in blank plum samples following dispersive-solid phase extraction (consisting of primary secondary amine and C 18 sorbents), amino cartridges were used for solid-phase extraction. Analysis was carried out using liquid chromatography with diode array detection and confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method showed excellent linearity with determination coefficient (R 2  = 1) and satisfactory recoveries (at two spiking levels, 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg) between 90.98 and 94.74% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤8%. The limit of quantification (0.05 mg/kg) was considerably lower than the maximum residue limit (2 mg/kg) set by the Codex Alimentarius. Absolute residue levels for emulsifiable concentrates were highest, perhaps owing to the dilution rate and adjuvant. Notably, all formulation residues were lower than the maximum residue limit, and safety data proved that the fruits are safe for consumers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Assessment of persistence and residue of diazinon and malathion in three rivers (Mond, Shahpour and Dalaky of Bushehr Province 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Shayeghi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water contamination due to insecticides, often generates dangerous results for consumers. Immoderate consumption of insecticides in neighboring farms contaminates rivers. Assessment of residue of phosphorus insecticides which are used in farms near rivers can play a key role in preventing probable poisonings and aquatic ecosystems polution. Methods: In this case control study, water of three permanent rivers in Bushehr province and urban water pipe network of Bushehr city were assessed in different months in 2004-2005 and 216 samples were collected on the whole. In each river,three stations were used for sampling. After the sampling, extraction processes were accomplished using solvents such as: acetone, methylen-chloride and benzene. For detection and measurement of TLC Scanner apparatus was used. Results: Residues of diazinon and malathion were found in water of the three rivers in spring and summer. And in other seasons the rate of residues were very low or zero. The statistical analysis of the results through one-sidedanalysis variance, showed that diazinon and malathion residues in the water of the surveyed rivers in different months had significant difference (p 0.05, while malathion residue was significant (p <0.05. Conclusion: In the first and second months after applying the two insecticides, their residues level in all three rivers of Mond, Shahpour and Dalaky are more than acceptable contamination level, the higher levels belong to diazinon. Precautions must be considered in using the water for drinking purposes and also using aquatic foods which are provided from these rivers.

  13. Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, B P; Sinha, Vinayak

    2016-03-01

    In the north west Indo-Gangetic Plain (N.W.IGP), large scale post-harvest paddy residue fires occur every year during the months of October-November. This anthropogenic perturbation causes contamination of the atmospheric environment with adverse impacts on regional air quality posing health risks for the population exposed to high concentrations of carcinogens such as benzene and toxic VOCs such as isocyanic acid. These gases and carbon monoxide are known to be emitted from biomass fires along with acetonitrile. Yet no long-term in-situ measurements quantifying the impact of this activity have been carried out in the N.W. IGP. Using high quality continuous online in-situ measurements of these gases at a strategic downwind site over a three year period from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the strong impact of this anthropogenic emission activity on ambient concentrations of these gases. In contrast to the pre-paddy harvest period, excellent correlation of benzenoids, isocyanic acid and CO with acetonitrile (a biomass burning chemical tracer); (r≥0.82) and distinct VOC/acetonitrile emission ratios were observed for the post-paddy harvest period which was also characterized by high ambient concentrations of these species. The average concentrations of acetonitrile (1.62±0.18ppb), benzene (2.51±0.28ppb), toluene (3.72±0.41ppb), C8-aromatics (2.88±0.30ppb), C9-aromatics (1.55±0.19ppb) and CO (552±113ppb) in the post-paddy harvest periods were about 1.5 times higher than the annual average concentrations. For isocyanic acid, a compound with both primary and secondary sources, the concentration in the post-paddy harvest period was 0.97±0.17ppb. The annual average concentrations of benzene, a class A carcinogen, exceeded the annual exposure limit of 1.6ppb at NTP mandated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of India (NAAQS). We show that mitigating the post-harvest paddy residue fires can lower the annual average concentration of benzene and ensure

  14. Assessment of the Contribution of Dietary and Beverage Intake Quality to Obesity Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilici, Saniye; Mortaş, Hande; Kocaadam, Betül; Köksal, Eda

    2018-04-13

    Low dietary quality is an important indicator of unhealthy eating patterns that can lead to some consequences such as obesity, so policy is a very powerful tool that can affect the consumption of both healthy and unhealthy foods. Indices that assess whether nutritional policies are applied contribute to the assessment of the quality of the population's diet. This study was conducted to investigate the quality of diets and beverages consumed by Turkish adults, and the factors affecting them. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 352 adults aged between 18 and 58 years. The quality of diet and beverage was measured through the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) and Healthy Beverage Index (HBI), respectively, using 2-day (weekday and weekend) dietary recall data. The total HBI scores were 79.1 ± 11.8 and 81.0 ± 11.6; total HEI-2010 scores were 45.9 ± 12.3 and 52.3 ± 11.0, of men and women, respectively (p empty calories (p > 0.05). Sugar-sweetened beverage (HBI subcomponent) was significantly correlated with the scores of HEI-2010 and empty calorie (HEI-2010 subcomponent), as expected (p empty calories is considered.

  15. Millon's Contributions to Preadolescent and Adolescent Personality Assessment: Searching Onward and Upward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringone, Robert; Bockian, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon was one of the most influential personality theorists of the 20th century. His theory was originally rooted in biosocial learning models and later reconceptualized as an evolutionary model. This foundation of Millon's work encompasses the entire life span. He had a genuine concern for humankind, especially children. His theory encompasses a comprehensive understanding of the relationship among childhood experiences, parenting styles, and recurring events throughout the life span in shaping the personality. Notable contributions to child and adolescent assessment are the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (Millon, Green, & Meagher, 1982 ), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1993 ), and the Millon Pre-Adolescent Clinical Inventory (M-PACI; Millon, Tringone, Millon, & Grossman, 2005 ). Given Millon's influence on the personality disorders section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the aforementioned instruments have personality constructs tied to familiar DSM categories, and among them, cover the age range of 9 to 18 years old. His development of the Millon Inventories revolutionized personality assessment in the United States and abroad. Millon's legacies will live on through his works and through the respect and compassion he demonstrated toward others.

  16. Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to assessment of brain connectivity and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark; Di Iorio, Riccardo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Park, Jung E; Chen, Robert; Celnik, Pablo; Strafella, Antonio P; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this review is to show how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques can make a contribution to the study of brain networks. Brain networks are fundamental in understanding how the brain operates. Effects on remote areas can be directly observed or identified after a period of stimulation, and each section of this review will discuss one method. EEG analyzed following TMS is called TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). A conditioning TMS can influence the effect of a test TMS given over the motor cortex. A disynaptic connection can be tested also by assessing the effect of a pre-conditioning stimulus on the conditioning-test pair. Basal ganglia-cortical relationships can be assessed using electrodes placed in the process of deep brain stimulation therapy. Cerebellar-cortical relationships can be determined using TMS over the cerebellum. Remote effects of TMS on the brain can be found as well using neuroimaging, including both positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The methods complement each other since they give different views of brain networks, and it is often valuable to use more than one technique to achieve converging evidence. The final product of this type of work is to show how information is processed and transmitted in the brain. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Assessing the potential contributions of additional retention processes to PFAS retardation in the subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Mark L

    2018-02-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the transport and fate of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the subsurface is critical for accurate risk assessments and design of effective remedial actions. A multi-process retention model is proposed to account for potential additional sources of retardation for PFAS transport in source zones. These include partitioning to the soil atmosphere, adsorption at air-water interfaces, partitioning to trapped organic liquids (NAPL), and adsorption at NAPL-water interfaces. An initial assessment of the relative magnitudes and significance of these retention processes was conducted for two PFAS of primary concern, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and an example precursor (fluorotelomer alcohol, FTOH). The illustrative evaluation was conducted using measured porous-medium properties representative of a sandy vadose-zone soil. Data collected from the literature were used to determine measured or estimated values for the relevant distribution coefficients, which were in turn used to calculate retardation factors for the model system. The results showed that adsorption at the air-water interface was a primary source of retention for both PFOA and PFOS, contributing approximately 50% of total retention for the conditions employed. Adsorption to NAPL-water interfaces and partitioning to bulk NAPL were also shown to be significant sources of retention. NAPL partitioning was the predominant source of retention for FTOH, contributing ~98% of total retention. These results indicate that these additional processes may be, in some cases, significant sources of retention for subsurface transport of PFAS. The specific magnitudes and significance of the individual retention processes will depend upon the properties and conditions of the specific system of interest (e.g., PFAS constituent and concentration, porous medium, aqueous chemistry, fluid saturations, co-contaminants). In cases wherein these

  18. Multi-country assessment of residual bio-efficacy of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying in malaria control on different surface types: results from program monitoring in 17 PMI/USAID-supported IRS countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengela, Dereje; Seyoum, Aklilu; Lucas, Bradford; Johns, Benjamin; George, Kristen; Belemvire, Allison; Caranci, Angela; Norris, Laura C; Fornadel, Christen M

    2018-01-30

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is the application of insecticide to the interior walls of household structures that often serve as resting sites for mosquito vectors of malaria. Human exposure to malaria vectors is reduced when IRS involves proper application of pre-determined concentrations of the active ingredient specific to the insecticide formulation of choice. The impact of IRS can be affected by the dosage of insecticide, spray coverage, vector behavior, vector susceptibility to insecticides, and the residual efficacy of the insecticide applied. This report compiles data on the residual efficacy of insecticides used in IRS campaigns implemented by the United States President's Malaria Initiative (PMI)/United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in 17 African countries and compares observed length of efficacy to ranges proposed in World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Additionally, this study provides initial analysis on variation of mosquito mortality depending on the surface material of sprayed structures, country spray program, year of implementation, source of tested mosquitoes, and type of insecticide. Residual efficacy of the insecticides used for PMI/USAID-supported IRS campaigns was measured in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The WHO cone bioassay tests were used to assess the mortality rate of mosquitoes exposed to insecticide-treated mud, wood, cement, and other commonly used housing materials. Baseline tests were performed within weeks of IRS application and follow-up tests were continued until the mortality of exposed mosquitoes dropped below 80% or the program monitoring period ended. Residual efficacy in months was then evaluated with respect to WHO guidelines that provide suggested ranges of residual efficacy for insecticide formulations recommended for use in IRS. Where the data allowed, direct

  19. The medical contribution to assessing allegations of torture in international fact-finding missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, Derrick J

    2011-05-20

    International fact-finding missions directed towards the exposure of possible ill-treatment of persons deprived of their liberty have become increasingly common within the framework of international treaties. Such country visits occur with the consent and co-operation of government, provide unfettered access to all places of detention and allow private interviews with detainees. The Committee for the Prevention of Torture of the Council of Europe, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture, and the United Nations Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture all engage in such missions, and make use of a medical professional as part of the investigative team. The medical contribution to fact finding missions assessing ill-treatment of detainees includes an assessment of the conditions of detention, the regime and the medical services. Custody doctors and their records can be a rich source of information about physical ill-treatment. The interview and examination of detainees often occurs in circumstances which are far from ideal. The safety and wellbeing of the detainees, including protection from reprisals, is always paramount. A medical examination may disclose injuries corroborative of specific allegations. More often, a medical history of the effects of ill treatment and the description of resolved transient injuries provides corroboration, and also forms part of assessing the overall credibility of the detainee. Equally important is the consistency of the allegation with other evidence obtained from a wide variety of sources including the inspection of the place of alleged ill-treatment. The evolved working methods draw on the basic principles underlying police criminal investigations and crime scene examinations as well as forensic medicine. A forensic medical expert can be a useful part of the team in such international fact finding missions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of bioethanol yield by S. cerevisiae grown on oil palm residues: Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Mohd Dinie Muhaimin; Mat Don, Mashitah

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm trunk (OPT) sap was utilized for growth and bioethanol production by Saccharomycescerevisiae with addition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as nutrients supplier. Maximum yield (YP/S) was attained at 0.464g bioethanol/g glucose presence in the OPT sap-POME-based media. However, OPT sap and POME are heterogeneous in properties and fermentation performance might change if it is repeated. Contribution of parametric uncertainty analysis on bioethanol fermentation performance was then assessed using Monte Carlo simulation (stochastic variable) to determine probability distributions due to fluctuation and variation of kinetic model parameters. Results showed that based on 100,000 samples tested, the yield (YP/S) ranged 0.423-0.501g/g. Sensitivity analysis was also done to evaluate the impact of each kinetic parameter on the fermentation performance. It is found that bioethanol fermentation highly depend on growth of the tested yeast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  2. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  3. Assessing roadway contributions to stormwater flows, concentrations, and loads with the StreamStats application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonewall, Adam; Granato, Gregory E.; Haluska, Tana L.

    2018-01-01

    The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) and other state departments of transportation need quantitative information about the percentages of different land cover categories above any given stream crossing in the state to assess and address roadway contributions to water-quality impairments and resulting total maximum daily loads. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with ODOT and the FHWA, added roadway and land cover information to the online StreamStats application to facilitate analysis of stormwater runoff contributions from different land covers. Analysis of 25 delineated basins with drainage areas of about 100 mi2 indicates the diversity of land covers in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. On average, agricultural, developed, and undeveloped land covers comprise 15%, 2.3%, and 82% of these basin areas. On average, these basins contained about 10 mi of state highways and 222 mi of non-state roads. The Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model was used with available water-quality data to simulate long-term yields of total phosphorus from highways, non-highway roadways, and agricultural, developed, and undeveloped areas. These yields were applied to land cover areas obtained from StreamStats for the Willamette River above Wilsonville, Oregon. This analysis indicated that highway yields were larger than yields from other land covers because highway runoff concentrations were higher than other land covers and the highway is fully impervious. However, the total highway area was a fraction of the other land covers. Accordingly, highway runoff mitigation measures can be effective for managing water quality locally, they may have limited effect on achieving basin-wide stormwater reduction goals.

  4. Assessment of the effect of washing and boiling on the levels of pesticide residues in vegetables cultivated in Akuapem North Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opare-Boafo, Maame Serwa

    2016-07-01

    Vegetables play an important role in human nutrition and health. Pesticides are extensively used by vegetable farmers in crop production and this may contaminate the crop. Traditional method of washing vegetables prior to consumption has been assumed to reduce pesticide residues. The study seeks to assess the effect of washing with various solutions and with boiling on the concentration of pesticide residues in vegetables and to estimate the potential human health risk associated with pesticide ingestion via vegetable diet using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method. Results of the study indicated that the farmers involved in vegetable farming in the Akwapim North Municipality are in the middle age group and use pesticides in their farming activities. Majority (65%) of them have no formal training in pesticide usage and apply pesticides in mixtures made of combinations of up to four (4) pesticides in a single tank mixture. The farmers do not use any protective clothing and stores agrochemicals in multipurpose storage structures together with food containers and farm implements. As a result of pesticide exposure, 67% of farmers experienced various kinds of discomfort including headache, tingling or burning of skin, irritation of eyes or skin. Chloropyrifos residue was the only pesticide residue that gave positive detection in the analysed vegetable samples. The raw (non-spiked) vegetable samples (cabbage, lettuce and squash) had 0.29 mg kg -1 , 0.19 mg kg -1 and 0.14 mg kg -1 of Chloropyrifos residue in cabbage, squash and lettuce respectively. The level of chloropyrifos residues detected in raw cabbage samples from the study area was below the maximum permissible limit (MPLs) of 1 mg/kg (Codex, 2003) but the residues found in raw squash was above the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/kg and that of lettuce was also above the maximum permissible limit (0.05mg/kg). Washing of vegetables vigorously in water for 2 minutes before

  5. Quantitative assessment of lipoprotein metabolism by positron emission tomography with an 18F-containing residualizing label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, A.; Sobel, B.; Kilbourn, M.R.; Dence, C.S.; Thorpe, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Residualizing labels for proteins are designed to remain entrapped within cells following uptake and degradation of the carrier protein. In the present work we report the synthesis of a novel residualizing label, N-lactitol-S-([ 18 F]fluorophenacyl)-cysteamine ([ 18 F]LCSH), and its use for quantifying the accumulation of low density lipoprotein in tissues in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET). The retention of degradation products in tissues from lipoprotein or from other rapidly catabolized protein pharmaceuticals tagged with [ 18 F]LCSH reduces leakage of tracer into the plasma compartment. Thus, residualizing labels provide a valuable tool for enhancing signal-to-noise ratios, even during the relatively short interval of PET studies. (author)

  6. Pesticides in persimmons, jujubes and soil from China: Residue levels, risk assessment and relationship between fruits and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Qu, Minghua; Zhong, Donglian; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-01-15

    Extreme and uncontrolled usage of pesticides produces a number of problems for vegetation and human health. In this study, the existence of organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and fungicides (FUs) were investigated in persimmons/jujubes and their planted soils, which were collected from China. One OP (dimethoate), three OCs (DDT, quintozene and aldrin), six PYs (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin) and two FUs (triadimefon and buprofezin) were found in 36.4% of persimmons and 70.8% of jujubes, with concentrations from 1.0 μg/kg to 2945.0 μg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides in the two fruits were fenpropathrin in persimmons and cypermethrin in jujubes, with the detection frequencies of 30.0% and 22.7%, respectively. The residues of 4.5% (persimmon) and 25.0% (jujube) of samples were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. Compared with the fruits, more types of pesticides and higher residues were observed in their planted soils. The most frequently detected pesticides were HCH in persimmon soil and DDT in jujube soil, with the detection frequencies of 10.9% and 12.7%, respectively. For the tested samples, 39.1% of fruit samples and 63.0% of soil samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 8 residues in fruits and 14 residues in soils. Except for cyhalothrin, the other short-term risks for the tested pesticides in the fruits were below 10%, and the highest long-term risk was 14.13% for aldrin and dieldrin. There was no significant health risk for consumers via consumption of the two fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Crowdsourced assessment of common genetic contribution to predicting anti-TNF treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberts, Solveig K; Zhu, Fan; García-García, Javier; Stahl, Eli; Pratap, Abhishek; Pandey, Gaurav; Pappas, Dimitrios; Aguilar, Daniel; Anton, Bernat; Bonet, Jaume; Eksi, Ridvan; Fornés, Oriol; Guney, Emre; Li, Hongdong; Marín, Manuel Alejandro; Panwar, Bharat; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Poglayen, Daniel; Cui, Jing; Falcao, Andre O; Suver, Christine; Hoff, Bruce; Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Dillenberger, Donna; Neto, Elias Chaibub; Norman, Thea; Aittokallio, Tero; Ammad-Ud-Din, Muhammad; Azencott, Chloe-Agathe; Bellón, Víctor; Boeva, Valentina; Bunte, Kerstin; Chheda, Himanshu; Cheng, Lu; Corander, Jukka; Dumontier, Michel; Goldenberg, Anna; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Hajiloo, Mohsen; Hidru, Daniel; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaski, Samuel; Khalfaoui, Beyrem; Khan, Suleiman Ali; Kramer, Eric R; Marttinen, Pekka; Mezlini, Aziz M; Molparia, Bhuvan; Pirinen, Matti; Saarela, Janna; Samwald, Matthias; Stoven, Véronique; Tang, Hao; Tang, Jing; Torkamani, Ali; Vert, Jean-Phillipe; Wang, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wennerberg, Krister; Wineinger, Nathan E; Xiao, Guanghua; Xie, Yang; Yeung, Rae; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhao, Cheng; Greenberg, Jeff; Kremer, Joel; Michaud, Kaleb; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke; Mariette, Xavier; Miceli, Corinne; Shadick, Nancy; Weinblatt, Michael; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P; Gerlag, Danielle; Huizinga, Tom W J; Kurreeman, Fina; Allaart, Cornelia F; Louis Bridges, S; Criswell, Lindsey; Moreland, Larry; Klareskog, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Friend, Stephen; Plenge, Robert; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Oliva, Baldo; Guan, Yuanfang; Mangravite, Lara M; Bridges, S Louis; Criswell, Lindsey; Moreland, Larry; Klareskog, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Friend, Stephen; Plenge, Robert; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Oliva, Baldo; Guan, Yuanfang; Mangravite, Lara M

    2016-08-23

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects millions world-wide. While anti-TNF treatment is widely used to reduce disease progression, treatment fails in ∼one-third of patients. No biomarker currently exists that identifies non-responders before treatment. A rigorous community-based assessment of the utility of SNP data for predicting anti-TNF treatment efficacy in RA patients was performed in the context of a DREAM Challenge (http://www.synapse.org/RA_Challenge). An open challenge framework enabled the comparative evaluation of predictions developed by 73 research groups using the most comprehensive available data and covering a wide range of state-of-the-art modelling methodologies. Despite a significant genetic heritability estimate of treatment non-response trait (h(2)=0.18, P value=0.02), no significant genetic contribution to prediction accuracy is observed. Results formally confirm the expectations of the rheumatology community that SNP information does not significantly improve predictive performance relative to standard clinical traits, thereby justifying a refocusing of future efforts on collection of other data.

  8. Strategy utilized for assessing baseline risks to human health from K-65 and metal oxide residues stored at the Fernald Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.E.; Janke, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site in southwestern Ohio. The 425-hectare site consists of a former 55-hectare Production Area, an adjacent Waste Storage Area and various support facilities. From 1952 until 1989, the FEMP processed uranium into metallic open-quotes feedclose quotes materials for other DOE facilities in the nation's defense program. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the FEMP site is currently listed on the National Priorities List (NPL). To facilitate an expeditious cleanup effort, environmental issues associated with site cleanup are being managed under five operable units. This paper summarizes the risk assessment strategy employed to determine baseline human health risks associated with K-65 and metal oxide residues currently stored in Operable Unit 4. The K-65 and metal oxide residues were generated during the 1950s as a result of the extraction of uranium from uranium-bearing ores and concentrates. These residues are currently stored within Operable Unit 4 in concrete silos. Silos I and 2 contain approximately 6,120 cubic meters [m 3 ] (8,005 cubic yards [yd 3 ]) of K-65 residues, while silos 3 contains approximately 3890 m 3 (5,080 yd 3 ) of cold metal oxides. These concrete silos are beyond their design life and require remedial action. The risk assessment conducted for Operable Unit 4 constitutes the first detailed human health risk assessment to be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the CERCLA clean-up effort at the FEMP Site. This paper discusses the FEMP's use of a Risk Information Quality Objective process in concert with the traditional risk assessment approach to determine baseline risk to human health and the environment posed by Operable Unit 4. A summary of the baseline risks to human health is also presented

  9. Strategy utilized for assessing baseline risks to human health from K-65 and metal oxide residues stored at the Fernald Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E. [FERMCO, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project; Janke, R.C.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site in southwestern Ohio. The 425-hectare site consists of a former 55-hectare Production Area, an adjacent Waste Storage Area and various support facilities. From 1952 until 1989, the FEMP processed uranium into metallic {open_quotes}feed{close_quotes} materials for other DOE facilities in the nation`s defense program. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the FEMP site is currently listed on the National Priorities List (NPL). To facilitate an expeditious cleanup effort, environmental issues associated with site cleanup are being managed under five operable units. This paper summarizes the risk assessment strategy employed to determine baseline human health risks associated with K-65 and metal oxide residues currently stored in Operable Unit 4. The K-65 and metal oxide residues were generated during the 1950s as a result of the extraction of uranium from uranium-bearing ores and concentrates. These residues are currently stored within Operable Unit 4 in concrete silos. Silos I and 2 contain approximately 6,120 cubic meters [m{sup 3}] (8,005 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) of K-65 residues, while silos 3 contains approximately 3890 m{sup 3} (5,080 yd{sup 3}) of cold metal oxides. These concrete silos are beyond their design life and require remedial action. The risk assessment conducted for Operable Unit 4 constitutes the first detailed human health risk assessment to be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the CERCLA clean-up effort at the FEMP Site. This paper discusses the FEMP`s use of a Risk Information Quality Objective process in concert with the traditional risk assessment approach to determine baseline risk to human health and the environment posed by Operable Unit 4. A summary of the baseline risks to human health is also presented.

  10. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

  11. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products

  12. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables and human health risk assessment in North Central agricultural areas of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Sebastian; Moyano, Stella; Sepúlveda, Paulina; Quiroz, Carlos; Correa, Arturo

    2017-06-01

    To investigate pesticide residue concentrations and potential human health risk, a study was conducted in 118 leafy vegetable samples collected in 2014-2015 from the North Central agricultural areas of Chile. The pesticide residues were determined using the multiresidue QuEChERS method by gas chromatography as well as high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that 27% of the total samples contained pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits of each active ingredient. The maximum estimated daily intake obtained for carbon disulphide (CS 2 ), methamidophos, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin were 0.57, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 mg kg -1 , respectively, which was higher than their acceptable daily intake. It is concluded that inhabitants of the North Central agricultural area of Chile are not exposed to health risks through the consumption of leafy vegetables with the exception of methamidophos. Nevertheless, the high levels of methamidophos detected in leafy vegetables could be considered a potential chronic health risk.

  13. Residues and dissipation kinetics of carbendazim and diethofencarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and intake risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huidong; du, Hongxia; Fang, Liping; Dong, Zhan; Guan, Shuai; Fan, Wenjing; Chen, Zilei

    2016-06-01

    Dissipation behaviors and residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb in combination in tomato were investigated. The half-lives were 2.1-3.4 days for carbendazim, and 1.8-3.2 days for diethofencarb at a dose of 1.5 times of the recommended dosage. The residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China one day after application of the combination. The ultimate residues were significantly lower than the maximum permissible intake (MPI) in China at the recommended high dose for both child and adult. The values of the maximum dietary exposure for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 0.26 and 0.27 mg per person per day, respectively. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) values for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 1.5 and 0.5 mg/day, respectively. The dietary exposure was lower than the MPI, which indicates the harvested tomato samples under the experimental conditions (open field) are safe for human consumption at the recommended high dosage of the wettable powder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of Potential Capacity Increases at Combined Heat and Power Facilities Based on Available Corn Stover and Forest Logging Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Grebner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Combined Heat and Power (CHP production using renewable energy sources is gaining importance because of its flexibility and high-energy efficiency. Biomass materials, such as corn stover and forestry residues, are potential sources for renewable energy for CHP production. In Mississippi, approximately 4.0 MT dry tons of woody biomass is available annually for energy production. In this study, we collected and analyzed 10 years of corn stover data (2001–2010 and three years of forest logging residue data (1995, 1999, and 2002 in each county in Mississippi to determine the potential of these feed stocks for sustainable CHP energy production. We identified six counties, namely Amite, Copiah, Clarke, Wayne, Wilkinson and Rankin, that have forest logging residue feedstocks to sustain a CHP facility with a range of capacity between 8.0 and 9.8 MW. Using corn stover alone, Yazoo and Washington counties can produce 13.4 MW and 13.5 MW of energy, respectively. Considering both feedstocks and based on a conservative amount of 30% available forest logging residue and 33% corn stover, we found that 20 counties have adequate supply for a CHP facility with a capacity of 8.3 MW to 19.6 MW.

  15. Assessment of cellulose purification methods from the residue of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for the production of cellulose nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Lais Angelice de; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Marconcini, José Manoel; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli; Pereira, Sandra Cerqueira

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Over the years, there is a growing trend in the reuse of residues from the agricultural industries due to social, environmental and economic demands. The production of Brazilian sugarcane in the 2014/15 season was more than 640 million tons, estimating that one third of this total is bagasse [1]. After enzymatic hydrolysis of bagasse in order to give the 2G ethanol, remains a solid fibrous residue which can be repurposed in other processes. This study evaluated four methods for the purification of the resulting solid fibrous residue from the enzymatic hydrolysis process of bagasse, with the intention of obtaining cellulose. Measurements of the crystallinity index (CI) of the cellulose contained in the samples were determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The enzymatic hydrolysis of generates a fibrous solid residue with contents of lignin and cellulose. This residue was subjected to four purification methods: I) 100 mL of NaOH (5%, w/w) at 55 °C was added to 5 g of residue and 43 mL of H 2 O 2 (35%, v/v) under stirring for 1.5 hours; II) the same procedure was repeated on the resulting material from I; III) 105 mL of solution 10:1 (ν/ν) of CH 3 COOH and HNO 3 at 60 °C was added to 5 g of residue under stirring for 30 minutes; IV) reaction with a solution composed of 1 ml of CH 3 COOH and 2.5 g of NaClO 2 at 70 °C under stirring for 1 hour and after that time, the procedure was repeated twice and then the solution was kept under stirring for further 3 hours. The crystallinity indexes found for the purification procedures were: I) 81.7%; II) 83.2%; III) 52.1% e IV) 77.2%. The best result was found for the material subjected to the method II. This process (II) generated a material composed of high content of crystalline cellulose. References: [1] CONAB (National Supply Company), 2015. (author)

  16. CONTRIBUTION OF STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT TO THE IMPACT OF A HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: AN IRISH CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Máirín; Moran, Patrick S; Harrington, Patricia; Murphy, Linda; O'Neill, Michelle; Whelan, Marty; Teljeur, Conor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the contribution of stakeholder engagement to the impact of health technology assessment (HTA) using an Irish HTA of a national public access defibrillation (PAD) program. In response to draft legislation that proposed a PAD program, the Minister for Health requested that Health Information and Quality Authority undertake an HTA to inform the design and implementation of a national PAD program and the necessary underpinning legislation. The draft legislation outlined a program requiring widespread installation and maintenance of automatic external defibrillators in specified premises. Stakeholder engagement to optimize the impact of the HTA included one-to-one interviews with politicians, engagement with an Expert Advisory Group, public and targeted consultation, and positive media management. The HTA quantified the clinical benefits of the proposed PAD program as modest, identified that substantial costs would fall on small/medium businesses at a time of economic recession, and that none of the programs modeled were cost-effective. The Senator who proposed the Bill actively publicized the HTA process and its findings and encouraged participation in the public consultation. Participation of key stakeholders was important for the quality and acceptability of the HTA findings and advice. Media management promoted public engagement and understanding. The Bill did not progress. The HTA informed the decision not to progress with legislation for a national PAD program. Engagement was tailored to ensure that key stakeholders including politicians and the public were informed of the HTA process, the findings, and the advice, thereby maximizing acceptance. Appropriate stakeholder engagement optimizes the impact of HTA.

  17. Scientific research in malaria: bibliometric assessment of the Latin-American contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Urbano, Marcela; Lopez-Isaza, Andres F; Hurtado-Hurtado, Natalia; Gomez-Suta, Daniela; Murillo-Abadia, Jonathan; Delgado-Osorio, Nathalia; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas, Soraya; Medina-Morales, Diego A; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic disease of high global impact in public health, including Latin America. There should be more researched, particularly in this region. A bibliometric assessment of the Latin American contributions about malaria was done. Bibliometric study at SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/ GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), LILACS (1980-2013). The studies were characterized by study type, year of publication, city/country of origin, journals and more productive authors, citations and H index. At SCI, 2,806 articles were retrieved (5.13% of the total). Brazil was the highest producer (31.41%), followed by Colombia (14.3%) and Mexico (9.5%). The region received 39,894 citations, 32.2% from Brazil (H index=51), 12.75% Mexico (H index=38), 11.2% Colombia (H index=33). At Scopus, there are 4,150 articles (4.9% of the total), 33.0% Brazil, 11.3% Colombia and 8.8% Mexico; 17% in Brazil were from Universidad de São Paulo; 23.6% of Colombia from Universidad de Antioquia; 15.4% of Mexico from Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. At Medline there were 4,278 records (36.8% Brazil). At SciELO there are 792 records (45.3% Brazil). At LILACS there were 1744 records (34.3% Brazil). Brazil has the highest output of the region, as Venezuela the scientific production in Malaria was related with the burden of disease. This was not the case for Colombia. Scientific production at bibliographical databases, particularly regionals, is low, compared to the high incidence of this disease that requires more research and control.

  18. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment Mission and its Potential Contributions to Human Exploration of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andy S.

    2014-01-01

    The joint ESA and NASA Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission, involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. AIDA's primary objective is to demonstrate a kinetic impact deflection and characterize the binary NEA Didymos. The science and technical data obtained from AIDA will aid in the planning of future human exploration missions to NEAs and other small bodies. The dual robotic missions of AIDA, ESA's Asteroid Impact Monitor (AIM) and NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), will provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of the binary target Didymos both prior to and after the kinetic impact demonstration. The knowledge gained from this mission will help identify asteroidal physical properties in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for future small body missions. The AIDA data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations.

  19. Assessing the Effect of Prometryn Soil Residue on Soil Microbial Biomass and Different Crops using Bioassay Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi alebrahim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herbicides are the most widely used of chemical pesticides for agricultural production and landscape management. The environmental risk of herbicides should be evaluated near sites of application, even though basic ecotoxicological tests have been conducted before they can be registered for marketing. For example, triazine herbicides, which are photosynthetic PSII herbicide that considered only slightly or moderately toxic to many susceptible plants, soil microorganisms, mammals and humans, however, concerns have arisen because this herbicide are members of a class claimed to be carcinogenic, or may affect the development as reproductive toxins. For this reason, most reliable evidence is needed to test these claims and investigate their ecological effects. Prometryn is a herbicide belongs to triazine family that may leave residual activity in the soil for extended periods, causing injury and yield reduction of susceptible soil microorganisms and crops in rotation. Compared with other methods, the rapidity of response, sensitivity, high level of precision, simple process and easy operation are the advantages of bioassay methods for the routine monitoring of biologically available photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides present in agricultural soils. Materials and Methods: A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in order to study the sensitivity of 4 different crops to prometryn soil residue at the College of Agricultural Sciences, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran in 2014. Experimental type was completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Treatments included 4 different crops (lettuce, barley, rapeseed and beet and prometryn simulated concentrations residues in soil (0.0033, 0.0166, 0.033, 0.066, 0.1 and 0.166 mg. kg-1soil. 15 cm diameter pots were filled with a modified soil and 10 of seeds of crops were planted in 5 regular positions. The plants were thinned to five plants per pot

  20. Assessment of odor activity value coefficient and odor contribution based on binary interaction effects in waste disposal plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Yan, Luchun; Chen, Haiying; Shao, Huiqi; Meng, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Odor activity value (OAV) has been widely used for the assessment of odor pollution from various sources. However, little attention has been paid to the extreme OAV variation and potential inaccuracies of odor contribution assessment caused by odor interaction effects. The objective of this study is to assess the odor interaction effect for precise assessment of odor contribution. In this paper, samples were collected from a food waste disposal plant, and analyzed by instrumental and olfactory method to conclude odorants' occurrence and OAV. Then odor activity value coefficient (γ) was first proposed to evaluate the type and the level of binary interaction effects based on determination of OAV variation. By multiplying OAV and γ, odor activity factor (OAF) was used to reflect the real OAV. Correlation between the sum of OAF and odor concentration reached 80.0 ± 5.7%, which was 10 times higher than the sum of OAV used before. Results showed that hydrogen sulfide contributed most (annual average 66.4 ± 15.8%) to odor pollution in the waste disposal plant. However, as odor intensity of samples in summer rising, odor contribution of trimethylamine increased to 48.3 ± 3.7% by the strong synergistic interaction effect, while odor contribution of phenol decreased to 0.1 ± 0.02% for the increasing antagonistic interaction effect.

  1. An analytical method to assess the damage and predict the residual strength of a ship in a shoal grounding accident scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Bin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simplified analytical method used to predict the residual ultimate strength of a ship hull after a shoal grounding accident is proposed. Shoal grounding accidents always lead to severe denting, though not tearing, of the ship bottom structure, which may threaten the global hull girder resistance and result in even worse consequences, such as hull collapse. Here, the degree of damage of the bottom structure is predicted by a series of analytical methods based on the plastic-elastic deformation mechanism. The energy dissipation of a ship bottom structure is obtained from individual components to determine the sliding distance of the seabed obstruction. Then, a new approach to assess the residual strength of the damaged ship subjected to shoal grounding is proposed based on the improved Smith's method. This analytical method is verified by comparing the results of the proposed method and those generated by numerical simulation using the software ABAQUS. The proposed analytical method can be used to assess the safety of a ship with a double bottom during its design phase and predict the residual ultimate strength of a ship after a shoal grounding accident occurs.

  2. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João C M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2011-01-01

    Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of "building material not allowed". The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but difficulties with the soluble salts are still observed. This analysis suggests that for APC residues to comply with soil and surface water protection criteria to be further used as building material at least a pre-treating for removing soluble salts is absolutely required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of radioactive residues arising from radiolabel instability in a multiple dose tissue distribution study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatter, J.G. [Pharmacia Corp., Peapack, NJ (United States); Sams, J.P.; Easter, J.A. [Pharmacia Corp., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)] [and others

    2003-05-01

    Our study objectives were to quantitatively determine the effect of radiolabel instability on terminal phase radioactive tissue residues in a multiple dose tissue distribution study, to quantitatively compare tissue residue artifacts (non drug-related radioactivity) from two chemically-distinct radiolabel locations, and to conduct a definitive multiple dose tissue distribution study using the better of the two radiolabeled compounds. We compared the excretion and tissue distribution in rats of [{sup 14}C]linezolid, radiolabeled in two different locations, after 7 consecutive once daily [{sup 14}C] oral doses. The radiolabels were in the acetamide (two carbon) and oxazolidinone (isolated carbon) functional groups. Terminal phase tissue residue and excretion data were compared to data from rats dosed orally with [{sup 14}C]sodium acetate. Drug-related radioactivity was excreted rapidly over 24 h. After a single dose, the acetamide and oxazolidinone radiolabel sites both gave 3% of dose as exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. After 7 daily [{sup 14}C] oral doses, terminal phase radioactive tissue residues were higher from the acetamide radiolabel, relative to the oxazolidinone radiolabel, and were primarily not drug-related. In the definitive tissue distribution study, low concentrations of drug-related radioactivity in skin and thyroid were observed. We conclude that although small amounts of radiolabel instability do not significantly affect single dose tissue radioactivity C{sub max} and area under the curve (AUC), artifacts arising from radiolabel instability can prolong the apparent terminal phase half life and complicate study data interpretation. When possible, it is always preferable to use a completely stable radiolabel site. (author)

  4. Assessment of radioactive residues arising from radiolabel instability in a multiple dose tissue distribution study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slatter, J.G.; Sams, J.P.; Easter, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Our study objectives were to quantitatively determine the effect of radiolabel instability on terminal phase radioactive tissue residues in a multiple dose tissue distribution study, to quantitatively compare tissue residue artifacts (non drug-related radioactivity) from two chemically-distinct radiolabel locations, and to conduct a definitive multiple dose tissue distribution study using the better of the two radiolabeled compounds. We compared the excretion and tissue distribution in rats of [ 14 C]linezolid, radiolabeled in two different locations, after 7 consecutive once daily [ 14 C] oral doses. The radiolabels were in the acetamide (two carbon) and oxazolidinone (isolated carbon) functional groups. Terminal phase tissue residue and excretion data were compared to data from rats dosed orally with [ 14 C]sodium acetate. Drug-related radioactivity was excreted rapidly over 24 h. After a single dose, the acetamide and oxazolidinone radiolabel sites both gave 3% of dose as exhaled 14 CO 2 . After 7 daily [ 14 C] oral doses, terminal phase radioactive tissue residues were higher from the acetamide radiolabel, relative to the oxazolidinone radiolabel, and were primarily not drug-related. In the definitive tissue distribution study, low concentrations of drug-related radioactivity in skin and thyroid were observed. We conclude that although small amounts of radiolabel instability do not significantly affect single dose tissue radioactivity C max and area under the curve (AUC), artifacts arising from radiolabel instability can prolong the apparent terminal phase half life and complicate study data interpretation. When possible, it is always preferable to use a completely stable radiolabel site. (author)

  5. Retraction: Adyel et al. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Foods 2013, 2, 64–75

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article [1], doi: 10.3390/foods2010064, website: http://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/2/1/64, has been retracted by the authors because of some major errors in broad field of pesticide residues identification and concentrations. During random cross check retention time of pesticides by HPLC did not match with the standards of detected pesticides. As a result concentration of all detected pesticides, maximum residue limits (MRLs and health risk assessments were changed. All these errors made the article [1] as a wrong one. All authors have confirmed that the reported results produced using quite inappropriate procedures. As first author herein, I take full responsibility for the retraction of our experiments and any other errors in its contents, and would like to offer my apologies on behalf of my co-authors to the readership of Foods for any inconveniences caused by this retraction.

  6. Improved Rice Residue Burning Emissions Estimates: Accounting for Practice-Specific Emission Factors in Air Pollution Assessments of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasko, Kristofer; Vadrevu, Krishna

    2018-01-01

    In Southeast Asia and Vietnam, rice residues are routinely burned after the harvest to prepare fields for the next season. Specific to Vietnam, the two prevalent burning practices include: a). piling the residues after hand harvesting; b). burning the residues without piling, after machine harvesting. In this study, we synthesized field and laboratory studies from the literature on rice residue burning emission factors for Particulate Matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). We found significant differences in the resulting burning-practice specific emission factors, with 16.9 grams per square kilogram (plus or minus 6.9) for pile burning and 8.8 grams per square kilogram (plus or minus 3.5) for non-pile burning. We calculated burning practice specific emissions based on rice area data, region-specific fuel-loading factors, combined emission factors, and estimates of burning from the literature. Our results for year 2015 estimate 180 gigagrams of PM2.5 result from the pile burning method and 130 gigagrams result from non-pile burning method, with the most-likely current emission scenario of 150 gigagrams PM2.5 emissions for Vietnam. For comparison purposes, we calculated emissions using generalized agricultural emission factors employed in global biomass burning studies. These results estimate 80 gigagrams PM2.5, which is only 44 percent of the pile burning-based estimates, suggesting underestimation in previous studies. We compare our emissions to an existing all-combustion sources inventory, results show emissions account for 14-18 percent of Vietnam's total PM2.5 depending on burning practice. Within the highly-urbanized and cloud-covered Hanoi Capital region (HCR), we use rice area from Sentinel-1A to derive spatially-explicit emissions and indirectly estimate residue burning dates. Results from HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) back-trajectory analysis stratified by season show autumn has most emission trajectories originating in

  7. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: Reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quina, Margarida J.; Bordado, Joao C.M.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Dutch Building Material Decree (BMD) was used to APC residues from MSWI. → BMD is a straightforward tool to calculate expectable loads to the environment of common pollutants. → Chloride load to the environment lead to classification of building material not allowed. → At least a pre-treatment (e.g. washing) is required in order to remove soluble salts. → The stabilization with phosphates or silicates eliminate the problem of heavy metals. - Abstract: Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of 'building material not allowed'. The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but

  8. An update discussion on the current assessment of the safety of veterinary antimicrobial drug residues in food with regard to their impact on the human intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, Carl E; Pineiro, Silvia A; Kotarski, Susan F

    2016-05-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract ecosystem consists of complex and diverse microbial communities that have now been collectively termed the intestinal microbiome. Recent scientific breakthroughs and research endeavours have increased our understanding of the important role the intestinal microbiome plays in human health and disease. The use of antimicrobial new animal drugs in food-producing animals may result in the presence of low levels of drug residues in edible foodstuffs. There is concern that antimicrobial new animal drugs in or on animal-derived food products at residue-level concentrations could disrupt the colonization barrier and/or modify the antimicrobial resistance profile of human intestinal bacteria. Therapeutic doses of antimicrobial drugs have been shown to promote shifts in the intestinal microbiome, and these disruptions promote the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. To assess the effects of antimicrobial new animal drug residues in food on human intestinal bacteria, many national regulatory agencies and international committees follow a harmonized process, VICH GL36(R), which was issued by a trilateral organization of the European Union, the USA, and Japan called the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH). The guidance describes a general approach currently used by national regulatory agencies and international committees to assess the effects of antimicrobial new animal drug residues in animal-derived food on human intestinal bacteria. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this current approach as part of the antimicrobial new animal drug approval process in participating countries, give insights on the microbiological endpoints used in this safety evaluation, and discuss the availability of new information. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Assessing the adequacy of contribution rates towards employees' provident fund in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Nurul Athirah Nabila; Yusuf, Mazlynda Md; Basah, Mohamad Yazis Ali

    2017-04-01

    The vital role of Malaysian Employees' Provident Fund (EPF) is to provide financial support for its participants during retirement years. However, the issues of inadequacy have risen and EPF has been through various improvements in order to cope with current living situations, including making adjustment in the contribution rates. This study intends to provide the projection of EPF accumulations for three different types of contribution rates namely contribution rates at current fixed rate, increasing and decreasing proportion. Then, the replacement ratio is calculated and is used as an indicator to determine the adequacy of retirement income delivered by EPF. The ideal replacement ratio recommended by financial advisors is at 70%. Based on the findings in this study, contribution rates following a decreasing proportion gives replacement ratio that exceeds or nearest to the ideal replacement ratio, while contribution rates at current fixed rate gives replacement rates that fall far from 70%. Therefore, this study shows that the accumulated amount in the fund with contribution rates following a decreasing proportion gives higher replacement ratio and is recommended to be applied by the Malaysian EPF.

  11. A Contribution to the History of Assessment: How a Conversation Simulator Redeems Socratic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert; Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Assessment in education is a recent phenomenon. Although there were counterparts in former epochs, the term assessment only began to be spoken about in education after the Second World War; and, since that time, views, strategies and concerns over assessment have proliferated according to an uncomfortable dynamic. We fear that, increasingly,…

  12. Analysis of the contribution of the Netherlands commercial CPUE data to ICES stock assessments in the years 1995 - 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastoors, M.A.; Bolle, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The contribution of the Dutch commercial CPUE data to the stock assessments of North Sea plaice and sole in the years 1995-2000 has been analysed. The CPUE series are based on the total landings at age in the Dutch beam trawl fishery and the total effort (in HP days at sea) of this fishery. It is

  13. Catalytically important amino-acid residues of abalone alginate lyase HdAly assessed by site-directed mutagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Sayo; Sahara, Takehiko; Sato, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Kosei; Ohgiya, Satoru; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Alginate lyase is an enzyme that degrades alginate chains via β-elimination and has been used for the production of alginate oligosaccharides and protoplasts from brown algae. Previously, we deduced the amino-acid sequence of an abalone alginate lyase, HdAly, from its cDNA sequence and, through multiple amino-acid sequence alignment, found that several basic amino-acid residues were highly conserved among the polysaccharide-lyase family 14 (PL-14) enzymes including HdAly. In the present study...

  14. Risk assessment and risk management at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA): a perspective on the monitoring of foods for chemical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietlot, Henri P; Kolakowski, Beata

    2012-08-01

    The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) uses 'Ranked Risk Assessment' (RRA) to prioritize chemical hazards for inclusion in monitoring programmes or method development projects based on their relative risk. The relative risk is calculated for a chemical by scoring toxicity and exposure in the 'risk model scoring system' of the Risk Priority Compound List (RPCL). The relative ranking and the risk management options are maintained and updated in the RPCL. The ranking may be refined by the data generated by the sampling and testing programs. The two principal sampling and testing programmes are the National Chemical Residue Monitoring Program (NCRMP) and the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP). The NCRMP sampling plans focus on the analysis of federally registered products (dairy, eggs, honey, meat and poultry, fresh and processed fruit and vegetable commodities, and maple syrup) for residues of veterinary drugs, pesticides, environmental contaminants, mycotoxins, and metals. The NCRMP is complemented by the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP) targeted surveys. These surveys focus on emerging chemical hazards associated with specific foods or geographical regions for which applicable maximum residue limits (MRLs) are not set. The data from the NCRMP and FSAP also influence the risk management (follow-up) options. Follow-up actions vary according to the magnitude of the health risk, all with the objective of preventing any repeat occurrence to minimize consumer exposure to a product representing a potential risk to human health. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Experimental Assessment of the Mass of Ash Residue During the Burning of Droplets of a Composite Liquid Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Zakharevich, A. V.; Strizhak, P. A.; Syrodoi, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    An experimental study has been made of the regularities of burning of single droplets of typical compositions of a composite liquid fuel during the heating by an air flow with a varied temperature (600-900 K). As the basic components of the compositions of the composite liquid fuel, use was made of the: waste of processing (filter cakes) of bituminous coals of ranks K, C, and T, waste motor, turbine, and transformer oils, process mixture of mazut and oil, heavy crude, and plasticizer. The weight fraction of a liquid combustible component (petroleum) product) ranged within 0-15%. Consideration has been given to droplets of a composite liquid fuel with dimensions (radius) of 0.5 to 2 mm. Conditions of low-temperature initiation of combustion to ensure a minimum possible mass of solid incombustible residue have been determined. Petroleum products have been singled out whose addition to the composition of the composite liquid fuel tends to increase the ash mass (compared to the corresponding composition without a liquid combustible component). Approximation dependences have been obtained which permit predicting the influence of the concentration of the liquid petroleum product as part of the composite liquid fuel on the ash-residue mass.

  16. Pollution control and metal resource recovery for low grade automobile shredder residue: a mechanism, bioavailability and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) is considered as hazardous waste in Japan and European countries due to presence of heavy metals. This study was carried on the extraction characteristics of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr) from automobile shredder residue (ASR). The effects of pH, temperature, particle size, and liquid/solid ratio (L/S) on the extraction of heavy metals were investigated. The recovery rate of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr increased with increasing extraction temperature and L/S ratio. The lowest pH 2, the highest L/S ratio, and the smallest particle size showed the highest recovery of heavy metals from ASR. The highest recovery rates were in the following order: Mn > Ni > Cr > Fe. Reduction of mobility factor for the heavy metals was observed in all the size fractions after the recovery. The results of the kinetic analysis for various experimental conditions supported that the reaction rate of the recovery process followed a second order reaction model (R(2) ⩾ 0.95). The high availability of water-soluble fractions of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr from the low grade ASR could be potential hazards to the environment. Bioavailability and toxicity risk of heavy metals reduced significantly with pH 2 of distilled water. However, water is a cost-effective extracting agent for the recovery of heavy metals and it could be useful for reducing the toxicity of ASR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence of sulfonamide residues along the Ebro River basin: removal in wastewater treatment plants and environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galán, M Jesús; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2011-02-01

    Sulfonamides (SAs) have become one of the antibiotic families most frequently found in all kind of environmental waters. In the present work, the presence of 16 SAs and one of their acetylated metabolites in different water matrices of the Ebro River basin has been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in 2007 and 2008. Influent and effluent samples from seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), together with a total of 28 river water samples were analyzed by on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromathography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS). Sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine were the SAs most frequently detected in WWTPs (96-100%), showing also the highest concentrations, ranging from 27.2 ng L(-1) to 596 ng L(-1) for sulfamethoxazole and from 3.7 ng L(-1) to 227 ng L(-1) for sulfapyridine. Sulfamethoxazole was also the SA most frequently detected in surface waters (85% of the samples) at concentrations between 11 ng L(-1) and 112 ng L(-1). In order to assess the effectiveness of the wastewater treatment in degrading SAs, removal efficiencies in the seven WWTPs were calculated for each individual SA (ranging from 4% to 100%) and correlated to the corresponding hydraulic retention times or residence times of the SAs in the plants. SAs half-lives were also estimated, ranging from to 2.5 hours (sulfadimethoxine) to 128 h (sulfamethazine). The contribution of the WWTPs to the presence of SAs depends on both the load of SAs discharging on the surface water from the WWTP effluent but also on the flow of the receiving waters in the discharge sites and the dilution exerted; WWTP4 exerts the highest pressure on the receiving water course. Finally, the potential environmental risk posed by SAs was evaluated calculating the hazard quotients (HQ) to different non-target organisms in effluent and river water. The degree of susceptibility resulted in algae>daphnia>fish. Sulfamethoxazole was the only SA posing a risk to algae in

  18. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wäger, Patrick A.; Hischier, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses

  19. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  20. Welding Residual Stress Analysis and Fatigue Strength Assessment at Elevated Temperature for Multi-pass Dissimilar Material Weld Between Alloy 617 and P92 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhwa; Hwang, Jeongho; Bae, Dongho

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, welding residual stress analysis and fatigue strength assessment were performed at elevated temperature for multi-pass dissimilar material weld between Alloy 617 and P92 steel, which are used in thermal power plant. Multi-pass welding between Alloy 617 and P92 steel was performed under optimized welding condition determined from repeated pre-test welding. In particular, for improving dissimilar material weld-ability, the buttering welding technique was applied on the P92 steel side before multi-pass welding. Welding residual stress distribution at the dissimilar material weld joint was numerically analyzed by using the finite element method, and compared with experimental results which were obtained by the hole-drilling method. Additionally, fatigue strength of dissimilar material weld joint was assessed at the room temperature (R.T), 300, 500, and 700 °C. In finite element analysis results, numerical peak values; longitudinal (410 MPa), transverse (345 MPa) were higher than those of experiments; longitudinal (298 MPa), transverse (245 MPa). There are quantitatively big differences between numerical and experimental results, due to some assumption about the thermal conductivity, specific heat, effects of enforced convection of the molten pool, dilution, and volume change during phase transformation caused by actual shield gas. The low fatigue limit at R.T, 300 °C, 500 °C and 700 °C was assessed to be 368, 276, 173 and 137 MPa respectively.

  1. Welding Residual Stress Analysis and Fatigue Strength Assessment at Elevated Temperature for Multi-pass Dissimilar Material Weld Between Alloy 617 and P92 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhwa; Hwang, Jeongho; Bae, Dongho

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, welding residual stress analysis and fatigue strength assessment were performed at elevated temperature for multi-pass dissimilar material weld between Alloy 617 and P92 steel, which are used in thermal power plant. Multi-pass welding between Alloy 617 and P92 steel was performed under optimized welding condition determined from repeated pre-test welding. In particular, for improving dissimilar material weld-ability, the buttering welding technique was applied on the P92 steel side before multi-pass welding. Welding residual stress distribution at the dissimilar material weld joint was numerically analyzed by using the finite element method, and compared with experimental results which were obtained by the hole-drilling method. Additionally, fatigue strength of dissimilar material weld joint was assessed at the room temperature (R.T), 300, 500, and 700 °C. In finite element analysis results, numerical peak values; longitudinal (410 MPa), transverse (345 MPa) were higher than those of experiments; longitudinal (298 MPa), transverse (245 MPa). There are quantitatively big differences between numerical and experimental results, due to some assumption about the thermal conductivity, specific heat, effects of enforced convection of the molten pool, dilution, and volume change during phase transformation caused by actual shield gas. The low fatigue limit at R.T, 300 °C, 500 °C and 700 °C was assessed to be 368, 276, 173 and 137 MPa respectively.

  2. Smoking Attitudes and Practices among Low-Income African Americans: Qualitative Assessment of Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Bettina M.; Scarinci, Isabel C.

    2003-01-01

    Qualitatively examined sociocultural factors associated with smoking attitudes and practices among low-income, African American young adults smokers and nonsmokers. Focus group data indicated that specific contextual and familial factors contributed to smoking initiation, maintenance, and cessation (e.g., strong parental discipline, limited…

  3. Assessment of the residual time to rupture of fuel pins after reactor core disturbances using the Lebensanteil rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, L.; Wassilew, C.

    1992-01-01

    An important aspect of disturbances in the reactor core is the way in which they affect the service life of fuel rod cladding tubes. This factor also determines whether and how long the reactor core can be continued in operation, i.e., matters of safety and economy are involved. Potential disturbances of the reactor core affect the fuel rod cladding tubes as increases in temperature and, sometimes, as mechanical stresess for limited periods of time. As thermomechanical stresses acting on a cladding tube also give rise to creep events which may limit the service life of fuel elements, it is important to know how much creep life or time to rupture is consumed in the course of a core disturbance, and what the residual life is. For this purpose, the times to rupture before and during the accident must be added up and the balance calculated. As a rule of computation, the Lebensanteil rule is used in its form expressing the time to rupture of creeping solids. The simulation of accidents with unirradiated cladding tubes revealed a drastic decrease of the residual time to rupture in those cases in which the cladding material had recrystallized. On the other hand, because of its structural stability, irradiated material turned out to be almost insensitive even under extremely severe accident conditions. The materials data so far available are sufficient for useful estimates. Presuming one of the damage accumulating processes of the creeping cladding material is predominant, there are no further validity limiting ranges concerning kind of accident, loading condition, cladding material and so on. (orig.)

  4. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  5. Speech-language pathologists' contribution to the assessment of decision-making capacity in aphasia: a survey of common practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, Kerryn; Tolmie, Rhiannon; Worrall, Linda; Ferguson, Alison

    2014-06-01

    Speech-language pathologists' scope of practice is currently unclear in relation to their contribution to the multi-disciplinary assessment of decision-making capacity for clients with aphasia and related neurogenic communication disorders. The primary aim of the current research study was to investigate the common practices of speech-language pathologists involved in assessments of decision-making capacity. The study was completed through the use of an online survey. There were 51 of 59 respondents who indicated involvement in evaluations of decision-making. Involvement in this kind of assessment was most commonly reported by speech-language pathologists working in inpatient acute and rehabilitation settings. Respondents reported using a variety of formal and informal assessment methods in their contributions to capacity assessment. Discussion with multidisciplinary team members was reported to have the greatest influence on their recommendations. Speech-language pathologists reported that they were dissatisfied with current protocols for capacity assessments in their workplace and indicated they would benefit from further education and training in this area. The findings of this study are discussed in light of their implications for speech-language pathology practice.

  6. Development and Aplication of Mathematical Programs for Contribution Analysis in Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad, Monica

    2009-01-01

    The environmental impact of a final product can be regarded as the sum of the impacts of all processes needed to obtain it. The impacts of these processes in all individual layers of production can be quantified using contribution analysis methods. SPA is an advanced method used to identify the chain of production processes linking the most highly emitting process with the final product. This analysis was performed in Matlab, using a specialized algorithm developed by Peters and Hertwich in 1...

  7. Risk Assessment: Factors Contributing to Discomfort for Menopausal Women in Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Mehdi; Seifi, Bahar; Heidari, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the Factors contributing to discomfort for menopausal women in workplace and the perceived effects of working conditions on menopausal symptoms, and to produce recommendations for managers and women. This study was a review article. We searched PubMed and Science Direct for articles related to menopause and workplace. Keywords included: menopause AND workplace OR occupational health or menopausal women AND managers. Because we aimed to update the litera...

  8. Contributions from personality- and psychodynamically oriented assessment to the development of the DSM-5 personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K

    2011-07-01

    Advances in personality assessment over the past 20 years have notably influenced the proposed assessment and classification of personality disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]). However, a considerable body of personality assessment and psychodynamically oriented assessment research has significant relevance to the way in which personality disorders are evaluated that appears to have gone unrecognized in the current proposals for DSM-5. In this article, I discuss the ways in which some of these 2 bodies of literature can and should inform the DSM-5 so that the diagnostic nomenclature can be more scientifically and comprehensively informed and consequently improve the clinical utility of a diagnostic system in need of considerable revision.

  9. Science panel to study mega-computers to assess potential energy contributions

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, D

    2003-01-01

    "Energy Department advisers plan to examine high-end computing in the coming year and assess how computing power could be used to further DOE's basic research agenda on combustion, fusion and other topics" (1 page).

  10. The effect of preoperative therapy against advanced oral cancer. The pattern of residual cancer nests assessed with semiserial whole surgical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Histological change of advanced oral cancers following concurrent chemoradiotherapy was examined with semiserial whole surgical specimens. Subjects included six tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), two oral floor SCCs and three lower gingival SCCs, and all the tumors were preoperatively treated by the combination of radiotherapy and superselective intraarterial infusion of carboplatin (CBDCA) or oral administration of TS-1. Clinical effect was assessed as complete response (CR) in three cases, partial response (PR) in five, minor response (MR) in two and no change (NC) in two. The distribution of residual cancer nests was categorized as the superficially-located and deeply-located patterns. It was noteworthy that the pattern of residual cancer nests and the histological effect were different between sections even in the same tumors. Furthermore, a few viable cancer nests were observed exclusively in the advancing edge in tumors assessed as Grade 2b (Oboshi-Shimosata classification), where most of the cancer nests were degenerative or necrotic. This finding suggests that the extent of resection could not be reduced even in tumors that responded well to preoperative therapy. In the present cases, the histological effect of chemoradiotherapy was evaluated as Grade 4a in two cases, Grade 2b in four, Grade 2a in five and Grade 1 in one. Tumors of the PR showed a wide variation of histological evaluation from Grade 1 to Grade 4a, resulting in a discrepancy between the clinical and histological evaluations. (author)

  11. Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass and U.S. northeast forest residuals gasification for electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Philip; Gardner, Kevin H; Jambeck, Jenna R

    2013-04-02

    With the goal to move society toward less reliance on fossil fuels and the mitigation of climate change, there is increasing interest and investment in the bioenergy sector. However, current bioenergy growth patterns may, in the long term, only be met through an expansion of global arable land at the expense of natural ecosystems and in competition with the food sector. Increasing thermal energy recovery from solid waste reduces dependence on fossil- and biobased energy production while enhancing landfill diversion. Using inventory data from pilot processes, this work assesses the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of plasma gasification as a route capable of transforming construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass (CDDB) and forest residues into electricity. Results indicate that the environmental burdens associated with CDDB and forest residue gasification may be similar to conventional electricity generation. Land occupation is lowest when CDDB is used. Environmental impacts are to a large extent due to coal cogasified, coke used as gasifier bed material, and fuel oil cocombusted in the steam boiler. However, uncertainties associated with preliminary system designs may be large, particularly the heat loss associated with pilot scale data resulting in overall low efficiencies of energy conversion to electricity; a sensitivity analysis assesses these uncertainties in further detail.

  12. A real-time web-based optimal Biomass Site Assessment Tool (BioSAT): Module 1. An economic assessment of mill residues for the southern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy M. Young; James H. Perdue; Andy Hartsell; Robert C. Abt; Donald Hodges; Timothy G. Rials

    2009-01-01

    Optimal locations for biomass facilities that use mill residues are identified for 13 southern U.S. states. The Biomass Site Assessment Tool (BioSAT) model is used to identify the top 20 locations for 13 southern U.S. states. The trucking cost model of BioSAT is used with Timber Mart South 2009 price data to estimate the total cost, average cost, and marginal costs for...

  13. Assessment of the contribution of sewer deposits to suspended solids loads in combined sewer systems during rain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannouche, A; Chebbo, G; Joannis, C

    2014-04-01

    Within the French observatories network SOERE "URBIS," databases of continuous turbidity measurements accumulating hundreds of events and many dry weather days are available for two sites with different features (Clichy in Paris and Ecully in Lyon). These measurements, converted into total suspended solids (TSS) concentration using TSS-turbidity relationships and combined with a model of runoff event mean concentration, enable the assessment of the contribution of sewer deposits to wet weather TSS loads observed at the outlet of the two watersheds. Results show that the contribution of sewer deposits to wet weather suspended solid's discharges is important but variable (between 20 and 80 % of the mass at the outlet depending on the event), including a site allegedly free of (coarse) sewer deposits. The uncertainties associated to these results are assessed too.

  14. Contribution for an Urban Geomorphoheritage Assessment Method: Proposal from Three Geomorphosites in Rome (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pica Alessia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban geomorphology has important implications in spatial planning of human activities, and it also has a geotouristic potential due to the relationship between cultural and geomorphological heritage. Despite the introduction of the term Anthropocene to describe the deep influence that human activities have had in recent times on Earth evolution, urban geomorphological heritage studies are relatively rare and limited and urban geotourism development is recent. The analysis of the complex urban landscape often need the integration of multidisciplinary data. This study aims to propose the first urban geomorphoheritage assessment method, which originates after long-lasting previous geomorphological and geotouristic studies on Rome city centre, it depict rare examples of the geomorphological mapping of a metropolis and, at the same time, of an inventory of urban geomorphosites. The proposal is applied to geomorphosites in the Esquilino neighbourhood of Rome, whose analysis confirm the need for an ad hoc method for assessing urban geomorphosites, as already highlighted in the most recent literature on the topic. The urban geomorphoheritage assessment method is based on: (i the urban geomorphological analysis by means of multitemporal and multidisciplinary data; (ii the geomorphosite inventory; and (iii the geomorphoheritage assessment and enhancement. One challenge is to assess invisible geomorphosites that are widespread in urban context. To this aim, we reworked the attributes describing the Value of a site for Geotourism in order to build up a specific methodology for the analysis of the urban geomorphological heritage.

  15. The contribution of formative assessment and self-efficacy to inquiry learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Evans, Robert Harry

    2013-01-01

    This chapter suggests the use of formative assessment in inquiry lessons as a helpful source of positive personal capacity beliefs for both teachers and students. The challenge most commonly experienced when first using inquiry learning methods is that pupils and even teachers become uncertain...... of their abilities to use inquiry and ‘give-up’ on it. With the use of formative assessment combined with conscious efforts to increase self-efficacy among students, teachers can help provide students with the confidence and motivation to engage in inquiry methods. Such student engagement can in-turn affirm teachers......’ inquiry teaching efforts and raise the likelihood that they will continue to improve them. We see inquiry methods as the motor for changing teacher practice and formative assessment methods combined with capacity beliefs as the fuel that keeps the motor running. The central position of the chapter is how...

  16. Contribution to Risk Analysis of a Standard Brewery: Application of a Hygiene Assessment System Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Raposo, António; Salazar, Jairo; Pérez, Esteban; Sanjuán, Esther; Carrascosa, Conrado; Saavedra, Pedro; Millán, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    "Beer is a food product with a high consumption in Gran Canaria and the brewery industry is also present in this island. In order to carry out this study, it was designed a survey to assist in the assessment of risks from the facilities and infrastructures of the brewery, the raw materials used in the beer production and the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) plan. An initial assessment of various aspects of the industry has been conducted at the beginning of hygienic-sani...

  17. Quantitative assessment on the contribution of direct photolysis and radical oxidation in photochemical degradation of 4-chlorophenol and oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqing; He, Xuexiang; Fu, Yongsheng; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-07-01

    In UV-254 nm/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP), the potential degradation pathways for organic pollutants include (1) hydrolysis, (2) direct H2O2 oxidation, (3) UV direct photolysis, and (4) hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) reaction. In this study, the contribution of these pathways was quantitatively assessed in the photochemical destruction of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), demonstrating pathways (3) and (4) to be predominantly responsible for the removal of 4-CP by UV/H2O2 in 50 mM phosphate buffer solution. Increasing reaction pH could significantly enhance the contribution of direct photolysis in UV/H2O2 process. The contribution of HO(•) oxidation was improved with increasing initial H2O2 concentration probably due to the increased formation of HO(•). Presence of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as in UV/H2O2/Na2CO3 system promoted the degradation of 4-CP, with carbonate radical (CO3 (•-)) reaction and direct photolysis identified to be the main contributing pathways. The trends in the contribution of each factor were further evaluated and validated on the degradation of the antibiotic compound oxytetracycline (OTC). This study provides valuable information on the relative importance of different reaction pathways on the photochemical degradation of organic contaminants such as 4-CP and OTC in the presence and absence of a CO3 (•-) precursor.

  18. Assessment of dose contribution to population exposure from the radiation sources in the alienated Chernobyl zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinsky, D.M.; Francevych, L.K.; Koval, H.N.; Yakovlev, E.A.; Bezdrobny, Yu.V.; Proscura, N.I.; Pyantkowsky, V.L.

    1997-01-01

    The main dose load of Ukrainian population is caused by radionuclide-contamination of country territories, located outside the alienated zone, following Chernobyl accident. Besides, much attention could be devoted to the contribution of dose load on population, received from the radioactivity sources that were transferred out from the zone after accident. Present research and analysis of the available documents reflecting the transfer of radioactivity from the alienated zone, provided the estimates of dose load on population, resulting from transfer of the radioactivity sources via following channels: (1) direct surface flow; (2) underground waters; (3) wind-powdered route; (4) transfer with hydrobionts; (5) transfer during irrigation; (6) biogenic route; (7) transport routes and (8) route during wood transportation. Dynamics of radiation transfer through each channel was also studied for the post-accident period. Specific gravity of radioactivity transfer is determined in relation to dose load on Ukrainian population in different regions, in particular, in Dnipro river basin. The perspectives of radioactivity transfer via each of studied channels and its role in dose load on population were also analyzed. On the basis of present results the recommendations on possible arrangements are working out that aimed to reduce the dose contribution in population exposure by radioactivity source transfer from the alienated zone via channels that stipulate the largest dose loads and collective doses

  19. Ecosystem Service Value Assessment and Contribution Factor Analysis of Land Use Change in Miyun County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unreasonable land use planning can reduce ecosystem service value and result in unsustainable land use. In this paper, the changes of ecosystem service value were investigated by using the GIS and dynamic simulation model of land use in Miyun of Beijing, China, based on the land use at four time points including 1991, 2006, 2021 and one improved scenario, respectively. The results showed the total ecosystem service value of Miyun was about 2968.34 million Yuan in 1991, 3304.72 million Yuan in 2006, 3106.48 million Yuan in 2021, and 3759.77 million Yuan in the improved scenario. In terms of ecosystem service function, the functions of water supply and soil formation and retention accounted for the largest proportion, which were 19.99% and 14.58% respectively; whereas the functions of food supply and recreation and culture were only 1.83% and 5.99%, respectively. Coefficients of sensitivity for forest cover, water bodies and arable land were relatively large, which were 0.73, 0.28 and 0.14, respectively. The contribution factors of total ecosystem service value with the land use change during different periods were mainly the unused land to forest cover and arable land, which respectively accounted for more than 63% and 21% of the contribution rate. These results suggested that sustainable land use planning should be undertaken with emphasis on vegetation restoration and protection of water bodies.

  20. Quantitative Assessment of CRAND Contribution to the Inner Belt Electron Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, X.; Selesnick, R.; Schiller, Q. A.; Zhao, H.; Baker, D. N.; Temerin, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Following the direct identification and measurements of Cosmic Ray Albedo Neutron Decay (CRAND) produced electrons near the inner edge of the inner belt by Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE)1, we extend the study by addressing more comprehensive questions: (1) what is the relative CRAND contribution to the inner belt compared with electrons injected from further out? (2) How does this relative contribution vary with geomagnetic activity and electron energy? (3) What is the solar cycle dependence of CRAND electrons? In order to answer the above questions, extended data of relativistic electrons in the inner belt are needed for a much longer time period and also finer energy resolution is required. Therefore, we will show results regarding the above questions based on data including other low Earth orbit measurements in addition to CSSWE, such as SAMPEX/PET, DEMETER/IDP, and PROBA-V/EPT. [1] Li, Xinlin, Richard Selesnick, Quintin Schiller, Kun Zhang, Hong Zhao, Daniel Baker, and Michael Temerin (2017), Direct detection of albedo neutron decay electrons at the inner edge of the radiation belt and determination of neutron density in near-Earth space, Nature, under review.

  1. Assessment of global expected warming contribution to desertification process development in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgih, S.A.; Eserkepova, I.B.; Shamen, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Assessment of moistening condition change in Kazakhstan and its role in processes of desertification at global expected climate warming are cited. Results of numerical experiments by models of common circulation of atmosphere have been used in capacity of potential regional climate change characteristics. (author)

  2. Enhancing innovation in agriculture at the policy level : The potential contribution of Technology Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank M.; Russell, A. Wendy; Kimber, Julie

    Technology Assessment (TA) is an applied process that considers the societal implications of technological change in order to influence policy to improve technology governance. TA has considerable potential to enhance innovation in agriculture and to assist agricultural industries in becoming more

  3. Assessing effects of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on phosphorus sorption and retention capacity of water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Ian W; Grant, Cameron D; Murray, Robert S

    2011-03-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are the by-products of drinking water clarification processes, whereby chemical flocculants such as alum or ferric chloride are added to raw water to remove suspended clay particles, organic matter and other materials and impurities. Previous studies have identified a strong phosphorus (P) fixing capacity of WTRs which has led to experimentation with their use as P-sorbing materials for controlling P discharges from agricultural and forestry land. However, the P-fixing capacity of WTRs and its capacity to retain sorbed P under anaerobic conditions have yet to be fully demonstrated, which is an issue that must be addressed for WTR field applications. This study therefore examined the capacity of WTRs to retain sorbed P and sorb further additional P from aqueous solution under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. An innovative, low cost apparatus was constructed and successfully used to rapidly establish anoxic conditions in anaerobic treatments. The results showed that even in treatments with initial solution P concentrations set at 100 mg l(-1), soluble reactive P concentrations rapidly fell to negligible levels (due to sorption by WTRs), while total P (i.e. dissolved + particulate and colloidal P) was less than 3 mg l(-1). This equated to an added P retention rate of >98% regardless of anaerobic or aerobic status, indicating that WTRs are able to sorb and retain P in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk assessment of residual DDTs in freshwater and marine fish cultivated around the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S Y; Kwok, C K; Nie, X P; Cheung, K C; Wong, M H

    2010-02-01

    Six species of freshwater fish collected from 10 fishponds in Shunde and Zhongshan, China, four species of marine fishes collected from different mariculture farms [four in Hong Kong (Tung Lung Chau, Ma Wan, Cheung Chau and Kat O) and two in mainland China (Daya Bay and Shenzhen)] together with feed (both trash fish and commercial pellets) and sediment were analyzed for DDTs. Total DDTs in freshwater fish flesh decreased in the order of: carnivores [1742 microg/kg lipid weight (l.w.)] > herbivores (165 microg/kg, l.w.) > omnivores (42.5 microg/kg, l.w.), with the highest concentration detected in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) (2641 microg/kg, l.w.). For marine fish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) collected in Ma Wan contained elevated levels of total DDTs (2590 and 2034 microg/kg l.w., respectively). Trash fish used in both freshwater and marine fish farms contained significantly higher levels (86.5-641 microg/kg l.w.) (p trash fish should not be used for fish culture in order to lower the level of residual DDTs in fish muscle.

  5. Human health risk assessment of pesticide residues in snappers (Lutjanus) fish from the Navachiste Lagoon complex, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Galván, Ingrid Alejandra; Rodríguez-Meza, Durga Guadalupe; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-08-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues were determined in fillets of Lutjanus colorado, L. argentiventris, and L. novemfasciatus. Fillet samples were collected bimonthly from February 2012 to February 2013. OCPs average concentrations do not differ significantly according to size, weight, or season, nor do they relate with the physico-chemical parameters of the sea water. The highest concentration and most frequently encountered OCPs were endosulfan sulfate, δ-HCH, and heptachlor epoxide, which indicates their use in the recent past and confirms their persistence. Average concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane, and ∑heptachlor in samples were above cancer MRLs according to data from monthly consumed portions. HCHs and heptachlor are listed in Appendix III of the Rotterdam Convention of chemicals placed on a prior informed consent procedure for import and export purposes; they are considered illegal in Mexico. The OCPs concentrations above cancer MRLs in Lutjanus spp. turn its frequent consumption into a human health risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental exposure of African catfish Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 to phenol: Clinical evaluation, tissue alterations and residue assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is lack of information regarding; the toxicological and pathological consequences of phenol stressed Clarias gariepinus; as well as; the susceptibility of the stressed fish to disease occurrence. Static renewal bioassay was experimentally conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of phenol on the African catfish C. gariepinus. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed that the median lethal concentration of phenol (LC50 is 35 mg/L by immersion. Four experimental fish groups were assigned for 3 weeks exposure test; three were exposed 20%, 50% and 70% LC50, the fourth control fish group received a vehicle of dechlorinated water. Abnormal signs including cessation of feeding, nervous manifestations; skin expressed perfuses mucous, black patches with skin erosion and ulcerations in the later stages. All observations were correlated to the time and dose of exposure. Post mortem examination revealed adhesion of the internal organs. For tissue alterations; Skin, gills, brain, liver and kidney showed variable degrees of degenerative changes and necrosis. Muscle residues shown in mean ± SE were 4.3 ± 0.05 and 6.65 ± 0.05 ppm in groups that received 20 and 50% LD50, respectively. Infection with Aeromonas hydrophila resulted in high percent of mortalities with a non significant difference between the challenged fish groups. The study cleared that phenol is toxic to C. gariepinus under experimental conditions.

  7. Integrated Assessment of Palm Oil Mill Residues to Sustainable Electricity System (POMR-SES): A Case Study from Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaye, I. F. Md; Sadhukhan, J.; Murphy, R. J.

    2018-05-01

    Generating electricity from biomass are undeniably gives huge advantages to the energy security, environmental protection and the social development. Nevertheless, it always been negatively claimed as not economically competitive as compared to the conventional electricity generation system using fossil fuel. Due to the unfair subsidies given to renewable energy based fuel and the maturity of conventional electricity generation system, the commercialization of this system is rather discouraging. The uniqueness of the chemical and physical properties of the biomass and the functionality of the system are fully depending on the availability of the biomass resources, the capital expenditure of the system is relatively expensive. To remain competitive, biomass based system must be developed in their most economical form. Therefore the justification of the economies of scale of such system is become essential. This study will provide a comprehensive review of process to select an appropriate size for electricity generation plant from palm oil mill (POM) residues through the combustion of an empty fruit bunch (EFB) and biogas from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Peninsular Malaysia using a mathematical model and simulation using ASPEN Plus software package. The system operated at 4 MW capacity is expected to provide a return on investment (ROI) of 20% with a payback period of 6.5 years. It is notably agreed that the correct selection of generation plant size will have a significant impact on overall economic and environmental feasibility of the system.

  8. Assessment of residual coronal tooth structure postendodontic cavity preparation using digital dental impressions and micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Nassr; Patel, Shanon; Foschi, Federico; Mannocci, Francesco; Austin, Rupert S

    To evaluate the in vitro accuracy of digital impressions for three-dimensional (3D) volumetric measurement of residual coronal tooth structure postendodontic cavity preparation, with reference to micro-computed tomography (μCT). Quantification of the accuracy and precision of the intraoral digital scanner (3M True Definition Scanner - IOS) was performed using a metrology gauge block and a profilometric calibration model. Thirty-four human extracted molars with endodontic access cavities were scanned using both intraoral scanning (test scanner) in high-resolution mode, and µCT (reference scanner: GE Locus SP μCT scanner) in high- (HiResCT) and low- (LoResCT) resolution modes. Comparisons of volumetric accuracy and 3D profilometric deviations were performed using surface metrology software. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), in combination with the Bonferroni post hoc test, was implemented to compare the differences in volume measurements between scanning methods. Digital scanning revealed smaller volume measurements by 1.36% and 0.68% compared to HiResCT and LoResCT, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the volumetric measurements obtained from the IOS scanner and both HiResCT and LoResCT scans (P digital scanner was able to reliably measure the extra- and intracoronal aspect of the endodontically accessed tooth.

  9. The Contribution of Palaeoseismology to Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations, published in 2010, covers all aspects of site evaluation relating to seismic hazards and recommends the use of prehistoric, historical and instrumental earthquake data in seismic hazard assessments. Prehistoric data on earthquakes cover a much longer period than do historical and instrumental data. However, gathering such data is generally difficult in most regions of the world, owing to an absence of human records. Prehistoric data on earthquakes can be obtained through the use of palaeoseismic techniques. This publication describes the current status and practices of palaeoseismology, in order to support Member States in meeting the recommendations of SSG-9 and in establishing the necessary earthquake related database for seismic hazard assessment and reassessment. At a donors’ meeting of the International Seismic Safety Centre Extrabudgetary Project in January 2011, it was suggested to develop detailed guidelines on seismic hazards. Soon after the meeting, the disastrous Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 11 March 2011 and the consequent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred. The importance of palaeoseismology for seismic hazard assessment in site evaluation was highlighted by the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. However, no methodology for performing investigations using palaeoseismic techniques has so far been available in an IAEA publication. The detailed guidelines and practical tools provided here will be of value to nuclear power plant operating organizations, regulatory bodies, vendors, technical support organizations and researchers in the area of seismic hazard assessment in site evaluation for nuclear installations, and the information will be of importance in support of hazard assessments in the future

  10. Probabilistic dietary risk assessment of pesticide residues in foods for the German population based on food monitoring data from 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieke, Christian; Michalski, Britta; Kuhl, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Dietary risks for the German population owing to pesticide residues in foods were assessed based on food monitoring data, consumption surveys for children and adults and compound specific toxicological reference values or general thresholds of toxicological concern. A tiered probabilistic modelling was conducted to screen 700 pesticides for significant long- and short-term dietary exposures. Especially for the short-term dietary exposure, the probabilistic methodology used allows simultaneous consideration of the complete daily consumption, whereas most regulatory bodies still rely on single commodity approaches. After screening, refined exposure assessments were conducted for 19 compounds under consideration of conversion factors for toxicologically relevant metabolites, processing information, experimentally derived variability factors and the edible portion for each food item. In total, for 693 compounds the dietary exposure was unlikely to present a chronic or acute public health concern for the German population. In contrast, the refined assessments indicate that the short-term dietary exposure for chlorpyrifos and the cumulative short-term dietary exposure for dimethoate and omethoate may present a public health concern. For copper, owing to exposure assessment limitations, as well as for dimethylvinphos, halfenprox and tricyclazole, which exceeded the thresholds of toxicological concern, the dietary risk assessment remained inconclusive.

  11. Assessment of the cathode contribution to the degradation of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Liu, Yi-Lin; Barfod, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of anode-supported cells was studied over 1500 h as a function of cell polarization either in air or oxygen on the cathode side. Based on impedance analysis, contributions of the anode and cathode to the increase of total resistance were assigned. Accordingly, the degradation rates...... of the cathode were strongly dependent on the pO(2). Microstructural analysis of the cathode/electrolyte interface carried out after removal of the cathode showed craters on the electrolyte surface where the lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) particles had been located. The changes of shape and size...... of these craters observed after testing correlated with the cell voltage degradation rates. The results can be interpreted in terms of element redistribution at the cathode/electrolyte interface and formation of foreign phases giving rise to a weakening of local contact points of the LSM cathode and yttria...

  12. The contribution of single photon emission computed tomography in the clinical assessment of Alzheimer type dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudousq, V.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.

    1999-01-01

    Interest of brain single-photon emission computed tomography to support clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia is now established. Numerous studies have reported a decreased perfusion in the association cortex of the parietal lobe and the posterior temporal regions. In patients with mild cognitive complaints, the presence of focal hypoperfusion may increase substantially the probability of the disease. In addition, emission tomography emerges as a helpful tool in situation in which there is diagnostic doubt. In this case, the presence of temporo-parietal perfusion deficit associated with hippocampal atrophy on MRI or X-ray computed tomography contributes to diagnostic accuracy. However, some studies suggest that emission tomography may be useful for preclinical prediction of Alzheimer's disease and to predict cognitive decline. (author)

  13. Locomotor sensory organization test: a novel paradigm for the assessment of sensory contributions in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung Hung; Eikema, Diderik-Jan Anthony; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    Feedback based balance control requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive and vestibular input to detect the body's movement within the environment. When the accuracy of sensory signals is compromised, the system reorganizes the relative contributions through a process of sensory recalibration, for upright postural stability to be maintained. Whereas this process has been studied extensively in standing using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), less is known about these processes in more dynamic tasks such as locomotion. In the present study, ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT to quantify standing postural control when exposed to sensory conflict. The same subjects performed these six conditions using a novel experimental paradigm, the Locomotor SOT (LSOT), to study dynamic postural control during walking under similar types of sensory conflict. To quantify postural control during walking, the net Center of Pressure sway variability was used. This corresponds to the Performance Index of the center of pressure trajectory, which is used to quantify postural control during standing. Our results indicate that dynamic balance control during locomotion in healthy individuals is affected by the systematic manipulation of multisensory inputs. The sway variability patterns observed during locomotion reflect similar balance performance with standing posture, indicating that similar feedback processes may be involved. However, the contribution of visual input is significantly increased during locomotion, compared to standing in similar sensory conflict conditions. The increased visual gain in the LSOT conditions reflects the importance of visual input for the control of locomotion. Since balance perturbations tend to occur in dynamic tasks and in response to environmental constraints not present during the SOT, the LSOT may provide additional information for clinical evaluation on healthy and deficient sensory processing.

  14. Quantitative Assessment on Anthropogenic Contributions to the Rainfall Extremes Associated with Typhoon Morakot (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. T.; Lo, S. H.; Wang, C. C.; Tsuboki, K.

    2017-12-01

    More than 2000 mm rainfall occurred over southern Taiwan when a category 1 Typhoon Morakot pass through Taiwan in early August 2009. Entire village and hundred of people were buried by massive mudslides induced by record-breaking precipitation. Whether the past anthropogenic warming played a significant role in such extreme event remained very controversial. On one hand, people argue it's nearly impossible to attribute an individual extreme event to global warming. On the other hand, the increase of heavy rainfall is consistent with the expected effects of climate change on tropical cyclone. To diagnose possible anthropogenic contributions to the odds of such heavy rainfall associated with Typhoon Morakot, we adapt an existing probabilistic event attribution framework to simulate a `world that was' and compare it with an alternative condition, 'world that might have been' that removed the historical anthropogenic drivers of climate. One limitation for applying such approach to high-impact weather system is that it will require models capable of capturing the essential processes lead to the studied extremes. Using a cloud system resolving model that can properly simulate the complicated interactions between tropical cyclone, large-scale background, topography, we first perform the ensemble `world that was' simulations using high resolution ECMWF YOTC analysis. We then re-simulate, having adjusted the analysis to `world that might have been conditions' by removing the regional atmospheric and oceanic forcing due to human influences estimated from the CMIP5 model ensemble mean conditions between all forcing and natural forcing only historical runs. Thus our findings are highly conditional on the driving analysis and adjustments therein, but the setup allows us to elucidate possible contribution of anthropogenic forcing to changes in the likelihood of heavy rainfall associated Typhoon Morakot in early August 2009.

  15. [Assessment of risk of burden in construction: improvement interventions and contribution of the competent physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, R; Tarquini, M

    2012-01-01

    Three construction companies in three years have changed the operating modes, making use of innovative carpentry, with little amount of equipment, improved usability of the site, reduced cleaning time, less manual handling and reduced risk of accidents. The Competent Doctor has participated in the review of the risk assessment of manual handling: data has been acquired on musculoskeletal disorders to compare, in terms of this innovation, the average trend and changes, with encouraging results in terms of incidence of musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism due to illness by these causes, new cases of lumbar diseases. It remains difficult in building to assess manual handling risk, but the collaboration between the Employer, Prevention and Protection Service and Competent Doctor, thanks to the greater attention that the design subject to these issues, suggests improvements and further steps to extend to all phases of operation of building.

  16. Relative Contribution of Haptic Technology to Assessment and Training in Implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The teaching of implant surgery, as in other medical disciplines, is currently undergoing a particular evolution. Aim of the Study. To assess the usefulness of haptic device, a simulator for learning and training to accomplish basic acts in implant surgery. Materials and Methods. A total of 60 people including 40 third-year dental students without knowledge in implantology (divided into 2 groups: 20 beginners and 20 experiencing a simulator training course and 20 experienced practitioners (experience in implantology >15 implants participated in this study. A basic exercise drill was proposed to the three groups to assess their gestural abilities. Results. The results of the group training with the simulator tended to be significantly close to those of the experienced operators. Conclusion. Haptic simulator brings a real benefit in training for implant surgery. Long-term benefit and more complex exercises should be evaluated.

  17. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  18. Field study to assess the feasibility of disposing of diesel invert-based cuttings residues using land application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, J.

    1990-08-01

    The use of diesel oil-based invert drilling muds in oil and gas well drilling has become widespread in Alberta. The safe disposal of the residue (DIMR) has become an issue of concern to environmentalists and energy producers. A study was conducted on land treatment as a disposal option in which DIMR was rototilled into the surface soil of small plots in June 1986 and various soil amendments were employed before seeding with a mixture of grasses. Due to the CaCl 2 component of the DIMR used, all treated plots were too saline for effective revegetation in the season of application. However, the salts were mostly leached away in 1986 and 1987, and oil degradation was rapid on fertilized plots, especially those given a surface mulch of manure. Plots which were fertilized and cultivated required an extra season for complete revegetation when treated with 300 or 450 m 3 /hectare of DIMR. Fertilization alone was not successful for revegetation. Unfertilized plots showed some oil degradation but little or no growth. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the DIMR had half-lives of only a few months in soil; all hydrocarbons were retained near the surface and there was very little leaching. Only background concentrations of PAH were found in healthy plants on plots successfully revegetated. Results from the test site indicate that land treatment is a practical and environmentally acceptable disposal option for DIMR, provided that rates of application are not excessive and the level of site management needed for successful revegetation and safe degradation of hydrocarbons can be sustained for several seasons. Desirable soil properties for DIMR land treatment include adequate permeability, organic content, and microbiological activity. 18 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs

  19. An automated approach to improve efficacy in detecting residual malignant cancer cell for facilitating prognostic assessment of leukemia: an initial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Lu, Xianglan; Tan, Maxine; Li, Shibo; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of applying automatic interphase FISH cells analysis method for detecting the residual malignancy of post chemotherapy leukemia patients. In the experiment, two clinical specimens with translocation between chromosome No. 9 and 22 or No. 11 and 14 were selected from the patients underwent leukemia diagnosis and treatment. The entire slide of each specimen was first digitalized by a commercial fluorescent microscope using a 40× objective lens. Then, the scanned images were processed by a computer-aided detecting (CAD) scheme to identify the analyzable FISH cells, which is accomplished by applying a series of features including the region size, Brenner gradient and maximum intensity. For each identified cell, the scheme detected and counted the number of the FISH signal dots inside the nucleus, using the adaptive threshold of the region size and distance of the labeled FISH dots. The results showed that the new CAD scheme detected 8093 and 6675 suspicious regions of interest (ROI) in two specimens, among which 4546 and 3807 ROI contain analyzable interphase FISH cell. In these analyzable ROIs, CAD selected 334 and 405 residual malignant cancer cells, which is substantially more than those visually detected in a cytogenetic laboratory of our medical center (334 vs. 122, 405 vs. 160). This investigation indicates that an automatic interphase FISH cell scanning and CAD method has the potential to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the prognostic assessment for leukemia and other genetic related cancer patients in the future.

  20. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area

  1. Assessment of possibility of primary water stress corrosion cracking occurrence based on residual stress analysis in pressurizer safety nozzle of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, W.; Lee, Jeong Geun

    2012-01-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is a major safety concern in the nuclear power industry worldwide. PWSCC is known to initiate only in the condition in which sufficiently high tensile stress is applied to alloy 600 tube material or alloy 82/182 weld material in pressurized water reactor operating environments. However, it is still uncertain how much tensile stress is required to generate PWSCC or what causes such high tensile stress. This study was performed to predict the magnitude of weld residual stress and operating stress and compare it with previous experimental results for PWSCC initiation. For the study, a pressurizer safety nozzle was selected because it is reported to be vulnerable to PWSCC in overseas plants. The assessment was conducted by numerical analysis. Before performing stress analysis for plant conditions, a preliminary mock-up analysis was done. The result of the preliminary analysis was validated by residual stress measurement in the mockup. After verification of the analysis methodology, an analysis under plant conditions was conducted. The analysis results show that the stress level is not high enough to initiate PWSCC. If a plant is properly welded and operated, PWSCC is not likely to occur in the pressurizer safety nozzle.

  2. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

  3. Research contributions for assessment of the state and evolution of the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    A Global Environment Assessment (GEO) workshop was held in Brussels on September 15 and 16, 1998. During the preparation of policy-oriented reports of GEO, several gaps in data and expertise had been identified. The workshop elaborated on the issues where gaps had been signalled aimed to bring together scientists from different disciplines, representatives of the Directorate General XII and specialists from RIVM in integrated environmental assessment to locate information missing in UNEP's studies and make progress in filling up gaps. Research needs would be identified. The specific issues were categorised as: land-related issues, urban environment and implementation of policies. The workshop participants were able to identify several links between the activities for GEO and ongoing research in the context of the EU Research, Technology Development and the Demonstration programme. About 15 more specific research needs were formulated. For land-related issues, the following knowledge gaps and research implications were identified: (1) e.g. social and economic expertise in land-use analysis, (2) e.g. land-use planning and urban land use in integrated assessment, (3) modelling land degradation, and (4) modelling the driving forces of land degradation. For the urban environment, the major knowledge research areas identified from an integrative perspective were: (1) defining a core set of indicators for sustainable urban development, (2) quantifying the interlinkages between environmental stress and human health, (3) describing the effects of measures, (4) determining the role of institutional structures, and (5) ensuring data provision based on the physical city. Major problems were identified for implementation of policies that the degree of policy implementation is not often measured and that it is difficult to relate policy actions to changes in environmental pressures. In analysis it is first of all necessary to identify which definition of effectiveness will be

  4. Contribution for the improvement of pressurized thermal shock assessment methodologies in PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Paulo de Tarso Vida

    2005-01-01

    The structural integrity assessment of nuclear reactor pressure vessel, concerned to Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) accidents, became a necessity and has been investigated since the eighty's. The recognition of the importance of PTS assessment has led the international nuclear technology community to devote a considerable research effort directed to the complete integrity assessment process of the Reactor Pressure Vessels (VPR). Researchers in Europe, Japan and U.S.A. have concentrated efforts in the VPR structural and fracture analysis, conducting experiments to best understand how specific factors act on the behavior of discontinuities, under PTS loading conditions. The main goal of this work is to study de structural behavior of an 'in scale' PWR nuclear reactor pressure vessel model, containing actual discontinuities, under loading conditions generated by a pressurized thermal shock. To construct the pressure vessel model utilized in this research, the approach developed by Barroso (1995) and based on likelihood studies, related to thermal-hydraulic behavior during the PTS was employed. To achieve the objective of this research, a new methodology to generate cracks, with known geometry and localization in the vessel model wall was developed. Additionally, an hydraulic circuit, able to flood the vessel model, heated to 300 deg C, with 10 m 3 of water at 8 deg C, in 170 seconds, was built. Thermo-hydraulic calculations using RELAP5/M0D 3.2.2γ computational code were done, to estimate the temperature profiles during the cooling time. The resulting data subsidized the thermo-structural calculations that were accomplished using ANSYS 7.01 computational code, for both 2D and 3D models. So, the stress profiles obtained with these calculations were associated with fracture mechanics concepts, to assess the crack growth behavior in the VPR model wall. After the PTS test, the VPR model was submitted to destructive and non-destructive inspections. The results

  5. Bibliometric assessment of the contributions of literature on Chagas disease in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Osorio, Nathalia; Vera-Polania, Felipe; Lopez-Isaza, Andres F; Martinez-Pulgarin, Dayron F; Murillo-Abadia, Jonathan; Munoz-Urbano, Marcela; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A; Bello, Ricardo; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas-Rojas, Soraya; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, considered a parasitic neglected disease, is endemic in Latin America. Although, its mortality rate has decreased over time, it still represents a public health problem in the region. A bibliometric evaluation of the Latin American contributions on this disease was done. This study used SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), and LILACS (1980-2013). Different study types have been characterized by years, origin city/country, journals and most productive authors, by country, cites and H-index. 2988 articles were retrieved from SCI (30.85% of total). Brazil was found to be the highest producer (31.22%), followed by Argentina (18.14%) and México (9.57%); the region received 47241 citations, 28.60% for Brazil (H-index=52), 18.26% of Argentina (Hindex= 43), 11.40% Bolivia (H-index=37). 4484 were retrieved from Scopus (30.20% of the total), 38.58% of which were from Brazil, 12.40% from Argentina and 8.90% from Mexico. From Medline, 6647 records were retrieved (45.58% Brazil). From SciELO, 917 articles (47.66% Brazil). From LILACS, 2165 articles (60.05% Brazil). Brazil has the highest output in the region. Despite advances in controlling Chagas disease, scientific production is low, particularly for regional bibliographic databases, which calls for more research on this disease.

  6. Assessing contributions of nucleus accumbens shell subregions to reward-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael D; Hildebrand, David G C; Santangelo, Gabrielle; Moffa, Anthony; Pira, Ashley S; Rycyna, Lisa; Radic, Mia; Price, Katherine; Archbold, Jonathan; McConnell, Kristi; Girard, Lauren; Morin, Kristen; Tang, Anna; Febo, Marcelo; Stellar, James R

    2015-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a key role in brain reward processes including drug seeking and reinstatement. Several anatomical, behavioral, and neurochemical studies discriminate between the limbic-associated shell and the motor-associated core regions. Less studied is the fact that the shell can be further subdivided into a dorsomedial shell (NAcDMS) and an intermediate zone (NAcINT) based on differential expression of transient c-Fos and long-acting immediate-early gene ΔFosB upon cocaine sensitization. These disparate expression patterns suggest that NAc shell subregions may play distinct roles in reward-seeking behavior. In this study, we examined potential differences in the contributions of the NAcDMS and the NAcINT to reinstatement of reward-seeking behavior after extinction. Rats were trained to intravenously self-administer cocaine, extinguished, and subjected to a reinstatement test session consisting of an intracranial microinfusion of either amphetamine or vehicle targeted to the NAcDMS or the NAcINT. Small amphetamine microinfusions targeted to the NAcDMS resulted in statistically significant reinstatement of lever pressing, whereas no significant difference was observed for microinfusions targeted to the NAcINT. No significant difference was found for vehicle microinfusions in either case. These results suggest heterogeneity in the behavioral relevance of NAc shell subregions, a possibility that can be tested in specific neuronal populations in the future with recently developed techniques including optogenetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental risk assessment: its contribution to criteria development for HLW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.; Little, R.H.; Watkins, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Principles for radioactive waste management have been provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Safety Series No.111-F, which was published in 1995. This has been a major step forward in the process of achieving acceptance for proposals for disposal of radioactive waste, for example, for High Level Waste disposal in deep repositories. However, these principles have still to be interpreted and developed into practical radiation protection criteria. Without prejudicing final judgements on the acceptability of waste proposals, an important aspect is that practical demonstration of compliance (or the opposite) with these criteria must be possible. One of the IAEA principles requires that radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way as to provide an acceptable level of protection of the environment. There has been and continues to be considerable debate as to how to demonstrate compliance with such a principle. This paper briefly reviews the current status and considers how experience in other areas of environmental protection could contribute to criteria development for HLW disposal

  8. Assessing the Contribution of Urban Freight Terminals in Last Mile Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanail Eftihia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a multi-stakeholder multi-criteria evaluation framework, which can be used for the assessment of the last mile distribution performance of urban freight terminals. To this end, a comparative analysis is conducted addressing two Greek urban intermodal freight terminals located at the port of Thessaloniki (ThPA and Kuehne+Nagel (K+N’s premises. The assessment of the terminals’ performance relies on a tailored multi-criteria Key Performance Indicator (KPI-based evaluation framework, whereas the selection and significance of the incorporated criteria and KPIs is predetermined by the relevant responsible stakeholders, who imposed their viewpoint through an analytic hierarchy process. Results showed that ThPA was ranked first according to its performance pertaining to the role of an intermodal interchange; still, K+N’s performance index was only 8.5% lower than ThPA’s, while in specific KPIs it seems that it performs in a better way.

  9. The Role of SMEs in Assessing the Contribution of Entrepreneurship to GDP in the Romanian Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the negative effects of the economic crisis on the Romanian economy, entrepreneurship represents one of the main pillars of economic recovery and the authorities need to act in support of private entrepreneurship initiative. Even though entrepreneurship does not equate to the small and medium-sized enterprises, there is strong support in literature regarding the importance of SMEs in national economies due to the authorities` potential of intervention and their contribution to gross value added. The fluctuating evolution of the Romanian business environment has led to a high volatility of its contribution to GDP, which is especially true in the case of SMEs due to their lack of technology and capital and difficult access to financing, as well as limited know-how compared to the large companies that control the Romanian market. Successful entrepreneurial initiative leads to sustainable businesses and ensures a smooth transition from business ideas to the creation of value added, thus supporting economic growth and the narrowing of macroeconomic gaps which have been generated during the economic recession. As a distinctive and dynamic component of Romanian entrepreneurship, the SME segment has a significant contribution to GDP. This study aims at assessing the contribution of entrepreneurship, through its SME segment, to Romania`s GDP in the main economic sectors and, at the same time, the estimation of output gap at sectoral level, thus filling a gap in entrepreneurship-related domestic literature.

  10. Intra-individual comparison of magnesium citrate and sodium phosphate for bowel preparation at CT colonography: Automated volumetric analysis of residual fluid for quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannas, P.; Bakke, J.; Munoz del Rio, A.; Pickhardt, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    objective CTC quality assessment. • Automated analysis allows for rapid comparison between different bowel regimens. • MgC results in higher residual colonic fluid volume (155 ml) than NaP (143 ml). • MgC results in lower attenuation of residual fluid (700 HU) than NaP (878 HU). • Simultaneous presence of optimal volume and attenuation is more frequent for MgC than for NaP

  11. Ecological and health risks assessment and spatial distribution of residual heavy metals in the soil of an e-waste circular economy park in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Gao, Guanghai; Geng, Jinyao; Li, Yao; Wang, Yingying

    2018-04-01

    Ziya Circular Economy Park is the biggest e-waste recycle park in North China before 2011, its function was then transformed in response to regulations and rules. In this paper, investigation was conducted to research the residual concentrations of 14 analytes (12 heavy metals and 2 non-metals) in the surface soil of Ziya Circular Economy Park and surrounding area. Both ecological and health assessments were evaluated using GI (geo-accumulation index) and NPI (Nemerow pollution index), and associated health risk was assessed by using USEPA model. According to the ecological risk assessment, Cu, Sb, Cd, Zn and Co were seriously enriched in the soil of the studied area. The health risk assessment proposed by USEPA indicated no significant health risks to the population. Soil properties, such as pH and organic matter, were found to correlate with the enrichment of heavy metals. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were found positively correlated to dead bacteria concentrations. Spatial distribution of heavy metals revealed that Ziya Circular Economy Park was the dominant pollution source in the studied area. Findings in this study suggest that enough attention should be payed to the heavy metal pollution in Ziya Circular Economy Park. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contribution to the knowledge of threatened terrestrial fauna of Brazil: data from PETROBRAS environmental impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Fonseca, Renata A.A. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renataamorim.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    One of the major problems related to the protection of threatened species in Brazil is the current lack of primary data on their occurrence. PETROBRAS, due to the processes of environmental licensing of new pipelines, held numerous studies on the occurrence of several species. Most of these studies took place in Atlantic Forest remnants located in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas and Pernambuco. This study compared primary data from these Environmental Impact Assessments with the Brazilian list of threatened species published by MMA (Brazilian Ministry of Environment). Many threatened species were recorded in areas where native forest fragments are reduced in number and size, such as those in the Northeastern region. (author)

  13. Flow cytometric minimal residual disease assessment of peripheral blood in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients has potential for early detection of relapsed extramedullary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Alissa; Charest, Karry; Schmidt, Ryan; Briggs, Debra; Deangelo, Daniel J; Li, Betty; Morgan, Elizabeth A; Pozdnyakova, Olga

    2018-03-27

    To evaluate peripheral blood (PB) for minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We analysed 76 matched bone marrow (BM) aspirate and PB specimens independently for the presence of ALL MRD by six-colour flow cytometry (FC). The overall rate of BM MRD-positivity was 24% (18/76) and PB was also MRD-positive in 22% (4/18) of BM-positive cases. We identified two cases with evidence of leukaemic cells in PB at the time of the extramedullary relapse that were interpreted as MRD-negative in BM. The use of PB MRD as a non-invasive method for monitoring of systemic relapse may have added clinical and diagnostic value in patients with high risk of extramedullary disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: A comparative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C., E-mail: christian.koehler@tudor.lu [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor/Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies, 66 rue de Luxembourg, BP 144, L-4002 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Venditti, S.; Igos, E.; Klepiszewski, K.; Benetto, E.; Cornelissen, A. [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor/Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies, 66 rue de Luxembourg, BP 144, L-4002 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg)

    2012-11-15

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as AOP. The 'conventional' cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process.

  15. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: A comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, C.; Venditti, S.; Igos, E.; Klepiszewski, K.; Benetto, E.; Cornelissen, A.

    2012-01-01

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H 2 O 2 to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H 2 O 2 as AOP. The “conventional” cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process.

  16. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: a comparative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, C; Venditti, S; Igos, E; Klepiszewski, K; Benetto, E; Cornelissen, A

    2012-11-15

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H2O2 to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H2O2 as AOP. The "conventional" cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of volumetric and functional parameters in simultaneous cardiac PET/MR: feasibility of volumetric assessment with residual activity from prior PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecke, C.; Brenneis, B.; Grothoff, M.; Gutberlet, M. [University Leipzig - Heart Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Oppolzer, B.; Werner, P.; Jochimsen, T.; Sattler, B.; Barthel, H.; Sabri, O. [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Foldyna, B. [University Leipzig - Heart Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Massachusetts General Hospital - Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Lurz, P. [University Leipzig - Heart Center, Clinic for Internal Medicine/Cardiology, Leipzig (Germany); Lehmkuhl, L. [Herz- und Gefaess-Klinik GmbH, Radiologische Klinik, Bad Neustadt (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    To compare cardiac left ventricular (LV) parameters in simultaneously acquired hybrid fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F] FDG) positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) in patients with residual tracer activity of upstream PET/CT. Twenty-nine patients (23 men, age 58±17 years) underwent cardiac PET/MRI either directly after a non-cardiac PET/CT with homogenous cardiac [18F] FDG uptake (n=20) or for viability assessment (n=9). Gated cardiac [18F] FDG PET and cine MR sequences were acquired simultaneously and evaluated blinded to the cross-imaging results. Image quality (IQ), end-diastolic (LVEDV), end-systolic volume (LVESV), ejection fraction (LVEF) and myocardial mass (LVMM) were measured. Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), regression and a Bland-Altman analysis were assessed. Except LVMM, volumetric and functional LV parameters demonstrated high correlations (LVESV: r=0.97, LVEDV: r=0.95, LVEF: r=0.91, LVMM: r=0.87, each p<0.05), but wide limits of agreement (LOA) for LVEDV (-25.3-82.5ml); LVESV (-33.1-72.7ml); LVEF (-18.9-14.8%) and LVMM (-78.2-43.2g). Intra- and interobserver reliability were very high (ICC≥0.95) for all parameters, except for MR-LVEF (ICC=0.87). PET-IQ (0-3) was high (mean: 2.2±0.9) with significant influence on LVMM calculations only. In simultaneously acquired cardiac PET/MRI data, LVEDV, LVESV and LVEF show good agreement. However, the agreement seems to be limited if cardiac PET/MRI follows PET/CT and only the residual activity is used. (orig.)

  18. EMPLOYING DECENTRING TO ASSESS QUALITY OF SERVICES AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman YOUSAF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The higher education scenario in Pakistan has gone through tremendous changes and improvements in the last decade. Competition resulting from a sudden surge in the number of higher education imparting institutions and the active role of Higher Education Commission has increased the pressure on the universities to continuously enhance the quality of educational services being provided by them. The aim of the researchers in this endeavor is to employ decentering in order to assess the quality of services being provided by the universities. The study has used the SERVQUAL tool by Parasuraman, Zeithmal and Berry (1991 on a five point Liker scale in order to gauge the responses of the students. Analysis was conducted on a total of 156 valid questionnaires. The sample included the students of the top five HEC (Higher Education Commission recognized universities in the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Data was analyzed using Pearson correlation and regression. Factor analysis was also carried out so as to classify the most important dimensions for the students with respect to higher education in Pakistan. Statistical analysis disclosed a positive and significant association between service quality and customer satisfaction. The factor analysis revealed that the most significant dimension with respect to the Pakistan’s higher education sector are the level of management support, responsiveness of the service providers and the adequacy of physical facilities. The study highlights the importance of treating students as valued customers as the competition in the industry along with the regulatory requirements of HEC as well. The service providers need to be provided adequate support and backing of the top management. The physical facilities and the infrastructure must also be adequate enough to meet the growing and ever changing demands of the industry. The current study is the first of its kind that covers the higher education imparting

  19. Shear-wave elastography contributes to accurate tumour size estimation when assessing small breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.; Thompson, J.M.; Moussa, O.; Vinnicombe, S.; Evans, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether the size of peritumoural stiffness (PTS) on shear-wave elastography (SWE) for small primary breast cancers (≤15 mm) was associated with size discrepancies between grey-scale ultrasound (GSUS) and final histological size and whether the addition of PTS size to GSUS size might result in more accurate tumour size estimation when compared to final histological size. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 86 consecutive patients between August 2011 and February 2013 who underwent breast-conserving surgery for tumours of size ≤15 mm at ultrasound was carried out. The size of PTS stiffness was compared to mean GSUS size, mean histological size, and the extent of size discrepancy between GSUS and histology. PTS size and GSUS were combined and compared to the final histological size. Results: PTS of >3 mm was associated with a larger mean final histological size (16 versus 11.3 mm, p < 0.001). PTS size of >3 mm was associated with a higher frequency of underestimation of final histological size by GSUS of >5 mm (63% versus 18%, p < 0.001). The combination of PTS and GSUS size led to accurate estimation of the final histological size (p = 0.03). The size of PTS was not associated with margin involvement (p = 0.27). Conclusion: PTS extending beyond 3 mm from the grey-scale abnormality is significantly associated with underestimation of tumour size of >5 mm for small invasive breast cancers. Taking into account the size of PTS also led to accurate estimation of the final histological size. Further studies are required to assess the relationship of the extent of SWE stiffness and margin status. - Highlights: • Peritumoural stiffness of greater than 3 mm was associated with larger tumour size. • Underestimation of tumour size by ultrasound was associated with peri-tumoural stiffness size. • Combining peri-tumoural stiffness size to ultrasound produced accurate tumour size estimation

  20. The assessment of effects of low doses of ionizing radiations: contributions of epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Bard, D.

    1998-01-01

    After a brief recall of the history of the application of epidemiological studies to the field of ionizing radiations (actually to study the consequences of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing), and after having outlined that most of these epidemiological studies addressed carcinogenic effects of radiations on populations exposed to doses greater than 0,2 Gy, this article more particularly addresses epidemiological studies for low doses (lower than 0,5-1 Gy). The authors present objectives and methods (monitoring, etiological research, risk quantification), and discuss the limitations of epidemiology and its strengths. In the next part, they comment and discuss the main data sources used for the epidemiological assessment of low doses. These sources respectively deal with Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the Life Span Study, its results in terms of solid cancers and leukaemia, its limitations), with occupational exposures (radiologists, workers in nuclear installations, crews of intercontinental flights, Chernobyl liquidators, uranium minors exposed to radon), with environmental exposures (domestic exposures to radon, exposure to natural radiation, to nuclear test fallouts, and to Chernobyl accident fallouts, exposure about nuclear installations), and with other types of exposure

  1. [A contribution to the needs assessment of faculty development measures in medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Tobias; Spering, Christopher; Bäumler, Christine; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Trümper, Lorenz; Pukrop, Tobias

    2009-11-15

    In addition to patient care and research activity, physicians working in medical school hospitals serve as teachers in undergraduate medical education. However, teaching qualifications of German university hospital physicians have not been studied in great detail. In January 2009, medical students as well as physicians involved in medical teaching at Göttingen Medical School, Germany, were invited to complete an online survey addressing their views on clinical teachers' educational skills. In addition, physicians' motivation to engage in pedagogical training was assessed. During a 12-day period, 359 students and 126 physicians involved in undergraduate medical education completed the survey. The latter did not feel well prepared for their teaching activities. At the same time, they expressed the willingness to improve their teaching skills. Students felt that, across all instructional methods, teachers would benefit from teacher training programs. In order to improve undergraduate education for future physicians, politicians and local representatives alike must set the scene for the implementation of faculty development measures in German medical schools.

  2. Methodical assessment of all non-ionizing radiation sources that can provide a relevant contribution to public exposure. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornkessel, Christian; Schubert, Markus; Wuschek, Matthias; Brueggemeyer, Hauke; Weiskopf, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research project was to systematically identify artificial sources on non-ionizing radiation (electric, magnetic or electromagnetic fields in a frequency range from 0 Hz to 300 GHz, as well optical radiation in a wavelength range from 100 nm to 1 mm), that have relevant contribution to public exposure. The report includes the following chapters: (1) Concept for the relevance assessment for non-ionizing radiation sources; (2) concept for the systematic identification of sources from establishes technologies; (3) concept for the systematic identification of sources from new or foreseeable technologies; (4)overview of relevant radiation sources.

  3. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  4. Assessing the contribution of the dental care delivery system to oral health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourat, Nadereh; Andersen, Ronald M; Marcus, Marvin

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies of disparities in access to oral health care for underserved populations often focus on supply measures such as number of dentists. This approach overlooks the importance of other aspects of the dental care delivery system, such as personal and practice characteristics of dentists, that determine the capacity to provide care. This study aims to assess the role of such characteristics in access to care of underserved populations. We merged data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey and a 2003 survey of California dentists in their Medical Study Service Areas (MSSAs). We examined the role of overall supply and other characteristics of dentists in income and racial/ethnic disparities in access, which was measured by annual dental visits and unmet need for dental care due to costs. We found that some characteristics of MSSAs, including higher proportions of dentists who were older, white, busy or overworked, and did not accept public insurance or discounted fees, inhibited access for low-income and minority populations. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring characteristics of dentists in addition to traditional measures of supply such as licensed-dentist-to-population ratios. The findings identify specific aspects of the delivery system such as dentists' participation in Medicaid, provision of discounted care, busyness, age, race/ethnicity, and gender that should be regularly monitored. These data will provide a better understanding of how the dental care delivery system is organized and how this knowledge can be used to develop more narrowly targeted policies to alleviate disparities. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. An assessment of the contributing factors to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornide, J.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Capdevila, C.; Caballero, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    A new generation of steels has been designed, which on transformation at low temperature (200–350 °C), leads to a nano-scale microstructure, known as NANOBAIN. The microstructure consists of slender crystals of ferrite, whose controlling scale compares well with that of carbon nanotubes (20–40 nm). These advanced steels present the highest strength/toughness combinations ever recorded in bainitic steels. Their properties are mainly a consequence of the formation of nanoscale bainitic ferrite plates at very low temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy observations have shown that plastic relaxation in the austenite adjacent to the bainite plates may control the final size of the bainitic ferrite plates. The dislocation debris generated in this process resists the advance of the bainitic ferrite–austenite interface, the resistance being greatest for strong austenite. The yield strength of the austenite must then feature in any assessment of plate size. In this scenario, the plates are expected to become thicker at high temperatures because the yield strength of the austenite will then be lower. The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of yield strength of austenite to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels. In this sense, in situ measurements of austenite strength before bainite formation using a deformation dilatometer Bähr 805D have been performed in a medium carbon high silicon steel transforming at intermediate temperatures (325–400 °C) to a submicron structure of bainite and in a high carbon high silicon steel transforming at low temperatures (200–350 °C) to nanostructured bainite. The role of the transformation driving force on the bainite plate thickness will be also discussed

  6. An assessment of the contributing factors to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornide, J., E-mail: jca@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Garcia-Mateo, C., E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Capdevila, C., E-mail: ccm@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Caballero, F.G., E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    A new generation of steels has been designed, which on transformation at low temperature (200–350 °C), leads to a nano-scale microstructure, known as NANOBAIN. The microstructure consists of slender crystals of ferrite, whose controlling scale compares well with that of carbon nanotubes (20–40 nm). These advanced steels present the highest strength/toughness combinations ever recorded in bainitic steels. Their properties are mainly a consequence of the formation of nanoscale bainitic ferrite plates at very low temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy observations have shown that plastic relaxation in the austenite adjacent to the bainite plates may control the final size of the bainitic ferrite plates. The dislocation debris generated in this process resists the advance of the bainitic ferrite–austenite interface, the resistance being greatest for strong austenite. The yield strength of the austenite must then feature in any assessment of plate size. In this scenario, the plates are expected to become thicker at high temperatures because the yield strength of the austenite will then be lower. The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of yield strength of austenite to the nanoscale structural refinement of advanced bainitic steels. In this sense, in situ measurements of austenite strength before bainite formation using a deformation dilatometer Bähr 805D have been performed in a medium carbon high silicon steel transforming at intermediate temperatures (325–400 °C) to a submicron structure of bainite and in a high carbon high silicon steel transforming at low temperatures (200–350 °C) to nanostructured bainite. The role of the transformation driving force on the bainite plate thickness will be also discussed.

  7. Flood-risk mapping: contributions towards an enhanced assessment of extreme events and associated risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Büchele

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a shift from classical flood protection as engineering task towards integrated flood risk management concepts can be observed. In this context, a more consequent consideration of extreme events which exceed the design event of flood protection structures and failure scenarios such as dike breaches have to be investigated. Therefore, this study aims to enhance existing methods for hazard and risk assessment for extreme events and is divided into three parts. In the first part, a regionalization approach for flood peak discharges was further developed and substantiated, especially regarding recurrence intervals of 200 to 10 000 years and a large number of small ungauged catchments. Model comparisons show that more confidence in such flood estimates for ungauged areas and very long recurrence intervals may be given as implied by statistical analysis alone. The hydraulic simulation in the second part is oriented towards hazard mapping and risk analyses covering the whole spectrum of relevant flood events. As the hydrodynamic simulation is directly coupled with a GIS, the results can be easily processed as local inundation depths for spatial risk analyses. For this, a new GIS-based software tool was developed, being presented in the third part, which enables estimations of the direct flood damage to single buildings or areas based on different established stage-damage functions. Furthermore, a new multifactorial approach for damage estimation is presented, aiming at the improvement of damage estimation on local scale by considering factors like building quality, contamination and precautionary measures. The methods and results from this study form the base for comprehensive risk analyses and flood management strategies.

  8. Monitoring of nitrites and nitrates levels in leafy vegetables (spinach and lettuce): a contribution to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iammarino, Marco; Di Taranto, Aurelia; Cristino, Marianna

    2014-03-15

    Nitrites and nitrates are compounds considered harmful to humans and the major part of the daily intake of nitrates in foodstuffs is related to vegetable consumption. In this work, 150 leafy vegetables samples (75 spinach and 75 lettuce) were analysed in order to assess the levels of nitrites and nitrates. The analyses were carried out by a validated ion chromatography method and the samples with nitrate concentrations higher than legal limits and/or with quantifiable concentrations of nitrites were confirmed by an alternative ion chromatography method. Nitrate levels higher than legal limits were detected both in spinach (four samples) and in lettuce (five samples). Nitrite residues were registered both at low concentrations--lower than 28.5 mg kg⁻¹ (12 spinach samples)--and at high concentrations, up to 197.5 mg kg⁻¹ (three spinach and one lettuce sample). Considering the non-negligible percentage of 'not-compliant' samples for nitrates (6.0%), control is needed. Moreover, it is possible to suggest the introduction in the Communities Regulations of a 'maximum admissible level' for nitrites in leafy vegetables. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Residual levels of rare earth elements in freshwater and marine fish and their health risk assessment from Shandong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Luping; Wang, Xining; Nie, Hongqian; Shao, Lijun; Wang, Guoling; Liu, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    The total concentrations of rare earth elements (ΣREE) were quantified in 251 samples from 10 common species of freshwater and marine fish in seventeen cities of Shandong, China. ΣREE obtained from the freshwater fish ranged from 34.0 to 37.9 ngg −1 (wet weight) and marine fish from 12.7 to 37.6 ngg −1 . The ratio of LREE to HREE was 13.7:1 and 10:1 for freshwater and marine fish, respectively. This suggests that freshwater fish exhibit greater REE concentrations than marine fish and the biological effects of LREE are higher than HREE. Results revealed a similar REE distribution pattern between those fish and coastal sediments, abiding the “abundance law”. The health risk assessment demonstrated the EDIs of REEs in fish were significantly lower than the ADI, indicating that the consumption of these fish presents little risk to human health. - Highlights: •Concentrations of rare earth elements in freshwater and marine fishes from the coastlines of Shandong, China are reported. •Statistical analysis and comparison indicates that freshwater fishes exhibit greater REE concentrations than marine fishes. •A similar REE distribution pattern was found between those of fish and coastal sediments, abiding the "abundance law". •Health risk assessment demonstrated that consuming fish is presently at little risk to human health.

  10. Guidelines for selection and presentation of residue values of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde-Koerts T van der; Hoeven-Arentzen PH van; Ossendorp BC; RIVM-SIR

    2004-01-01

    Pesticide residue assessments are executed to establish legal limits, called Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). MRLs are derived from the results of these pesticide residue trials, which are performed according to critical Good Agricultural Practice. Only one residue value per residue trial may be

  11. Risk assessment of replacing conventional P fertilizers with biomassash: Residual effects on plant yield, nutrition, cadmium accumulation and mycorrhizal status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Paredes, Carla; Lopez Garcia, Alvaro; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2017-01-01

    in biomass ashes in a barley crop grown on soil with adequate P status. Two contrasting doses of three different types of ashes were applied to an agricultural field with spring barley and compared to similar doses of triple-superphosphate fertilizer. In the second growing season after biomass ash......Reutilizing biomass ashes in agriculture can substitute inputs of P from finite primary sources. However, recycling of ashes is disputed due to their content of toxic substances such as heavy metals. This study evaluates the potential risk of replacing easily soluble inorganic P fertilizer with P...... application, grain, straw and root dry matter yield, and P and Cd uptake were determined. Resin-extractable P was measured in soil and the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal activity, colonization, and community composition were assessed. Crop yield was not affected by ash application, while P...

  12. Further assessment of the protozoal contribution to the nutrition of the ruminant animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Sarah E; France, James; Dijkstra, Jan

    2017-03-07

    The flow of protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is lower than expected, due to ability of protozoa to prevent washout through sequestration on feed particles and the rumen epithelium. In order to estimate the distribution of protozoa within the reticulo-rumen and passage to the omasum, Czerkawski (1987) developed a model containing pools for the rumen liquid phase, rumen solid phase, and the omasum. This model was used to estimate loss of protozoa in the omasum as well as the amount of protozoal protein available to the animal in the lower gut. A number of assumptions were incorporated into the model, some of which appear unsupported by current research. This paper represents an update, revision, and re-evaluation of Czerkawski's model, where the assumptions that all protozoa in the 'attached' phase are in solid digesta, and that protozoa only leave the rumen in the liquid, have been relaxed. Therefore, the revised model allows for sequestration of protozoa on the rumen epithelium and protozoal passage with particulate outflow. Using experimental observations with inputs within biological limits, the revised model and Czerkawski's original model were verified. The effect of diet on the model was then assessed using inputs from a 100% forage diet and a 35-65% concentrate diet. The extent of sequestration was also varied from complete sequestration, to partial sequestration, and no sequestration. A sensitivity analysis was conducted through a linear regression of perturbed mean inputs versus outputs. The results from the revised model indicate that within the reticulo-rumen, the concentrate diet has a greater fractional flow rate of protozoa from the liquid to solid phase, but a lesser fractional flow rate back to the liquid phase, compared to the forage diet. As well, the concentrate diet has a slower net growth rate of protozoa in the attached phase, compared to the forage diet. In the omasum, the forage diet has a less negative net growth rate, compared to the

  13. Assessment of the Contribution of BeiDou GEO, IGSO, and MEO Satellites to PPP in Asia—Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qile Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the US Global Positioning System (GPS, the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS and the European Galileo, the developing Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS consists of not only Medium Earth Orbit (MEO, but also Geostationary Orbit (GEO as well as Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO satellites. In this study, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP and PPP with Integer Ambiguity Resolution (IAR are obtained. The contributions of these three different types of BDS satellites to PPP in Asia-Pacific region are assessed using data from selected 20 sites over more than four weeks. By using various PPP cases with different satellite combinations, in general, the largest contribution of BDS IGSO among the three kinds of BDS satellites to the reduction of convergence time and the improvement of positioning accuracy, particularly in the east direction, is identified. These PPP cases include static BDS only solutions and static/kinematic ambiguity-float and -fixed PPP with the combination of GPS and BDS. The statistical results demonstrate that the inclusion of BDS GEO and MEO satellites can improve the observation condition and result in better PPP performance as well. When combined with GPS, the contribution of BDS to the reduction of convergence time is, however, not as significant as that of GLONASS. As far as the positioning accuracy is concerned, GLONASS improves the accuracy in vertical component more than BDS does, whereas similar improvement in horizontal component can be achieved by inclusion of BDS IGSO and MEO as GLONASS.

  14. Utility of the clue - From assessing the investigative contribution of forensic science to supporting the decision to use traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Sonja; Albertini, Nicola; Lock, Eric; Ribaux, Olivier; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to grasp the effectiveness of forensic science in the criminal justice process, a number of studies introduced some form of performance indicator. However, most of these indicators suffer from different weaknesses, from the definition of forensic science itself to problems of reliability and validity. We suggest the introduction of the concept of utility of the clue as an internal evaluation indicator of forensic science in the investigation. Utility of the clue is defined as added value of information, gained by the use of traces. This concept could be used to assess the contribution of the trace in the context of the case. By extension, a second application of this concept is suggested. By formalising and considering, a priori, the perceived utility of using traces, we introduce the notion of expected utility that could be used as decision factor when choosing which traces to use, once they have been collected at the crime scene or from an object in the laboratory. In a case-based approach, utility can be assessed in the light of the available information to evaluate the investigative contribution of forensic science. In the decision-making process, the projection or estimation of the utility of the clue is proposed to be a factor to take into account when triaging the set of traces. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, F. J.; Huijsmans, J. F. M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-09-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues may contribute to ammonia volatilization, but sufficient information on their contribution to the national ammonia volatilization is lacking. Experiments were carried out with the aim to assess the ammonia volatilization of crop residues left on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil under the conditions met in practice in the Netherlands during late autumn and winter. Ammonia emission from residues of broccoli, leek, sugar beet, cut grass, fodder radish (fresh and frozen) and yellow mustard (frozen) was studied during two winter seasons using volatilization chambers. Residues were either placed on top of soil or mixed with soil. Mixing residues with soil gave insignificant ammonia volatilization, whereas volatilization was 5-16 percent of the N content of residues when placed on top of soil. Ammonia volatilization started after at least 4 days. Total ammonia volatilization was related to C/N-ratio and N concentration of the plant material. After 37 days, cumulative ammonia volatilization was negligible from plant material with N concentration below 2 percent, and was 10 percent of the N content of plant material with 4 percent N. These observations can be explained by decomposition of plant material by micro-organisms. After an initial built up of the microbial population, NH 4+ that is not needed for their own growth is released and can easily emit as NH 3 at the soil surface. The results of the experiments were used to estimate the contribution of crop residues to ammonia volatilization in the Netherlands. Crop residues of arable crops and residues of pasture topping may contribute more than 3 million kg NH 3-N to the national ammonia volatilization of the

  16. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela, E-mail: coroirina@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Trincă, Lucia Carmen, E-mail: lctrinca@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Trofin, Alina Elena, E-mail: aetrofin@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Cazacu, Ana, E-mail: anagarlea@gmail.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Ţopa, Denis, E-mail: topadennis@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara, E-mail: catipeptu@yahoo.co.uk [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, 73 D. Mangeron Street, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Jităreanu, Gerard, E-mail: gerardj@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface characteristics of activated straw (wheat, corn, soybean) were assessed. • Modification methods to enhance materials sorption were presented. • Adsorption mechanism of metribuzin was revealed and discussed. - Abstract: Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  17. Residues, spatial distribution and risk assessment of DDTs and HCHs in agricultural soil and crops from the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2016-04-01

    Due to its high elevation and cold temperature, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is regarded as the "Third Pole". Different from other polar regions, which are truly remote, the TP has a small population and a few agricultural activities. In this study, agricultural soil and crop samples (including highland barley and rape) were collected in the main farmland of the TP to obtain the contamination levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in the Tibetan agricultural system as well as the relevant human exposure risks. The average concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in the agricultural soil, highland barley and rape were 1.36, 0.661, 1.03 ng/g dw and 0.349, 0.0364, 0.0225 ng/g dw, respectively. In the agricultural soil, DDTs and HCHs metabolism (DDE, DDD and β-HCH) were abundant, which indicated a "historical" source, whereas crops contained a similar composition ((DDE + DDD)/DDT, α/β-HCH and α/γ-HCH) to that of wild plants, suggesting that the DDTs and HCHs in crops are likely from long range atmospheric transport. The human health risks via non-dietary and dietary to DDTs and HCHs in the farmland were assessed. All of the hazard index (HI) values of DDTs and HCHs for non-carcinogenic risks were Tibetan residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela; Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Cazacu, Ana; Ţopa, Denis; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Jităreanu, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface characteristics of activated straw (wheat, corn, soybean) were assessed. • Modification methods to enhance materials sorption were presented. • Adsorption mechanism of metribuzin was revealed and discussed. - Abstract: Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  19. Pre-operative assessment of residual disease in locally advanced breast cancer patients: A sequential study by quantitative diffusion weighted MRI as a function of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Khushbu; Sharma, Uma; Sah, Rani G; Mathur, Sandeep; Hari, Smriti; Seenu, Vurthaluru; Parshad, Rajinder; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R

    2017-10-01

    The potential of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in assessing pathologic response and surgical margins in locally advanced breast cancer patients (n=38) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy was investigated. DWI was performed at pre-therapy (Tp0), after I (Tp1) and III (Tp3) NACT at 1.5T. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of whole tumor (ADC WT ), solid tumor (ADC ST ), intra-tumoral necrosis (ADC Nec ) was determined. Further, ADC of 6 consecutive shells (5mm thickness each) including tumor margin to outside tumor margins (OM1 to OM5) was calculated and the data analyzed to define surgical margins. Of 38 patients, 6 were pathological complete responders (pCR), 19 partial responders (pPR) and 13 were non-responders (pNR). Significant increase was observed in ADC ST and ADC WT in pCR and pPR following therapy. Pre-therapy ADC was significantly lower in pCR compared to pPR and pNR indicating the heterogeneous nature of tumor which may affect drug perfusion and consequently the response. ADC of outside margins (OM1, OM2, and OM3) was significantly different among pCR, pPR and pNR at Tp3 which may serve as response predictive parameter. Further, at Tp3, ADC of outside margins (OM1, OM2, and OM3) was significantly lower compared to that seen at Tp0 in pCR, indicating the presence of residual disease in these shells. Pre-surgery information may serve as a guide to define cancer free margins and the extent of residual disease which may be useful in planning breast conservation surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional Assessment of Residues in the Amino- and Carboxyl-Termini of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH in the Mud Crab Scylla olivacea Using Point-Mutated Peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jing Liu

    Full Text Available To assess functional importance of the residues in the amino- and carboxyl-termini of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the mud crab Scylla olivacea (Sco-CHH, both wild-type and point-mutated CHH peptides were produced with an amidated C-terminal end. Spectral analyses of circular dichroism, chromatographic retention time, and mass spectrometric analysis of the recombinant peptides indicate that they were close in conformation to native CHH and were produced with the intended substitutions. The recombinant peptides were subsequently used for an in vivo hyperglycemic assay. Two mutants (R13A and I69A rSco-CHH completely lacked hyperglycemic activity, with temporal profiles similar to that of vehicle control. Temporal profiles of hyperglycemic responses elicited by 4 mutants (I2A, F3A, D12A, and D60A Sco-CHH were different from that elicited by wild-type Sco-CHH; I2A was unique in that it exhibited significantly higher hyperglycemic activity, whereas the remaining 3 mutants showed lower activity. Four mutants (D4A, Q51A, E54A, and V72A rSco-CHH elicited hyperglycemic responses with temporal profiles similar to those evoked by wild-type Sco-CHH. In contrast, the glycine-extended version of V72A rSco-CHH (V72A rSco-CHH-Gly completely lost hyperglycemic activity. By comparing our study with previous ones of ion-transport peptide (ITP and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH using deleted or point-mutated mutants, detail discussion is made regarding functionally important residues that are shared by both CHH and ITP (members of Group I of the CHH family, and those that discriminate CHH from ITP, and Group-I from Group-II peptides. Conclusions summarized in the present study provide insights into understanding of how functional diversification occurred within a peptide family of multifunctional members.

  1. Assessment of a residual life evaluation tool for gas turbine blades and vanes based on microstructural evolution of a NiCoCrAlY+Re coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbareschi, E.; Bonadei, A.; Costa, A.; Guarnone, P.; Vacchieri, E. [Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Life management of hot gas path components is a fundamental topic in gas turbine for power generation. The gas turbine components have to withstand severe service conditions in term of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and creep-fatigue. The resistance to environmental conditions is assured by metallic coatings of the MCrAlY family. {beta} phase, NiAl, present as secondary phase, is the source of protection against oxidation. Among MCrAlY coatings, NiCoCrAlY + Re have a complex microstructure with a higher number of phases than the standard ones; these phases are subjected to transformations during service. The addition of Re is effective against the diffusion of protective elements, as Al and Cr, toward the base material. For the estimation of residual life a first approach has been developed using the decrease of {beta} phase amount after static oxidation test at high temperature and for long time. This type of prediction tool is not complete for the assessment of the hot gas path components life management and a deep study focused on the transformation of the other phases is necessary. Experimental tests have been performed to identify the phase stability range by annealing at different temperatures and durations. Moreover after static oxidation tests a systematic data collection of phase evolution has been carried out through EDS, XRD and EBSD techniques in order to define the kinetic laws that rule the phase transformations. The tuning of thermodynamic and kinetic results allows to build up another residual life tool that, even if it is more complex, is more reliable in temperature evaluation in GT components. Both models have been applied to a component after service and a comparison between the different models evaluation has been conducted. (orig.)

  2. Role of specific DNA mutations in the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients for the assessment of tumor stage and residual disease following tumor resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcic, Gregor; Jelenc, Franc; Cerkovnik, Petra; Stegel, Vida; Novakovic, Srdjan

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the detection of tumor-specific KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (KRAS) and B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) mutations in the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients at all stages and adenomas was used for the estimation of disease stage prior to surgery and for residual disease following surgery. A total of 65 CRC patients were enrolled. The primary tumor tested positive for the specific mutations (KRAS mutations in codons 12, 13, 61, 117 or 146 and BRAF mutations in codon 600) in 35 patients. In all these patients, the specimen of normal bowel resected with the tumor was also tested for the presence of the same mutations in order to exclude the germ-line mutations. Only patients who tested positive for the specific mutation in the primary tumor were included in further analysis for the presence of tumor-specific mutation in the peripheral blood. No statistically significant differences were found between the detection rates of tumor mutations in the blood and different tumor stages (P=0.491). However, statistically significant differences in the proportions of patients with detected tumor-specific DNA mutations in the peripheral blood were found when comparing the groups of patients with R0 and R2 resections (P=0.038). Tumor-specific DNA mutations in the peripheral blood were more frequently detected in the patients with an incomplete surgical clearance of the tumor due to macroscopic residual disease (R2 resections). Therefore, the study concludes that the follow-up of somatic KRAS- and BRAF-mutated DNA in the peripheral blood of CRC patients may be useful in assessing the surgical clearance of the disease. PMID:27900004

  3. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring minimal residual disease in children with high-risk relapses of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: prognostic relevance of early and late assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, C; Hagedorn, N; Sramkova, L; Mann, G; Panzer-Grümayer, R; Peters, C; Bourquin, J-P; Klingebiel, T; Borkhardt, A; Cario, G; Alten, J; Escherich, G; Astrahantseff, K; Seeger, K; Henze, G; von Stackelberg, A

    2015-08-01

    The prognosis for children with high-risk relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is poor. Here, we assessed the prognostic importance of response during induction and consolidation treatment prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) aiming to evaluate the best time to assess minimal residual disease (MRD) for intervention strategies and in future trials in high-risk ALL relapse patients. Included patients (n=125) were treated uniformly according to the ALL-REZ BFM (Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster) 2002 relapse trial (median follow-up time=4.8 years). Patients with MRD ⩾10(-3) after induction treatment (76/119, 64%) or immediately preceding HSCT (19/71, 27%) had a significantly worse probability of disease-free survival 10 years after relapse treatment begin, with 26% (±6%) or 23% (±7%), respectively, compared with 58% (±8%) or 48% (±7%) for patients with MRD treatment reduced MRD to treatment can be used to quantify the activity of different induction treatment strategies in phase II trials. MRD persistence at ⩾10(-3) before HSCT reflects a disease highly resistant to conventional intensive chemotherapy and requiring prospective controlled investigation of new treatment strategies and drugs.

  5. The contribution of sectoral climate change mitigation options to national targets: a quantitative assessment of dairy production in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Patric; Herold, Martin; Rufino, Mariana C.

    2018-03-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture has become a critical target in national climate change policies. More than 80% of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) refer to the reduction of agricultural emissions, including livestock, in their nationally determined contribution (NDC) to mitigate climate change. The livestock sector in Kenya contributes largely to the gross domestic product and to GHG emissions from the land use sector. The government has recently pledged in its NDC to curb total GHG emissions by 30% by 2030. Quantifying and linking the mitigation potential of farm practices to national targets is required to support realistically the implementation of NDCs. Improvements in feed and manure management represent promising mitigation options for dairy production. This study aimed (i) to assess mitigation and food production benefits of feed and manure management scenarios, including land use changes covering Kenya’s entire dairy production region and (ii) to analyse the contribution of these practices to national targets on milk production and mitigation, and their biophysical feasibility given the availability of arable land. The results indicate that improving forage quality by increasing the use of Napier grass and supplementing dairy concentrates supports Kenya’s NDC target, reduces emission intensities by 26%-31%, partially achieves the national milk productivity target for 2030 by 38%-41%, and shows high feasibility given the availability of arable land. Covering manure heaps may reduce emissions from manure management by 68%. In contrast, including maize silage in cattle diets would not reduce emission intensities due to the risk of ten-fold higher emissions from the conversion of land required to grow additional maize. The shortage of arable land may render the implementation of these improved feed practices largely infeasible. This assessment provides the first quantitative estimates of the potential of feed

  6. Contribution to the evaluation of impact on ecosystems of the valorization of thermal process residues in road engineering; Contribution a l'evaluation de l'impact sur les ecosystemes de la valorisation de residus de procedes thermiques en BTP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthet, L.

    2003-07-01

    For several years, Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and coal fly ash have been reused in civil engineering. Although their physical-chemical characteristics are very studied, the toxicity of these materials is the issue of few works. This study aims at contributing to the evaluation of the impact on the ecosystems of the valorization of these residues of thermal processes (RTP) in road engineering. We have compared the potential toxicity of MSWI bottom ash resulting from traditional collection and MSWI bottom ash resulting from selective collection. Since physicochemical parameters of MSWI bottom ash weathering is quite important, we will see the effect of artificial carbonation on the potential toxicity. We have chosen to work with whole-cell microorganisms from the compartment of the producers (algae: Chlorella vulgaris) and from the compartment of the decomposers (yeasts: Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The use of tests using global metabolism (algae growth) and more specific tests (enzymatic activities) have allowed to compare the potential toxicity of MSWI bottom ash resulting from traditional collection and MSWI bottom ash resulting from selective collection. These bioassays have shown that artificial carbonation may decrease the potential toxicity of these MSWI bottom ash. The behavior of coal fly ash used in various scenarios of pilots of road has also been revealed. The development of an optical bio-sensor with immobilized whole cells will enable on line and in-situ monitoring of pollutants salting out MSWI bottom ash and coal fly-ash from pilots of roads. (author)

  7. Research items regarding seismic residual risk evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    After learning the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP severe accidents in 2011, the government investigation committee proposed the effective use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and now it is required to establish new safety rules reflecting the results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and proposed severe accident measures. Since the Seismic Design Guide has been revised on September 19, 2006, JNES has been discussing seismic PRA (Levels 1-3) methods to review licensees' residual risk assessment while preparing seismic PRA models. Meanwhile, new safety standards for light water reactors are to be issued and enforced on July 2013, which require the residual risk of tsunami, in addition to earthquakes, should be lowered as much as possible. The Fukushima accidents raised the problems related to risk assessment, e.g. approaches based on multi-hazard (earthquake and tsunami), multi-unit, multi-site, and equipment's common cause failure. This fiscal year, while performing seismic and/or tsunami PRA to work on these problems, JNES picked up the equipment whose failure greatly contribute to core damage, surveyed accident management measures on those equipment as well as effectiveness to reduce core damage probability. (author)

  8. FIGHTING AGAINST EVASION AND FRAUD IN THE FIELD OF ASSESSMENTS, TAXES AND CONTRIBUTIONS BY PROMOTING A GOOD FISCAL GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SĂLCEANU ALEXANDRU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nobody doubts anymore about the indispensable role of assessments, taxes and contributions in providing the necessary resources for financing public interest activities, that represent at the same time, through tax policies, an important lever used to mitigate circumstancial fluctuations on the market, in order to achieve macroeconomic objectives. Given this context, tax evasion and fraud represent major threats that hinder the completion of the state’s functions in good conditions, as well as the achievement of some performance criteria imposed by the quality of Romania as an European Union member. That is why, in order to counteract such negative phenomena, decisive actions are necessary towards a good tax governance that can help us to protect the fairness of our tax system, to promote competitiveness, ensuring thus Romania's progress.

  9. CONTRIBUTION OF THE AUDIOLOGICAL AND VESTIBULAR ASSESSMENT TO THE DIFFERENTIAL AND ETIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF PERIPHERIC VESTIBULAR SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Ungureanu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scope of the study: Vestibular pathology is a complex one, requiring a minute clinical evaluation, as well as numerous paraclinical investigations. The present study analyzes the contribution of the modern methods of vestibular and auditive investigation to the diagnosis of dizziness. Materials and method: The results of the investigations performed on 84 patients with peripheric vestibular syndrome, on whom a complete audiological and vestibular assessment had been also made, have been retrospectively analyzed. Results: Anamnestic data and the results of evaluation permitted classification of peripheric vestibular pathology according to topo-lesional and etiological criteria. The most frequently diagnosed diseases were: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Ménière syndrome and vestibular neuronitis. Conclusions: Testing of the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes through videonystagmoscopy and, respectively, computerized dynamic posturography, besides tonal vocal audiometry and precocious auditive potentials, is especially important for a positive diagnosis and etiological differentiation of vestibular syndromes.

  10. Contributions of acculturation, enculturation, discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants: A context-specific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ke; Friedlander, Myrna; Pieterse, Alex L

    2016-01-01

    Based on the diathesis-stress model of anxiety, this study examined the contributions of cultural processes, perceived racial discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants. Further guided by the theory of intergroup anxiety, this study also adopted a context-specific approach to distinguish between participants' experience of social anxiety when interacting with European Americans versus with other Chinese in the United States. This quantitative and ex post facto study used a convenience sample of 140 first-generation Chinese immigrants. Participants were recruited through e-mails from different university and community groups across the United States. The sample includes 55 men and 82 women (3 did not specify) with an average age of 36 years old. Results showed that more social anxiety was reported in the European American context than in the Chinese ethnic context. The full models accounted for almost half the variance in anxiety in each context. Although personality accounted for the most variance, the cultural variables and discrimination contributed 14% of the unique variance in the European American context. Notably, low acculturation, high neuroticism, and low extraversion were unique contributors to social anxiety with European Americans, whereas in the Chinese ethnic context only low extraversion was a unique contributor; more discrimination was uniquely significant in both contexts. The findings suggest a need to contextualize the research and clinical assessment of social anxiety, and have implications for culturally sensitive counseling with immigrants. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Indoor Air Quality Assessment and Study of Different VOC Contributions within a School in Taranto City, South of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Marzocca

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Children spend a large amount of time in school environments and when Indoor Air Quality (IAQ is poor, comfort, productivity and learning performances may be affected. The aim of the present study is to characterize IAQ in a primary school located in Taranto city (south of Italy. Because of the proximity of a large industrial complex to the urban settlement, this district is one of the areas identified as being at high environmental risk in Italy. The study carried out simultaneous monitoring of indoor and outdoor Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC concentrations and assessed different pollutants’ contributions on the IAQ of the investigated site. A screening study of VOC and determination of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX, sampled with Radiello® diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption, were carried out in three classrooms, in the corridor and in the yard of the school building. Simultaneously, Total VOC (TVOC concentration was measured by means of real-time monitoring, in order to study the activation of sources during the monitored days. The analysis results showed a prevalent indoor contribution for all VOC except for BTEX which presented similar concentrations in indoor and outdoor air. Among the determined VOC, Terpenes and 2-butohxyethanol were shown to be an indoor source, the latter being the indoor pollutant with the highest concentration.

  12. Assessment of Contributions to Patient Safety Knowledge by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality-Funded Patient Safety Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbero, Melony E S; Ricci, Karen A; Lovejoy, Susan; Haviland, Amelia M; Smith, Linda; Bradley, Lily A; Hiatt, Liisa; Farley, Donna O

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the activities of projects funded in Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)' patient safety portfolio and assess their aggregate potential to contribute to knowledge development. Data Sources Information abstracted from proposals for projects funded in AHRQ' patient safety portfolio, information on safety practices from the AHRQ Evidence Report on Patient Safety Practices, and products produced by the projects. Study Design This represented one part of the process evaluation conducted as part of a longitudinal evaluation based on the Context–Input–Process–Product model. Principal Findings The 234 projects funded through AHRQ' patient safety portfolio examined a wide variety of patient safety issues and extended their work beyond the hospital setting to less studied parts of the health care system. Many of the projects implemented and tested practices for which the patient safety evidence report identified a need for additional evidence. The funded projects also generated a substantial body of new patient safety knowledge through a growing number of journal articles and other products. Conclusions The projects funded in AHRQ' patient safety portfolio have the potential to make substantial contributions to the knowledge base on patient safety. The full value of this new knowledge remains to be confirmed through the synthesis of results. PMID:21456108

  13. Transcriptomic effects-based monitoring for endocrine active chemicals: Assessing relative contribution of treated wastewater to downstream pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Mehinto, Alvine C.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Barber, Larry B.; Lee, Kathy E.; King, Ryan J.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a combination of targeted analytical chemistry information with unsupervised, data-rich biological methodology (i.e., transcriptomics) could be utilized to evaluate relative contributions of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents to biological effects. The effects of WWTP effluents on fish exposed to ambient, receiving waters were studied at three locations with distinct WWTP and watershed characteristics. At each location, 4 d exposures of male fathead minnows to the WWTP effluent and upstream and downstream ambient waters were conducted. Transcriptomic analyses were performed on livers using 15 000 feature microarrays, followed by a canonical pathway and gene set enrichment analyses. Enrichment of gene sets indicative of teleost brain–pituitary–gonadal–hepatic (BPGH) axis function indicated that WWTPs serve as an important source of endocrine active chemicals (EACs) that affect the BPGH axis (e.g., cholesterol and steroid metabolism were altered). The results indicated that transcriptomics may even pinpoint pertinent adverse outcomes (i.e., liver vacuolization) and groups of chemicals that preselected chemical analytes may miss. Transcriptomic Effects-Based monitoring was capable of distinguishing sites, and it reflected chemical pollution gradients, thus holding promise for assessment of relative contributions of point sources to pollution and the efficacy of pollution remediation.

  14. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenhaut, Willy, E-mail: willy.maenhaut@ugent.be [Ghent University (UGent), Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); University of Antwerp - UA, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Belgium); Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda [University of Antwerp - UA, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Belgium); Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward [Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), Kronenburgstraat 45, B-2000, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2016-08-15

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. - Highlights: • A one-year study with 4 urban background sites and a total of 372

  15. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward

    2016-01-01

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. - Highlights: • A one-year study with 4 urban background sites and a total of 372

  16. Seeing the same thing differently: mechanisms that contribute to assessor differences in directly-observed performance assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Peter; O'Neill, Paul; Mann, Karen; Eva, Kevin

    2013-08-01

    Assessors' scores in performance assessments are known to be highly variable. Attempted improvements through training or rating format have achieved minimal gains. The mechanisms that contribute to variability in assessors' scoring remain unclear. This study investigated these mechanisms. We used a qualitative approach to study assessors' judgements whilst they observed common simulated videoed performances of junior doctors obtaining clinical histories. Assessors commented concurrently and retrospectively on performances, provided scores and follow-up interviews. Data were analysed using principles of grounded theory. We developed three themes that help to explain how variability arises: Differential Salience-assessors paid attention to (or valued) different aspects of the performances to different degrees; Criterion Uncertainty-assessors' criteria were differently constructed, uncertain, and were influenced by recent exemplars; Information Integration-assessors described the valence of their comments in their own unique narrative terms, usually forming global impressions. Our results (whilst not precluding the operation of established biases) describe mechanisms by which assessors' judgements become meaningfully-different or unique. Our results have theoretical relevance to understanding the formative educational messages that performance assessments provide. They give insight relevant to assessor training, assessors' ability to be observationally "objective" and to the educational value of narrative comments (in contrast to numerical ratings).

  17. Assessment of snow-glacier melt and rainfall contribution to stream runoff in Baspa Basin, Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Vinay Kumar; Kulkarni, Anil V; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2018-02-20

    Hydrological regimes of most of the Himalayan river catchments are poorly studied due to sparse hydro-meteorological data. Hence, stream runoff assessment becomes difficult for various socio-industrial activities in the Himalaya. Therefore, an attempt is made in this study to assess the stream runoff of Baspa River in Himachal Pradesh, India, by evaluating the contribution from snow-ice melt and rainfall runoff. The total volume of flow was computed for a period of 15 years, from 2000 to 2014, and validated with the long-term field discharge measurements, obtained from Jaipee Hydropower station (31° 32' 35.53″ N, 78° 00' 54.80″ E), at Kuppa barrage in the basin. The observations suggest (1) a good correlation (r 2  > 0.80) between the modeled runoff and field discharge measurements, and (2) out of the total runoff, 81.2% are produced by snowmelt, 11.4% by rainfall, and 7.4% from ice melt. The catchment receives ~75% of its total runoff in the ablation period (i.e., from May to September). In addition, an early snowmelt is observed in accumulation season during study period, indicating the significant influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on high-altitude areas.

  18. Towards an integrated assessment of the impacts of forest residue mulching following wildfire in eucalypt plantations in north-central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Jan Jacob; Abrantes, Nelson; Bastos, Ana; Brandsma, Micha; Campos, Isabel; Faria, Silvia; Malvar, Maruxa; Martins, Martinho; João Oliveira, Maria; Pimpão, Gabriel; Prats, Sergio; Puga, João; Ribeiro, Cristina; Rocha, João; Santos, Liliana; Serpa, Dalila; Silva, Flávio; Silva, Tiago; Valente, Sandra; Vieira, Diana

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 project RECARE (www.recare-project.eu) and, in particular, its WP6, the University of Aveiro partner has recently started testing two measures against the soil threat of post-fire erosion by water in an area in north-central Portugal, close to Coimbra that burnt during the summer of 2015. These measures - mulching with forest slash residues and contour ploughing - had been selected by the local and external stakeholders involved in the project, through two subsequent stakeholder workshops. While contour ploughing has still not taken place, the mulching was already carried out, using residues from eucalypt plantations as the burnt areas was dominated by eucalypt plantations, and applying them in a homogeneous fashion at two contrasting application rates, i.e. a "standard" rate of approximately 10 Mg ha-1 and a "reduced" rate of about 3 Mg ha-1. The standard rate was selected for having proved effective in reducing post-fire runoff and erosion in previous field studies in the region (Prats et al., 2012, 2014, 2015a), while the reduced rate had been found to be nearly as effective as the standard rate in a recent study in the hydraulic laboratory of the University of Coimbra (Prats et al., 2015b). Unlike the referred prior studies, however, the present study will also assess the impacts of mulching on two other soil threats - i.e. decline in soil organic matter and in soil biodiversity - and, ultimately, will compare the two measures in terms of their consequences for soil-based ecosystem services, using the framework being developed by RECARE (Schwilch et al. in Stolte et al., 2016). The proposed presentation will show the first results on the effects of the two mulch application rates on post-fire runoff as well as the associated losses of sediments, organic matter/C and nutrients (N, P), and on selected indicators of soil biological activity and diversity. Prats et al., 2015a (in press). LD&D (doi: 10.1002/ldr.2422) Prats et al., 2015

  19. Life Cycle Assessment and Release Studies for 15 Nanosilver-Enabled Consumer Products: Investigating Hotspots and Patterns of Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourzahedi, Leila; Vance, Marina; Eckelman, Matthew J

    2017-06-20

    Increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products as antimicrobial agents has prompted extensive research toward the evaluation of their potential release to the environment and subsequent ecotoxicity to aquatic organisms. It has also been shown that AgNPs can pose significant burdens to the environment from life cycle emissions associated with their production, but these impacts must be considered in the context of actual products that contain nanosilver. Here, a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment for the production of 15 different AgNP-enabled consumer products was performed, coupled with release studies of those same products, thus providing a consistent analytical platform for investigation of potential nanosilver impacts across a range of product types and concentrations. Environmental burdens were assessed over multiple impact categories defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI 2.1) method. Depending on the product composition and silver loading, the contribution of AgNP synthesis to the overall impacts was seen to vary over a wide range from 1% to 99%. Release studies found that solid polymeric samples lost more silver during wash compared to fibrous materials. Estimates of direct ecotoxicity impacts of AgNP releases from those products with the highest leaching rates resulted in lower impact levels compared to cradle-to-gate ecotoxicity from production for those products. Considering both cradle-to-gate production impacts and nanoparticle release studies, in conjunction with estimates of life cycle environmental and health benefits of nanoparticle incorporation, can inform sustainable nanoenabled product design.

  20. Avaliação de risco crônico da ingestão de resíduos de pesticidas na dieta brasileira Chronic dietary risk assessment for pesticide residues in Brazilian food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Dutra Caldas

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o risco crônico da ingestão de pesticidas pela dieta, em compostos registrados no Brasil para uso agrícola até 1999. MÉTODOS: Foi calculada a Ingestão Diária Máxima Teórica (IDMT para cada pesticida, utilizando limites máximos de resíduos estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira e dados de consumo alimentar. A caracterização do risco foi feita comparando-se a IDMT com as doses diárias aceitáveis (IDA de vários países e do Codex Alimentarius. RESULTADOS: A IDTM ultrapassou a IDA (%IDA>100 em pelo menos uma região metropolitana brasileira para 23 pesticidas. Dezesseis compostos com maior %IDA são inseticidas organofosforados, sendo o paration metílico o composto cuja ingestão mais excedeu o parâmetro toxicológico (%IDA N=9.300. O arroz, o feijão, as frutas cítricas e o tomate foram os alimentos que mais contribuíram para a ingestão. Dos compostos que apresentaram maior risco, apenas 6 foram registrados de acordo com o Decreto 98.816/90, que dispõe sobre o uso de pesticidas no País. CONCLUSÕES: Os compostos identificados como sendo de potencial risco de exposição crônica para a população brasileira, e os alimentos que mais contribuíram para a sua ingestão, devem ser priorizados pelos órgãos de saúde em programas de monitoramento de resíduos de pesticidas. Adicionalmente, dados sobre resíduos em alimentos prontos para o consumo, fatores de processamento e dados sobre consumo alimentar devem ser gerados para possibilitar o refinamento do estudo.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a chronic dietary risk assessment of the pesticides registered in Brazil up until 1999. METHODS: The Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake (TMDI for each pesticide was calculated using the Brazilian maximum residue limits and food consumption data from IBGE, the Brazilian Statistical Institute. The risk characterization was done comparing the TMDI with the acceptable daily intakes (ADI from other countries and from the Codex

  1. An assessment of the potential contribution from waste-to-energy facilities to electricity demand in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, Omar K.M.; Cekirge, Huseyin M.; Raza, Syed A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This research evaluates the potential contribution of WTE to Saudi power demand. • Two scenarios were developed: Mass Burn and Mass Burn with recycling to year 2032. • Mass Burn will generate 2073 Megawatts (MW) about 1.73% of 2032 peak power demand. • Mass Burn with recycling will generate 166 MW about 0.14% of 2032 peak power demand. - Abstract: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is the largest crude oil producer in the world and possesses the largest oil reserves. The crude oil revenue has resulted in a massive socio-economic development over the last four decades. This situation has resulted in rapid growth of the country’s electricity demand and municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. The KSA is proposing an impressive plan towards renewable energy utilization that includes waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. This research assesses the potential contribution of WTE facilities to total Saudi peak power demand up to the year 2032 based on two scenarios: Mass Burn and Mass Burn with recycling for the entire country and for six major cities in the KSA. The analysis shows a potential to produce about 2073 Megawatts (MW) based on a Mass Burn scenario and about 166 MW based on Mass Burn with recycling scenario. These values amount to about 1.73% and 0.14% of the projected 2032 peak electricity demand of 120 Gigawatt. The forecasted results of each city from the two scenarios can be used to design future WTE facilities in the main cities of Saudi Arabia. Further investigations are recommended to evaluate the two scenarios based on financial, social, technical, and environmental criteria

  2. Review of SKB's Safety Assessment SR-Can: Contributions in Support of SKI's and SSI's Review by External Consultants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) plans to submit a license application for the construction of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden 2010. In support of this application SKB will present a safety report, SR-Site, on the repository's long-term safety and radiological consequences. As a preparation for SR-Site, SKB published the preliminary safety assessment SR-Can in November 2006. The purposes were to document a first evaluation of long-term safety for the two candidate sites at Forsmark and Laxemar and to provide feedback to SKB's future programme of work. An important objective of the authorities' review of SR-Can is to provide guidance to SKB on the complete safety reporting for the license application. The authorities have engaged external experts for independent modelling, analysis and review, with the aim to provide a range of expert opinions related to the sufficiency and appropriateness of various aspects of SR-Can. The conclusions and judgments in this report are those of the authors and may not necessarily coincide with those of SKI and SSI. The authorities own review will be published separately (SKI Report 2008:23, SSI Report 2008:04 E). This report compiles contributions from several specific research projects. The separate reviews cover topics regarding the engineered barrier system, the quality assurance, the climate evolution and its effects, and the ecosystems and environmental impacts. All contributions are in English apart from the review concerning ecosystems and environmental impacts, which is presented in Swedish

  3. Plant-based assessment of inherent soil productivity and contributions to China's cereal crop yield increase since 1980.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: China's food production has increased 6-fold during the past half-century, thanks to increased yields resulting from the management intensification, accomplished through greater inputs of fertilizer, water, new crop strains, and other Green Revolution's technologies. Yet, changes in underlying quality of soils and their effects on yield increase remain to be determined. Here, we provide a first attempt to quantify historical changes in inherent soil productivity and their contributions to the increase in yield. METHODS: The assessment was conducted based on data-set derived from 7410 on-farm trials, 8 long-term experiments and an inventory of soil organic matter concentrations of arable land. RESULTS: Results show that even without organic and inorganic fertilizer addition crop yield from on-farm trials conducted in the 2000s was significantly higher compared with those in the 1980s - the increase ranged from 0.73 to 1.76 Mg/ha for China's major irrigated cereal-based cropping systems. The increase in on-farm yield in control plot since 1980s was due primarily to the enhancement of soil-related factors, and reflected inherent soil productivity improvement. The latter led to higher and stable yield with adoption of improved management practices, and contributed 43% to the increase in yield for wheat and 22% for maize in the north China, and, 31%, 35% and 22% for early and late rice in south China and for single rice crop in the Yangtze River Basin since 1980. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, without an improvement in inherent soil productivity, the 'Agricultural Miracle in China' would not have happened. A comprehensive strategy of inherent soil productivity improvement in China, accomplished through combining engineering-based measures with biological-approaches, may be an important lesson for the developing world. We propose that advancing food security in 21st century for both China and other parts of world will depend on continuously improving

  4. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward

    2016-08-15

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental impact of nuclear industry and power generation in the Russian Federation: assessment of contribution to general damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrov, V.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was assess the contribution of nuclear industry and power generation to environmental pollution in the Russian Federation. The general aim is to provide rationale for the sound strategy and priorities in addressing issues related to technogenous environmental pollution at the national and regional governance levels. Estimates were derived from data found in reviews published by federal environmental protection authorities. The impact of major sectors of economy to contamination of the environment was estimated through analyzing the amount of chemical and radioactive releases, as well as parameters of air, water, soil and forest contamination for economic regions and provinces where major nuclear plants are located. Pollutant maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for natural environment media (ambient air, natural water, soil) as adopted in RF were taken as evaluation criteria. A relative pollution index taking account of the gross product value in the given sector of economy was proposed for the purposes of economic assessment. According to reported data nuclear power and industry plants make no adverse effect on the ambient air quality in impact areas. Emissions of industrial gases and pollutants, and fossil-fuel combustion (dust and soot, NO 2 , CO etc.) remain the main sources of dangerous (exceeding MPC) chemical air pollution in each province concerned. The leading industries contributing a principal load to air pollution are: automobile transport, metallurgy, etc. Specific pollution indexes were calculated for several major sectors: φ=P/(MPC)·M m 3 /Rb, where P is gross pollutant emission, g/year; MPC - as above, g/m 3 ; M is value of annual production, Rb/year. Values of φ for these sectors are given in table form. Water quality in most natural fresh water resources fails to meet the standards, the most widespread pollutants being represented by oil products, phenols, etc. Major sources of water pollution are: industrial

  6. Environmental sustainability assessment of fruit cultivation and processing using fruit and cocoa residues for bioenergy and compost. Case study from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    and electricity production using farming and process